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Sample records for abandoning pipelines working

  1. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  2. Abandoning wells working group

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  3. The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines

    Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

  4. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    1993-12-10

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

  5. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

  6. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes ∼ 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios

  7. Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    1993-12-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

  8. Television method of controlling stowing of abandoned workings

    Zimny, W.

    1978-01-01

    This method describes a method of monitoring stowing of an underground abandoned working by means of a television camera lowered through a drillhole from the surface. The method was used in Poland for the first time in the period from 1974 to 1976. The camera had been previously used to check the technical state of underground sewage systems. The sAV 18 camera can be lowered to a maximum depth of 400 m, it is explosion proof and can be used under conditions of explosion hazard. A scheme of the equipment is given. A method of determining size of old workings using the camera (with light source) is explained. Examples of photos made by the camera (on videotape) of the abandoned working being stowed with a sand-water mixture through a drillhole from the surface are also given. (In Polish)

  9. North Slope pipeline work strong; gas pipeline project deferred

    Hale, D.

    1982-09-01

    Over 225 miles of insulated pipelines will be installed on the North Slope as part of a 5-year, $10.5 billion program by Sohio and Arco to maintain output from the field to feed the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. New lines are for waterflood supply systems, low pressure production systems, produced water handling, and gas handling. Pipeline construction is quite active at both Prudhoe Bay and at Kuparuk Field. Future projects include an oil line to the Beaufort Sea, the Polar Gas Project, the Arctic Pilot project, and the Northern Tier Pipeline.

  10. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  11. Working group 7: pipeline risk management

    Kariyawasam, Shahani; Weir, David

    2011-07-01

    This seventh working group of the Banff 2011 conference provided an understanding of risk management process in the pipeline industry, including system-wide risk assessment, risk based integrity systems and risk control techniques. The presentations furnished a basis on which to discuss programs, processes and procedures including reliability based decision support and performance measures that support a company's risk management policy. This workshop was divided into three sessions. The first session focused on the comparison between reliability methods and conventional deterministic methods in terms of accuracy, simplicity and sensitivity. Next, the importance of low probability high consequence events and the processes to prevent them were discussed. The last session discussed the consequences of management processes on failures and risks. The debates following these presentations tried to identify the best management practices to reduce risks, and the regulations and requirements to develop.

  12. Environmental education work force pipeline strategic plan

    Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.

    1992-11-01

    This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Pence Brian; Whetten Kathryn; Ostermann Jan; Messer Lynne; Whetten Rachel; Buckner Megan; Thielman Nathan; O'Donnell Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and ...

  14. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Pence Brian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs, yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working Results The majority of OAC (60.7% engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

  15. Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together

    Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at

  16. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  17. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  18. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  19. Determination of the influence of the edge of an abandoned working on overlying and underlying seams using electrical resistance measurements

    Czekay, A.; Jaskowski, S.

    1979-01-01

    The authors describe underground measurement of the electrical resistance of rocks, and the precautions which must be taken to get valid results. A study was carried out in a Polish coal mine which was not gassy and where there were no rockbursts. In this case, the effect of the abandoned working was small. An important factor is the spacing of the measuring electrodes. (In Polish)

  20. The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics

    Santiago Pich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

  1. Degradation of the cast steel parts working in power plant pipelines

    D. Renowicz

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of materialdegradation on the initiation of cracking and on durability under creep and fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The aim of the research was to identify the properties of the material of thefittings cut out of a start-up pipeline connecting two OP-140 boilers with turbines, as well as to identify thereasons of failure of these parts after 100000 hours of operation. Results of the investigations were the basisof predicting the lifetime of machine parts and components of devices subjected to complex mechanical andthermal influence. Numerical simulation of work conditions was also performed. Problem of life assessment ofthe pipelines is currently the object of interest of many research centers.Findings: Due to extreme conditions of the start-up pipeline operation, its T-connections are subject to quickwear, and their properties determine the operational reliability and safety of the whole pipeline. For the reasonit is necessary to verify the criteria of pipelines’ durability evaluation applied so far, based on the parameterscharacteristic of the creep process exclusively.Research limitations/implications: In the case discussed, i.e. a T-connection being a start-up pipeline part, thepresent criteria should be expanded with critical values describing fatigue/corrosion processes.Practical implications: The paper introduces the results of investigations of the 0.2C-1.2Cr-0.6Mo-0.3V caststeel used for parts of live steam pipelines working in power plants. Such parts include, e.g. T-connections.Originality/value: The paper show the possibilities of numerical models application.

  2. Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program

    1994-02-01

    Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

  3. Working Paper 55 - Strategic Considerations for Building a Healthy Pipeline for Bank Group Operations

    2002-01-01

    The African Development Bank has, since 1982, experienced a problem withbunching of projects towards the fourth quarter of each year’s Lending Program.Contributing factors include both systemic and endogenous constraints as well asexogenous constraints. This paper proposes a holistic approach, that recognizesall the forces at work in the development of Public Investment Programs (PIPs) atthe RMC level as well as the Bank’s internal processes that help to guide andgenerate the pipeline.At the ...

  4. Crack initiation in steel parts working in boilers and steam pipelines

    D. Renowicz

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of material degradation on the crack initiation and on durability under thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: Based on the operation data, the conditions of laboratory examinations of specimens were determined. A specialist apparatus unit was used for the examination, enabling the simulation of any spectrum of mechanical load and temperature changes.Findings: The material durability criterion has been defined based on an energy related approach to the problem of crack initiation in steels which work under thermal fatigue conditions.Research limitations/implications: In the case discussed, i.e. a pipeline part, the present criteria should be expanded with critical values describing the total length of cracks initiated on the internal surface of a specimen.Practical implications: The paper refers to the research on steel 10H2M (10CrMo.910 used in the conventional boilers, superheaters and pipelines in power plants.Originality/value: Originality of the paper is the methodology of the lifetime prediction of steam pipeline parts working in thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions.

  5. Development and production of equipment complex for welding and other type of working of plastic pipelines

    Results of work on realizing program of welding and working of plastic tubes are presented. The program provides for development of welding equipment and standard-technical documentation for items, produced by welding of plasttic tubes 16-630 mm in diameter. The information, presented in the paper, is of particular interest for desing and mounting organizations, concerned with designing, production and mounting of process pipelines. It also promotes the formation of favourable situration in organizing demand for welding equipment as commodity-marketing requirement. 6 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. 30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.

    2010-07-01

    ... the regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health Administration under 30 CFR 817.81(f). (b... underground workings. 784.25 Section 784.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS...

  7. Intensité du travail salarié et abandon des études universitaires au Canada The Intensity of Salaried Work and the Abandonment of University Studies in Canada. A Longitudinal Approach

    Stéphane Moulin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Dans de nombreux pays, les élèves et les étudiants ont augmenté le temps consacré au travail rémunéré durant leurs études. Ils ne travaillent plus uniquement l’été, au moment des vacances, mais aussi pendant l’année scolaire. Les recher­ches portant sur l’effet du travail salarié sur les parcours scolaires tendent à montrer qu’il existe une relation convexe entre l’intensité du travail salarié et les départs sans diplôme du système scolaire : les taux d’abandon semblent plus élevés pour les étudiants qui ne travaillent pas et pour ceux qui travaillent plus de 25 heures. Cependant, le caractère transversal des données utilisées fait qu’elles ne permettent pas de saisir l’effet causal de la variation du temps de travail sur la poursuite des études. Dans cet article, nous utilisons une méthodologie quantitative longitudinale pour examiner les effets de l’intensité du travail rémunéré sur la persévérance dans le premier programme universitaire suivi au Canada. Les résultats montrent qu’il y a bien une relation causale entre le fait de travailler plus de 25 heures et l’abandon, mais qu’elle est seulement observée pour les hommes, et que cet effet n’est significatif qu’au début du program­me. Par ailleurs, l’association avec le fait de ne pas travailler semble s’inter­préter davantage comme un effet de sélection.In many countries, pupils and students have increased the time devoted to remunerated work during their studies. They no longer work just in summer, during vacations, but also during the school year. Research relating to the effect of salaried work on the school courses tends to show that there exists a convex relationship between the intensity of the salaried work and the departures without diplomas from the school system: the rates of abandonment seem higher for students who do not work and for those who do not work or work over 25 hours weekly. However, the

  8. Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7

    Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs

  9. Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines

    Loldrup Fosboel. P.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also

  10. Long-term changes in the quality of polluted minewater discharges from abandoned underground coal workings in Scotland

    Wood, S.C.; Younger, P.L.; Robins, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term trends of changes in the quality of water discharging from abandoned coal mines have been studied for 32 long-established discharges in the Midland Valley of Scotland. Six discharges have been studied in greater detail, providing insights into discharge quality evolution over more than a century. It has been found that minewater pollution is most severe in the first few decades after a discharge begins (the ‘first flush’), and that even the largest systems settle down to a lower lev...

  11. Abandoned vehicles

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  12. A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2

    The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)

    de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

    2012-04-01

    The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a

  14. Correction of flow stress and determination of constitutive constants for hot working of API X100 pipeline steel

    Uniaxial compression tests of X100 pipeline steel were conducted to investigate its hot working behavior. Cylindrical specimens were compressed over a wide strain rate range of 0.001–50 s−1 and a temperature range of 850–1100 °C. Due to the heat generated from deformation and friction, the measured temperatures of compressed specimens at higher strain rates (≥1 s−1) deviated from the preset temperatures. Therefore, their measured stresses were corrected to obtain the true stresses at the pre-set temperatures before they were used for calculating constitutive equations. The Arrhenius-type constitutive equation was selected to describe the hot working behavior on the basis of corrected stresses. Strain-dependent constitutive constants were determined. The constitutive equation and corrected stress-strain data were both verified by using the results of additional tests at a strain rate of 20 s−1. - Highlights: • The flow stresses of pipeline steel X100 at high temperatures were measured. • The measured flow stresses were corrected considering the generated deformation heat. • The strain-depended constitutive constants were determined to study strain effect. • The developed equations were verified by new measured peak stresses

  15. Provincial impacts of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.1.1

    The impact that the construction and operation of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will have on the Canadian economy was examined. Part 2 of this report presents a series of assumptions where the changes to the economy were explained with reference to the cost of developing facilities, revenues earned by their operations and other determinants that affect jurisdictional and sectorial impacts. The third part of the report presents the implications for the Northwest Territories/Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta since they are the regions that will be directly impacted by the AHPP. The significance of the development that extend beyond the immediately impacted regions was also assessed. For the impact analysis procedure, a base case forecast of the economy was prepared, assuming the project does not go ahead. This was followed by an impact case forecast of the economy in which the pipeline is developed and operated. Direct, indirect and induced effects were described. Two impact cases were considered for both national and regional studies. For the first case, all changes in government balances from increased revenues were assumed to go directly into debt reduction or acquisition of financial assets. For the second case, the governments recycle the increased revenue using a lower employment insurance contribution rate, and keeping federal business tax revenue and federal personal income tax revenue equal to the base case. The general effect of the second scenario is to increase the induced effects by increasing disposable income through lower tax rates. The report examined assumptions in the construction phase with reference to capital costs and construction employment. It also examined assumptions in the operational phase with reference to transportation services and operations employment. 7 tabs., 12 figs

  16. Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow

    Pujades, Estanislao; Willems, Thibault; Bodeux, Sarah; Orban, Philippe; Dassargues, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be ...

  17. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  18. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  20. Experimental study of high-performance cooling system pipeline diameter and working fluid amount

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan; Hrabovsky, Peter; Papučík, Štefan

    2016-03-01

    This work deals with heat transfer resulting from the operation of power electronic components. Heat is removed from the mounting plate, which is the evaporator of the loop thermosyphon to the condenser and by natural convection is transferred to ambient. This work includes proposal of cooling device - loop thermosyphon, with its construct and follow optimization of cooling effect. Optimization proceeds by selecting the quantity of working fluid and selection of diameters vapour line and liquid line of loop thermosyphon.

  1. Experimental study of high-performance cooling system pipeline diameter and working fluid amount

    Nemec Patrik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with heat transfer resulting from the operation of power electronic components. Heat is removed from the mounting plate, which is the evaporator of the loop thermosyphon to the condenser and by natural convection is transferred to ambient. This work includes proposal of cooling device - loop thermosyphon, with its construct and follow optimization of cooling effect. Optimization proceeds by selecting the quantity of working fluid and selection of diameters vapour line and liquid line of loop thermosyphon.

  2. Pipeline engineering

    Liu, Henry

    2003-01-01

    PART I: PIPE FLOWSINTRODUCTIONDefinition and Scope Brief History of PipelinesExisting Major PipelinesImportance of PipelinesFreight (Solids) Transport by PipelinesTypes of PipelinesComponents of PipelinesAdvantages of PipelinesReferencesSINGLE-PHASE INCOMPRESSIBLE NEWTONIAN FLUIDIntroductionFlow RegimesLocal Mean Velocity and Its Distribution (Velocity Profile)Flow Equations for One-Dimensional AnalysisHydraulic and Energy Grade LinesCavitation in Pipeline SystemsPipe in Series and ParallelInterconnected ReservoirsPipe NetworkUnsteady Flow in PipeSINGLE-PHASE COMPRESSIBLE FLOW IN PIPEFlow Ana

  3. Why the Scientific Pipeline Is Still Leaking? Women Scientists and Their Work-Life Balance in Poland

    Polkowska, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    In the contemporary scholarly discourse, the under-representation of women in science is often explained by the phenomenon of women "in the pipeline". The pipeline carries a flow from one stage to another, and the flow of women diminishes between the stages. Based on the literature and qualitative studies, it can be inferred that one of…

  4. Pipeline system operability review

    Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

  5. Measuring the Education Pipeline: Critical Data Elements Indicating Readiness, Transition and Success. "High School to Postsecondary Education and Work"

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Data Quality Campaign (DQC) has identified a common set of data that capture students' progress through the education pipeline at three key transition points: high school readiness, high school success/postsecondary readiness, and postsecondary and workforce success. For each of these transition points, key questions to be addressed by…

  6. The Influence Of Repair Welded Joint On The Life Of Steam Pipeline Made Of Cr-Mo Steel Serviced Beyond The Calculated Working Time

    Zieliński A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to examine the influence of repair welded joints on the service life of steam pipelines for over 220 000 hours of service in creep conditions. The research included the study of the microstructure using scanning microscopy, the tests on mechanical properties at room and elevated temperature, determining the nil ductility transition temperature, and short-time creep tests to determine the residual life of the material. The tests allowed determining the time of further safe operation of elements of the steam pipeline with a repair welded joint, with reference to the base material, and the welded joint after service. The assessment of residual life and disposable residual life, and at the same time determining the possible time of further safe operation, has an essential meaning in the case of elements serviced considerably beyond the calculated working time.

  7. Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1

    The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Equipment for welding of details and joints of plastic pipes in work shop conditions and at pipelines

    A range of welding machines for operation in workshop conditions and at pipelines is presented. Set of welding equipment for mobile shop, producing prototypes, and mobile facility are developed. In 1989 they will provide the whole operation cycle of production and mounting of details and units of plastic tubes and will enable to organize the centralized production of welded and shaped details in the branch, thus excluding the shortage of these details. 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

  9. Environmental audit guidelines for pipelines

    Environmental auditing is a form of management control which provides an objective basis by which a company can measure the degree of compliance with environmental regulations. Other benefits of this type of auditing include improved environmental management, furthering communication on environmental issues of concern within the company, and provision of documentation on environmental diligence. A series of environmental audit guidelines for pipelines is presented in the form of lists of questions to be asked during an environmental audit followed by recommended actions in response to those questions. The questions are organized into seven main categories: environmental management and planning; operating procedures; spill prevention; management of wastes and hazardous materials; environmental monitoring; construction of pipelines; and pipeline abandonment, decommissioning and site reclamation

  10. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  11. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  12. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  17. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  1. Leadership Pipeline

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst.......Artiklen analyserer grundlaget for Leadership Pipeline modellen med henblik på en vurdering af substansen bag modellen, og perspektiverne for generalisering af modellen til en dansk organisatorisk kontekst....

  2. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  3. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  4. Environmental management of works in pipelines at natural protected areas; Gestao ambiental em obras de faixas de dutos nas areas naturais protegidas

    Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The TRANSPETRO pipeway in the State of Sao Paulo crosses different scenarios, including Permanent Preservation Areas and Conservation Units, as the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - PESM, which contains the most extensive Mata Atlantica fragment, with more than 315,000 hectares. The rigor of environmental organisms imposes a number of extra conditions to critical points to be considered in activities with interference in the conservation unit. It was studied the case of thirty two kilometer pipeline substitution of OSBAT pipeway, in the Sao Sebastiao city, in the area covered by the PESM, to know the effective of environmental controls adopted. It was able to analyze the results about the application of management instruments at different levels, including independent external audit, audit of the Company that realized the work activities and audit of the own specialized people of TRANSPETRO and PETROBRAS. (author)

  5. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  6. Leadership Pipeline

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2013-01-01

    I artiklen undersøges det empiriske grundlag for Leader- ship Pipeline. Først beskrives Leadership Pipeline modellen om le- delsesbaner og skilleveje i opadgående transitioner mellem orga- nisatoriske ledelsesniveauer (Freedman, 1998; Charan, Drotter and Noel, 2001). Dernæst sættes fokus på det...... forholdet mellem kontinuitet- og diskontinuitet i ledel- seskompetencer på tværs af organisatoriske niveauer præsenteres og diskuteres. Afslutningsvis diskuteres begrænsningerne i en kompetencebaseret tilgang til Leadership Pipeline, og det foreslås, at succesfuld ledelse i ligeså høj grad afhænger af...

  7. Pipeline transport

    Cras, X.

    1994-11-01

    Here is described the situation of the South European Pipeline Society. The distribution of petroleum is made from Fos in the south of France until Swiss and Germany. Equipments, safety are at the top of modernism but the competition obliges to search for new improvements.

  8. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  9. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  10. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  11. 78 FR 44558 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    2013-07-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on July 3, 2013, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 1100 Louisiana... in the federal waters offshore Louisiana. Specifically, Stingray proposes to abandon, by sale, its...

  12. 77 FR 74179 - Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    2012-12-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2012, Stingray Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Stingray), 1100 Louisiana, Suite 3300, Houston, Texas...) located in federal waters offshore Louisiana. Stingray requests authority to abandon portions of the...

  13. 75 FR 36376 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    2010-06-25

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application June 17, 2010. Take notice that on June 8, 2010, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural..., pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an application to abandon two...

  14. On the influence of the UOE forming process on material properties and collapse pressure of deep water pipelines: experimental work

    Timms, Chris; Swanek, Doug; DeGeer, Duane [C-FER Technologies, Alberta (Canada); Mantovano, Luciano O. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ernst, Hugo A. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Structural Integrity Dept.; Toscano, Rita G. [SIM y TEC, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Souza, Marcos P.; Chad, Luis C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Large diameter pipes for onshore and offshore applications are manufactured using the UOE process. The manufacturing process consists in the cold forming of heavy plates followed by welding and then by an expansion. It has been demonstrated in previous work that, for deep water applications, the cold forming process involved in UOE pipe manufacturing significantly reduces pipe collapse strength. To improve the understanding of these effects, Tenaris has embarked on a program to model the phases of the UOE manufacturing process using finite element methods. Previous phases of this work formulated the basis for the model development and described the 2D approach taken to model the various steps of manufacture. More recent developments included modeling enhancements, some sensitivity analyses, and comparison of predictions to the results of full-scale collapse testing performed at C FER. This work has shown correlations between manufacturing parameters and collapse pressure predictions. The results of the latest phase of the research program are presented in this paper. This work consists of full scale collapse testing and extensive coupon testing on samples collected from various stages of the UOE pipe manufacturing process including plate, UO, UOE, and thermally aged UOE. Four UOE pipe samples manufactured with varying forming parameters were provided by Tenaris for this test program along with associated plate and UO samples. Full-scale collapse and buckle propagation tests were conducted on a sample from each of the four UOE pipes including one that was thermally aged. Additional coupon-scale work included measurement of the through thickness variation of material properties and a thermal ageing study aimed at better understanding UOE pipe strength recovery. The results of these tests will provide the basis for further refinement of the finite element model as the program proceeds into the next phase. (author)

  15. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

    2005-07-20

    liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

  16. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  17. Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management

    Paez, J.; Stephenson, M. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

    2009-07-01

    Accurate inspection techniques are needed to ensure the integrity of pipelines. This working group discussed methods of reducing pipeline failures for a variety of pipes. A summary of recent pipeline performance statistics was presented, as well as details of third party damage and fiberglass pipe failures. A batch inhibitor joint industry project was described. The session demonstrated that integrity program need to be developed at the field-level as well as at the upper management level. Fiberglass pipeline failures are significant problem for pipeline operators. Corrosion monitoring, pigging and specific budgets are needed in order to ensure the successful management of pipeline integrity. New software developed to predict pipeline corrosion rates was discussed, and methods of determining mole fractions and flow regimes were presented. The sessions included updates from regulators and standards agencies as well as discussions of best practices, regulations, codes and standards related to pipeline integrity. The working group was divided into 4 sessions: (1) updates since 2007 with input from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA); (2) integrity of non-metallic pipelines; (3) upstream pipeline integrity issues; and (4) hot topics. tabs., figs.

  18. Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade

    Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

  19. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  20. Northern pipelines : challenges and needs

    Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

  1. PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS

    Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

    2005-03-14

    This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

  2. Instrumented Pipeline Initiative

    Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

    2010-07-31

    This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

  3. 76 FR 10348 - Northwest Pipeline, GP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    2011-02-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northwest Pipeline, GP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... activities: ] Abandon in-place approximately 15 miles of 16-inch- diameter pipeline; Relocate an existing pig \\1\\ receiver from MP 41.02 to MP 48.04 and remove aboveground facilities, including a pig...

  4. The LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline

    Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) for radio astronomy is being built in the Netherlands by ASTRON, with extensions throughout Europe. LOFAR operates at radio frequencies below 250 MHz. The project is an interferometric array of radio antennas grouped into stations that are distributed over an area of hundreds of kilometers. LOFAR will revolutionise low-frequency radio astronomy. Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipeline is being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computation capabilities (˜ 50 Tflops) and data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing additional transient pipelines.

  5. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  6. Pipeline network and environment

    The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

  7. The STEM and Special Education Teacher Pipelines: Why Don't We See Better Alignment between Supply and Demand? CEDR Working Paper. WP #2014-­3

    Goldhaber, Dan; Krieg, John; Theobald, Roddy; Brown, Nate

    2014-01-01

    Although the shortage of qualified STEM and Special Education teachers is well documented and often discussed, there has been little improvement in increasing the number of teachers in these subject areas. This policy brief reports on the front-end of the teacher pipeline and shows that in Washington State, like across the country, there has been…

  8. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Millán R.; Sierra M. J.; Schmid T.; Carrasco Gil S.; Sánchez Ledesma D. M.; Díaz Puent F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain) that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg). Nowaday...

  9. Underground pipeline corrosion

    Orazem, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Underground pipelines transporting liquid petroleum products and natural gas are critical components of civil infrastructure, making corrosion prevention an essential part of asset-protection strategy. Underground Pipeline Corrosion provides a basic understanding of the problems associated with corrosion detection and mitigation, and of the state of the art in corrosion prevention. The topics covered in part one include: basic principles for corrosion in underground pipelines, AC-induced corrosion of underground pipelines, significance of corrosion in onshore oil and gas pipelines, n

  10. optimization for trenchless reconstruction of pipelines

    Zhmakov Gennadiy Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the technologies of trenchless reconstruction of pipelines are becoming and more widely used in Russia and abroad. One of the most perspective is methods is shock-free destruction of the old pipeline being replaced with the help of hydraulic installations with working mechanism representing a cutting unit with knife disks and a conic expander. A construction of a working mechanism, which allows making trenchless reconstruction of pipelines of different diameters, is optimized and patented and its developmental prototype is manufactured. The dependence of pipeline cutting force from knifes obtusion of the working mechanisms. The cutting force of old steel pipelines with obtuse knife increases proportional to the value of its obtusion. Two stands for endurance tests of the knifes in laboratory environment are offered and patented.

  11. Millipede succession in abandoned fields

    Tajovský, Karel

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2000), s. 361-370. ISSN 0015-9301 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Millipedes * abandoned field * fallow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  12. The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline

    A. Alexov; J.W.T. Hessels; J.D. Mol; B. Stappers; J. van Leeuwen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being deve

  13. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  17. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  19. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  20. Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

  1. Lateral buckling and axial walking of surface laid subsea pipeline

    Obele, Ifenna

    2013-01-01

    Subsea pipelines are increasingly being required to operate at high temperature and pressure HT/HP. The pipeline installed on the seabed and left exposed have a potential to buckle, walk and change configuration under high temperature and pressure (HT/HP). This could lead to failure of the Pipeline if buckling and walking is not properly controlled or mitigated. The objective of the thesis work is to study and understand the influence of pipeline-soil interaction on the design ...

  2. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  3. Legal aspects of abandoned facilities

    This paper outlines the basic regulatory requirements needed to identify radioactive material licensee owners/operators. Basic actions that must be taken once a radioactive material site is abandoned are also listed. Two such actions in Texas are briefly described. Civil suits requesting penalties, injunctive relief for decontamination, and recovery of response costs pursuant to the Texas regulatory acts have been filed against the potentially responsible parties

  4. Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis

    This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ''Impact Hypothesis'' uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

  5. Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline

    Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

  6. Pneumatic Capsule Pipeline

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    Pneumatic capsule pipeline (PCP) uses wheeled capsules (vehicles) to carry cargoes through a pipeline filled with air. Modern large diameter PCP systems utilize through flow booster pumps, also known as jet pump injectors. These create the pressure differentials required to propel multiple capsules through a pipeline, while allowing both terminals at atmospheric pressure. This is done by placing a booster pump midway along the pipeline, and designing it in such a way that capsules can bypass ...

  7. Pipeline transport of fossile fuels

    Vlasák, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with hydraulic pipeline transport of fossil fuels. A general analysis of coal and heavy viscous oil pipelining systems is introduced and pipeline transport of concentrated coal-water slurry, coal-water fuel, coal pipelining in other than water carrier liquid (e.g. methanol) and capsule pipeline transport (coal-log pipelining) is described.

  8. Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline

    Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

  9. Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline

    Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot

  10. Geotechnical risks affecting pipelines : the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline experience

    Geotechnical management practices for pipelines can minimize the risk of accidents caused by hazards such as landslides, foundation subsidence, settlement and erosion. This paper summarized the geotechnical risks affecting pipelines and presented some examples of practical work done by Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto (TBG) along the longest pipeline in South America, the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline. TBG is also responsible for the maintenance and operation of the 2593 km long pipeline which spans from Rio Grande in Bolivia to Canoas in southern Brazil. The pipeline crosses a range of difficult topography where both natural and human hazards can lead to high stress levels that can reach the steel yield strength limit and result in ruptures. The traction, compression, inflection or strain depend on the direction of the movement and the pipe position. The area most prone to geotechnical hazards is in the south due to its hard topography and a variety of geological materials such as colluvium deposits and debris flows. The right-of-way geotechnical risks that affect the pipeline were presented along with some of the practical remedial work that has been done by TBG along the pipeline route. The integrity management plans and the adopted actions that prevent geotechnical accidents were also presented. It was concluded that geotechnical hazard mapping should be emphasized in the planning phase of pipelines. New technologies such as the GEOPIG inspection tool combined with traditional preventive measures can effectively detect landslide areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  11. Focus on safety : a comparative analysis of pipeline safety performance

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the design, construction, operation and abandonment of interprovincial and international pipelines within Canada. This publication provides a review of the safety performance of the NEB-regulated oil and gas pipeline industry. It is based on data received through incident reporting under the 1999 Onshore Pipeline Regulations and Safety Performance Indicators. In an effort to assess the performance of NEB-regulated pipelines relative to pipelines constructed under other organizations, a comparison is provided between the performance of NEB-regulated pipeline companies and those of external reference organizations. Details on safety performance from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001 were presented. The 6 key indicators that provide comprehensive measures of safety performance for pipeline companies include: fatalities; ruptures; injury frequencies; liquid hydrocarbon releases; gas releases; and, damage prevention. This report reveals that safety has improved in some areas, such as damage due to excavations, but the Board is still concerned about an increase in the rate of contractor injury. However, the Board also acknowledges that accurate projections cannot be made based on 2 years of data. The safety performance of NEB-regulated pipelines is consistent with reference organizations with some exceptions. There was a significant difference in data between 2000 and 2001, some of which is due to the completion of major construction projects. There were no fatalities recorded by NEB-regulated pipeline companies. The number of ruptures increased from 1 in 2000 to 2 in 2001, with the leading cause being pipeline corrosion and the second most common cause being operational errors. The number of spills decreased from 265 in 2000 to 55 in 2001. The high number of spills in 2000 was due, in part, to the high level of construction activity. refs., 6 tabs., 14 figs

  12. Trace Software Pipelining

    王剑; AndreasKrall; 等

    1995-01-01

    Global software pipelining is a complex but efficient compilation technique to exploit instruction-level parallelism for loops with branches.This paper presents a novel global software pipelining technique,called Trace Software Pipelining,targeted to the instruction-level parallel processors such as Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) and superscalar machines.Trace software pipelining applies a global code scheduling technique to compact the original loop body.The resulting loop is called a trace software pipelined (TSP) code.The trace softwrae pipelined code can be directly executed with special architectural support or can be transformed into a globally software pipelined loop for the current VLIW and superscalar processors.Thus,exploiting parallelism across all iterations of a loop can be completed through compacting the original loop body with any global code scheduling technique.This makes our new technique very promising in practical compilers.Finally,we also present the preliminary experimental results to support our new approach.

  13. Pipelined Flexible Krylov Subspace Methods

    Sanan, Patrick; Schnepp, Sascha M.; May, Dave A.

    2015-04-01

    State-of-the-art geophysical forward models expend most of their computational resources solving large, sparse linear systems. To date, preconditioned Krylov subspace methods have proven to be the only algorithmically scalable approach to solving these systems. However, at `extreme scale', the global reductions required by the inner products within these algorithms become a computational bottleneck, and it becomes advantageous to use pipelined Krylov subspace methods. These allow overlap of global reductions with other work, at the expense of using more storage and local computational effort, including overhead required to synchronize overlapping work. An impediment to using currently-available pipelined solvers for relevant geophysical forward modeling is that they are not `flexible', meaning that they cannot support nonlinear or varying preconditioners. Such preconditioners are effective for solving challenging linear systems, notably those arising from modelling of Stokes flow with highly heterogeneous viscosity structure. To this end, we introduce, for the first time, Krylov subspace methods which are both pipelined and flexible. We implement and demonstrate pipelined, flexible Conjugate Gradient, GMRES, and Conjugate Residual methods, which will be made publicly available via the open source PETSc library. Our algorithms are nontrivial modifications of the flexible methods they are based on (that is, they are not equivalent in exact arithmetic), so we analyze them mathematically and through a number of numerical experiments employing multi-level preconditioners. We highlight the benefits of these algorithms by solving variable viscosity Stokes problems directly relevant to lithospheric dynamics.

  14. Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia

    Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

  15. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes

  16. Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619

    This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method

  17. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  18. The evaluation of low-cycle fatigue durability of the pipeline material working at high temperature in original state and after exploitation

    The paper deals with the fatigue tests in range of low cycle fatigue for the materials used in energetic pipelines. The tests are performed both for the initial state and after long term operating period. The paper presents the evaluation of fatigue durability of 13HMF steel at room temperature and 550oC. On the basis of performed metallurgical studies of material waste after operating period according to the adapted quality criteria has been described. Low-cycle fatigue tests of the material showed the increase of durability after operating period and simultaneously decrease of saturation stress σan. Decrease of saturation stress σan for the assumed ranges Δεc of the material after its operating period related to saturation stress at the initial state manifests its decreasing of low-cycle loading transmission capacity. (author)

  19. Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China

    Highlights: ► We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ► We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ► We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ► We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ► We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

  20. 76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines

    2011-08-25

    ... sufficient to protect the public in the event of a gas pipeline leak or rupture? Are there ways that PHMSA... pipeline operators. In 2003, similar IM regulations were enacted for gas pipelines (68 FR 69778; 12/15/2003... pipelines in the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-481, which has since been......

  1. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  2. Seismic response of buried pipelines: a state-of-the-art review

    A state-of-the-art review of the seismic response of buried pipelines is presented. The review includes modeling of soil-pipe system and seismic excitation, methods of response analysis of buried pipelines, seismic behavior of buried pipelines under different parametric variations, seismic stresses at the bends and intersections of network of pipelines. pipe damage in earthquakes and seismic risk analysis of buried pipelines. Based on the review, the future scope of work on the subject is outlined. (orig.)

  3. 75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction

    2010-03-19

    ... Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Safety Representatives (NAPSR) on new distribution pipeline construction. The workshop will allow stakeholders in the pipeline safety community to learn about and discuss construction issues and...

  4. The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline

    Alexov, A; Mol, J D; Stappers, B; van Leeuwen, J

    2010-01-01

    Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computational capabilities (50Tflops) to process data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing the LOFAR Pulsar Search Pipeline. These LOFAR pipelines and software tools are being developed as the next gen...

  5. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Manuel Gómez-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that university students abandon a healthy lifestyle mainly due to external barriers particularly because of lack of time. On the one hand, women appear to be the ones who, to a great extent, adopt a sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, men are the ones who refer more to abandoning the practice of physical activity due to internal barriers. The majority of the university students gave up practicing sport before entering university alluding to external barriers as their reason for the abandonment. A greater part of the sedentary university students expressing that they will be active in the future, left the practice of sport due to internal barriers.

  6. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  7. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  8. Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''

    Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

  9. Alaska highway pipeline inquiry

    Lysyk, K.M.; Bohmer, E.E.; Phelps, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    A public enquiry was held to determine the social and economic impacts associated with the proposed Alaska Highway pipeline. The pipeline was proposed to carry natural gas from Prudhoe Bay to the continental United States. The pipeline would follow the trans-Alaskan pipeline to Fairbanks, and follow the Alaska Highway through southern Yukon into northern British Columbia. The 48 inch pipe would operate at a pressure of 1,260 psi and would carry 2.4 billion cubic feet of gas per day, and could operate at that level for at least 25 years. Issues considered included alternative routes, employment and training, economic impact, social impact, the Yukon Indian land claim, the Dempster Lateral pipeline, planning and regulation, and compensation. The enquiry concluded that the government of Canada should not give approval in principle to the proposed pipeline through the southern Yukon without resolving the issues of an advanced payment towards the settlement of the Yukon Indian land claim, of compensation from the pipeline company, the establishment of a planning and control agency, and the deferral of the commencement of construction of the pipeline. 8 figs.

  10. Citizenship program in near communities of pipelines

    Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Vilas Boas, Ianne P. [TELSAN Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bourscheid, Pitagoras [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    During the construction of a pipeline, the IENE - Engineering Unit of PETROBRAS, responsible for the construction and erection of pipelines and related plants in northeastern Brazil, crossed more than 7 states and 250 counties, had implemented a social responsibility program, in special a citizenship program. This action was the result of community studies located near of the pipelines AID - Direct Influence Area (438 yards right and left of the pipeline) and through the evidence that those locations were poor and have no personal documents and citizen position in society. This paper intents to share the experience of IENE about its citizen program that worked in three big lines: community mobilization; citizenship qualification; and citizenship board. This last one, turns possible to people obtains theirs personal documents and exercise the plenitude of citizenship. (author)

  11. Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing

    Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-07-01

    The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

  12. Slurry pipeline design approach

    Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

    2009-12-19

    Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

  13. Integrate Government, Society and Market into the Social Work Service System for Abandoned and Disabled Children%“政府—社会—市场”合作下的发展型孤残儿童社会工作服务体系探究

    费梅苹

    2012-01-01

      Based on practical experience from the Institutional Child Care Socialization program, and aiming for the protection of chil-dren's need and rights, this paper provides thoughts and suggestions on integrating government, society and market into the social work service system for abandoned and disabled children.%  本文以“机构照料儿童社会适应”服务项目的实践经验为基础,立足儿童需求为本和儿童发展权保障为本的福利理念,对构建“政府-社会-市场”合作下的孤残儿童社会工作服务体系提出了反思和建议。

  14. Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields

    The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

  15. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  16. Towards a New Psychoanalytic Theory of Abandonment: A Feminist Intervention Via Myth

    Gamboa Solis, Flor De Maria

    2008-01-01

    Summary of early research which led to the current study of the myths Clinical background to the current research on myths My work as an academic and my private clinical practice offered me the opportunity to attend female students and patients who in some way had experienced abandonment due to migration. While listening to them I was often forced to question the clinical strategies I was employing and to interrogate the psychoanalytic approaches that established abandonment as a paradigm of ...

  17. Work.

    Haines, Annette M.

    2003-01-01

    Draws upon Maria Montessori's writings to examine work as a universal human tendency throughout life. Discusses the work of adaptation of the infant, work of "psycho-muscular organism" for the preschooler, work of the imagination for the elementary child, community work of the adolescent, and work of the adult. Asserts that Montessorians' role is…

  18. Pipeline Drag Reducers

    Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

  19. An environmental education program for maroon communities: the results of a work carried out along the Cabiunas-Vitoria gas pipeline; Programa de educacao ambiental para comunidades quilombolas: a experiencia do trabalho realizado no Gasoduto Cabiunas-Vitoria

    Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Vieira, Rosa M. [Telsan Engenharia, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    One of the Environmental Programmes developed for the works of Cabiunas-Vitoria Gas Pipeline (GASCAV) intended to fulfill the conditions of the Installation License, which defined the preparation of Specific Studies and Environmental Programmes to five quilombo communities located at GASCAV's influence area. The challenge of PETROBRAS/Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT Environmental Team was to align the Company's strategic guidelines related to Environmental and Social Responsibility to the necessary criteria for the approval of this Programme by environmental agencies which inspected the Programme: IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources) and FCP (Palmares Cultural Foundation). This work aimed to present the methodology adopted to the proposal of the Environmental Education Programme to Quilombo Communities, as well as to discuss the results achieved with the implementation of this Programme. The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed at the quilombo communities has disseminated the environmental concepts and related to the afro culture, has established partnerships and strengthen the relationship with the surrounding communities. This fact promotes the integration of the Work's economic interests with the social and environmental ones, generating a socio environmental conscience among the residents. (author)

  20. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  1. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  2. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  3. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  4. Decomposed software pipelining

    Wang, J.; Eisenbeis, Christine

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a new view on software pipelining in which we consider software pipelining as an instruction level transformation from a vector of one-dimension to a matrix of two-dimensions. Thus, the software pipelining problem can be naturally decomposed into two subproblems, one to determine the row-number of operations in the matrix and another to determine the column-numbers. Using this view-point as a basis, we develop a new loop scheduling approach, called decomposed software pip...

  5. Landscape reconstruction planning of abandoned quarries

    Zhou, Linjia; 周麟佳

    2015-01-01

    Zhejiang, with a rich resource of stone, has a long history of stone extraction, where scatter thousands of traditional quarries and as a result many abandoned ones are left, which is challenged economically, ecologically and socially. On account of the soil erosion, security risks and degradation of ecosystem, reusing of the large number of abandoned quarries located in the city or the suburbs have become an important topic on sustainable development in China in resent years. These a...

  6. Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines

    This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

  7. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  8. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  9. Drug Development Pipeline

    ... Infant Care Our Research Our Research Approach Drug Development Pipeline Clinical Trials CF Patient Registry Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Therapeutics (CFFT) Therapeutics Development Network North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference For Researchers ...

  10. Pipeline river crossing studies; Estudos de travessias de dutos

    Leal, Marcos de Castro; Stasiak, Luciano; Silva, Alessandra de Barros e [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work has for objective to guide the execution of study of pipelines crossings under courses of water, channels, flooded areas and reservoirs. The study seeks the minimal risks to the pipelines, be them anthropics, geotechnics, hydraulics or environmental, as in the implantation phase as of operation. It also seeks to determine which is the best constructive method for the crossing in question. (author)

  11. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support. PMID:16602351

  12. Abandoning of mining activities - impact on ground water and surface water systems

    At present a decrease in mining activities occurs in practically all mining areas (both coal and ore) in the Czech Republic. Huge capacities of mine workings in various depths and geological conditions are abandoned and liquidated. Special methods of liquidation of abandoned mine workings by filling, using selected waste as secondary raw materials, are used only exceptionally. In such cases the liquidation proceeds without problems with serious or long-term contamination of the environment, including monitoring of anomalous geomechanical events, ascent of methane to the surface etc. This systematic approach has only one negative feature - prolongation of liquidation works in comparison to simple abandoning and flooding of the mine. This contribution deals with the general aspects of groundwater protection in connection with liquidation of mines by filling of mine workings with secondary raw materials (including legislative problems in Czech Republic). 10 refs., 2 figs

  13. Effects of Weather Variability on Crop Abandonment

    Kelvin Mulungu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zambia, every year some parts of the maize fields are abandoned post-planting. Reasons for this are not clearly known. In this paper, we examine the influence of soil and climatic factors on crop abandonment using a six-year (2007–2012 panel data by modeling the planted-to-harvested ratio (a good indicator of crop abandonment using a fractional and linear approach. Therefore, for the first time, our study appropriately (as supported by the model specification tests that favour fractional probit over linear models the fractional nature of crop abandonment. Regression results, which are not very different between the two specifications, indicate that, more than anything, high rainfall immediately after planting and inadequate fertilizer are the leading determinants of crop abandonment. In the agro-ecological region where dry planting takes place, low temperature during planting months negatively affects the harvested area. The results have implications on the sustainability of farming systems in the face of a changing climate.

  14. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  15. NEWBORNS ABANDONMENT: THE DYNAMICS OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS RELEVANCE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Baleeva K. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of newborns abandonment in modern Russia is relevant but understudied. This article discusses the nature and dynamics of the problem. Newborns abandonment is considered in the framework of social and demographic modernization. The problem of newborns abandonment is studied in the context of social orphanhood in Russia. The author focuses on the history of the problem of newborns abandonment, its features in pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and modern Russia. For a deeper understanding of the problem the author held a series of expert interviews and highlighted the main factors that influenced newborns abandonment in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. The main challenges in the development of prevention in modern Russia are identified. The author concludes on the need to reform the system for preventing newborns abandonment as part of the ideology of the family-centered approach and constructing a unified federal structure. The paper uses qualitative methods: literature review, expert interviews. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of social work, sociology, demography, politics, and economics

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-01-01

    Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

  17. 77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    2012-05-30

    ... Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; establish an administrative process for making... excavation damage prevention law enforcement programs; and establish the adjudication process...

  18. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  19. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  20. Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines

    Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

    2008-07-01

    In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

  1. Responding to a northern pipeline challenge

    Klatt, T.J. [Alaska North Slope LNG Project, Anchorage, AK (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The challenges regarding the construction of a pipeline to transport LNG from the Alaska North Slope Liquefied Natural Gas Project were discussed. The LNG will be transported by an 800 mile buried pipeline from the Prudhoe Bay area to a liquefaction plant at an ice-free port in southern Alaska. The project is expected to begin in 2008. The isolated arctic region and permafrost add to the challenges of this project. The first challenge of synchronizing the pipeline's operating pressure with the LNG plant's inlet pressure to achieve maximum efficiencies has been addressed. Secondly, an advanced method to designing and operating a gas pipeline in discontinuous permafrost was evaluated and new construction methods were developed for trenching areas and winter construction. Stage one of the conceptual study which defines the project and minimizes costs has also been completed. More work, however, is still needed to transform the project from concept to reality. Alternative methods are still needed to construct a safe, environmentally sound and economically viable arctic gas pipeline system. 4 figs.

  2. Northern pipelines : backgrounder

    Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

  3. Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects

    Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

  4. Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects

    Falck, C.; Kleppe, T.; Maribu, J.

    1997-12-31

    Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Pipeline Bureau (CPP), which belongs to China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), authorizes China Petroleum Pipeline Engineering Corporation (CPPE) a subsidiary of CPP, to perform Overseas Business on behalf of it.

  6. Steam pipelines' effort and durability

    J. Okrajni

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main problem addressed in the paper is the description of an effort and durability of steam pipelines under the conditions of mechanical and thermal interactions.Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling has been used to determine the stress and strain fields in the pipelines and to describe their behaviour under mechanical and thermal loading.Findings: An appropriate model description has been developed. So far, experimental verification of the usefulness of the model description to determine the stress and strain patterns in particular object and for chosen operation conditions has been made. The analysis made has shown that the most probable cause of cracks occurrence on the analyzed chosen pipeline’ inner surfaces are thermal deformations and constraints of their dislocations.Research limitations/implications: The developed description should be useful in problems of behaviour predictions of high temperature components and their durability assessment under different mechanical and thermal loadings in industry practical applications.Originality/value: The method, which more precise description of power industry components behaviour makes possible have been shown in the work. The work is addressed to researchers interested in problems of component behaviour prediction under different loadings that we can meet in the operation practice and to power industry engineering maintenance staff.

  7. Saint John lateral pipeline project: comprehensive study report

    A descripion is given of the results of an environmental impact assessment of the construction of a natural gas pipeline that will bring gas from Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Management Ltd.'s (M and NP) main transmission pipeline to clients in Lake Utopia and Saint John, NB. It will be 110 km long, and the Saint John lateral will join the mainline approximately 2 km south of Big Kedron Lake, NB. Various institutional, industrial, commercial and residential clients will be able to access the pipeline in the future, and it is intended to be capable of future expansion for markets along its route and for markets that become economically feasible in the future. A matrix was developed that relates environmental resources to Environmental Components of Concern (ECCs), and to the rationale for exclusion/inclusion of the ECC as a Valued Environmental Component (VECs). The positive benefits of the pipeline to clients in the Saint John area include: reduced dependence on foreign oil, fuel switching and price competition, lower air emission pollution, increased energy efficiency, and a source of energy that is secure and reliable. VECs were selected based on: concerns of various stakeholders including the public, community groups, scientific parties, Aboriginal groups, government officials and agencies, relevant regulations; relevant literature; and past evaluation experiences, including future developments of the proposed study area. Further selection of the VECs required an examination of the issues picked out via scoping to determine the ways in which the overall project could affect the ECCs, and included construction, operation, decommissioning/abandonment, malfunctions and accidents of the pipeline. The phases of the project as they impacted residually and cumulatively on the VECs were evaluated, and impacts on Valued Socio-Economic Components (VSCs) were assessed also. The mitigation efforts taken will minimize the potential effects of the project on VECs and VSCs

  8. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  9. Risk from transport of gas by pipeline ''kokui-perm''

    Full text of publication follows: the length of gas pipelines in Russia is 142 thousands km, 62 % are pipelines of the large diameters. Annually on gas pipelines in Russia there are more than 70 large accidents, more than 50 % from them is accompanied by ignition of gas. The average ecological looses from accident is: destruction arable lands - 78 hectares; removing from consumption agricultural soils - 6,2 hectares; destruction forests - 47,5 hectares. In work the reasons of accidents on gas pipelines of different diameters are analyzed. So, for pipelines a diameter of 1220 mm by the reasons of accidents are: marriage of civil and erection works - 39, 1 %; outside corrosion - 35,9 %; mechanical damages - 9,4 %; defects of pipes - 6,2 %; defects of the factory equipment - 1,6 %; nature disasters and other reasons - 7,8 %. In work the results of risk analysis on a gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' are analysed. The gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' passes near 22 towns and countries, crosses 15 highways, 2 rail ways, 15 rivers. In work the concrete recommendations for management of risk and safety of the population are given. (author)

  10. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Manuel Gómez-López; Antonio Granero-Gallegos; Antonio Baena-Extremera

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that...

  11. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields

    Elhottová, Dana; Szili-Kovács, T.; Tříska, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2002), s. 435-440. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Grant ostatní: OTKA(HU) T25739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : microbial community * abandoned fields Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  12. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... firm contract; or (2) A facility that did or could now qualify for automatic authorization as...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  14. Development of database on circular abandoned channel in Japan

    To develop a method for estimating late Quaternary uplift rates of inland mountainous terrains where fluvial terraces are poorly developed, we focused on 'circular abandoned channels', formed by meander cut-offs or river capture of an incised meandering river. We studied about 1,000 circular abandoned channels distributed throughout the Islands of Japan, and developed GIS database on circular abandoned channel in Japan. This database contains formation process, relative heights, degree of dissection and bedrocks of circular abandoned channels. Circular abandoned channels are distributed in inland mountainous terrains, where late Quaternary uplift rates are unknown, and indicate different relative heights along the same river. Relative heights tend to correlate with degree of dissection of the circular abandoned channels, which may indicate that degree of dissection correlate with ages of abandonment of circular abandoned channels. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  16. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    Hodge, Philip E.; Keyes, C.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-12-01

    The COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) includes three main components: basic calibration, wavelength calibration, and spectral extraction. Calibration of modes using the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) detectors share a common structure, although the individual reference files differ and there are some additional steps for the FUV channel. The pipeline is designed to calibrate data acquired in either ACCUM or time-tag mode. The basic calibration includes pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. Wavelength calibration can be done either by using separate lamp exposures or by taking several short lamp exposures concurrently with a science exposure. For time-tag data, the latter mode ("tagflash") will allow better correction of potential drift of the spectrum on the detector. One-dimensional spectra will be extracted and saved in a FITS binary table. Separate columns will be used for the flux-calibrated spectrum, error estimate, and the associated wavelengths. CALCOS is written in Python, with some functions in C. It is similar in style to other HST pipeline code in that it uses an association table to specify which files to be included, and the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to use are specified by header keywords. Currently, in conjunction with the Instrument Definition Team (led by J. Green), the ground-based reference files are being refined, delivered, and tested with the pipeline.

  17. Shipping Information Pipeline

    Jensen, Thomas; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    systems researchers engaged in the design and development of a prototype for an innovative IT-artifact called Shipping Information Pipeline which is a kind of “an internet” for shipping information. The instrumental aim is to enable information seamlessly to cross the organizational boundaries and...

  18. Infrared thermographic pipeline leak detection systems for pipeline rehabilitation programs

    Weil, Gary J.

    1998-03-01

    Computerized infrared thermographic pipeline inspection is now a refined and accurate process having been thoroughly proven to be an accurate, cost effective, and efficient technology for pipeline rehabilitation programs, during a 10 year development and testing process. The process has been used to test pipelines in chemical plants, water supply systems, steam lines, natural gas pipelines and sewer systems. Its non- contact, non-destructive ability to inspect large areas, from above ground, with 100% coverage and to locate subsurface leaks as well as the additional capability to locate voids and erosion areas surrounding pipelines, make its testing capabilities unique and highly desirable. This paper details the development of computerized infrared thermographic pipeline testing along with case histories illustrating its implementation problems and successes during various rehabilitation programs involving pipelines carrying water, gas, petroleum, and sewage.

  19. Optimizing pipeline for a RISC processor with multimedia extension ISA

    XIAO Zhi-bin; LIU Peng; YAO Ying-biao; YAO Qing-dong

    2006-01-01

    The 32-bit extensible embedded processor RISC3200 originating from an RTL prototype core is intended for low-cost consumer multimedia products. In order to incorporate the reduced instruction set and the multimedia extension instruction set in a unifying pipeline, a scalable super-pipeline technique is adopted. Several other optimization techniques are proposed to boost the frequency and reduce the average CPI of the unifying pipeline. Based on a data flow graph (DFG) with delay information, the critical path of the pipeline stage can be located and shortened. This paper presents a distributed data bypass unit and a centralized pipeline control scheme for achieving lower CPI. Synthesis and simulation showed that the optimization techniques enable RISC3200 to operate at 200 MHz with an average CPI of 1.16. The core was integrated into a media SOC chip taped out in SMIC 0.18-micron technology. Preliminary testing result showed that the processor works well as we expected.

  20. Quarries - QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN: Abandoned Quarries in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN was derived from a comma-delimited text file named "QUALOC.TXT" contained on the following CD-ROM publication: Hasenmueller, W.A., and Ault,...

  1. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation...

  2. Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline

    Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

  3. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  4. Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects

    Mica, Isabella [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)]. E-mail: isabella.mica@st.com; Polignano, Maria Luisa [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Marco, Cinzia De [STMicroelectronics Srl, via C.Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy)

    2004-12-15

    Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes.

  5. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation. PMID:10216814

  6. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  7. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

  8. Pipeline corridors through wetlands

    Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

  9. Constructing computational pipelines.

    Halling-Brown, Mark; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2008-01-01

    Many bioinformatics tasks involve creating a computational pipeline from existing software components and algorithms. The traditional approach is to glue components together using scripts written in a programming language such as Perl. However, a new, more powerful approach is emerging that promises to revolutionise the way bioinformaticians create applications from existing components, an approach based on the concept of the scientific workflow. Scientific workflows are created in graphical environments known as workflow management systems. They have many benefits over traditional program scripts, including speed of development, portability, and their suitability for developing complex, distributed applications. This chapter explains how to design and implement bioinformatics workflows using free, Open Source software tools, such as the Taverna workflow management system. We also demonstrate how new and existing tools can be deployed as Web services so that they can be easily integrated into novel computational pipelines using the scientific workflow paradigm. PMID:18712319

  10. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  11. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  12. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible lands and water; Ranking and selection procedures; Coordination of reclamation work; Acquisition management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  13. Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework

    Klaus, Todd C.; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler mission is designed to continuously monitor up to 170,000 stars at a 30 minute cadence for 3.5 years searching for Earth-size planets. The data are processed at the Science Operations Center (SOC) at NASA Ames Research Center. Because of the large volume of data and the memory and CPU-intensive nature of the analysis, significant computing hardware is required. We have developed generic pipeline framework software that is used to distribute and synchronize the processing across a cluster of CPUs and to manage the resulting products. The framework is written in Java and is therefore platform-independent, and scales from a single, standalone workstation (for development and research on small data sets) to a full cluster of homogeneous or heterogeneous hardware with minimal configuration changes. A plug-in architecture provides customized control of the unit of work without the need to modify the framework itself. Distributed transaction services provide for atomic storage of pipeline products for a unit of work across a relational database and the custom Kepler DB. Generic parameter management and data accountability services are provided to record the parameter values, software versions, and other meta-data used for each pipeline execution. A graphical console allows for the configuration, execution, and monitoring of pipelines. An alert and metrics subsystem is used to monitor the health and performance of the pipeline. The framework was developed for the Kepler project based on Kepler requirements, but the framework itself is generic and could be used for a variety of applications where these features are needed.

  14. Product through pipelines : transportation options

    Ballyntyne, R. [Terasen Pipelines, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation provided a brief overview of the corporate structure of Terasen Pipelines along with a map displaying the locations of the pipelines it operates and new directions for growth. It also presented a proposal to deliver petroleum products from Alberta's oilsand fields to markets via the Corridor and Express pipeline systems, and evaluated the issue of transporting petrochemicals via rail transport rather than pipeline. Industry is also examining the option of shipping refined products through a trans mountain system from Alberta to British Columbia and California. A chart highlighting Canadian crude oil production was presented along with an oil sands pipeline capacity chart. It was noted that significant investment in refining capacity is needed and that new pipeline facilities will be required to meet the needs of oil sands developments. tabs., figs.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline

    Gray, William R.; Bogovic, John A.; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Landman, Bennett A.; Prince, Jerry L.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents a novel, tightly integrated pipeline for estimating a connectome, which is a comprehensive description of the neural circuits in the brain. The pipeline utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to produce a high-level estimate of the structural connectivity in the human brain. The Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline (MRCAP) is efficient and its modular construction allows researchers to modify algorithms to meet their specific requirements. The pipe...

  16. Slurry pipeline technology: an overview

    Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

    2009-12-19

    Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

  17. A machine learning pipeline for discriminant pathways identification

    Barla, Annalisa; Jurman, Giuseppe; Visintainer, Roberto; Squillario, Margherita; Filosi, Michele; Riccadonna, Samantha; Furlanello, Cesare

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying the molecular pathways more prone to disruption during a pathological process is a key task in network medicine and, more in general, in systems biology. Results: In this work we propose a pipeline that couples a machine learning solution for molecular profiling with a recent network comparison method. The pipeline can identify changes occurring between specific sub-modules of networks built in a case-control biomarker study, discriminating key groups of genes whose in...

  18. Condition Monitoring Of Operating Pipelines With Operational Modal Analysis Application

    Mironov Aleksey

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemical industries, great attention is being paid to safety, reliability and maintainability of equipment. There are a number of technologies to monitor, control, and maintain gas, oil, water, and sewer pipelines. The paper focuses on operational modal analysis (OMA application for condition monitoring of operating pipelines. Special focus is on the topicality of OMA for definition of the dynamic features of the pipeline (frequencies and mode shapes in operation. The research was conducted using two operating laboratory models imitated a part of the operating pipeline. The results of finite-element modeling, identification of pipe natural modes and its modification under the influence of virtual failure are discussed. The work considers the results of experimental research of dynamic behavior of the operating pipe models using one of OMA techniques and comparing dynamic properties with the modeled data. The study results demonstrate sensitivity of modal shape parameters to modification of operating pipeline technical state. Two strategies of pipeline repair – with continuously condition-based monitoring with proposed technology and without such monitoring, was discussed. Markov chain reliability models for each strategy were analyzed and reliability improvement factor for proposed technology of monitoring in compare with traditional one was evaluated. It is resumed about ability of operating pipeline condition monitoring by measuring dynamic deformations of the operating pipe and OMA techniques application for dynamic properties extraction.

  19. Advances in riser and pipeline technologies

    Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2009-12-19

    As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction

  20. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  1. A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline

    Alexander A. Bolonkin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

  2. Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges

    The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances

    The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft

  4. Should executive stock options be abandoned?

    Choe, Chongwoo; Yin, Xiangkang

    2006-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals around the world have led many to single out executive stock options as one of the main culprits. More corporations are abandoning stock options and reverting to restricted stock. This paper argues that such a change is not entirely justifiable. We first provide a critical review of the pros and cons of executive stock options. We then compare option-based contracts with stock-based contracts using a simple principal-agent model with moral-hazard. In a general enviro...

  5. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  6. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  7. Setting plug & abandonment barriers with minimum removal of tubulars

    Nessa, Jon Olav

    2012-01-01

    The useful life of an offshore well is determined by the reserves which it contacts, the pressure support within the reservoir and the continued integrity of the wellbore. When a well has reached the end of its lifetime, plugging operations have to be conducted before permanent abandonment. Conventional Plug and Abandonment (P&A) operations will often require removing a section of the casing in order to create cross sectional barriers for well abandonment. Recently developed and field test...

  8. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  9. Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity

    Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

    2010-07-01

    The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

  10. SILSS: SPHERE/IRDIS Long-Slit Spectroscopy pipeline

    Vigan, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    The ESO's VLT/SPHERE instrument includes a unique long-slit spectroscopy (LSS) mode coupled with Lyot coronagraphy in its infrared dual-band imager and spectrograph (IRDIS) for spectral characterization of young, giant exoplanets detected by direct imaging. The SILSS pipeline is a combination of the official SPHERE pipeline and additional custom IDL routines developed within the SPHERE consortium for the speckle subtraction and spectral extraction of a companion's spectrum; it offers a complete end-to-end pipeline, from raw data (science+calibrations) to a final spectrum of the companion. SILSS works on both the low-resolution (LRS) and medium-resolution (MRS) data, and allows correction for some of the known biases of the instrument. Documentation is included in the header of the main routine of the pipeline.

  11. Experience of the construction of the main circulating circuit pipelines

    The construction technology of the WWER-1000(e) reactor main circulating circuit (MCC), pipelines is described. The MCC pipelines link the main components of the NPP primary coolant circuit: the reactor, steam generators and main circulating pumps. Basic technical parameters of the pipelines for NPP with the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors are presented. The works on the assemblying, erection and welding of the pipelines were carried out during a year, and their labour costs are evaluated as 17600 man- days. The validity of basic technological solutions has been proved. Elongation of the reactor nozzles, simplification of the thermal treatment technology and welding automation are pointed out as practical possible means to lower the labour costs of the construction

  12. Framing land abandonment and its consequences on soil and vegetation changes

    José Marqués Pérez, María; Sanz, Verónica; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Kukuls, Imants; Sultana, Daniel; Zdruli, Pandi; Fiori, Valeria; Zucca, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    intensities and consequences. This work will help to understand and summarize these driving forces and what the positive or negative consequences are of land abandonment in different regions beneath different edaphic and climatic conditions.

  13. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  14. Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic

    Miguel E. Litvin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.

  15. Calculating thermal insulation thickness and embedment depth of underground heat supply pipeline for permafrost soils

    M.P. Akimov; S.D. Mordovskoy; N.P. Starostin

    2014-01-01

    In this work the authors considered a freezing-and-melting process of soils under the polyurethane-insulated polyethylene heating pipeline, which is used in the regions with permafrost soils. Temperature field dynamics of the “pipeline – soil” system is determined by heat conductivity equation in polar coordinate system. The corresponding two-dimensional Stefan problem is solved by the finite differences method. The authors propose to determine the thickness of pipeline thermal insulation...

  16. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-08-17

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners

  17. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-12-31

    The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without

  18. INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES

    Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

    2004-04-12

    The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created

  19. The challenges of working values of SEH (Safety, Environment and Health) in the construction of Urucu / Manaus Gas Pipeline in the Amazon rain forest; Os desafios de trabalhar os valores de SMS (Seguranca, Meio ambiente e Saude) na construcao do Gasoduto Urucu/Manaus na Floresta Amazonica

    Mendes, Jeane Ramos; Rocha, Katia Rosilene Soares da; Paredio, Lindoneide Lima [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pellin, Madson Weider Elgaly [JPTE Engenharia, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barreto, Jean Luis Campos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work, aims to sharpen the main difficulties of acting in SMS and the corrective and preventive measures in the work of the pipeline Urucu / Manaus, located in the influence of the Solimoes River, covering several municipalities in the state of Amazonas (Coari, Codajas, Caapiranga, Anama, Iranduba, Manaus). Such pipeline has three spread, namely Spread A, from Urucu to Coari, Spread B1, from Coari to Anama, and Spread B2, from Anama to Manaus. For the purpose of the present case, we have focused on the Spread B2, from the city of Anama to Manaus, from km 475 to Km 662, being 174,400 m long. Its main line ends right within the premises of the Refinaria Isaac Sabba (a local refinery), which is located at Rua Rio Quixito - Distrito Industrial. The purpose of the pipeline is to convey natural gas to the Pressure Regulating Station, which is located close by the aforementioned refinery. The gas is transported to Maua Thermoelectrical, to generate energy for certain areas of the Amazon capital city. The information has been obtained through observations made on the difficulties faced by the workers to comply with safety behaviour while carrying out their activities. Also, by using several tools, such us Auditoria Comportamental (Behaviour Auditing) - Audicomp, Aplicacao de Listas de Verificacao - LV's (Verification Lists), as well as Indice de Praticas Seguras - IPS (Safety Practices Index). The collected data is analysed, and displayed in graphics, tables and processed in PETROBRAS internal systems, such Audicomp (Behaviour Auditing), SALV (Verification Lists Application System), and Auditoria de IPS (Safety Practices Index Auditing). The main difficulties to implement SMS (Safety, Environment and Health) in a pipeline works in the Amazon require from the transportation logistics, communication problems, lack of enough local skilled labor, the adverse region's season conditions, both flood and dry seasons, as well as to commit the local population with

  20. Pipeline clean-up : speed, environment drive pipelining equipment

    Budd, G.

    2004-08-01

    Horizontal drilling technology is the single most important enhanced oil recovery technology which has resulted in a significant increase in pipeline utilization. Pipeline operators such as Calgary-based Denim Pipeline Construction Ltd. are responding by using the latest equipment, including excavation equipment, to avoid maintenance delays and downtime. The sales of Denim's horizontal pipe bending equipment have increased due to their attention to worker safety. Denim's horizontal bending machine does not require as much technical support, plus it is faster to install and speeds up production. The machine consists of 3 hydraulic jacks that move on a horizontal plate. Curved dies can be modified to accommodate various diameters of pipe. The bending operation is performed very near to the ground, thereby significantly reducing the risk of pipe injury. Environmental damage is minimized through the use of mechanized mulching which has replaced burning of unwanted trees and brush to clean for pipelines. 1 fig.

  1. Regulating natural gas pipeline efficiency

    Proponents of gas pipeline capacity assignment---sometimes referred to as capacity brokering---would like a policy that would allow holders of gas pipeline capacity contact, usually firm transportation, to resell that capacity for short periods of time when it is not needed. In this paper the authors review the current U.S. policy towards capacity assignment in the context of FERC regulation of interstate pipelines and compare the U.S. debate with Canada's approach. The authors offer a modest proposal to institute a capacity assignment program experiment

  2. Natural gas pipeline technology overview.

    Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2007-11-01

    The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by

  3. Suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of upstream oil and gas facilities : informational letter IL 98-2

    This release of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is intended to clarify the jurisdictional roles of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) and the EUB with regard to their respective responsibilities for the regulation of the suspension, abandonment, decontamination and surface land reclamation of active and inactive upstream oil and gas facilities. The EUB, AEP and industrial operators all have separate roles and responsibilities when active and inactive upstream facilities are suspended or reclaimed. In the future, industry operators will have more interaction with the AEP during the decontamination of a site, while the EUB will concentrate on pollution prevention and abandonment of non-economic facilities. All oilfield waste generated from suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of an active or inactive upstream oil and gas facility will fall under the jurisdiction of the EUB. Contaminated soils, sludges, and waters that are physically removed as a result of decontamination activities are considered to be oilfield wastes. The regulatory responsibility between the AEP and the EUB remains unchanged for the reclamation process of on-lease and off-lease spills, releases or pipeline breaks. Industry operators are no longer allowed to discharge any produced liquid to earthen pits or ponds and are encouraged to reclaim existing ones. 3 figs

  4. The Kepler Science Operations Center Pipeline Framework Extensions

    Klaus, Todd C.; Cote, Miles T.; McCauliff, Sean; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Chandrasekaran, Hema; Bryson, Stephen T.; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) is responsible for several aspects of the Kepler Mission, including managing targets, generating on-board data compression tables, monitoring photometer health and status, processing the science data, and exporting the pipeline products to the mission archive. We describe how the generic pipeline framework software developed for Kepler is extended to achieve these goals, including pipeline configurations for processing science data and other support roles, and custom unit of work generators that control how the Kepler data are partitioned and distributed across the computing cluster. We describe the interface between the Java software that manages the retrieval and storage of the data for a given unit of work and the MATLAB algorithms that process these data. The data for each unit of work are packaged into a single file that contains everything needed by the science algorithms, allowing these files to be used to debug and evolve the algorithms offline.

  5. Incidence and Treatment Abandonment in Teen And Young Adult Cancers

    Prakash Chitalkar

    2016-03-01

    Results- On analyzing data of three years ,hematolymphoid malignancy(28% cases are the most common cases seen followed by Breast (10% and head and neck (10%,cervix(6%,CNS(5% ,Bone( 4%. 38% TYA cancer patients abandoned treatment . Telephonic tracking, financial support, counseling of whole family are methods employed in reducing abandonment. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 77-79

  6. Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology

    Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

  7. An investigation of highly pressurized transient fluid flow in pipelines

    This paper discusses transient processes in natural gas pipelines. The method of characteristics (MOC) is applied for the analysis of two transient categories, where the governing one-dimensional, hyperbolic conservation equations are linearized and solved without neglecting any of their term. First, we present a parametric study of the pressurized flow encountered when pipelines are utilized for the transportation or the temporary storage of natural gas. The non-ideal compressibility of natural gas is included in the model and its impact on the thermo-hydraulic processes is elucidated. Second, we model the hydrodynamics of a pipeline whose downstream boundary is a periodic discharge rate. The results show that, in response to these boundary conditions, the pressure distribution in the pipeline also undergoes periodic variations. Furthermore, our simulation results confirm the usefulness of MOC for numerical simulation of flow phenomena in pipelines. - Highlights: ► The goal of this work was an investigation of high pressure fluid transients through long pipelines. ► The MOC method was used for the simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in response to transients. ► The first transient type represented the line packing and subsequent pressurization. ► Special attention was given to the effect of non-ideal compressibility of natural gas flow. ► The second type of transients dealt with the effect of periodic downstream boundary conditions.

  8. Global lateral buckling analysis of idealized subsea pipelines

    刘润; 刘文彬; 吴新利; 闫澍旺

    2014-01-01

    In order to avoid the curing effects of paraffin on the transport process and reduce the transport difficulty, usually high temperature and high pressure are used in the transportation of oil and gas. The differences of temperature and pressure cause additional stress along the pipeline, due to the constraint of the foundation soil, the additional stress can not release freely, when the additional stress is large enough to motivate the submarine pipelines buckle. In this work, the energy method is introduced to deduce the analytical solution which is suitable for the global buckling modes of idealized subsea pipeline and analyze the relationship between the critical buckling temperature, buckling length and amplitude under different high-order global lateral buckling modes. To obtain a consistent formulation of the problem, the principles of virtual displacements and the variation calculus for variable matching points are applied. The finite element method based on elasto-plastic theory is used to simulate the lateral global buckling of the pipelines under high temperature and pressure. The factors influencing the lateral buckling of pipelines are further studied. Based upon some actual engineering projects, the finite element results are compared with the analytical ones, and then the influence of thermal stress, the section rigidity of pipeline, the soil properties and the trigging force to the high order lateral buckling are discussed. The method of applying the small trigging force on pipeline is reliable in global buckling numerical analysis. In practice, increasing the section rigidity of a pipeline is an effective measure to improve the ability to resist the global buckling.

  9. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  10. Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation

    Singh, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

  11. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  12. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  13. THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON

    Andreea Iluzia IACOB

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

  14. Fiber Optics: Safety Measures on Oil & Gas Pipeline Monitoring in Lagos State Region

    Johnson, Oluseye

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this thesis work is to research and implement the use of an optical communication system (fiber optics) as a safe and reliable monitoring system for the oil and gas pipeline industry in Lagos region of Nigeria. These optical fiber cables are laid parallel to oil and gas buried pipelines to monitor and indicate ad-vanced warning in real time situation once leakages occur in these pipelines, thereby allowing pipeline operators to take immediate and strategic actions to re-solve...

  15. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  16. Experiments on Interaction Between Current-Induced Vibration and Scour of Submarine Pipelines on Sandy Bottom

    SHEN Zhonghan; LIU Yubiao; LI Qingping; HUANG Qinghua; ZHU Farong

    2000-01-01

    In order to understand the dynamic behavior of submarine pipelines exposed to current and the mechanism of the interaction between current-induced vibration and scour of pipelines on a sandy bottom, an experimental investigation is conducted with a small scale model. A test model which can be testedin the flume is set up by taking into account the typical working conditions of the pipelines and by applying the similarity theory. The interactions between the shape of the scour hole and the behavior of the pipeline as well as the flow patterns of the current are detailed, and the interaction mechanism outlined.The effect of vibration of the pipeline on the development of dynamic scour at different stages is found out. The proposed experimental method and test results provide an effective means for design of marine pipelines against scouring.

  17. Seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines - challenges after three decades of progress

    Pineda-porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Najafi, Mohammand [U. OF TEXAS

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution over the past three decades of seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines and identifies some challenges for future research studies on the subject. The first section of this paper presents a chronological description of the evolution since the mid-1970s of pipeline fragility relations - the most common tool for pipeline damage estimation - and follows with a careful analysis of the use of several ground motion parameters as pipeline damage indicators. In the second section of the paper, four gaps on the subject are identified and proposed as challenges for future research studies. The main conclusion of this work is that enhanced fragility relations must be developed for improving pipeline damage estimation, which must consider relevant parameters that could influence the seismic response of pipelines.

  18. USING COMPUTER MODELS FOR DESIGN OF COMPLEX PIPELINE SYSTEMS

    S. V. Kolesnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main rules of computer models construction were developed, which intended for pipeline networks design and they were considered as single whole hydraulic systems. The construction of new sections is possible after their design in order to provide operation in given regime. In heat networks operation we see the following problems: irregular change in pressure between direct and return pipelines, increased pressure in return pipeline, misalignment of network and others. Their causes may be: undersize thickness of pipelines, reduction in diameter caused by scales in internal surfaces of pipes, closure of gate valves in sections of networks with big speeds of heat coolant, “parasitic” circulations and others. Efficient mean for determining the main reasons of these problems, they may be in any heat pipeline, and also for new heating pipe networks design we consider computer models, which allow to simulate (practically in the whole volume hydraulic and temperature regimes of their work.  The purpose of work – using computer models for implementation of project of new heat removal pipe from Tolyatti central thermal station in order to heat the Central Region of Tolyatti, feeding from heat power station of the Volga car factory .With the help of developed computer model the location of equipment and their main characteristics were determined, they take into account joint work of two sources of heat (central thermal station of Tolyatti and the Volga car factory. 

  19. Study on Detection Technique for Pipeline Leakage

    李健; 王立坤; 周琰; 靳世久

    2003-01-01

    Pipeline integrity defect is a considerable portion in all the defects. Therefore, the study on detection technique is of great concern to the owners of pipelines. A real-time monitoring system of pipeline defect is established. For unexpected accidents of pipeline leakage, several methods of signal processing, including wavelet analysis are utilized. The leakage can be located accurately in time. This system is applied to many long distance pipelines in China, which has made great contributions to the economy.

  20. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-01-01

    The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petr...

  1. Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing

    Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

  2. Pipeline Processing of VLBI Data

    Reynolds, C; Garrett, M

    2002-01-01

    As part of an on-going effort to simplify the data analysis path for VLBI experiments, a pipeline procedure has been developed at JIVE to carry out much of the data reduction required for EVN experiments in an automated fashion. This pipeline procedure runs entirely within AIPS, the standard data reduction package used in astronomical VLBI, and is used to provide preliminary calibration of EVN experiments correlated at the EVN MkIV data processor. As well as simplifying the analysis for EVN users, the pipeline reduces the delay in providing information on the data quality to participating telescopes, hence improving the overall performance of the array. A description of this pipeline is presented here.

  3. Black powder in gas pipelines

    Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-07-01

    Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

  4. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  5. Pipeline mapping and strain assessment using ILI (In-line Inspection) tolls

    Purvis, Brian [GE PII Pipeline Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Huewener, Thomas [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    GE PII IMU Mapping inspection system measures pipeline location coordinates (x, y, z) and provides data for determining pipeline curvature and consequential pipeline bending strain. The changes in strain can be used in the application of structural analyses and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems. This paper reviews the Inertia Measuring Unit (IMU) system and field investigation works performed on a high-pressure gas pipeline for E.ON Ruhrgas AG. The Inertial Measuring Unit of the pipeline inspection tool provides continuous measurement of the pipeline centreline coordinates. More than one inspection run was performed which allowed a more accurate strain comparison to be made. Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies, makes it possible to provide a more complete picture of the overall situation. This paper reviews the work involved in detecting, locating and determining the magnitude and type of strain corresponding to the pipeline movement in field. (author)

  6. Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks

    Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

    2013-04-01

    The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and

  7. Solving an unpiggable pipeline challenge

    Walker, James R. [GE Oil and Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom); Kern, Michael [National Grid, New Hampshire (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Technically, any pipeline can be retrofitted to enable in line inspection. Sensibly however, the expense of excavations and construction of permanent facilities have been, in many cases, exceedingly prohibitive. Even where traditional modifications are feasible from engineering perspectives, flow interruption may not be an option - either because they are critical supply lines or because the associated lost revenues could be nearly insurmountable. Savvy pipeline integrity managers know the safety issue that is at stake over the long term. They are also well aware of the accuracy benefits that high-quality in-line inspection data offer over potentially supply disruptive alternatives such as hydrostatic testing. To complicate matters further, many operators, particularly in the US, now face regulatory pressure to assess the integrity of their yet-uninspected pipelines located in highly populated areas. This paper describes an important project National Grid undertook that made use of a unique pipeline access method that did not require permanent installation of expensive facilities required for in line inspection of a pipeline previously considered 'unpiggable'. Since the pipeline was located in an urban area, flow disruption had to be minimized. This paper will define the project background, its challenges, outcomes and lessons learned for the future. (author)

  8. Pipeline integrity through cathodic protection

    Kumar, N. [Gas Authority India Ltd., New Delhi (India); Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is defined as a process for assessing and mitigating pipeline risks in an effort to reduce both the likelihood and consequences of incidents. Defects on pipelines result in production losses, environmental losses, as well as loss of goodwill and subsequent financial losses. This presentation addressed pipeline integrity through cathodic protection. It noted that pipeline integrity can be strengthened by successfully controlling, monitoring and mitigating corrosion strategies. It can also be achieved by avoiding external and internal corrosion failures. A good coating offers the advantages of low current density; lower power consumption; low wear of anodes; larger spacing between cathodic protection stations; and minimization of interference problems. The presentation reviewed cathodic protection of cross-country pipelines; a sacrificial cathodic protection system; and an impressed current cathodic protection system. The efficiency of a cathodic system was shown to depend on the use of reliable power sources; proper protection criterion; efficient and effective monitoring of cathodic protection; proper maintenance of the cathodic protection system; and effective remedial measures. Selection criteria, power sources, and a comparison of cathodic protection sources were also presented. Last, the presentation addressed protection criteria; current interruption circuits; monitoring of the cathodic protection system; use of corrosion coupons; advantages of weightless coupons; checking the insulating flanges for shorted bolts; insulated/short casings; anodic and cathodic interference; common corridor problems; and intelligent pigging. tabs., figs.

  9. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

    2004-10-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

  10. Transfer Out Patient Not Abandon The Patient

    Deepak Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physician-patient relationship is unique in some aspects and not-so-unique in other aspects when compared to other human interactions. Until-unless for the sake of health promotional activities, this relationship is almost always conceived in the times of human sufferings and consequently culminated when those sufferings have subsided as well as sought out happiness has ensued/been achieved. However, not all physician-patient relationships follow the normal course and/or meet the natural ends. These abnormal relationships are not inconsequential in terms of numbers and/or their effects (short-term and long term on both patients and physicians. Every country has its own baggage in the wake of why, how and what about these abnormal ends to physician-patient relationships; however, the most common causes are the patients’ inability to pay their medical bills, the conflicting goals of physicians and their patients in regards to patients’ sufferings’ management and finally the behavioral issues (patients’ and/or physicians’ interfering these relationships. Irrespective of any cause, the physicians should never forget that the patient can always discharge their physicians and discontinue their relationship with their physicians without any reason (until unless the physicians deem those patients either incapable/non-consentable to do so and/or potential threat to their own personal safety or other people’s safety. Contrarily, physicians can also discharge patients from their care but cannot abandon these patients (1-3 which mean that physicians have to ensure their discharged patients either are referred to or have sought another physician within appropriate time frame post-relationship-discontinuation. Each country has their own medico-legal liabilities that vary in terms of penalties imposed; however, irrespective of the feared legal concerns, the physicians should not forget that ethical essence of medicine is the art of healing that

  11. Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system

    Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

    2014-06-01

    This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

  12. Stability analysis of abandoned drift for alternative utilization

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Yoo, In-Kol; Kim, Moon-Seob; Kim, Ryang-Hee [Korea Resources Corp., Seoul(Korea); Yang, Hyung-Sik [Chonnam National University, Kwangju(Korea); Lee, Hi-Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Jae-Dong [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon(Korea)

    2000-04-30

    This study was performed to find the way that is alternative utilization of the drift that had been abandoned by coal industry promotion. To determine whether abandoned drift would be maintained without supports or not, the safety inspection that consists of drift survey, laboratory tests, rock mass classification and numerical analysis was performed. According to the result, there were discontinuity sets those had unfavorable orientation to the drift and rock mass around the drift had generally poor condition. So, it would be much difficult that abandoned drift is maintained without supports. (author). 15 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. China Oil & Gas Pipeline Survey & Design Institute, Pipeline

    Bureau of CNPC; Zhao Surong

    1995-01-01

    @@ China Oil/Gas Pipeline Bureau(P.B) is the only professional organization in China specialized in oil/gas pipelines design and construction since 1980s. It has ever cooperated with certain number of well known companies from Japan,USA, Germany, Canada, as well as Italy in the designs of many large oil/gas pipeline projects, during the course of which, personnel from P.B accumulated much experience in international project designs. During the execution of each particular project, they strictly followed the common-use international codes and standards with computers as the auxiliary design system combined with the self-developed software. All its clients showed their trust in this organization and gave it high praise for its outstanding survey, design and technical service.

  14. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  15. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  16. Abandoned mines at Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the study were: 1 Determine whether abandoned mines on LPO were impacting aquatic biota, 2 Determine whether mines were safety or liability...

  17. On the construction of a new stellar classification template library for the LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline

    The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g – r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

  18. On the construction of a new stellar classification template library for the LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline

    Wei, Peng; Luo, Ali; Li, Yinbi; Tu, Liangping; Wang, Fengfei; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Hou, Wen; Kong, Xiao; Wu, Yue; Zuo, Fang; Yi, Zhenping; Zhao, Yongheng; Chen, Jianjun; Du, Bing; Guo, Yanxin; Ren, Juanjuan [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Pan, Jingchang; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Jie, E-mail: lal@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: weipeng@nao.cas.cn [School of Mechanical, Electrical, and Information Engineering, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China); and others

    2014-05-01

    The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g – r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

  19. 75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs

    2010-06-09

    ...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477) or... strategies have worked well, discuss challenges faced by the pipeline industry, discuss Federal and state... held at the Intercontinental Hotel, 2222 W. Loop-South, Houston, Texas 77027. Hotel reservations...

  20. Nine Years of XMM-Newton Pipeline: Experience and Feedback

    The Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory is member of the Survey Science Centre (SSC) of the XMM-Newton satellite. Among other responsibilities, we provide a database access to the 2XMMi catalogue and run the part of the data processing pipeline performing the cross-correlation of EPIC sources with archival catalogs. These tasks were all developed in Strasbourg. Pipeline processing is flawlessly in operation since 1999. We describe here the work load and infrastructure setup in Strasbourg to support SSC activities. Our nine year long SSC experience could be used in the framework of the Simbol-X ground segment.

  1. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman; Chen Wang; Nur Hamizah Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and ...

  2. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history

  3. Investigation on Health Effects of an Abandoned Metal Mine

    Kim, Soyeon; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Choi, Kyungho; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2008-01-01

    To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone minera...

  4. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado; Karine Franklin Assis; Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira; Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro; Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo; Alexandre Faisal Cury; Silvia Eloiza Priore; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied...

  5. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  6. Studying of acid-gas pipelines corrosion with impedance spectroscopy

    Neshati, J.; Fardi, M.R.; Ghassem, H. [Corrosion Department, NIOC-RIPI, Pazhooheshgah Bulevard, Khairabad Junction, Old Qom Road Tehran (Iran)

    2004-07-01

    In this research, the acid-gas pipelines of a gas refinery were simulated in laboratory. Acid gas is normally the feed of sulfur recovery plant (SRP) in a gas refinery. For studying corrosion kinetic and related mechanisms the impedance spectroscopy was used. Impedance diagrams were simulated by Boukamp1988 software. It was found that the simulated systems can be equated to a circuit with two time constants. For studying corrosion rate changes a type of inhibitor was utilized. The inhibitor used in this work was an imidazoline, an appropriate based inhibitor formulated with the commercial grade imidazoline and dimmer - trimer acid. It was shown that impedance spectroscopy technique can be used for corrosion monitoring of acid gas pipelines in gas refineries. The impedance spectroscopy will be tried in due course as a suitable technique in field for corrosion control of acid-gas pipelines. (authors)

  7. Maintenance planning under imperfect inspections of corroded pipelines

    In this paper, a maintenance policy is proposed for pipelines subject to corrosion, by taking into account imperfect inspection results. The degradation of the pipeline is induced by uniform and pitting corrosion, leading to losses in the pipe wall thickness. The inspection is applied to detect the corrosion defects, namely the corrosion depth and width. The inspection has a detection threshold under which no corrosion can be measured. Due to uncertainties, each inspection is affected by the probability of detecting small defects and the probability of wrong assessment in terms of defect existence and size. The present work aims at integrating imperfect inspection results in the cost model for corroded pipelines, where the failure probabilities are computed by reliability methods. A numerical application on a gas pipe shows the influence of inspection quality and cost on the choice of the optimal maintenance planning

  8. Method and system for pipeline communication

    Richardson; John G.

    2008-01-29

    A pipeline communication system and method includes a pipeline having a surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A conductive bus is formed to and extends along a portion of the surface of the pipeline. The conductive bus includes a first conductive trace and a second conductive trace with the first and second conductive traces being adapted to conformally couple with a pipeline at the surface extending along at least a portion of the length of the pipeline. A transmitter for sending information along the conductive bus on the pipeline is coupled thereto and a receiver for receiving the information from the conductive bus on the pipeline is also couple to the conductive bus.

  9. Feasibility analysis of using abandoned salt caverns for large-scale underground energy storage in China

    Highlights: • A method is proposed for the evaluation of using an abandoned salt cavern for energy (natural gas) storage. • A feasibility analysis is given of China’s first UGS (Underground Gas Storage) facility using an abandoned salt cavern. • Numerical modeling has been used to investigate mechanical safety of a gas pressurized cavern. • Chinese abandoned salt caverns show good feasibility of being converted to UGSs. • China’s bedded rock salt can meet the requirements for UGS. - Abstract: Rock salt in China is primarily bedded salt, usually composed of many thin salt layers and interlayers (e.g. anhydrite, mudstone, and glauberite). Thus, the feasibility analysis of abandoned salt caverns located in salt beds to be used as Underground Gas Storage (UGS) facilities is full of challenges. In this paper, we introduce the feasibility analysis of China’s first salt cavern gas storage facility using an abandoned salt cavern. The cavern is located in Jintan city, Jiangsu province, China. The mechanical properties and permeability of the bedded salts are obtained by experiments. Based on the results of the analyses, it appears to be quite feasible to convert the abandoned salt caverns of Jintan city to UGS facilities. The stability of the cavern is evaluated by the 3D geomechanical numerical simulations, and the operating parameters are proposed accordingly. Results indicate that the maximum volume shrinkage of the cavern is less than 25% and the maximum deformations are less than 2% of the caverns’ maximum diameters after operating for 20 years. It is recommended that the weighted average internal gas pressure be maintained as 11 MPa to control the extent of the plastic zones to a safe level. Safety factors decrease with operating time, especially those of the interface between rock salt and mudstone layers decrease significantly. Effective strain is generally greater than 2%, and locally is greater than 3% after operating 20 years. The maximum

  10. The Alaskan gas pipeline conflict

    Savich, P.; Fraser, N.M.; Hippel, K.W.

    1983-03-01

    A new conflict analysis technique is employed to study the dispute surrounding the selection of a natural gas pipeline route to transport gas from the American state of Alaska and also northern Canada to southern markets in the United States and Canada. The improved metagame analysis algorithm is the type of conflict analysis method that is used for providing a framework to study systematically the Alaskan gas pipeline controversy and to put the historical information into proper perspective. In addition, the methodology is utilized for predicting the possible feasible political solutions to the conflict.

  11. Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction

    Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

  12. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  13. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  14. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  15. Blowdown Simulation of CO2 Pipelines

    Collard, A

    2015-01-01

    Pipelines are the most practical option for transporting large volumes of captured CO2 to appropriate storage sites as part of the Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) process. Proper maintenance, including periodic blowdown of pipelines or pipeline sections, is necessary for their safe operation, a pre-requisite for the public acceptance of CCS. Given the relatively high Joule-Thomson coefficient of CO2, blowdown can present significant risks to pipeline infrastructure. Depressurisation will res...

  16. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  17. REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT

    Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

    2005-04-01

    Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

  18. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses

    R. Vicentini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

  19. Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses.

    Vicentini, R; Menossi, M

    2007-05-01

    The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA. PMID:17464422

  20. Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

  1. Sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steels

    The problem of the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels and their welded joints have been presented for pipeline steels. Results of hydrogen sulfide stress cracking inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors of three types protective actions on pipeline steels of two grades petroleum range of products are given. (author)

  2. Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline

    Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

  3. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  4. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Hussein Sahli; Naser El-Sheimy

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected p...

  5. On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea

    Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Improvement in treatment of mixtures generated between batches of different products in OSBRA (Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline) pipeline

    Kotchetkoff Neto, Andre Paulo; Agostineti, Antonio; Almeida, Marcio Manhaes Gomes de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline (OSBRA) starts at the Planalto Refinery (REPLAN) and supplies gasoline, diesel oil and LPG to the mid-west region of Brazil. The pipeline is 786 kilometers long with diameter of 20 inches in its first segment and 178 kilometers with 12 inches in the second. The fuels are pumped by seven unmanned pump stations and are delivered to five tank farms. At first, these products were pumped into the pipeline in batches of diesel or LPG between gasoline batches. These sequences allowed the dilution of the mixtures generated between the two products during the pipeline transportation to the pure product tanks, keeping compliance to the former standards. The diesel/gasoline mixtures were diluted direct to pure product tanks and the LPG/gasoline mixtures were submitted to flashing in a vessel before dilution. In 2001, the National Petroleum Agency changed the LPG and diesel oil standards. This new regulation turned the OSBRA installations unable to dilute the whole mixture volume generated during pipeline transportation. Sending part of the mixture back to the Refinery turned a mandatory task, increasing the costs and making the LPG pipeline transportation unprofitable. To overcome this situation, a new product was developed - QINTER. The QINTER can be diluted in suitable rates either to diesel or gasoline keeping the compliance of these fuels to the new standards at the receiving tanks. The QINTER is currently pumped into the pipeline between the batches of diesel oil and gasoline. The standard solution to treat the mixture created between LPG and gasoline batches, a fractional tower, was studied but it showed to be of dubious profitability and it would compel changes to the existing working schedule time, from Monday to Friday (6:00 am to 10:00 pm) to a 24:00 h/day continuous work. An alternative project was developed. Three flash recirculation vessels were designed to allow the mixtures of LPG with vapor stream and gasoline with liquid stream

  7. Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines

    Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

    2010-07-01

    Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

  8. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  9. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  10. Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization

    The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives

  11. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  12. Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction

    Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

  13. Residual stresses evaluation in a gas-pipeline crossing

    Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Manoel Messias [COMPAGAS, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The X-rays diffraction technique is a well established and effectiveness method in the determination of the residual and applied stresses in fine grained crystalline materials. It allows to characterize and to quantify the magnitude and direction of the existing surface stresses in the studied point of the material. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the surface stresses in a 10 in diameter Natural Gas Distribution Pipeline manufactured from API 5 L Gr B steel of COMPAGAS company, in a crossing with a Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline, in Araucaria-PR. This kind of evaluation is important to establish weather you have to perform a repositioning of one of the pipeline or not. The measurements had been made in two transversal sections of the pipe, the one upstream (170 mm of the external wall of the pipeline) and another one downstream (840 mm of the external wall of the pipeline). Each transversal section measurements where carried out in 3 points: 9 hours, 12 hours and 3 hours. In each measured point of the pipe surface, the longitudinal and transversal stresses had been measured. The magnitude of the surface residual stresses in the pipe varied of +180 MPa at the -210 MPa. The residual stress state on the surface of the points 12 hours region is characterized by tensile stresses and by compressive stresses in the points of 3 and 9 hours region. The surface residual stresses in gas-pipeline have been measured using X-ray diffraction method, by double exposure technique, using a portable apparatus, with Cr-K-alpha radiation. (author)

  14. The MIRI Medium Resolution Spectrometer calibration pipeline

    Labiano, A; Bailey, J I; Beard, S; Dicken, D; García-Marín, M; Geers, V; Glasse, A; Glauser, A; Gordon, K; Justtanont, K; Klaassen, P; Lahuis, F; Law, D; Morrison, J; Müller, M; Rieke, G; Vandenbussche, B; Wright, G

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) Medium Resolution Spectrometer (MRS) is the only mid-IR Integral Field Spectrometer on board James Webb Space Telescope. The complexity of the MRS requires a very specialized pipeline, with some specific steps not present in other pipelines of JWST instruments, such as fringe corrections and wavelength offsets, with different algorithms for point source or extended source data. The MRS pipeline has also two different variants: the baseline pipeline, optimized for most foreseen science cases, and the optimal pipeline, where extra steps will be needed for specific science cases. This paper provides a comprehensive description of the MRS Calibration Pipeline from uncalibrated slope images to final scientific products, with brief descriptions of its algorithms, input and output data, and the accessory data and calibration data products necessary to run the pipeline.

  15. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  16. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  17. How to find abandoned oil and gas wells

    Johnston, K.H.; Carroll, H.B.; Heemstra, R.J.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1973-01-01

    This guide was written to furnish the coal industry with a description of techniques, instruments, and clues on how to find abandoned oil and gas wells that have penetrated coal seams. The report includes specific information on searching techniques currently in use by several coal mining companies, gas-transmission companies, and waterflood operators, as well as information on State agencies responsible for the enforcement of laws and the preservation and distribution of data pertaining to the drilling, development, and abandonment of oil and gas wells. Comparative tests were performed with several commercial electronic metal detectors to determine the feasibility of using them to aid in the search for abandoned wells and to determine the instrument most suited for that particular use. The role of methane detectors to locate abandoned wells is described, including a case history. Tests were made to develop an efficient procedure to follow in systematically searching an area for metallic clues or hydrocarbon evidence to abandoned wells. The guide describes, in detail, a search sequence, including the collection of basic data, preparation of the selected area, and the physical search. Methods are given for evaluating the results. (auth)

  18. Remediation of the Old Ecological Load in the Protected Area of the Morava River – Re-abandonment of the Oil and Gas Production Wells

    Petr Bujok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the former oil and gas producing wells that are or can be improperly abandoned creates a possible environmental hazard in terms of contamination of the groundwater and soil in the present. In the area of the Czech Republic, specifically in South Moravia part, which has a long oil and gas production history, plenty of such wells can be found. Finding out the information about their abandonment in archives is often very demanding (sometimes even impossible. During various survey works and re-abandonment attempts it was found out that many wells are originally abandoned improperly, insufficiently or not at all. The occurrence of such wells is not just potential but also very actual hazard for the cultural landscape of the South Moravia, especially for aquifers, agriculture and natural protected areas of national significance. This paper is focused on the possibility of the definitive abandonment of this particular ecological load. The proposed method was verified in laboratory conditions and in the field. It is now a standard form of the re abandonment of oil and gas wells without precise localization in the South Moravian oil fields.

  19. Preliminary investigation of the hydrogeology and contamination in the area of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    Prior to the introduction of natural gas pipelines in the 1950's, gas for lighting and heating in the US was produced from coal or oil at local manufacturing gas plants. By-products and wastes generated at these plants commonly were disposed of on site. The major wastes, which include tar and oil residues and sludges, spent oxides, and ash materials, can consist of a complex mixture of hundreds of aromatic organic compounds as well as cyanides and metals. An investigation was initiated in January 1989 in the vicinity of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia, to evaluate the hydrogeology and contamination of the area, and to test study techniques that may have application in similar situations. Geologic formations of interest to this investigation include, in descending order, unconsolidated sand and clay layers, The Ocala Limestone, and the Lisbon Formation. Surficial fill overlies the sand and clay layers throughout the study area. High concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and various metals were detected in the unconsolidated sediments in the vicinity of the abandoned gas plant. Maximum concentrations of hydrocarbons detected sediment samples included 560,000 microg/kg naphthalene, 73,000 microg/kg ethylbenzene, 28,000 microg/kg benzene, and 24,000 microg/kg toluene. These higher concentrations of hydrocarbons were present in the vicinity of the former gas holding tanks. In that area, contamination extends at least to the depth of the contact between the unconsolidated sand and clay layers and the Ocala Limestone

  20. Investigation of abandoned surface settling ponds

    One of the problems that may appear during the ground reclamation of surface settling ponds of underground mines is enhanced radon exhalation from bottom sediments. This problem becomes more important when the concentration of radium isotopes in sediments is enhanced due to the discharge of radium-bearing waters into the pond. For investigations, special radon accumulation chambers have been designed and constructed. The concentration of radon in these chambers can be measured with the application of Lucas cells or activated charcoal detectors. In the latter method, radon is extracted from charcoal into a liquid scintillator and the sample is measured in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Therefore the lower limit of detection (LLD) of the second method is as low as 0.1 mBq·m-2s-1, while the LLD for Lucas cells is 1.5 mBq·m-2s-1. The above-mentioned methods for the measurement of radon exhalation have been applied to investigations of a surface settling pond of one Polish coal mine, abandoned and emptied at the beginning of 2002. An agreement between the mine management and the local authority was to make the ground reclamation of the pond. A thick layer of sediments with an enhanced concentration of radium isotopes covers the bottom of the pond. The maximum concentration of radium isotopes in these sediments is as high as 2000 Bq/kg for 226Ra and up to 4000 Bq/kg for 228Ra. Two years after the complete release of brines from the pond, bottom sediments are still soaked with water. Therefore, measurements of radon in soil gas were not possible. On the other hand, in some parts of the pond investigations of radon exhalation coefficient were done. The preliminary results of measurements, conducted in 2002, showed that radon exhalation rates in specific parts of the pond were higher than the highest values of radon exhalation from the ground in the Upper Silesia region. Values of exhalation coefficient up to 200 mBq·m-2s-1 were found. It must be pointed out that

  1. Assessment of environmental implications of abandoned oil and gas wells

    A detailed study was made of the potential for abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa sand of Mississippi and Louisiana to act as conduits for movement of saline water from the Lower Tuscaloosa into underground sources of drinking water (USDW's). Finite-difference numerical modeling determined the extent that water might be forced from the Lower Tuscaloosa sand into a USDW as a result of injection into the Lower Tuscaloosa. Within the range of conditions modeled, water from the Lower Tuscaloosa never traveled into a USDW. On the basis of the modeling, the authors concluded that it is unlikely that abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa would serve as conduits for water movement from the trend into a USDW. The procedures developed in this study should be readily applicable to analysis of the potential for abandoned wells to act as pathways for contaminant flow into USDW's in other oil and gas producing areas of the country

  2. Impact Against Offshore Pipelines

    Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

    2013-01-01

    In 2007 a pipe at the Kvitebjørn oil field was impacted by an anchor and dragged out of its position. After the accident it was decided safe to run production, but later a leakage was found and the production was shut down. This gave rise to a need for further knowledge of the residual strength of impacted pipes.This thesis is part of an ongoing research program and a continuation of previous works. In 2010, scaled pipes were initially impacted in the pendulum accelerator at SIM lab, before t...

  3. Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia

    The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

  4. Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines

    Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

    2012-01-01

    Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

  5. Damages in Master Oil Pipeline

    Jorge Alberto Domínguez Domínguez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an approach to the study of chemical causes responsible for deep damages in oil pipeline in the last few years. These phenomena are responsible for significant direct and indirect economical enterprise loses and cause extensive environmental damage along thetrace. Leaning on laboratory and field tests about fluid properties, characteristic of surrendersoils and pipeline state, performed by several recognize national a foreign institutions the physicochemical causes of the damages, basic corrosion mechanism and main wear direction were proposed. It‘s quite evident the under deposit localized corrosion phenomenon with lowor medium penetration degree, along the tube bottom for firsts 30 km of the installation. Continuous emulsified water segregation from oil phase becomes the main cause of the strongmetal losses. This study followed by technological, mechanical and anti-corrosion evaluations will allow to fine proper solutions for this problem.

  6. Landscape susceptibility, hazard and risk assessments along pipeline corridors in Canada

    Blais-Stevens, A.; Couture, R.; Page, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Koch, J.; Clague, J.J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Lipovsky, P.S. [Yukon Geological Survey, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This article discussed work that was carried out to inventory landslides and assess hazards along two proposed gas-pipeline routes in the North. Landslide inventories and hazard assessments are necessary to quantify and qualify the risk of environmental impacts from landslides on linear infrastructure. The Yukon Alaska Highway Pipeline and the Mackenzie Gas Project Pipeline, which will both be over 800 kilometres in length, will cross harsh landscapes characterized by permafrost terrain and will be at risk from geological hazards, including landslides with debris flows, earthquakes, subsidence, and permafrost degradation. The work involved inventorying and mapping landslides via aerial photography and field visits to identify the frequency-magnitude relationships for debris flow fans along the route and the creation of qualitative parametric landslide maps for both proposed pipeline corridors. A good correlation was found between actual landslide distribution and the landslide susceptibility maps. For the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Corridor, most landslides have occurred in fine unconsolidated sediments and shallow slopes. Landslides in the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor mostly happened in unconsolidated sediments, but a few took place in bedrock with high relief. The preliminary investigation revealed that a slope hazard exists in both corridors and must be taken into account during pipeline development. The results are intended to facilitate better decision-making for planning, constructing, and maintaining safe and economically viable pipeline routes in Northern Canada. The mapping methodology was outlined. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Pressure equivalents in industrial gas pipelines

    Metel' kov, V.P.

    1980-01-01

    Pressure equivalence is a mathematical concept used to explain action and load parameters for pipelines. These two parameters are congruent to pressures encountered in pipelines. The research examined pressure equivalence in 820 by 8 millimeter pipelines in the Samotlor region and took into account the influence of support jams during first and second category jamming. It was determined that the absolute dimensions to pressure pulsations were significantly larger than plus or minus ten percent from (Prab) and even exceeded (Prab) in certain instances. The ratios at which (Prab) can be exceeded vary with relation to the jam supports and the maximum variations stem from yield in the metal pipelines themselves. The above concepts can be used to study the effects of pressure equivalence upon loads and pressures of Samotlor field pipelines and to select appropriate pipeline planning and construction methods. The conclusions drawn are valid for industrial surface pipelines used at below limit pressures. Annular and daily temperature variations in the outside air are considered with regard to their effect upon the pressure equivalence within the lower sections of the pipeline. Deviations here have been noted to exceed (formula). It was observed that in the case of underground pipelines, operated at below limit pressures, pressure equivalence occured in the upper section of the pipeline.

  8. Semiautomated measurement of pipeline defects

    The basic technical parameters and properties are given for a newly developed ultrasonic nondestructive testing device for the detection of defects on the inner surface of austenitic tubes of WWER nuclear power plant primary circuits. In addition to the electronic part of the four-channel test equipment, the manipulator and probes have also been designed, and their function is described. The manipulator is designed for measurement on straight pipeline segments of 500 mm inner dia. (B.S.). 4 figs

  9. ENERGY TRANSPORT AND POTENTIAL OF AN ABANDONED MINE

    BÉLA ILLÉS; JÁNOS ZSUGA; ANIKÓ TÓTH

    2012-01-01

    In the „70s an important copper ore mine was implemented in Recsk, Northern Hungary. Unfortunately as soon as the use of the roadways were finished the activities were suspended, because the decreasing price of the copper on the international market. The mine then was abandoned the roadways and the shafts were flooded by mine water. The abandoned mine has a substantial geothermal potential. The terrestrial heat flow is anomalously high: 0.108 W/m2, the temperature is 59.5 0C at the lower leve...

  10. Mapping abandoned agriculture with multi-temporal MODIS satellite data

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    agriculture was widespread. Input data included Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and reflectance bands (NASA Global MODIS Terra and Aqua 16-Day Vegetation Indices for the years 2003 through 2008, ~250-m resolution), as well as phenology metrics calculated with TIMESAT. The data were classified...... with Support Vector Machines (SVM). Training data were derived from several Landsat classifications of agricultural abandonment in the study area. A validation was conducted based on independently collected data. Our results showed that it is possible to map abandoned agriculture for large areas from MODIS...

  11. Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline

    Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

  12. Mobile-based distributed system for managing abandoned or lost pets

    GARROTE HILDEBRAND, DANIEL; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó Ten, José Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00551-5_24 This paper presents the work in progress of a mobile-based distributed system which aims to minimize the social impact of abandoned or lost animals. System is based on the use of smart mobile devices to provide message warnings of animals localized. Messages are stored in a database to be processed. In order to enter data such as photography, audio and artificial images, system uses different ...

  13. Recompression of natural gas during pipeline repair

    Rotink, M.H.; Koppens, B.G. [N. V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Gasunie is working to minimize the company's emission of greenhouse gases and set up a so-called (carbon) footprint reduction programme. Recompression of natural gas is a part of that programme, being the better alternative for flaring or venting when a pipeline must be emptied. To fully utilize the recompression concept, a unique recompression unit was designed to make recompression as easy as possible, what was considered to be of vital importance for successful implementation. The unit came into operation in 2006 and Gasunie has integrated recompression in its regular workflow. 30 gas evacuation jobs have since been done with recompression which resulted in a recompressed volume of 13.3 million m{sup 3}(n). This volume represents 238,000 t of CO{sub 2}-equivalents that are prevented of flowing into the atmosphere and a revenue of 3.7 million Euro from the gas that is saved from beingwasted by flaring or venting. The revenue is based on a commodity price of 0.28 Euro/m{sup 3}. The unit did cost 1.5 million Euro, so the return on investment is obvious. If all gas evacuation jobs are considered, there is still some recompression potential left. A limiting factor of recompression is the time it takes. In some cases the time to recompress exceeds the allowable down time of the pipeline. Therefore a second unit is delivered to Gasunie in 2010. With this extra capacity more gas can be recompressed. Gasunie has put in serious effort to get the recompression concept working in all its aspects and is therefore very pleased with the results so far. This is underlined by the fact that a second unit is bought. With recompression Gasunie has found a way to reduce greenhouse emissions in a cost effective way, or even better, in a cost saving way.

  14. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

    Brian O'Farrell

    Full Text Available Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost.

  15. Haltenpipe and Troll oil pipeline, technology at the forefront

    Blaker, F. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    Offshore pipeline technology coprises a spectrum of technologies within seabed mapping, design, materials, construction, inspection and maintenance. This paper deals with some of the recent developments, characterised by achievements within two specific projects on the Norwegian continental shelf. These developments concern the Troll oil pipeline and the Haltenbank projects. These are the use of advanced subsea mapping and position technology, hydraulic flow modelling simulating unique flow conditions inside a deep and narrow fjord, control of multiple free span behaviour by use of advanced design methology, use of strain based criteria to reduce large scale seabed correction works, high precision pipeline installation in deep weater involving guided laying to ensure the correct position of the pipeline across pre-installed gravel burns and at lateral counteracts, and a midline tie-in concept comprising an above-water welded tie-in of a prefabricated bend section and on bottom installation of hydraulic operated mechanical connectors specially developed for diverless repair contingency in deep waters. 10 figs.

  16. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  17. Submarine pipelines and the North Sea environment

    The function and design of pipelines for use on the United Kingdom continental shelf are described. Environmental influences which can threaten the integrity of seabed pipelines in the North Sea include hydrodynamic forces due to residual, tidal and wave currents, the nature of seabed sediments and corrosion by seawater. Damage may be caused to pipelines by interaction with vessel anchors and with fishing gear. Special care has to be taken over the selection of the general area for the landfall of a pipeline and the engineering of the installation where the pipeline comes ashore. Trenching and other protection techniques for pipelines are discussed together with hydrostatic testing and commissioning and subsequent inspection, maintenance and repair. (UK)

  18. Development of high productivity pipeline girth welding

    The trend for increased oil and gas consumption implies a growth of long-distance pipeline installations. Welding is a critical factor in the installation of pipelines, both onshore and offshore, and the rate at which the pipeline can be laid is generally determined by the speed of welding. This has resulted in substantial developments in pipeline welding techniques. Arc welding is still the dominant process used in practice, and forge welding processes have had limited successful application to date, in spite of large investments in process development. Power beam processes have also been investigated in detail and the latest laser systems now show promise for practical application. In recent years the use of high strength steels has substantially reduced the cost of pipeline installation, with X70 and X80 being commonly used. This use of high strength pipeline produced by thermomechanical processing has also been researched. They must all meet three requirments, high productivity, satisfactory weld properties, and weld quality

  19. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    2010-01-26

    ... leak detection process. Currently, there are 421 hazardous liquid pipeline operators. Two hundred and... required to comply with API RP 1130. Pipeline operators who do not employ computerized leak detection...

  20. AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) — A Data Archive Pipeline for Mission Operations

    Radulescu, C.; Levoe, S. R.; Algermissen, S. S.; Rye, E. D.; Hardman, S. H.; Hughes, J. S.; Cayanan, M. D.; Sayfi, E. M.

    2015-06-01

    The AMMOS-PDS Pipeline Service (APPS) is a multi-mission science data (instrument data + label) transformation service, which connects product generation pipelines and the PDS archive, therefore streamlining the delivery of science data to the PDS.

  1. Preprint ARPPS Augmented Reality Pipeline Prospect System

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Han, Yong; Hao, DongSheng; Lv, Zhihan

    2015-01-01

    This is the preprint version of our paper on ICONIP. Outdoor augmented reality geographic information system (ARGIS) is the hot application of augmented reality over recent years. This paper concludes the key solutions of ARGIS, designs the mobile augmented reality pipeline prospect system (ARPPS), and respectively realizes the machine vision based pipeline prospect system (MVBPPS) and the sensor based pipeline prospect system (SBPPS). With the MVBPPS's realization, this paper studies the neu...

  2. Pipeline dreams face up to reality

    This article gives details of two gas pipelines which are expected to be built in Turkey to meet the estimated demand for gas. The Bluestream joint ENI/Gasprom project pipeline will convey Russian gas across the Black Sea to Turkey, and the PSG joint Bechtel/General Electric venture will bring gas from Turkmenistan to Turkey across the Caspian Sea. Construction of the pipelines and financing aspects are discussed. (uk)

  3. Automatic Pipeline Surveillance Air-Vehicle

    Alqaan, Hani

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents the developments of a vision-based system for aerial pipeline Right-of-Way surveillance using optical/Infrared sensors mounted on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The aim of research is to develop a highly automated, on-board system for detecting and following the pipelines; while simultaneously detecting any third-party interference. The proposed approach of using a UAV platform could potentially reduce the cost of monitoring and surveying pipelines when...

  4. MUSE Pipeline: the First Year in Operation

    Weilbacher, Peter

    2015-12-01

    I will present the MUSE pipeline, in terms of calibration data required, reduction steps performed, computing requirements needed. I will then highlight some unusual algorithms. I will describe changes that became necessary during commissioning and the first year of operations and how the pipeline is now integrated into operations on Paranal. I will conclude by showing some example results that were enabled by the MUSE instrument and the pipeline in the first year.

  5. MUSE Pipeline: the First Year in Operation

    Weilbacher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    I will present the MUSE pipeline, in terms of calibration data required, reduction steps performed, computing requirements needed. I will then highlight some unusual algorithms. I will describe changes that became necessary during commissioning and the first year of operations and how the pipeline is now integrated into operations on Paranal. I will conclude by showing some example results that were enabled by the MUSE instrument and the pipeline in the first year.

  6. Abandoning uranium mining in Germany. Rehabilitation of the Wismut site

    After the unification of Germany in 1989, the Government decided to abandon uranium mining in two lands of the former Eastern Germany, in Saxonia and Thuringia. The closing of the mines and the reclamation and rehabilitation of the site cost more than 10 billion USD. The rehabilitation of the Wismut site is described in detail. (R.P.)

  7. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    2013-02-12

    ... Program; Part 879, Management and Disposition of Lands and Water; Part 882, Reclamation on Private Land..., Management, and Disposition of Lands and Water. This section is also in conformity with the Tennessee Code... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  8. Welding technique studies on the "West-East" pipeline project

    Sui Yongli; Du Zeyu; Huang Fuxiang; Qi Lichun

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the work of welding process design for the "West-East" pipeline project, which is high pressure, large diameter and heavy wall thickness. According to the different geographical situation, climate, culture and the flexibility of the welding methods, this work recommended the semi-automatic process at the east and middle sections and automatic process at the west section of the pipeline project. The manual process is recommended on the tie-in joints and repairs. The double joint pipe and the 3 joint pipe are recommended at the water net place and some in-ditch welding place to reduce the welding volume. Also the special redesigned bevels are recommended for the automatic process and the semiautomatic process. Through all destructive tests, the results shows the welds are meet the requirements of related standards,specifications and design documents.

  9. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  10. Transmission pipeline calculations and simulations manual

    Menon, E Shashi

    2014-01-01

    Transmission Pipeline Calculations and Simulations Manual is a valuable time- and money-saving tool to quickly pinpoint the essential formulae, equations, and calculations needed for transmission pipeline routing and construction decisions. The manual's three-part treatment starts with gas and petroleum data tables, followed by self-contained chapters concerning applications. Case studies at the end of each chapter provide practical experience for problem solving. Topics in this book include pressure and temperature profile of natural gas pipelines, how to size pipelines for specified f

  11. A quick guide to pipeline engineering

    Alkazraji, D

    2008-01-01

    Pipeline engineering requires an understanding of a wide range of topics. Operators must take into account numerous pipeline codes and standards, calculation approaches, and reference materials in order to make accurate and informed decisions.A Quick Guide to Pipeline Engineering provides concise, easy-to-use, and accessible information on onshore and offshore pipeline engineering. Topics covered include: design; construction; testing; operation and maintenance; and decommissioning.Basic principles are discussed and clear guidance on regulations is provided, in a way that will

  12. Designing a framework to guide renewal engineering decision-making for water and wastewater pipelines

    Maniar, Saumil Hiren

    2010-01-01

    Federal, state and private organizations have an urgent need for renewal of water and wastewater pipelines. A pertinent gap remains in understanding the relationship between deteriorated host-pipe conditions and renewal products cost and performance. This work provides a framework Decision-Support System that supports water and wastewater pipeline renewal-products. Various renewal products fit utility needs, and the optimization of this process streamlines the decision-making for renewal prod...

  13. Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

  14. Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines

    Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

  15. Empirical Formulas for Calculation of Negative Pressure Difference in Vacuum Pipelines

    Marek Kalenik

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of results of empirical investigations of a negative pressure difference in vacuum pipelines with internal diameters of 57, 81, 102 mm. The investigations were performed in an experimental installation of a vacuum sewage system, built in a laboratory hall on a scale of 1:1. The paper contains a review of the literature concerning two-phase flows (liquid-gas) in horizontal, vertical and diagonal pipelines. It presents the construction and working principles of t...

  16. The Alberta Pipeline Environmental Steering Committee: A model for cooperative resolution of issues

    Brocke, L.K. [Alberta Environmental Protection, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Kuipers, F. [Pembina Corp., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    In the past, industry and government independently conducted research and gathered information to address environmental issues. The results were not always mutually accepted. A number of emerging environmental issues arose in the mid 1980`s that demanded mutual resolution. As a result, the Alberta Pipeline Environmental Steering Committee was established in 1988. The Committee initially consisted of industry and government representatives. The membership has since been increased to include landowner representation, local government, federal interests and contractors. The Committee has four main purposes: (1) to assist government, industry and other interest groups in their pursuit of environmental protection and economical pipeline planning, construction, operation, abandonment and reclamation in Alberta; (2) to act as a vehicle for government to receive input from industry and other interest groups during policy formation; (3) to identify, prioritize and make recommendations for workable solutions on Alberta pipeline environmental issues; and (4) to help implement recommendations by organizations represented on the Committee. The benefits of this model are agreement on issue identification and mutual resolution. The success of the model has resulted in it being adopted for other sectors as well.

  17. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  18. 77 FR 16052 - Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way; Submitted for Office of...

    2012-03-19

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement Information Collection Activities: Pipelines and Pipeline... INFORMATION: Title: 30 CFR 250, Subpart J, Pipelines and Pipeline Rights-of-Way. Form: BSEE-0149. OMB Control...--Assignment of Federal OCS Pipeline Right-of-Way Grant: BSEE uses the information to track the ownership...

  19. 77 FR 32631 - Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline...

    2012-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El... 385.202 (2011), Lion Oil Trading & Transportation, Inc., Magnolia Pipeline Company, and El Dorado Pipeline Company, collectively, Lion Companies, requested that the Commission grant a temporary waiver...

  20. 75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    2010-10-18

    ... implemented specific leak detection requirements in its IM rule for hazardous liquid pipelines (65 FR 75378... primarily of steel or iron. ``Standards for Direct Assessment of Gas and Hazardous Liquid Pipelines'' (70 FR...). That law, modeled on the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968, Public Law 90-481, delegated to...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA

    ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

  2. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

  3. A Difference-In-Differences Study of the Effects of a New Abandoned Building Remediation Strategy on Safety.

    Michelle C Kondo

    Full Text Available Vacant and abandoned buildings pose significant challenges to the health and safety of communities. In 2011 the City of Philadelphia began enforcing a Doors and Windows Ordinance that required property owners of abandoned buildings to install working doors and windows in all structural openings or face significant fines. We tested the effects of the new ordinance on the occurrence of crime surrounding abandoned buildings from January 2011 to April 2013 using a difference-in-differences approach. We used Poisson regression models to compare differences in pre- and post-treatment measures of crime for buildings that were remediated as a result of the ordinance (n = 676 or permitted for renovation (n = 241, and randomly-matched control buildings that were not remediated (n = 676 or permitted for renovation (n = 964, while also controlling for sociodemographic and other confounders measured around each building. Building remediations were significantly associated with citywide reductions in overall crimes, total assaults, gun assaults and nuisance crimes (p < 0.001. Building remediations were also significantly associated with reductions in violent gun crimes in one city section (p < 0.01. At the same time, some significant increases were seen in narcotics sales and possession and property crimes around remediated buildings (p < 0.001. Building renovation permits were significantly associated with reductions in all crime classifications across multiple city sections (p < 0.001. We found no significant spatial displacement effects. Doors and windows remediation offers a relatively low-cost method of reducing certain crimes in and around abandoned buildings. Cities with an abundance of decaying and abandoned housing stock might consider some form of this structural change to their built environments as one strategy to enhance public safety.

  4. Astronomical Data Reduction Pipelines at NASA: 30 Years and Counting

    Lindler, D.

    NASA has been very active in development of data reduction pipelines for space observatories since the early 1970s. Many of the techniques and architectures used today by the NASA Great Observatories have a pedigree that can be traced back to the pioneering work done by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) team. These techniques continued to evolve and improve from the manually controlled IUE processing systems to the automated system used today by the Hubble Space Telescope and other NASA projects.

  5. COLD FLOW IN LONG-DISTANCE SUBSEA PIPELINES

    Akpabio, Moses Gideon

    2013-01-01

    As the world?s appetite for energy continues to grow, oil and gas developments are moving to ever deeper subsea environments, thereby causing hydrates-related issues to become a growing concern for the industry. Hydrates blockages, beyond the safety risk they represent, result in time-consuming and costly mitigation and remediation operations. Most hydrate experiences found in the literature, and the corresponding prevention and remediation strategies, concern subsea pipelines. This work re...

  6. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Alexandra Gulachenski; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Amy E. Lesen; Michael J Blum

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission...

  7. Magnetic Flux Leakage and Principal Component Analysis for metal loss approximation in a pipeline

    Ruiz, M.; Mujica, L. E.; Quintero, M.; Florez, J.; Quintero, S.

    2015-07-01

    Safety and reliability of hydrocarbon transportation pipelines represent a critical aspect for the Oil an Gas industry. Pipeline failures caused by corrosion, external agents, among others, can develop leaks or even rupture, which can negatively impact on population, natural environment, infrastructure and economy. It is imperative to have accurate inspection tools traveling through the pipeline to diagnose the integrity. In this way, over the last few years, different techniques under the concept of structural health monitoring (SHM) have continuously been in development. This work is based on a hybrid methodology that combines the Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) approaches. The MFL technique induces a magnetic field in the pipeline's walls. The data are recorded by sensors measuring leakage magnetic field in segments with loss of metal, such as cracking, corrosion, among others. The data provide information of a pipeline with 15 years of operation approximately, which transports gas, has a diameter of 20 inches and a total length of 110 km (with several changes in the topography). On the other hand, PCA is a well-known technique that compresses the information and extracts the most relevant information facilitating the detection of damage in several structures. At this point, the goal of this work is to detect and localize critical loss of metal of a pipeline that are currently working.

  8. Satellite Radar Interferometry For Risk Management Of Gas Pipeline Networks

    Ianoschi, Raluca; Schouten, Mathijs; Bas Leezenberg, Pieter; Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Hanssen, Ramon

    2013-12-01

    InSAR time series analyses can be fine-tuned for specific applications, yielding a potential increase in benchmark density, precision and reliability. Here we demonstrate the algorithms developed for gas pipeline monitoring, enabling operators to precisely pinpoint unstable locations. This helps asset management in planning, prioritizing and focusing in-situ inspections, thus reducing maintenance costs. In unconsolidated Quaternary soils, ground settlement contributes to possible failure of brittle cast iron gas pipes and their connections to houses. Other risk factors include the age and material of the pipe. The soil dynamics have led to a catastrophic explosion in the city of Amsterdam, which triggered an increased awareness for the significance of this problem. As the extent of the networks can be very wide, InSAR is shown to be a valuable source of information for identifying the hazard regions. We monitor subsidence affecting an urban gas transportation network in the Netherlands using both medium and high resolution SAR data. Results for the 2003-2010 period provide clear insights on the differential subsidence rates in the area. This enables characterization of underground motion that affects the integrity of the pipeline. High resolution SAR data add extra detail of door-to-door pipeline connections, which are vulnerable due to different settlements between house connections and main pipelines. The rates which we measure represent important input in planning of maintenance works. Managers can decide the priority and timing for inspecting the pipelines. The service helps manage the risk and reduce operational cost in gas transportation networks.

  9. STRESS AND STRAIN STATE OF REPAIRING SECTION OF PIPELINE

    V. V. Nikolaev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Reliability of continuous operation of pipelines is an actual problem. For this reason should be developed an effective warning system of the main pipelines‘  failures and accidents not only in design and operation but also in selected repair. Changing of linear, unloaded by bending position leads to the change of stress and strain state of pipelines. And besides this, the stress and strain state should be determined and controlled in the process of carrying out the repair works. The article presents mathematical model of pipeline’s section straining in viscoelastic setting taking into account soils creep and high-speed stress state of pipeline with the purpose of stresses evaluation and load-supporting capacity of repairing section of pipeline, depending on time.  Stress and strain state analysis of pipeline includes longitudinal and circular stresses calculation  with  account of axis-asymmetrical straining and  was  fulfilled  on  the base of momentless theory of shells. To prove the consistency of data there were compared the calcu- lation results and the solution results by analytical methods for different cases (long pipeline’s section strain only under influence of cross-axis action; long pipeline’s section strain under in- fluence of longitudinal stress; long pipeline’s section strain; which is on the elastic foundation, under influence of cross-axis action. Comparison results shows that the calculation error is not more than 3 %.Analysis of stress-strain state change of pipeline’s section was carried out with development  of  this  model,  which  indicates  the  enlargement  of  span  deflection  in  comparison with problem’s solution in elastic approach. It is also proved, that for consistent assessment of pipeline maintenance conditions, it is necessary to consider the areolas of rheological processes of soils. On the base of complex analysis of pipelines there were determined stresses and time

  10. 75 FR 67807 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications

    2010-11-03

    ... Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Emergency Preparedness Communications AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA); DOT. ACTION: Notice... further enhance the Department's safety efforts, PHMSA is issuing this Advisory Bulletin about...

  11. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  12. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  13. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  14. A method to determine expander spacing for steel pipelines in mining districts; Ein Verfahren zur Festlegung von Dehnerabstaenden fuer Stahlrohrleitungen im Bergbaugebiet

    Spielberg, P. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany). Abt. Bergschaeden; Sroka, A. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Markscheidewesen und Geodaesie

    2004-10-01

    In the Ruhr district, pipelines of public and private infrastructure are made of cast iron, steel, plastics or asbestos cement. Legal framework, technical regulations and normative standards define which pipeline materials may be used for the transmission of which kind of product. Thus ground water endangering substances as well as inflammable or explosive products are only permitted to be transported in steel pipelines. Ground movements, due to underground mining, are transmitted via the soil to the pipeline and cause extra strain within the steel pipeline. In extreme cases, durable deformations may occur, characterized by an oval profile or a fold in the pipeline. To avoid or minimize damages, balancing elements are installed into the concerning pipeline, reducing the ground movements which might otherwise cause damages. The distance between the balancing elements is not arranged by random, but by a developed calculation method which represents the actual available standards in science and technology. The calculation method considers all relevant influencing variables with impacts on the movement behaviour of steel pipelines in mining areas like technical data of pipeline design (e.g. steel grade, wall thickness, weld seam quality), soil conditions (e.g. friction), laying depths of the pipelines, the operational impacts (working pressure, corrosion) and the mining impacts. By today, mining has caused no damages to steel pipelines secured by this calculation method. (orig.)

  15. Sniffer patrols: dogs, airborne sensors, and computers stand on guard against pipeline leaks

    Stonehouse, D.

    2000-05-01

    Pipeline inspection service, involving old as well as the newest of technology is discussed. In this instance, attention is focused on gas sniffing dogs, the low end of the technology ladder, but the high end on the performance scale. A recent surveillance report by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board advised that of 200 pipelines inspected, 105 did not meet Board requirements. Fifteen lines were temporarily shut down . More than 880 leaks were reported, 65 per cent of them involving pipeline corrosion. Old pipelines were not the only ones falling short of Board standards; of 358 pipeline construction projects inspected, 99 of them showed various deficiencies. Canine Technology Inc, located near Calgary, began working with Imperial Oil nine years ago on training leak detection dogs. How successful they are in sniffing out leaks in pipelines is demonstrated by the fact that today they are being put to work throughout North America to insure the integrity of newly-completed and older pipelines. Dogs are reliably accurate in all environments, they can be transported anywhere, and they can detect leaks smaller than can be measured by sophisticated man-made technology. Calgary-trained dogs have worked in four-feet of snow in northern Alberta, in the bayou country of Louisiana, and the deserts of New Mexico with equal success. Aerial reconnaissance using video and thermal image cameras, computer software to help monitor problem areas, pinpoint leaks and co-ordinate emergency responses are some of the other means of detecting leaks in pipelines; so far, dogs have proven to be the most accurate and the most reliable.

  16. Review of Oil and Gas Pipeline Construction in 2007

    Qu Hong

    2008-01-01

    @@ China's pipeline industry has developed for 50 years till 2008. In the past 10 years, more than 50,000 kilometers of long-distance oil and gas pipelines have been constructed,of which gas pipelines reached about 30,000 kilometers,crude oil pipelines about 17,000 kilometers, and product oil pipelines about 7,000 kilometers. Oil and gas pipeline networks across regions have taken shape.

  17. Dynamic pressure measures for long pipeline leak detection

    Likun Wang; Hongchao Wang; Min Xiong; Bin Xu; Dongjie Tan; Hengzhang Zhou [PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang (China). R and D Center

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline leak detection method based on dynamic pressure is studied. The feature of dynamic pressure which is generated by the leakage of pipeline is analyzed. The dynamic pressure method is compared with the static pressure method for the advantages and disadvantages in pipeline leak detection. The dynamic pressure signal is suitable for pipeline leak detection for quick-change of pipeline internal pressure. Field tests show that the dynamic pressure method detects pipeline leak rapidly and precisely. (author)

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES

    Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

    2005-02-01

    This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length

  19. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_points_mms_2007

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the points of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the...

  20. Offshore Pipeline Locations in the Gulf of Mexico, Geographic NAD27, MMS (2007) [pipelines_vectors_mms_2007

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — Offshore Minerals Management Pipeline Locations for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). Contains the lines of the pipeline in the GOM. All pipelines existing in the databases...

  1. The methodology and software for definition of the utmost permissible decrease of the walls thickness of the pipelines subjected to erosive-corrosive wear (ECW)

    The methodology and software for assessment of utmost permissible decrease and strength of the walls thickness of the pipelines subjected to erosive-corrosive wear and prognosis of capacity for work of pipelines during definite operation period based on stress-strain state of structure in the defect zone are presented in this work

  2. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  3. Stress Analysis of Shallow Sea Gas Pipelines

    Xiaonan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow sea gas pipelines usually operate in complicated and changeable regional environments and can generate corresponding stresses and displacement under the influence of internal pressures, earthquakes, waves and other loadings. An unevenly distributed stress will lead to shallow sea gas pipeline failure easily. In order to ensure the safety of pipeline, it is necessary to research the stress conditions of the shallow sea gas pipeline and check whether it can meet the safety requirements or not. In this study, we analyze the stress conditions of shallow sea gas pipelines of two laying modes in XX areas using stress analysis software CAESAR II, discuss the loading conditions under the operating condition and determine the position of the key point where pipeline damage is most likely to happen, the bend pipe. The comprehensive experiments show that underground method more secure than the sea-bed method, it greatly improves the reliability of the shallow sea pipeline running. Our research provides a theoretical basis for the construction of shallow sea gas pipelines.

  4. Analysis of buried pipelines at Kozloduy

    This paper describes the analysis of the buried pipelines at Kozloduy NPP. It involves the description of the studied pipelines, their properties, a detailed description of the methodology applied, and the evaluation of the soil strain field as well as the graphical representation of the results obtained

  5. Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-07-01

    Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

  6. The pipeline flow of heavy solid capsules

    Vlasák, Pavel

    Shanghai, 2004, s. 1-16. [International symposium on underground freight transportation by capsule pipelines and other tube/tunnel system s /4./. Shanghai (CN), 00.00.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2067107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : pipeline transport * solid capsules * correlation Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  7. Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline

    Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

  8. Precise location of nonmetallic pipelines

    A method is described to conduct precise surveys of nonmetallic pipelines. After a thin stranded wire is pulled through a part of the pipe first an inductive or capacitative prelocation is made, in which especially curves are marked. After that with this wire a go-devil with a 500 mCi 60Co-radiation source is moved slowly from reference point to reference point. On the ground plane the corresponding maximum of the radiation intensity is detected and marked as the position of the pipe. About the experiences of the location of two local gas pipelines with 4987 and 11897 km length is reported. The average length of the located sections was about 300 m, the average distance between two reference points was a little more than 8 m. In the case of curves the distances were reduced to 0.5 - 1.0 m. The output of location was 16 h/km, the daily output ca. 600 m. The accuracy is better than +- 10 cm, while in the case of the inductive prelocation deviations of more than 50 cm could be found. During the locations the delivery of gas was uninterrupted. It can be carried out also in thickly populated regions without any danger by radioactive radiation. (Author)

  9. NCBI prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline.

    Tatusova, Tatiana; DiCuccio, Michael; Badretdin, Azat; Chetvernin, Vyacheslav; Nawrocki, Eric P; Zaslavsky, Leonid; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Pruitt, Kim D; Borodovsky, Mark; Ostell, James

    2016-08-19

    Recent technological advances have opened unprecedented opportunities for large-scale sequencing and analysis of populations of pathogenic species in disease outbreaks, as well as for large-scale diversity studies aimed at expanding our knowledge across the whole domain of prokaryotes. To meet the challenge of timely interpretation of structure, function and meaning of this vast genetic information, a comprehensive approach to automatic genome annotation is critically needed. In collaboration with Georgia Tech, NCBI has developed a new approach to genome annotation that combines alignment based methods with methods of predicting protein-coding and RNA genes and other functional elements directly from sequence. A new gene finding tool, GeneMarkS+, uses the combined evidence of protein and RNA placement by homology as an initial map of annotation to generate and modify ab initio gene predictions across the whole genome. Thus, the new NCBI's Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) relies more on sequence similarity when confident comparative data are available, while it relies more on statistical predictions in the absence of external evidence. The pipeline provides a framework for generation and analysis of annotation on the full breadth of prokaryotic taxonomy. For additional information on PGAP see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/annotation_prok/ and the NCBI Handbook, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK174280/. PMID:27342282

  10. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  11. Calculating thermal insulation thickness and embedment depth of underground heat supply pipeline for permafrost soils

    M.P. Akimov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work the authors considered a freezing-and-melting process of soils under the polyurethane-insulated polyethylene heating pipeline, which is used in the regions with permafrost soils. Temperature field dynamics of the “pipeline – soil” system is determined by heat conductivity equation in polar coordinate system. The corresponding two-dimensional Stefan problem is solved by the finite differences method. The authors propose to determine the thickness of pipeline thermal insulation and the embedment depth upon the condition of melting depth reduction to an annual thawed layer of soil identified before the heating season. There are presented results of isotherm calculations for underground heat supply pipelines interacting with frozen soil. These results show that reduction of melting depth to annual thawed layer is probable. The calculations were carried out for simulated soil and temperature conditions of Yakutsk, Republic Sakha, Russia. Nevertheless, the results obtained can be applied in other permafrost areas.

  12. Fitness for service assessment of defects in oil and gas pipelines

    Teutonico, Jose Mauricio; Souza, Gerardo; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE A.S. (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    During normal operation a pipeline generates a series of defects that can affect its integrity. At some stage during the pipeline life will require an assessment of these defects in order to determine their ability to maintain safe operation. Defects can be classified as geometric defects (gouges, plain dents, dents containing other defects), volumetric defects (external or internal corrosion) or planar defects (cracks, SCC). In this work a methodology to the characterization and determination of the severity of defects detected by an ILI inspection in pipelines is presented. A series of practical procedures and instructive has been developed based on international codes, national regulations and industry best practices. The repair approaches were defined from the risk level that the company it is disposed to assume. The contributed examples were collected in high pressure pipelines of different ages, located on diverse geographical locations and over different operation conditions. (author)

  13. Integer programming formulation and variable neighborhood search metaheuristic for the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem

    Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Leonardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Pipeline are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. In this work we address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. We propose an integer linear programming formulation and a variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic in order to compare the performances of the exact and heuristic approaches to the problem. Computational tests in C language and MOSEL/XPRESS-MP language are performed over a real Brazilian pipeline system. (author)

  14. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities (40K, 232Th and 238U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina gold mine

  15. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TCplants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution

  16. Efficiency improvements in pipeline transportation systems

    Banks, W. F.; Horton, J. F.

    1977-09-09

    This report identifies potential energy-conservative pipeline innovations that are most energy- and cost-effective and formulates recommendations for the R, D, and D programs needed to exploit those opportunities. From a candidate field of over twenty classes of efficiency improvements, eight systems are recommended for pursuit. Most of these possess two highly important attributes: large potential energy savings and broad applicability outside the pipeline industry. The R, D, and D program for each improvement and the recommended immediate next step are described. The eight technologies recommended for R, D, and D are gas-fired combined cycle compressor station; internally cooled internal combustion engine; methanol-coal slurry pipeline; methanol-coal slurry-fired and coal-fired engines; indirect-fired coal-burning combined-cycle pump station; fuel-cell pump station; drag-reducing additives in liquid pipelines; and internal coatings in pipelines.

  17. Pipeline modeling and assessment in unstable slopes

    Caceres, Carlos Nieves [Oleoducto Central S.A., Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia); Ordonez, Mauricio Pereira [SOLSIN S.A.S, Bogota, Cundinamarca (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    The OCENSA pipeline system is vulnerable to geotechnical problems such as faults, landslides or creeping slopes, which are well-known in the Andes Mountains and tropical countries like Colombia. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate the pipe behaviour during the soil displacements of slow landslides. Three different cases of analysis are examined, according to site characteristics. The process starts with a simplified analytical model and develops into 3D finite element numerical simulations applied to the on-site geometry of soil and pipe. Case 1 should be used when the unstable site is subject to landslides impacting significant lengths of pipeline, pipeline is straight, and landslide is simple from the geotechnical perspective. Case 2 should be used when pipeline is straight and landslide is complex (creeping slopes and non-conventional stabilization solutions). Case 3 should be used if the pipeline presents vertical or horizontal bends.

  18. Technical progress in pipeline design and construction

    Hausken, K.B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper considers the technical progress in offshore pipeline construction with limitation to some general subjects covering pipeline design, installation and start-up. In future the use of limit state pipeline design philosophy, may be implemented as an alternative to the stress based design commonly used to day giving a potential for further optimisation of the pipeline design and consequently reduction of the initial investment. Comprehensive research and development efforts in Norway in the second half of the 1970`s, made it technically feasible to cross the deep water Norwegian Trench in the 1980`s. In addition, the development of several offshore pipeline systems until to day including gas distribution systems to the European continent, have brought Norway to the forefront of technical expertise

  19. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  20. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning

    2011-01-01

    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  1. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  2. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  3. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  4. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pip...

  5. Should High-Frequency Ventilation in the Adult Be Abandoned?

    Nguyen, Albert P; Schmidt, Ulrich H; MacIntyre, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) can improve ventilation-perfusion matching without excessive alveolar tidal stretching or collapse-reopening phenomenon. This is an attractive feature in the ventilation of patients with ARDS. However, two recent large multi-center trials of HFOV failed to show benefits in this patient population. The following review addresses whether, in view of these trails, HFOV should be abandoned in the adult population? PMID:27235314

  6. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and to propose mitigation strategies. The methodologies used in this study are combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of literature review, questionnaire survey, and interview. The results show that many risks are involved in housing project, including risks related to environmental impacts, construction, politics, law, management, finance, materials, and economy, of which the probability of risks from unexpected ground condition, project delays, bureaucracy, contractual disputes between developer and landlord, weakness in management by inexperience developer, and financial crisis is very high. It was also found that all relevant parties involved in housing industry are required to have extensive cooperation in advance and should perform systematic risk management strategies in order to mitigate the risks leading to problems associated with abandoned housing projects.

  7. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  8. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

  9. Current pipelines for neglected diseases.

    di Procolo, Paolo; Jommi, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    This paper scrutinises pipelines for Neglected Diseases (NDs), through freely accessible and at-least-weekly updated trials databases. It updates to 2012 data provided by recent publications, and integrates these analyses with information on location of trials coordinators and patients recruitment status. Additionally, it provides (i) disease-specific information to better understand the rational of investments in NDs, (ii) yearly data, to understand the investment trends. The search identified 650 clinical studies. Leishmaniasis, Arbovirus infection, and Dengue are the top three diseases by number of clinical studies. Disease diffusion risk seems to be the most important driver of the clinical trials target choice, whereas the role played by disease prevalence and unmet need is controversial. Number of trials is stable between 2005 and 2010, with an increase in the last two years. Patient recruitment was completed for most studies (57.6%), and Phases II and III account for 35% and 28% of trials, respectively. The primary purpose of clinical investigations is prevention (49.3%), especially for infectious diseases with mosquitoes and sand flies as the vector, and treatment (43.2%), which is the primary target for parasitic diseases Research centres and public organisations are the most important clinical studies sponsors (58.9%), followed by the pharmaceutical industry (24.1%), foundations and non-governmental organisations (9.3%). Many coordinator centres are located in less affluent countries (43.7%), whereas OECD countries and BRICS account for 34.7% and 17.5% of trials, respectively. Information was partially missing for some parameters. Notwithstanding, and despite its descriptive nature, this research has enhanced the evidence of the literature on pipelines for NDs. Future contributions may further investigate whether trials metrics are consistent with the characteristics of the interested countries and the explicative variables of trials location, target

  10. BC Alaska-Canada gas pipeline

    MacDonald, K. [BP Canada Energy Company, Calgary, AB (Canada). BP Alaska Canada Gas Pipelines

    2006-07-01

    The Alaska natural gas pipeline project was discussed in relation to the Canadian oil and gas industry and pipeline infrastructure. Total project costs for the pipeline were estimated at approximately $20 billion. Options out of Alberta include increasing existing capacity to the west coast, as well as expanding pipeline capacity to supply midwest and east coast markets. Existing pipeline systems will be expanded, and a new pipeline from Alaska to Chicago has been proposed. The gas pipeline project is expected to be the largest private construction project in the history of North America, and will provide 6500 jobs in both the United States and Canada. Project challenges to date have included the development of relationships with Aboriginals and First Nations groups in Canada and the United States, as well as ensuring access to efficient, competitive market-based regulatory processes. Project risks to date have included capital and operating cost over-runs, regulatory and legal delays, completion risks, and commodity price risks. Stranded gas act processes were discussed, as well as fiscal contracts related to the legislative and public process. Elements of the fiscal contract were provided, as well as details of First Nations relationships and Crown consultation processes. tabs., figs.

  11. Competing pipelines in Alberta - a tolling issue

    The implications of the emergence of competing pipelines in the intra-Alberta market were reviewed from the vantage point of the Industrial Gas Consumers Association of Alberta, comprised of the eight largest natural gas consumers in the province. The Association is concerned with the possible impacts caused by producer-driven pipelines such as the Palliser Pipeline, Alliance Pipeline or the Alberta Pipeline proposals, taking a run at Nova Gas Transmission's quasi-monopoly within the province. Issues of concern to the Association are: (1) access of Alberta industry to natural gas, (2) cost of moving gas from the field to plant gate, (3) impact on long-term gas development, (4) impact on gas prices within the province, and (5) impact on the availability on natural gas liquids used as industrial feedstock. The Association views the competing pipeline proposals with concern because it believes that while change is both necessary and inevitable, competition does not necessarily means more assured supply, at better prices to industry that rely on natural gas. In the view of the Association the best that is likely to result from the new competitive proposals is turning the present monopoly into an oligopoly, with significant potential for the oligopoly pipelines to abuse their position, thus putting at risk their considerable investment in industrial plants by sudden changes in natural gas transportation cost structure

  12. Modelling of geomagnetic induction in pipelines

    L. Trichtchenko

    Full Text Available Geomagnetic field variations induce telluric currents in pipelines, which modify the electrochemical conditions at the pipe/soil interface, possibly contributing to corrosion of the pipeline steel. Modelling of geomagnetic induction in pipelines can be accomplished by combining several techniques. Starting with geomagnetic field data, the geoelectric fields in the absence of the pipeline were calculated using the surface impedance derived from a layered-Earth conductivity model. The influence of the pipeline on the electric fields was then examined using an infinitely long cylinder (ILC model. Pipe-to-soil potentials produced by the electric field induced in the pipeline were calculated using a distributed source transmission line (DSTL model. The geomagnetic induction process is frequency dependent; therefore, the calculations are best performed in the frequency domain, using a Fourier transform to go from the original time domain magnetic data, and an inverse Fourier transform at the end of the process, to obtain the pipe-to-soil potential variation in the time domain. Examples of the model calculations are presented and compared to observations made on a long pipeline in the auroral zone.

    Key words. Geomagnetism and paleomagnetism (geo-magnetic induction

  13. Engineered pipeline field joint coating solutions for demanding conditions

    Lwemuchi, Andre L.; Gudme, Carl C.; Buchanan, Robert [Canusa-CPS, Toronto, OT (Canada)

    2009-12-19

    Trends in the oil and gas pipeline industry see that the demand for new technologies and engineered solutions for pipeline external coatings are increasing. In general, superior mechanical resistance and long term performance are being required in addition to operating at higher temperatures. This demand for more robust coatings has been created because of factors such as more remote fields, deep onshore reservoirs, deep water offshore fields and heavy oil that must be pumped at higher temperatures. The development of new techniques for pipeline construction is also exposing the coatings to more aggressive construction conditions. Because of this, the use of three layer and multi-layer polypropylene mainline coating systems have been growing considerably. Following this trend, the field joint coating manufacturers developed polypropylene systems and more recently had to work on engineered solutions required for recent offshore projects in Europe where very thick polypropylene field joint heat-shrinkable systems were provided. In addition, projects in remote locations such as the recently completed projects in the Brazilian Amazon required special logistics and field services. The growth of the mining industry in South America with slurry pipelines constructed in the recent years also demanded thicker, more robust coatings. The popularization of directional drilling and shore approach applications moved the industry to develop improved abrasion resistant coating systems such as using sacrificial elements to protect the primary coating integrity after the pipeline pull. PETROBRAS plans to replace existing thermally insulated pipelines crossing Great Sao Paulo. Therefore, pumping heavy oil at high temperatures created the need to develop improved mainline and field joint coatings to avoid having the same sort of problems they are facing in existing thermally insulated lines. Due to these needs, the field joint coating manufactures have been challenged to provide

  14. Report of study group 4.1 ''pipeline ageing and rehabilitation''

    Serena, L.

    2000-07-01

    This report describes the work on the subject 'pipeline ageing and rehabilitation' carried out by the Study Group 4.1 and related to the triennium 1997 - 2000. The report is focused on ageing and rehabilitation of natural gas transmission pipelines and more in detail on the following topics: - Definition of pipeline ageing; - Different ageing elements; - Main causes of ageing; - Inspections and monitoring; - Repair methods on ageing pipelines; - Programmes and strategies for pipeline maintenance and rehabilitation. The report includes the state of the art of the different techniques used to assess pipeline ageing such as pig inspection, landslide areas monitoring as well as advanced monitoring methods used nowadays by pipeline operators; a clarification of the concepts for different maintenance approaches is also presented. In addition the report gives some information regarding repair methods in use, the methodologies to evaluate the defects and the philosophy on which each repair system is based. The remaining topics deal with the strategies of pipelines and coating rehabilitation, locus the attention in the economical and technical considerations also beyond the ageing concept and describe in details the main causes of ageing as indicated by operators. A questionnaire on these topics was in fact distributed and the obtained results are included in this report. (author)

  15. A fast-track preliminary thermo-mechanical design of oil export pipelines from P-56 platform

    Solano, Rafael F.; Mendonca, Salete M. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franco, Luciano D.; Walker, Alastair; El-Gebaly, Sherif H. [INTECSEA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    The oil export pipelines of Marlim Sul field Module 3, Campus Basin, offshore Brazil, will operate in high pressure and temperature conditions, and will be laid on seabed crossing ten previously laid pipelines along the routes. In terms of thermo-mechanical design, these conditions turn out to be great challenges. In order to obtain initial results and recommendations for detail design, a preliminary thermo-mechanical design of pipelines was carried out as a fast-track design before the bid. This way, PETROBRAS can assess and emphasize the susceptibility of these lines to lateral buckling and pipeline walking behavior. Therefore, PETROBRAS can present a preliminary mitigation strategy for lateral buckling showing solutions based on displacement controlled criteria and by introducing buckle initiation along the pipeline using distribution buoyancy. Besides that, axial displacements and loads at the pipeline ends can be furnished also in order to provide a basis for the detailed design. The work reported in this paper follows the SAFEBUCK JIP methodology and recommendation, which were used to determine the allowable strain and maximum allowable VAS (Virtual Anchor Spacing) considered in the buckling mitigation strategy. The paper presents also the formation of uncontrolled buckles on the seabed and the propensity for pipeline walking in its sections between buckles. The buckling mitigation strategy established in this preliminary design confirms that the oil pipeline specifications are adequate to maintain integrity during design life. (author)

  16. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY; SEMIANNUAL

    This report represents the sixth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the White Meadow Mine site, after amended specifications were prepared and continued negotiations took place with the Property Owner, the property ownership was transferred during the reporting period. As a result in the change in property ownership, the remediation project was then to be done by the new Property Owner out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, no additional field work was undertaken during this reporting period subsequent to the previous completion of the geophysical survey. With the termination of the White Meadow

  17. Pipelines: prebuild remains focus of attention

    1980-04-21

    Progress on the prebuilding of the Alaska Highway Pipeline continues to dominate the Canadian pipeline scene as the deadline nears for decision making on several aspects of the project. If obstacles are removed in time for the western leg of the prebuild to proceed on the revised schedule, facilities for gas deliveries to California should be completed by fall 1980. Financing negotiations are continuing in both the US and Canada. Pipeline projects in Canada during 1980 are listed by line type, including gas transmission lines, crude oil and products lines, gas gathering systems, waterflood systems, and new projects not called gas transmission lines.

  18. The Iran-Pakistan-India Pipeline Project

    Basit, Saira

    2008-01-01

    The planned Iran-Pakistan-India natural-gas pipeline (IPI Pipeline) has been in the Asian spotlight for many years and its full realisation would be politically ground-breaking. Its energy-supply route is planned to cross the political fault line between the two rivals Pakistan and India, who would thus be bound to cooperate with one another. In fact, planning the Pipeline is the first time in history that the two countries have ever even negotiated on a trilateral project. Additionally, intr...

  19. Future impact on natural gas pipelines

    Croom, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The future for natural gas pipelines is forecast by examining the sources and uses of energy today and projecting respective changes. No significant changes are expected over the next 20 yr in natural gas usage, but regionally, some demand shift could impact certain gas transmission facilities. The conclusion is that natural gas will continue to displace oil in some stationary uses, while coal will displace natural gas in some power plant and feedstock applications. Although these shifts will result in some regional construction activity, they will probably not necessitate major arterial increases to the pipeline network. However, significant changes in supply sources may have a major impact on pipeline planning and construction.

  20. Providing Situational Awareness for Pipeline Control Operations

    Butts, Jonathan; Kleinhans, Hugo; Chandia, Rodrigo; Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    A SCADA system for a single 3,000-mile-long strand of oil or gas pipeline may employ several thousand field devices to measure process parameters and operate equipment. Because of the vital tasks performed by these sensors and actuators, pipeline operators need accurate and timely information about their status and integrity. This paper describes a realtime scanner that provides situational awareness about SCADA devices and control operations. The scanner, with the assistance of lightweight, distributed sensors, analyzes SCADA network traffic, verifies the operational status and integrity of field devices, and identifies anomalous activity. Experimental results obtained using real pipeline control traffic demonstrate the utility of the scanner in industrial settings.

  1. Pipelines jockey to serve Florida gas market

    This paper reports that Florida Gas Transmission Corp. (FGT), Houston, appears to have taken the lead in competition to serve Florida's growing gas markets. Florida Power and Light (FPL), Miami, decided to reserve transportation capacity on FGT's proposed Phase III expansion rather than the Sun Coast pipeline proposed by United Gas Pipe Line Co. (UGPL), Houston, and Coastal Corp. unit ANR Pipeline Co., Detroit (OGJ, Aug. 31, p. 31). Withdrawal of FPL, Florida's largest electric utility, from Sun Coast left the proposed 560 mile, 400 MMcfd intrastate gas transmission pipeline with only one major prospective client, Florida Power Corp., St. Petersburg. That forces UGPL and ANR to dissolve the partnership

  2. Integrating sustainable growth into export pipeline projects

    Full text: Sustainable growth in the energy industry is rapidly expanding beyond the conceptual stage. Policies addressing the three principles of Sustainable Development are being established and strategies to execute these policies are being developed and implemented in the field. Conoco is developing a strong corporate culture around sustainable growth; and, pipeline systems play a vital role in delivering the triple bottom line results for our stake holders. This paper will highlight some of the key focal points by Conoco Inc., in each phase of pipeline project development, execution, and operation to make pipeline projects a contributor to Conoco's sustainable growth success, and shares some lessons learned

  3. Power system for electric heating of pipelines

    Novik, Frode Karstein

    2008-01-01

    Direct electrical heating (DEH) of pipelines is a flow assurance method that has proven to be a good and reliable solution for preventing the formation of hydrates and wax in multiphase flow lines. The technology is installed on several pipelines in the North Sea and has become StatoilHydros preferred method for flow assurance. Tyrihans is the newest installation with 10 MW DEH for a 43 km pipline. However, the pipeline represents a considerable single-phase load which makes the power system ...

  4. The effect of Landsat ETM/ETM+ image acquisition dates on the detection of agricultural land abandonment in Eastern Europe

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.;

    2012-01-01

    seasons for a pre-abandonment-time I (1989) and post-abandonment-time II (1999/2000). Using a factorial experiment, we tested how the classification accuracy and spatial patterns of classified abandonment changed over all possible 49 image-date combinations when mapping both "abandoned arable land...... for the classification, the seasons captured also mattered, and the importance of specific seasonal image dates varied between the pre- and post-abandonment dates. For "abandoned arable land" it was important to have at least one "Spring" or "Summer" image for pre-abandonment and as many images as possible for post...

  5. 49 CFR 192.513 - Test requirements for plastic pipelines.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test requirements for plastic pipelines. 192.513 Section 192.513 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND... Test requirements for plastic pipelines. (a) Each segment of a plastic pipeline must be tested...

  6. Knowledge Pipeline: A Task Oriented Way to Implement Knowledge Management

    Concept of knowledge pipeline: There are many pipelines named by tasks or business processes in an organization. Knowledge contributors put knowledge to its corresponding pipelines. A maintenance team could keep the knowledge in pipelines clear and valid. Users could get knowledge just like opening a faucet in terms of their tasks or business processes

  7. 49 CFR 192.629 - Purging of pipelines.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purging of pipelines. 192.629 Section 192.629... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Operations § 192.629 Purging of pipelines. (a) When a pipeline is being purged of air by use of gas, the gas must be released into one end of the line in...

  8. Rock environment pollution as a consequence of the oil pipeline activity

    Tometz Ladislav

    1996-01-01

    An extensive rock environment pollution, including soil and groundwater, was caused as a consequence of the oil-pipeline fracture at the village Jur nad Hronom (Levice district). The extent of the pollution was determined by exploration works. This work presents sanation of rock environment and groundwater.

  9. A midas plugin to enable construction of reproducible web-based image processing pipelines.

    Grauer, Michael; Reynolds, Patrick; Hoogstoel, Marion; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin A; Oguz, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    Image processing is an important quantitative technique for neuroscience researchers, but difficult for those who lack experience in the field. In this paper we present a web-based platform that allows an expert to create a brain image processing pipeline, enabling execution of that pipeline even by those biomedical researchers with limited image processing knowledge. These tools are implemented as a plugin for Midas, an open-source toolkit for creating web based scientific data storage and processing platforms. Using this plugin, an image processing expert can construct a pipeline, create a web-based User Interface, manage jobs, and visualize intermediate results. Pipelines are executed on a grid computing platform using BatchMake and HTCondor. This represents a new capability for biomedical researchers and offers an innovative platform for scientific collaboration. Current tools work well, but can be inaccessible for those lacking image processing expertise. Using this plugin, researchers in collaboration with image processing experts can create workflows with reasonable default settings and streamlined user interfaces, and data can be processed easily from a lab environment without the need for a powerful desktop computer. This platform allows simplified troubleshooting, centralized maintenance, and easy data sharing with collaborators. These capabilities enable reproducible science by sharing datasets and processing pipelines between collaborators. In this paper, we present a description of this innovative Midas plugin, along with results obtained from building and executing several ITK based image processing workflows for diffusion weighted MRI (DW MRI) of rodent brain images, as well as recommendations for building automated image processing pipelines. Although the particular image processing pipelines developed were focused on rodent brain MRI, the presented plugin can be used to support any executable or script-based pipeline. PMID:24416016

  10. A Midas Plugin to Enable Construction of Reproducible Web-based Image Processing Pipelines

    Michael Grauer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Image processing is an important quantitative technique for neuroscience researchers, but difficult for those who lack experience in the field. In this paper we present a web-based platform that allows an expert to create a brain image processing pipeline, enabling execution of that pipeline even by those biomedical researchers with limited image processing knowledge. These tools are implemented as a plugin for Midas, an open-source toolkit for creating web based scientific data storage and processing platforms. Using this plugin, an image processing expert can construct a pipeline, create a web-based UI, manage jobs, and visualize intermediate results. Pipelines are executed on a grid computing platform using BatchMake and HTCondor. This represents a new capability for biomedical researchers and offers an innovative platform for scientific collaboration. Current tools work well, but can be inaccessible for those lacking image processing expertise. Using this plugin, researchers in collaboration with image processing experts can create workflows with reasonable default settings and streamlined user interfaces, and data can be processed easily from a lab environment without the need for a powerful desktop computer. This platform allows simplified troubleshooting, centralized maintenance, and easy data sharing with collaborators. These capabilities enable reproducible science by sharing datasets and processing pipelines between collaborators. In this paper, we present a description of this innovative Midas plugin, along with results obtained from building and executing several ITK based image processing workflows for diffusion weighted MRI (DW MRI of rodent brain images, as well as recommendations for building automated image processing pipelines. Although the particular image processing pipelines developed were focused on rodent brain MRI, the presented plugin can be used to support any executable or script-based pipeline.

  11. Rehabilitation and certification of the PGPB Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system

    Graciano, L.S. [Permex Gas y Petroquimica Basica, Mexico City (Mexico); Clyne, A. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cazenave, P.; Willis, S. [GE Energy PII Pipeline Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Kania, R. [GE Energy Pipeline Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    The Cactus-San Fernando gas pipeline system is 650 km in length and was constructed in the late 1970s. The system transports more than 1100 million standard cubic feet per day of dry natural gas to electricity generators in Mexico. This paper described a project undertaken to re-validate the pipeline and demonstrate the future integrity of the pipeline system and ensure that it was suitable for operation to 1219 psig. Pipeline sections were inspected using high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) in-line inspection (ILI) tools, and inertial mapping unit vehicles equipped with global positioning surveys (GPS). The combined inspections allowed the project team to accurately identify features of the pipeline that required repairs. External and internal corrosion were identified as the most prevalent defects. RSTRENG methodologies were used to investigate the interaction of individual corrosion anomalies. Corrosion patterns were compared, and above-ground survey data were used to establish the causes of both the external and internal corrosion, as well as to establish future corrosion growth rates. Decision tree analysis was then used to analyze the growth rates and to identify statistical differences between corrosion growth rates as a function of distance along the pipeline. After the ILI reports were generated, an integrity assessment was then conducted to identify necessary repair options. Repairs plans were then developed along with recommended re-inspection intervals for each section. After the integrity assessments were accepted by a certification company, field work was conducted to locate and measure defects. Defects characteristic of major volumetric welding flaws introduced during pipeline construction were identified and repaired with an epoxy sleeve technique. It was concluded that repairs needed to operate the pipeline at the requested pressure were accomplished within a period of 8 months. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Survey of the state of the art in near-shore pipeline location and burial assessment

    Project's objective is to evaluate state-of-the-art methods for locating pipelines in shallow (less than 15 ft) water and for determining and monitoring their burial depths. The following recommendations are made on the research needed in three areas for locating near-shore, shallowly buried pipelines: (1) Sensors: The pipeline industry has selected the magnetic gradiometer array (GA) as a preferred sensor method. Other potential methods exist as backups. No additional research is recommended. (2) Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs): The Pipeline Research Committee is pursuing development of a prototype ROV is deliver the GA or other similar equipment to pipeline locations. (3) Phenomena: The data being collected from research on the phenomena affecting seabed conditions and the bathymetric data being collected along the Gulf Coast should be synthesized. This new effort should focus on identifying erosion-prone areas with respect to present and potential future pipeline locations. Technical approach is to get the broadest perspective on the concerns related to the determination of burial conditions for offshore pipelines, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) contacted individuals and organizations from the gas and petroleum industries, hardware and software vendors, academicians, and representatives from the government. A literature survey yielded the names of persons within academia who are presently working on similar applications with sensors. In the oil and gas industry, individuals and organizations involved in the Pipeline Research Committee made extensive contributions to the review and also provided the names of meaningful contacts from among their vendors. Discussions were held with the various persons both on the telephone and face to face. Vendors provided background materials and overview presentations on their capabilities for ANL to review

  13. Application of subset simulation in reliability estimation of underground pipelines

    This paper presents a computational framework for implementing an advanced Monte Carlo simulation method, called Subset Simulation (SS) for time-dependent reliability prediction of underground flexible pipelines. The SS can provide better resolution for low failure probability level of rare failure events which are commonly encountered in pipeline engineering applications. Random samples of statistical variables are generated efficiently and used for computing probabilistic reliability model. It gains its efficiency by expressing a small probability event as a product of a sequence of intermediate events with larger conditional probabilities. The efficiency of SS has been demonstrated by numerical studies and attention in this work is devoted to scrutinise the robustness of the SS application in pipe reliability assessment and compared with direct Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. Reliability of a buried flexible steel pipe with time-dependent failure modes, namely, corrosion induced deflection, buckling, wall thrust and bending stress has been assessed in this study. The analysis indicates that corrosion induced excessive deflection is the most critical failure event whereas buckling is the least susceptible during the whole service life of the pipe. The study also shows that SS is robust method to estimate the reliability of buried pipelines and it is more efficient than MCS, especially in small failure probability prediction

  14. Pipeline engineering. 7th edition; Rohrleitungstechnik. 7. Ausgabe

    Behrens, H.J.; Reuter, G.; Hof, F.C. von [eds.; Thier, B. [comp.

    1998-12-31

    The 7th edition of this manual reviews the developments of the last few years. New features are, e.g., pipeline planning by computers in consideration of the classification of pipeline components and of operational and servicing criteria, and many others. The authors of the manual are experts from industrial enterprises, technical associations and working groups. The book addresses engineers in technical plants and projecting engineers, pipeline engineers, chemical engineers, chemists, technicians as well as students of these fields. [Deutsch] Mit der 7. Ausgabe des Handbuches `Rohrleitungstechnik` wird die Standardbuchreihe fortgesetzt und die Entwicklungen der letzten Jahre auf diesem Gebiet aktuell und gebuendelt in 12 Kapiteln dargestellt. Rohrleitungsplanung mit methodischen Ablaeufen durch EDV-Systeme, die Einbeziehung der Klassifizierung der Rohrteile, sowie die staerkere Beruecksichtigung der betriebs- und instandhaltungstechnischen Kriterien der Anlage kennzeichnen die Ingenieurtaetigkeit der Rohrleitungstechnik fuer die Prozess- und Anlagentechnik. Wie komplex die Dimensionierung, Planung, Fertigung, Montage, Qualitaetspruefung und Betrieb von Rohrleitungen sich darstellen, wird deutlich, wenn man bedenkt, welche Einflussgroessen wirksam werden und beachtet werden muessen. Hier seien die erforderlichen Durchsatzmengen, die zugelassenen Druckabfaelle, Korrosionsbeanspruchungen, Temperaturbeanspruchungen, Waermeverluste, mechanische Beanspruchung auf Grund des Innendruckes, der moeglichen Schwingungen, des Eigengewichtes, der Rohrleitungsfuehrung und der Halterung beispielhaft genannt. (orig.)

  15. Pipelines from the north : a U.S. perspective

    The United States will continue to look to Canada and Alaska for a significant part of its natural gas supply in an effort to meet its growing demand for energy. The United States depends on Canadian gas as a reliable and secure supply of energy, and is therefore examining natural gas markets and the wide range of supply opportunities. This presentation highlighted changes in cross border natural gas trade in North America and noted that 94 per cent of natural gas going to the United States from Canada is shipped via pipeline. On the liquefied natural gas (LNG) front, U.S. exports to Mexico now exceed imports, but import volumes from Trinidad and Nigeria are increasing as expected. Total import volumes in 2001 surpassed the previous year. A look at the infrastructure of LNG in the United States was also presented along with the advantages and limitations of each option. Cost comparisons were also presented. It was noted that any import or LNG project would result in unique economics. LNG projects are now cheaper because of better engineering, economies of scale and better pipeline economics. The U.S. National Energy Policy recommends that the pipeline to bring Alaskan gas to U.S. markets should be constructed as soon as possible. It was emphasized that any project to ship natural gas from Alaska to the lower 48 will need to work closely with Canada in order to be successful. 15 figs

  16. Research on the optimal energy consumption of oil pipeline.

    Liu, Enbin; Li, Changjun; Yang, Liuting; Liu, Song; Wu, Mingchang; Wang, Di

    2015-07-01

    Most of the Chinese crude oil is easy to curdle and has high viscosity, so heating transportation is usually selected. Energy consumption by this method mainly comes from furnaces and pumps. Currently, operating parameters of these pipelines were determined according to experience of dispatch. It cause high energy consumption and high cost of pipeline running, so it could not adapt to energy conservation policy. The present study focused on consuming lowest energy to operate oil transportation line. To begin with, several optimization variables were set which included pump combinations, suction pressure, discharge pressure, and station temperature. Then constraint conditions were set to establish an optimal mathematical model of running transportation line. Furthermore, genetic algorithm was used to solve the model, in meantime, selection operation, cross operation and mutation operation in the genetic algorithm were improved. Finally, a crude oil pipeline running optimization software was developed. Through optimal analyzing, S-L transportation line and contrasting with the actual working conditions, it was found that optimal operation scheme could reduce energy consumption by 5% - 9%. In addition, optimal operation scheme also considered the effect of seasons and flow on energy consumption of S-L transportation line. PMID:26387343

  17. Analysis of pipeline transportation systems for carbon dioxide sequestration

    Witkowski Andrzej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A commercially available ASPEN PLUS simulation using a pipe model was employed to determine the maximum safe pipeline distances to subsequent booster stations as a function of carbon dioxide (CO2 inlet pressure, ambient temperature and ground level heat flux parameters under three conditions: isothermal, adiabatic and with account of heat transfer. In the paper, the CO2 working area was assumed to be either in the liquid or in the supercritical state and results for these two states were compared. The following power station data were used: a 900 MW pulverized coal-fired power plant with 90% of CO2 recovered (156.43 kg/s and the monothanolamine absorption method for separating CO2 from flue gases. The results show that a subcooled liquid transport maximizes energy efficiency and minimizes the cost of CO2 transport over long distances under isothermal, adiabatic and heat transfer conditions. After CO2 is compressed and boosted to above 9 MPa, its temperature is usually higher than ambient temperature. The thermal insulation layer slows down the CO2 temperature decrease process, increasing the pressure drop in the pipeline. Therefore in Poland, considering the atmospheric conditions, the thermal insulation layer should not be laid on the external surface of the pipeline.

  18. Pipeline repair technology damage and repair assessment of pipelines with high residual stresses

    Høie, Øyvind

    2015-01-01

    Today in the offshore industry, there are an increasing number of pipelines that require both maintenance and repair. A wide specter of research in pipeline repair technology is available. Damage to a pipeline could be a quite complex event to analyze, due to the many different combinations of internal pipe stresses and damage types. Standards, such as DNV and ASTM have experimental based assessment methods for evaluating many of these damage combinations, however, there are some of these met...

  19. 77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...

    2012-02-09

    ... Capabilities and Research 12:30 p.m. Lunch 1:30 p.m. Panel 3: Considerations for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection Systems 3:30 p.m. Break 3:45 p.m. Panel 4: Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection System Capabilities... Liquid Pipelines 10:10 a.m. Break 10:25 a.m. Panel 2: Valve Considerations for Natural Gas......

  20. 77 FR 19414 - Pipeline Safety: Public Comment on Leak and Valve Studies Mandated by the Pipeline Safety...

    2012-03-30

    ... Natural Gas Pipelines The contractor will conduct a study on the ability of transmission pipeline facility... study will evaluate Class 3 and Class 4 areas of natural gas transmission pipelines. The contractor must... valves. This review will be for hazardous liquid and natural gas pipelines and determine how...

  1. Pipeline rules of thumb handbook a manual of quick, accurate solutions to everyday pipeline engineering problems

    McAllister, EW

    2014-01-01

    Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day pipeline operations. For more than 35 years, the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook has served as the ""go-to"" reference for solving even the most day-to-day vexing pipeline workflow problems. Now in its 8th edition, this handbook continues to set the standard by which all other piping books are judged. Along with over 30% new or updated material regarding codes, construction processes, and equipment, this book continues to offer hundreds of ""how-to"" methods and ha

  2. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions

    Hussein Sahli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less. This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters’ accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs. The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before.

  3. A Novel Method to Enhance Pipeline Trajectory Determination Using Pipeline Junctions.

    Sahli, Hussein; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline inspection gauges (pigs) have been used for many years to perform various maintenance operations in oil and gas pipelines. Different pipeline parameters can be inspected during the pig journey. Although pigs use many sensors to detect the required pipeline parameters, matching these data with the corresponding pipeline location is considered a very important parameter. High-end, tactical-grade inertial measurement units (IMUs) are used in pigging applications to locate the detected problems of pipeline using other sensors, and to reconstruct the trajectories of the pig. These IMUs are accurate; however, their high cost and large sizes limit their use in small diameter pipelines (8″ or less). This paper describes a new methodology for the use of MEMS-based IMUs using an extended Kalman filter (EKF) and the pipeline junctions to increase the position parameters' accuracy and to reduce the total RMS errors even during the unavailability of above ground markers (AGMs). The results of this new proposed method using a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based IMU revealed that the position RMS errors were reduced by approximately 85% compared to the standard EKF solution. Therefore, this approach will enable the mapping of small diameter pipelines, which was not possible before. PMID:27110780

  4. Regular pipeline maintenance of gas pipeline using technical operational diagnostics methods

    Volentic, J. [Gas Transportation Department, Slovensky plynarensky priemysel, Slovak Gas Industry, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1997-12-31

    Slovensky plynarensky priemysel (SPP) has operated 17 487 km of gas pipelines in 1995. The length of the long-line pipelines reached 5 191 km, distribution network was 12 296 km. The international transit system of long-line gas pipelines ranged 1 939 km of pipelines of various dimensions. The described scale of transport and distribution system represents a multibillion investments stored in the ground, which are exposed to the environmental influences and to pipeline operational stresses. In spite of all technical and maintenance arrangements, which have to be performed upon operating gas pipelines, the gradual ageing takes place anyway, expressed in degradation process both in steel tube, as well as in the anti-corrosion coating. Within a certain time horizon, a consistent and regular application of methods and means of in-service technical diagnostics and rehabilitation of existing pipeline systems make it possible to save substantial investment funds, postponing the need in funds for a complex or partial reconstruction or a new construction of a specific gas section. The purpose of this presentation is to report on the implementation of the programme of in-service technical diagnostics of gas pipelines within the framework of regular maintenance of SPP s.p. Bratislava high pressure gas pipelines. (orig.) 6 refs.

  5. Pipelines in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, USGS (1999) [pipelines_la_usgs_1999

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset contains vector line map information of various pipelines throughout the State of Louisiana. The vector data contain selected base categories of...

  6. The main causes of in situ internal pipeline painting failures; Fatores que podem implicar em falhas prematuras de pintura interna in situ de dutos

    Quintela, Joaquim P.; Vieira, Magda M.; Vieira, Gerson V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Fragata, Fernando de L.; Amorim, Cristina da C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Resources in coating technology have been used to increase the useful life of pipelines, to guarantee the carried product quality, to increase the operational trustworthiness, to reduce the maintenance costs, the personal and patrimonial risks and environmental damages. Parallel, in virtue of the pipelines natural ageing and operational problems, more advanced technologies, as the internal coating process in situ, have become an important method of pipelines rehabilitation. The aim of this work is to study the main factors that may influence the performance of an internal coating project, allowing the premature damages occurrence in pipelines, used in gas, oil and derivatives transport. (author)

  7. Optimising of pipeline maintenance using deposit profile technology

    Dahl, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    With an aging pipeline system, the petroleum industry is experiencing new challenges in maintaining the pipeline integrity. In the Master’s thesis, a method and technology for internal pipeline diameter detection is presented. By measuring the pressure signature during a conventional utility pigging operation, the changes in internal pipeline diameter are detected. The method is evaluated and its applicability for optimising the pipeline maintenance programme is discussed. The first par...

  8. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY; SEMIANNUAL

    This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort

  9. Australia's changing natural gas and pipeline industry

    The future is bright for continued development of Australia's natural gas pipeline infrastructure, as well as for privatization and private energy infrastructure growth. Gas demands are growing and the development of open access principles for all natural gas transmission and distribution pipelines heralds a much more market focused industry. Within the next few years gas-on-gas competition will apply to supply, pipelines, and retail marketing. No longer will operators be able to pass on high costs resulting from inefficiencies to their customers. This article describes the changing Australian gas industry, evaluates the drivers for change and looks at ways the industry is responding to new regulatory regimes and the development and use of new pipeline technology

  10. National Pipeline Mapping System: Map Tool

    Department of Transportation — The NPMS Public Map Viewer allows the general public to view maps of transmission pipelines, LNG plants, and breakout tanks in one selected county. Distribution and...

  11. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land with LiDAR Point Clouds and Terrestrial Photography

    Natalia Kolecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary forest succession on abandoned agricultural land has played a significant role in land cover changes in Europe over the past several decades. However, it is difficult to quantify over large areas. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for mapping forest succession patterns using vegetation structure information derived from LiDAR data supported by national topographic vector data. This work was performed in the Szczawnica commune in the Polish Carpathians. Using object-based image analysis segments of no vegetation, and sparse/dense low/medium/high vegetation were distinguished and subsequently compared to the national topographic dataset to delineate agricultural land that is covered by vegetation, which indicates secondary succession on abandoned fields. The results showed that 18.7% of the arable land and 40.4% of grasslands, that is 31.0% of the agricultural land in the Szczawnica commune, may currently be experiencing secondary forest succession. The overall accuracy of the approach was assessed using georeferenced terrestrial photographs and was found to be 95.0%. The results of this study indicate that the proposed methodology can potentially be applied in large-scale mapping of secondary forest succession patterns on abandoned land in mountain areas.

  12. Monitoring of scale deposition in petroleum pipelines by means of photon scattering: a preliminary study

    In the petroleum industry precipitation of scale onto the inner walls of hydrocarbon pipelines poses a significant challenge as, unless treated appropriately, deposits such as sulfate and carbonate scales reduce the overall flow area and even lead to blockage of entire sections of the pipework. This may in turn result in costly production suspension and maintenance work. Therefore, monitoring and characterization of scale deposits can be said to be of great importance. In this work, a preliminary feasibility study is carried out in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing photon scattering for scale detection in multiphase oil/water/gas pipelines. (author)

  13. Computer Systems to Oil Pipeline Transporting

    Timur Chis, Ph.D., Dipl.Eng.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer systems in the pipeline oil transporting that the greatest amount of data can be gathered, analyzed and acted upon in the shortest amount of time. Most operators now have some form of computer based monitoring system employing either commercially available or custom developed software to run the system. This paper presented the SCADA systems to oil pipeline in concordance to the Romanian environmental regulations.

  14. Software design for panoramic astronomical pipeline processing

    Shamir, Lior; Nemiroff, Robert J.; Torrey, David O.; Pereira, Wellesley E.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the software requirement and design specifications for all-sky panoramic astronomical pipelines. The described software aims to meet the specific needs of super-wide angle optics, and includes cosmic-ray hit rejection, image compression, star recognition, sky opacity analysis, transient detection and a web server allowing access to real-time and archived data. The presented software is being regularly used for the pipeline processing of 11 all-sky cameras located in some of the wo...

  15. Unskilled Work and Learner Identity

    Kondrup, Sissel

    main argument is that participation research must abandon the notion of motivation as an individual attribute and apply a dialectic concept of learner identity acknowledging work-life as a pivotal space for learning and formation of identity. I outline how a work-life-historical approach combining a...... Danish enterprises causes a multitude of different and ambiguous immediate experiences and concerns pivotal for the workers’ learner identities....

  16. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  17. GRAVITY PIPELINE TRANSPORT FOR HARDENING FILLING MIXTURES

    Leonid KROUPNIK

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In underground mining of solid minerals becoming increasingly common development system with stowing hardening mixtures. In this case the natural ore array after it is replaced by an artificial excavation of solidified filling mixture consisting of binder, aggregates and water. Such a mixture is prepared on the surface on special stowing complexes and transported underground at special stowing pipelines. However, it is transported to the horizons of a few kilometers, which requires a sustainable mode of motion of such a mixture in the pipeline. Hardening stowing mixture changes its rheological characteristics over time, which complicates the calculation of the parameters of pipeline transportation. The article suggests a method of determining the initial parameters of such mixtures: the status coefficient, indicator of transportability, coefficient of hydrodynamic resistance to motion of the mixture. These indicators characterize the mixture in terms of the possibility to transport it through pipes. On the basis of these indicators is proposed methodology for calculating the parameters of pipeline transport hardening filling mixtures in drift mode when traffic on the horizontal part of the mixture under pressure column of the mixture in the vertical part of the backfill of the pipeline. This technique allows stable operation is guaranteed to provide pipeline transportation.

  18. Patterns and drivers of post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine

    Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Elbakidze, Marine;

    2011-01-01

    Farmland abandonment restructures rural landscapes in many regions worldwide in response to gradual industrialization and urbanization. In contrast, the political breakdown in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union triggered rapid and widespread farmland abandonment, but the spatial patterns of...... substantial spatial variation in abandonment rates. However, many of our a priori hypotheses about the direction of variable influence were rejected. Most importantly, abandonment rates were higher in the plains and lower in marginal areas. The growing importance of subsistence farming in the transition...... period, as well as off-farm income and remittances likely explain these patterns. The breakdown of socialism appears to have resulted in fundamentally different abandonment patterns in the Western Ukraine, where abandonment was a result of the institutional and economic shock, compared to those in Europe...

  19. Koritnjak: Abandoned rural settlement in the beginning of 2002.

    Martinović Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under non-adequate conditions of social relation to rural area after Second world war, modern development of rural settlements of Serbia has a lot of rural problems. A certain number of rural settlements, after negative general development at the end of XX and in the beginning of XXI century have been in demographical mean disappeared. With this paper, in the example of Koritnjak, is showed the genesis and evolution of settlement which is abandoned in the beginning of 2002, after continuous decrease of total population and non-positive demographical and total development.

  20. Measures of Vegetation Restoration in Abandoned Mined Lands

    2008-01-01

    By 2004, the occupied and disturbed land area had reached 3.393 million ha by mining, of which forest land took 532 000 ha; In addition, mining also caused 3.721 million -5.316 million ha of degraded forests and woodlands. The impact of mining on environment is multi-fold and deep. Thus it is necessary and significant to approach effective methods to speed up vegetation restoration in abandoned mined lands. Phytoremediation is a relatively new technology (in the lastest decade) and the numbers of plant spec...

  1. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  2. Application of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method for estimation of the karst process at main gas pipeline construction

    Ermolaeva, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    Main pipelines maintenance is connected with hazard engineering and geological working conditions. The article deals with the use of groundwater aggressiveness assessment method to estimate the karst processes development during the construction of main gas pipelines. The possibility of using this method is analyzed on the example of the initial section of the designed gas pipeline “Power of Siberia” (section “Chayanda-Lensk"). The calculation of the nonequilibrium index Ca was made in accordance with the geotechnical survey data. The dependencies between the geomorphological features of the terrain and the natural waters aggressiveness were determined.

  3. Diluent evaluation for bitumen pipelining

    Rahimi, P.; Cooper, S.; Alem, T. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Oil sands crudes are expected to represent over 75 per cent of the crude produced in Western Canada. Since bitumen is too viscous to be shipped in pipelines, it must be diluted with a lighter hydrocarbon. Although thermal processing could be used together with a smaller quantity of diluent, the resulting fuel would be less stable. This presentation reported on a study that examined the compatibility and stability of virgin and cracked bitumen in natural diluents and synthetic diluents. Diluent ranking for asphaltene stability in virgin bitumen and cracked bitumen was also examined. Four heavy oils and bitumens were used in this study, notably Athabasca bitumen (AB), cracked Athabasca bitumen, heavy oil B and a light crude C. Natural gas condensate and oil sand derived liquids were the 2 diluents used to investigate the insolubility number and solubility blending number of different crudes, diluents and their blends. It was concluded that the stability of different heavy oils can be determined accurately by observing flocculation of asphaltenes. The study also evaluated and ranked the strength of different diluents for keeping asphaltenes soluble in the oil matrix. Although synthetic diluents were found to be better solvents than natural gas condensates for bitumen, the order of the solvent strength was reversed when bitumen was processed. tabs., figs.

  4. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M.; Reid, Matthew C.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Celia, Michael A.; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that greenhouse gas emission inventories are likely missing methane emission sources. We conducted the first methane emission measurements from abandoned oil and gas wells and found substantial emissions, particularly from high-emitting abandoned wells. These emissions are not currently considered in any emissions inventory. We scaled methane emissions from our direct measurements of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania and calculate that they represent 4–7% of current tota...

  5. Abandonment Fears in Persons with Alzheimer's at Adult Day Care Centers

    Judkins, Wayne A

    1999-01-01

    In my research, I examined abandonment fears in persons with Alzheimerâ s disease at the Salem Veterans Affairs adult day care center. I observed fifty hours at the center, and conducted open-ended interviews with two of the participants and their respective caregivers. These two participants (Ellen and Opel) at the center expressed abandonment fears much more frequently than any of the other participants. I found that most of the time, these two women would express their abandonment f...

  6. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR)

  7. The Ruptured Pipeline: Analysis of the Mining Engineering Faculty Pipeline

    Poulton, M.

    2011-12-01

    The booming commodities markets of the past seven years have created an enormous demand for economic geologists, mining engineers, and extractive metallurgists. The mining sector has largely been recession proof due to demand drivers coming from developing rather than developed nations. The strong demand for new hires as well as mid-career hires has exposed the weakness of the U.S. university supply pipeline for these career fields. A survey of mining and metallurgical engineering faculty and graduate students was conducted in 2010 at the request of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. The goals of the surveys were to determine the demographics of the U.S. faculty in mining and metallurgical engineering, the expected faculty turn over by 2010 and the potential supply of graduate students as the future professorate. All Mining Engineering and Metallurgical Engineering degrees in the U.S. are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET) and the specific courses required are set by the sponsoring professional society, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. There are 13 universities in the U.S. that offer a degree in Mining Engineering accredited as Mining Engineering and 1 university that grants a Mining Engineering degree accredited under general engineering program requirements. Faculty numbers are approximately 87 tenure track positions with a total undergraduate enrollment of slightly over 1,000 in the 2008-2009 academic year. There are approximately 262 graduate students in mining engineering in the U.S. including 87 Ph.D. students. Mining Engineering department heads have identified 14 positions open in 2010 and 18 positions expected to be open in the next 5 years and an additional 21 positions open by 2020. The current survey predicts a 56% turn over in mining faculty ranks over the next 10 years but a retirement of 100% of senior faculty over 10 years. 63% of graduate students say they are interested in

  8. Soil erosion as a consequence of wildfires on recently abandoned citrus orchards in eastern Spain

    A. Cerdà; F. A. González-Peñaloza; Burguet, M.; P. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Fire is a natural factor in the evolution of Earth ecosystems. Due to land abandonment wildfire are widespread in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, which contribute to increase the soil erosion rates. Fire is also found in recently abandoned citrus orchards due to the quick vegetation recovery and the dry biomass found after 2 years of abandonment. Rainfall simulation experiments (1 hour at 45 mm h-1 in a plot of 0.25 m2) show that although land abandonment on irrigated citrus orchards reduces t...

  9. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  10. Evaluating drag force and geometric optimisation of pipeline inspection gadget (PIG body with bypass

    Ricardo Ramírez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available  A pipeline inspection gadget (PIG is a device used to run through pipelines for cleaning, measurement and inspection operations. By-pass is the name for one or a set of orifices allowing flow from back to front of a PIG. It is used for speed control or to improve cleaning operations results. By-pass prevents speed excursions in gas pipelines thereby avoiding damage to the PIG or the pipe. Studies and algorithms have been developed to simulate the dynamics of PIGs running inside pipes. Most studies have been for gas pipelines; these have helped to design some PIG models. This work summarises a particular stage during a PIG design project. This PIG will work in liquid pipelines and can stop in the line for inspection and maintenance tasks. Studying fluid force on a PIG when it has low or zero speed is needed for evaluating project feasibility and conceptual design. Selecting a PIG form to minimise the force of interaction with fluid allows a low weight design and lower energy loss.  

  11. Overview of interstate hydrogen pipeline systems.

    Gillette, J .L.; Kolpa, R. L

    2008-02-01

    The use of hydrogen in the energy sector of the United States is projected to increase significantly in the future. Current uses are predominantly in the petroleum refining sector, with hydrogen also being used in the manufacture of chemicals and other specialized products. Growth in hydrogen consumption is likely to appear in the refining sector, where greater quantities of hydrogen will be required as the quality of the raw crude decreases, and in the mining and processing of tar sands and other energy resources that are not currently used at a significant level. Furthermore, the use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel has been proposed both by automobile manufacturers and the federal government. Assuming that the use of hydrogen will significantly increase in the future, there would be a corresponding need to transport this material. A variety of production technologies are available for making hydrogen, and there are equally varied raw materials. Potential raw materials include natural gas, coal, nuclear fuel, and renewables such as solar, wind, or wave energy. As these raw materials are not uniformly distributed throughout the United States, it would be necessary to transport either the raw materials or the hydrogen long distances to the appropriate markets. While hydrogen may be transported in a number of possible forms, pipelines currently appear to be the most economical means of moving it in large quantities over great distances. One means of controlling hydrogen pipeline costs is to use common rights-of-way (ROWs) whenever feasible. For that reason, information on hydrogen pipelines is the focus of this document. Many of the features of hydrogen pipelines are similar to those of natural gas pipelines. Furthermore, as hydrogen pipeline networks expand, many of the same construction and operating features of natural gas networks would be replicated. As a result, the description of hydrogen pipelines will be very similar to that of natural gas pipelines

  12. 76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding

    2011-07-27

    ..., failures, leakage history, corrosion, substantial changes in cathodic protection requirements, and other... erosion or scouring. 8. Perform surveys to determine the depth of cover over pipelines and the condition... inform farmers of the potential hazard from reduced cover over pipelines. 9. Ensure that line markers...

  13. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    Lott, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particular

  14. Medical innovation, unmet medical needs, and the drug pipeline.

    Mather, Charles M

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines and illustrates the working of a theoretical approach from the social sciences for analyzing medical innovation, unmet medical need, and the drug pipeline. Using the social history of three drugs made from recombinant DNA (insulin, human growth hormone, and tissue-plasminogen activator) the paper shows how drugs can be both technically and organizationally efficient while the needs they satisfy can be created or identified. The paper posits that drugs that require more organizational efficiency tend to satisfy identified, rather then created needs. Key words: Recombinant DNA, technical efficiency, organizational efficiency, anthropology. PMID:16493177

  15. The MUSE Data Reduction Pipeline: Status after Preliminary Acceptance Europe

    Weilbacher, Peter M; Urrutia, Tanya; Pécontal-Rousset, Arlette; Jarno, Aurélien; Bacon, Roland

    2015-01-01

    MUSE, a giant integral field spectrograph, is about to become the newest facility instrument at the VLT. It will see first light in February 2014. Here, we summarize the properties of the instrument as built and outline functionality of the data reduction system, that transforms the raw data that gets recorded separately in 24 IFUs by 4k CCDs, into a fully calibrated, scientifically usable data cube. We then describe recent work regarding geometrical calibration of the instrument and testing of the processing pipeline, before concluding with results of the Preliminary Acceptance in Europe and an outlook to the on-sky commissioning.

  16. Research on a New-style Pipeline Inspection Robot System

    XU Xiao-yun; YAN Guo-zheng; YAN Bo; DING Yong-sheng

    2004-01-01

    The pipe inspection robot system is developed for automatic inspection of gas pipeline with pipe diameter between 400mm and 650mm. It is composed of a pipe robot crawling mechanism controlled by remote network system, nondestructive examination sensor system, ground working station and so on. This paper presents the pipe inspection robot system design, the key technique and the performance experiment of the robot. The main performance index of the pipe robot system prototype has reached domestic advanced level. The prototype has also the technical potential to be developed as a product used in industry for periodic check of main gas/oil pipe.

  17. Process pipelines in plants of chemistry, processing and energy conversion

    The yearbook is a compilation and presentation of important data on pipeline technology. The 65 papers, of which 25 citations are available in the ENERGY file, give a representative outline of the most important findings and experimental results of renowned authors from Germany and abroad. A detailed bibliography enables further reading, and a subject index facilitates access to the desired information. The book will be of interest to projecting engineers and works engineers of the chemical and energy industry as well as to chemists and technicians. With 649 figs., 93 tabs

  18. Optimized design and simulation of high temperature pressure pipeline strain monitoring with optical fiber sensing technology

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yueming; Lou, Jun

    2011-08-01

    High temperature pressure piping have been applied widely in the chemical industry, the petroleum enterprises and the electrical power plants, and corresponding accidents happened frequently every year owing to the pipeline leakage and explosion. By massive accident statistics and analysis, the high temperature creep and the pipeline inside wall corroding are the main causes to result in the pipeline leakage and explosion accident. By real time sensing the strain change of pipeline outer surface, the online working status of the high temperature pipeline could be monitored and the leakage and explosion accidents would be avoided. Now several methods can be considered to sensing and monitoring the strain change of the high temperature pipeline surface, including Electricity sensor examination method, ultrasonic wave examination method and infrared thermal imagery examination method. After careful analysis and contrast, Electricity sensor examination method was given up for it couldn't be working steadily under high temperature conditions and easily excitated electric sparks which would result in flammable explosive danger in chemical industry and petroleum enterprises. Ultrasonic wave examination method and infrared thermal imagery examination method could avoid the shortages of Electricity sensor examination method based on the non-destructive examination theory, but the ultrasonic wave method could be applied only in examining the pipeline wall thickness, the inside wall crack as well as the material air bubble flaws restricted in its working principle. Consequently ultrasonic wave method examination method wasn't suitable to sense and monitor the strain change of the high temperature pipeline surface; Infrared thermal imagery examination method has low sensing resolution and can only examine internal etching pit and wall thickness attenuating, so it is unable to examine the pipeline surface strain change on time. Therefore three reported real-time examination

  19. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  20. Pipeline capacity and heavy oil markets

    Aspects of transporting heavy crude to markets from Canadian sources are discussed, with reference to pipeline expansion, western Canadian crude supply, and exports to various Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADDs) in the USA. Pipeline expansions have been proposed by Interprovincial Pipeline, Trans Mountain Pipeline, Rangeland, and Wascana, and some of these proposals are in the review stage. Western Canadian crude supply is expected to peak at 1.9 million bbl/d in 1996. An increase in heavy crude supply is expected but this increase will not be sufficient to offset a decline in light crude supply. Adequate pipeline capacity should exist with the Interprovincial expansion volume of 170,000 bbl/d and the Trans Mountain expansion of 38,000 bbl/d forecast to be in place by 1995. Canadian crude exports to the USA have steadily increased since 1989, and heavy crude exports have grown an average of 20,000 bbl/d each year. In PADD Region IV, oil production is declining and ca 20,000 bbl/d of heavy crude will be needed by the year 2000; additional pipeline capacity will be required. In PADD Region II, Canadian heavy crude imports are ca 390,000 bbl/d and further market opportunities exist, after the Interprovincial expansion is complete. When the various combinations of possible pipeline expansions or reversals are considered, a range of heavy crude near-term growth potentials is obtained in which Canadian heavy oil would displace offshore heavy oil supplied to USA refineries. This potential is seen to range from 35,000 bbl/d to 200,000 bbl/d. 7 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Skaha Lake crossing, innovations in pipeline installation

    This paper describes the construction of a 10.8 km long NPS16 (406 mm, 16 inch diameter) pipeline, across Skaha Lake, in the south Okanagan valley, British Columbia, Canada. The water crossing is part of the 32 km South Okanagan Natural Gas Pipeline Project (SONG) operated by BC Gas. The pipeline is located in a region dependent on year-round tourism. Therefore, the design and construction was influenced by sensitive environmental and land use concerns. From earlier studies, BC Gas identified surface tow or lay as preferred installation methods. The contractor, Fraser River Pile and Dredge departed from a conventional laybarge methodology after evaluating environmental data and assessing locally available equipment. The contractor proposed a surface tow with multiple surface tie-ins. This approach modification to the ''Surface Tow and Buoy Release Method'' (STBRM) used previously with success on relatively short underwater pipelines. A total of 10 pipe strings, up to 1 km long, were towed into position on the lake and tied-in using a floating platform. The joined pipeline was lowered to the lakebed by divers releasing buoys while tension was maintained from a winch barge at the free end of the pipeline. From analysis and field verified measurement the installation stresses were well below the allowable limits during all phases of construction. The entire construction, including mobilization and demobilization, lasted less than three months, and actual pipelaying less than three weeks. Installation was completed within budget and on schedule, without any environmental or safety related incidents. The SONG pipeline became operational in December 1994

  2. Overview of the TESS Science Pipeline

    Jenkins, Jon Michael

    2015-12-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) science pipeline is being developed by the Science Processing Operations Center (SPOC) at NASA Ames Research Center based on the highly successful Kepler science pipeline. Like the Kepler pipeline, the TESS science pipeline will provide calibrated pixels, simple and systematic error- corrected aperture photometry, and centroid locations for all 200,000+ target stars, observed over the 2-year mission, along with associated uncertainties. The pixel and light curve products are modeled on the Kepler archive products and will be archived to the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST). In addition to the nominal science data, the 30-minute Full Frame Images (FFIs) simultaneously collected by TESS will also be calibrated by the SPOC and archived at MAST.The TESS pipeline will search through all light curves for evidence of periodic transit signals that occur when a planet crosses the disk of its host star. The Data Validation (DV) pipeline component will generate a suite of diagnostic metrics for each transit-like signature discovered, and extract planetary parameters by fitting a limb-darkened transit model to each potential planetary signature. The results of the transit search will be similar in content to the Kepler transit search products (tabulated numerical results, time series products, and pdf reports) all of which will be archived to MAST.This paper provides an overview of the TESS science pipeline and describes the development of the SPOC remaining before launch in August 2017.TESS was selected by NASA for launch in 2017 as an Astrophysics Explorer mission.

  3. Optimization methods for pipeline transportation of natural gas

    Borraz-Sanchez, Conrado

    2010-10-15

    Within three research projects on the optimization of natural gas transport in transmission pipeline systems, a number of various mathematical models, algorithms, and numerical experiments have been presented and discussed in this thesis. The proposed optimization methods are composed of NLP and MINLP models, as well as of exact and heuristic methods. In addition, the experimental analyses conducted on each project were devoted to gain insight into three major issues: 1) the assessment of the computability of the mathematical models, 2) the performance of the proposed optimization techniques, and 3) comparison of the proposed techniques with existing optimization algorithms and tools. Project 1 focused on minimizing the total fuel consumption incurred by compressor stations installed in a gas pipeline system. The project was mainly devoted to tackle large natural gas pipeline systems with cyclic structures. After conducting a painstaking study on the NLP model introduced in Section 4.3, three different methodologies were proposed to effectively overcome both the difficulties encountered in the steady-state flow model, namely the non-linearity and non-convexity, as well as the weaknesses found in previously suggested optimization approaches. As discussed in Chapter 4, the key to success in this project was to apply the strategic idea of discretizing the feasible operating domain of compressor stations, which in turn allowed the implementation of hybrid solution methods based on powerful optimization techniques such as DP, tabu search, and tree decomposition. The idea of working within a discretized space has been successfully applied since the liquid pipeline optimization conducted in the late 1960s by Jefferson, until the non-traditional optimization technique suggested by Carter in 1998. The computational experiments conducted on each proposed optimization method, coupled with comparisons with typical approaches found in the literature, indicated that a continual

  4. Pipeline four-dimension management is the trend of pipeline integrity management in the future

    Shaohua, Dong; Feifan; Zhongchen, Han [China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Pipeline integrity management is essential for today's operators to operate their pipelines safety and cost effectively. The latest developments of pipeline integrity management around the world are involved with change of regulation, industry standard and innovation of technology. And who know the trend of PIM in the future, which can be answered in the paper. As a result, the concept of P4DM was set up firstly in the world. The paper analyzed the pipeline HSE management, pipeline integrity management (PIM) and asset integrity management (AIM), the problem of management was produced, and also the Pipeline 4-dimension Management (P4DM) theory was brought forward. According to P4DM, from the hierarchy of P4DM, the management elements, fields, space and time was analyzed. The main content is P4DM integrate the space geography location and time, control and manage the pipeline system in whole process, anywhere and anytime. It includes the pipeline integrity, pipeline operation and emergency, which is integrated by IT system. It come true that the idea, solution, technology, organization, manager alternately intelligently control the process of management. What the paper talks about included the definition of pipeline 4D management, the research develop of P4DM, the theory of P4DM, the relationship between P4DM and PIM, the technology basis of P4DM, how to perform the P4DM and conclusion. The P4DM was produced, which provide the development direction of PIM in the future, and also provide the new ideas for PetroChina in the field of technology and management. (author)

  5. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  6. Proliferating pipelines: next growth wave gathering force

    Jaremko, G.

    2001-11-05

    The fresh burst of activity in pipeline planning and construction following the buyout of Vancouver--based Westcoast Energy by Duke Energy of Charlotte, North Carolina is discussed. Although construction tapered off over the past year after the completion of the Maritime and Northern Pipeline (M and NP) and Alliance pipelines, the expansion of pipeline construction has not yet reached its peak. The scale of the Westcoast-Duke deal ($8.5 billion) underlines the extent of changes in the pipeline industry, much of which is yet to be realized. New developments described are such as Enbridge Inc's second stage in a long-range extension of the Interprovincial Pipe Line for oil from the West to Central Canada and the US Midwest to carry the projected 38 per cent increase in western oil production by 2010. In the north-eastern section of Alberta Trans Mountain Pipe Line is putting the finishing touches to its $700 million Corridor Pipeline to provide 400,000 barrels/day of additional capacity. On the Atlantic coast four new pipeline projects are lined up and a fifth is waiting in line, only two years after gas production started offshore of Nova Scotia. This includes the last missing link in the cross-Canada pipeline link. Enbridge and Montreal-based Gaz Metropolitain set a target of late 2004 for putting in service their proposed 262 km-long line to draw gas off the M and NP in New Brunswick and move its west to Quebec City for Gaz Metropolitain and to Toronto-based Enbridge Consumer Gas. In another development PanCanadian Energy signed a 10-year transportation deal with M and NP to ship 400,000 million cu ft per day from its one billion dollar Deep Panuke production development offshore of Nova Scotia. There are other developments waiting in the wings such as Houston-based Tatham Inc with its North Atlantic Pipeline Project calling a $3.2 billion, 2,200 km seafloor gas line grid to be built in stages reaching northward from the US to the Sable area and eventually to

  7. Bauxite slurry pipeline: start up operation

    Othon, Otilio; Babosa, Eder; Edvan, Francisco; Brittes, Geraldo; Melo, Gerson; Janir, Joao; Favacho, Orlando; Leao, Marcos; Farias, Obadias [Vale, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilton [Anglo Ferrous Brazil S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The mine of Miltonia is located in Paragominas-PA, in the north of Brazil. Bauxite slurry pipeline starts at the Mine of Miltonia and finishes in the draining installation of Alunorte refinery at the port of Barcarena-PA, located approximately 244km away from the mine. The pipeline runs over seven cities and passes below four great rivers stream beds. The system was designed for an underground 24 inches OD steel pipe to carry 9.9 million dry metric tonnes per annum (dMTAs) of 50.5% solid concentration bauxite slurry, using only one pumping station. The system is composed by four storage tanks and six piston diaphragm pumps, supplying a flow of 1680 m3/h. There is a cathodic protection system along the pipeline extension to prevent external corrosion and five pressure monitoring stations to control hydraulic conditions, there is also a fiber optic cable interconnection between pump station and terminal station. Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI) was the designer and followed the commissioning program of the start up operations. This paper will describe the beginning of the pipeline operations, technical aspects of the project, the operational experiences acquired in these two years, the faced problems and also the future planning. (author)

  8. Validation of pig operations through pipelines

    Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nieckele, Angela O. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

    2005-07-01

    In the oil industry, pigging operations in pipelines have been largely applied for different purposes: pipe cleaning, inspection, liquid removal and product separation, among others. An efficient and safe pigging operation requires that a number of operational parameters, such as maximum and minimum pressures in the pipeline and pig velocity, to be well evaluated during the planning stage and maintained within stipulated limits while the operation is accomplished. With the objective of providing an efficient tool to assist in the control and design of pig operations through pipelines, a numerical code was developed, based on a finite difference scheme, which allows the simulation of two fluid transient flow, like liquid-liquid, gas-gas or liquid-gas products in the pipeline. Modules to automatically control process variables were included to employ different strategies to reach an efficient operation. Different test cases were investigated, to corroborate the robustness of the methodology. To validate the methodology, the results obtained with the code were compared with a real liquid displacement operation of a section of the OSPAR oil pipeline, belonging to PETROBRAS, with 30'' diameter and 60 km length, presenting good agreement. (author)

  9. A Cheap Levitating Gas/Load Pipeline

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. The main component of the natural gas is methane which has a specific weight less than air. A lift force of one cubic meter of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound). The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, does not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This aerial pipeline dramatically decreases the cost and the time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saves energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. The article contains a computed project for delivery 24 billion cubic meters of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year.

  10. Diagnostics and reliability of pipeline systems

    Timashev, Sviatoslav

    2016-01-01

    The book contains solutions to fundamental problems which arise due to the logic of development of specific branches of science, which are related to pipeline safety, but mainly are subordinate to the needs of pipeline transportation.          The book deploys important but not yet solved aspects of reliability and safety assurance of pipeline systems, which are vital aspects not only for the oil and gas industry and, in general, fuel and energy industries , but also to virtually all contemporary industries and technologies. The volume will be useful to specialists and experts in the field of diagnostics/ inspection, monitoring, reliability and safety of critical infrastructures. First and foremost, it will be useful to the decision making persons —operators of different types of pipelines, pipeline diagnostics/inspection vendors, and designers of in-line –inspection (ILI) tools, industrial and ecological safety specialists, as well as to researchers and graduate students.

  11. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  12. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  13. Coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia: evidence from radiocarbon dates of abandoned nests of Orange-footed Scrubfowl

    The late Holocene history of monsoon rainforest retreat was explored by radiocarbon dating abandoned Orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt Gaimard) nests in coastal savannas in the Northern Territory of Australia. Previous work has demonstrated that in savanna environments this rainforest bird can not build nor maintain the large heaps of soil and leaf litter that it uses for nests. Excavations of two earthen mounds in a savanna habitat verified that they were abandoned Scrubfowl nests, and not Aboriginal middens, given their lack of stratigraphy, non-sequential dating of charcoal in a vertical profile, and absence of archaeological material. Radiocarbon dates of material taken from the surface of abandoned nests were determined for three sites on the coast of the Northern Territory. These analyses revealed that for all three sites, rainforests have contracted within the last 1800 years BP. On Elcho Island an abandoned nest was found to contain the land snail Xanthomelon spheroidea Le Guillou (known to prefer rainforest habitat) with a modern radiocarbon age, suggesting recent contraction of rainforest. The results of this study further weaken the theory that Aboriginal burning was a major cause of rain forest fragmentation in the monsoon tropics, and possibly elsewhere in Australia

  14. Coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia: evidence from radiocarbon dates of abandoned nests of Orange-footed Scrubfowl

    Bowman, D.M.J.S.; Panton, W.J. [Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin, NT (Australia); Head, J. [Australian National Univ, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Quaternary Dating Research Centre

    1997-12-31

    The late Holocene history of monsoon rainforest retreat was explored by radiocarbon dating abandoned Orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt Gaimard) nests in coastal savannas in the Northern Territory of Australia. Previous work has demonstrated that in savanna environments this rainforest bird can not build nor maintain the large heaps of soil and leaf litter that it uses for nests. Excavations of two earthen mounds in a savanna habitat verified that they were abandoned Scrubfowl nests, and not Aboriginal middens, given their lack of stratigraphy, non-sequential dating of charcoal in a vertical profile, and absence of archaeological material. Radiocarbon dates of material taken from the surface of abandoned nests were determined for three sites on the coast of the Northern Territory. These analyses revealed that for all three sites, rainforests have contracted within the last 1800 years BP. On Elcho Island an abandoned nest was found to contain the land snail Xanthomelon spheroidea Le Guillou (known to prefer rainforest habitat) with a modern radiocarbon age, suggesting recent contraction of rainforest. The results of this study further weaken the theory that Aboriginal burning was a major cause of rain forest fragmentation in the monsoon tropics, and possibly elsewhere in Australia.

  15. Emissions of polluting substances in the atmosphere at construction of the pipeline Bolshoy Chagan - Atyrau

    Full text : The main pipelines of Kazakhstan represent the most complicated mechanized and the automated hydraulic system which has been very branched out and long. It is equipped by powerful pump stations, lines and constructions of technological communication, telemechanics and automatics, fire-prevention devices, on occasion - furnaces of heating. Construction Oil and gas pipeline Bolschoy Chagan - Atyrau is intended for transportation of a mix of oil, acting on NPS Bolschoy Chagan with Karachaganak Oil and gas deposits (KNGKM), up to Atyrau for pumping in pipeline system of the Caspian pipeline consortium. The maximal volume of a transported product from Bolschoy Chagan up to pipeline KTK will make 10 million tons a year at full projected volume from KNGKM up to Atyrau - 11 million tons/years. The line Oil and gas pipeline Bolschoy Chagan - Atyrau is covered by a network of highways - soil, rural, with a covering and with the improved covering. The largest settlements located in a strip of passage of a line the following: Bolschoy Chagan, Kushum, Budarino, Chapaev, Mergenevo, Lbishchenskoe, Tajpak, Eltaj, Kulagino, Orlik, Green, Mahambet, Sarajshyk. The line Oil and gas pipeline represents a broken line in length of 455,25 km, stretched with the north on the south. The Earth, allocated under construction Oil and gas pipeline now are used for an agricultural production, mainly pasturable cattle breeding, and also in a small degree for cultivation grain, vegetable and agro cultures. According to influence of the equipment used at construction and operation Oil and gas pipeline on atmospheric air, inventory of sources of emissions is lead to an atmosphere in view of duration of work during which sources of emissions have been revealed all, total and as much as possible single emissions from stationary sources are calculated. It has been revealed, that here take place, both stationary sources of emissions, and mobile to which all motor transport concerns, and also

  16. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  17. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  18. Computational study of wax deposition in pipeline

    Duan, Jimiao; Gong, Jing; Liu, Huishu

    2013-07-01

    Wax deposition in subsea pipelines is one of the flow assurance problems for oil and gas production. In contrast to many studies about single phase wax deposition, gas-oil wax deposition studies are very limited. The wax deposition mechanism and model prediction are restricted by many factors such as hydrodynamic and thermal when multiphase flow is involved. Wax deposition modeling becomes complicated under multiphase flowing conditions. wax deposition is depended by the flow pattern. The stratified flow is one of the most common flow patterns in the actual subsea gas-oil flowing conditions. In this work, numerical methods are used to study wax deposition in oil-gas stratified flow through a pipe. Based on the flow analysis about stratified flow, the non-isothermal heat and mass transfer is calculated. The temperature profile of the oil and the concentration profile of wax in oil are obtained. The change of the oil-gas interface i.e. the liquid holdup throughout the pipe must be taken into the heat and mass balance. The valid wax deposition surface must be taken into the wax deposition modeling by establishing function of the liquid holdup and the wetted area by oil. The molecular diffusion is as the deposition mechanism. The increase of the wax fraction in the deposit as a function of time depends on the mass flux from the oil deposit interface into the gel and the growth of the deposit thickness depends on the difference between the mass flux from the bulk oil to the oil deposit interface and the mass flux from the interface into the deposit. In addition, the growth of the wax deposit as a function of time along with the effect oil flow rate, gas flow rate and the inlet temperature are discussed. The presence of gas significantly reduces the severity of wax deposition by altering the heat and mass transfer characteristics.

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OKLAHOMA ABANDONED DRILLING AND PRODUCTION SITES AND ASSOCIATED PUBLIC EDUCATION/OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

    Mike Terry

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has participated with the Oklahoma Energy Resource Board (OERB) since 1995 by providing grant funding for on-going work in both environmental assessment of abandoned oilfield exploration and production sites and associated public education/outreach activities. The OERB, a state agency created in 1993 by the Oklahoma legislature, administers programs funded by an assessment of one tenth of one percent on all oil and natural gas produced and sold in the state of Oklahoma. Approximately one half of the funds are used to assess and remediate abandoned oilfield sites and the other half are being used to educate about the importance of the oil and natural gas industry and OERB's environmental efforts. Financial participation through grant funding by the U.S. D.O.E. has been $200,000 annually which represents approximately 3 percent of OERB's private funding. Most of OERB's revenues come from an assessment of 1/10th of 1% on the sale of crude and natural gas in Oklahoma. The assessment is considered voluntary in that any interest owner may ask for a refund annually of their contributions to the fund. On average, 95% of the assessment dollars have remained with OERB, which shows tremendous support by the industry. This Final Report summarizes the progress of the three year grant. The purpose of this three-year project was to continue the progress of the OERB to accomplish its environmental and educational objectives and transfer information learned to other organizations and producing states in the industry.

  20. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12564344

  1. MAG orbital welding in plant construction and in the installation of earth-layed pipelines

    Vietz, E.

    In this article the author compares the MAG orbital welding and drop joint welding techniques. He describes the method, the equipment and the power sources and explains the personnel requirements, additional materials, the course of the work and the welding parameters. Finally, he reports on his experiences in the construction of district heat pipelines in Copenhagen and Berlin.

  2. Urucu-Manaus gas pipeline: challenges and solutions; Gasoduto Urucu-Manaus: desafios e solucoes

    Loureiro, Mauro de O.; Machado, Otto Luiz de M.; Moura, Marcos [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The challenge of building and develop a gas pipeline such as Urucu-Manaus, in the middle of Amazon rain forest, it is beyond to conventional engineering solutions that is common used in this kind of contract. The development of this venture join a large variety of activities since the several techniques of pipeline construction to the improvement the skills of the local workers but never to leave out important points such as integrated management of work, for instance, safety, environment care, health, communication with the involved parts, archaeology, goods and services acquisition, telecommunications and the mean of transportation to equipment and workers. (author)

  3. Logistics at the Amazon forest: the challenge of Urucu-Manaus pipeline construction

    Freitas, Ricardo Magalhaes; Araujo, Jorge Marques de; Barbosa, Gilberto Rodrigues; Campos, Marcos Zeferino Teixeira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The predominant difficulties and logistics complexities at the Amazon Region, required of the technical body responsible for the construction of the Undertaking Urucu-Manaus Pipeline, technological knowledge and a profound background of the regional particularities, qualities that were determinants for the execution of this significant work. The logistics solutions, supported on an accurate and adequate planning for people, equipment and material mobilization for several front services, were planned considering the constant climatic variables, river flood and dry periods and with the monitoring daily routines of the communities located around the pipeline construction influence area. (author)

  4. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  5. Analog pipeline readout for ATLAS calorimetry

    This paper presents the design and prototype testing of an analog pipeline readout module suitable for readout of the LAr calorimetry at the large hadron collider. The design has been driven by the readout requirements of the ATLAS electromagnetic liquid argon calorimeter and the ATLAS trigger design parameters. The results indicate that an analog pipeline readout system meeting the ATLAS requirements can be built using our modules. The SCA-chip employed has resolution approaching 13-bits (using the full range of the SCA) and can achieve a 16-bit dynamic range using a dual-range scheme. The module is based on switched capacitor array chips. A brief description of the design of the pipeline controller development, that will enable the SCA readout system to run as a deadtimeless analog RAM, is also given. (orig.)

  6. Spitzer IRS Pipelines for General Users

    Narron, B.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Ardila, D.; Laher, R. R.

    2008-08-01

    An effort is underway to make the Spitzer InfraRed Spectrograph (IRS) data-processing pipelines available for use by astronomers worldwide. This will allow users to reprocess raw data downloaded from the Spitzer archive with customized calibration files, updated operational parameters, and/or a modified list of processing steps. The pipelines will create all standard BCD (basic calibrated data) and post-BCD products, plus additional intermediate products. The pipelines will be made up of newly developed Perl and C-shell ``executive'' scripts, plus the binary-executable modules currently used in operations (the modules' source code will not be distributed, however). The scripts are being designed for ease of use and will facilitate user-customization. The operating systems targeted for support are Mac OS X, Linux, Solaris, and possibly Windows.

  7. Corrosion fatigue properties of thermally insulated pipeline

    The corrosion fatigue properties of thermally insulated pipeline were investigated in synthetic groundwater by electrochemical test, corrosion fatigue test and SEM analysis. Since the potential difference between the weldment and the base metal was small, the pipeline steel was not susceptible to galvanic corrosion. No fatigue limit was apparent for corrosion fatigue testing with remarkable reduction of fatigue lifetime. The effects of insulation and stress on the corrosion fatigue resistance of pipeline steel were studied through Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) during corrosion fatigue testing. The result of LPR measurement indicated that the corrosion rate was determined not by the water content of PUR foam but by the magnitude of applied stress. The better corrosion fatigue property of the insulated steel was attributable to the formation of a protective rust layer under the insulation, which reduced the acceleration of corrosion process and the propagation of fatigue crack. This was confirmed by the results of EIS measurements and SEM observation

  8. Liquid holdup in wet-gas pipelines

    An experimental study of two-phase flow was conducted to investigate liquid holdup in wet-gas pipelines. The liquid-holdup data were obtained by passing spheres through a 1,333-ft [406.3-m] -long, 3.068-in. [77.93-mm] -ID horizontal pipe and measuring the liquid volumes removed. Three different two-phase mixtures were used. The holdup data were compared with predicted holdup values and were used to evaluate a mechanistic model for stratified flow. None of the methods could accuratly predict liquid holdup in this low-holdup region. Two new empirical liquid-holdup correlations for horizontal flow were proposed. The first is strictly for wet-gas pipelines (0< y/sub L/<0.35); the second is for any horizontal pipeline (0< y/sub L/<1.0)

  9. Digitally assisted pipeline ADCs theory and implementation

    Murmann, Boris

    2007-01-01

    List of Figures. List of Tables. Acknowledgements. Preface. 1: Introduction. 1. Motivation. 2. Overview. 3. Chapter Organization. 2: Performance Trends. 1. Introduction. 2. Digital Performance Trends. 3. ADC Performance Trends. 3: Scaling Analysis. 1. Introduction. 2. Basic Device Scaling from a Digital Perspective. 3. Technology Metrics for Analog Circuits. 4. Scaling Impact on Matching-Limited Circuits. 5. Scaling Impact on Noise-Limited Circuits. 4: Improving Analog Circuit Efficiency. 1. Introduction. 2. Analog Circuit Challenges. 3. The Cost of Feedback. 4. Two-Stage Feedback Amplifier vs. Open-Loop Gain Stage. 5. Discussion. 5: Open-Loop Pipelined ADCs. 1. A Brief Review of Pipelined ADCs. 2. Conventional Stage Implementation. 3. Open-Loop Pipeline Stages. 4. Alternative Transconductor Implementations. 6: Digital Nonlinearity Correction. 1. Overview. 2. Error Model and Digital Correction. 3. Alternative Error Models. 7: Statistics-Based Parameter Estimation. 1. Introduction. 2. Modulation Approach. 3. R...

  10. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  11. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise... Provisions § 19.9 General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise. (a) Acceptance of merchandise. The... Customs-authorized permit to transfer or in-bond entry) is responsible for preparing a Customs Form...

  12. 78 FR 57681 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Iowa

    2013-09-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, Iowa Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  13. 78 FR 48931 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, Ohio

    2013-08-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Lucas County, Ohio Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  14. 76 FR 36617 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Freeborn County, MN

    2011-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Freeborn County, MN Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will...

  15. 78 FR 11733 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Calhoun County, AL

    2013-02-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Calhoun County, AL Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... and historic report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment...

  16. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    2013-12-31

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gaston County, NC Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic...

  17. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    2013-04-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Washington County, Idaho Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 C.F.R. pt... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  18. 78 FR 44190 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Miami County, KS

    2013-07-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Miami County, KS Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by...

  19. Impacts of Land Abandonment on Vegetation: Successional Pathways in European Habitats

    Prévosto, B.; Kuiters, A.T.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Dölle, M.; Schmidt, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Uytvanck, Van J.; Bohner, A.; Kreiner, D.; Stadler, J.; Klotz, S.; Brandl, R.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in traditional agricultural systems in Europe in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different hab

  20. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    2010-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...