WorldWideScience

Sample records for abandoning pipelines working

  1. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  2. Abandoning wells working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  3. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  4. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

  5. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes ? 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios

  6. 40 CFR 761.250 - Sample site selection for pipeline section abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01...Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...Disposal of Natural Gas Pipeline...one compressor station and the suction...next compressor station downstream of the former gas flow, at a...

  7. The remediation of abandoned workings of a mining area in Ningxiang uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The typical mining under buildings and river was used in a mining area of Ningxiang uranium mine. After the mining ended, 32.1% of the 2.68 m3 abandoned workings did not fill because of limitation of the cut-and-fill mining method at that time. To remedy this, the mine used new filling methods. After the remedial action, the filling coefficient of pits reached 100%, and that of tunnels reached 86%. It can be proved by the monitoring data that the subsiding of surface has been effectively controlled at the abandoned workings

  8. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pence Brian; Whetten Kathryn; Ostermann Jan; Messer Lynne; Whetten Rachel; Buckner Megan; Thielman Nathan; O'Donnell Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and ...

  9. Environmental education work force pipeline strategic plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pence Brian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs, yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working Results The majority of OAC (60.7% engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

  11. Intensité du travail salarié et abandon des études universitaires au Canada The Intensity of Salaried Work and the Abandonment of University Studies in Canada. A Longitudinal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Moulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreux pays, les élèves et les étudiants ont augmenté le temps consacré au travail rémunéré durant leurs études. Ils ne travaillent plus uniquement l’été, au moment des vacances, mais aussi pendant l’année scolaire. Les recher­ches portant sur l’effet du travail salarié sur les parcours scolaires tendent à montrer qu’il existe une relation convexe entre l’intensité du travail salarié et les départs sans diplôme du système scolaire : les taux d’abandon semblent plus élevés pour les étudiants qui ne travaillent pas et pour ceux qui travaillent plus de 25 heures. Cependant, le caractère transversal des données utilisées fait qu’elles ne permettent pas de saisir l’effet causal de la variation du temps de travail sur la poursuite des études. Dans cet article, nous utilisons une méthodologie quantitative longitudinale pour examiner les effets de l’intensité du travail rémunéré sur la persévérance dans le premier programme universitaire suivi au Canada. Les résultats montrent qu’il y a bien une relation causale entre le fait de travailler plus de 25 heures et l’abandon, mais qu’elle est seulement observée pour les hommes, et que cet effet n’est significatif qu’au début du program­me. Par ailleurs, l’association avec le fait de ne pas travailler semble s’inter­préter davantage comme un effet de sélection.In many countries, pupils and students have increased the time devoted to remunerated work during their studies. They no longer work just in summer, during vacations, but also during the school year. Research relating to the effect of salaried work on the school courses tends to show that there exists a convex relationship between the intensity of the salaried work and the departures without diplomas from the school system: the rates of abandonment seem higher for students who do not work and for those who do not work or work over 25 hours weekly. However, the transversal character of the data used makes it impossible to grasp the causal effect of the variation of the working time on the continuation of studies. In this article, we use a longitudinal quantitative methodology to examine the effects of the intensity of remunerated work on perseverance in the first university programme followed in Canada. The results show that there is indeed a causal relation between the fact of working more than 25 hours and the abandonment, but that it is only observed for the men, and that this effect is only significant at the beginning of the programme. In addition, association with the fact of not working seems to be interpreted more as an effect of selection.

  12. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  13. Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at improving communities' life quality. 7. Follow-up, supporting communities leaders during dissemination of information about pipelines, project fund-raising and implementation. 8. Creation and followup of companies' networks to support some of the projects elaborated by the communities. 9. Impact evaluation, measuring the results accomplished by the whole project after its realization. The overall process is monitored with management and quality tools such as PDCA and processes and results indicators. The elaboration of projects by communities' members, organizing their needs and requests, facilitates management decisions regarding private social investment. During the follow-up, GAIA supports the communities' fund-raising from several organizations, as well as creates networks of potential local supporters. Those initiatives tend to dilute the requests from communities to companies. Thus, companies foment communities' autonomy and citizenship, creating a situation in which both, companies and communities, are benefited. (author)

  14. The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Pich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

  15. Welding works in the construction of the WWER-10O0 reactor main circulating pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of pretreatment and welding experience in the construction of pipelines of the main circulating circuit (MCC), economizer and the ECCS of the WWER-1000 reactor are considered. The pipelines are made of a new clad steel type 10GN2MFA: C 0.08, Si 0.17, Mn 0.8, Cr 0.3, Ni 2-2.7, Mo 0.5-0.7, Cu 0.3, SuP no more than 0.02, V 0.07 (%). Structure of the welded joints of pipelines and heat treatment regimes are described. All welding works were performed by 12 welders. It is concluded that the MCC pipeline welding should be related as one of the most complicated and labour consuming operations

  16. Overcoming the pitfalls of abandoned mine workings in the Sydney coalfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrester, D.; Noble, B. [AECOM, Sydney, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Previous coal mining activities in Sydney, Nova Scotia (NS) have included the creation of shallow, unrecorded underground coal extraction sites known as bootleg pits. The sites are a public safety hazard and can also impact groundwater flow. This paper presented an outline of the remediation strategies used to mitigate the hazards associated with the bootleg pits as part of a mine site closure and reclamation program currently being completed by the Cape Breton Corporation (ECBC). The strategies included the use of sinkhole subsidence hazard maps. Long-term visual monitoring is also being used in areas associated with sinkhole development. Larger abandoned areas have been cleared, backfilled and re-graded while including provisions for the ongoing drainage of mine waters. Gas monitoring and safety procedures were also reviewed. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Degradation of the cast steel parts working in power plant pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Renowicz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of materialdegradation on the initiation of cracking and on durability under creep and fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The aim of the research was to identify the properties of the material of thefittings cut out of a start-up pipeline connecting two OP-140 boilers with turbines, as well as to identify thereasons of failure of these parts after 100000 hours of operation. Results of the investigations were the basisof predicting the lifetime of machine parts and components of devices subjected to complex mechanical andthermal influence. Numerical simulation of work conditions was also performed. Problem of life assessment ofthe pipelines is currently the object of interest of many research centers.Findings: Due to extreme conditions of the start-up pipeline operation, its T-connections are subject to quickwear, and their properties determine the operational reliability and safety of the whole pipeline. For the reasonit is necessary to verify the criteria of pipelines’ durability evaluation applied so far, based on the parameterscharacteristic of the creep process exclusively.Research limitations/implications: In the case discussed, i.e. a T-connection being a start-up pipeline part, thepresent criteria should be expanded with critical values describing fatigue/corrosion processes.Practical implications: The paper introduces the results of investigations of the 0.2C-1.2Cr-0.6Mo-0.3V caststeel used for parts of live steam pipelines working in power plants. Such parts include, e.g. T-connections.Originality/value: The paper show the possibilities of numerical models application.

  18. Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

  19. Industrial safety: working on gas pipelines, accident prevention, operations scheduling; Arbeitssicherheit: Arbeiten an Gasleitungen, Unfallverhuetung, Arbeitsvorbereitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woborschil, H. [Berufsgenossenschaft der Gas-, Fernwaerme- und Wasserwirtschaft, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    The former accident prevention regulation GBV D2 'Arbeiten an Gasleitungen' was replaced by the regulation 'Arbeiten an Gasleitungen' of the Accident Prevention and Insurance Association, and the comments on No. 3.4 were updated. According to this, all work on gas pipelines must be carried out only using methods that are classified as having a low accident risk according to the current state of knowledge. (orig.)

  20. Development and production of equipment complex for welding and other type of working of plastic pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of work on realizing program of welding and working of plastic tubes are presented. The program provides for development of welding equipment and standard-technical documentation for items, produced by welding of plasttic tubes 16-630 mm in diameter. The information, presented in the paper, is of particular interest for desing and mounting organizations, concerned with designing, production and mounting of process pipelines. It also promotes the formation of favourable situration in organizing demand for welding equipment as commodity-marketing requirement. 6 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Effects of cessation of pumping at underground working on mine water quality at an abandoned coal mine in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Ji, S.; Park, H.; Lee, H.; Park, S.

    2008-05-01

    Except several big mines, many coal mines were abandoned in the 1980s and 1990s and the pumping of mine water was either completely stopped or greatly reduced in Korea. After large-scale closure of the mines, water chemistry was changed in totally different in that metals such as Fe, Al and Mn, etc in mine water were highly concentrated. Although prediction and monitoring of the changes in the chemistry of mine drainage after the mine closure would be required for preparing the measures, there has been not any effort to monitor the effects of flooding of mine voids on the water chemistry in Korea. This work has been undertaken to assess the changes in water chemistry in the process of flooding of underground workings after cessation of pumping at the Dongwon coal mine located in Kwangwon province in Korea. The water level variations have been monitored by a CTD diver (Van Essen Instruments) installed in the shaft at the mine. The water column of about 200m, approximately one third of the whole shaft, was scanned for the evidence of geochemical stratification in the shaft using the MP troll 9500 (In Situ Inc.). In addition, samples were taken for the chemical analysis, and immediately measured for pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity (EC). After the cessation of pumping, mine water recovery in the shaft generally followed a linear trend with only minor deviations, although no data was available for one and half years immediately after the closure of the mine. The average rise velocity of the rebound was about 12 m per month during the monitoring of 15 months. Iron and sulfate contents considerably increased and reached to about 200 mg/L and over 1,260 mg/L, respectively, as the level of mine water rose. However, Al and Mn contents remained relatively constant during the monitoring period, showing irrelevance to the water recovery. The geochemical stratification of the water column of 200m high was not observed and pH and EC were relatively constant, with the measured values of around 6.5 and 2,050 ?S/cm, respectively. The water column of the shaft was in anoxic condition because the value of DO was found lower than 1 mg/L.

  2. Strategies for downhole abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB) G-20 Abandonment Guidelines place more of the responsibility for interpreting the regulations and for completing well abandonment work on the companies that originally drilled the wells. The new amendments require the licence holder to proceed with the abandonment of a well without prior approval by the regulatory agency and then run the risk of an audit. While this cuts down on paper work and responsibilities placed on the EUB, it poses a problem for small companies that do not have staff who are familiar with the regulations to prepare abandonment programs. This presentation attempted to clarify some of the issues by discussing: (1) working with the new EUB guidelines, (2) determining the success of squeezing-off primary zones in various areas of Alberta, (3) ensuring water aquifer coverage and problems in accessing the Alberta groundwater data base, (4) gas migration in slated and vertical wells, (5) determining the source of vent flows to receive EUB approval to perforate, (6) cutting costs when setting bridge plugs and perforating on slick lines, and (7) perforating rather than setting long cement plugs in heavy oil sands

  3. 49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...purging. (f) Each abandoned vault must be filled with a suitable...The preferred method to submit data on pipeline facilities abandoned...703-317-3073. A digital data format is preferred, but...for details in preparing your data for submission. The NPMS...

  4. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  5. Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: : Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FosbØl, Philip Loldrup

    2008-01-01

    CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO2 corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in Chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO2 corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO3 plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO3 is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO3. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO3. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO3 are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO2 corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11.

  6. Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs

  7. Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and First Nations : Linkages : Working Paper No. 7.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) will bring several employment opportunities for Yukon First Nations citizens. This paper presented some recommendations to maximize these employment benefits. The AHPP will cross the territory of 8 of the 14 Yukon First Nations. The current land selections through the Foothills route indicate that 202 km of the 832 km long pipeline will end up on First Nations land. The six channels of economic impact for First Nations include: (1) employment of First Nations citizens on pipeline construction and operation, (2) First Nation-owned business on pipeline construction, (3) employment of First Nations citizens in other Yukon businesses, (4) taxation, (5) availability of natural gas, and (6) additional services and infrastructure that will be incurred. 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loldrup Fosboel. P.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO{sub 2} corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11. (au)

  9. Welding work at gas-flow pipe-lines. History of a successful procedure; Schweissarbeiten an gasfuehrenden Leitungen. Geschichte eines erfolgreichen Verfahrens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipaanboord, Wim N. [DNV KEMA, Groningen (Netherlands); Koppens, B.G.; Marquering, J. [Gasunie Deventer (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the technical background of the safe execution of welding work on gas transmission pipelines at an operating pressure between 40 and 80 bar and a gas flow rate of 25 m/s. Welding work at older gas transmission pipelines with a higher CEW especially gain attention where welding consumables, welding procedure and methods of limitation of the hydrogen content are considered. The authors of this contribution refer to more than 30 years of operating experiences with welding works at gas transport pipelines.

  10. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  11. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  12. A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Degradation of the cast steel parts working in power plant pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    D. Renowicz; A. Hernas; M. Cie?la; K. Mutwil

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of materialdegradation on the initiation of cracking and on durability under creep and fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The aim of the research was to identify the properties of the material of thefittings cut out of a start-up pipeline connecting two OP-140 boilers with turbines, as well as to identify thereasons of failure of these parts after 100000 hours of operation. Results of...

  14. Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and the environment : Working Paper No. 7.2.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presented a brief overview of the environmental impacts that may occur if the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) goes ahead as planned. It presents the position of local environmental groups, including the Yukon Conservation Society and the Yukon chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. Both have signed a statement which calls for a system of protected areas to be completed, as well as detailed regional land use plans before construction begins. They also call for a strict environmental assessment process that would include a no-go option and which would examine the potential cumulative effects of the project. This paper presented the general environmental concerns and impacts of construction, with reference to habitat disruption, Southern Lakes Caribou winter habitat, stream crossings, and erosion. It also included several site specific impacts along the existing Foothills pipeline segment that are of particular environmental concern for Kluane Lake, Sheep Mountain, Slims River and Ibex Valley. There are minimal environmental concerns regarding the operation of the pipeline. One potential impact is on air quality near compressor stations through the creation of ice fog in the winter. Noise pollution is another possible problem if inadequate muffler systems are used. Also, the effect of maintaining a wider transportation corridor is not yet known. The proposed construction will likely accelerate oil and gas development in the Yukon which will have large and long-term impacts. One of the arguments in favour of the natural gas pipeline, is its potential to reduce pollution of SOx, NOx and VOCs on a continental scale by allowing substitution of clean burning natural gas instead of coal or diesel fuels. In terms of the impact on global warming, the pipeline can only reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases if the additional gas does not translate into higher net energy use. One additional concern for the Yukon is how emissions will be charged or credited. For example, will the Yukon be charged for compressor station emissions even if the gas is Alaskan? 3 refs

  15. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    2015-01-01

    “Transformation of abandonment, a new critical practice” Abstract. While the major cities in Denmark are experiencing growth in population and economy, the surrounding rural areas face abandoned villages and increasing decay. This research focuses on the abandoned houses, seeking an alternative to today’s EU and state funded demolition programmes. These programmes are often carried out en masse without anyone questioning the consequences of loss of mate-rial and immaterial values such as cultura...

  16. Provincial impacts of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.1.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact that the construction and operation of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will have on the Canadian economy was examined. Part 2 of this report presents a series of assumptions where the changes to the economy were explained with reference to the cost of developing facilities, revenues earned by their operations and other determinants that affect jurisdictional and sectorial impacts. The third part of the report presents the implications for the Northwest Territories/Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta since they are the regions that will be directly impacted by the AHPP. The significance of the development that extend beyond the immediately impacted regions was also assessed. For the impact analysis procedure, a base case forecast of the economy was prepared, assuming the project does not go ahead. This was followed by an impact case forecast of the economy in which the pipeline is developed and operated. Direct, indirect and induced effects were described. Two impact cases were considered for both national and regional studies. For the first case, all changes in government balances from increased revenues were assumed to go directly into debt reduction or acquisition of financial assets. For the second case, the governments recycle the increased revenue using a lower employment insurance contribution rate, and keeping federal business tax revenue and federal personal income tax revenue equal to the base case. The general effect of the second scenario is to increase the induced effects by increasing disposable income through lower tax rates. The report examined assumptions in the construction phase with reference to capital costs and construction employment. It also examined assumptions in the operational phase with reference to transportation services and operations employment. 7 tabs., 12 figs

  17. Abandoned Texas oil fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

  18. Pipeline engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  19. Why the Scientific Pipeline Is Still Leaking? Women Scientists and Their Work-Life Balance in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary scholarly discourse, the under-representation of women in science is often explained by the phenomenon of women "in the pipeline". The pipeline carries a flow from one stage to another, and the flow of women diminishes between the stages. Based on the literature and qualitative studies, it can be inferred that one of…

  20. Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Maas; Wolfgang Busch

    2007-01-01

    The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT) and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV), published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the exte...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  2. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  3. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  4. Transformation of Abandonment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mo Michelsen Stochholm

    “Transformation of abandonment, a new critical practice” Abstract. While the major cities in Denmark are experiencing growth in population and economy, the surrounding rural areas face abandoned villages and increasing decay. This research focuses on the abandoned houses, seeking an alternative to today’s EU and state funded demolition programmes. These programmes are often carried out en masse without anyone questioning the consequences of loss of mate-rial and immaterial values such as cultural heritage, building density and local narratives. By way of contrast, this research seeks to establish a new critical practice based on a series of full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings . These transformations, hereinafter referred to as actions, are the core of the research. The actions are implemented as physical interventions, each of which involves an abandoned building. The interventions are of such a radical manner it will not be possible to re-establish the former function of the building. The aim of the actions is to develop and test full-scale transformation prototypes in varying rural village environments. Interaction with local people and their response to the prototypes can be seen as real life peer reviewing and is considered an important impact indicator and supplement to the physical interventions. The prototypes vary in achievement and in timeframe. The geographical area for the actions is Thisted Municipality, Denmark, ideal due to its many identified small communities in varied stages of depopulation. In addition Thisted Municipality are facilitating the transformation workshops and will continuously supply the project with abandoned houses. Nine abandoned buildings have already been transformed. We will focus on the latest generation of the actions, named generation D. Action generation D, executed in March 2014, investigated the transformation of three single-family houses into controlled ruins in different village environments. The transformation of these buildings was performed in order to produce examples of prototypes of a long-term transformation strategy. A strategy in which the controlled ruin will play the role of catalyst of the disclosing of hidden narratives and through decay in the end turn Figure 2 Transformation process: Controlled ruin 2014, Thisted Municipality, Denmark into nature. The demolition process is simply slowed down. Similarly to the mechanisms in a mourning process it takes time to reveal or preserve narratives of what is lost. Future actions are being developed. Action generation E tests a partial transformation, which is based on implementation of a new public programme in a part of an abandoned city house. Action generation F is an event based short-term transformation of three houses as a theatre installation, focusing on the entire period of the process, thus from the time of loss of function to the completion of the demolition. Contrary to common practice, the present research began with full-scale transformations of abandoned buildings and engaging with local inhabitants as a feed-back mechanism. Later on it extended into the strategic planning level by engaging politicians. While previous studies mainly focused on creating economic development in rural areas, this research is rather focussing on identifying and activating values of embedded material and immaterial remains of abandoned houses. Hereby implementing, and testing, remnants as present manifestations in rural villages as an alternative way to preserve buildings as well as narratives.

  5. The Winfrith effluent pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the preparatory work leading up to the design of the Winfrith pipeline. Details of the existing system are given and some information on the predicted safe levels of radio-active discharge. (author)

  6. The Influence Of Repair Welded Joint On The Life Of Steam Pipeline Made Of Cr-Mo Steel Serviced Beyond The Calculated Working Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zieli?ski A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to examine the influence of repair welded joints on the service life of steam pipelines for over 220 000 hours of service in creep conditions. The research included the study of the microstructure using scanning microscopy, the tests on mechanical properties at room and elevated temperature, determining the nil ductility transition temperature, and short-time creep tests to determine the residual life of the material. The tests allowed determining the time of further safe operation of elements of the steam pipeline with a repair welded joint, with reference to the base material, and the welded joint after service. The assessment of residual life and disposable residual life, and at the same time determining the possible time of further safe operation, has an essential meaning in the case of elements serviced considerably beyond the calculated working time.

  7. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  8. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2003-05-01

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

  9. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site.

  10. Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Equipment for welding of details and joints of plastic pipes in work shop conditions and at pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of welding machines for operation in workshop conditions and at pipelines is presented. Set of welding equipment for mobile shop, producing prototypes, and mobile facility are developed. In 1989 they will provide the whole operation cycle of production and mounting of details and units of plastic tubes and will enable to organize the centralized production of welded and shaped details in the branch, thus excluding the shortage of these details. 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  13. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.

  14. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  16. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    CERN Document Server

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  17. Leadership Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det centrale spørgsmål: Er kompetencerne bag succesfuld ledelse virkelig systematisk og sig- nifikant forskellige på forskellige organisatoriske ledelsesniveauer? Almen forskningslitteratur om skiftende jobin...

  18. Environmental management of works in pipelines at natural protected areas; Gestao ambiental em obras de faixas de dutos nas areas naturais protegidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The TRANSPETRO pipeway in the State of Sao Paulo crosses different scenarios, including Permanent Preservation Areas and Conservation Units, as the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - PESM, which contains the most extensive Mata Atlantica fragment, with more than 315,000 hectares. The rigor of environmental organisms imposes a number of extra conditions to critical points to be considered in activities with interference in the conservation unit. It was studied the case of thirty two kilometer pipeline substitution of OSBAT pipeway, in the Sao Sebastiao city, in the area covered by the PESM, to know the effective of environmental controls adopted. It was able to analyze the results about the application of management instruments at different levels, including independent external audit, audit of the Company that realized the work activities and audit of the own specialized people of TRANSPETRO and PETROBRAS. (author)

  19. Analyzing the Risk of Well Plug Failure after Abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All oil and gas wells will have to be plugged and abandoned at some time. The plugging and abandonment procedure must provide an effective isolation of the well fluids all along the well to reduce environmental risks of contamination and prevent from costly remedial jobs. Previous works have analyzed the plug behavior when submitted to local pressure or thermal changes but no work has looked to the effects of external pressure, thermal and stress changes resulting from a global equilibrium restoration in a hydrocarbon reservoir once production has stopped. This work estimates those changes after abandonment on a reservoir field case using a reservoir simulator in conjunction with a geomechanical simulator. Such simulations provide the pressure and thermal changes and the maximum effective stress changes in the reservoir cap rock where critical plugs are put in place for isolating the production intervals. These changes are used as loads in a well bore stress model that explicitly models an injector well and predict stress rearrangements in the plug after abandonment. Results obtained with the well bore stress model for a conventional class G cement plug show that the main risk of failure is tensile failure because of the low tensile strength of the cement. Actually, soft sealing materials or initially pre-stressed plug appears to be more adapted to the downhole conditions changes that may occurs after well plugging and abandonment. (authors)

  20. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  1. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  2. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  3. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  4. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  5. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  6. Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

  7. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  8. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  9. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro-ecosystems. PMID:26520271

  10. Continued Distress among Abandoned Dogs in Fukushima

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasawa, Miho; MOGI, Kazutaka; KIKUSUI, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fu...

  11. Pipeline integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

    1997-12-31

    This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Pipeline network and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  13. The STEM and Special Education Teacher Pipelines: Why Don't We See Better Alignment between Supply and Demand? CEDR Working Paper. WP #2014-­3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, Dan; Krieg, John; Theobald, Roddy; Brown, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Although the shortage of qualified STEM and Special Education teachers is well documented and often discussed, there has been little improvement in increasing the number of teachers in these subject areas. This policy brief reports on the front-end of the teacher pipeline and shows that in Washington State, like across the country, there has been…

  14. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ? 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  15. The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

  16. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  17. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM ABANDONED UNDERGROUND COAL MINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper summarizes current research on abandoned underground coal mines. t forms an initial basis for developing an inventory of methane emissions from such mines. arly measurements have shown that some abandoned coal mines can liberate large volumes of high quality gas (up to ...

  18. 25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER INDIAN IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property....

  19. Child abandonment and protection of abandoned children in Lesotho: Prevention strategies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sophia, Thabane; Madhu, Kasiram.

    Full Text Available Abandonment creates risks for the wellbeing of children, while compromising their prospects for social adjustment and advancement. This implies pressure on a country's fiscal base through probable lifelong dependence on public resources. The need for prevention of child abandonment in Lesotho and el [...] sewhere can therefore not be overstated. This article, based on research in progress, discusses possible dangers of child abandonment and neglect, using attachment theory as its theoretical grounding. It considers findings based on two samples (professionals and adoptive mothers) and offers recommendations for the prevention of child abandonment and the protection of abandoned children, with specific reference to Lesotho.

  20. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  1. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77...Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned, the District Manager...

  2. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  3. Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llovet Lopez, J.; Ruiz Varela, M.; Josa March, R.; Vallejo Calzada, V. R.

    2009-07-01

    The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

  4. Geotechnical risks affecting pipelines : the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geotechnical management practices for pipelines can minimize the risk of accidents caused by hazards such as landslides, foundation subsidence, settlement and erosion. This paper summarized the geotechnical risks affecting pipelines and presented some examples of practical work done by Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto (TBG) along the longest pipeline in South America, the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline. TBG is also responsible for the maintenance and operation of the 2593 km long pipeline which spans from Rio Grande in Bolivia to Canoas in southern Brazil. The pipeline crosses a range of difficult topography where both natural and human hazards can lead to high stress levels that can reach the steel yield strength limit and result in ruptures. The traction, compression, inflection or strain depend on the direction of the movement and the pipe position. The area most prone to geotechnical hazards is in the south due to its hard topography and a variety of geological materials such as colluvium deposits and debris flows. The right-of-way geotechnical risks that affect the pipeline were presented along with some of the practical remedial work that has been done by TBG along the pipeline route. The integrity management plans and the adopted actions that prevent geotechnical accidents were also presented. It was concluded that geotechnical hazard mapping should be emphasized in the planning phase of pipelines. New technologies such as the GEOPIG inspection tool combined with traditional preventive measures can effectively detect landslide areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  5. Blood Cadmium Concentration of Residents Living near Abandoned Metal Mines in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jung-Duck; Sakong, Joon; Choi, Jae-wook; Moon, Jai-Dong; Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate demographic and lifestyle variables and blood cadmium concentrations in residents living near abandoned metal mines in Korea. Blood cadmium concentrations were measured in 15,161 subjects living around abandoned metal mines (exposed group, n = 14,464) and compared with those living in designated control areas (control group, n = 697). A questionnaire was provided to all subjects to determine age, gender, mine working history, times of residence, sm...

  6. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  7. Managing Abandoned Farmland: The Need to Link Biological and Sociological Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Karyne; Bouchard, André; Domon, Gérald

    2008-10-01

    The lack of a particular use associated with abandoned farmland provides real opportunities with respect to the various land-use pressures occurring in productive territories. These environments remain generally poorly known and, because of this, require in-depth studies on the feasibility of management options, on biological as well as social grounds. This study, based on research on the biophysical potential and the perceptions by the owners of abandoned farmlands, analyzes the feasibility of silvicultural management options to improve forestry potential. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed abandoned farmland owners on different aspects of the status of their abandoned farmland in order to determine their willingness toward the management of these private lands. The land owners were also asked to express their interests and their constraints toward various types of interventions, with an emphasis on silvicultural work. The data were analyzed using multivariate methods to establish relationships between the questionnaire data and the characteristics of the land owners (socioeconomic profile and value system toward the environment). The results show that, in general, abandoned farmland is an unwanted space, is generally little used, is poorly known, and has little importance in the plans of its owners. We have found three types of owner profiles; the owners with a farmer’s profile are those who are the most interested in managing their abandoned farmland, whether for agriculture or silviculture. The desire to improve abandoned farmland seems less important to owners with an ecocentric profile (high awareness of the environment) and to older owners. Finally, by associating the type of abandoned farmland owned and the characteristics of the owners, it is possible to propose different management options that reconcile the wishes of the owners as well as the biophysical potential of their abandoned farmland.

  8. 77 FR 58126 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ...in place its related laterals, taps and meters located in Kankakee County, Illinois and abandon in place a 1,158 foot 12-inch...pipeline along with related meter, tap and ball valve located in Kankakee County, Illinois. In addition, Natural states that the...

  9. A comparative analysis of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, C.; Barreda, P; Mendoza, V; Guzman, L.; Gilbert, P

    2004-01-01

    Aims and Methods: A comparative study of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children was conducted in La Paz, Bolivia, representing the first such comparative assessment. Between August and December 1997, all abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia, who were willing to participate (n = 124) were interviewed repeatedly at night using standardised questionnaires to collect information on family history, demographics, socioeconomics, drug use, and physical/sexual abuse....

  10. Governments grapple with abandonment fiscal terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittard, A. [Univ. of New South Wales, Kensington, New South Wales (Australia)

    1997-12-08

    Governments worldwide are grappling with ways in which to treat offshore-facility abandonment and oil and gas field abandonment in their fiscal and environmental legislation. While some governments have introduced fiscal and environmental provisions for removing offshore installations, much of the legislation remains to be tested in practice. Many other governments have yet to introduce specific terms and legislation regarding the process. The method for financing offshore facilities abandonment must be agreed upon between the operators and countries. Carryback provisions typically are the most economically efficient, otherwise all parties lose out. Overall, because every country competes for a finite amount of funds, any hindrance to project profitability will ultimately hurt the government and therefore the continuation of economic development in the country. The paper discusses abandonment issues and costs, fiscal provisions, fiscal provision effects, and company preferences.

  11. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

  12. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

  13. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  14. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  15. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  16. Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzyb, D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); McDonald, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Goodfellow, R. [Pangea, Calgary, AB (Canada); Abels, T. [SemCAMS, Calgary, AB (Canada); Jack, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hallihan, M. [Skystone International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Husky Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 3 discussed issues regarding the inspection, corrosion and integrity management of upstream oil and gas pipelines. It entailed 7 sessions in which issues from the 2005 symposium were reviewed with particular reference to aging pipelines, new materials and inspection of construction. Working Group 3 also discussed internal corrosion monitoring; inline inspection; topical issues; integrity issues for upstream pipeline operators as stipulated in the Canadian Standards Association's Annex N; and non-metallic pipelines. The effect of metallurgy on localized corrosion and localized pitting corrosion was discussed along with corrosion rates and the need for absolute numbers. Solids deposition in oil pipelines versus gas pipelines were reviewed along with probability and reliability based modelling. Carbon dioxide flooding and sequestration was also discussed, with reference to internal monitoring through the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE). It was recommended that the industry could benefit from an unbiased database of failures and that the coordination of product testing would be useful. In this regard, a specification by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers would be useful for manufacturers and installers. tabs., figs.

  17. Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Maas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV, published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

  18. The evaluation of low-cycle fatigue durability of the pipeline material working at high temperature in original state and after exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the fatigue tests in range of low cycle fatigue for the materials used in energetic pipelines. The tests are performed both for the initial state and after long term operating period. The paper presents the evaluation of fatigue durability of 13HMF steel at room temperature and 550oC. On the basis of performed metallurgical studies of material waste after operating period according to the adapted quality criteria has been described. Low-cycle fatigue tests of the material showed the increase of durability after operating period and simultaneously decrease of saturation stress ?an. Decrease of saturation stress ?an for the assumed ranges ??c of the material after its operating period related to saturation stress at the initial state manifests its decreasing of low-cycle loading transmission capacity. (author)

  19. Maurer computers for pipelined instruction processing

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    We model micro-architectures with non-pipelined instruction processing and pipelined instruction processing using Maurer machines, basic thread algebra and program algebra. We show that stored programs are executed as intended with these micro-architectures. We believe that this work provides a new mathematical approach to the modelling of micro-architectures and the verification of their correctness and the anticipated speed-up results.

  20. Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, Karsten

    2010-11-15

    In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

  1. Effects of Weather Variability on Crop Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Mulungu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zambia, every year some parts of the maize fields are abandoned post-planting. Reasons for this are not clearly known. In this paper, we examine the influence of soil and climatic factors on crop abandonment using a six-year (2007–2012 panel data by modeling the planted-to-harvested ratio (a good indicator of crop abandonment using a fractional and linear approach. Therefore, for the first time, our study appropriately (as supported by the model specification tests that favour fractional probit over linear models the fractional nature of crop abandonment. Regression results, which are not very different between the two specifications, indicate that, more than anything, high rainfall immediately after planting and inadequate fertilizer are the leading determinants of crop abandonment. In the agro-ecological region where dry planting takes place, low temperature during planting months negatively affects the harvested area. The results have implications on the sustainability of farming systems in the face of a changing climate.

  2. Decontamination device for pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipelines to be decontaminated are parts of pipelines contaminated with radioactive materials, and they are connected to a fluid transfer means (for example, a bladeless pump) and a ball collector by way of a connector. The fluid of a mixture of chemical decontaminating liquid and spheres is sent into pipelines to be decontaminated. The spheres are, for example, heat resistant porous hard or soft rubber spheres. The fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated are circulated by way of bypassing means. The inner surface of the pipelines is decontaminated by the circulation of the fluid. When the bypass means is closed, the fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated is sent to the ball collector, and the spheres are captured by a hopper. Further, the liquid is sent to the filtrating means to filter the chemical contaminating liquid, and sludges contained in the liquid are captured. (I.N.)

  3. CPC (cyclic pipeline computer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a new computer architecture, called a cyclic pipeline computer (CPC), which is especially suited for Josephson technologies. Since each Josephson logic device acts as a latch, it is possible to use high-pitch and shallow logic pipelining without any increase in delay time and cost which are required in case of pipeline registers in Si (silicon) logic. Hence, both the processor and the main memory can be built from the Josephson devices and can be pipelined with the same pipeline pitch time. The CPC supports MIMD by time sharing the processor and the main memory among multiple instruction streams. This paper also describes the design concept of pipelined memory chips which can be used for realizing a high-performance CPC based on Si technologies

  4. Impact Against Offshore Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

    2013-01-01

    Impact against offshore pipelines is investigated in this thesis. Introductory low velocity experiments on pipeline specimens using the stretch bending rig at the Department of Structural Engineering, NTNU, were carried out. A wedge shaped indenter, previously used for impact tests on similar pipelines, were used to subject pipes to bending. The experimental set-up allowed for application of axial loads and inner pressure to pipes during bending. This thesis is a continuation of three previou...

  5. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  6. Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

  7. IDC Infrasound Pipeline development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialle, P.; Bittner, P.; Brown, D.; Given, J.

    2012-04-01

    The first atmospheric event built only from infrasound arrivals was reported in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2003. In the last decade, 44 infrasound stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are transmitting data to the IDC. The growing amount of infrasound data and detections produced by the automatic system challenged the station and network processing at the IDC, which require the Organization to improve the infrasound data processing. For nearly 2 years, the IDC resumed automatic processing of infrasound data reviewed by interactive analysis; the detected and located events are being systematically included in the Late Event Bulletin (LEB) and REB. Approximately 16% of SEL3 (Selected Event List 3, produced 6 hours after real-time) events with an infrasound component make it to the IDC bulletins and 41% of SEL3 events rejected after review are built including only 2 associated infrasound phases (and potentially seismic and hydroacoustic detections). Therefore, the process whereby infrasound and seismic detections are associated into an event needed to be investigated further. The IDC works on enhancing the automatic system for the identification of valid signals and the optimization of the network detection threshold. Thus the IDC investigates ways to refine the signal characterization methodology and the association criteria. The objective of this study is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the SEL3 pipeline when generating the LEB and REB bulletins. The study is performed in the virtual Data Exploitation Center (vDEC) from the CTBTO in order to separate the automatic processing into two streams: seismic and hydroacoustic (SH) pipeline on one side, and infrasound (I) pipeline on the other side. The "fusion" of the two parallel event-forming streams will have to be designed. The IDC executes its association algorithm called Global Association (GA) on infrasound data for selective periods of times, which follow the introduction of infrasound in the IDC automatic system. The IDC also anticipates that infrasound rules in GA would be tuned to pursue a lower ratio of false alarms and the IRED (IDC Infrasound Reference Event Database) will be used for testing and validation of potential modification in the infrasound processing software and algorithms.

  8. Citizenship program in near communities of pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Vilas Boas, Ianne P. [TELSAN Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bourscheid, Pitagoras [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    During the construction of a pipeline, the IENE - Engineering Unit of PETROBRAS, responsible for the construction and erection of pipelines and related plants in northeastern Brazil, crossed more than 7 states and 250 counties, had implemented a social responsibility program, in special a citizenship program. This action was the result of community studies located near of the pipelines AID - Direct Influence Area (438 yards right and left of the pipeline) and through the evidence that those locations were poor and have no personal documents and citizen position in society. This paper intents to share the experience of IENE about its citizen program that worked in three big lines: community mobilization; citizenship qualification; and citizenship board. This last one, turns possible to people obtains theirs personal documents and exercise the plenitude of citizenship. (author)

  9. The research on magnetic exploring abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Word war II, a lot of chemical weapons were left by Japanese on our land. It is very difficult to explore because its complicated states underground. There is no document about the details of this. Few of the research work have been done. In order to destroy completely abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese, the paper has given a serious study on the means to explore the chemical weapons for the purpose to protect our environment and benefit our people. After plenty of research and test, we get good results. (authors)

  10. Steam pipelines' effort and durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Okrajni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main problem addressed in the paper is the description of an effort and durability of steam pipelines under the conditions of mechanical and thermal interactions.Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling has been used to determine the stress and strain fields in the pipelines and to describe their behaviour under mechanical and thermal loading.Findings: An appropriate model description has been developed. So far, experimental verification of the usefulness of the model description to determine the stress and strain patterns in particular object and for chosen operation conditions has been made. The analysis made has shown that the most probable cause of cracks occurrence on the analyzed chosen pipeline’ inner surfaces are thermal deformations and constraints of their dislocations.Research limitations/implications: The developed description should be useful in problems of behaviour predictions of high temperature components and their durability assessment under different mechanical and thermal loadings in industry practical applications.Originality/value: The method, which more precise description of power industry components behaviour makes possible have been shown in the work. The work is addressed to researchers interested in problems of component behaviour prediction under different loadings that we can meet in the operation practice and to power industry engineering maintenance staff.

  11. Field abandonment costs vary widely worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Options for abandoning offshore producing fields are broad and many variations exist in the world, each having advantages and disadvantages. Platform removal affects both governments and companies and thus, ultimately, affects the bottom line of a project. Typically, wells will be plugged and abandoned, topsides will either be taken to shore or recycled, and substructures can be totally or partially removed, or left in place. Abandoning offshore fields has four distinct stages: (1) develop, assess, and select options and create a detailed planning process that includes engineering and safety preparedness; (2) cease oil or gas production and safely plug and abandon wells; (3) removal all or part of the offshore structure (in most cases); and (4) dispose of or recycle removed equipment. Economic issues include costs, fiscal treatment, and relevant legislation. Operators have different options for offshore installation removal and disposal. The best option depends on several factors such as type of construction, size, distance from shore, weather conditions, and removal complexity. The paper discusses the decommissioning options, cost estimates, fiscal treatment, and regulatory framework

  12. Quarries - QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN: Abandoned Quarries in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN was derived from a comma-delimited text file named "QUALOC.TXT" contained on the following CD-ROM publication: Hasenmueller, W.A., and Ault,...

  13. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  14. Severe service ball valves for high pressure slurry pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Malcolm J. [Valvtechnologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    Severe Service Ball Valves are a critical component in the design of high pressure slurry pipelines. Compared to conventional oil and gas pipelines, the transportation of mineral slurries at high pressure is a modern technology. This advanced technology would not be possible if valve manufacturers were not able to design and provide equipment that can function with high pressure abrasive fluids. The design of slurry pipelines has become more complicated due to the use of sophisticated controls, varying types of minerals, increased sizes and higher pressures. All of these complexities have challenged valve and actuator manufacturers who need to work closely with the pipeline design companies to find cost-effective and viable solutions. Using examples from existing slurry pipeline operations; this paper examines how high pressure slurry ball valves have become an important component in the successful design, construction and operations of slurry pipelines throughout the world. (author)

  15. Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

  16. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...lease-specific abandonment account must be payable upon demand to MMS and...lease-specific abandonment account to cover all the costs...securities that are made payable upon demand to the Regional...lease-specific abandonment account. (d) Before...

  17. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  18. An environmental education program for maroon communities: the results of a work carried out along the Cabiunas-Vitoria gas pipeline; Programa de educacao ambiental para comunidades quilombolas: a experiencia do trabalho realizado no Gasoduto Cabiunas-Vitoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Vieira, Rosa M. [Telsan Engenharia, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the Environmental Programmes developed for the works of Cabiunas-Vitoria Gas Pipeline (GASCAV) intended to fulfill the conditions of the Installation License, which defined the preparation of Specific Studies and Environmental Programmes to five quilombo communities located at GASCAV's influence area. The challenge of PETROBRAS/Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT Environmental Team was to align the Company's strategic guidelines related to Environmental and Social Responsibility to the necessary criteria for the approval of this Programme by environmental agencies which inspected the Programme: IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources) and FCP (Palmares Cultural Foundation). This work aimed to present the methodology adopted to the proposal of the Environmental Education Programme to Quilombo Communities, as well as to discuss the results achieved with the implementation of this Programme. The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed at the quilombo communities has disseminated the environmental concepts and related to the afro culture, has established partnerships and strengthen the relationship with the surrounding communities. This fact promotes the integration of the Work's economic interests with the social and environmental ones, generating a socio environmental conscience among the residents. (author)

  19. Gender Equality in the Academy: The Pipeline Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Kristen Renwick; Chiu, William F.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the ongoing work by the Committee on the Status of Women in the Profession (CSWP), we offer an empirical analysis of the pipeline problem in academia. The image of a pipeline is a commonly advanced explanation for persistent discrimination that suggests that gender inequality will decline once there are sufficient numbers of qualified…

  20. Assessment of mercury in sediments and in the benthic invertebrate Micronecta scholtzi downstream an abandoned pyrite mine

    OpenAIRE

    Agra, Ana Raquel; Abreu, Sizenando N.; Barata Martí, Carlos; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.

    2010-01-01

    y: The drainage of abandoned mines leads to several ecological problems, particularly the acidification of surface freshwater systems and heavy metal contamination. Mercury (Hg) is of particular interest because of its high toxicity and its ability for bioaccumulation. This work evaluates the magnitude and pattern of Hg dissipation from an abandoned pyrite mines to the local water ecosystem by testing of the stream bottom sediments and water invertebrate Micronecta scholtzi along the pyrite...

  1. Pollution from pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

  2. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  3. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  4. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    OpenAIRE

    Favas P. J. C.; Pratas J.

    2013-01-01

    Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L.) Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tiss...

  5. Island colonisation and abandonment in Mediterranean prehistory.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, H. S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies the colonisation and abandonment of Mediterranean islands in prehistory by placing them within a comparative framework. The geographical scope is pan-Mediterranean and chronologically it encompasses prehistory from the time when the earliest-known human records are found on a few islands to the time when most Mediterranean islands had been colonised (approximately from the end of the Pleistocene to the end of the Iron Age). By questioning established geog...

  6. [Abandonment, therapeutic relentlessness or euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, M

    1992-12-01

    Which standards and values should guide our conduct relating to death and palliative care? Who, in the end, has the right to decide whether or not to administer a life extending therapy to terminally-ill patients? Where exactly is the border between an ordinary treatment and an extraordinary or a relentless one? Should euthanasia be legalized or not? These are some of the basic questions caregivers and health professionals who work with the dying are now asking themselves. To delve deeper into these questions and help to find the answers, the author draws a collective typology of the main ideas people have on these problems. The differences between the various trends of thinking regarding death are explained. The author concludes with a plea in favor of the principle where the dying patient becomes the centre of the end of life and agony process. Therefore, it is the caregiver's responsibility to grant the patient the right to be informed, to ask for or refuse therapeutic relentlessness, or to die with dignity and serenity. PMID:1468065

  7. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  8. Edmonton pipeline reroute suggested

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-06

    The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board (AERCB) has concluded that although the cost of moving the Rimbey propane pipeline in the Mill Woods area in Edmonton would be reasonable at $500,000, the $26 million that would be required to reroute the other 19 lines in the area would not be justified. Such a scheme would only minimally increase public safety in the area because most of the lines do not carry volatile hydrocarbons. Since the Rimbey pipeline burst in March 1979, AERCB has drafted proposed legislation to improve the safety of pipelines, notably regulations on construction near the lines. Other pipeline safety guidelines recommended by the Canadian Petroleum Association and Edmonton city planners are also discussed.

  9. THE INVESTIGATION OF THE ACTUAL WORK OF METAL SUSPENSION BRIDGE FOR A PIPELINE THROUGH THE DNIEPER RIVER WITH A SPAN OF 720 M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Tarnopolskyi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of more than 30-year monitoring and investigations of the real work state of exceptional suspended bridge steel structures made in 1978 are presented in the paper. The major problems and difficulties discovered in the process of the structure exploitation as well as authors’ design approaches for their elimination are given here.

  10. Progress with the LOFAR Imaging Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Heald, George; Pizzo, Roberto; van Diepen, Ger; van Zwieten, Joris E; van Weeren, Reinout J; Rafferty, David; van der Tol, Sebastiaan; Birzan, Laura; Shulevski, Aleksandar; Swinbank, John; Orru, Emanuela; De Gasperin, Francesco; Ker, Louise; Bonafede, Annalisa; Macario, Giulia; Ferrari, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    One of the science drivers of the new Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is large-area surveys of the low-frequency radio sky. Realizing this goal requires automated processing of the interferometric data, such that fully calibrated images are produced by the system during survey operations. The LOFAR Imaging Pipeline is the tool intended for this purpose, and is now undergoing significant commissioning work. The pipeline is now functional as an automated processing chain. Here we present several recent LOFAR images that have been produced during the still ongoing commissioning period. These early LOFAR images are representative of some of the science goals of the commissioning team members.

  11. Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

  12. Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

  13. Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  15. Mapping abandoned agriculture with multi-temporal MODIS satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is expanding and intensifying in many areas of the world, but abandoned agriculture is also becoming more widespread. Unfortunately, data and methods to monitor abandoned agriculture accurately over large areas are lacking. Remote sensing methods may be able to fill this gap though, especially with the frequent observations provided by coarser-resolution sensors and new classification techniques. Past efforts to map abandoned agriculture relied mainly on Landsat data, making it hard ...

  16. Protecting a pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, D.H (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Garcia-Lopez, M. (Ingenieria y Geotecnia Ltda., Santafe de Bogota (Colombia))

    1994-12-01

    This article describes some of the difficulties in constructing an oil pipeline in Colombia across a forested mountain range that has erosion-prone slopes. Engineers are finding ways to protect the pipeline against slope failures and severe erosion problems while contending with threats of guerrilla attacks. Torrential rainfall, precipitous slopes, unstable soils, unfavorable geology and difficult access make construction of an oil pipeline in Colombia a formidable undertaking. Add the threat of guerrilla attacks, and the project takes on a new dimension. In the country's central uplands, a 76 cm pipeline traverses some of the most daunting and formidable terrain in the world. The right-of-way crosses rugged mountains with vertical elevations ranging from 300 m to 2,000 mm above sea level over a distance of some 30 km. The pipeline snakes up and down steep forested inclines in some spots and crosses streams and faults in others, carrying the country's major export--petroleum--from the Cusiana oil field, located in Colombia's lowland interior, to the coast.

  17. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  18. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  19. Pipeline inspection with intelligent pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specialized testing instruments, so-called intelligent pigs, can help to monitor the pipeline status and to detect, localize and measure defects in the pipeline wall in the course of an overall inspection programme. The article starts by listing the defects that may occur in the pipeline wall and then presents a survey of intelligent pigs currently on the market. (orig.)

  20. Qualification of Innovative High Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, some of the pipelines have plugged during high level waste (HLW) transfers resulting in schedule delays and increased costs. Furthermore, pipeline plugging has been cited by the 'best and brightest' technical review as one of the major issues that can result in unplanned outages at the Waste Treatment Plant causing inconsistent operation. As the DOE moves toward a more active high level waste retrieval, the site engineers will be faced with increasing cross-site pipeline waste slurry transfers that will result in increased probability of a pipeline getting plugged. Hence, availability of a pipeline unplugging tool/technology is crucial to ensure smooth operation of the waste transfers and in ensuring tank farm cleanup milestones are met. FIU had earlier tested and evaluated various unplugging technologies through an industry call. Based on mockup testing, two technologies were identified that could withstand the rigors of operation in a radioactive environment and with the ability to handle sharp 90 elbows. We present results of the second phase of detailed testing and evaluation of pipeline unplugging technologies and the objective is to qualify these pipeline unplugging technologies for subsequent deployment at a DOE facility. The current phase of testing and qualification comprises of a heavily instrumented 3-inch diameter (full-scale) pipeline facilitating extensive data acquisition for design optimization and performance evaluation, as it applies to three types of plugs atypical of the DOE HLW waste. Furthermore, the data from testing at three different lengths of pipe in conjunction with the physics of the process will assist in modeling the unplugging phenomenon that will then be used to scale-up process parameters and system variables for longer and site typical pipe lengths, which can extend as much as up to 19,000 ft. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations to aid in the benefit-cost analysis for management decision whether to deploy the technology or to abandon the pipeline as has been done in the past. In conclusion: The ultimate objective of this study is to qualify NuVision's unplugging technology for use at Hanford. Experimental testing has been conducted using three pipeline lengths and three types of blockages. Erosion rates have been obtained and pressure data is being analyzed. An amplification of the inlet pressure has been observed along the pipeline and is the key to determining up to what pipe lengths the technology can be used without surpassing the site pressure limit. In addition, we will attempt to establish what the expected unplugging rates will be at the longer pipe lengths for each of the three blockages tested. Detailed information resulting from the testing will provide the DOE end-user with sufficient data and understanding of the technology, and its limitations so that management decisions can be made whether the technology has a reasonable chance to successfully unplug a pipeline, such as a cross site transfer line or process transfer pipeline at the Waste Treatment Plant. (authors)

  1. Nondestructive testing of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nondestructive test methods play an important role in the fabrication, acceptance testing construction, installation surveillance, and operational monitoring of pipelines. The main test methods employed are ultrasonic testing, radiographic testing, and surface crack testing. The basic characteristics of these methods are described. (orig./RW)

  2. Meanings of consumption and abandonment: understanding smoking cessation symbolism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maribel Carvalho, Suarez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology t [...] o collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

  3. Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Carvalho Suarez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

  4. THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Iluzia IACOB

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

  5. Revegetation of an abandoned coal washing site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various reclamation techniques were applied on an abandoned coal washing pond in western Kentucky. The entire site was treated with fertilizer and lime to add nutrients and neutralize the soil pH. Four main treatments and control plots were established. The treatments included bark; straw and manure; bark, sawdust and manure; and a mixture of sewer sludge and kiln dust. Plots were also treated with a water absorbing synthetic polymer. All plots were seeded with various grasses, legumes, and black locust. The site was measured in 1992 after three growing seasons for woody plant biomass and percent ground cover. Significant differences in both woody plant biomass and percent ground cover were found between the treatments. 6 refs., 3 tabs

  6. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  7. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  8. Petroleum unsteady flow in pipe-line under presence of wall layer precipitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonisothermal flow of high-paraffin petroleum in underground pipe-line is examined with taking into consideration of precipitation accumulation on internal surface. Mathematical model of petroleum motion in the pipe-line consists of motion equation, unbrokenness and energy, thermal conductivity equations for the layer, for pipe-line wall, for soil surrounding pipe-line and single meaning conditions. Method of finite differences is used in the work. Calculations on computer are defined for stationary and non-stationary regimes of petroleum flow in case of 'clean' and polluted by paraffin pipe-line are cited, different graphics (for rate distribution, current internal diameter, temperature and pressure in pipe-line in various time moments and for various sense of productivity) are constructed. Evolution of different regimes of flow is given, influence of pipe-line pollution by paraffin on its capacity is analyzed

  9. Investigation of the Abandonment Rate and Causes of Abandonment of Innovative Practices in Secondary Schools. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeArman, John W.

    The adoption of educational innovations by secondary schools, their abandonment, and the causes for abandonment are the subjects of this study. The researchers surveyed 3,271 high schools accredited by the North Central Association, including both public and private schools. School administrators were questioned about the history in their schools…

  10. Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Todd C.; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to continuously monitor up to 170,000 stars at a 30 minute cadence for 3.5 years searching for Earth-size planets. The data are processed at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. Because of the large volume of data and the memory and CPU-intensive nature of the analysis, significant computing hardware is required. We have developed generic pipeline framework software that is used to distribute and synchronize the processing across a cluster of CPUs and to manage the resulting products. The framework is written in Java and is therefore platform-independent, and scales from a single, standalone workstation (for development and research on small data sets) to a full cluster of homogeneous or heterogeneous hardware with minimal configuration changes. A plug-in architecture provides customized control of the unit of work without the need to modify the framework itself. Distributed transaction services provide for atomic storage of pipeline products for a unit of work across a relational database and the custom Kepler DB. Generic parameter management and data accountability services are provided to record the parameter values, software versions, and other meta-data used for each pipeline execution. A graphical console allows for the configuration, execution, and monitoring of pipelines. An alert and metrics subsystem is used to monitor the health and performance of the pipeline. The framework was developed for the Kepler project based on Kepler requirements, but the framework itself is generic and could be used for a variety of applications where these features are needed.

  11. 77 FR 45417 - Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) determined that the probable cause of the accident was the washout of the... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

  12. Innovative approaches to evaluate geochemical risk related to sulphide-bearing Abandoned Mine Lands

    OpenAIRE

    SERVIDA, DIEGO

    2009-01-01

    Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) are often perceived to have significant environmental impacts, particularly on superficial and ground waters, from water contaminated with acid and elevated metals flowing from eroding waste dumps and from underground workings. These conditions would require risk assessment and remediation in case of necessity. However AML have heritage and historical value because of their age and the significance of their structures and the processes used. This value could be d...

  13. Mapping abandoned agriculture with multi-temporal MODIS satellite data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is expanding and intensifying in many areas of the world, but abandoned agriculture is also becoming more widespread. Unfortunately, data and methods to monitor abandoned agriculture accurately over large areas are lacking. Remote sensing methods may be able to fill this gap though, especially with the frequent observations provided by coarser-resolution sensors and new classification techniques. Past efforts to map abandoned agriculture relied mainly on Landsat data, making it hard to map large regions, and precluding the use of phenology information to identify abandoned agriculture. Our objective here was to test methods to map abandoned agriculture at broad scales with coarse-resolution satellite imagery and phenology data. We classified abandoned agriculture for one Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) tile in Eastern Europe (~1,236,000km 2) where abandoned agriculture was widespread. Input data included Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and reflectance bands (NASA Global MODIS Terra and Aqua 16-Day Vegetation Indices for the years 2003 through 2008, ~250-m resolution), as well as phenology metrics calculated with TIMESAT. The data were classified with Support Vector Machines (SVM). Training data were derived from several Landsat classifications of agricultural abandonment in the study area. A validation was conducted based on independently collected data. Our results showed that it is possible to map abandoned agriculture for large areas from MODIS data with an overall classification accuracy of 65%. Abandoned agriculture was widespread in our study area (15.1% of the total area, compared to 29.6% agriculture). We found strong differences in the MODIS data quality for different years, with data from 2005 resulting in the highest classification accuracy for the abandoned agriculture class (42.8% producer's accuracy). Classifications of MODIS NDVI data were almost as accurate as classifications based on a combination of both red and near-infrared reflectance data. MODIS NDVI data only from the growing-season resulted in similar classification accuracy as data for the full year. Using multiple years of MODIS data did not increase classification accuracy. Six phenology metrics derived with TIMESAT from the NDVI time series (2003-2008) alone were insufficient to detect abandoned agriculture, but phenology metrics improved classification accuracies when used in conjunction with NDVI time series by more than 8% over the use of NDVI data alone. The approach that we identified here is promising and suggests that it is possible to map abandoned agriculture at broad scales, which is relevant to gain a better understanding of this important land use change process. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  14. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Pedro; Mosley, Sherri Baker

    2015-01-01

    The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS) lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units) acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196) were inactive, one-third (1,665) were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles) of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration. PMID:25915417

  15. Also deputies will say something to new pipeline of Slovnaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil transit company, Transpetrol, expects the new Bratislava-Schwechat pipeline connecting the OMV refinery to the Druzba pipeline to increase the use of the pipeline and improve company revenues by 20%. The Austrian project partner, OMV, looks to the project to decrease transportation costs for Russian oil. One sixth of the 60 km pipeline will be built in Slovakia, but there is a problem - the Slovak Ministry of Environment and the City of Bratislava have not approved the route proposed by Transpetrol. In their opinion, the propose route would endanger the protected area, Zitny ostrov, that provides drinking water to the capital. Slovnaft also plans a new pipeline to replace the old obsolete one used to transport its products to the mineral oils transhipment centre at Bratislava docks. One of the alternatives proposed by Slovnaft is the construction of a pipeline and transhipment centre on Zitny ostrov. Unlike the Transpetrol project, this has already received approval from the Ministry of Environment. Before construction work on the pipeline to Schwechat can start. OMV will have resolve issues related to the supply of oil from Russia. According to the original plans, Yukos, which owns a 49% stake in Transpetrol, was to supply the oil. But due to tax problems in Russia, Yukos lost its main drilling division, Juganskneftgaz

  16. Experience with two pipeline river crossings in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaremko, Eugene [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants (NHC), Edmonton (Canada); D' Agnillo, Pablo; Diaz, Jose A. [Minera Alumbrera XTRADA Copper S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bravo, Claudio

    2009-12-19

    The Alumbrera copper-gold mine located in the Province of Catamarca, northwest region of Argentina, commenced operation in October, 1997. Mine development included a 316 km long, 175 mm diameter slurry pipeline that conveys copper concentrate to a dewatering facility near the city of Tucuman, Province of Tucuman. It became apparent during the first few years of operation that, given the many potential risks of pipeline exposure associated with stream crossings, Minera Alumbrera would have to undertake an aggressive, formal program of risk management of crossings and risk mitigation. In this paper, the experience associated with two crossings is addressed: Rio Villavil; and, Rio Gastona. The original pipeline route through the 10 km length of pipeline connecting Pump Station (PS) 2 to PS 3 was directed along the bottom of the Rio Villavil valley, with most of it located within the flood way of the stream. The exposure of the pipeline at some locations and high risk of further pipeline exposures led to initiation of risk mitigation planning. Remediation work was completed by 2008. Rio Gastona, during the summer of 2001, experienced rapid shifting of the left bank at the crossing resulting in an undermined and unsupported length of pipeline. The subsequent risk mitigation method adopted in 2001 involved the planning and construction of groyne fields along both banks. (author)

  17. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  18. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  19. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  20. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  1. Constructing computational pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling-Brown, Mark; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Many bioinformatics tasks involve creating a computational pipeline from existing software components and algorithms. The traditional approach is to glue components together using scripts written in a programming language such as Perl. However, a new, more powerful approach is emerging that promises to revolutionise the way bioinformaticians create applications from existing components, an approach based on the concept of the scientific workflow. Scientific workflows are created in graphical environments known as workflow management systems. They have many benefits over traditional program scripts, including speed of development, portability, and their suitability for developing complex, distributed applications. This chapter explains how to design and implement bioinformatics workflows using free, Open Source software tools, such as the Taverna workflow management system. We also demonstrate how new and existing tools can be deployed as Web services so that they can be easily integrated into novel computational pipelines using the scientific workflow paradigm. PMID:18712319

  2. Integrated Software Pipelining

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we address the problem of integrated software pipelining for clustered VLIW architectures. The phases that are integrated and solved as one combined problem are: cluster assignment, instruction selection, scheduling, register allocation and spilling. As a first step we describe two methods for integrated code generation of basic blocks. The first method is optimal and based on integer linear programming. The second method is a heuristic based on genetic algorithms. We then exte...

  3. Shipping Information Pipeline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a design science approach to solving persistent problems in the international shipping eco system by creating the missing common information infrastructures. Specifically, this paper reports on an ongoing dialogue between stakeholders in the shipping industry and information systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The i...

  4. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author)

  5. Seismic vulnerability of buried pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyue Li Liu

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Earthquakes may cause severe damage to buried pipelines. One dramatic example occurred during the Michoacán earthquakes of September 1985. Many aqueducts and pipelines in Mexico City and in Lázaro Cárdenas failed as a result of those earthquakes. Similar damages were also observed more recently in the earthquakes in Loma Prieta (Marina District, in 1989; in Northridge, California in 1994; and in Kobe, Japan, in 1995.This paper illustrates the kind of problems that take place after the failure of pipelines conducting water, gas or sewage. It also gives the principal causes of those failures, and the methods available today to take into consideration seismic effects for the proper design of buried pipelines. Some simplified procedures for preventing effects due to permanent ground deformation and seismic wave propagation on continuous and segmented pipelines are given, together with some recommendations to be followed when installing buried pipelines in seismic areas.

  6. Defining and distinguishing treatment abandonment in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Meaghann S; Howard, Scott C; Lam, Catherine G

    2015-05-01

    Cancer management requires accurate identification of the causes of treatment failure followed by cause-specific interventions. One cause of treatment failure that has received too little attention is abandonment of treatment. Abandonment includes 2 key elements: (1) failing to complete therapy for a disease that could be cured or definitively controlled, and (2) missing all treatment for a sustained time period to an extent that impacts the ability to cure or definitively control the disease. In this Historical Insight paper, we analyze historic and current terminology used to describe treatment abandonment in patients and provide a framework to distinguish it from nonadherence and loss to follow-up. PMID:25757024

  7. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction and mitigation measure considerations, strain based design for deep water and arctic considerations, and fatigue qualification for aggressive fluid conditions. (author)

  8. INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bruce Nestleroth

    2004-11-05

    Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. The Applied Energy Systems Group at Battelle is concluding the first year of work on a projected three-year development effort. In this first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. This second semiannual report focuses on the development of a second inspection methodology, based on rotating permanent magnets. During this period, a rotating permanent magnet exciter was designed and built. The exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. The tests have shown that at distances of a pipe diameter or more, the currents flow circumferentially, and that these circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall.

  9. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  10. Sustainability of social-environmental programs along pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebereiner, Christian [Shell Southern Cone Gas and Power (Brazil); Herrera, Brigitte [Transredes S.A. (Bolivia)

    2005-07-01

    The sustainability of Social and Environmental programs along pipelines, have shown to be a major challenge. Gas pipelines in Bolivia and Brazil operate in a diversity of environments and communities with different cultures, values and expectations. However, the pipeline network can also provide opportunities for contributing to regional development and working with local populations on topics of mutual interest. Many of these are quite strategic because they arise from topics of mutual interest for both the company and neighboring populations, and because they provide opportunities for achieving results of mutual benefit. These opportunities could include helping to make gas available to local communities, contributions to urban planning, hiring local services and other initiatives. Sustainable and integrated Social and Environmental programs are therefore key to a successful pipeline operation. These opportunities are often missed or under valued. Some successful examples are presented from Transredes S.A., Bolivia. (author)

  11. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  12. Delito de abandono de personas desvalidas / Crime of Abandonment of Helpless Persons

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Javiera, Torres Sandoval.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo analiza el delito de abandono de personas desvalidas tipificado en el artículo 352 CPen. En particular, aborda la historia de su tipificación, las opiniones de la doctrina comparada, los elementos del tipo -en especial la problemática que suscita la muerte y lesiones como exigencia legal- [...] y las eventuales relaciones concursales con los delitos de homicidio, lesiones y abandono de menores. Abstract in english This work analyses the crime of abandonment of helpless persons, specified in article 352 of the Criminal Code. It specifically, addresses the process by which it was specified, the opinions of compared doctrine, the elements of the kind of offence -specially the issue arising from the death and inj [...] uries as legal requirement- and the eventual relationships that played a part in the crimes of homicide, injuries and abandonment of minors.

  13. Effects of Land Abandonment In Nutrient Exportation. Some Catchments In Mediterranean Ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Molina, D.; Pelachs, A.; Matamala, N.

    The research project "Management and analysis of land uses, landscape and sustain- able development in natural protected areas" studies the evolution of landscapes after farm abandonment. One way to understand this evolution is studying the information that we can obtained from the water cycle. The first hypotesis of this work is that the vegetable cover of catchments has a decisive role in the hydrological behaviour. This behaviour can be evaluated through the study of hydrographs or through water analy- sis. We have worked in seven catchments with different land uses: Bare rock, Natural forest, Transition forest, Scrubland, Abandoned agricultural fields and Active agricul- tural fields. These catchments are located in the National Park of Sant Llorenç in the Catalan Prelitoral Range (41z40'N, 2zW), with a Mediterranean climate modified by altitude (from 300m to 1100m). Methodology used has been the description of study areas, the calculation of land uses and water analysis of 10 diferent parameters after rain episodes. From the results obtained it is possible to deduce the followings: 1) Behaviour of catchments follows two different paths: natural covers and humanized covers. 2) Scrubland offers a soil protection similar to that of forest. and abandoned lands have a similar behaviour than as active lands; and this for a long period of time (more than fifty years).

  14. Abandoned mines at Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the study were: 1 Determine whether abandoned mines on LPO were impacting aquatic biota, 2 Determine whether mines were safety or liability...

  15. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ...an amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation Plan (AML Plan). A 2006 amendment to the Surface Mining Control...the Act), authorized reinstitution of the Tennessee AML program as a minimum funded program state...

  16. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history

  17. Feasibility analysis of using abandoned salt caverns for large-scale underground energy storage in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A method is proposed for the evaluation of using an abandoned salt cavern for energy (natural gas) storage. • A feasibility analysis is given of China’s first UGS (Underground Gas Storage) facility using an abandoned salt cavern. • Numerical modeling has been used to investigate mechanical safety of a gas pressurized cavern. • Chinese abandoned salt caverns show good feasibility of being converted to UGSs. • China’s bedded rock salt can meet the requirements for UGS. - Abstract: Rock salt in China is primarily bedded salt, usually composed of many thin salt layers and interlayers (e.g. anhydrite, mudstone, and glauberite). Thus, the feasibility analysis of abandoned salt caverns located in salt beds to be used as Underground Gas Storage (UGS) facilities is full of challenges. In this paper, we introduce the feasibility analysis of China’s first salt cavern gas storage facility using an abandoned salt cavern. The cavern is located in Jintan city, Jiangsu province, China. The mechanical properties and permeability of the bedded salts are obtained by experiments. Based on the results of the analyses, it appears to be quite feasible to convert the abandoned salt caverns of Jintan city to UGS facilities. The stability of the cavern is evaluated by the 3D geomechanical numerical simulations, and the operating parameters are proposed accordingly. Results indicate that the maximum volume shrinkage of the cavern is less than 25% and the maximum deformations are less than 2% of the caverns’ maximum diameters after operating for 20 years. It is recommended that the weighted average internal gas pressure be maintained as 11 MPa to control the extent of the plastic zones to a safe level. Safety factors decrease with operating time, especially those of the interface between rock salt and mudstone layers decrease significantly. Effective strain is generally greater than 2%, and locally is greater than 3% after operating 20 years. The maximum pressure drop rate should be kept to less than 0.55 MPa/day. Based on above proposed parameters, China’s first salt cavern gas storage facilities were completed, and gas was first injected, in 2007. To check the status of the caverns after operating for 6 years, the volumes of the caverns were measured in 2013 by Sonar under working conditions. Measurement results show that the cavern shapes did not change much, and that volume shrinkages were less than 2%. Comprehensive results show that the feasibility analysis method proposed in this paper is reliable

  18. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  19. Monitoring of natural gas pipeline leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xiong, Min; Yu, Dongliang; Wang, Likun; Wang, Hongchao [RnD center of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang, (China)

    2010-07-01

    Leak monitoring on natural gas pipelines is very important in guaranteeing operational safety. Many methods are currently used for pipeline leakage monitoring world-wide: the wave method is one of these. This paper investigated the principle of pressure wave technique combined with a denoising method and a working recognition technique. A leak can be detected by the measurement of static pressure and dynamic pressure. Both signals needed to be interpreted, a wavelet packet decomposition technique was used to reduce noise and analyze the signals. The BP neural network was used to identify signal fluctuations. An integrated system based on LabVIEW was developed to monitor operating conditions and locate leaks more accurately . This system was applied in field. The field tests showed that the method developed is accurate and reliable and demonstrated its high practical value.

  20. Buried gas pipelines under vehicular crossings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oey, H.S.; Greggerson, V.L.; Womack, D.P.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes and evaluates the various methods used in the analysis and design of buried pipelines under vehicular crossings extracted from a vast number of literature. It was found that a unified treatment of the subject is currently not available and additional work is required. The study shows that there are sufficient data and technical information that can be integrated to produce sound design. Theoretical as well as empirical formulas are scrutinized and incorporated in their appropriate places. Design examples are presented, complete with the detail calculations. Where applicable nomographs and graphs are adapted as design aids. A brief review of the current safety codes pertaining to natural gas pipeline design is also presented.

  1. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  2. Thermally isolated pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pipelines is provided for gases, particluarly helium, at temperature of about 10000C (pressure about 40 bar) and is used as the connection be tween a gas cooled high temperature reactor and a heat load. The pipe consists of a temperature-resistant inner tube, which is composed of several pipe sections, which are supported on ball bearings, and a gas tight pressurised outer tube. There are supports and insulation between the two tubes. The sub-claims concern fixing of and bearings for the pipe sections. The description is very detailed and supplemented by drawings. (UWI)

  3. Pipeline technology today and tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callan, T. [ILF Consulting Engineers, Munich (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    Transportation of liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons via buried cross-country pipeline generally represents the safest and most economic method of bulk movement of such products. In 2005 there existed worldwide a total length of over 1.5 million km of high pressure transport pipelines, not including water transmission pipelines or smaller bore distribution networks. By 2030, this figure is predicted to almost double, with much of the increase due to the construction of new gas transmission and distribution pipelines. Historically, the development of pipeline technology has been driven by either technical challenges, or by the need to reduce cost. Key influences today are: - Mitigation of environmental impact, - Acceptance by the public and authorities, - Competition with tanker transport (LNG, crude). New applications, such as use of CO{sub 2} pipelines in carbon capture, transport and storage (CCS) projects, represent a new challenge for the industry. This article reviews the current status of onshore pipeline technology and makes some predictions regarding future trends. The presentation, which is an update of a similar status report prepared by ILF Consulting Engineers in 2001, follows the life cycle path of a pipeline. (orig.)

  4. Magnitude of Treatment Abandonment in Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Paola; Lam, Catherine G.; Itriago, Elena; Perez, Rafael; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Arora, Ramandeep S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment abandonment (TxA) is recognized as a leading cause of treatment failure for children with cancer in low-and-middle-income countries (LMC). However, its global frequency and burden have remained elusive due to lack of global data. This study aimed to obtain an estimate using survey and population data. Methods Childhood cancer clinicians (medical oncologists, surgeons, and radiation therapists), nurses, social workers, and psychologists involved in care of children with cancer were approached through an online survey February-May 2012. Incidence and population data were obtained from public sources. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable analyses were conducted. Results 602 responses from 101 countries were obtained from physicians (84%), practicing pediatric hematology/oncology (83%) in general or children’s hospitals (79%). Results suggested, 23,854 (15%) of 155,088 children 6% were outside the capital. Lower national income category, higher reliance on out-of-pocket payments, and high prevalence of economic hardship at the center were independent contextual predictors for TxA ?6% (ppoverty on its occurrence. The present estimates may appear small compared to the global burden of child death from malnutrition and infection (measured in millions). However, absolute numbers suggest the burden of TxA in LMC is nearly equivalent to annually losing all kids diagnosed with cancer in HIC just to TxA, without even considering deaths from disease progression, relapse or toxicity–the main causes of childhood cancer mortality in HIC. Results document the importance of monitoring and addressing TxA as part of childhood cancer outcomes in at-risk settings. PMID:26422208

  5. Modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikota, Gudrun

    2013-08-01

    The laminar flow of a weakly compressible Newtonian fluid in a pipeline is treated by modal methods, aiming at a theoretical basis for the experimental modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines. For two points located at arbitrary positions along a pipeline, the frequency response function between flow rate excitation and pressure response is calculated in closed form, expanded into a modal series including transcendental modal transfer functions, and approximated by finite sums of rational fraction expressions. The preferred modal approximation is recognized as mobility function of a structurally damped mechanical multi-degrees-of-freedom system. Experimental modal analysis procedures for structurally and viscously damped mechanical systems are adapted for hydraulic pipelines and pipeline systems.

  6. Middle School Girls and the "Leaky Pipeline" to Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Mary; Grossman, Diane; Carter, Suzanne; Martin, Karyn; Deyton, Patricia; Hammer, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Why do girls perform so well academically yet lose ground as professional women? This diminishing number of women up the leadership hierarchy is often referred to as the "leaky pipeline," and attributed to many factors: external ones such as work environments not conducive to work/life balance, and internal ones such as women's own…

  7. The Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Todd C.; Cote, Miles T.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Bryson, Stephen T.; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for several aspects of the Kepler Mission, including managing targets, generating on-board data compression tables, monitoring photometer health and status, processing the science data, and exporting the pipeline products to the mission archive. We describe how the generic pipeline framework software developed for Kepler is extended to achieve these goals, including pipeline configurations for processing science data and other support roles, and custom unit of work generators that control how the Kepler data are partitioned and distributed across the computing cluster. We describe the interface between the Java software that manages the retrieval and storage of the data for a given unit of work and the MATLAB algorithms that process these data. The data for each unit of work are packaged into a single file that contains everything needed by the science algorithms, allowing these files to be used to debug and evolve the algorithms offline.

  8. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  9. Fiber Optics: Safety Measures on Oil & Gas Pipeline Monitoring in Lagos State Region

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Oluseye

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis work is to research and implement the use of an optical communication system (fiber optics) as a safe and reliable monitoring system for the oil and gas pipeline industry in Lagos region of Nigeria. These optical fiber cables are laid parallel to oil and gas buried pipelines to monitor and indicate ad-vanced warning in real time situation once leakages occur in these pipelines, thereby allowing pipeline operators to take immediate and strategic actions to re-solve...

  10. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  11. Seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines - challenges after three decades of progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Najafi, Mohammand [U. OF TEXAS

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution over the past three decades of seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines and identifies some challenges for future research studies on the subject. The first section of this paper presents a chronological description of the evolution since the mid-1970s of pipeline fragility relations - the most common tool for pipeline damage estimation - and follows with a careful analysis of the use of several ground motion parameters as pipeline damage indicators. In the second section of the paper, four gaps on the subject are identified and proposed as challenges for future research studies. The main conclusion of this work is that enhanced fragility relations must be developed for improving pipeline damage estimation, which must consider relevant parameters that could influence the seismic response of pipelines.

  12. The challenges of working values of SEH (Safety, Environment and Health) in the construction of Urucu / Manaus Gas Pipeline in the Amazon rain forest; Os desafios de trabalhar os valores de SMS (Seguranca, Meio ambiente e Saude) na construcao do Gasoduto Urucu/Manaus na Floresta Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Jeane Ramos; Rocha, Katia Rosilene Soares da; Paredio, Lindoneide Lima [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pellin, Madson Weider Elgaly [JPTE Engenharia, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barreto, Jean Luis Campos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work, aims to sharpen the main difficulties of acting in SMS and the corrective and preventive measures in the work of the pipeline Urucu / Manaus, located in the influence of the Solimoes River, covering several municipalities in the state of Amazonas (Coari, Codajas, Caapiranga, Anama, Iranduba, Manaus). Such pipeline has three spread, namely Spread A, from Urucu to Coari, Spread B1, from Coari to Anama, and Spread B2, from Anama to Manaus. For the purpose of the present case, we have focused on the Spread B2, from the city of Anama to Manaus, from km 475 to Km 662, being 174,400 m long. Its main line ends right within the premises of the Refinaria Isaac Sabba (a local refinery), which is located at Rua Rio Quixito - Distrito Industrial. The purpose of the pipeline is to convey natural gas to the Pressure Regulating Station, which is located close by the aforementioned refinery. The gas is transported to Maua Thermoelectrical, to generate energy for certain areas of the Amazon capital city. The information has been obtained through observations made on the difficulties faced by the workers to comply with safety behaviour while carrying out their activities. Also, by using several tools, such us Auditoria Comportamental (Behaviour Auditing) - Audicomp, Aplicacao de Listas de Verificacao - LV's (Verification Lists), as well as Indice de Praticas Seguras - IPS (Safety Practices Index). The collected data is analysed, and displayed in graphics, tables and processed in PETROBRAS internal systems, such Audicomp (Behaviour Auditing), SALV (Verification Lists Application System), and Auditoria de IPS (Safety Practices Index Auditing). The main difficulties to implement SMS (Safety, Environment and Health) in a pipeline works in the Amazon require from the transportation logistics, communication problems, lack of enough local skilled labor, the adverse region's season conditions, both flood and dry seasons, as well as to commit the local population with Safety, Environment and Health principles, since they are not used to deal with such subject. (author)

  13. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  14. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  15. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of ecosystem services.

  16. Pipeline mapping and strain assessment using ILI (In-line Inspection) tolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Brian [GE PII Pipeline Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Huewener, Thomas [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    GE PII IMU Mapping inspection system measures pipeline location coordinates (x, y, z) and provides data for determining pipeline curvature and consequential pipeline bending strain. The changes in strain can be used in the application of structural analyses and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems. This paper reviews the Inertia Measuring Unit (IMU) system and field investigation works performed on a high-pressure gas pipeline for E.ON Ruhrgas AG. The Inertial Measuring Unit of the pipeline inspection tool provides continuous measurement of the pipeline centreline coordinates. More than one inspection run was performed which allowed a more accurate strain comparison to be made. Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies, makes it possible to provide a more complete picture of the overall situation. This paper reviews the work involved in detecting, locating and determining the magnitude and type of strain corresponding to the pipeline movement in field. (author)

  17. Natural Gas pipelines: economics of incremental capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of gas transmission pipeline systems in Australia exhibit capacity constraints, and yet there is little evidence of creative or innovative processes from either the service provides of the regulators which might provide a market-based response to these constraints. There is no provision in the Code in its current form to allow it to accommodate these processes. This aspect is one of many that require review to make the Code work. It is unlikely that the current members of the National Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (NGPAC) or its advisers have sufficient understanding of the analysis of risk and the consequential commercial drivers to implement the necessary changes. As a result, the Code will increasingly lose touch with the commercial realities of the energy market and will continue to inhibit investment in new and expanded infrastructure where market risk is present. The recent report prepared for the Business Council of Australia indicates a need to re-vitalise the energy reform process. It is important for the Australian energy industry to provide leadership and advice to governments to continue the process of reform, and, in particular, to amend the Code to make it more relevant. These amendments must include a mechanism by which price signals can be generated to provide timely and effective information for existing service providers or new entrants to install incremental pipeline capacity

  18. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  19. Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and leakage release holes were modelled. This pipeline section is 10m long with the leakage hole in the middle. Additionally a small environment subdomain is simulated around the crack. For computation a multiphase solver was utilised. In a first step incompressible and isothermal fluids with no phase change were assumed.

  20. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

    2013-09-01

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

  1. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  2. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

  3. RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FODOR Cosmin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

  4. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  5. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

  6. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

  7. Pipeline inspection vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, K.; Ashworth, R.P.

    1993-01-20

    A pipeline inspection vehicle comprises a body, an electromagnet for generating magnetic flux, and two foil packs for conducting the flux into and out of the pipewall. An array of defect sensors is arranged around the body, each sensor being mounted on a respective assembly. Each assembly comprises a steel sledge which runs along the pipewall and which is secured to a sensor housing. A length of belting is sandwiched between the two and end portions form a leading member and a trailing member linking the sledge to the vehicle. Each assembly is positioned against a spring which is also positioned against the vehicle. The assembly collapses out of the way when the vehicle traverses a sharp bend and the foil pack is deflected to the right. The two members both counteract the force of the spring when the sledge crosses a void in the pipewall. (author)

  8. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Swinbank, John D; Molenaar, Gijs J; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E; Broderick, Jess W; Carbone, Dario; van der Horst, Alexander J; Law, Casey J; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Greißmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W T; Stappers, Benjamin W; Stewart, Adam J; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been desig...

  9. Data integration for management of pipeline system integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The need to easily access pipeline information and the increasing number of inspections using distinct techniques from different vendors makes the use of systems in the Integrity Management Program indispensable. For this reason, MOPI has been developed by two Brazilian companies, Pipeway Engenharia in partnership with Minds at Work. This tool allows data recording from the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, the storage of documents, the comparison between the results of different inspections, the planning inspections, contracts and maintenance of the pipeline. Furthermore, the information registered in the system can be accessed by a network user without limitation of time or number of users. This work presents the main details and features of MOPI. (author)

  10. Preliminary investigation of the hydrogeology and contamination in the area of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior to the introduction of natural gas pipelines in the 1950's, gas for lighting and heating in the US was produced from coal or oil at local manufacturing gas plants. By-products and wastes generated at these plants commonly were disposed of on site. The major wastes, which include tar and oil residues and sludges, spent oxides, and ash materials, can consist of a complex mixture of hundreds of aromatic organic compounds as well as cyanides and metals. An investigation was initiated in January 1989 in the vicinity of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia, to evaluate the hydrogeology and contamination of the area, and to test study techniques that may have application in similar situations. Geologic formations of interest to this investigation include, in descending order, unconsolidated sand and clay layers, The Ocala Limestone, and the Lisbon Formation. Surficial fill overlies the sand and clay layers throughout the study area. High concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and various metals were detected in the unconsolidated sediments in the vicinity of the abandoned gas plant. Maximum concentrations of hydrocarbons detected sediment samples included 560,000 microg/kg naphthalene, 73,000 microg/kg ethylbenzene, 28,000 microg/kg benzene, and 24,000 microg/kg toluene. These higher concentrations of hydrocarbons were present in the vicinity of the former gas holding tanks. In that area, contamination extends at least to the depth of the contact between the unconsolidated sand and clay layers and the Ocala Limestone

  11. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  12. Science for watershed decisions on abandoned mine lands; review of preliminary results, Denver, Colorado, February 4-5, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; Von Guerard, Paul

    1998-01-01

    From the Preface: There are thousands of abandoned or inactive mines on or adjacent to public lands administered by the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service. Mine wastes from many of these abandoned mines adversely affect resources on public lands. In 1995, an interdepartmental work group within the Federal government developed a strategy to address remediation of the many abandoned mines on public lands. This strategy is based on using a watershed approach to address the abandoned mine lands (AML) problem. The USGS, working closely with the Federal land-management agencies (FLMAs), is key for the success of this watershed approach. In support of this watershed approach, the USGS developed an AML Initiative with pilot studies in the Boulder River in Montana and the Animas River in Colorado. The goal of these studies is to design and implement a reliable strategy that will supply the scientific information to the FLMAs so that land managers can develop efficient and cost-effective remediation of AML. The symposium 'Science for Watershed Decisions on Abandoned Mine Lands: Review of Preliminary Results' held in Denver, Colorado, on February 4-5, 1998, provided the FLMAs a first look at the techniques, data, and interpretations being generated by the USGS pilot studies. This multidisciplined effort already is proving very valuable to land managers in making science-based AML cleanup decisions and will continue to be of increasing value as additional and more complete information is obtained. Ongoing interaction between scientists and land managers is essential to insure the efficient continuation and success of AML cleanup efforts.

  13. On the construction of a new stellar classification template library for the LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g – r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

  14. On the construction of a new stellar classification template library for the LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Peng; Luo, Ali; Li, Yinbi; Tu, Liangping; Wang, Fengfei; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Hou, Wen; Kong, Xiao; Wu, Yue; Zuo, Fang; Yi, Zhenping; Zhao, Yongheng; Chen, Jianjun; Du, Bing; Guo, Yanxin; Ren, Juanjuan [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Pan, Jingchang; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Jie, E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: weipeng@nao.cas.cn [School of Mechanical, Electrical, and Information Engineering, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); and others

    2014-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g – r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

  15. Sand transport in multiphase pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Over the life of an oil and gas reservoir, it is likely to encounter sand production. In offshore production fields, as there are lack of processing facilities nearby, gas, liquid and sand are often transported together in long distance pipelines. The existence of sand could accumulate in the pipelines under inappropriate operation condition and eventually will lead to a blockage. Thus, to design such systems requires knowledge on how sand is transported, when and where it will accumulate. ...

  16. Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement

    OpenAIRE

    T. Buksa; D. Pavletic; M. Sokovic

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to id...

  17. Assessment of health risks to skin and lung of elevated radon levels in abandoned mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, A R; Eatough, J P; Gillmore, G; Phillips, P S

    2003-12-01

    Radon, together with its progeny, is present in high levels in some underground sites. Radon is known to increase the risk of lung cancer, while increased levels of radon decay products on the skin surface have been implicated in skin cancer induction and at sufficient levels might cause deterministic effects such as erythema. Although radon levels in working mines are controlled, radon in abandoned mines can reach very high levels, which would result in an occupant exceeding recommended annual exposure limits in less than 2 h in some mines. The relative importance of dose limits for the lung, skin cancer, and deterministic effects is discussed in the light of practical experience. PMID:14626324

  18. Solving an unpiggable pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, James R. [GE Oil and Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom); Kern, Michael [National Grid, New Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Technically, any pipeline can be retrofitted to enable in line inspection. Sensibly however, the expense of excavations and construction of permanent facilities have been, in many cases, exceedingly prohibitive. Even where traditional modifications are feasible from engineering perspectives, flow interruption may not be an option - either because they are critical supply lines or because the associated lost revenues could be nearly insurmountable. Savvy pipeline integrity managers know the safety issue that is at stake over the long term. They are also well aware of the accuracy benefits that high-quality in-line inspection data offer over potentially supply disruptive alternatives such as hydrostatic testing. To complicate matters further, many operators, particularly in the US, now face regulatory pressure to assess the integrity of their yet-uninspected pipelines located in highly populated areas. This paper describes an important project National Grid undertook that made use of a unique pipeline access method that did not require permanent installation of expensive facilities required for in line inspection of a pipeline previously considered 'unpiggable'. Since the pipeline was located in an urban area, flow disruption had to be minimized. This paper will define the project background, its challenges, outcomes and lessons learned for the future. (author)

  19. Pipeline systems - Safety for assets and transport regularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anfinsen, K.A.

    1997-12-31

    This review regarding safety for assets and financial interests for pipeline systems has showed how this aspect has been taken care of in the existing petroleum legislation. It has been demonstrated that the integrity of pipeline systems with the respect to maintaining petroleum transport is important for all parties involved, including third party`s interest and national interests. Examples have been given to provide a picture of the value of transported petroleum products. Finally, the scope of work for as well as observations after a supervisory activity related to safety for the transported product, have been referenced. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. 30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...STATE UTAH § 944.20 Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9, 1983...Library, 1999 Broadway, Suite 3320, Denver, Colorado 80202-5733. [60 FR 33725, June...

  1. 30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. ...MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO § 906.25 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan...

  2. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 902...902.20 Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. ...Broadway, Suite 3320, Denver, Colorado 80202-5733. [60 FR...

  3. THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URSZULA MYGA-PI?TEK

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

  4. Is it time to abandon institutional research ethics committees?

    OpenAIRE

    Savulescu, J.

    2002-01-01

    Research on human beings has significantly increased in ethical and scientific complexity. Ethics review is at a fork in the road. Either we significantly increase the resources we provide to support institutional research ethics committees. Or we abandon the institutional base of human research ethics review and move to model of expert suprainstitutional ethics committees.

  5. The global potential of bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B; Genova, Robert C; Field, Christopher B

    2008-08-01

    Converting forest lands into bioenergy agriculture could accelerate climate change by emitting carbon stored in forests, while converting food agriculture lands into bioenergy agriculture could threaten food security. Both problems are potentially avoided by using abandoned agriculture lands for bioenergy agriculture. Here we show the global potential for bioenergy on abandoned agriculture lands to be less than 8% of current primary energy demand, based on historical land use data, satellite-derived land cover data, and global ecosystem modeling. The estimated global area of abandoned agriculture is 385-472 million hectares, or 66-110% of the areas reported in previous preliminary assessments. The area-weighted mean production of above-ground biomass is 4.3 tons ha(-1) y(-1), in contrast to estimates of up to 10 tons ha(-1) y(-1) in previous assessments. The energy content of potential biomass grown on 100% of abandoned agriculture lands is less than 10% of primary energy demand for most nations in North America, Europe, and Asia, but it represents many times the energy demand in some African nations where grasslands are relatively productive and current energy demand is low. PMID:18754510

  6. Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment

  7. Asynchronous Pipeline Controller Based on Early Acknowledgement Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannakkara, Chammika; Yoneda, Tomohiro

    A new pipeline controller based on the Early Acknowledgement (EA) protocol is proposed for bundled-data asynchronous circuits. The EA protocol indicates acknowledgement by the falling edge of the acknowledgement signal in contrast to the 4-phase protocol, which indicates it on the rising edge. Thus, it can hide the overhead caused by the resetting period of the handshake cycle. Since we have designed our controller assuming several timing constraints, we first analyze the timing constraints under which our controller correctly works and then discuss their appropriateness. The performance of the controller is compared both analytically and experimentally with those of two other pipeline controllers, namely, a very high-speed 2-phase controller and an ordinary 4-phase controller. Our controller performs better than a 4-phase controller when pipeline has processing elements. We have obtained interesting results in the case of a non-linear pipeline with a Conditional Branch (CB) operation. Our controller has slightly better performance even compared to 2-phase controller in the case of a pipeline with processing elements. Its superiority lies in the EA protocol, which employs return-to-zero control signals like the 4-phase protocol. Hence, our controller for CB operation is simple in construction just like the 4-phase controller. A 2-phase controller for the same operation needs to have a slightly complicated mechanism to handle the 2-phase operation because of the non-return-to-zero control signals, and this results in a performance overhead.

  8. A Difference-In-Differences Study of the Effects of a New Abandoned Building Remediation Strategy on Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C.; Keene, Danya; Hohl, Bernadette C.; MacDonald, John M.; Branas, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Vacant and abandoned buildings pose significant challenges to the health and safety of communities. In 2011 the City of Philadelphia began enforcing a Doors and Windows Ordinance that required property owners of abandoned buildings to install working doors and windows in all structural openings or face significant fines. We tested the effects of the new ordinance on the occurrence of crime surrounding abandoned buildings from January 2011 to April 2013 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in pre- and post-treatment measures of crime for buildings that were remediated as a result of the ordinance (n = 676) or permitted for renovation (n = 241), and randomly-matched control buildings that were not remediated (n = 676) or permitted for renovation (n = 964), while also controlling for sociodemographic and other confounders measured around each building. Building remediations were significantly associated with citywide reductions in overall crimes, total assaults, gun assaults and nuisance crimes (p <0.001). Building remediations were also significantly associated with reductions in violent gun crimes in one city section (p <0.01). At the same time, some significant increases were seen in narcotics sales and possession and property crimes around remediated buildings (p <0.001). Building renovation permits were significantly associated with reductions in all crime classifications across multiple city sections (p <0.001). We found no significant spatial displacement effects. Doors and windows remediation offers a relatively low-cost method of reducing certain crimes in and around abandoned buildings. Cities with an abundance of decaying and abandoned housing stock might consider some form of this structural change to their built environments as one strategy to enhance public safety. PMID:26153687

  9. A Difference-In-Differences Study of the Effects of a New Abandoned Building Remediation Strategy on Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Keene, Danya; Hohl, Bernadette C; MacDonald, John M; Branas, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Vacant and abandoned buildings pose significant challenges to the health and safety of communities. In 2011 the City of Philadelphia began enforcing a Doors and Windows Ordinance that required property owners of abandoned buildings to install working doors and windows in all structural openings or face significant fines. We tested the effects of the new ordinance on the occurrence of crime surrounding abandoned buildings from January 2011 to April 2013 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in pre- and post-treatment measures of crime for buildings that were remediated as a result of the ordinance (n = 676) or permitted for renovation (n = 241), and randomly-matched control buildings that were not remediated (n = 676) or permitted for renovation (n = 964), while also controlling for sociodemographic and other confounders measured around each building. Building remediations were significantly associated with citywide reductions in overall crimes, total assaults, gun assaults and nuisance crimes (p gun crimes in one city section (p < 0.01). At the same time, some significant increases were seen in narcotics sales and possession and property crimes around remediated buildings (p < 0.001). Building renovation permits were significantly associated with reductions in all crime classifications across multiple city sections (p < 0.001). We found no significant spatial displacement effects. Doors and windows remediation offers a relatively low-cost method of reducing certain crimes in and around abandoned buildings. Cities with an abundance of decaying and abandoned housing stock might consider some form of this structural change to their built environments as one strategy to enhance public safety. PMID:26153687

  10. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

  11. Studying of acid-gas pipelines corrosion with impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neshati, J.; Fardi, M.R.; Ghassem, H. [Corrosion Department, NIOC-RIPI, Pazhooheshgah Bulevard, Khairabad Junction, Old Qom Road Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    In this research, the acid-gas pipelines of a gas refinery were simulated in laboratory. Acid gas is normally the feed of sulfur recovery plant (SRP) in a gas refinery. For studying corrosion kinetic and related mechanisms the impedance spectroscopy was used. Impedance diagrams were simulated by Boukamp1988 software. It was found that the simulated systems can be equated to a circuit with two time constants. For studying corrosion rate changes a type of inhibitor was utilized. The inhibitor used in this work was an imidazoline, an appropriate based inhibitor formulated with the commercial grade imidazoline and dimmer - trimer acid. It was shown that impedance spectroscopy technique can be used for corrosion monitoring of acid gas pipelines in gas refineries. The impedance spectroscopy will be tried in due course as a suitable technique in field for corrosion control of acid-gas pipelines. (authors)

  12. Maintenance planning under imperfect inspections of corroded pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a maintenance policy is proposed for pipelines subject to corrosion, by taking into account imperfect inspection results. The degradation of the pipeline is induced by uniform and pitting corrosion, leading to losses in the pipe wall thickness. The inspection is applied to detect the corrosion defects, namely the corrosion depth and width. The inspection has a detection threshold under which no corrosion can be measured. Due to uncertainties, each inspection is affected by the probability of detecting small defects and the probability of wrong assessment in terms of defect existence and size. The present work aims at integrating imperfect inspection results in the cost model for corroded pipelines, where the failure probabilities are computed by reliability methods. A numerical application on a gas pipe shows the influence of inspection quality and cost on the choice of the optimal maintenance planning

  13. On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  15. Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

  16. Mineral phases identification inside an abandoned Zn/Pb mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the work is the identification of the sulphurated phase's outbreak on an aragonite, dolomite and calcite-based original rock inside an abandoned mine. The studied Blende/Galena (ZnS/PbS) Mine, located in Lanestosa (Bizkaia, North of Spain) was operative until 1950. After decades, the area has only supported wild life and thus nowadays it could be considered as a polluted site which has become naturalized. The main alteration factors inside the mine are percolated water, gases come from the outside (CO2, O2) and biological activities. Mining activities generates loads of ore minerals and unwanted materials that with the time impact the surrounding environment. The waste includes granular, broken rock and soils ranging in size from the fine sand to large boulders, with the content of fine material largely dependent on the nature of the formation and extraction methods employed during mining. Waste materials geochemistry varies widely from mine to mine and may vary significantly at individual mines over time as different lithologic strata are exposed and geochemical processes alter characteristics of the waste. In order to determine the finest mineral composition in the galleries, several samples were collected. Once dried in a fume hood and sieved, the portions below 250 ?m were subjected to non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis. The measurements reflected the ore precursors (primary phases: Blende, and Galena), several primary carbonates (dolomite, calcite and aragonite) with secondary minerals in trace levels (Brookite, Libethenite, Fluorapatita, Anatasa, Quartz, Apatite, Augite, Diopside, Anthracite, Hematite, Cosalite, Epidote, Rutile) and transformation products, probably of recent formation (Smithsonite, Massicot, Plattnerite, Gypsum, Siderite, Mendiphite, Escorodite, Gauberite, Goethite or Mascagnite). The origin of the secondary mineral may be related to percolated rain and snow water. This hypothesis is based in the acidic snow water collected in January of 2009 (pH?5). Acid water dissolves all carbonates and all those soluble salts leached in surface (ZnCO3 or PbCO3). Finally, a basic thermodynamic model has been developed in order to explain the primary mineral phases transformation to the secondary ones. Acknowledgements. This work was financially supported by the BERRILUR II Project (ref. IE06-179, ETORTEK, Basque Government).

  17. SOIL QUALITY EVALUATION OF SPOLIC TECHNOSOLS. CASE STUDY FROM THE ABANDONED MINING SITE IN IMPERINA VALLEY (BELLUNO, ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Wahsha; Andrea Ferrarini; Lisa Vannuzzo; Claudio Bini; Silvia Fontana

    2012-01-01

    Mining, milling and smelting operations are major causes of heavy metal contamination and constitute an increasing threat to the environment. The objective of this work was to investigate the relationships between soil metal pollution, humus development and microarthropod community structure, using a Biological Soil Quality (QBS-ar) method. Humus and soil samples (0-30cm) were collected during spring 2011 from an abandoned mixed sulphides mining area in Northeast Italy, under both forest and ...

  18. Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami. FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

  19. Application of risk-based inspection to two pipelines of the TRANSPETRO network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinum, Bente; Bjornoy, Ola [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Oliveira, Luiz Fernando; Oliveira, Cassia [DNV Principia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Claudio Brito [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Inspection and maintenance are a significant part of pipeline operations costs. The objective of this work is to present the results obtained with the application of Risk-Based Inspection to two gas pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. Based on the current state of knowledge about the degradation mechanisms acting on either pipeline and their respective operating conditions, the RBI study recommended that both be inspected next year. Alternatively in one case, the study lays out the conditions by which the pipeline inspection can be postponed to 2007. TRANSPETRO had already decided to inspect the other pipeline this year (for reasons not related to this study) and therefore, the RBI approach is going to be re-applied after the new inspection results are available. This application will set the date for the next inspection. (author)

  20. New territory for NGL pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though the NGL pipeline industry appears mature, new geographic territory exists for expansion of NGL pipelines. However, the most fertile territory that must be pursued is the collective opportunities to better link the existing NGL industry. Associations like the Gas Processors Association can not perform the role demanded by a need to share information between the links of the chain on a more real time basis. The Association can not substitute for picking up the phone or calling a meeting of industry participants to discuss proposed changes in policies and procedures. All stakeholders must participate in squeezing out the inefficiencies of the industry. Some expansion and extension of NGL pipelines will occur in the future without ownership participation or commitments from the supply and demand businesses. However, significant expansions linking new supply sources and demand markets will only be made as the supply and demand businesses share long-term strategies and help define the pipeline opportunity. The successful industries of the twenty-first century will not be dominated by a single profitable sector, but rather by those industries which foster cooperation as well as competition. A healthy NGL industry will be comprised of profitable supply businesses and profitable demand businesses, linked together by profitable pipeline businesses

  1. Building the Alaska pipeline : story of a legend : Frank Moolin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, B. [Troy Media Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    This article chronicled the events that took place during the building of the Alaska Pipeline from Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's Northern Coast to the Port of Valdez. In particular, it highlighted the project management led by senior project manager Frank Moolin. The oil companies officially announced their plans to begin the pipeline in February 1969. The estimated cost was $900 million, and completion was targeted for 1972. Moolin was hired by Alyeska, the company formed to design and build the pipeline. The Alaska Pipeline project was launched with little more than a goal and no clear roadmap for achieving it. Project critics claimed that it was impossible to build an 800-mile pipeline through the Alaskan wilderness using conventional methods. In addition to facing obstacles, contingency scenarios, and timetable problems, the oil companies were stopped by environmental groups and Native Alaskans who had no intention of allowing the pipeline to be built on their land. In response, oil companies wanted to lay the pipeline underground, but geologists pointed out that a large portion of Alaska rests on permafrost that cannot support any weight when it thaws. Geological testing revealed that nearly 400 miles of the pipeline had to be built above ground. In January 1974, Frank Moolin's construction crew of 20,000 people began the preparatory work. First, a supply road was built through the northern half of Alaska, from the Yukon River north of Fairbanks to Prudhoe Bay. By March 1975, three million tons of pipe, machinery, spare parts, fuel and food were hauled in, and the pipe-laying began. Moolin motivated his workers and kept morale high throughout the difficult building process. For two years, Moolin kept the problem-ridden project on track. Twelve pump stations had to be built so that 800 miles of pipe could be welded together 40 feet at a time. On June 20, 1977, the valves at Prudhoe Bay were opened, and the first Alaskan crude oil began to flow. The final tab on the Alaska Pipeline project was $8 billion, 10 times the original estimate. 1 fig.

  2. Pipeline fixings for pipelines in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pipelines run at a distance from a concrete wall. Frame type steel constructions made of U-section profiled rods which can be loaded in the elastic range act as pipeline fixings. They are fixed, in turn, via their free ends to steel supports which can be subjected to plastic deformation, which are themselves connected to the concrete wall via supports. The distance between the steel supports and the concrete wall must be such that it is greater than the maximum expected deformation of the steel supports. This achieves dumping of the load peaks for pipework fracture forces in all directions in the concrete wall. (DG)

  3. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  4. Vortex induced vibrations of free span pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Koushan, Kamran

    2009-01-01

    Pipelines from offshore petroleum fields must frequently pass overareas with uneven seafloor.  In such cases the pipeline may havefree spans when crossing depressions. Hence, if dynamic loads canoccur, the free span may oscillate and time varying stresses maygive unacceptable fatigue damage. A major source for dynamicstresses in free span pipelines is vortex induced vibrations (VIV)caused by steady current. This effect is in fact dominating ondeep water pipelines since wave induced ...

  5. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R., Vicentini; M., Menossi.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data forma [...] t, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  6. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  7. The ALMA Pipeline Procedure Execution Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L.; Williams, S.; Nakazato, T.; Lightfoot, J.; Muders, D.; Kent, B.

    2015-09-01

    The ALMA pipeline processes data taken in standard observing modes. The ALMA pipeline execution framework is responsible for executing the standard reduction procedure for each standard mode. The execution framework is written in Python. The pipeline reduction procedures are layered on and run inside the CASA package. The framework is flexible enough to support observatory operations, reprocessing, commissioning and testing, and user desktop reprocessing.

  8. Risk based cost and duration estimation of permanent plug and abandonment operation in subsea exploration wells

    OpenAIRE

    Raksagati, Sanggi

    2012-01-01

    World wide there are thousands of subsea wells to be abandoned, including the subsea wells in the North Sea. The operation to abandon a well is commonly known as Plug and Abandonment or P&A. Traditionally for offshore subsea wells the Plug and Abandonment operation is done by a semi submersible drilling rig. The cost of such operation for a single well would not be a problem for an operating company, but considering the huge amount of wells that needs to be abandoned new technologies and ...

  9. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities (40K, 232Th and 238U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina gold mine can be interpreted as a gas confined into a single tube with constant cross-section and air velocity. Patterns of radon activity, taking into account the chimney-effect winds, were used to detect tributary currents of air from shafts or larger fissures along the main adit of the Los Condores mine, showing that radon can be used as an important tracer of tributary air currents stream out from fissures and smaller voids in the rock of the mine. (author)

  10. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, accumulator plants, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  11. Sustainability and strategies for ‘rebuilding’ abandoned territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Forlani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study concerns the L’Aquila territory, at a particular point in time (post earthquake, when past and present vulnerabilities call for structural interventions that will ensure powerful and lasting recovery. This article focuses on one particular aspect of the overall work we are carrying out: the identification of appropriate sustainable development materials and technologies for testing in situ. Briefly, and for contextual purposes, we set out the cultural and scientific reference points (familiarity with territorial sustainability levels for appropriate and informed choices that underpin the research statement; we outline the parallel survey topics that complete the strategic territorial development framework, for a better understanding of the subject. In particular, we refer to actions for promoting a different sort of residentiality underpinned by sustainable mobility, and access to services, new job opportunities in eco-industrial clusters for sustainable building and further opportunities stemming from the integration of the agricultural, energy and tourist sectors.

  12. Improvement of pipeline ADC resolution in sequential stages of conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma?kiewicz, ?.

    2014-11-01

    Due to high discrepancy between possible combinations of rate and resolution of today's analog to digital converters (ADCs) and capabilities of the digital systems in favour of the latter, improvement of ADCs performance still is and will likely long be an actual issue. A perspective class of converters that allows further improvements of conversion quality, are adaptive pipeline ADCs (APADCs). APADCs on top of having all of the virtues of pipeline ADCs, such as an excellent compromise of relatively high speed due to pipelining of conversion iterations and high accuracy, as well as relatively low complexity, sizes and power consumption, thanks to computing of codes of input samples using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms, allow full optimization of their functioning and achievement of better performance than of conventional pipeline ADCs. Optimization of APADC requires identification of factors critically influencing performance of APADC. This work focuses on one of them - the difference between resolution of estimates computed by a given stage of APADC and resolution of feedback DACs in following stages producing their analog equivalents, which creates a need for estimates resolution reduction in the course of conversion. The influence of the latter on work and performance of APADC is analyzed in the paper and a method to compensate this influence and improve resolution of APADC in sequential stages of conversion, is developed. Results of simulation experiments that prove effectiveness of the proposed solution and allow to estimate the benefits resulting from it, are presented.

  13. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition can only occur when the interface temperature is below WAT, the temperature distribution is a necessary information which is obtained by the energy equation. The one-dimensional, transient and laminar flow governing equations are discretized based on the finite volume method, with the upwind scheme to treat the convection term. A totally implicit procedure was employed to handle the time integration term. The set of algebraic equations were solved by the TDMA line by line algorithm. The thickness of the deposited layer is a function of the axial coordinate and presents a monotonic increase at several time instants which is in reasonable agreement whit previous results. (author)

  14. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  15. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Bo?ydar Wi?niewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  16. Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?

    OpenAIRE

    GeorgNorthoff

    2012-01-01

    Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I here argue that one central reason may be that the approach to the brain during his time was simply not appealing to Freud. More specifically, Freud was interested in revealing the psychological pre...

  17. A survey of abandonment of student nurses at Greys Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    S.F. Fry; Karani, A; G.M. Tuckell

    1982-01-01

    In all tertiary education, a certain percentage of drop-outs can be expected. In this instance, the authors were interested in the abandonment or withdrawal of students from the Diploma in General Nursing at Greys Hospital, Pietermaritzburg. Over the past few years the drop out rate at Greys Hospital was sufficiently high to cause concern - particularly at a time when there is a widely reported shortage of White nursing personnel. Also, in the South African context, very little active researc...

  18. Radon levels in abandoned metalliferous mines, Devon, southwest England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmore, G K; Phillips, P; Denman, A; Sperrin, M; Pearce, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon levels underground in two abandoned mines in Devon, United Kingdom, are reported and analyzed. Extremely high levels have been noted, 7,100,000 Bq m(-3) being the highest level recorded. This is approximately 89 times higher than the highest published radon level for caves and mines in Devon and Cornwall, England, which is 80,000 Bq m(-3). These levels have significant health implications for both casual and occupational mine explorers. PMID:11440482

  19. How adoption speed affects the abandonment of cultural tastes

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Jonah; Le Mens, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    Products, styles, and social movements often catch on and become popular, but little is known about why such identity-relevant cultural tastes and practices die out. We demonstrate that the velocity of adoption may affect abandonment: Analysis of over 100 years of data on first-name adoption in both France and the United States illustrates that cultural tastes that have been adopted quickly die faster (i.e., are less likely to persist). Mirroring this aggregate pattern, at the individual leve...

  20. Channel Response Prediction for Abandoned Channel Restoration and Applicability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yonguk Ryu; Joongu Kang; Hongkoo Yeo; Il Hong

    2011-01-01

    As channel evaluation for abandoned channel restoration design, this study sought to exam channel changes from the past to the present and predict subsequently occurring river responses. For the methodology, channel geomorphology changes were evaluated through image analyses of annual aerial photographs to complement the limited river data. Channel responses were predicted using an analytical stable channel model, the SAM (Stable Channel Analytical Model) program, based on a stability theory ...

  1. 76 FR 25576 - Pipeline Safety: Applying Safety Regulations to All Rural Onshore Hazardous Liquid Low-Stress Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ...this change would improve the clarity of the...Category 1 rural low-stress pipeline to notify...significantly affect the quality of the environment...modification or other work that would disturb...impacts affecting the quality of the human environment...gathering, Rural low-stress pipelines....

  2. Pipeline planning and construction field manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    1978-01-01

    The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

  3. Economic model of pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.

    1977-07-29

    The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

  4. Archaeological Excavations on the BTC Pipeline, Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Michael Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology and history of the Republic of Azerbaijan is not widely known in comparison with that of its neighbours. A recent summary of work in the Caucasus (Smith and Rubinson 2003 contained no specific references to results from Azerbaijan, although the studies were directly comparable and overlapped in period and geography. The reasons for this are many, perhaps the most influential is the presentation of material from Azerbaijan being confused with southern Azerbaijan in Iran in the wider academic audience and the use of the Cyrillic alphabet for reports written in the Azeri language over the past century. The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC and South Caucasus Pipelines (SCP were constructed through Azerbaijan, Georgia and Turkey during the period 2003-5. BTC was built first from the Caspian Coast to the Georgian border during 2003 and 2004, while the SCP pipeline was built from the Georgian border towards the Caspian and parallel to the BTC in 2005. To investigate and mitigate the effects of this construction, a four year archaeological fieldwork programme (2001-2005 was carried out, followed by a further six-year post-excavation programme that ended in early 2011. This article draws on this extensive archaeological project that combines both the broad corpus of material known in Azerbaijan and new techniques introduced in the Republic for the first time and used on a range of sites that are of both national and international significance.

  5. Abandoned penguin rookeries as Holocene paleoclimatic indicators in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Carlo; Orombelli, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    Penguins are sensitive indicators of the Antarctic climate and of the environmental parameters that limit their presence and distribution. Paleoenvironmental data, obtained from the study of abandoned penguin rookeries (Pygoscelis adeliae) along the Victoria Land coast in Antarctica, indicate 14C date of 11-13 ka for the oldest abandoned rookery and supply new information about the timing of glacier retreat in southern Victoria Land after the last glacial maximum. The continuous presence of the Adélie penguins is documented from 7 ka. According to our data, the limiting factors that control the presence of penguins along the coast of Victoria Land changed during the Holocene. Whereas several colonies were occupied for very long periods, other sites were used for more or less extended periods and then abandoned. The greatest diffusion of rookeries occurred between 3 and 4 ka, a period of particularly favorable environmental conditions that has never been repeated. It was followed by a sudden decrease in the number of penguin rookeries shortly after 3 ka. This event has been attributed to an increase of the sea-ice extension and may have been correlated to a worldwide phase of climate change near the Subboreal-Subatlantic boundary. A minor phase of penguin reoccupation occurred locally in the eighth to fourteenth centuries (A.D.). Because the presence and number of penguins reflect the state of health of the Antarctic marine ecosystem, it is important to evaluate the variations in their distribution in the past, in the absence of human-induced changes.

  6. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  7. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Berman, V.; Chára, Zden?k

    Praha : Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, 2003, s. -. [Engineering mechanics 2003 : national conference with international participation. Svratka (CZ), 12.05.2003-15.05.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS2060007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : pipeline transport * fossile fuel s * analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  8. Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site

  9. Radon concentrations in abandoned mines, Cumbria, UK: safety implications for industrial archaeologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gillmore

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a number of surveys performed in a geographical area of the UK, part of which until recently was considered low radon risk. The Cumbrian region was identified by the Building Research Establishment (BRE in its 1999 guide as an area without a significant radon problem in the built environment. The geology of the region, which includes the Northern Pennine Orefield is varied, but consists of granites, andesites, tuffs, carbonates, sandstones and shales. Mineralisation has taken place (mostly lead and copper ores primarily along fault and fracture zones, one example being Copper Valley, northwest of Coniston village. This work quantifies the risk of exposure to radon in a number of abandoned mine environments. High radon levels, up to 28 589 Bq m?3, have been measured in parts of one mine. This study demonstrates that industrial archaeologists (such as the Cumbrian Amenity Trust Mining History Society or CATMHS members and explorers of abandoned mines can be at risk from radon exposure and it proposes a management scheme to allow industrial archaeologists to continue exploration whilst minimising the risk to health from radon.

  10. Pipeline Contingency; Roerledningsberedskap en teknisk utfordring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Styve, Kjell [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    In 1987 Norsk Hydro and Statoil agreed on a joint effort to establish, own and maintain a fast responding pipeline repair system (PRS). They should also enter into agreements with other pipeline operators for participation as permanent members of the PRS user group, and they should promote the use of PRS equipment in pipeline projects. Since 1987, the total length of pipelines covered by the agreement has increased from the initial 1000 km and by the end of 1999 the PRS covers the contingency of more than 7000 km of pipelines. In 1996 Statoil signed a 5-year contract with Stolt Rockwater Joint Venture to cover subsea operations, hyperbaric tie-ins including contingency operations and pipeline repair, using the PRS. The PRS consists of many sub-systems and offers a complete equipment package for all jobs associated with pipeline repair or tie-in operations including pipe cutting and removal of corrosion and/or concrete coating.

  11. Practical methodology of predictive maintenance for pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timashev, S.A.; Bushinskaya, A.V. [Science and Engineering Center, Reliability and Safety of Large Systems, Ural Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg, (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive practical risk-based methodology is introduced for predictive maintenance (PdM) of pipelines for different failure criteria. Predictive maintenance is one of several forms of proactive maintenance, but the most suitable method of pipeline maintenance consists in monitoring probability of failure (POF) and remaining life. One major cause of loss of containment is progressive growth of pipe wall defects. Any analysis of pipeline state starts with sizes of discovered defects. This methodology assesses pipeline strength according to one of the five design codes (B31Gm, B31mod, DNV, Battelle, and Shell 92) that have been internationally recognized. The comprehensive Gram-Charlier-Edgeworth method is used to calculate the pipeline POF. With this methodology, the most versatile predictive asset maintenance can be implemented, and the pipeline operator can rely on a powerful tool for designing the best specific IMP for each pipeline, using results of specific pig runs.

  12. Pipeline and gas journal's compressor roundtable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses changes in gas pipeline operations which have altered the way pipeline companies approach compression. One of the most vital aspects of moving gas energy through pipelines-indeed, it is the way gas energy is physically moved through a pipeline-compressors don't simply provide the push. Compression is a sophisticated, highly technical field that demands constant attention. New transportation arrangements, improvements in technology and tougher emission standards have altered the traditional practices of pipeline compression. To better understand these changes and how they are affected pipeline companies, PIPELINE and GAS JOURNAL gathered some of the top experts in the business to discuss the trend in compression and what is in the future

  13. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  14. Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Buksa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to identify process failure modes or possibility of the appearance of non-compliance, as well as their possible causes. For qualitative analysis of key input variables of the process, in the paper is used Ishikawa diagram and p-chart.Findings: It is shown that proposed approach to risk assessment in shipbuilding pipeline production is applicable to real casa scenario. The analysis has identified the points in the process with the highest probability of occurrence of nonconformities, or the highest risk for error.Research limitations/implications: As the experimenting has been conducted in shipyard, within production process, research schedule must have been set in accordance with production pace. Also, due to character of production process the data collecting was adopted to the production plan in that particular moment.Practical implications: Dealing with causes of potential nonconformities in the process can significantly contribute to the reliability and robustness of the process. Corrective actions that have been taken based on results of analysis significantly contributed to the level of quality in the pipeline production process.Originality/value: The pepper is dealing with a well known method applied in different production environment that are mostly conservative in production approach. It was shown that successful application of proposed approach can yield benefits especially in improved quality of produced pipelines within shipbuilding industry.

  15. Exergy-based analysis of gas transmission system with application to Yamal-Europe pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of a gas transmission system consisting compressor stations and pipeline sections. It has been assumed that the compressor station comprises a gas turbine-driven compressor and a gas cooler, and the irreversibility of the processes associated with the gas transmission was investigated. The exergy method was used to determine the amount of work supplied to the components of the pipeline system and the amount of work that is lost during the gas transmission. For the case study, the Yamal-Europe pipeline is chosen. In this study, a nonisothermal, steady-state gas flow model was used for comparing the performance of the gas transmission system under different cooler operating set points. The pipeline flow and the compressor station processes were governed by the equations which include real-gas model based on virial equation of state.

  16. Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

  17. Two-phase MOBILE interconnection schemes for ultra-grain pipeline applications

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez, Juan; Avedillo, M. J.; Quintana, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Monostable to Bistable (MOBILE) gates are very suitable for the implementation of gate-level pipelines which can be achieved without resorting to memory elements. MOBILE operating principle is implemented using two series connected Negative Differential Resistance (NDR) devices with a clocked bias. This paper describes and experimentally validates a two-phase clock scheme for such MOBILE based ultra-grain pipelines. Up to our knowledge it is the first MOBILE working circuit reported with this...

  18. Gas Turbine Application to CO2 Pipeline: A Techno-Economic and Environmental Risk Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    El-Suleiman, Abdussalam

    2014-01-01

    Gas Turbines (GTs) are used extensively in pipelines to compress gas at suitable points. The primary objective of this study is to look at CO2 return pipelines and the close coupling of the compression system with advanced prime mover cycles. Adopting a techno-economic and environmental risk analysis (TERA) frame work, this study conducts the modelling and evaluation of CO2 compression power requirements for gas turbine driven equipment (pump and compressor). The author d...

  19. A Data-Parallel Graphics Pipeline Implemented in OpenCL

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Joel

    2012-01-01

    This report documents implementation details, results, benchmarks and technical discussions for the work carried out within a master’s thesis at Linköping University. Within the master’s thesis, the field of software rendering is explored in the age of parallel computing. Using the Open Computing Language, a complete graphics pipeline was implemented for use on general processing units from different vendors. The pipeline is tile-based, fully-configurable and provides means of rendering visua...

  20. Data Processing Pipeline for Pointing Observations of Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Xian-Min; Cao, Li; Qiu, Yu-lei; Wu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Han, Xu-Hui; Deng, Jin-Song; Xin, Li-Ping; Cai, Hong-Bo; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2015-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline developed to reduce the pointing observation data of Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT), which belongs to the Chang'e-3 mission of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The pointing observation program of LUT is dedicated to monitor variable objects in a near-ultraviolet (245-345 nm) band. LUT works in lunar daytime for sufficient power supply, so some special data processing strategies have been developed for the pipeline. The ...

  1. Haltenpipe and Troll oil pipeline, technology at the forefront

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaker, F. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Offshore pipeline technology coprises a spectrum of technologies within seabed mapping, design, materials, construction, inspection and maintenance. This paper deals with some of the recent developments, characterised by achievements within two specific projects on the Norwegian continental shelf. These developments concern the Troll oil pipeline and the Haltenbank projects. These are the use of advanced subsea mapping and position technology, hydraulic flow modelling simulating unique flow conditions inside a deep and narrow fjord, control of multiple free span behaviour by use of advanced design methology, use of strain based criteria to reduce large scale seabed correction works, high precision pipeline installation in deep weater involving guided laying to ensure the correct position of the pipeline across pre-installed gravel burns and at lateral counteracts, and a midline tie-in concept comprising an above-water welded tie-in of a prefabricated bend section and on bottom installation of hydraulic operated mechanical connectors specially developed for diverless repair contingency in deep waters. 10 figs.

  2. Renewing the Principal Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Brenda J.

    2015-01-01

    The work principals do has always mattered, but as the demands of the job increase, it matters even more. Perhaps once they could maintain safety and order and call it a day, but no longer. Successful principals today must also lead instruction and nurture a productive learning community for students, teachers, and staff. They set the tone for the…

  3. Unskilled Work and Learner Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2014-01-01

    The paper examines how unskilled work forms conditions for meeting the obligation to position oneself as an educable subject and engage in formal learning activities. Sensitivity to peoples’ work-life-experiences is necessary to understand their orientation toward different learning activities. The main argument is that participation research must abandon the notion of motivation as an individual attribute and apply a dialectic concept of learner identity acknowledging work-life as a pivotal spa...

  4. Unskilled Work and Learner Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines how unskilled work forms conditions for meeting the obligation to position oneself as an educable subject and engage in formal learning activities. Sensitivity to peoples’ work-life-experiences is necessary to understand their orientation toward different learning activities. The main argument is that participation research must abandon the notion of motivation as an individual attribute and apply a dialectic concept of learner identity acknowledging work-life as a pivotal spa...

  5. Preliminary evaluation of sediment loss and runoff in an abandoned mine tailing using a portable rainfall simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, R. G.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.; de Lima, M. I. P.

    2010-05-01

    Several mines in Central Portugal were abandoned in the last century because of difficulties originated by lack of natural resources or economic factors. In those places, no measures were taken to restrain heavy metals dispersion and, eventually, the contamination of downstream areas and water resources. Abandoned mine soils and tailings usual have high concentrations of heavy metals that could increase the risk of ecosystems pollution and endangering human health; moreover, these sights also exhibit great vulnerability to water erosion. One of such example is the abandoned mine of Sanguinheiro, near Coimbra, that was used in the past to explore lead and zinc minerals. This poster presents a preliminary evaluation, in situ, of sediment loss and runoff from this mining area. Complementary laboratory experiments using a rainfall simulator and soil flumes are also described. The field experiments were conducted in small plots using a portable Kamphorst rainfall simulator (0.26x0.26 m2). The characteristics of the experimental setting restrict the duration and intensity of the simulated rain. In the field experiments reported in this work the equipment was used to simulate extreme short duration rain events, of around 3-5 min, having intensities in the range of around 200-300 mm/h. The experiments were carried out in the main mine tailing, in the secondary mine tailing and in a non-mine area (near the main mine tailing), which was considered as the control reference area. Runoff hydrographs and sediment graphs were obtained in order to provide insight into the vulnerability of the mine soil to water erosion. The understanding of the dynamics of the overland flow processes and of the sediment transport mechanisms in the study areas are essential steps to proceed investigating the drainage basin, which includes the abandoned mine tailings, and the mechanisms of dispersion of heavy metals and contamination of downstream areas.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  7. Empirical Formulas for Calculation of Negative Pressure Difference in Vacuum Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kalenik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of results of empirical investigations of a negative pressure difference in vacuum pipelines with internal diameters of 57, 81, 102 mm. The investigations were performed in an experimental installation of a vacuum sewage system, built in a laboratory hall on a scale of 1:1. The paper contains a review of the literature concerning two-phase flows (liquid-gas in horizontal, vertical and diagonal pipelines. It presents the construction and working principles of the experimental installation of vacuum sewage system in steady and unsteady conditions during a two-phase flow of water and air. It also presents a methodology for determination of formula for calculation of a negative pressure difference in vacuum pipelines. The results obtained from the measurements of the negative pressure difference ?pvr in the vacuum pipelines were analyzed and compared with the results of calculations of the negative pressure difference ?pvr, obtained from the determined formula. The values of the negative pressure difference ?pvr calculated for the vacuum pipelines with internal diameters of 57, 81, and 102 mm with the use of Formula (19 coincide with the values of ?pvr measured in the experimental installation of a vacuum sewage system. The dependence of the negative pressure difference ?pvr along the length of the vacuum pipelines on the set negative pressure in the vacuum container pvzp is linear. The smaller the vacuum pipeline diameter, the greater the negative pressure difference ?pvr is along its length.

  8. VLSI Implementation of Pipelined Fast Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Indirapriyadarsini , S.Kamalakumari , G. Prasannakumar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Signal Processing (DSP has become a very important and dynamic research area. Now a day’s many integrated circuits dedicated to DSP functions. Unfortunately Existing designs are restricted to a low accuracy and a small sample number. The Fourier transform is widely used in industrial applications as well as in scientific research. The most common use is to transform a function of time into a frequency function. In this paper, we present the efficient implementation of a pipeline FFT. Our design adopts a single-path delay feedback style as the proposed hardware architecture. To eliminate the read-only memories (ROM’s used to store the twiddle factors, the proposed architecture applies a reconfigurable complex multiplier and bit-parallel multipliers to achieve a ROM-less FFT processor, thus consuming lower power than the existing works.

  9. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Mujica, L. E.; Quintero, M.; Florez, J.; Quintero, S.

    2015-07-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development. This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working.

  10. The methodology and software for definition of the utmost permissible decrease of the walls thickness of the pipelines subjected to erosive-corrosive wear (ECW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methodology and software for assessment of utmost permissible decrease and strength of the walls thickness of the pipelines subjected to erosive-corrosive wear and prognosis of capacity for work of pipelines during definite operation period based on stress-strain state of structure in the defect zone are presented in this work

  11. Recompression of natural gas during pipeline repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotink, M.H.; Koppens, B.G. [N. V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Gasunie is working to minimize the company's emission of greenhouse gases and set up a so-called (carbon) footprint reduction programme. Recompression of natural gas is a part of that programme, being the better alternative for flaring or venting when a pipeline must be emptied. To fully utilize the recompression concept, a unique recompression unit was designed to make recompression as easy as possible, what was considered to be of vital importance for successful implementation. The unit came into operation in 2006 and Gasunie has integrated recompression in its regular workflow. 30 gas evacuation jobs have since been done with recompression which resulted in a recompressed volume of 13.3 million m{sup 3}(n). This volume represents 238,000 t of CO{sub 2}-equivalents that are prevented of flowing into the atmosphere and a revenue of 3.7 million Euro from the gas that is saved from beingwasted by flaring or venting. The revenue is based on a commodity price of 0.28 Euro/m{sup 3}. The unit did cost 1.5 million Euro, so the return on investment is obvious. If all gas evacuation jobs are considered, there is still some recompression potential left. A limiting factor of recompression is the time it takes. In some cases the time to recompress exceeds the allowable down time of the pipeline. Therefore a second unit is delivered to Gasunie in 2010. With this extra capacity more gas can be recompressed. Gasunie has put in serious effort to get the recompression concept working in all its aspects and is therefore very pleased with the results so far. This is underlined by the fact that a second unit is bought. With recompression Gasunie has found a way to reduce greenhouse emissions in a cost effective way, or even better, in a cost saving way.

  12. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  13. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    CERN Document Server

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  14. [Dynamic distribution characters of herbaceous vegetation root systems in abandoned grasslands of Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Li, Zhanbin; Tantai, Zhan

    2005-05-01

    The investigation on the vertical distribution characters of herbaceous vegetation root systems in abandoned and natural grasslands of Loess Plateau by the method of soil auger showed that there were no significant differences in root system distribution patterns between different sampling points, and the related root indexes could be used to indicate the vertical distribution characters of vegetation roots. The main root indexes including root biomass and root length were decreased with increasing soil depth, but increased with increasing abandoned years. After abandoned for more than 20 years, the root distribution characters of abandoned grassland were approached to that of natural grassland. The root extinction coefficient decreased with increasing abandoned years, indicating that more and more roots were concentrated in surface soil layer with the increase of abandoned time, which was helpful to the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and beneficial to the new species intrusion and vegetation succession. PMID:16110657

  15. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; Kadry, Seifedine; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The dev...

  16. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Pavel; Berman, V.; Chára, Zden?k

    Praha : Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics AS CR, 2003. s. 374-375. ISBN 80-86246-18-3. [Engineering mechanics 2003 : national conference with international participation. 12.05.2003-15.05.2003, Svratka] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IBS2060007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : pipeline transport * fossile fuels * analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. 77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ...measures and generate meaningful metrics. This meeting provides an...meaningful pipeline safety metrics. The meeting will include...measures and generate meaningful metrics. Various stakeholders, including...publicly available to describe the reliability of the pipeline...

  18. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...occurred along the Yellowstone River in the past few months. While the cause of the accident is still under investigation, ExxonMobil Pipeline Company experienced a pipeline failure near [[Page 44986

  19. 77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ...are hosting a Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development...allows public, government and industry pipeline stakeholders to discuss...technical challenges facing industry and government; Disseminate...reservations. When making your hotel reservation, please use...

  20. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, A.A.R. da; Umisedo, N.; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Dosimetria; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. de Radioecologia; Valladares, D.L.; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M. [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (UNSL) (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis

    2011-07-01

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities ({sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the {sup 222}Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 {+-} 0.04 to 1.48 {+-} 0.12 kBq/m{sup 3} in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 {+-} 0.1 to 6.0{+-}0.5 kBq/m{sup 3} in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m{sup 3} recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina gold mine can be interpreted as a gas confined into a single tube with constant cross-section and air velocity. Patterns of radon activity, taking into account the chimney-effect winds, were used to detect tributary currents of air from shafts or larger fissures along the main adit of the Los Condores mine, showing that radon can be used as an important tracer of tributary air currents stream out from fissures and smaller voids in the rock of the mine. (author)

  1. MMAPPR: Mutation Mapping Analysis Pipeline for Pooled RNA-seq

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Jonathon T; Demarest, Bradley L.; Bisgrove, Brent W.; Gorsi, Bushra; Su, Yi-Chu; Yost, H.Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Forward genetic screens in model organisms are vital for identifying novel genes essential for developmental or disease processes. One drawback of these screens is the labor-intensive and sometimes inconclusive process of mapping the causative mutation. To leverage high-throughput techniques to improve this mapping process, we have developed a Mutation Mapping Analysis Pipeline for Pooled RNA-seq (MMAPPR) that works without parental strain information or requiring a preexisting SNP map of the...

  2. A Deep Neural Network Compression Pipeline: Pruning, Quantization, Huffman Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Song; Mao, Huizi; Dally, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Neural networks are both computationally intensive and memory intensive, making them difficult to deploy on embedded systems with limited hardware resources. To address this limitation, We introduce a three stage pipeline: pruning, quantization and Huffman encoding, that work together to reduce the storage requirement of neural networks by 35x to 49x without affecting their accuracy. Our method first prunes the network by learning only the important connections. Next, we qua...

  3. Impact Against Offshore Pipelines : Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Aune, Vegard; Hovdelien, Morten Sagbakken

    2012-01-01

    In the present thesis impact against offshore pipelines was studied. Incipient fracture in the pipes after impact was of special interest. The present work was a continuation of previous theses on the subject, and part of an ongoing research program between SIMLab (NTNU) and Statoil ASA.Component tests and numerical simulations using ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA were carried out to investigate the problem. Two pipes were impacted at different velocities in the pendulum accelerator at the Depar...

  4. Sniffer patrols: dogs, airborne sensors, and computers stand on guard against pipeline leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, D.

    2000-05-01

    Pipeline inspection service, involving old as well as the newest of technology is discussed. In this instance, attention is focused on gas sniffing dogs, the low end of the technology ladder, but the high end on the performance scale. A recent surveillance report by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board advised that of 200 pipelines inspected, 105 did not meet Board requirements. Fifteen lines were temporarily shut down . More than 880 leaks were reported, 65 per cent of them involving pipeline corrosion. Old pipelines were not the only ones falling short of Board standards; of 358 pipeline construction projects inspected, 99 of them showed various deficiencies. Canine Technology Inc, located near Calgary, began working with Imperial Oil nine years ago on training leak detection dogs. How successful they are in sniffing out leaks in pipelines is demonstrated by the fact that today they are being put to work throughout North America to insure the integrity of newly-completed and older pipelines. Dogs are reliably accurate in all environments, they can be transported anywhere, and they can detect leaks smaller than can be measured by sophisticated man-made technology. Calgary-trained dogs have worked in four-feet of snow in northern Alberta, in the bayou country of Louisiana, and the deserts of New Mexico with equal success. Aerial reconnaissance using video and thermal image cameras, computer software to help monitor problem areas, pinpoint leaks and co-ordinate emergency responses are some of the other means of detecting leaks in pipelines; so far, dogs have proven to be the most accurate and the most reliable.

  5. Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

  6. The X-shooter pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modigliani, Andrea; Goldoni, Paolo; Royer, Frédéric; Haigron, Regis; Guglielmi, Laurent; François, Patrick; Horrobin, Matthew; Bristow, Paul; Vernet, Joel; Moehler, Sabine; Kerber, Florian; Ballester, Pascal; Mason, Elena; Christensen, Lise

    2010-07-01

    The X-shooter data reduction pipeline, as part of the ESO-VLT Data Flow System, provides recipes for Paranal Science Operations, and for Data Product and Quality Control Operations at Garching headquarters. At Paranal, it is used for the quick-look data evaluation. The pipeline recipes can be executed either with EsoRex at the command line level or through the Gasgano graphical user interface. The recipes are implemented with the ESO Common Pipeline Library (CPL). X-shooter is the first of the second generation of VLT instruments. It makes possible to collect in one shot the full spectrum of the target from 300 to 2500 nm, subdivided in three arms optimised for UVB, VIS and NIR ranges, with an efficiency between 15% and 35% including the telescope and the atmosphere, and a spectral resolution varying between 3000 and 17,000. It allows observations in stare, offset modes, using the slit or an IFU, and observing sequences nodding the target along the slit. Data reduction can be performed either with a classical approach, by determining the spectral format via 2D-polynomial transformations, or with the help of a dedicated instrument physical model to gain insight on the instrument and allowing a constrained solution that depends on a few parameters with a physical meaning. In the present paper we describe the steps of data reduction necessary to fully reduce science observations in the different modes with examples on typical data calibrations and observations sequences.

  7. Studying the future of pipeline capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the next five years, many 15- or 20-year contracts between natural gas pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs) for firm-transportation service will come up for renewal. In addition, clauses in some existing contracts permit LDCs to periodically exercise options to reduce or relinquish portions of their firm-transportation capacity. To the extent that LDC-shippers stepdown, turnback or relinquish capacity, pipelines may be confronted with the possibility of revenue shortfalls. In December, the LDC Caucus released a study exploring the emerging problem of unsubscribed pipeline capacity. The 50-page document -- An Issue Paper Regarding Future Unsubscribed Pipeline Capacity -- describes the causes of capacity relinquishment on interstate natural gas pipelines, estimates the scope of the problem, explores the ramifications and implications for shippers and pipelines, and recommends policy approaches for consideration by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and affected stakeholders. This paper summarizes this document

  8. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  9. Revegetation of abandoned agricultural land amended with biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrés, Francisco; Walter, Ingrid; Tenorio, José Luis

    2007-05-25

    This paper reports the effects of applying 0 and 40 Mg ha(-1) of biosolids (composted sewage sludge) on the revegetation of abandoned cropland in central Spain. The experimental vegetation consisted of four wild leguminous species: Colutea arborescens, Dorycnium pentaphyllum, Medicago strasseri and Retama sphaerocarpa. The survival and growth of these shrubs were evaluated over 24 months after planting, as was the production of biomass by the spontaneous herbaceous vegetation. Application of the biosolids increased shrub growth, although it was also associated with a slight reduction in shrub survival. The spontaneous vegetation became quickly established in the amended plots; its biomass production was significantly greater than in the control plots. PMID:17306339

  10. A survey of abandonment of student nurses at Greys Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Fry

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available In all tertiary education, a certain percentage of drop-outs can be expected. In this instance, the authors were interested in the abandonment or withdrawal of students from the Diploma in General Nursing at Greys Hospital, Pietermaritzburg. Over the past few years the drop out rate at Greys Hospital was sufficiently high to cause concern - particularly at a time when there is a widely reported shortage of White nursing personnel. Also, in the South African context, very little active research has been reported in this regard.

  11. 'Over-servicing', 'underservicing' and 'abandonment': What is the law?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D J, McQuoid-Mason.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Ethical Rules and Policy Document of the Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) do not define 'over-servicing', 'underservicing' and 'abandonment'. The HPCSA Guidelines on Over-servicing, Perverse Incentives and Related Matters define 'over-service' only. The converse of this definit [...] ion can be used to define 'underservicing'. The courts do not refer to these concepts, but apply general rules regarding professional negligence and malpractice based on what a reasonably competent doctor in the same position would do. In deciding the standard to be adopted, the courts may consult the ethical rules of the medical profession, but are not bound to take them into account.

  12. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR)

  13. Numerical Simulation of Abandoned Gob Methane Drainage through Surface Vertical Wells

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Wei; Xu, Jialin; Hu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ventilation system on the abandoned gob weakens, so the gas seepage characteristics in the abandoned gob are significantly different from those in a normal mining gob. In connection with this, this study physically simulated the movement of overlying rock strata. A spatial distribution function for gob permeability was derived. A numerical model using FLUENT for abandoned gob methane drainage through surface wells was established, and the derived spatial distribution func...

  14. Differential effects of abandonment on the demography of the grassland perennial Succisa pratensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Sascha; Dahlgren, Johan Petter; Mildén, Mikael; Ehrlén, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Abandonment of traditional land-use practices can have strong effects on the abundance of species occurring in agricultural landscapes. However, the precise mechanisms by which individual performance and population dynamics are affected are still poorly understood. To assess how abandonment affects population dynamics of Succisa pratensis we used data from a 4-year field study in both abandoned and traditionally grazed areas in moist and mesic habitats to parameterize integral projection models....

  15. An Illumina metabarcoding pipeline for fungi

    OpenAIRE

    BÁLINT, MIKLÓS; Schmidt, Philipp-André; Sharma, Rahul; Thines, Marco; Schmitt,Imke

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput metabarcoding studies on fungi and other eukaryotic microorganisms are rapidly becoming more frequent and more complex, requiring researchers to handle ever increasing amounts of raw sequence data. Here, we provide a flexible pipeline for pruning and analyzing fungal barcode (ITS rDNA) data generated as paired-end reads on Illumina MiSeq sequencers. The pipeline presented includes specific steps fine-tuned for ITS, that are mostly missing from pipelines developed for prokaryot...

  16. Pipeline dreams face up to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives details of two gas pipelines which are expected to be built in Turkey to meet the estimated demand for gas. The Bluestream joint ENI/Gasprom project pipeline will convey Russian gas across the Black Sea to Turkey, and the PSG joint Bechtel/General Electric venture will bring gas from Turkmenistan to Turkey across the Caspian Sea. Construction of the pipelines and financing aspects are discussed. (uk)

  17. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, XIAOLEI; Han, Yong; Hao, DongSheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this pap...

  18. Recent developments in high productivity pipeline welding

    OpenAIRE

    D. Yapp; S. A. Blackman

    2004-01-01

    Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas a fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased demand to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. Many novel techniques have been tried in the past to achieve productivity gains, including laser welding, flash butt welding, homopolar weld...

  19. CUPID: Customizable User Pipeline for IRS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer Science User Support Team; Spitzer Science Instrument Team; IRSA Science User Support Team

    2013-11-01

    Written in c, the Customizable User Pipeline for IRS Data (CUPID) allows users to run the Spitzer IRS Pipelines to re-create Basic Calibrated Data and extract calibrated spectra from the archived raw files. CUPID provides full access to all the parameters of the BCD, COADD, BKSUB, BKSUBX, and COADDX pipelines, as well as the opportunity for users to provide their own calibration files (e.g., flats or darks). CUPID is available for Mac, Linux, and Solaris operating systems.

  20. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  1. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ..., failures, leakage history, corrosion, substantial changes in cathodic protection requirements, and other... failures and compromised the integrity of several other pipelines. Similar flooding has occurred along the...Mobil Pipeline Company experienced a pipeline failure near ] Laurel, Montana, on July 1, 2011,...

  2. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  3. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    CERN Document Server

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  4. 49 CFR 195.57 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.57 Filing offshore...installation of each exposed pipeline segment, and location; including...installation of each pipeline segment, if different from a pipeline segment identified under...

  5. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513...Requirements § 192.513 Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested in accordance...

  6. Integer programming formulation and variable neighborhood search metaheuristic for the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Leonardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. In this work we address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. We propose an integer linear programming formulation and a variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic in order to compare the performances of the exact and heuristic approaches to the problem. Computational tests in C language and MOSEL/XPRESS-MP language are performed over a real Brazilian pipeline system. (author)

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH SPEED PIPELINED ADC ARCHITECTURE FOR I-UWB RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. REENA, K. LOKESH KRISHNA, T. RAMASHRI, D. SRIHARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available : In this work, a 4-bit pipelined ADC that provides the high speed conversion needed in UWB applications with sampling frequency of the order 60 Gbps is proposed. The pipelined ADC designed uses a high speed 1-bit comparator, wide band operational amplifier, sampling circuit and a high speed buffer. The individual blocks are designed using 130nm CMOS low power library cells. The individual blocks are designed to operate at a frequency greater than 60 Gbps sampling rate. In order to operate increase the operating frequency of the pipelined ADC, Specific new design techniques/algorithms such as power-efficient, capacitor ratio-independent conversion scheme, a pipeline stage-scaling algorithm, a nested CMOS gain-boosting technique, an amplifier and comparator sharing technique, and the use of minimum channel-length, thin oxide transistors with clock bootstrapping and in-line switch techniques are adopted

  8. Detection of Unauthorized Construction Equipment in Pipeline Right-of-Ways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurice Givens; James E. Huebler

    2004-09-30

    The leading cause of incidents on transmission pipelines is damage by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline is hit. Currently there is no method for continuously monitoring a pipeline right-of-way. Instead, companies periodically walk or fly over the pipeline to find unauthorized construction activities. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber buried above the pipeline as a distributed sensor. A custom optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) is used to interrogate the fiber. Key issues in the development of this technology are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. Advantages of the reflectometry technique are the ability to accurately pinpoint the location of the construction activity and the ability to separately monitor simultaneously occurring events. The basic concept of using OTDR with an optical fiber buried above the pipeline to detect encroachment of construction equipment into the right of way works. Sufficiently rapid time response is possible; permitting discrimination between encroachment types. Additional work is required to improve the system into a practical device.

  9. Recuperation of nitrogen cycling in Amazonian forests following agricultural abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric A; de Carvalho, Cláudio J Reis; Figueira, Adelaine Michela; Ishida, Françoise Yoko; Ometto, Jean Pierre H B; Nardoto, Gabriela B; Sabá, Renata Tuma; Hayashi, Sanae N; Leal, Eliane C; Vieira, Ima Célia G; Martinelli, Luiz A

    2007-06-21

    Phosphorus (P) is generally considered the most common limiting nutrient for productivity of mature tropical lowland forests growing on highly weathered soils. It is often assumed that P limitation also applies to young tropical forests, but nitrogen (N) losses during land-use change may alter the stoichiometric balance of nutrient cycling processes. In the Amazon basin, about 16% of the original forest area has been cleared, and about 30-50% of cleared land is estimated now to be in some stage of secondary forest succession following agricultural abandonment. Here we use forest age chronosequences to demonstrate that young successional forests growing after agricultural abandonment on highly weathered lowland tropical soils exhibit conservative N-cycling properties much like those of N-limited forests on younger soils in temperate latitudes. As secondary succession progresses, N-cycling properties recover and the dominance of a conservative P cycle typical of mature lowland tropical forests re-emerges. These successional shifts in N:P cycling ratios with forest age provide a mechanistic explanation for initially lower and then gradually increasing soil emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N(2)O). The patterns of N and P cycling during secondary forest succession, demonstrated here over decadal timescales, are similar to N- and P-cycling patterns during primary succession as soils age over thousands and millions of years, thus revealing that N availability in terrestrial ecosystems is ephemeral and can be disrupted by either natural or anthropogenic disturbances at several timescales. PMID:17581583

  10. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  11. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archelli, Susana; Santillan, Graciela I; Fonrouge, Reinaldo; Céspedes, Graciela; Burgos, Lola; Radman, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month to 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age. PMID:24721267

  12. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  13. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the...

  14. 78 FR 77444 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ...Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of...Downers Grove, Illinois 60515-7918 and Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 110 Louisiana Street, Suite 3300,...

  15. Study of heavy metals transport by runoff and sediments from an abandoned mine: Alagoa, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo, R.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.; de Lima, M. I. P.

    2009-04-01

    Over time, several studies have been designed to understand heavy metals fate and its impact on the environment and on human health. However, only a few studies have focused on the transport of heavy metals in mining areas through the various hydrological processes such as runoff, infiltration, and subsurface flow. In particular, heavy rainfall events have a great impact on the dispersion of metals existing in the soil. This problem is often more serious in abandoned and inactive mining sites causing environmental problems. In Portugal, there are 175 identified abandoned mines that continuously threaten the environment through acid drainage waters that pollute the soil as well as surface and groundwater. An example is the abandoned mine of Alagoa, located near the village of Penacova (Centre of Portugal); in this site mining activities ceased about 30 years ago. The area is characterized by very steep slopes that are confining with a small stream; the mining excavation by-products were deposited on these slopes. We have selected this mine as a case study, aiming at understanding the transport mechanisms and dispersion of heavy metals and at contributing to the definition of the most appropriate mitigation measures for this area that is contaminated by heavy metals from the mine tailings. So far a total of 30 soil samples from 3 contaminated zones were collected and analysed for pH, texture and heavy metal content, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results indicate that the contents of Zn and Pb in the soil samples are in the range from 95-460 mg/kg and 67-239 mg/kg, respectively, which exceed the critical limit-values defined by the Portuguese legislation. These metals are dispersed downslope and downstream from the mine tailings by storm water. The next step of this work is to investigate the transport of heavy metals by runoff, by mobilization of sediments and by subsurface flow. Three spatial scales tests will be conducted: on the mine tailings, on the slope areas, and in the laboratory, using soil flumes, which include the use of rainfall simulators. This study will allow the evaluation of several variables and processes, described above, under controlled conditions.

  16. Report on Boeing pipeline leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testing was performed on both simulated (test) and existing (water) pipelines to evaluate the Boeing leak detection technique. This technique uses a transformer mounted around the pipe to induce a voltage level onto the pipeline. The induced ground potential is measured from a distant ground probe, inserted into the surrounding soil, with respect to the excited pipeline. The induced voltage level will depend on the soil characteristics, the distance from the excited pipeline, and the probe types. If liquid should leak from the excited pipeline, the escaping liquid will modify the induced potential of the soil surrounding the excited pipeline. This will change the response of the quiescent soil characteristics and cause the voltage level on the detecting probes in the area of the leak to increase. This voltage increase will indicate a soil anomaly. However, the liquid does not have to reach the detection probe to reveal an anomalous soil condition. Several different detection probes were used and evaluated for sensitivity and response time. Although not evaluated during this test, results indicate that a wire laid parallel to the pipe axis may be the best probe configuration. A general sensitivity figure for any of the probes cannot be made from these tests; however, the technique used will reliably detect a pipeline leak of ten gallons. An additional test was performed using the Boeing pipeline leak detection technique to locate the position and depth of an underground pipeline. This test showed that the location and depth of an excited pipeline could be determined from above the ground where other methods for pipeline location had previously failed

  17. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  18. Coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia: evidence from radiocarbon dates of abandoned nests of Orange-footed Scrubfowl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, D.M.J.S.; Panton, W.J. [Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin, NT (Australia); Head, J. [Australian National Univ, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Quaternary Dating Research Centre

    1997-12-31

    The late Holocene history of monsoon rainforest retreat was explored by radiocarbon dating abandoned Orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt Gaimard) nests in coastal savannas in the Northern Territory of Australia. Previous work has demonstrated that in savanna environments this rainforest bird can not build nor maintain the large heaps of soil and leaf litter that it uses for nests. Excavations of two earthen mounds in a savanna habitat verified that they were abandoned Scrubfowl nests, and not Aboriginal middens, given their lack of stratigraphy, non-sequential dating of charcoal in a vertical profile, and absence of archaeological material. Radiocarbon dates of material taken from the surface of abandoned nests were determined for three sites on the coast of the Northern Territory. These analyses revealed that for all three sites, rainforests have contracted within the last 1800 years BP. On Elcho Island an abandoned nest was found to contain the land snail Xanthomelon spheroidea Le Guillou (known to prefer rainforest habitat) with a modern radiocarbon age, suggesting recent contraction of rainforest. The results of this study further weaken the theory that Aboriginal burning was a major cause of rain forest fragmentation in the monsoon tropics, and possibly elsewhere in Australia.

  19. Coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia: evidence from radiocarbon dates of abandoned nests of Orange-footed Scrubfowl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The late Holocene history of monsoon rainforest retreat was explored by radiocarbon dating abandoned Orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt Gaimard) nests in coastal savannas in the Northern Territory of Australia. Previous work has demonstrated that in savanna environments this rainforest bird can not build nor maintain the large heaps of soil and leaf litter that it uses for nests. Excavations of two earthen mounds in a savanna habitat verified that they were abandoned Scrubfowl nests, and not Aboriginal middens, given their lack of stratigraphy, non-sequential dating of charcoal in a vertical profile, and absence of archaeological material. Radiocarbon dates of material taken from the surface of abandoned nests were determined for three sites on the coast of the Northern Territory. These analyses revealed that for all three sites, rainforests have contracted within the last 1800 years BP. On Elcho Island an abandoned nest was found to contain the land snail Xanthomelon spheroidea Le Guillou (known to prefer rainforest habitat) with a modern radiocarbon age, suggesting recent contraction of rainforest. The results of this study further weaken the theory that Aboriginal burning was a major cause of rain forest fragmentation in the monsoon tropics, and possibly elsewhere in Australia

  20. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  1. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN: Abandoned Mine Lands, Miscellaneous Site Features in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — AML_POLY, the predecessor of COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN, is a 1:24,000-scale polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations and extents of Abandoned Mine...

  2. Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arruda, Paulo; Naime, Andre [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Licenciamento e Qualidade Ambiental; Serpa, Ricardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil); Ventura, Gilmar [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will also require the same attention. For the purpose of defining a Pipeline Risk Analysis Protocol with methodology and risk criteria, with minimum risk analysis information on a comprehensive process, it has been decided for a 'tour de force' formed by experts from IBAMA and PETROBRAS engineers. The risk assessment protocol is focus on the risk to communities in the neighborhood of these pipelines and on the potential damage to the environment near and far from the ROW. The joined work ended up in two protocols, which attempt to provide environmental license permits for oil pipeline and gas pipelines with minimum contents for risk analysis studies. Another aspect is the environmental risk that has been focused on the contingency plan approach, since there are no consolidated environmental risk criteria for application as a common worldwide sense. The environmental risk mapping - MARA methodology will indicate areas with potential to be affected by leakages along a pipeline system. (author)

  3. Estimation of Corrosion Induced Flaw Sizes on Buried Gas Pipeline in the Nigerian Sector of Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.F. Evans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was conducted to investigate pipeline corrosion in the coastal plain sands of the Nigerian sector of the Niger Delta. The objective is to estimate corrosion flaw sizes on the pipeline quantitatively instead of direct excavation of the pipeline and eventual use of measuring tape to measure the flaws on the pipeline. The pipelines buried in the Benin sands at Ikot Abasi, South of the Niger Delta Basin became instructive for this study. The survey consisted of electrical potential profiling using Close Interval Pipe-Soil potential survey (CIPS and Horizontal Electrical Profiling (HEP according to Wenner electrodes arrangement. Two permanent test points (PS were used for the study and the flaw sizes were estimated at points delineated to be of high corrosion risk in the study area. The data for close interval potential and HEP were analyzed and interpreted in line with the threshold protective potential (-850 mV as well as the American Water Works Association (AWWA soil corrosivity rating. Results indicate high risk zones due to external corrosion at pipeline length 25-30 m from PS1 and 80 m from PS2. These locations contain significant saline groundwater that facilitates corrosion of metal pipes buried within the area. The results also suggest that the corrosion protection systems for the pipeline need to be reinforced to mitigate further growth of the flaws on the pipeline segment. The impact of the flaws could be severe if allowed to continue.

  4. Report of study group 4.1 ''pipeline ageing and rehabilitation''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serena, L.

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the work on the subject 'pipeline ageing and rehabilitation' carried out by the Study Group 4.1 and related to the triennium 1997 - 2000. The report is focused on ageing and rehabilitation of natural gas transmission pipelines and more in detail on the following topics: - Definition of pipeline ageing; - Different ageing elements; - Main causes of ageing; - Inspections and monitoring; - Repair methods on ageing pipelines; - Programmes and strategies for pipeline maintenance and rehabilitation. The report includes the state of the art of the different techniques used to assess pipeline ageing such as pig inspection, landslide areas monitoring as well as advanced monitoring methods used nowadays by pipeline operators; a clarification of the concepts for different maintenance approaches is also presented. In addition the report gives some information regarding repair methods in use, the methodologies to evaluate the defects and the philosophy on which each repair system is based. The remaining topics deal with the strategies of pipelines and coating rehabilitation, locus the attention in the economical and technical considerations also beyond the ageing concept and describe in details the main causes of ageing as indicated by operators. A questionnaire on these topics was in fact distributed and the obtained results are included in this report. (author)

  5. Detection of abandoned mines/caves using airborne LWIR hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Roettiger, Kurt A.

    2012-09-01

    The detection of underground structures, both natural and man-made, continues to be an important requirement in both the military/intelligence and civil communities. There are estimates that as many as 70,000 abandoned mines/caves exist across the nation. These mines represent significant hazards to public health and safety, and they are of concern to Government agencies at the local, state, and federal levels. NASA is interested in the detection of caves on Mars and the Moon in anticipation of future manned space missions. And, the military/ intelligence community is interested in detecting caves, mines, and other underground structures that may be used to conceal the production of weapons of mass destruction or to harbor insurgents or other persons of interest by the terrorists. Locating these mines/caves scattered over millions of square miles is an enormous task, and limited resources necessitate the development of an efficient and effective broad area search strategy using remote sensing technologies. This paper describes an internally-funded research project of The Aerospace Corporation (Aerospace) to assess the feasibility of using airborne hyperspectral data to detect abandoned cave/mine entrances in a broad-area search application. In this research, we have demonstrated the potential utility of using thermal contrast between the cave/mine entrance and the ambient environment as a discriminatory signature. We have also demonstrated the use of a water vapor absorption line at12.55 ?m and a quartz absorption feature at 9.25 ?m as discriminatory signatures. Further work is required to assess the broader applicability of these signatures.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OKLAHOMA ABANDONED DRILLING AND PRODUCTION SITES AND ASSOCIATED PUBLIC EDUCATION/OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Terry

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has participated with the Oklahoma Energy Resource Board (OERB) since 1995 by providing grant funding for on-going work in both environmental assessment of abandoned oilfield exploration and production sites and associated public education/outreach activities. The OERB, a state agency created in 1993 by the Oklahoma legislature, administers programs funded by an assessment of one tenth of one percent on all oil and natural gas produced and sold in the state of Oklahoma. Approximately one half of the funds are used to assess and remediate abandoned oilfield sites and the other half are being used to educate about the importance of the oil and natural gas industry and OERB's environmental efforts. Financial participation through grant funding by the U.S. D.O.E. has been $200,000 annually which represents approximately 3 percent of OERB's private funding. Most of OERB's revenues come from an assessment of 1/10th of 1% on the sale of crude and natural gas in Oklahoma. The assessment is considered voluntary in that any interest owner may ask for a refund annually of their contributions to the fund. On average, 95% of the assessment dollars have remained with OERB, which shows tremendous support by the industry. This Final Report summarizes the progress of the three year grant. The purpose of this three-year project was to continue the progress of the OERB to accomplish its environmental and educational objectives and transfer information learned to other organizations and producing states in the industry.

  7. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  8. LSST data pipeline prototyping plans and strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulla, G M; Brase, J; Cook, K; Miller, M

    2004-05-27

    In this document we describe our approach and strategy for building the prototype for the image-stream analysis data pipeline. We start by describing the main research areas upon which we will be focusing; we then describe our plans on how to carry these research ideas to implement the data pipeline.

  9. Power Estimation of Pipeline FFT Processors

    OpenAIRE

    S. Reza TALEBIYAN; Hosseini-Khayat, Saied

    2009-01-01

    Pipeline FFT processors are used in mobile communication systems and in particular in OFDM-based systems. This paper presents a method for power analysis of pipeline FFT processors. This method applies to various architectures with different radices. It also presents a method for mapping utilization rate onto clock-gating, which results in efficient power consumption.

  10. Pipeline leak location using radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eapen, A.C.; Ajmera, R.L.; Agashe, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A radiotracer technique has been developed for the determination of leak rate as well as leak location in underground pipelines of small and medium diameter. This technique is compared with other techniques presently available for solving similar problems. A field test employing the new technique for an underground naphtha pipeline of M/s Carbide Chemicals Company is described in detail.

  11. Stress Analysis of Shallow Sea Gas Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow sea gas pipelines usually operate in complicated and changeable regional environments and can generate corresponding stresses and displacement under the influence of internal pressures, earthquakes, waves and other loadings. An unevenly distributed stress will lead to shallow sea gas pipeline failure easily. In order to ensure the safety of pipeline, it is necessary to research the stress conditions of the shallow sea gas pipeline and check whether it can meet the safety requirements or not. In this study, we analyze the stress conditions of shallow sea gas pipelines of two laying modes in XX areas using stress analysis software CAESAR II, discuss the loading conditions under the operating condition and determine the position of the key point where pipeline damage is most likely to happen, the bend pipe. The comprehensive experiments show that underground method more secure than the sea-bed method, it greatly improves the reliability of the shallow sea pipeline running. Our research provides a theoretical basis for the construction of shallow sea gas pipelines.

  12. ORAC-DR: Astronomy data reduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Cavanagh, Brad; Currie, Malcolm J.; Gibb, Andy

    2013-10-01

    ORAC-DR is a generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure; it includes specific data processing recipes for a number of instruments. It is used at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, AAT, and LCOGT. This pipeline runs at the JCMT Science Archive hosted by CADC to generate near-publication quality data products; the code has been in use since 1998.

  13. Pipelined ADC design and enhancement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, Syed Imran

    2010-01-01

    Pipelined ADCs have seen phenomenal improvements in performance over the last few years. As such, when designing a pipelined ADC a clear understanding of the design tradeoffs, and state of the art techniques is required to implement today's high performance low power ADCs.

  14. Remediation and rehabilitation of abandoned mining sites in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsen, S.; Rommens, T.; De Ridder, A.; Panayiotou, C.; Colpaert, J.

    2009-04-01

    Due to a particular geological setting, Cyprus is rich in ore deposits, many of them subject to extensive mining. Most of the mines have a long history, sometimes dating back to prehistorical times. These abandoned mines cause severe off-site environmental problems and health risks for the local population. Groundwater supplies are affected by the leaching of pollutants, surface water is contaminated because of water erosion, and harmful dust containing heavy metals or asbestos is spread due to wind erosion. In addition to the environmental risks associated with the abandoned mines, many of these sites are aestethically unattractive, and remain an economic burden to stakeholders and the public in general, due to the downgrading of surrounding areas, non-development and hence loss of revenue. These factors are important in Cyprus where tourism is a significant source of income for local communities. An EUREKA-project addresses the issue of abandoned mine clean-up and restoration. The main objectives of this study are : (1) To develop phytostabilization and -remediation techniques to stabilize and clean up sites characterized by high nickel and copper concentrations in the soil, using endemic plants (Alyssum spp. and mycorrhizal Pinus brutia). In some old mines, efforts were already made to stabilize slopes in an attempt to minimize soil erosion and spreading of pollutants. These restoration efforts, however, remained largely unsuccessful because vegetation that was planted could not cope with the harsh hydrogeochemical soil characteristics. Regeneration of the vegetation cover therefore failed ; (2) to demonstrate the risks associated to the environmental hazard of metal polluted mine spoils and outline a method by which to accomplish this type of risk assessment ; (3) to analyse costs and benefits of phytostabilization- and phytoremediation-based solution for the problem. Results of the first experiments are still preliminary and incomplete. However, it is expected that a better knowledge on growing conditions of the selected plant species will contribute to the development of a phytoremediation technique for a low-cost and sustainable restoration of the old mine sites. Moreover, this will have direct utility to other areas in the Mediterranean region, that are similarly threatened by the presence of heavy metals in the environment.

  15. U.S. interstate pipelines ran more efficiently in 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulated US interstate pipelines began 1995 under the momentum of impressive efficiency improvements in 1994. Annual reports filed with the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) show that both natural-gas and petroleum liquids pipeline companies increased their net incomes last year despite declining operating revenues. This article discusses trends in the pipeline industry and gives data on the following: pipeline revenues, incomes--1994; current pipeline costs; pipeline costs--estimated vs. actual; current compressor construction costs; compressor costs--estimated vs. actual; US interstate mileage; investment in liquids pipelines; 10-years of land construction costs; top 10 interstate liquids pipelines; top 10 interstate gas pipelines; liquids pipeline companies; and gas pipeline companies

  16. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  17. Inhomogeneous CTMC Model of a Call Center with Balking and Abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Burak, Maciej Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a nonstationary multiserver queuing model with abandonment and balking for inbound call centers. We present a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) model which captures the important characteristics of an inbound call center and obtain a numerical solution for its transient state probabilities using uniformization method with steady-state detection. Keywords: call center, transient, Markov processes, numerical methods, uniformization, abandonment, balking

  18. 77 FR 29456 - Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis-Abandonment Exemption-in Howard County, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ...Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption-- in Howard County, IN Central Railroad Company of...between mileposts 55.66 and 58.5 in Howard County, Ind.\\1\\ The line traverses...Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption--in Howard County, Ind., AB 511 (Sub-No....

  19. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  20. Millennium Pipeline Presentation : a new northeast passage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routes of the proposed Millennium Pipeline project were presented. The pipeline is to originate at the Empress gas field in Alberta and link up to eastern markets in the United States. One of the key advantages of the pipeline is that it will have the lowest proposed rates from Empress to Chicago and through links via affiliates to New York and other eastern markets. It will include 380 miles of new 36-inch pipeline and have a capacity of 650 million cubic feet per day. In many instances it will follow existing rights-of-way. The pipeline is expected to be in service for the 1999 winter heating season. The project sponsors are Columbia Gas Transmission, CMS Energy, MCN Energy, and Westcoast Energy. 6 figs

  1. No apologies for pipeline moratorium recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-03-15

    In 1977 the Mackenzie Valley pipeline inquiry was held and a moratorium on development imposed on the Mackenzie Valley pipeline until aboriginal land claims could be resolved. The inquiry lasted 21 months and looked at energy, environment and the rights of native people in the context of the future of the North. Written material was voluminous, thanks to studies carried out by the government, indstry and specialist consultants. Interested parties were heard, including those in the 35 communities affected. Recently, approval has been given to the Mackenzie gas project for a pipeline of 1,196 km to transport up to 1.2 bcf per day of natural gas from the Mackenzie Delta to southern markets and for another pipeline to carry natural gas liquids from Inuvik, NWT to an existing oil pipeline at Norman Wells, NWT.

  2. Rock environment pollution as a consequence of the oil pipeline activity

    OpenAIRE

    Tometz Ladislav

    1996-01-01

    An extensive rock environment pollution, including soil and groundwater, was caused as a consequence of the oil-pipeline fracture at the village Jur nad Hronom (Levice district). The extent of the pollution was determined by exploration works. This work presents sanation of rock environment and groundwater.

  3. Status and prospects for welding and assembly in the construction of trunk pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite efforts around the world to reduce the portion of welding and assembly work undertaken on-site by fabricating and pre-assembling modules such as isometric pipe-junctions in the workshop, a large proportion of work, especially in the pipeline industry, is still undertaken in the field.

  4. Radioactive pollution investigation and disposal of abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environment influence of five abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province from 1950s to 1960s is introduced. By monitoring air absorbed dose rate of external exposure ? radiation, it is found that the pollution scope of No.1 abandoned uranium mine is the biggest in five abandoned uranium mines. The No. 2 and No. 3 mine areas has achieved the limit use after they were desposed. The radioactivity and the gamma nuclein in solid samples(slag, soil, silt) and liquid samples (the surface water, the well water)of No. 1 abandoned uranium mine were further analyzed and measured, the measured values are higher. The pollution of abandoned uranium mines still exists and diffuses after 30 years. According to the monitoring results and the analysis of pollution present situation, suggestions and measures are proposed for the pollution control. (authors)

  5. Testing the temporal nature of social disorder through abandoned buildings and interstitial spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Danielle; Schalliol, David

    2015-11-01

    With the recent housing crisis, studying abandoned buildings has once again become important. However, it has been some time since abandoned buildings were the subject of direct study, leaving scholars with scant knowledge about the characteristics of abandoned buildings, how they change, and their relationship to neighborhood processes. To fill this gap, we employed longitudinal photographic and SSO evaluations of 36 abandoned buildings and their immediate surroundings in Chicago for one year (n=587). Results demonstrate the presence and severity of social disorder cues vary across time points and the time of day of observation. There is a relationship between abandoned buildings and social disorder, though the relationship is not a trend. Also, social disorder is diminished around extremely decayed buildings. Lastly, we find that our results are driven by the measurement of places ignored by most SSO studies, including alleys and the rear side of buildings. PMID:26463542

  6. Management of active and abandoned hazardous sites under federal statutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are over two dozen statutes that impact on the handling of hazardous wastes. However, the most critical statutes related to hazardous waste sites are essentially the ''Resource Conservation and Recovery Act'' for active hazardous waste sites management and the ''Comprehensive Emergency Response and Compensation Liability Act'' which provides for the clean-up of abandoned hazardous waste sites. The ''Clean Water Act'', ''Clean Air Act'' and ''Safe Drinking Water Act'' are also involved in that the emissions or effluents from hazardous waste sites have to conform to the requirements of those Acts. Federal installations, such as Department of Energy installations are required to comply not only with federal environmental Law but also with state Law, since much of the federal environmental program is delegated to the States

  7. Contamination from abandoned mine tailings: the geochemical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanfani, L. [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra

    1998-12-31

    The oxidation of sulphide minerals in flotation tailings and waste materials in the main source of chemical contamination at abandoned mine sites. Pyrite and the other iron-bearing sulphide minerals are responsible for acid mine drainage which leads to the weathering of other sulphides and mobilizes toxic metals such as Cd, Pb and As. An environment rich in earth-alkaline carbonates buffers the ph close to neutrality and mitigates chemical pollution, but liming is insufficient to control pollution. Prevention has to be based essentially on fighting sulphide oxidation with water covers or organic matter covers impermeable to atmospheric oxygen. Remediation strategies are to be addressed to the application of soft biological technologies.

  8. Remedial protection of a pipeline crossing of the River Wye, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, K.B.; Ade, F.; Sawatsky, L. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Gray, R. [Esso Petroleum Co. Ltd., Hythe, Southampton (United Kingdom). Supply and Distribution Dept.; Cutler, J.; Wheeler, N. [Golder Associates U.K. Ltd., Maidenhead, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    A petroleum pipeline which crosses the River Wye in England has been exposed by river scour which places the pipeline at risk. The line, which is operated by Mainline Pipelines Ltd., runs from Milford Haven to Midland, England and operates at high pressure. A failure or shutdown would have serious implications. The meandering channel of the River Wye appears to have shifted to the north at an average rate of 0.65 m per year. Any remedial work would have to consider ongoing vertical and lateral scour. The remedial action took into consideration safety issues, environmental impacts, river hydrology and the restricted access to the steep northern riverbank. The solution involved filling the eroded riverbed and bank with rock material and placing a protective layer of graded rock rip rap. During the rock placement, grout filled bags were placed beneath the pipeline to minimize deflection and the development of any undue stresses in the exposed length. Rock filled wire mattresses were also placed on top the pipeline to protect it during loading. Material placement was controlled by a satellite guided positioning system. Environmental monitoring was conducted during the entire mitigative procedure. This short-term remediation of the river crossing was successful but Mainline Pipelines Ltd. is preparing to implement a long-term solution to this problem. Remedial measures are planned to take place during the summer of 2000. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. Monitoring of pipeline ruptures by means of a Robust Satellite Technique (RST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizzola, C.; Baldassarre, G.; Corrado, R.; Mazzeo, G.; Marchese, F.; Paciello, R.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2009-04-01

    Pipeline ruptures have deep economic and ecologic consequences so that pipeline networks represent critical infrastructures to be carefully monitored particularly in areas which are frequently affected by natural disasters like earthquakes, hurricanes, landslide, etc. In order to minimize damages, the detection of harmful events along pipelines should be as rapid as possible and, at the same time, what is detected should be an actual incident and not a false alarm. In this work, a Robust Satellite Technique (RST), already applied to the prevision and NRT (Near Real Time) monitoring of major natural and environmental hazards (such as seismically active areas, volcanic activity, hydrological risk, forest fires and oil spills) has been employed to automatically identify, from satellite, anomalous Thermal Infrared (TIR) transients related to explosions of oil/gas pipelines. In this context, the combination of the RST approach with high temporal resolution, offered by geostationary satellites, seems to assure both a reliable and timely detection of such events. The potentials of the technique (applied to MSG-SEVIRI data) were tested over Iraq, a region which is sadly known for the numerous (mainly manmade) accidents to pipelines, in order to have a simulation of the effects (such as fires or explosions near or directly involving a pipeline facility) due to natural disasters.

  10. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  11. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both of the mines. (author). 10 refs.

  12. Optimization methods for pipeline transportation of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado

    2010-10-15

    Within three research projects on the optimization of natural gas transport in transmission pipeline systems, a number of various mathematical models, algorithms, and numerical experiments have been presented and discussed in this thesis. The proposed optimization methods are composed of NLP and MINLP models, as well as of exact and heuristic methods. In addition, the experimental analyses conducted on each project were devoted to gain insight into three major issues: 1) the assessment of the computability of the mathematical models, 2) the performance of the proposed optimization techniques, and 3) comparison of the proposed techniques with existing optimization algorithms and tools. Project 1 focused on minimizing the total fuel consumption incurred by compressor stations installed in a gas pipeline system. The project was mainly devoted to tackle large natural gas pipeline systems with cyclic structures. After conducting a painstaking study on the NLP model introduced in Section 4.3, three different methodologies were proposed to effectively overcome both the difficulties encountered in the steady-state flow model, namely the non-linearity and non-convexity, as well as the weaknesses found in previously suggested optimization approaches. As discussed in Chapter 4, the key to success in this project was to apply the strategic idea of discretizing the feasible operating domain of compressor stations, which in turn allowed the implementation of hybrid solution methods based on powerful optimization techniques such as DP, tabu search, and tree decomposition. The idea of working within a discretized space has been successfully applied since the liquid pipeline optimization conducted in the late 1960s by Jefferson, until the non-traditional optimization technique suggested by Carter in 1998. The computational experiments conducted on each proposed optimization method, coupled with comparisons with typical approaches found in the literature, indicated that a continual improvement was achieved at each implementation. This is supported by the fact that the proposed algorithms were capable of effectively solving a wider variety of test instances, including difficult cases where previous methods had failed. Project 2 focused on maximizing the gas flow through transmission network systems. Unlike previously suggested models, the proposed model admitted variations in gas specific gravity and compressibility. More precisely, we implemented the network model suggested in the literature where all arcs correspond to pipelines, and considered the pipeline flow and the gas pressure at each network node as the main decision variables. However, to support these decisions, the model also had to assess the gas specific gravity at each node, and the gas compressibility at each pipeline. In addition to flow conservation constraints, the model includes constraints that relate flow to pressure while considering the specific gravity and compressibility variations. Constraints defining the gas properties as functions of flow and pressure variables are also included. Since global optimization is challenged by the non-convex feasible domain of the model, thus becoming time consuming, a heuristic approach was also proposed. Several numerical experiments were conducted to support the need for a more accurate model and to show the effectiveness of the proposed heuristic approach. Through experiments, it was proved that the application of traditional models in which the variation of specific gravity or compressibility or both are neglected, tends to yield misleading results. The numerical experiments also showed that the heuristic is capable of providing optimal or near-optimal solutions to the proposed model. It also outperforms a multi start local optimization procedure. Project 3 focused on optimizing the line-pack management in pipeline systems. Here, the network model included three different sets of nodes to represent sources, pipelines and terminals, and a set of arcs to indicate the links between the nodes. To overcome the consequences caused b

  13. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500?m). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the infrared gas sensor, and these data were sent to a data logger. During the measuring periods, the cumulative CO2 emission were similar between the control (516.8 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) and BC4 5% mixture (519.3 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil), while BC7 5% mixture was significantly decreased (356.1 mg-CO2 kg-1-soil) compared to other treatment and control. Because the degradation rate of biochar generally increased with decreasing pyrolysis temperature, this result suggest that the soil respiration rates of biochar amended soils are affected by physico-chemical properties of biochar during early incubation periods (about 1 weeks), For example, surface properties of used biochars, which are related to adsorption of soil organic matter and CO2, have different properties with pyrolysis temperature such as specific surface area (BC4=5.08 m2g-1; BC7=260.75 m2 g-1, respectively), average pore diameter (BC4=4,673 nm; BC7=2,606 nm, respectively), and functional groups of biochar surface. However, there was not clear evidence of biochar-mine soil interaction process, because of the short observation periods. Future work should focus on the adsorption of CO2 and soil organic matter of biochar and soil-biochar interaction with long time periods and various biological test.

  14. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide customized and engineered solutions for specific applications or projects. This paper intends to describe challenges with recent projects, new developments in heat-shrinkable systems, equipment and related services. Ultimately this will show the application of engineered field joint coatings and the increasing level of involvement required from the field joint coating manufacturers. (author)

  15. Investigation of ageing of fast neutron reactor pipelines after long-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this work is the substantiation of efficiency of austenitic pipelines metal of fast neutron reactor for overdesigned 15-years of operation. Since the main damaging factor for this type of NPPs is the high temperature and stress, in the frames of this work there were conducted comprehensive laboratory investigations of metal pipelines ageing in condition of modeling of long thermo-force ageing and creep, also developed and implemented in practice the methodic of full-scale monitoring of creep by use long-term hardness method. (author)

  16. Monitoring of scale deposition in petroleum pipelines by means of photon scattering: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the petroleum industry precipitation of scale onto the inner walls of hydrocarbon pipelines poses a significant challenge as, unless treated appropriately, deposits such as sulfate and carbonate scales reduce the overall flow area and even lead to blockage of entire sections of the pipework. This may in turn result in costly production suspension and maintenance work. Therefore, monitoring and characterization of scale deposits can be said to be of great importance. In this work, a preliminary feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing photon scattering for scale detection in multiphase oil/water/gas pipelines. (author)

  17. Monitoring of scale deposition in petroleum pipelines by means of photon scattering: a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meric, Ilker; Johansen, Geir A., E-mail: ilker.meric@ift.uib.no, E-mail: geiranton.johansen@ift.uib.no [University of Bergen (UiB), Bergen, (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Melo, Silvio de Barros; Lima, Emerson A.O.; Jimenez, Juana M.; Dantas, Carlos C., E-mail: sbm@cin.ufpe.br, E-mail: ccd@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the petroleum industry precipitation of scale onto the inner walls of hydrocarbon pipelines poses a significant challenge as, unless treated appropriately, deposits such as sulfate and carbonate scales reduce the overall flow area and even lead to blockage of entire sections of the pipework. This may in turn result in costly production suspension and maintenance work. Therefore, monitoring and characterization of scale deposits can be said to be of great importance. In this work, a preliminary feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing photon scattering for scale detection in multiphase oil/water/gas pipelines. (author)

  18. The effect of Landsat ETM/ETM+ image acquisition dates on the detection of agricultural land abandonment in Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Prishchepov, Alexander V.

    2012-01-01

    Many terrestrial biomes are experiencing intensifying human land use. However, reductions in the intensity of agricultural land use are also common and can lead to agricultural land abandonment. Agricultural land abandonment has strong environmental and socio-economic consequences, but fine-scale and spatially explicit data on agricultural land abandonment are sparse, particularly in developing countries and countries with transition economies, such as the post-Soviet countries of Eastern Europe. Remote sensing can potentially fill this gap, but the satellite-based detection of fallow fields and shrub encroachment is difficult and requires the collection of multiple images during the growing season. The availability of such multi-seasonal cloud-free image dates is often limited. The goal of our study was to determine how much "missing" Landsat TM/ETM. + images at key times in the growing season affect the accuracy of agricultural land abandonment classification. We selected a study area in temperate Eastern Europe where post-socialist agricultural land abandonment had become widespread and analyzed six near-anniversary cloud-free Landsat images from "Spring", "Summer" and "Fall" agriculturally defined seasons for a pre-abandonment-time I (1989) and post-abandonment-time II (1999/2000). Using a factorial experiment, we tested how the classification accuracy and spatial patterns of classified abandonment changed over all possible 49 image-date combinations when mapping both "abandoned arable land" and "abandoned managed grassland". The conditional Kappa of our best overall classification with support vector machines (SVM) was 90% for "abandoned arable land" and 72% for "abandoned managed grassland" when all six images were used for the classification. Classifications with fewer image dates resulted in a substantial decrease of the conditional Kappa (from 93 to 54% for "abandoned arable land" and from to 75 to 50% for "abandoned managed grassland"). We also observed substantial decrease in accurate detection of land abandonment patterns when we compared our best overall classification with the other 48 image date combinations (the Fuzzy Kappa, a measure of spatial similarity, ranged from 25.8 to 76.3% for "abandoned arable land" and from 30.4 to 79.5% for "abandoned managed grassland"). While the accuracy of the different abandonment classes was most sensitive to the number of image dates used for the classification, the seasons captured also mattered, and the importance of specific seasonal image dates varied between the pre- and post-abandonment dates. For "abandoned arable land" it was important to have at least one "Spring" or "Summer" image for pre-abandonment and as many images as possible for post-abandonment, with a "Spring" image again being most important. For "abandoned managed grassland" no specific seasonal image dates yielded statistically significantly more accurate classifications. The factor that influenced the accurate detection of "abandoned managed grassland" was the number of multi-seasonal image dates (the more the better), rather than their exact dates. We also tested whether SVM performed better than the maximum likelihood classifier. SVM outperformed the maximum likelihood classifier only for "abandoned arable land" and only in image-date-rich cases. Our results showed that limited image-date availability in the Landsat record placed substantial limits on the accuracy of agricultural abandonment classifications and accurately detected agricultural land abandonment patterns. Thus, we warn to use agricultural land abandonment maps produced with the sub-optimal image dates with caution, especially when the accurate rates and the patterns of agricultural land abandonment are crucial (e.g., for LULCC models). The abundance of agricultural abandonment in many parts of the world and its strong ecological and socio-economic consequences suggest that better monitoring of abandonment is necessary, and our results illustrated the image dates that were most important to accomplishing this task. © 2012 Elsevier

  19. Knowledge Pipeline: A Task Oriented Way to Implement Knowledge Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concept of knowledge pipeline: There are many pipelines named by tasks or business processes in an organization. Knowledge contributors put knowledge to its corresponding pipelines. A maintenance team could keep the knowledge in pipelines clear and valid. Users could get knowledge just like opening a faucet in terms of their tasks or business processes

  20. Sulphur transport in the Enbridge CO2 slurry pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhning, Richard [Enbridge Inc. (Canada)], email: richard.luhning@enbridge.com

    2011-07-01

    This presentation highlights Enbridge's carbon dioxide (CO2) transportation pipeline: its role, working mechanism, and benefits. The objective of the presentation is to show the various advantages of using CO2 as a slurry agent in transportation pipelines, especially for sulfur, coke, and limestone transport. It starts with an illustration of the various sources that account for production of CO2 in Alberta, followed by an explanation of the convenience of using CO2 in its liquid form to transport different solids, most important of which are sulfur, petroleum coke, and limestone. After the different paths of the pipelines had been demonstrated, the transportation mechanism was explained, showing how different solids need to be processed into a pelletized form prior to rail transportation. Finally, the three phases of the project were presented, followed by an explanation of the current research being done on the topic. As a general conclusion, it was stated that this line could have positive economic and environmental impacts.

  1. Application of subset simulation in reliability estimation of underground pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a computational framework for implementing an advanced Monte Carlo simulation method, called Subset Simulation (SS) for time-dependent reliability prediction of underground flexible pipelines. The SS can provide better resolution for low failure probability level of rare failure events which are commonly encountered in pipeline engineering applications. Random samples of statistical variables are generated efficiently and used for computing probabilistic reliability model. It gains its efficiency by expressing a small probability event as a product of a sequence of intermediate events with larger conditional probabilities. The efficiency of SS has been demonstrated by numerical studies and attention in this work is devoted to scrutinise the robustness of the SS application in pipe reliability assessment and compared with direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. Reliability of a buried flexible steel pipe with time-dependent failure modes, namely, corrosion induced deflection, buckling, wall thrust and bending stress has been assessed in this study. The analysis indicates that corrosion induced excessive deflection is the most critical failure event whereas buckling is the least susceptible during the whole service life of the pipe. The study also shows that SS is robust method to estimate the reliability of buried pipelines and it is more efficient than MCS, especially in small failure probability prediction

  2. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line. PMID:26387343

  3. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  4. Competing pipelines in Alberta - a tolling issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of the emergence of competing pipelines in the intra-Alberta market were reviewed from the vantage point of the Industrial Gas Consumers Association of Alberta, comprised of the eight largest natural gas consumers in the province. The Association is concerned with the possible impacts caused by producer-driven pipelines such as the Palliser Pipeline, Alliance Pipeline or the Alberta Pipeline proposals, taking a run at Nova Gas Transmission's quasi-monopoly within the province. Issues of concern to the Association are: (1) access of Alberta industry to natural gas, (2) cost of moving gas from the field to plant gate, (3) impact on long-term gas development, (4) impact on gas prices within the province, and (5) impact on the availability on natural gas liquids used as industrial feedstock. The Association views the competing pipeline proposals with concern because it believes that while change is both necessary and inevitable, competition does not necessarily means more assured supply, at better prices to industry that rely on natural gas. In the view of the Association the best that is likely to result from the new competitive proposals is turning the present monopoly into an oligopoly, with significant potential for the oligopoly pipelines to abuse their position, thus putting at risk their considerable investment in industrial plants by sudden changes in natural gas transportation cost structure

  5. Policies of System Level Pipeline Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Harcourt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Pipelining is a well understood and often used implementation technique for increasing the performance of a hardware system. We develop several SystemC/C++ modeling techniques that allow us to quickly model, simulate, and evaluate pipelines. We employ a small domain specific language (DSL) based on resource usage patterns that automates the drudgery of boilerplate code needed to configure connectivity in simulation models. The DSL is embedded directly in the host modeling language SystemC/C++. Additionally we develop several techniques for parameterizing a pipeline's behavior based on policies of function, communication, and timing (performance modeling).

  6. Power system for electric heating of pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Novik, Frode Karstein

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power s...

  7. Conflict resolution for pipelined layered LDPC decoders

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, Cédric; Doré, Jean-Baptiste; Canencia, Laura Conde; Boutillon, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    Many of the current LDPC implementations of DVB-S2, T2 or WiMAX standard use the so-called layered architecture combined with pipeline. However, the pipeline process may introduce memory access conflicts. The resolution of these conflicts requires careful scheduling combined with dedicated hardware and/or idle cycle insertion. In this paper, based on the DVB-T2 example, we explain explicitly how the scheduling can solve most of the pipeline conflicts. The two contributions of the paper are 1)...

  8. Manufacturability analysis of marine pipeline systems layout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhno Konstantin Nickolayevich

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of providing manufacturability to marine pipeline systems is considered in the paper. Its solution within the framework of the research to find out a possibility to manufacture pipelines without specification of sizes of separate pipes at the place by means of the analysis of layout at the design stage is discussed. The purpose of the analysis is to determine conditions and possibilities of compensation of coordinate sizes deviations in the relative arrangement of the elements connected with pipeline routes taking into account errors of pipes manufacturing.

  9. Manufacturability improvement of pipelins of ship systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhno Konstantin Nickolayevich

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of manufacturability improvement of pipelines of ship sys-tems at the stage of designing and providing the possibility of pipes manufactur-ing without taking sizes at the place, and its solution within the framework of the research of the configuration interrelation and compensation possibilities of pipe-line routes are considered in the paper. The definition of research problems and main results, their introduction into automated systems of designing and technological preparation of production are given, the prospects of pipeline man-ufacturability rise when carrying out ship-building orders are proved.

  10. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiliang Zeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance.

  11. A novel abandoned object detection system based on three-dimensional image information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Gao, Jing; Zou, Jinlin

    2015-01-01

    A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR) algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After detection of suspected abandoned objects, three-dimensional (3D) information of the suspected abandoned object is reconstructed by the proposed theory about 3D object information reconstruction with images from a binocular camera. To determine whether the detected object is hazardous to normal road traffic, road plane equation and height of suspected-abandoned object are calculated based on the three-dimensional information. Experimental results show that this system implements fast detection of abandoned objects and this abandoned object system can be used for road traffic monitoring and public area surveillance. PMID:25806869

  12. Data Processing Pipeline for Pointing Observations of Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xian-Min; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Wu, Chao; Wang, Jing; Han, Xu-Hui; Deng, Jin-Song; Xin, Li-Ping; Cai, Hong-Bo; Wei, Jian-Yan

    2015-01-01

    We describe the data processing pipeline developed to reduce the pointing observation data of Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope (LUT), which belongs to the Chang'e-3 mission of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program. The pointing observation program of LUT is dedicated to variable objects monitoring in a near-ultraviolet (245-345 nm) band. LUT works in lunar daytime for sufficient power supply, so some special data processing strategies have been developed in the pipeline. The procedures of the pipeline mainly include stray light removing, astrometry, flat fielding employing superflat technique, source extraction and cosmic rays rejection, aperture and PSF photometry, aperture correction, and catalogues archiving. It has been intensively tested and works smoothly with observation data. The photometric accuracy is typically ~0.02 mag for LUT 10 mag stars (30s exposure), with errors from background noises, residuals of stray light removing, and flat fielding. The accuracy degrades to be ~0.2 mag for stars of 13....

  13. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook a manual of quick, accurate solutions to everyday pipeline engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    McAllister, EW

    2014-01-01

    Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day pipeline operations. For more than 35 years, the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook has served as the ""go-to"" reference for solving even the most day-to-day vexing pipeline workflow problems. Now in its 8th edition, this handbook continues to set the standard by which all other piping books are judged. Along with over 30% new or updated material regarding codes, construction processes, and equipment, this book continues to offer hundreds of ""how-to"" methods and ha

  14. Pipelines in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1999) [pipelines_la_usgs_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset contains vector line map information of various pipelines throughout the State of Louisiana. The vector data contain selected base categories of...

  15. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  16. Detection and control of fires and heatings in shallow, abandoned coal mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heatings and fires in shallow, abandoned coal mines create an environmentally undesirable hazard in the Witbank area in South Africa, as well as locations in Europe and North America. A research program was set up in South Africa to detect and control the occurrence and extent of subsurface heatings and fires. Prior to any remedial action being taken to control or extinguish a heating or fire, it is essential to evaluate underground conditions in order to determine the most effective control method. Normally, such workings cannot physically be entered due to poor ground conditions and the presence of heat and toxic gases. Two novel detection methods have been developed by the Chamber of Mines Research Organization (COMRO) for the purpose of identifying the nature and extent of such heatings remotely, via surface boreholes. Temperature monitoring allows for the detection of heating intensity and location. To determine areas of uncontrolled air infiltration into the workings, tracer gas technology is used. In addition, a method for controlling a fire which has been successfully used in South Africa is described

  17. Evaluating drag force and geometric optimisation of pipeline inspection gadget (PIG body with bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  A pipeline inspection gadget (PIG is a device used to run through pipelines for cleaning, measurement and inspection operations. By-pass is the name for one or a set of orifices allowing flow from back to front of a PIG. It is used for speed control or to improve cleaning operations results. By-pass prevents speed excursions in gas pipelines thereby avoiding damage to the PIG or the pipe. Studies and algorithms have been developed to simulate the dynamics of PIGs running inside pipes. Most studies have been for gas pipelines; these have helped to design some PIG models. This work summarises a particular stage during a PIG design project. This PIG will work in liquid pipelines and can stop in the line for inspection and maintenance tasks. Studying fluid force on a PIG when it has low or zero speed is needed for evaluating project feasibility and conceptual design. Selecting a PIG form to minimise the force of interaction with fluid allows a low weight design and lower energy loss.  

  18. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the abandoned fields by the vegetation is very efficient (Ne'eman and Izhaki, 1996) and fire adapted species are the main types, which demonstrates that fire is part of the Mediterranean ecosystems (Pausas, 1999). The fire was not found here as a factor increasing the organic carbon in the abandoned soils, although it was found in a nearby area (Novara et al., 2011). This research confirms that the soil development in Mediterranean Type-Ecosystems (Cerdà et al., 2010) is being affected by land abandonment and fire (Doerr and Cerdà, 2005).

  19. MaPLE: A MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation and Its Application to SNOMED CT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Mengmeng; Tao, Shiqiang; Bodenreider, Olivier; Cui, Licong

    2014-01-01

    Non-lattice fragments are often indicative of structural anomalies in ontological systems and, as such, represent possible areas of focus for subsequent quality assurance work. However, extracting the non-lattice fragments in large ontological systems is computationally expensive if not prohibitive, using a traditional sequential approach. In this paper we present a general MapReduce pipeline, called MaPLE (MapReduce Pipeline for Lattice-based Evaluation), for extracting non-lattice fragments...

  20. Risk and Reliability Analysis of Deepwater Reel-Lay Installation: A Scenario Study of Pipeline during the Process of Tensioning

    OpenAIRE

    Xianwei Hu; Menglan Duan; Peilin Liu

    2012-01-01

    In terms of reel-lay installation in deep water, studies on the pipeline during the process of tensioning have been completed based on theories of risk and reliability analysis and Ergonomics. Qualitative risk results, including minimum cut sets, structural importance and probability expression of system failure, are obtained from fault tree analysis. Also, quantitative risk results, mainly consisting of failure probability and reliability index of pipeline plastic deformation, are worked out...

  1. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines. The following discussion will focus on the similarities and differences between the two pipeline networks. Hydrogen production is currently concentrated in refining centers along the Gulf Coast and in the Farm Belt. These locations have ready access to natural gas, which is used in the steam methane reduction process to make bulk hydrogen in this country. Production centers could possibly change to lie along coastlines, rivers, lakes, or rail lines, should nuclear power or coal become a significant energy source for hydrogen production processes. Should electrolysis become a dominant process for hydrogen production, water availability would be an additional factor in the location of production facilities. Once produced, hydrogen must be transported to markets. A key obstacle to making hydrogen fuel widely available is the scale of expansion needed to serve additional markets. Developing a hydrogen transmission and distribution infrastructure would be one of the challenges to be faced if the United States is to move toward a hydrogen economy. Initial uses of hydrogen are likely to involve a variety of transmission and distribution methods. Smaller users would probably use truck transport, with the hydrogen being in either the liquid or gaseous form. Larger users, however, would likely consider using pipelines. This option would require specially constructed pipelines and the associated infrastructure. Pipeline transmission of hydrogen dates back to late 1930s. These pipelines have generally operated at less than 1,000 pounds per square inch (psi), with a good safety record. Estimates of the existing hydrogen transmission system in the United States range from about 450 to 800 miles. Estimates for Europe range from about 700 to 1,100 miles (Mohipour et al. 2004; Amos 1998). These seemingly large ranges result from using differing criteria in determining pipeline distances. For example, some analysts consider only pipelines above a certain diameter as transmission lines. Others count only those pipelines that transport hydrogen from a producer to a customer (e.g., t

  2. Pipeline engineering. 8. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from calculating the strength of pipeline components planning and design are the most important tasks on the areas of apparatus manufacturing, fluid engineering, process engineering and thermal engineering. It is therefore necessary that the flow diagrams of a plant are clearly understandable and in accordance with the technical rules even in the early stages of planning. This book concentrates on steel pipeline which are not laid underground but of the type used mostly in industrial applications. The pictures and equations provided can be used for the design of pipelines, tables and diagrams are given to facilitate estimation of elasticity, pipeline pressure losses and insulating thicknesses. An overview of the equations is given at the end of the book. Many examples facilitate learning. (orig.)

  3. Outdoor and indoor cadmium distributions near an abandoned smelting works and their relations to human exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship of measured or modelled Cd concentrations in soil, house dust and available to plants with human urinary Cd concentrations were assessed in a population living around a Cd/Pb/Zn smelter in the UK. Modelled air concentrations explained 35% of soil Cd variation indicating the smelter contributed to soil Cd loads. Multi-variate analysis confirmed a significant role of biological and life-style factors in determining urinary Cd levels. Significant correlations of urinary Cd with soil, house dust and modelled plant available Cd concentrations were not, however, found. Potential reasons for the absence of clear relationships include limited environmental contact in urban populations; the role of undefined factors in determining exposure; and the limited spatial scope of the survey which did not sample from the full pollution gradient. Further, the absence of any significant relationship indicates that environmental measures provide limited advantage over atmospheric model outputs for first stage human exposure assessment. - Highlights: ? Environmental measurements indicate smelter pollution of a surrounding urban area. ? Life-style and biology influenced U-Cd more than measured environmental levels. ? Limited contact with outdoor environments may limit Cd uptake in urban populations. ? Better life-style data could improve the attribution of human Cd exposure routes. ? Measured Cd levels provide limited added exposure insight over dispersion models. - Measured and modelled environmental cadmium concentrations provide limited additional explanation of human urinary cadmium concentrations.

  4. Numerical simulations of pipeline bending tests

    OpenAIRE

    Halama R.; Rojí?ek J.

    2008-01-01

    The paper compares numerical solution with results of experimental solution of pipeline under cyclic loading in elastoplastic domain. The pipeline was subjected to internal pressure and bending moment. Firstly material parameters were estimated (for Besseling model, Chaboche model and Modified AbdelKarim-Ohno model) on the basis of uniaxial loading. The possibility of parameter identification of assumed models using multiaxial tests was tested too. FE program ANSYS was used for all computatio...

  5. Policies of System Level Pipeline Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Harcourt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    Pipelining is a well understood and often used implementation technique for increasing the performance of a hardware system. We develop several SystemC/C++ modeling techniques that allow us to quickly model, simulate, and evaluate pipelines. We employ a small domain specific language (DSL) based on resource usage patterns that automates the drudgery of boilerplate code needed to configure connectivity in simulation models. The DSL is embedded directly in the host modeling la...

  6. Role of human factor in pipeline safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timashev, S.A.; Polouian, L.V.; Yurchuk, Z.V. [Russian Academy of Science, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Science and Engineering Center, Reliability and Resource of Large Machine Systems

    2004-07-01

    Modern pipeline systems are complex automated systems whose control is determined by human beings. During their service life, pipelines undergo stages of design, manufacture, construction, installation, maintenance, repair, upgrade, decommissioning and disposal. Since nearly 70 to 80 per cent of all failures are directly or indirectly related to human error, a correct account of the human factor on each of the above stages is necessary to achieve optimal effectiveness and safety. This paper addressed the 3 categories of human factor that should be considered when analyzing the reliability and safety of pipelines. The first category refers to the behaviour of the repair, maintenance and inspection crew. The second refers to the performance of the monitoring and non-destructive testing specialists, while the third refers to the reliability of the decision making persons (DMP) at all levels of the pipeline operation. A new method for quantitatively assessing the influence of HF on safety and risk analysis of pipelines was then developed, based on applied theory of oriented graphs. The primary components, means and methods of a holistic and quantitative human reliability analysis (QHRA) was described. The QHRA uses quantitative values of human error, based on 3 types of DMPs, namely members of maintenance crews, inspection diagnosticians and different rank DMPs that operate or own the pipeline. This paper presented 3 cases in which the QHRA was applied: choosing measures that enhance pipeline in-line inspection (ILI); minimizing third party intervention probability; and, choosing security measures for an oil pipeline. The greatest mistake associated with inspection was found to be false or non detection of defects, underestimating the depth and length of defects, and false location. The key factor in improving the quality of inspection are sophisticated ILI data analysis software and special training of ILI teams. 15 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Contamination of surface and groundwater in abandoned Pernek mining area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta F?aková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pernek – Pezinok mining area is important Sb deposit in the Malé Karpaty Mts. Many dump piles and mine adits left abandoned when the mining activity had stopped. At the present time these become sources of the surface, groundwater, soils and stream sediments contamination. Arsenic and antimony are the trace elements transforming and accumulating in several natural components. Sulphid oxidation and silicate weathering are the main processes participating in surface and groundwater chemical composition. The antimony shows an elevated concentration ranging from 1 to 31 ?g.l-1 together with elevated concentrations of Ni, Zn, Fe and sulphates. The stream situated above dump piles is considered to be the site with background values which is confirmed by a relatively low concentration of Fe, As, Sb, Ni and Zn. The highest concentration of As (0.005 mg.l-1, Ni (189 ?g.l-1, Zn (161 ?g.l-1, Fe (6.94 mg.l-1, Mn (0.655 mg.l-1 and sulphates (488 mg.l-1 was detected in the mine adit outflow (Pavol. The concentration of Sb was 0.014 mg.l-1.

  8. Isotopic insights into smoothening of abandoned fan surfaces, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matmon, A.; Nichols, K.; Finkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclide concentrations measured on abandoned fan surfaces along the Mojave section of the San Andreas Fault suggest that sediment is generated, transported, and removed from the fans on the order of 30-40??kyr. We measured in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be, and in some cases 26Al, in boulders (n??=??15), surface sediment (n??=??15), and one depth profile (n??=??9). Nuclide concentrations in surface sediments and boulders underestimate fan ages, suggesting that 10Be accumulation is largely controlled by the geomorphic processes that operate on the surfaces of the fans and not by their ages. Field observations, grain-size distribution, and cosmogenic nuclide data suggest that over time, boulders weather into grus and the bar sediments diffuse into the adjacent swales. As fans grow older the relief between bars and swales decreases, the sediment transport rate from bars to swales decreases, and the surface processes that erode the fan become uniform over the entire fan surface. The nuclide data therefore suggest that, over time, the difference in 10Be concentration between bars and swales increases to a maximum until the topographic relief between bars and swales is minimized, resulting in a common surface lowering rate and common 10Be concentrations across the fan. During this phase, the entire fan is lowered homogeneously at a rate of 10-15??mm??kyr-1. ?? 2006 University of Washington.

  9. At risk and abandoned: street children, AIDS and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, S

    1995-01-01

    When Covenant House was established in the late 1960s, its mission was to end the harassment and murder of homeless street children by authorities in Latin America. At present, Covenant House Latin America is broadening its focus to encompass another form of societal violence against vulnerable youth--acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Street educators include information on AIDS as part of their outreach efforts, and Covenant House Crisis Centers provide AIDS counseling. Most of these young people are on the streets as a result of abandonment, child abuse, and poverty. A study of 143 street children in Guatemala ages 7-17 years found that 100% had been sexually abused, 53% by a family member. 71% currently had 1-2 sexual partners per day, 4% had 3-4 partners, and 25% reported more than 4 partners per day; none was using contraception. Covenant House seeks to publicize this latest form of violence against children and is urging adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which stipulates, among other things, that special care will be given to children who have been rendered vulnerable by separation from their families. PMID:12288760

  10. Irritations caused by the abandonment of national spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The announcement of the intended expansion of German-French cooperation in the field of reprocessing and the abandonment soon after of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant caught the German nuclear community completely by surprise. The range of reactions extended between profound disappointment and concern on the one hand and relief on the other hand and caused satisfaction and feelings of victory in the nuclear opposition camp. After the short period of time since that decision it is possible to attempt to assess in a more relaxed spirit both the intentions and the resultant new situation in the field of reprocessing in the Federal Republic of Germany. This reveals that also the European solution offers advantages worth being taken into account in addition to the arguments, which are still valid, in favor of reprocessing in Germany. Attention should also be drawn to a different strategy, that of prolonged intermediate storage, which is being employed in major countries, but not being considered in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  11. Combined cycles for pipeline compressor drives using heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combined cycles for pipeline-booster stations using waste heat from gas turbines exhaust can improve the overall efficiency of such stations remarkably. Several working fluids are suitable. Due to existing criteria for selecting a working medium under mentioned conditions, water, ammonia, propane and butane can be considered as practical working fluids. The investigations have shown that: (1) ammonia is advantageous at low exhaust gas and ambient temperatures, (2) water is most effective at high exhaust gas and ambient temperatures, and (3), additionally, hydrocarbons are suitable in a medium range for exhaust gas and condensing temperatures. Not only thermodynamic but also operational features have to be considered. There is not one optimum working fluid but a best one suitable according to the prevailing site conditions

  12. Outlook '98 - Gas and oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to rising North American demand, especially by the United States, by the end of 1997 there were plans to build 15 new pipelines over the next three years, at an estimated cost of $17 billion. Canada''s proximity to the United States, combined with huge Canadian reserves, and the fact that Canada already supplies some 15 per cent of U.S. requirements, makes Canada the obvious choice for filling future demand. This explains why most, if not all, current pipeline expansion projects are targeting markets in the U.S. Market forces will determine which of the projects will actually go forward. From the point of view of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association pipeline regulatory reform, pipeline safety, integrity and climate change will be the Association''s key concerns during 1998. To that end, the Association is cooperating with the National Energy Board in a multi-million dollar study of stress corrosion cracking. The Association has also developed a Manual of Recommended Practices for the use of member companies to assist them to tailor stress corrosion cracking practices to their own operations. Meeting Canada''s commitment at the Kyoto Conference for greenhouse gas emissions of six per cent below 1990 levels by the year 2008 to 2012 (in effect a 25 per cent reduction from the level anticipated in the year 2000), a very difficult task according to industry experts, is also among the high priority items on the pipeline industry''s agenda for 1998

  13. Developing for Gemini's Extensible Pipeline Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, K.; Allen, C.; Hirst, P.

    2012-09-01

    Gemini is developing a near real-time data quality assurance pipeline. The final product will support all facility instruments and all of their observing modes. Rather than developing separate pipelines for each instrument and mode, the choice was made early on to design an extensible pipeline environment where configuration plugins are added to a core infrastructure. The iterative deployment of this extensible pipeline environment at Gemini has recently begun. The first deployment includes the core infrastructure support for the processing and image quality assessment of optical imaging GMOS data. Support for an instrument and mode is added to the pipeline through a collection of configurations that must include data type definitions, data descriptors, and implementations for applicable processing steps, and that must respect interface control rules. The configurations provide the data abstraction necessary to the pipeline infrastructure, and the interface definitions allows for one simple, reusable lexicon describing the data and the processing of those data. The key benefits from a development point of view is maximum code reuse, with top-level recipes and many processing algorithms being completely instrument agnostic.

  14. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  15. The MUSE Data Reduction Pipeline: Status after Preliminary Acceptance Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Weilbacher, Peter M; Urrutia, Tanya; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Jarno, Aurélien; Bacon, Roland

    2015-01-01

    MUSE, a giant integral field spectrograph, is about to become the newest facility instrument at the VLT. It will see first light in February 2014. Here, we summarize the properties of the instrument as built and outline functionality of the data reduction system, that transforms the raw data that gets recorded separately in 24 IFUs by 4k CCDs, into a fully calibrated, scientifically usable data cube. We then describe recent work regarding geometrical calibration of the instrument and testing of the processing pipeline, before concluding with results of the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe and an outlook to the on-sky commissioning.

  16. Abandoned Vessels and Barges, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1996) [barge_LOSCO_1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset with two accompanying 'sample tables' [vabfldsmpap96] and [vablabsmpap96] that summarize the results of the study to inventory abandoned...

  17. Contaminants in bats roosting in abandoned mines at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, 1998-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents levels and potential effects of trace element and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in four bats species collected from four abandoned...

  18. Numerical Simulation of Abandoned Gob Methane Drainage through Surface Vertical Wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Xu, Jialin; Hu, Guozhong

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the ventilation system on the abandoned gob weakens, so the gas seepage characteristics in the abandoned gob are significantly different from those in a normal mining gob. In connection with this, this study physically simulated the movement of overlying rock strata. A spatial distribution function for gob permeability was derived. A numerical model using FLUENT for abandoned gob methane drainage through surface wells was established, and the derived spatial distribution function for gob permeability was imported into the numerical model. The control range of surface wells, flow patterns and distribution rules for static pressure in the abandoned gob under different well locations were determined using the calculated results from the numerical model. PMID:25955438

  19. 7 CFR 97.20 - Abandonment for failure to respond within the time limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS PLANT VARIETY AND PROTECTION The Application § 97.20 Abandonment...Commissioner may set a period, not less than 30 days, to correct any deficiency in the application. [58 FR 42435, Aug. 9, 1993,...

  20. 78 FR 43273 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Newton County, Ga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ...of Georgia Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Newton County, Ga. Central of Georgia Railroad Company (CGA...Street SW., and Turner Lake Road SW., in Covington), in Newton County, Ga. The line traverses United States Postal...

  1. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: VESSELS (Grounded, Abandoned, and Derelict Vessel Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for grounded, abandoned, and derelict vessels in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector points in this data...

  2. 76 FR 55161 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Middlesex County, Mass.; Springfield Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--Middlesex County, Mass.... Boston and Maine Corporation (B&M) and Springfield Terminal Railway Company (ST)...

  3. 76 FR 60599 - Boston & Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemptions-in Rockingham, NH; Springfield Terminal Railway...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Printing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston & Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemptions--in Rockingham, NH; Springfield Terminal Railway Company--Discontinuance of Service Exemptions--in Rockingham, NH Boston &...

  4. 78 FR 52235 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Winnebago County, Wis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Winnebago County, Wis. On August 2, 2013, Wisconsin Central Ltd...milepost 206.50 near South Commercial Street in Neenah, Winnebago County, Wis. The line traverses United States Postal...

  5. 30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...the person owning, operating, or controlling such an impoundment and impounding structure...and obtain approval from the District Manager, a plan for abandonment based on...the plan is approved by the District Manager and documentation is included in...

  6. Equally potent?: Does cellular reprogramming justify the abandonment of human embryonic stem cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Nazor, Kristopher L; Loring, Jeanne F.; Louise C Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells and our ability to transdifferentiate somatic cells might obviate the clinical use of embryonic stem cells in the future. Too many questions currently remain unanswered, however, to abandon embryonic stem cell research.

  7. 75 FR 42814 - Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis-Abandonment Exemption-in Howard County, IN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ...Railroad Company of Indianapolis--Abandonment Exemption-- in Howard County, IN Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis (CERA...Industrial Lead between milepost 55.66 and milepost 58.5, in Howard County, Ind. The line traverses United States Postal...

  8. The U.S. Forest Service abandoned mine land inventory in Colorado: Background, progress, and preliminary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (Gon into a geographic information system (GIS) creating a geo-referenced data set. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project began in 1991 and is ongoing. To date, field inventories of the Arapaho, Roosevelt, Pike, and Rio Grande National Forests have been completed. Work in the San Isabel, San Juan, White River, Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Grand Mesa National Forests is in progress. Through the 1994 field season approximately 9,667 mine features (openings, dumps, tailings, highwalls, etc.) have been inventoriedThe U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (

  9. Assessing the effect of agricultural land abandonment on bird communities in southern-eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkak, Sylvia; Radovic, Andreja; Nikolov, Stoyan C; Shumka, Spase; Kakalis, Lefteris; Kati, Vassiliki

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is recognized as a major environmental threat in Europe, being particularly pronounced in south-eastern Europe, where knowledge on its effects is limited. Taking the Balkan Peninsula as a case study, we investigated agricultural abandonment impact on passerine communities at regional level. We set up a standard methodology for site selection (70 sites) and data collection, along a well-defined forest-encroachment gradient that reflects land abandonment in four countries: Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia and Greece. Regardless the different socio-economic and political histories in the Balkans that led to diverse land abandonment patterns in space and time, rural abandonment had a consistent negative effect on bird communities, while regional-level analysis revealed patterns that were hidden at local level. The general trends were an increase of forest-dwelling bird species at the expense of farmland birds, the decline of overall bird species richness, as well as the decline of Species of European Conservation Concern (SPECs) richness and abundance. Many farmland bird species declined with land abandonment, whereas few forest species benefited from the process. In conclusion, our results support CAP towards hampering rural land abandonment and preserving semi-open rural mosaics in remote upland areas, using a suite of management measures carefully tailored to local needs. The maintenance of traditional rural landscapes should be prioritized in the Balkans, through the timely identification of HNV farmland that is most prone to abandonment. We also suggest that coordinated transnational research is needed, for a better assessment of conservation options in remote rural landscapes at European scale, including the enhancement of wild grazers' populations as an alternative in areas where traditional land management is rather unlikely to be re-established. PMID:26379254

  10. A Novel Abandoned Object Detection System Based on Three-Dimensional Image Information

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yiliang; Lan, Jinhui; Ran, Bin; Gao, Jing; Zou, Jinlin

    2015-01-01

    A new idea of an abandoned object detection system for road traffic surveillance systems based on three-dimensional image information is proposed in this paper to prevent traffic accidents. A novel Binocular Information Reconstruction and Recognition (BIRR) algorithm is presented to implement the new idea. As initial detection, suspected abandoned objects are detected by the proposed static foreground region segmentation algorithm based on surveillance video from a monocular camera. After det...

  11. Modelling the rate of secondary succession after farmland abandonment in a Mediterranean mountain area

    OpenAIRE

    Pueyo, Yolanda; Beguería, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Secondary succession after farmland abandonment has become a common process in north Mediterranean countries, especially in mountain areas. In this paper, a methodology is tested which combines Markov chains and logistic multivariate regression to model secondary succession after farmland abandonment in environments where abiotic constraints play a major role, like mountain areas. In such landscapes, a decay in the succession rate with time is usually found, as the best locations are progress...

  12. Economic incentives for abandoning or expanding gum arabic production in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim, A.; Ierland, E.C., van; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we use a real options approach to analyze farmers' economic incentives to abandon gum production or expand by creating new plantations. Our results indicate that agricultural crops currently provide higher economic benefits as compared to gum agroforestry. However, we show that the incentives for gum producers to abandon gum production is low, because (i) land is abundant, (ii) gum arabic is produced during the dry season and agricultural crops mainly during the wet season, and ...

  13. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is common in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about its impacts on biodiversity. To upscale existing case-study insights to the Pan-Mediterranean level, we conducted a metaanalysis of the effects of land abandonment on plant and animal species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen,...

  14. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Sherba; Leonhard Blesius; Jerry Davis

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using th...

  15. Modeling bird diversity in a multi-habitat at mountain landscape undergoing agricultural abandonment

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme, João Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Background - In Europe, agricultural land abandonment is one of the main land-use drivers in mountain areas. The loss of extensive traditional agricultural lands -due to intensification and abandonment- promoted steep declines of farmland birds during the last decades. On the other hand, native galicio-portuguese oak forests are important biodiversity reservoirs and mountains ecosystems provide important ecosystem services. Aim - We studied the bird communities by analyzing species-area relat...

  16. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  17. 78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... class location, failures, leakage history, corrosion, substantial changes in cathodic protection... July 29, 1993 (ADB-93-03), and the most recent Advisory Bulletin (ADB-11-04) on July 27, 2011, 76 FR... Pipeline Company experienced a pipeline failure near Laurel, Montana, resulting in the release of...

  18. Redefining the Data Pipeline Using GPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, C.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Packham, C.

    2013-10-01

    There are two major challenges facing the next generation of data processing pipelines: 1) handling an ever increasing volume of data as array sizes continue to increase and 2) the desire to process data in near real-time to maximize observing efficiency by providing rapid feedback on data quality. Combining the power of modern graphics processing units (GPUs), relational database management systems (RDBMSs), and extensible markup language (XML) to re-imagine traditional data pipelines will allow us to meet these challenges. Modern GPUs contain hundreds of processing cores, each of which can process hundreds of threads concurrently. Technologies such as Nvidia's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform and the PyCUDA (http://mathema.tician.de/software/pycuda) module for Python allow us to write parallel algorithms and easily link GPU-optimized code into existing data pipeline frameworks. This approach has produced speed gains of over a factor of 100 compared to CPU implementations for individual algorithms and overall pipeline speed gains of a factor of 10-25 compared to traditionally built data pipelines for both imaging and spectroscopy (Warner et al., 2011). However, there are still many bottlenecks inherent in the design of traditional data pipelines. For instance, file input/output of intermediate steps is now a significant portion of the overall processing time. In addition, most traditional pipelines are not designed to be able to process data on-the-fly in real time. We present a model for a next-generation data pipeline that has the flexibility to process data in near real-time at the observatory as well as to automatically process huge archives of past data by using a simple XML configuration file. XML is ideal for describing both the dataset and the processes that will be applied to the data. Meta-data for the datasets would be stored using an RDBMS (such as mysql or PostgreSQL) which could be easily and rapidly queried and file I/O would be kept at a minimum. We believe this redefined data pipeline will be able to process data at the telescope, concurrent with continuing observations, thus maximizing precious observing time and optimizing the observational process in general. We also believe that using this design, it is possible to obtain a speed gain of a factor of 30-40 over traditional data pipelines when processing large archives of data.

  19. White Innocence and Mexican Americans as Perpetrators in the School-to-Prison Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This essay discusses white innocence as a mechanism that may contribute to perceptions of Mexican Americans as perpetrators. These perceptions are crucial to ways teachers and administrators respond to student actions as the initial steps in the school-to-prison pipeline. Specifically, this work reviews the rhetoric of white innocence in a high…

  20. Considerations about equations for steady state flow in natural gas pipelines

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Paulo M., Coelho; Carlos, Pinho.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work a discussion on the particularities of the pressure drop equations being used in the design of natural gas pipelines will be carried out. Several versions are presented according to the different flow regimes under consideration and through the presentation of these equations the basic [...] physical support for each one is discussed as well as their feasibility.

  1. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program.

  2. Pediatric Medical Care System in China Has Significantly Reduced Abandonment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi; Hong, Dan; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Defei; Ashwani, Neetica; Hu, Shaoyan

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we have analyzed both administrative and clinical data from our hospital during 2002 to 2012 to evaluate the influence of government medical policies on reducing abandonment treatment in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Two policies funding for the catastrophic diseases and the new rural cooperative medical care system (NRCMS) were initiated in 2005 and 2011, respectively. About 1151 children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia were enrolled in our study during this period and 316 cases abandoned treatment. Statistical differences in sex, age, number of children in the family, and family financial status were observed. Of most importance, the medical insurance coverage was critical for reducing abandonment treatment. However, 92 cases abandoning treatment after relapse did not show significant difference either in medical insurance coverage or in duration from first complete remission. In conclusion, financial crisis was the main reason for abandoning treatment. Government-funded health care expenditure programs reduced families' economic burden and thereby reduced the abandonment rate with resultant increased overall survival. PMID:25393454

  3. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program

  4. Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline: challenges and solutions; Gasoduto Urucu-Manaus: desafios e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Mauro de O.; Machado, Otto Luiz de M.; Moura, Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of building and develop a gas pipeline such as Urucu-Manaus, in the middle of Amazon rain forest, it is beyond to conventional engineering solutions that is common used in this kind of contract. The development of this venture join a large variety of activities since the several techniques of pipeline construction to the improvement the skills of the local workers but never to leave out important points such as integrated management of work, for instance, safety, environment care, health, communication with the involved parts, archaeology, goods and services acquisition, telecommunications and the mean of transportation to equipment and workers. (author)

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF HIGH SPEED PIPELINED ADC ARCHITECTURE FOR I-UWB RECEIVER

    OpenAIRE

    D. REENA, K. LOKESH KRISHNA, T. RAMASHRI, D. SRIHARI

    2013-01-01

    : In this work, a 4-bit pipelined ADC that provides the high speed conversion needed in UWB applications with sampling frequency of the order 60 Gbps is proposed. The pipelined ADC designed uses a high speed 1-bit comparator, wide band operational amplifier, sampling circuit and a high speed buffer. The individual blocks are designed using 130nm CMOS low power library cells. The individual blocks are designed to operate at a frequency greater than 60 Gbps sampling rate. In order to operate in...

  6. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  7. Geophysics and Texas History: Teachers Utilize GPS and GPR Technology to Help Restore an Abandoned Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Wallace, D.; Kahera, A.

    2009-12-01

    In July 2009, a group of twenty-six K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface and handheld global positioning system (GPS) units and a total station to record surface positions. The teachers were participants in a summer course at Rice University, ESCI 515: Geophysical Field Work for Educators. The course met for 8 full days over a two week period. During this time, the group acquired and interpreted 53 GPR profiles and over 700 GPS positions. The results of the study were presented to the Prairie View community at the end of the two weeks, and our data will be used in their effort to obtain a historical site designation for the cemetery. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850’s. There are very few markers remaining, but a previous ESCI 515 course (in summer 2007) discovered multiple unmarked burials using GPR, which were confirmed by subsequent excavations. This past summer, ESCI 515 participants acquired GPR profiles in previously unexplored areas, used a total station to accurately record the positions of surface features such as headstones, and used handheld GPS units to map the location of a nearby stream bed. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used science for community service (i.e. restoring an abandoned cemetery). Through background research, they derived a rich historical context for their investigation and learned to appreciate the multi-disciplinary aspect of solving real-world scientific problems.

  8. 49 CFR 195.1 - Which pipelines are covered by this part?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...strength; (3) Any pipeline segment that crosses a waterway currently...a low-stress pipeline or segment of pipeline that: (i... (6) For purposes of the reporting requirements in subpart B...operator; (7) A pipeline segment upstream (generally...

  9. 78 FR 26057 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Pipeline Corporate Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ...Requirement Title: Pipeline Corporate Security Review (PCSR...Forms(s): Pipeline Corporate Security Review (PCSR...security. To carry out this responsibility regarding pipelines, TSA...practices through its Pipeline Corporate Security Review...

  10. A Lower Rhine flood chronology based on the sedimentary record of an abandoned channel fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, W. H. J.; Winkels, T. G.; Prins, M. A.; de Groot, L. V.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Cohen, K. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Bienener Altrhein is an abandoned channel of the Lower Rhine (Germany). Following a late 16th century abandonment event, the channel was disconnected from the main stream and the oxbow lake gradually filled with 8 meters of flood deposits. This process still continues today. During annual floods, a limited proportion of overbank discharge is routed across the oxbow lake. Large floods produce individual flood layers, which are visually recognized in the sedimentary sequence. Based on the sedimentary characteristics of these event layers, we created a ~450-year flood chronology for the Lower Rhine. Laser-diffraction grain size measurements were used to assess relative flood magnitudes for individual flood event layers. Continuous sampling at a ~2 cm interval provided a high-resolution record, resolving the record at an annual scale. Standard descriptive techniques (e.g., mean grain size, 95th percentile, % sand) and the more advanced 'end member modelling' were applied to zoom in on the coarse particle bins in the grain size distributions, which are indicative of higher flow velocities. The most recent part of the record was equated to modern discharge measurements. This allows to establish relations between deposited grain size characteristics in the abandoned channel and flood magnitudes in the main river. This relation can also be applied on flood event layers from previous centuries, for which only water level measurements and historical descriptions exist. This makes this method relevant to expand data series used in flood frequency analysis from 100 years to more than 400 years. To date event-layers in the rapidly accumulated sequence, we created an age-depth model that uses organic content variations to tune sedimentation rates between the known basal and top ages. No suitable identifiable organic material for radiocarbon dating was found in the cores. Instead, palynological results (introduction of agricultural species) and palaeomagnetic secular variation measurements did allow to verify the initial age-depth model. Furthermore, initially modelled ages attributed to the five biggest floods were compared to hazardous events described in historical records. As these reproduce their dates within a decade, the dated flooding events are used as additional age tie-points for further improvement of the age-depth model. The refined model was in turn used to date floods of a medium magnitude, which are more common and thus more difficult to individually relate to a specific historical peak discharge. This case study demonstrates the suitability of channel fill sediment records for (palaeo)flood characterisation. Based on a network of sites (work in progress), it should be possible to provide an accurate (internally cross-validated) flood chronology for the Lower Rhine and delta. Moreover, given the preservation of filled oxbows from all periods along the Lower Rhine, it is possible to extend relative flood chronologies back to the Early Holocene using channel fill sedimentary data.

  11. The Dark Energy Survey Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganson, Eric; Dark Energy Survey Data Management Team

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a large optical survey that is intended to study cosmology using Type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, galaxy cluster counting and gravitational lensing. DES comprises two five year surveys (roughly 100 nights per year) on the Blanco 4-m telescope at the Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (CTIO) in Chile. The first is a 5,000 square degree survey of the high Galactic latitude Southern sky to roughly 24th magnitude in the g, r, i, z and Y filters. The second is a set of ten 3 square degree fields that are observed roughly once every five nights as a supernova survey. DES will be significantly deeper than and have superior image quality to previous wide field surveys like SDSS and Pan-STARRS1. Reduced DES images are made public at NOAO roughly one year after the images are taken. DES plans to release its first two years of data (images and catalogs) in 2017 and its entire dataset after it finishes taking data in 2018. The National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) at the University of Illinois is leading the DES data processing. I describe this data processing, the DES pipeline and the DES data in this poster.

  12. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  13. Basic Data Report for Well Plugging and Abandonment and Reconfiguration Activities for Fiscal Year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FY 2005 program was initiated on March 31, 2005, and concluded on July 16, 2005. The FY 2005 program initially included 25 wells requiring workover (P and A, Magenta reconfiguration, cleaning and keeping). During the process, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requested transfer of two wells (H-7c and H-8c) to their ownership for future livestock watering. These wells were transferred to the BLM through execution of Form wr-03, Declaration of Owner of Underground Water Rights, between the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE), the BLM, and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). One well (H-2b2) was cleaned and retained as a Culebra monitor well for continued use. One well (H-3d) was converted to a shallow well to monitor the formational contact between the Dewey Lake Redbeds Formation and the Santa Rosa Formation in support of the DP-831 discharge permit monitoring program. Nine dual-completion wells were reconfigured as Magenta-only monitor wells, and 12 wells were plugged and abandoned permanently. This report presents the summary in the same order that the wells were worked in the field.

  14. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  15. Surface electromagnetic technology for the external inspection of oil and gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Delgado, O.; Flores, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico); Nakamura, E. [Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present a surface electromagnetic technology for the non-destructive pipeline coating inspection (SEMPI). This technology allows: determination of the depth and plane position of pipelines, quantitative evaluation of the insulation resistance and delimitation of zones with coating damages, estimation of the performance of the cathodic protection system (CPS) and detection of its connections to out-of-service pipes and other grounded constructions, and assessment of the soil aggressively. The SEMPI technology is based on the approximation of pipelines by heterogeneous transmission lines with variable leakage conductance and pipe impedance to represent insulation coating and wall thickness damages. Based on the result of simulations, we have optimized the field measurements and developed the interpretation procedure of experimental data. The field operations include surface measurements of magnetic field, voltage on the control posts of the CPS and soil resistivity. In zones with coating damages the detailed measurements can be performed using magnetic or electric field to increase the resolution in localizing and evaluating the insulation damages. The SEMPI technology has been applied for inspections of pipelines with different technical characteristics in complicated environmental conditions. The examples presented in this work confirm the high efficiency of the developed technology for external integrity evaluation of pipelines. (author)

  16. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2003-04-17

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with a custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the 1st quarter of 2003 included fine-tuning and debugging of the custom Optical Time Domain Reflectometer being constructed for data collection and analysis. The detector was redesigned reducing the noise floor by over a factor of ten. While GTI's OTDR was being improved, a new, commercial OTDR was used to verify that the technique is capable of measuring one pound continuous force applied to the Hergalite. Optical fibers were installed at the ANR Pipeline test site along an operating pipeline.

  17. The flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical CO2 leakage from a pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pipeline leakage process of supercritical CO2 involves complex phenomena because of the high inner pressure and the multiphase choked flow near the leakage point. In this work, an experimental facility was developed to investigate the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic behaviour in pressurized CO2 leakage process. Characteristics of the flow and heat transfer in the leakage processes were studied by investigating the variation of the mass flow rate and the development of the thermal boundary layer in the pipeline. Inner pressure, mass outflow rate at the leakage nozzle and Nusselt number in the pipeline were studied quantitatively based on the laboratory pipeline leakage system. Typical rapid expansion behaviour of supercritical fluid including sonic-choked flow phenomena and phase-transition process was observed during the leakage process. The data of the mass flow rate and Nusselt number could be used for leakage detection and validating numerical simulations of supercritical-gas multiphase flows in the pipeline leakage process. - Highlights: • A typical highly under-expanded jet flow outside the leakage nozzle is observed. • A flimsy dry ice bank near the leakage nozzle along with the jet flow is observed. • Variations of mass outflow rate and pressure of the supercritical CO2 are obtained. • Heat transfer near the leakage point shows a unique characteristic

  18. A computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline georeferencing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, A.G.; Pellanda, P.C.; Gois, J.A. [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Roquette, P.; Pinto, M.; Durao, R. [Instituto de Pesquisas da Marinha (IPqM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.S.V.; Martins, W.F.; Camillo, L.M.; Sacsa, R.P.; Madeira, B. [Ministerio de Ciencia e Tecnologia (CT-PETRO2006MCT), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP). Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor Petroleo e Gas Natural

    2009-07-01

    This work presents a computational platform for modeling and simulation of pipeline geo referencing systems, which was developed based on typical pipeline characteristics, on the dynamical modeling of Pipeline Inspection Gauge (PIG) and on the analysis and implementation of an inertial navigation algorithm. The software environment of PIG trajectory simulation and navigation allows the user, through a friendly interface, to carry-out evaluation tests of the inertial navigation system under different scenarios. Therefore, it is possible to define the required specifications of the pipeline geo referencing system components, such as: required precision of inertial sensors, characteristics of the navigation auxiliary system (GPS surveyed control points, odometers etc.), pipeline construction information to be considered in order to improve the trajectory estimation precision, and the signal processing techniques more suitable for the treatment of inertial sensors data. The simulation results are analyzed through the evaluation of several performance metrics usually considered in inertial navigation applications, and 2D and 3D plots of trajectory estimation error and of recovered trajectory in the three coordinates are made available to the user. This paper presents the simulation platform and its constituting modules and defines their functional characteristics and interrelationships.(author)

  19. Toxocariasis: seroprevalence in abandoned-institutionalized children and infants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Susana, Archelli; Graciela I, Santillan; Reinaldo, Fonrouge; Graciela, Céspedes; Lola, Burgos; Nilda, Radman.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available La toxocariosis es una enfermedad presente en todo el mundo. Como causa primaria de infección se cita la contaminación de los suelos con huevos embrionados de Toxocara canis. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la seroprevalencia de toxocariosis en niños expósitos (abandonados) de 10 meses hasta 3 años, [...] los que se consideran de alto riesgo por su condición de orfandad y escasa edad. Las muestras de sangre fueron recolectadas de 120 niños institucionalizados en un orfelinato de la ciudad de La Plata. En este estudio, se observó un porcentaje de seropositivos para T. canis de 38,33 % por la técnica de ELISA y de 45 % por la técnica de Western blot, con diferencias significativas entre los grupos etarios estudiados (A: 2 años). Los niños del grupo A presentaron una frecuencia de seropositividad de 23,91 %; los del grupo B, de 42,85 % y en los niños del grupo C fue del 56 %. Esto indica un incremento de la frecuencia de presentación a medida que aumentó la edad, debido probablemente a las mayores posibilidades de contactar con estados infectantes del parásito, ya que los caninos y el suelo se hallan frecuentemente infectados por huevos de T. canis. Los niños abandonados provienen de hogares carenciados, donde a las malas condiciones de higiene resultantes de la ausencia de red de agua y cloacal se le agrega la frecuente promiscuidad con caninos, lo cual propicia la presencia de parasitosis. Sumado a la condición de desamparo, esto produce un estado de máxima vulnerabilidad. Abstract in english Toxocariasis is an infection that has worldwide distribution. Toxocara canis is the most relevant agent due to its frequent occurrence in humans. Soil contamination with embryonated eggs is the primary source of T. canis. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in 10-month t [...] o 3 year-old abandoned infants, considered to be at high risk because of their orphanhood status and early age. Blood samples were collected from 120 children institutionalized in an orphanage in the city of La Plata. In this study, we observed 38.33% of seropositive cases for T. canis by ELISA and 45% by Western blot techniques; significant differences among groups A (2 years) were also found. In research group A, children presented a seropositivity rate of 23.91%, in group B of 42.85% and in group C of 56%, which indicates an increase in frequency as age advances, probably because of greater chances of contact with infective forms of the parasite since canines and soil are frequently infected with T. canis eggs. Abandoned children come from poor households, under highly unsanitary conditions resulting from inadequate or lack of water supply and sewer networks, and frequent promiscuity with canines, which promotes the occurrence of parasitic diseases. These children are highly vulnerable due to their orphanhood status and age.

  20. Overview of the TESS Science Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2015-12-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) science pipeline is being developed by the Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) at NASA Ames Research Center based on the highly successful Kepler science pipeline. Like the Kepler pipeline, the TESS science pipeline will provide calibrated pixels, simple and systematic error- corrected aperture photometry, and centroid locations for all 200,000+ target stars, observed over the 2-year mission, along with associated uncertainties. The pixel and light curve products are modeled on the Kepler archive products and will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). In addition to the nominal science data, the 30-minute Full Frame Images (FFIs) simultaneously collected by TESS will also be calibrated by the SPOC and archived at MAST.The TESS pipeline will search through all light curves for evidence of periodic transit signals that occur when a planet crosses the disk of its host star. The Data Validation (DV) pipeline component will generate a suite of diagnostic metrics for each transit-like signature discovered, and extract planetary parameters by fitting a limb-darkened transit model to each potential planetary signature. The results of the transit search will be similar in content to the Kepler transit search products (tabulated numerical results, time series products, and pdf reports) all of which will be archived to MAST.This paper provides an overview of the TESS science pipeline and describes the development of the SPOC remaining before launch in August 2017.TESS was selected by NASA for launch in 2017 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission.

  1. Skaha Lake crossing, innovations in pipeline installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the construction of a 10.8 km long NPS16 (406 mm, 16 inch diameter) pipeline, across Skaha Lake, in the south Okanagan valley, British Columbia, Canada. The water crossing is part of the 32 km South Okanagan Natural Gas Pipeline Project (SONG) operated by BC Gas. The pipeline is located in a region dependent on year-round tourism. Therefore, the design and construction was influenced by sensitive environmental and land use concerns. From earlier studies, BC Gas identified surface tow or lay as preferred installation methods. The contractor, Fraser River Pile and Dredge departed from a conventional laybarge methodology after evaluating environmental data and assessing locally available equipment. The contractor proposed a surface tow with multiple surface tie-ins. This approach modification to the ''Surface Tow and Buoy Release Method'' (STBRM) used previously with success on relatively short underwater pipelines. A total of 10 pipe strings, up to 1 km long, were towed into position on the lake and tied-in using a floating platform. The joined pipeline was lowered to the lakebed by divers releasing buoys while tension was maintained from a winch barge at the free end of the pipeline. From analysis and field verified measurement the installation stresses were well below the allowable limits during all phases of construction. The entire construction, including mobilization and demobilization, lasted less than three months, and actual pipelaying less than three weeks. Installation was completed within budget and on schedule, without any environmental or safety related incidents. The SONG pipeline became operational in December 1994

  2. Extending the Fermi-LAT Data Processing Pipeline to the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmer, Stephan; Glanzman, Tom; Johnson, Tony; Lavalley, Claudia; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; 10.1088/1742-6596/396/3/032121

    2012-01-01

    The Data Handling Pipeline ("Pipeline") has been developed for the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi) Large Area Telescope (LAT) which launched in June 2008. Since then it has been in use to completely automate the production of data quality monitoring quantities, reconstruction and routine analysis of all data received from the satellite and to deliver science products to the collaboration and the Fermi Science Support Center. Aside from the reconstruction of raw data from the satellite (Level 1), data reprocessing and various event-level analyses are also reasonably heavy loads on the pipeline and computing resources. These other loads, unlike Level 1, can run continuously for weeks or months at a time. In addition it receives heavy use in performing production Monte Carlo tasks. The software comprises web-services that allow online monitoring and provides charts summarizing work flow aspects and performance information. The server supports communication with several batch systems such as LSF and BQS a...

  3. Area and Throughput Trade-Offs in the Design of Pipelined Discrete Wavelet Transform Architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Sandro V

    2011-01-01

    The JPEG2000 standard defines the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a linear space-to-frequency transform of the image domain in an irreversible compression. This irreversible discrete wavelet transform is implemented by FIR filter using 9/7 Daubechies coefficients or a lifting scheme of factorizated coefficients from 9/7 Daubechies coefficients. This work investigates the tradeoffs between area, power and data throughput (or operating frequency) of several implementations of the Discrete Wavelet Transform using the lifting scheme in various pipeline designs. This paper shows the results of five different architectures synthesized and simulated in FPGAs. It concludes that the descriptions with pipelined operators provide the best area-power-operating frequency trade-off over non-pipelined operators descriptions. Those descriptions require around 40% more hardware to increase the maximum operating frequency up to 100% and reduce power consumption to less than 50%. Starting from behavioral HDL descriptions pr...

  4. DETECTION OF UNAUTHORIZED CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENT IN PIPELINE RIGHT-OF-WAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James E. Huebler

    2002-07-19

    Natural gas transmission companies mark the right-of-way areas where pipelines are buried with warning signs to prevent accidental third-party damage. Nevertheless, pipelines are sometimes damaged by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline was damaged. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber as a distributed sensor and interrogating the fiber with an custom optical time domain reflectometer. Key issues are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. The work performed in the third quarter of the project (2nd quarter of 2002) includes design of the diode laser driver and high-speed detector electronics and programming of the custom optical time domain reflectometer.

  5. Derrick Hindery. From Enron to Evo. Pipeline Politics, Global Environmentalism, and Indigenous Rights in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Arana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available From Enron to Evo is a long-term study of Enron and Shell’s construction of the Cuiabá pipeline in eastern Bolivia. The pipeline goes through the middle of the Chiquitano forest and affects a population of about 8,000. The project also has a negative impact on four critical ecoregions; the Gran Chaco and Cerrado, which are a mixture of grasslands and scattered trees, the Chiquitano dry forest, and the Pantanal wetlands. The Cuiabá pipeline has been highly contested by the thirty-four Chiquitano and two Ayoreo communities that live in the area. After years of field research, extensive interviews and document analyses, Dr. Hindery manages to expose the murky ways in which the hydrocarbon industry works in Bolivia. This is an industry where the powerful –mainly multinational oil companies and the Bolivian government– abuse the ecoregion and the indigenous populations that live on it.

  6. Investigating pipeline steel inhomogeneity with Magnetic Barkhausen Noise and Magnetic Flux Leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of pipeline steel characteristics under conditions of high stress and background magnetization is critical for interpretation of the Magnetic Flux Leakage signals obtained under similar conditions. The Barkhausen effect is due to abrupt and irreversible changes in the domain magnetization of a ferromagnetic material when it is subjected to a varying magnetic field. Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) is proposed as a viable NDE technique for the characterization of pipeline steel samples in conjunction with other widely used NDE methods. A quantity - 'MBN Energy' - is defined, which allows the detection of sample features such as pipeline welds, bulk magnetic easy axes and manufacturing stresses indirectly. This work examines the analysis of the MBN signal for the retrieval of information from samples under such extreme circumstances

  7. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  8. Implementing an X-ray validation pipeline for the Protein Data Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implementation of a validation pipeline, based on community recommendations, for future depositions of X-ray crystal structures in the Protein Data Bank is described. There is an increasing realisation that the quality of the biomacromolecular structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive needs to be assessed critically using established and powerful validation methods. The Worldwide Protein Data Bank (wwPDB) organization has convened several Validation Task Forces (VTFs) to advise on the methods and standards that should be used to validate all of the entries already in the PDB as well as all structures that will be deposited in the future. The recommendations of the X-ray VTF are currently being implemented in a software pipeline. Here, ongoing work on this pipeline is briefly described as well as ways in which validation-related information could be presented to users of structural data

  9. Safety management of pipelines based on structural reliability: historical perspective and progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Andre Teofilo; Bazan, Felipe Alexander Vargas [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Mendes, Renato [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Donato, Guilherme [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS/CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas e Desenvolvimento; Gardiner, Michael [GL Noble Denton, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Since the early beginnings in the sixties and seventies, Structural Reliability theory has reached a mature stage encompassing solid theoretical developments and increasing practical applications. Structural reliability methods have permeated the engineering profession, finding applications in code calibration, structural optimization, life extension of existing structures, life-cycle management of infrastructure risks and costs, and so on. This review paper shows that the ground work for Reliability Based Design and Assessment (RBDA) of onshore pipeline systems is already developed. Hence, this allows the economic management of the risks involved in operation of pipeline systems. It is shown that RBDA is a rational tool to safely manage the operational life of pipeline systems, optimizing initial design and the expenditures in inspection and maintenance operations. (author)

  10. The Ruptured Pipeline: Analysis of the Mining Engineering Faculty Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, M.

    2011-12-01

    The booming commodities markets of the past seven years have created an enormous demand for economic geologists, mining engineers, and extractive metallurgists. The mining sector has largely been recession proof due to demand drivers coming from developing rather than developed nations. The strong demand for new hires as well as mid-career hires has exposed the weakness of the U.S. university supply pipeline for these career fields. A survey of mining and metallurgical engineering faculty and graduate students was conducted in 2010 at the request of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. The goals of the surveys were to determine the demographics of the U.S. faculty in mining and metallurgical engineering, the expected faculty turn over by 2010 and the potential supply of graduate students as the future professorate. All Mining Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering degrees in the U.S. are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and the specific courses required are set by the sponsoring professional society, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. There are 13 universities in the U.S. that offer a degree in Mining Engineering accredited as Mining Engineering and 1 university that grants a Mining Engineering degree accredited under general engineering program requirements. Faculty numbers are approximately 87 tenure track positions with a total undergraduate enrollment of slightly over 1,000 in the 2008-2009 academic year. There are approximately 262 graduate students in mining engineering in the U.S. including 87 Ph.D. students. Mining Engineering department heads have identified 14 positions open in 2010 and 18 positions expected to be open in the next 5 years and an additional 21 positions open by 2020. The current survey predicts a 56% turn over in mining faculty ranks over the next 10 years but a retirement of 100% of senior faculty over 10 years. 63% of graduate students say they are interested in a university career at some point in their lives but only 6% of the PhD respondents had applied for the open positions. 69% of Ph.D. students in the survey had graduation dates that would have made them eligible to apply for the open positions. 51% of the responding graduate students are US citizens. Full time graduate student enrollment would have to increase by 75% in order to provide enough graduate students to meet tenure and promotion expectations for mining engineering faculty in the U.S. New research funding on the order of $17M per year would have to be supplied to sustain the mining engineering faculty at a level expected of most R1 engineering colleges. Salaries for new faculty hires are comparable to those offered to BSc graduates by industry. The difficulties in achieving tenure due to lack of government research funding have made academic careers unattractive. If a solution is not found soon to refill the faculty pipeline, the U.S. is in danger of losing nearly all of its capacity to educate students in mining engineering.

  11. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors / Determinantes do abandono do aleitamento materno exclusivo: fatores psicossociais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariana Campos Martins, Machado; Karine Franklin, Assis; Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho, Oliveira; Andréia Queiroz, Ribeiro; Raquel Maria Amaral, Araújo; Alexandre Faisal, Cury; Silvia Eloiza, Priore; Sylvia do Carmo Castro, Franceschini.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar os determinantes ao abandono do aleitamento materno exclusivo. MÉTODOS Estudo longitudinal baseado em coorte de nascimentos realizado em Viçosa, Minas Gerais. Acompanharam-se 168 puérperas provenientes da rede pública de saúde em 2011/2012. Foram realizadas três entrevistas com a [...] s puérperas: aos 30, 60 e 120 dias após o parto. O abandono do aleitamento materno exclusivo foi analisado no segundo e quarto meses após o parto. Aplicou-se escala Edinburgh Post-Natal Depression Escale para identificar os sintomas depressivos no primeiro e segundo encontros, adotando-se o ponto de corte ? 12. Foram investigadas variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas, obstétricas, condições emocionais e rede social da puérpera durante a gestação e puerpério. RESULTADOS As prevalências de abandono do aleitamento materno exclusivo aos 30, 60 e 120 dias após o parto foram 53,6% (n = 90), 47,6% (n = 80) e 69,6% (n = 117), respectivamente, e sua incidência no quarto mês em relação ao primeiro foi 48,7%. Sintomas de depressão pós-parto e parto traumático associaram-se com abandono do aleitamento materno exclusivo no segundo mês após o parto. No quarto mês, mostraram significância as variáveis: menor escolaridade materna, não possuir imóvel próprio, ter voltado a trabalhar, não ter recebido orientações sobre amamentação no puerpério, reação negativa da mulher com a notícia da gestação e não receber ajuda do companheiro com a criança. CONCLUSÕES Fatores psicossociais e sociodemográficos se mostraram fortes preditores do abandono precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo. Dessa forma, é necessário identificar e tratar precocemente as nutrizes com sintomatologia depressiva, reduzindo a morbidade a ela associada e promovendo maior duração do aleitamento materno exclusivo. Os profissionais de saúde, bem como o apoio recebido no lar e no trabalho, podem beneficiar esse processo. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum [...] , with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ? 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90), 47.6% (n = 80), and 69.6% (n = 117), respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  12. Cinema 4D dalam Pipeline Produksi Serial Animasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiyansah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cinema 4D is best known as software that is efficient in render time. This is very beneficial especially for those who engaged in animated projects with tight deadlines and require work time efficiency, such as serial project. In addition to time, in the animated series production pipeline also generally require various items of work that involves a lot of resources implemented in parallel. This is to avoid delays to the overall project progress whenever a work item suffers setback due to any reason. Cinema 4D as a tool, allowing a project carried out with the most efficient method in accordance with needs, and flexibility that is the appeal of Cinema 4D as well as strength in the context of the animated series production.

  13. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Farmland abandonment is a widespread land-use change in temperate regions, due to increasing yields on productive lands, conservation policies, and the increasing imports of agricultural products from other regions. Assessing the environmental outcomes of abandonment and the potential for recultivation hinges on incomplete knowledge about the spatial patterns of fallow and abandoned farmland, especially at broad geographic scales. Our goals were to develop a methodology to map active and fallow land using MODIS Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series and to provide the first European-wide map of the extent of abandoned farmland (cropland and grassland) and recultivation. We used a geographically well-distributed training dataset to classify active and fallow farmland annually from 2001 to 2012 using a Random Forests classifier and validated the maps using independent observations from the field and from satellite images. The annual maps had an average overall accuracy of 90.1% (average user's accuracy of the fallow class was 73.9%), and we detected an average of 128.7 million hectares (Mha) of fallow land (24.4% of all farmland). Using the fallow/active time series, we mapped fallow frequency and hotspots of farmland abandonment and recultivation of unused farmland. We found a total of 46.1. Mha of permanently fallow farmland, much of which may be linked to abandonment that occurred after the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc. Up to 7.6. Mha of farmland was additionally abandoned from 2001 to 2012, mainly in Eastern Europe, Southern Scandinavia, and Europe's mountain regions. Yet, recultivation is widespread too (up to 11.2. Mha) and occurred predominantly in Eastern Europe (e.g., European Russia, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania) and in the Balkans. We also tested the robustness of our maps in relation to different abandonment and recultivation definitions, highlighting the usefulness of time series approaches to overcome problems when mapping transient land-use change. Our maps provide, to our knowledge, the first European-wide assessment of fallow, abandoned and recultivated farmland, thereby forming a basis for assessing the environmental outcomes of abandonment and recultivation and the potential of unused land for food production, bioenergy, and carbon storage.

  14. The orphan facilities and pipeline program: an industry/government responsibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, D.A.; Sandmeyer, D. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    The Orphan Well Program was established by the industry to ensure that orphan oil and gas well sites were properly abandoned without leaving a liability to the public, the industry or the government. A part of the program dealing with the implementation of the decontamination and land reclamation, has now been realized. Tracking and enforcing industry compliance for abandonment and reclamation of all upstream oil and gas facilities has become a major task that government agencies have committed themselves to work out jointly with the industry. Joint industry regulation or oversight of the Orphan Program is provided by a Fund Advisory Committee made up of members from industry and the government. A fund of five million dollars will be available to cover off decontamination and surface reclamation costs.

  15. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  16. A Cheap Levitating Gas/Load Pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. The main component of the natural gas is methane which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound). The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, does not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This aerial pipeline dramatically decreases the cost and the time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saves energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. The article contains a computed project for delivery 24 billion cubic meters of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year.

  17. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  18. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  19. 77 FR 46155 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...2137-0610. Current Expiration Date: 9/30/2012...Response Plans for Onshore Oil Pipelines. OMB Control Number: 2137-0589. Current Expiration Date: 9/30/2012...operator of an onshore oil pipeline facility to...

  20. 77 FR 27279 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ...2137-0610. Current Expiration Date: 9/30/2012...Response Plans for Onshore Oil Pipelines. OMB Control Number: 2137-0589. Current Expiration Date: 9/30/2012...operator of an onshore oil pipeline facility to...

  1. Enbridge northern pipeline: 25 years of operations, successes and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, Ingrid; Sen, Millan [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, Alberta, (Canada); Bidwell, Andrew [AMEC Earth and Environmental Calgary, Alberta, (Canada); Yoosef-Ghodsi, Nader [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, Alberta, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The Norman Wells pipeline is the first pipeline to be fully buried in the permafrost regions of Canada. Enbridge Pipelines Inc. had to face several challenges in the design and construction of this pipeline. This paper presents a review of the proposed design and construction process adopted to produce this pipeline. The selection of sites using finite element pipe/soil interaction models, the minimization of the thermal disturbance to the soil, the insulation of the permafrost slopes to minimize post-construction thaw, the evaluation of the effects of moving water bodies adjacent to the pipeline right-of-way and the use of in-line inspection tools (GEOPIG) are presented in detail. Some operational challenges with monitoring data such as the response to the discovery of several wrinkles are also described. This report showed the importance of flexible and modern pipeline monitoring programs to ensure the safety and integrity of this pipeline.

  2. 75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ...Telephones and Other Electronic Devices, 75 FR 9754...activities that affect the operation...tasks that may affect pipeline operation...Subject: Personal Electronic Device (PED) Related...activities that affect pipeline...

  3. 76 FR 34974 - Cranberry Pipeline Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ...Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR11-113-000] Cranberry Pipeline Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on June 6, 2011, Cranberry Pipeline Corporation (Cranberry) filed to request a case-specific waiver of section...

  4. 75 FR 28601 - Cranberry Pipeline Corporation; Notice of Compliance Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR10-4-001] Cranberry Pipeline Corporation; Notice of Compliance...that on April 27, 2010, and May 4, 2010, Cranberry Pipeline Corporation (Cranberry), filed its Statement of Operating...

  5. 78 FR 26357 - Cranberry Pipeline Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ...Commission [Docket Nos. PR13-47-000; PR13-19-000] Cranberry Pipeline Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 25, 2013, Cranberry Pipeline Corporation (Cranberry) submitted tariff records to reflect revisions to its...

  6. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  7. Geovisualization of Sub-surface Pipelines: A 3D Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Lateef Balogun; Abdul-Nasir Matori; Dano Umar Lawal

    2011-01-01

    This century has continued to witness an ever increasing reliance on Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology for the management of utilities’ pipelines world over. Underground cables and pipelines are required to transport essential utilities such as oil, gas, water and electricity from one part of the city to another. Unlike on-surface pipelines, the fact that subsurface pipelines are hidden from the naked eyes makes them susceptible to neglect and damages without being easily noti...

  8. Study on Wax Deposition of Heavy Crude Oil in Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurahman.HNour*1,; Nadia Eliza NatrahBintiJamaluddin2

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents wax deposition of heavy crude oil in pipelines study. Pipelines are widely used to transport crude oil.Wax deposition in a pipeline was caused by the high viscosity of the heavy crude oil, particularly if it is left untreated, may have severe consequences on the operational efficiency of a pipeline system. In order to overcome the wax deposition of the heavy crude oil, the crude oil is suggested to mix with water and emulsifier at certain conditions so that ...

  9. Risk Analysis Methods for Pipelines in Niger Delta

    OpenAIRE

    H.U. Nwosu; M.I. Enyiche

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on all possible risks, which may occur when carrying out a pipeline operation on an existing pipeline within the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Risk analysis methods for pipeline in Nigeria Niger Delta region were evaluated using A Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) method. A Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the complete pipeline process were carried out which identified most of the project’s possible failure modes. Two specific ...

  10. Real-time receding horizon optimisation of gas pipeline networks

    OpenAIRE

    Aalto, Hans

    2005-01-01

    Real-time optimisation of gas pipelines in transient conditions is considered to be a challenging problem. Many pipeline systems are, however, only mildly non-linear. It is shown, that even the shutdown event of a compressor station can be described using a linear model. A dynamic, receding horizon optimisation problem is defined, where the free response prediction of the pipeline is obtained from a pipeline simulator and the optimal values of the decision variables are obtained solving a Qua...

  11. The characteristics of soft rocks and their effect on the long term stability of abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that some caving, collapses and subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The authors present the experimental results on the characteristics of soft rocks from abandoned lignite mines in Tokai Region as well as the results of some analyses of their effects on the long-term stability of abandoned lignite mines. (authors)

  12. The characteristics of soft rocks and their effect on the long term stability of abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydan, O. [Tokai Univ., Deptt of Marine Civil Engineering, Shizuoka (Japan); Sakamoto, A.; Yamada, N.; Sugiura, K. [Tobishima Construction Company, Nagoya Branch (Japan); Kawamoto, T. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    It is well known that some caving, collapses and subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The authors present the experimental results on the characteristics of soft rocks from abandoned lignite mines in Tokai Region as well as the results of some analyses of their effects on the long-term stability of abandoned lignite mines. (authors)

  13. Digitally assisted pipeline ADCs theory and implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Murmann, Boris

    2007-01-01

    List of Figures. List of Tables. Acknowledgements. Preface. 1: Introduction. 1. Motivation. 2. Overview. 3. Chapter Organization. 2: Performance Trends. 1. Introduction. 2. Digital Performance Trends. 3. ADC Performance Trends. 3: Scaling Analysis. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic Device Scaling from a Digital Perspective. 3. Technology Metrics for Analog Circuits. 4. Scaling Impact on Matching-Limited Circuits. 5. Scaling Impact on Noise-Limited Circuits. 4: Improving Analog Circuit Efficiency. 1. Introduction. 2. Analog Circuit Challenges. 3. The Cost of Feedback. 4. Two-Stage Feedback Amplifier vs. Open-Loop Gain Stage. 5. Discussion. 5: Open-Loop Pipelined ADCs. 1. A Brief Review of Pipelined ADCs. 2. Conventional Stage Implementation. 3. Open-Loop Pipeline Stages. 4. Alternative Transconductor Implementations. 6: Digital Nonlinearity Correction. 1. Overview. 2. Error Model and Digital Correction. 3. Alternative Error Models. 7: Statistics-Based Parameter Estimation. 1. Introduction. 2. Modulation Approach. 3. R...

  14. The SWAT approach for pipeline watercourse crossings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasper, Steve [WorleyParsons Calgary, Pipeline Systems Business Unit, Calgary, AB (Canada)], email: steve.jasper@worleyparsons.com; Harris, Jason D. [Triton Environmental Consultants Ltd., Terrace, British Columbia (Canada)], email: jharris@triton-env.com; Doering, Raymond [Enbridge Northern Gateway Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)], email: raymond.doering@enbridge.com

    2010-07-01

    In a pipeline project, watercourse crossings are an important environmental and technical challenge. In identifying the best crossing location and method, many factors must be taken into account such as fish habitat, access, geotechnical and hydrological issues. The aim of this paper is to present a program used in a major pipeline project to assess crossings of sensitive watercourses. This program was implemented in the Enbridge Northern Gateway project which extends from Bruderheim, Alberta, to Kitimat, British Columbia, crossing over 750 watercourses. A sensitive watercourse assessment (SWAT) team composed of a fisheries biologist, a pipeline watercourse construction specialist and other personnel carried out assessments on the 200 sensitive watercourses identified. This program led to recommendations to shift the crossing location at 40% of the sensitive sites. This project showed that setting up a SWAT team be helpful in choosing the best location, method and construction timing for a crossing.

  15. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  16. Spitzer IRS Pipelines for General Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narron, B.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Ardila, D.; Laher, R. R.

    2008-08-01

    An effort is underway to make the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) data-processing pipelines available for use by astronomers worldwide. This will allow users to reprocess raw data downloaded from the Spitzer archive with customized calibration files, updated operational parameters, and/or a modified list of processing steps. The pipelines will create all standard BCD (basic calibrated data) and post-BCD products, plus additional intermediate products. The pipelines will be made up of newly developed Perl and C-shell ``executive'' scripts, plus the binary-executable modules currently used in operations (the modules' source code will not be distributed, however). The scripts are being designed for ease of use and will facilitate user-customization. The operating systems targeted for support are Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, and possibly Windows.

  17. Caspian pipeline combine awards construction contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) has let contract to Overseas Bechtel Inc. for a 500 mile crude oil export pipeline in Russia. Bechtel will provide engineering, procurement, financing, and construction services and serve as project manager for the 42 inc. line that will extend west from Grozny, near the Caspian Sea, to Novorossiisk, on the Black Sea. Estimated cost is more than $850 million. At Grozny, the new line will tie into 800 miles of existing pipeline that runs along the north shore of the Caspian Sea from supergiant Tengiz field in Kazakhstan. Together, the two segments will form a 1,300 mile system capable of shipping crude oil from the Tengiz region and from Baku, Azerbaijan, to a new terminal and port facilities at Novorossiisk for shipment to world markets, ultimately reaching open oceans via the Mediterranean Sea

  18. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoji; Yasuike, Motoshige; Nishiki, Issei; Iwasaki, Yuki; Fujiwara, Atushi; Kawato, Yasuhiko; Nakai, Toshihiro; Nagai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Takanori; Gojobori, Takashi; Ototake, Mitsuru

    2016-02-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies. PMID:26475935

  19. Leadership Pipeline : forbigående ledelsesmode eller solid viden?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det centrale spørgsmål: Er kompetencerne bag succesfuld ledelse virkelig systematisk og sig- nifikant forskellige på forskellige organisatoriske ledelsesniveauer? Almen forskningslitteratur om skiftende jobindhold og rollekrav på forskellige ledelsesniveauer gennemgås, og nyere forskning om- handlende forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af lederens evne til at udvise dynamisk situationstilpasset fleksibilitet i lederrollen på det aktuelle ledelsesniveau.

  20. Facilities removal working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.