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1

Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

NONE

1997-03-01

2

Abandoning wells working group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

NONE

1997-03-01

3

Abandoned works program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thousands of improperly abandoned or decommissioned oil and gas wells are threatening the purity of Ontario's source water. This presentation discussed an abandoned works program developed by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The abandoned works program was established in 2005 in order to plug old oil and gas wells. The program was designed to create a list of abandoned wells, develop a coherent policy, and formulate procurement and contracting protocols. Abandoned wells are defined as wells drilled prior to 1963 with no operator other than the current landowner. There are currently over 200 prioritized wells on the list. Twenty-six contracts have been issued for a total of 33 wells, and 19 wells have been plugged since the program's field operations began in 2006. However, the program is often challenged by the difficulties associated with determining where the wells are located. Many of the wells have been cut off and buried, and access is often dependent on weather conditions and road restrictions. There is also a shortage of contractors who have experience working with older wells. It was concluded that the program will expand by obtaining further funding and modifying its qualification criteria. tabs., figs

4

Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

1993-12-10

5

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes ? 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios

6

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

1993-12-01

7

30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings... § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings...maintenance of any proposed coal processing waste disposal facility,...

2010-07-01

8

Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

2000-01-01

9

Computer Simulation of the Propagation of Heat in Abandoned Workings Insulated with Slurries and Mineral Substances  

Science.gov (United States)

In the paper the results of investigations aimed at further identification of the phenomena occurring in abandoned workings and connected with the flow of air-gas (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon oxidation products) mixture with taking into consideration the impact of supplied mineral substances on the processes of self-heating of the coal left in goaves were presented. The known and successfully used method for the prevention of fires in abandoned workings is the technology of filling goaf with an ash-air mixture, which also raises the issue of the effective use of that mixture. The computer, i.e. digital simulation methods being developed and intended for the purpose of the process discussed here are a good complement of the use of that technology. A developed mathematical model describing the process of additional sealing of gob with wet slurry supplied with three pipelines is based on the balance of volume of the supplied mixture and contained in the body created in goaves. The form of that body was assessed on the basis of the observation results available in literature and the results of model investigations. The calculation examples carried out for the the longwall area and its goaf ventilated with the "U" system allow to state that the introduced modification of the mathematical model describing the flow of the mixture of air, gases, and wet slurry with consideration of the coal burning process in the fire source area was verified positively. The digital prognostic simulations have confirmed a vital impact of the wet slurry supplied into the goaf on the processes of coal burning and also the change of rate and volume flow rate of the air mixture in goaf. As a complement to the above it should be noted that such elements as the place of the slurry supply in comparison with the longwall inclination or fire source area location is of great importance for the effectiveness of the fire prevention used. The development of computer/ digital simulation methods requires further investigations of the model adopted in this study. Those investigations should be aimed at making credible the theoretical model of the mixture flow through porous medium and the supplied mineral material. Such investigations will allow to verify the body form based on the mixture parameters such as humidity, viscosity, and fluidity and depending on the properties of the porous medium. Further development of the modelling of the phenomena discussed in this paper should be based on the methods of use of the description of the flow of fluids and slurry on the basis of 3D models.

Dziurzy?ski, Wac?aw; Krach, Andrzej; Pa?ka, Teresa

2014-03-01

10

Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs, yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working Results The majority of OAC (60.7% engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

Pence Brian

2011-01-01

11

Research work during and after the flooding of an abandoned potash mine in northern Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandoned potash mine of HOPE in northern Germany is flooded with an NaCl solution. A scientific research program running concurrently is to register and evaluate data on the geochemical, geomechanical and geophysical processes occurring before, during and after the flooding. In addition, a seal bulkhead was built using new materials and seals for testing under a liquid pressure of approximately 2.4 MPa. The work is part of a comprehensive research program investigating the processes occurring in a hypothetical water or brine inflow into a repository for radioactive waste in salt formations

12

Proceedings of the Banff 2007 pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum to discuss and learn about a wide range of issues associated with the critical area of maintaining and improving oil and gas pipeline integrity. State-of-the-art technologies and past experiences related to the design, construction, operation, testing, inspection, maintenance, performance and abandonment of pipelines were reviewed along with other topical issues such as pipeline risk assessment and management. The workshop was divided into 12 working groups, each focusing on specific issues, notably: issues for managers; regulatory developments; upstream pipelines; design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; management of stress corrosion cracking (SCC); coatings; pipeline risk assessment and risk management; inspection tools; external corrosion; northern pipelines; internal corrosion; and, facilities integrity management. Detailed accounts of all working group sessions were included. All 12 of the working groups' presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

Keith, K. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fox, J. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Shu, L. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (comps.)

2007-07-01

13

Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at improving communities' life quality. 7. Follow-up, supporting communities leaders during dissemination of information about pipelines, project fund-raising and implementation. 8. Creation and followup of companies' networks to support some of the projects elaborated by the communities. 9. Impact evaluation, measuring the results accomplished by the whole project after its realization. The overall process is monitored with management and quality tools such as PDCA and processes and results indicators. The elaboration of projects by communities' members, organizing their needs and requests, facilitates management decisions regarding private social investment. During the follow-up, GAIA supports the communities' fund-raising from several organizations, as well as creates networks of potential local supporters. Those initiatives tend to dilute the requests from communities to companies. Thus, companies foment communities' autonomy and citizenship, creating a situation in which both, companies and communities, are benefited. (author)

Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2009-07-01

14

The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

2005-07-01

15

30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND...INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION...PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM...coal processing waste to abandoned underground...retainment of water underground, treatment of water if...

2010-07-01

16

The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

Santiago Pich

2013-09-01

17

Welding works in the construction of the WWER-10O0 reactor main circulating pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features of pretreatment and welding experience in the construction of pipelines of the main circulating circuit (MCC), economizer and the ECCS of the WWER-1000 reactor are considered. The pipelines are made of a new clad steel type 10GN2MFA: C 0.08, Si 0.17, Mn 0.8, Cr 0.3, Ni 2-2.7, Mo 0.5-0.7, Cu 0.3, SuP no more than 0.02, V 0.07 (%). Structure of the welded joints of pipelines and heat treatment regimes are described. All welding works were performed by 12 welders. It is concluded that the MCC pipeline welding should be related as one of the most complicated and labour consuming operations

18

Degradation of the cast steel parts working in power plant pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of materialdegradation on the initiation of cracking and on durability under creep and fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The aim of the research was to identify the properties of the material of thefittings cut out of a start-up pipeline connecting two OP-140 boilers with turbines, as well as to identify thereasons of failure of these parts after 100000 hours of operation. Results of the investigations were the basisof predicting the lifetime of machine parts and components of devices subjected to complex mechanical andthermal influence. Numerical simulation of work conditions was also performed. Problem of life assessment ofthe pipelines is currently the object of interest of many research centers.Findings: Due to extreme conditions of the start-up pipeline operation, its T-connections are subject to quickwear, and their properties determine the operational reliability and safety of the whole pipeline. For the reasonit is necessary to verify the criteria of pipelines’ durability evaluation applied so far, based on the parameterscharacteristic of the creep process exclusively.Research limitations/implications: In the case discussed, i.e. a T-connection being a start-up pipeline part, thepresent criteria should be expanded with critical values describing fatigue/corrosion processes.Practical implications: The paper introduces the results of investigations of the 0.2C-1.2Cr-0.6Mo-0.3V caststeel used for parts of live steam pipelines working in power plants. Such parts include, e.g. T-connections.Originality/value: The paper show the possibilities of numerical models application.

D. Renowicz

2006-08-01

19

Remedial Investigation Report on the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Energy Systems Environmental Restoration Program; Y-12 Environmental Restoration Program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Operable Unit 2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid pipeline (ANAP). This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately}4800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. During the mid-1980s, sections of the pipeline were removed during various construction projects. A total of 19 locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The 19 samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant`s laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. Uranium activities in the soil samples ranged from 0.53 to 13.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U, from 0.075 to 0.75 pCi/g for {sup 235}U, and from 0.71 to 5.0 pCi/g for {sup 238}U. Maximum total values for lead, chromium, and nickel were 75.1 mg/kg, 56.3 mg/kg, and 53.0 mg/kg, respectively. The maximum nitrate/nitrite value detected was 32.0 mg-N/kg. One sample obtained adjacent to a sewer line contained various organic compounds, at least some of which were tentatively identified as fragrance chemicals commonly associated with soaps and cleaning solutions. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the ANAP contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health.

1994-02-01

20

Analysis of dependence between capital expendutures of construction works and gas distribution pipeline diameter ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????????????????? ????? ?? ?? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Materials consumption rate is used by many authors as the criterion for the assessment of the economic efficiency of gas distribution networks in the course of their design. No doubt that control over the materials consumption rate is of particular importance. However, we believe that it represents one of several constituents of the overall cost of a gas network piping project. Labour expenditures and earth works that are, to some extent, dependent on the diameter of a pipeline, should also be taken into account. Presently, metal and polyethylene pipes of standard diameters are used in gas network development projects. Diameters of pipes of external gas distribution networks are rounded up to the closest standard diameter of pipes as a result of a hydraulic calculation. The cost of construction of a gas pipeline has multiple constituents that may be clustered into three principle groups: 1 earth works, 2 piping; 3 cost of materials. Calculation of the cost of construction of low and medium pressure pipelines to be made of steel and cross-linked polyethylene was performed to find out the cost of a pipeline. The calculations were made in the basic prices of the year 2000 adjusted to the figures of April 2011, given the standard piping conditions in a settlement within central Russia. The data were interpolated by means of a quadratic function. On the basis of the above data, a comparative analysis of capital expenditures in respect of steel and polyethylene piping may be performed. The research also contemplates the structure of expenses associated with the piping of gas distribution networks. Mathematical equations have been derived to perform sufficiently accurate calculations of costs of construction of various types and various lengths of gas pipelines.?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ????????. ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????????????????? ????? ?? ?? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????.

Tabunshchikov Yuriy Andreevich

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
21

Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)  

Science.gov (United States)

The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a little proportion of galena (primary mineral) and ferro-hexahydrite, also indicating mobilization of Fe. As regarding white surface blooms, they are formed mostly of magnesium sulphate with different hydration states. The morphology of these mineral precipitates reveals that they have been subject to cycle of washing and subsequent dehydration, which indicates that these phases present a great mobility in the environment, and they may be contributing to the transport of metals from the tailings into the surroundings soils.

de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

2012-04-01

22

Description of work for 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 stainless steel pipeline integrity testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this integrity test are to (1) inspect the interior of this pipeline by in-line camera survey and (2) if required, conduct a pressure test on a section of the pipeline. The U-1 and U-2 Cribs were constructed in 1951. From March 1952 to June 1967, the site received cell drainage from Tank 5-2 in the 221-U Building nd waste from the 224-U Building via the overflow from the 241-U-361 Settling Tank. From June 1957 to July 1957, the site received waste from the 224-U Building via the overflow from the 241-U-361 Settling Tank and contaminated solvent from the 276-U Settling Tank solvent storage area. The discharge of 221-U waste was discontinued during shutdown of production operations. From July 1957 to May 1967, the site received waste from the 224-U Building and equipment decontamination and reclamation wastes from operations in the 221-U Building canyon. The scope of work is encompassed in five steps: (1) obtaining access to the pipeline in order to perform an in-line camera survey of the line to the greatest extent possible, (2) evaluating the need for further investigation of the pipeline, (3) blanking the line, as needed, to perform a pressure test, (4) conducting the pressure test, as needed, and (5) documenting the ability of the line to maintain pressure

23

The Long Term Consequences Of the Phenomenon “Child Abandonment” Caused by Work Abroad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One or both parents leaving their home to work abroad brings important modification in the family life. Separation can be a forehand event, and all members of the respective family are familiarized with the change it implies. But many times the separation can be unexpected. The abrupt leave becomes, most of the times, a bitter event for the parents, but psycho traumatic for the child/children. In our country the phenomenon is attentively studied by the social workers, by sociologists, by psychologists, by educators, but what is the share of the economists?! Of course, the analysts are interested in the level of contribution in money of the Romanians working abroad reflected either in the GDP of the native country or of the em­ployer countries. But is it enough?! Shouldn’t we indentify and anticipate the work perspective economic consequences of the future active population, coming from families fragmented by life’s shortcomings?!

Prof. Ph. D. C?t?lina Bonciu

2009-05-01

24

Methods of projection (technological developmental work of pipeline routes for manufacturing pipes without measuring sizes at place  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methodological developmental work of problem of manufacturing and mounting of ship pipelines without measuring sizes at place is presented. Introduction of methods contributes to increasing in efficiency of shipbuilding production by means of perfecting technologies of manufacturing and mounting of pipes directed to reducing cycles of building and decreasing labour-intensiveness of pipeline works when carrying out ship-building orders.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2012-10-01

25

Abandonment of infusion in production workings in the Ruhr coalfield; Traenkverzicht in Gewinnungsbetrieben im Ruhrkarbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infusion of coal before extraction is a measure to reduce dust both from the point of view of health protection as well as fire and explosion protection. However, the effectiveness of infusion is higher in highly coalified sections of seams than in sections with low coalification. The highly effective dust suppression measures in the area of coal winning by cutting and stripping have meanwhile allowed the infusion effect to recede into the background, so that it is possible to dispense with this measure in seam areas with low coalification. It was proved in practical tests that the effectiveness of the infusion is no longer detectable, if optimised secondary dust suppression methods are used. Nowadays infusion work can be dispensed with in stratigraphically young seams during coal winning, if it is guaranteed that mining authority requirements to ensure lower dust pollution are met. (orig.)

Kadow, T.; Suedhofer, F. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany); Henke, B.

2004-03-18

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Estimation of work capacity of welded mounting joints of pipelines of heat resisting steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of a work capacity of circular welds made for the Dsub(y)850 pipeline connection with high pressure vessels of heat resisting steel of the 15Kh1NMFA type has been carried out on the base of test results with small samples and real units. Welds were performed using the manual electric arc welding without the following heat treatment. It has been shown that residual stresses in such welds do not produce an essential effect on the resistance of weld metal and heat affected zone on the formation and developments of cracks

27

O Abandono do Magistério: Vínculos e Rupturas com Trabalho Docente / L'abandon du Magistère: Liens et Ruptures Concernant le Travail de L'enseignant / Abandoning Teaching: Bounds and Ruptures Regarding the Teacher's Work  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo, acerca do abandono do trabalho docente por professores da rede estadual de ensino de São Paulo, se constitui em uma tentativa de delimitar e caracterizar um fenômeno - a evasão de professores - que vem se acentuando nos últimos anos e, também, de compreender sob um ângulo específico as [...] relações entre os vários determinantes desse fenômeno. Procura-se identificar, para além dos baixos salários e da desvalorização do professor, outros fatores presentes nessa rede de conexões que chamamos de processo de abandono e que é formada durante a vida profissional do professor. Ao centralizar-se na análise das histórias de vida profissional de ex-professores, busca-se, para além dos motivos - que podem estar determinados tanto pelas condições externas quanto pelas disposições internas do indivíduo ou, ainda, e mais provavelmente, por uma combinação de ambos - as formas como fatos e acontecimentos são percebidos e vivenciados por cada indivíduo e como se combinam dos mais diferentes modos para constituir o processo de abandono. Abstract in english This study deals with the teacher's abandoning of their jobs in the public educational system in São Paulo, Brazil. It is an attempt to describe and characterize this evasion of teachers which has been increasing over the last years. It aims at understanding the relationship of various determinants [...] involved in this phenomena from a particular perspective. We try to identify factors beyond low salaries and the social devaluation of the teacher's work. The factors we are after would compose what we call the abandoning process which we see as formed through-out the teacher's professional life. The actual reasons for the abandonment can be seen as external to the individuals or internal, or most likely, as a combination of the two. Nevertheless, by focusing on the analysis of ex-teacher's professional life stories, we seek something beyond these reasons, we seek the way in which the facts and events are perceived and experienced by each individual and how they are combined into a particular form to constitute the abandoning process.

Flavinês Rebolo, Lapo; Belmira Oliveira, Bueno.

28

Managing pipeline integrity - Planning for the future: Proceedings of the Banff/97 pipeline workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The management, safety and integrity of Canada`s pipeline infrastructure was the focus of this conference. Within this context, the latest developments and past experiences related to the design, construction, operation, testing, inspection, maintenance, repair and abandonment of pipelines were discussed. Stress corrosion, one of the major problems of the pipeline industry, was the subject of many of the presentations. Pipeline encroachment, land-use, right-of-way and abandonment also received attention. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

1997-07-01

29

Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: : Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO2 corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in Chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO2 corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO3 plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO3 is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO3. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO3. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO3 are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO2 corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11.

FosbØl, Philip Loldrup

2008-01-01

30

Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

31

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs

32

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and First Nations : Linkages : Working Paper No. 7.6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) will bring several employment opportunities for Yukon First Nations citizens. This paper presented some recommendations to maximize these employment benefits. The AHPP will cross the territory of 8 of the 14 Yukon First Nations. The current land selections through the Foothills route indicate that 202 km of the 832 km long pipeline will end up on First Nations land. The six channels of economic impact for First Nations include: (1) employment of First Nations citizens on pipeline construction and operation, (2) First Nation-owned business on pipeline construction, (3) employment of First Nations citizens in other Yukon businesses, (4) taxation, (5) availability of natural gas, and (6) additional services and infrastructure that will be incurred. 2 tabs., 1 fig

33

Work in Progress: Malleable Software Pipelines for Efficient Many-core System Utilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper details our current research project on the efficient utilization of many-core systems by utilizing applications based on a novel kind of software pipelines. These pipelines form malleable applications that can change their degree of parallelism at runtime. This allows not only for a well-balanced load, but also for an efficient distribution of the cores to the individual, competing applications to maximize the overall system performance. We are convinced that malleable software pi...

Jahn, Janmartin; Kobbe, Sebastian; Pagani, Santiago; Chen, Jian-jia; Henkel, Jo?rg

2012-01-01

34

Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO{sub 2} corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11. (au)

Loldrup Fosboel. P.

2007-10-15

35

Abandoned vehicles  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

36

National impact of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 6.1.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examined the economic impacts of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) for Canada. The proposed project will impact the economy through construction of the pipeline as well as through export of natural gas transmission services. Interest in Alaskan North Slope natural gas has been renewed because of the following 3 main factors: (1) the US energy policy is promoting cleaner burning fuels, particularly for power generation, (2) the recent winter price shocks for both oil and natural gas, and (3) the US effort to protect and guarantee energy supplies. The impact of northern gas and pipeline development was assessed with reference to the impact that spending will have on the Canadian economy. A standard macroeconomic impact model is employed, first by preparing a base case forecast of the economy, assuming that the project does not occur. Secondly, an impact case forecast of the economy was prepared assuming the pipeline is developed and operated. The third step of the procedure involved a comparison of impacts of the first and second procedures. The report presented direct, indirect and induced impacts. The Informetrica Model (TIM) of the national economy is used to obtain behavioural underpinning to the analysis. The model is very detailed in industry terms and links demands on the economy, output and employment of many industries, as well as costs and prices of industries and commodities in a consistent framework. Both the upside and the downside of the proposed pipeline were presented. 16 figs

37

A New Method of Piping Work by Freezing Fuel Oil to Repair a Fuel Oil Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

When a pipe is cut off to repair fuel oil pipelines, the oil has to be drained from the pipelines. If the oil inside the pipe is frozen at both sides of a cutting plane, it is not necessary to drain the oil from the pipelines. In the present paper, such a freezing method is studied analytically and experimentally to establish a suitable construction method, where liquid-nitrogen (LN2) is used as a coolant and fuel oil-C is used as a typical example. From the result, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the fuel oil-C in a low temperature range were measured as a function of temperature in addition to the pour point and glass transition point. Furthermore, in order to compare the agreement between analysis and experiment, an analytical method was performed under various conditions. Finally, temperatures in analytical values were agreed well with experimental ones, and suitable position and time for cutting are clarified.

Okada, Masashi; Tateno, Masayoshi; Minowa, Kazuki; Murayama, Kouichi

38

Arsenic input into the catchment of the River Caudal (Northwestern Spain) from abandoned Hg mining works: effect on water quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Asturias (NW Spain) there are many abandoned mines, of which Hg mines are of particular significance from an environmental point of view, due to the presence of Hg and particularly As, which is found either in the form of specific (orpiment and realgar) or non-specific minerals (As-rich pyrite). The instability of these minerals leads to the presence of As-rich mine drainage and spoils heap leachates that enter surface waters or groundwaters. A study including the three most important Hg mines in the region (La Soterraña, Los Rueldos and El Terronal) has been conducted. Watercourses flowing through these mining areas are tributaries of the River Caudal, one of the most important rivers in the area. High concentrations of As were found in some of these waters, which were monitored over a period of three hydrological years and classified according to a water quality index. Those waters sampled close to the mines are generally of poor-to-bad quality, with low alkalinity and in some cases high metal content, but the quality of these waters improves with distance from the mines. The average mass load of As entering the River Caudal has been evaluated as: 200, 12 and 9,800 kg year(-1) from La Soterraña, Los Rueldos and El Terronal mine sites, respectively. Despite the constant input of about 10 tonnes of As per year, the total As concentration remains below analytical detection thresholds on account of the river's high water flow. Nevertheless, an important part of this As load is presumably retained in the river sediments, representing a potential risk of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems. PMID:23990127

Ordoñez, A; Silva, V; Galán, P; Loredo, J; Rucandio, I

2014-04-01

39

A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

Saunders, C. [Informetrica Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2002-04-01

40

A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs

 
 
 
 
41

Pipe dreams : Post-pipeline development impacts : Working Paper No. 4.2.1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) could bring many opportunities to the Yukon, including introduction of natural gas into the local market, development of mining and smelting as well as expansion of other industrial development. This paper focused mostly on hypothetical developments that may be overlooked without a natural gas pipeline. In particular, it considers potential development and improvements in the mining and smelting industry that may benefit from the AHPP, natural gas distribution in Whitehorse, energy options and other industrial and business developments. Mining and smelting operations could have their marginal costs reduced with improved access to inexpensive electrical power generated by natural gas. The use of cogeneration facilities using natural gas could also help reduce operational expenses. Local access to natural gas will provide a range of alternatives for energy consumption from household appliances to district energy. The AHPP would also be associated with improved infrastructure, including roads and railroads, which would encourage further exploration of the resources within the Territory. 19 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

Lasota, M.; McCracken, M.C. [Informetrica Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2002-04-01

42

Effect of sensitization degree of Du-300 pipelines welded joints on RBMK RF Mafic working capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of structure, processing and operational factors on operational capability of Du-300 pipeline welded joints of steel type 08Kh18N10T in a multiple forced circulation coolant circuit is analyzed. It is stated that the time to crack initiation at standard water chemistry (WCh) is mainly dictated by the quality of the welded joint, primarily by maximal initial degree of sensitization for a near-weld zone (NWZ) of root of penetration. The WCh (oxygen concentration) has a pronounced effect on crack initiation under conditions of intergranular stress corrosion as well as on crack propagation rate only when the degree of sensitization in NWZ metal of root of joint and across the thickness of pipe exceeds 50 %

43

Why the Scientific Pipeline Is Still Leaking? Women Scientists and Their Work-Life Balance in Poland  

Science.gov (United States)

In the contemporary scholarly discourse, the under-representation of women in science is often explained by the phenomenon of women "in the pipeline". The pipeline carries a flow from one stage to another, and the flow of women diminishes between the stages. Based on the literature and qualitative studies, it can be inferred that one of…

Polkowska, Dominika

2014-01-01

44

Abandoned Texas oil fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

1980-12-01

45

Abandonment of atomic energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An exchange of open letters between an antagonist and a protagonist of atomic energy power generation. Following the reactor accident at Chernobyl, the first correspondent (H. Hubacher) suggests that energy conservation, together with additional emphasis on renewable energy sources, should permit abandonment of nuclear power without additional costs. He points to the costs of nuclear waste disposal, and to the statistical risks of future accidents. The other correspondent (M. Kohn) suggests that abandonment of nuclear power generation is proposed by special interests groups, and that alternative power generation from fossil fuels also poses dangers. He emphasises the enormous costs of abandoning nuclear energy. (G.M.E.)

46

Having views, abandoning views  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned.

Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

47

Abandoning the mentally ill.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mentally ill people have been avoided and abandoned by their families and public authorities for hundreds of years. Present day abandonment includes the deployment of professionals from patients to paper; the destruction of availability and effectiveness of institutional facilities; the obfuscation of mental illness by captious, sematic criticism; the aspirations of paramedical and paraprofessional groups; and the subordination of the primary purpose of institutions and physicians to other objectives. The nature of authority is discussed and the need for the treatment of mentally ill people to be based on the art and science of medicine, rather than the pretension and advocacy of the gullible, unqualified or unscrupulous, is noted. PMID:1062982

Barton, R

1975-12-01

48

Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gs expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

49

Capsule Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

Capsule pipelines are a kind of tube transportation that uses hydraulics or pneumatics as a means of propulsion. This topic is somewhat ambiguous, because capsule pipelines are not widely used and several definitions exist. This site attempts to clarify what they are and explains their potential as a viable, or even superior, form of transportation. It briefly gives some history of capsule pipeline use and describes how they can be used in modern society. An overview of the technology that drives them is provided. There is also a section that introduces capsule pipelines to children. Several links to news and publications about tube transportation and related topics are given in the library section.

2001-01-01

50

Planning for abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this series of papers is to address the pressing issues surrounding the concept of abandonment of Northern North Sea offshore production facilities and structural steel jackets. For many operators there is a notional idea that when you are finished with an offshore production facility and structural steel jackets, they merely sail away over the horizon never to be seen or heard of again, but the real world dictates otherwise. For those that operate today in the Northern North Sea there is perhaps a uniqueness in character related to the design, fabrication, installation and operation of these Northern North Sea offshore production facilities. Approaching now for many the reality of abandonment, removal and disposal of these facilities, the oil and gas industries must now also recognize that unique methodology requires to be developed for implementation to overcome this daunting task of abandonment. Innovative and lateral thinking being employed by those companies and individuals who have risen to take up the challenge to achieve the goals and objectives, developing the ultimate solution to this enormous problem facing the oil and gas industry today. Many common aspects and activities exist for operators to undertake jointly during the planning, engineering and the various implementation stages for this ultimate episode in field life

51

The DECam Community Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dark Energy Survey Project and NOAO have produced a world class, large format camera for the CTIO Blanco Telescope. This camera, called the Dark Energy Camera or DECam, with 62 CCDs and a ˜20 second readout is capable of producing a very large amount of data. NOAO and the DES Data Management (DESDM) team have worked together to develop a Community Pipeline (CP) to produce calibrated data products for community users (the DES has its own dedicated pipeline with the same or similar components). First light and commissioning occurred in the fall of 2012 and the camera and pipeline have had nearly a year of operation and evolution. The CP has recently reach a production level with good data quality products. This paper provides an overview of this DECam Community Pipeline.

Valdes, F.; Gruendl, R.; DES Project

2014-05-01

52

Proceedings of the 10. Banff pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum for discussing issues related to the integrity and safety of pipeline infrastructure. The workshop reviewed state-of-the-art technologies and techniques in pipeline design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance. New areas and initiatives for pipeline research and development were identified along with methods of optimizing pipeline industry communication networks and enhancing the pipeline integrity management process. The workshop included tutorials related to the management of pipeline integrity. The workshop was then divided into 12 working groups: (1) issues for managers; (2) regulatory developments; (3) upstream pipelines, inspection, corrosion and integrity management; (4) design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; (5) management of stress corrosion cracking; (6) protective coatings; (7) pipeline risk management; (8) inspection tools; (9) external corrosion; (10) internal corrosion; (11) facilities integrity management; and (12) managing geotechnical hazards. A closing plenary session discussed developments in Canadian Standards Agency (CSA) pipeline standards development processes. All 12 working group sessions have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cameron, G. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lee, S. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Saad, Z. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

53

77 FR 27048 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment...  

Science.gov (United States)

...CP12-106-000] Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice...abandonment of facilities by Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (TGP) in...of 24- inch-diameter natural gas pipeline, known as Line 254J-200,...

2012-05-08

54

OPGN approach to SSC abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abandonment of equipment is a fact of life for an aging nuclear station. Whether this equipment is no longer needed, cannot be removed during a modification, remains in place due to economic considerations or other reasons, the continued existence of abandoned equipment poses design, maintenance and operational challenges for the remaining life of the station. Operational Experience has shown a number of incidents when improperly abandoned equipment or system has resulted in significant safety events. This presentation cites some real life examples to highlight the importance of properly abandoning equipment and discusses a proposed methodology.

55

OPGN approach to SSC abandonment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Abandonment of equipment is a fact of life for an aging nuclear station. Whether this equipment is no longer needed, cannot be removed during a modification, remains in place due to economic considerations or other reasons, the continued existence of abandoned equipment poses design, maintenance and operational challenges for the remaining life of the station. Operational Experience has shown a number of incidents when improperly abandoned equipment or system has resulted in significant safety events. This presentation cites some real life examples to highlight the importance of properly abandoning equipment and discusses a proposed methodology.

Albert, G. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

2011-07-01

56

Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

57

Abandoned vehicles - Reminder  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

58

Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

59

Abandoned vehicles REMINDER  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

60

23 CFR 752.10 - Abandoned vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned vehicles. 752.10 Section 752.10 Highways...LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.10 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Abandoned motor vehicles may be removed from...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
61

27 CFR 478.59 - Abandoned application.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned application. 478.59 Section 478...AMMUNITION Licenses § 478.59 Abandoned application. Upon receipt of...application shall be considered as having been abandoned and the license fee returned....

2010-04-01

62

75 FR 13342 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0084] Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Distribution Pipeline Construction AGENCY: Pipeline and...

2010-03-19

63

25 CFR 248.8 - Abandoned property.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned property. 248.8 Section 248...IN-LIEU FISHING SITES § 248.8 Abandoned property. No vehicle, trailer, boat, or other personal property shall be abandoned on the sites. Property abandoned...

2010-04-01

64

77 FR 58366 - Dominion South Pipeline Company, L.P.; Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

...Dominion South Pipeline Company, L.P.; Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP; Notice of Applications Take...requesting authorization to abandon by sale to Gulf Shore Energy Partners, LP (Gulf Shore) certain facilities in Matagorday County,...

2012-09-20

65

On the influence of the UOE forming process on material properties and collapse pressure of deep water pipelines: experimental work  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large diameter pipes for onshore and offshore applications are manufactured using the UOE process. The manufacturing process consists in the cold forming of heavy plates followed by welding and then by an expansion. It has been demonstrated in previous work that, for deep water applications, the cold forming process involved in UOE pipe manufacturing significantly reduces pipe collapse strength. To improve the understanding of these effects, Tenaris has embarked on a program to model the phases of the UOE manufacturing process using finite element methods. Previous phases of this work formulated the basis for the model development and described the 2D approach taken to model the various steps of manufacture. More recent developments included modeling enhancements, some sensitivity analyses, and comparison of predictions to the results of full-scale collapse testing performed at C FER. This work has shown correlations between manufacturing parameters and collapse pressure predictions. The results of the latest phase of the research program are presented in this paper. This work consists of full scale collapse testing and extensive coupon testing on samples collected from various stages of the UOE pipe manufacturing process including plate, UO, UOE, and thermally aged UOE. Four UOE pipe samples manufactured with varying forming parameters were provided by Tenaris for this test program along with associated plate and UO samples. Full-scale collapse and buckle propagation tests were conducted on a sample from each of the four UOE pipes including one that was thermally aged. Additional coupon-scale work included measurement of the through thickness variation of material properties and a thermal ageing study aimed at better understanding UOE pipe strength recovery. The results of these tests will provide the basis for further refinement of the finite element model as the program proceeds into the next phase. (author)

Timms, Chris; Swanek, Doug; DeGeer, Duane [C-FER Technologies, Alberta (Canada); Mantovano, Luciano O. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ernst, Hugo A. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Structural Integrity Dept.; Toscano, Rita G. [SIM y TEC, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Souza, Marcos P.; Chad, Luis C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

2009-07-01

66

Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate inspection techniques are needed to ensure the integrity of pipelines. This working group discussed methods of reducing pipeline failures for a variety of pipes. A summary of recent pipeline performance statistics was presented, as well as details of third party damage and fiberglass pipe failures. A batch inhibitor joint industry project was described. The session demonstrated that integrity program need to be developed at the field-level as well as at the upper management level. Fiberglass pipeline failures are significant problem for pipeline operators. Corrosion monitoring, pigging and specific budgets are needed in order to ensure the successful management of pipeline integrity. New software developed to predict pipeline corrosion rates was discussed, and methods of determining mole fractions and flow regimes were presented. The sessions included updates from regulators and standards agencies as well as discussions of best practices, regulations, codes and standards related to pipeline integrity. The working group was divided into 4 sessions: (1) updates since 2007 with input from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA); (2) integrity of non-metallic pipelines; (3) upstream pipeline integrity issues; and (4) hot topics. tabs., figs.

Paez, J.; Stephenson, M. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

67

Effort problem of chemical pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

1998-12-31

68

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

2005-07-20

69

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

70

Wave reworking of abandoned deltas  

Science.gov (United States)

deltas and individual delta lobes frequently face reduction of sediment supply, either from the geologic process of river avulsion or, more recently, due to human activities such as river damming. Using a process-based shoreline evolution model, we investigate wave reworking of delta shorelines after fluvial input elimination. Model results suggest that littoral sediment transport can result in four characteristic modes of delta abandonment, ranging from diffusional smoothing of the delta (or delta lobe) to the development of recurved spits. A straightforward analysis of delta shape and wave characteristics provides a framework for predicting the mode of delta abandonment. The observed morphologies of historically abandoned delta lobes, including those of the Nile, Ebro, and Rhone rivers, fit within this framework. Our results provide quantitative insight into the potential evolution of active delta environments in light of future extreme reduction of fluvial sediment input.

Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.; Giosan, Liviu

2013-11-01

71

76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...titled: ``Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines'' seeking comments on...the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines. PHMSA has received...

2011-11-16

72

PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

2005-03-14

73

Abandoning nuclear energy, a total industrial absurdity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandoning of nuclear energy can not be considered without economic and social damages, it would amplify the des-industrialization process of France and would spoil its energy independence and would mean a step backwards in terms of world strategy. In France the nuclear sector gives work to a total of 410.000 people and generates a total added value of 33 billions euros each year. It would make no sense to stop an activity whose perspective is promising: a lot of reactors in the world will need soon maintenance, upgrading or replacement. (A.C.)

74

Who abandons embryos after IVF?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

Walsh, A P H

2010-04-01

75

Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

76

32 CFR 636.31 - Abandoned vehicles.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Abandoned vehicles. 636.31 Section 636...Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.31 Abandoned vehicles. (a) Any MP or DOD police...vehicle which has been left unattended or abandoned on a street, road, highway,...

2010-07-01

77

27 CFR 555.48 - Abandoned application.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandoned application. 555.48 Section 555... Licenses and Permits § 555.48 Abandoned application. Upon receipt of...application will be considered as having been abandoned and the license or permit fee...

2010-04-01

78

38 CFR 3.158 - Abandoned claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned claims. 3.158 Section 3.158...Indemnity Compensation Claims § 3.158 Abandoned claims. (a) General. Except...request, the claim will be considered abandoned. After the expiration of 1...

2010-07-01

79

The LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) for radio astronomy is being built in the Netherlands by ASTRON, with extensions throughout Europe. LOFAR operates at radio frequencies below 250 MHz. The project is an interferometric array of radio antennas grouped into stations that are distributed over an area of hundreds of kilometers. LOFAR will revolutionise low-frequency radio astronomy. Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipeline is being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computation capabilities (˜ 50 Tflops) and data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing additional transient pipelines.

Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

2010-12-01

80

Python Bindings for the Common Pipeline Library  

Science.gov (United States)

The Common Pipeline Library is a set of routines written by ESO to provide a standard interface for VLT instrument data reduction tasks (“pipelines”). To control these pipelines from Python, we developed a wrapper called PYTHON-CPL that allows one to conveniently work interactively and to process data as part of an automated data reduction system. The package will be used to implement the MUSE pipeline in the AstroWISE data management system. We describe the features and design of the package.

Streicher, O.; Weilbacher, P. M.

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
81

Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are "foreground-mask sampling" to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and "selective tracking" to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

Chang Jing-Ying

2010-01-01

82

Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ''Impact Hypothesis'' uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

83

Utilisation of geothermal heat in abandoned mines. Examples from the Aachen coal district; Nutzung von Erdwaerme in aufgelassenen Bergwerken. Beispiel Aachener Steinkohlenrevier  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For the Aachen coal district, a feasibility study was carried out in order to clarify basic problems relating to geothermal heat utilisation in abandoned mines. Abandoned or flooded mines are highly suitable locations for geothermal heat supply from medium depths (100 - 1500 m) as the broken rock enables intensive heat exchange between rock and water and the available shafts and pipelines can be utilized. (orig.)

Clauser, C. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehr- und Forschungsgebiet fuer Angewandte Geophysik; Geophysica Beratungsgesellschaft mbH, Stolberg (Germany); Heitfeld, M.; Rosner, P. [Ingenieurbuero Heitfeld-Schetelig GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Sahl, H. [EBV Aktiengesellschaft, Herzogenrath (Germany). Bereich Bergbaufolgearbeiten - Umwelt; Schetelig, K. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie; Ingenieurbuero Heitfeld-Schetelig GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

2005-06-01

84

Piko: A Design Framework for Programmable Graphics Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present Piko, a design framework for designing efficient programmable graphics pipelines. Piko is built around managing work granularity in a programmable and flexible manner, allowing programmers to build load-balanced parallel pipeline implementations, to exploit spatial and producer-consumer locality in the pipeline, and to explore tradeoffs between these considerations. Piko programmers describe a pipeline as a series of stages factored into AssignBin, Schedule, and P...

Patney, Anjul; Tzeng, Stanley; Seitz Jr, Kerry A.; Owens, John D.

2014-01-01

85

ORAC-DR: A generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure  

CERN Document Server

ORAC-DR is a general purpose data reduction pipeline system designed to be instrument and observatory agnostic. The pipeline works with instruments as varied as infrared integral field units, imaging arrays and spectrographs, and sub-millimeter heterodyne arrays & continuum cameras. This paper describes the architecture of the pipeline system and the implementation of the core infrastructure. We finish by discussing the lessons learned since the initial deployment of the pipeline system in the late 1990s.

Jenness, Tim

2014-01-01

86

Coal slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal slurry pipelining is emerging as an economical alternative to unit trains for long distance, large capacity trnasportation of coal. This report reviews the technical and economic aspects of coal slurry pipelines and proposes a versatile and reliable technoeconomic model for evaluating their capital and operating costs. The model is used to illustrate the economic advantages of single-source/multiple-destination pipelines over the single-source/single-destination pipelines and to make an economic comparison of conventional coal slurry pipelines to coal slurry-fuel pipelines.

Ugursal, V.I.

1986-12-01

87

Abandonment (field decommissioning): The legal requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main areas to be considered in relation to the abandonment of offshore installations are: (1) the legal requirements to be imposed in relation to abandonment, this will include consideration of English, Norwegian and Dutch law as well as international law; (2) how licensees may protect themselves against joint and several liability for performance of their legal obligations in relation to abandonment by the provision of security; and (3) consideration of practical examples of abandonment such as the abandonment of the Piper Alpha platform on the UK continental shelf and the K13-D platform on the Dutch continental shelf. This paper considers only abandonment of offshore installations as very different considerations apply onshore and applies only to Europe, though the international treaties will also apply elsewhere

88

Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline  

CERN Document Server

Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

2007-01-01

89

Scope of current abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry, such as well sites, batteries, gas plants, compressor stations, and pipelines, were discussed. Responsibilities of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for informing the Canadian public about energy and environmental issues on behalf of the upstream petroleum industry were reviewed. Industry regulators and those who have jurisdiction over the abandonment of facilities were identified. In Alberta, the main agencies are the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Alberta Environmental Protection, and Alberta Food and Rural Development in addition to the National Energy Board and Indian Oil and Gas Canada. At the end of 1995, 160,000 wells had been drilled in Alberta of which 60,000 are still active, 35,000 are suspended and 70,000 wells have been abandoned. The industry-financed Orphan Well Program was established to provide funds for facility abandonment, decontamination and surface reclamation costs associated with orphaned facilities. CAPP agrees that operators of oil and gas facilities must be held responsible and accountable for the abandonment of their facilities. CAPP is looking for support from government to ensure that enforcement actions limit the number of orphan facilities. tabs., figs

90

Root Causes of Project Abandonment in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the root causes of project abandonment in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were distributed to targeted officials playing a role in the administration of project management in the Institutions, namely, bursars, internal auditors, directors of works, directors of physical planning, quantity surveyors in the physical planning and works Units. Four hundred and seventy five completed questionnaires returned were analyzed and tested using relative important index (R.I.I. and simple percentages. The result from the study showed that the root causes of project abandonment in tertiary Institutions in Nigeria like any other government establishment are, the lack of articulated vision and objectives, lack of adequate planning for the project at inception, lack of adequate funds and budgetary allocation before projects are embarked upon, Inefficient and effective legal system, poor contract documentation, corruption and compromises, lack of municipal services, non release of government white papers on investigations carried out on abandonment of projects, lack of true leadership, lack of continuity and Institutions’ long term strategic plans to drive the Institutions, ambiguity in contract documentations. The study concludes that any reason for project abandonment can be related directly or remotely to compromises on the above root causes.

Uket E. Ewa

2013-10-01

91

Permafrost and terrain research and monitoring: Norman Wells pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The 869-km Norman Wells pipeline is the first completely buried oil pipeline in the discontinous permafrost zone in northern Canada. The pipeline project is subject to the principle of minimum practicable environmental and land use disturbance for all aspects from planning to abandonment. Permafrost and terrain monitoring was established to evaluate impacts and identify improvements for this and future projects. Major aspects of the monitoring program include examining thermal and terrain conditions at 23 instrumented sites, regular observations of overall right-of-way conditions, and reviewing the performance of wood chip insulation on thaw-sensitive slopes. The environmental and engineering considerations related to the pipeline design are summarized, including permafrost distribution and soil/vegetation regions, route selection and characterization, thaw settlement and frost heave phenomena, slopes and water crossings, drainage and erosion control measures, and revegetation of rights-of-way. The procedures used in constructing the pipeline from 1983 to 1985 are also described. A comparison is also made with other northern pipelines, notably the Trans-Alaska oil pipeline. 149 refs., 21 figs., 34 tabs.

MacInnes, K.L.; Burgess, M.M.; Harry, D.G.; Baker, T.H.W.

1989-12-01

92

Problems of NPP pipeline mounting improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of improving the quality of technical documents on NPP pipeline mounting are discussed. It is concluded that the time of a power unit coming into commission often depends on timely issue of working drawings

93

Geotechnical risks affecting pipelines : the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geotechnical management practices for pipelines can minimize the risk of accidents caused by hazards such as landslides, foundation subsidence, settlement and erosion. This paper summarized the geotechnical risks affecting pipelines and presented some examples of practical work done by Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto (TBG) along the longest pipeline in South America, the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline. TBG is also responsible for the maintenance and operation of the 2593 km long pipeline which spans from Rio Grande in Bolivia to Canoas in southern Brazil. The pipeline crosses a range of difficult topography where both natural and human hazards can lead to high stress levels that can reach the steel yield strength limit and result in ruptures. The traction, compression, inflection or strain depend on the direction of the movement and the pipe position. The area most prone to geotechnical hazards is in the south due to its hard topography and a variety of geological materials such as colluvium deposits and debris flows. The right-of-way geotechnical risks that affect the pipeline were presented along with some of the practical remedial work that has been done by TBG along the pipeline route. The integrity management plans and the adopted actions that prevent geotechnical accidents were also presented. It was concluded that geotechnical hazard mapping should be emphasized in the planning phase of pipelines. New technologies such as the GEOPIG inspection tool combes such as the GEOPIG inspection tool combined with traditional preventive measures can effectively detect landslide areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

94

Microsoft Word - WFD - GW - 11 - Chemical point source pressures - mine workings.DOC  

...Northern Ireland has over 2000 abandoned mine workings mostly dating from...responsibility for reviewing safety at abandoned mines. Their survey of such...sites. A representative selection of abandoned mine sites where GSNI inspections...

95

Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

96

Experimental Study of Oil Pipeline Leak Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work provides a description of oil leak/spill processes from containment such as pipeline. Understanding of such processes is important in order to adequately estimate oil spills and to justify an appropriate emergency action for minimizing spills. Internal diameters of pipes used in the study are within 4 inches. Leaks are simulated from plastic pipeline oil containment fitted with valves. The leak response with time when upstream and downstream valves are operated is studied. Within the internal diameters of pipelines considered in the tests, two ranges of leak characteristics are evident; the “holding range” and the “flowing range” characteristics. The consequences of these characteristics in the oil industry operations have been discussed. The work suggests a spill estimation method based on this knowledge. Furthermore, in order to minimise spill in event of pipeline failure, it is observed that the optimum action on pipeline operational valves, is the immediate closure of upstream valve, followed by the downstream valve, nearly simultaneously. Future work will extend the test to larger diameter pipelines to attempt developing a mathematical approach for estimating limits of the “holding range” characteristics of pipelines given appropriate parameters and in-field test.

Bilstad Torleiv

2012-07-01

97

Alaska Pipeline Insulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude oil moving through the 800-mile Trans-Alaska Pipeline must be kept at a relatively high temperature, about 180 degrees Fahrenheit, to maintain the fluidity of the oil. In Arctic weather, that demands highly effective insulation. General Electric Co.'s Space Division, Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, provided it with a spinoff product called Therm-O-Trol. Shown being installed on the pipeline, Therm-O-Trol is a metal-bonded polyurethane foam especially formulated for Arctic insulation. A second GE spinoff product, Therm-O-Case, solved a related problem involved in bringing hot crude oil from 2,000-foot-deep wells to the surface without transferring oil heat to the surrounding permafrost soil; heat transfer could melt the frozen terrain and cause dislocations that might destroy expensive well casings. Therm-O-Case is a double-walled oil well casing with multi-layered insulation which provides an effective barrier to heat transfer. Therm-O-Trol and Therm-O-Case are members of a family of insulating products which stemmed from technology developed by GE Space Division in heat transferlthermal control work on Gemini, Apollo and other NASA programs.

1979-01-01

98

Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

99

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

100

Children Abandoned in Long-Stay Hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 68 children from 5 British hospitals were studied in a project designed to provide more information about the extent of the problem of children abandoned in hospitals and to assess the effects of the abandonment on the child. The researchers a...

C. Hood

1976-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ? We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ? We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ? We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ? We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, whe regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

102

Structural design of HPHT pipelines - new guideline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High pressure/High Temperature pipelines are characterised from structural point of view by high expansion forces. This may cause Global buckling (or Euler buckling). Design codes often have only functional requirements to global buckling but no calculation procedures or specific design criteria. The guideline on Structural design of HP/HT pipelines will be issued as a public DNV-RP-F110 later this year approaches the design challenges in a systematic manner for three scenarios: exposed pipeline on even seabed; exposed pipelines on un-even seabed; and Buried pipeline. Safety factors are determined based on the sensitivity in moment response from different input parameters. By use of the Recommended Practice, significant reduction in intervention work may be achieved, leaving pipelines exposed on the seabed with spot rock dumping only. This will be even more important for deeper water where intervention work is extremely costly combined with even higher temperatures and pressure. The Recommended Practice on structural design of HP/HT pipelines may even provide feasible and economic solutions to high pressure/high temperature and ultra deep water projects previously classified as non-feasible. The RP is the outcome of a Joint Industry Project called Hotpipe initiated by Statoil and later also sponsored by several oil companies. (author)

Collberg, Leif [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Levold, Erik [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

2005-07-01

103

Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 3 discussed issues regarding the inspection, corrosion and integrity management of upstream oil and gas pipelines. It entailed 7 sessions in which issues from the 2005 symposium were reviewed with particular reference to aging pipelines, new materials and inspection of construction. Working Group 3 also discussed internal corrosion monitoring; inline inspection; topical issues; integrity issues for upstream pipeline operators as stipulated in the Canadian Standards Association's Annex N; and non-metallic pipelines. The effect of metallurgy on localized corrosion and localized pitting corrosion was discussed along with corrosion rates and the need for absolute numbers. Solids deposition in oil pipelines versus gas pipelines were reviewed along with probability and reliability based modelling. Carbon dioxide flooding and sequestration was also discussed, with reference to internal monitoring through the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE). It was recommended that the industry could benefit from an unbiased database of failures and that the coordination of product testing would be useful. In this regard, a specification by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers would be useful for manufacturers and installers. tabs., figs.

Grzyb, D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); McDonald, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Goodfellow, R. [Pangea, Calgary, AB (Canada); Abels, T. [SemCAMS, Calgary, AB (Canada); Jack, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hallihan, M. [Skystone International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Husky Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

104

The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that university students abandon a healthy lifestyle mainly due to external barriers particularly because of lack of time. On the one hand, women appear to be the ones who, to a great extent, adopt a sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, men are the ones who refer more to abandoning the practice of physical activity due to internal barriers. The majority of the university students gave up practicing sport before entering university alluding to external barriers as their reason for the abandonment. A greater part of the sedentary university students expressing that they will be active in the future, left the practice of sport due to internal barriers.

Manuel Gómez-López

2011-08-01

105

30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57.4011 Mineral...Prevention and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and isolated so...

2010-07-01

106

30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56.4011 Mineral...Prevention and Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and isolated so...

2010-07-01

107

50 CFR 28.41 - Impoundment of abandoned property.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment of abandoned property. 28.41 Section 28.41 Wildlife...Impoundment Procedures § 28.41 Impoundment of abandoned property. Any property abandoned or left unattended without authority on...

2010-10-01

108

7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Application or certificate abandoned. 97.104 Section 97.104 Agriculture...97.104 Application or certificate abandoned. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...the application shall be considered abandoned. (b) Upon request by the...

2010-01-01

109

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section...EACH STATE INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the...

2010-07-01

110

30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 57.4011 Section 57... Fire Prevention and Control § 57.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized and...

2010-07-01

111

36 CFR 13.45 - Unattended or abandoned property.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.45 Section 13.45...Provisions § 13.45 Unattended or abandoned property. (a) This section...prohibited and subject to impoundment and, if abandoned, disposal or forfeiture....

2010-07-01

112

17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230...General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings. Preliminary Note...Regulation D (§ 230.506). (b) Abandoned private offering followed by a...

2010-04-01

113

36 CFR 13.906 - Unattended or abandoned property.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Unattended or abandoned property. 13.906 Section 13.906...General Provisions § 13.906 Unattended or abandoned property. Leaving unattended and abandoned property along the road corridor, at...

2010-07-01

114

30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits. 56.4011 Section 56... Fire Prevention and Control § 56.4011 Abandoned electric circuits. Abandoned electric circuits shall be deenergized...

2010-07-01

115

19 CFR 158.44 - Disposition of abandoned merchandise.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disposition of abandoned merchandise. 158.44 Section 158.44...FROM DUTIES ON MERCHANDISE LOST, DAMAGED, ABANDONED, OR EXPORTED Destroyed, Abandoned, or Exported Merchandise § 158.44...

2010-04-01

116

39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946.11 Section 946.11 Postal Service...946.11 Disposition of property declared abandoned. Property declared abandoned, including cash, and proceeds from...

2010-07-01

117

32 CFR 635.31 - Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. 635.31...Offense Reporting § 635.31 Lost, abandoned, or unclaimed property. This...the owner. Property is considered to be abandoned only after diligent...

2010-07-01

118

37 CFR 2.66 - Revival of abandoned applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Revival of abandoned applications. 2.66 Section 2...by Applicants § 2.66 Revival of abandoned applications. (a) The applicant may file a petition to revive an application abandoned because the applicant did not...

2010-07-01

119

Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

Wiedemann, Karsten

2010-11-15

120

Pipeline risk assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Risk assessments and risk analysis are system-wide activities that include site-specific risk and reliability-based decision-making, implementation, and monitoring. This working group discussed the risk management process in the pipeline industry, including reliability-based integrity management and risk control processes. Attendants at the group discussed reliability-based decision support and performance measurements designed to support corporate risk management policies. New developments and technologies designed to optimize risk management procedures were also presented. The group was divided into 3 sessions: (1) current practice, strengths and limitations of system-wide risk assessments for facility assets; (2) accounting for uncertainties to assure safety; and (3) reliability based excavation repair criteria and removing potentially unsafe corrosion defects. Presentations of risk assessment procedures used at various companies were given. The role of regulators, best practices, and effective networking environments in ensuring the success of risk assessment policies was discussed. Risk assessment models were also reviewed.

Kariyawasam, S. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Weir, D. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

122

Pipeline to nowhere?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Northern Gateway Pipeline project developed by Enbridge is a project to construct a 1,170km long pipeline connecting Alberta's oilsands to British Columbia's Pacific coast. This pipeline would be able to transport bitumen to the Pacific coast for it to be shipped to Asia and California via oil tankers. Enbridge has completed an application for permission to build this pipeline and a federal Joint Review Panel is reviewing the application in terms of economic, technical and financial feasibility. This paper, written by the Pembina Institute, a non-profit organization promoting sustainable energy solutions, highlights some remaining questions about the project. It points out that Enbridge did not demonstrate that there is demand or need for this pipeline since the export pipeline to the United States is not operating at full capacity at the moment. The Pembina Institute recommends that the Joint Review Panel not start public hearings until Enbridge has answered those questions.

123

Impact Against Offshore Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Impact against offshore pipelines is investigated in this thesis. Introductory low velocity experiments on pipeline specimens using the stretch bending rig at the Department of Structural Engineering, NTNU, were carried out. A wedge shaped indenter, previously used for impact tests on similar pipelines, were used to subject pipes to bending. The experimental set-up allowed for application of axial loads and inner pressure to pipes during bending. This thesis is a continuation of three previou...

Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

2013-01-01

124

The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline  

CERN Document Server

Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computational capabilities (50Tflops) to process data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing the LOFAR Pulsar Search Pipeline. These LOFAR pipelines and software tools are being developed as the next gen...

Alexov, A; Mol, J D; Stappers, B; van Leeuwen, J

2010-01-01

125

Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

126

Total pipeline integrity. Greater productivity from aging or underrated pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The save operation of pipelines or pipeline networks and managing their integrity requires a lot more than just controlling the flow of the product in the pipe(s). Besides the efforts for the daily routine work of the dispatcher(s) in the control centre, many more activities take place, that are directly or indirectly connected with the operation of the pipelines. With more and more, former state owned, operator- and transportation-companies being privatised on one hand, and the necessity to reduce the cost of pipeline operation in private companies on the other hand, the question of costs effective pipeline integrity management steps into the foreground. PII Pipeline Solutions has performed the next logical step and introduced the ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' concept to support its customers even better. The paper outlines the essentials of PII's new philosophy by explaining the roots and basics of ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' as well as showing examples how customers have benefitted from this concept in the past and will do so in the future. (orig.)

Kuhn, A. [PII Pipetronix, Stutensee (Germany)

2003-06-01

127

Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

128

GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR LOCATING ABANDONED WELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

A preliminary study of the feasibility of using geophysical exploration methods to locate abandoned wells containing steel casing indicated that magnetic methods promise to be effective and that some electrical techniques might be useful as auxiliary methods. Ground magnetic meas...

129

A comparative analysis of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims and Methods: A comparative study of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children was conducted in La Paz, Bolivia, representing the first such comparative assessment. Between August and December 1997, all abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia, who were willing to participate (n = 124) were interviewed repeatedly at night using standardised questionnaires to collect information on family history, demographics, socioeconomics, drug use, and physical/sexual abuse....

Huang, C.; Barreda, P.; Mendoza, V.; Guzman, L.; Gilbert, P.

2004-01-01

130

Managing Abandoned Farmland: The Need to Link Biological and Sociological Aspects  

Science.gov (United States)

The lack of a particular use associated with abandoned farmland provides real opportunities with respect to the various land-use pressures occurring in productive territories. These environments remain generally poorly known and, because of this, require in-depth studies on the feasibility of management options, on biological as well as social grounds. This study, based on research on the biophysical potential and the perceptions by the owners of abandoned farmlands, analyzes the feasibility of silvicultural management options to improve forestry potential. Using a questionnaire, we surveyed abandoned farmland owners on different aspects of the status of their abandoned farmland in order to determine their willingness toward the management of these private lands. The land owners were also asked to express their interests and their constraints toward various types of interventions, with an emphasis on silvicultural work. The data were analyzed using multivariate methods to establish relationships between the questionnaire data and the characteristics of the land owners (socioeconomic profile and value system toward the environment). The results show that, in general, abandoned farmland is an unwanted space, is generally little used, is poorly known, and has little importance in the plans of its owners. We have found three types of owner profiles; the owners with a farmer’s profile are those who are the most interested in managing their abandoned farmland, whether for agriculture or silviculture. The desire to improve abandoned farmland seems less important to owners with an ecocentric profile (high awareness of the environment) and to older owners. Finally, by associating the type of abandoned farmland owned and the characteristics of the owners, it is possible to propose different management options that reconcile the wishes of the owners as well as the biophysical potential of their abandoned farmland.

Benjamin, Karyne; Bouchard, André; Domon, Gérald

2008-10-01

131

The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

132

The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

1988-12-01

133

Pipeline transport of biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry was determined. In a practical application of field delivery by truck of biomass to a pipeline inlet, the pipeline will only be economical at large capacity ( >0.5 million dry t/yr for a one-way pipeline, and >1.25 million dry t/yr for a two-way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances ( >75 km [one-way] and >470 km [two-way] at a capacity of 2 million dry t/yr). Mixed hardwood and softwood chips in western Canada rise in moisture level from about 50% to 67% when transported in water; the loss in lower heating value (LHV) would preclude the use of water slurry pipelines for direct combustion applications. The same chips, when transported in a heavy gas oil, take up as much as 50% oil by weight and result in a fuel that is >30% oil on mass basis and is about two-thirds oil on a thermal basis. Uptake of water by straw during slurry transport is so extreme that it has effectively no LHV. Pipeline-delivered biomass could be used in processes that do not produce contained water as a vapor, such as supercritical water gasification. PMID:15054194

Kumar, Amit; Cameron, Jay B; Flynn, Peter C

2004-01-01

134

Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

Millán R.

2013-04-01

135

Pipeline AC mitigation misconceptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed methods of mitigating the impact of AC voltages on nearby pipelines. Various standards have been established to protect personnel from the electrical hazards of pipelines exposed to AC voltages. Pipelines are susceptible to corrosion when soil resistivity is less than 15,000 Ohm cm. AC corrosion is a function of AC current density and the coating holiday geometry, and an AC current density threshold must be established as part of an effective mitigation system. Most calculation methods for AC mitigation do not distinguish between pipe voltages. Distributed grounding and gradient control mats can be used at pipeline appurtenances when induced voltages exceed 15 V. Fault shields can also be used to reduce coating stress on pipelines near faulted towers. The study concluded by stating that adherence to voltage stress limits for fault conditions can result in the over-design of AC mitigation systems. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Gummow, R.A.; Segall, S.M.; Fieltsch, W. [Correng Consulting Service Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

136

Using Self-Organizing Maps Approach to Pipeline Localization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to detect and follow the pipeline in sonar imagery. This work is performed in two steps. The first is to split an image (first experiment) or an transformed line image of pipeline image (second experiment) into regions of uniform texture using the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix Method (GLCM). The second addresses the unsupervised learning method based on the Artificial Neural Networks (Self-Organizing Map or SOM) used for determining the comparative model of pipeline...

Puttipipatkajorn, Amornrit; Jouvencel, Bruno; Salgado-jimenez, Tomas

2003-01-01

137

75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0421] Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

2010-01-26

138

Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV, published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

Klaus Maas

2007-06-01

139

Pipeline Drag Reducers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

140

Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

 
 
 
 
141

Bowen Basin gas pipeline conceptual study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted in two parts: A feasibility study of pipeline options, conducted by Gutteridge Haskins & Davey; An assessment of seam gas reserves, conducted by CSIRO Exploration & Mining. The first part reviews the alternative pipeline scenarios available for connecting Townsville to the existing pipeline infrastructure currently supplying gas to Gladstone (Duke State Gas Pipeline). The routes reviewed included the proposed PNG pipeline route, which runs slightly inland between Townsville and Gladstone, and two alternative routes to Townsville from either Rolleston or Moura. The second part assesses potential gas reserves. The supply of high concentration methane from Bowen Basin underground coal mines in the period to 2012 is predicted to be 4011 Mm{sup 3} (154.8 PJ) for the 'business as usual' coal production case. Potential annual pipeline production will trend upwards through to 2012, due to increased coal production and mines working deeper, gassier seams. This anticipates raw coal production from all underground mines in the Bowen Basin will reach 60 million tonnes per year in 2012, which continues the recent historical growth rate of coal production.

Paul Bilston; Cliff Mallett

2001-04-01

142

Severe service ball valves for high pressure slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Severe Service Ball Valves are a critical component in the design of high pressure slurry pipelines. Compared to conventional oil and gas pipelines, the transportation of mineral slurries at high pressure is a modern technology. This advanced technology would not be possible if valve manufacturers were not able to design and provide equipment that can function with high pressure abrasive fluids. The design of slurry pipelines has become more complicated due to the use of sophisticated controls, varying types of minerals, increased sizes and higher pressures. All of these complexities have challenged valve and actuator manufacturers who need to work closely with the pipeline design companies to find cost-effective and viable solutions. Using examples from existing slurry pipeline operations; this paper examines how high pressure slurry ball valves have become an important component in the successful design, construction and operations of slurry pipelines throughout the world. (author)

Harrison, Malcolm J. [Valvtechnologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

143

History of abandoned infants in Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

Maria Athanasopoulou

2010-01-01

144

Technologies for sectional trenchless repair of water discharge pipelines ?????????? ???????? ?????????????? ??????? ????????????? ?????????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article represents an overview and analysis of trenchless technologies used to provide for the leak resistance and strength of dilapidated sections of pipelines made of ceramics, cast iron, asbestos cement and other materials. Sectional pipeline repair technologies, considered by the authors, include those for the repair of loose joints of straight sections of pipelines and loose joints in the points of connection to secondary pipelines. Technologies analyzed by the authors also include those applied for the restoration of pipe shell cracks. Organic resins and bandages are to be used as repair materials.Besides, the authors provide detailed descriptions of the composition and properties of pumping resins injected into pipe cracks to restore the structural strength of pipelines and to assure their further reliable operation.Moreover, the authors assess the basic strengths of the bandage technology, including its low cost, low time consumption, and suitability to various types of pipeline damages (depressurization of joints, cracks, leaks, etc.. Besides, this method does not require any excavations, trenches, hoists or other machines.In particular, sections of underground pipelines, having diameters of 150 – 180 mm, may be repaired by specialized repair robots. Robots may be equipped with special-purpose devices, including cutter heads, bandage application heads, and color motion cameras. Besides, sectional repair of pipelines, having the diameter of up to 600 mm, may be performed using robots produced by Hachler Umwelttechnik, which are particularly efficient if the repair work is needed to be performed in the points of pipeline branching.The choice of specific pipeline repair methods and substantiation of their application are mainly driven by (1 the post-cleaning condition of a pipeline, (2 the findings of the telediagnostics, (3 options for arrangement and use of specialized machinery on location, and (4 feasibility of the pipeline operation in the course of repair works and procedures.???????? ?????? ????????????? ??????????, ??????????? ??????????????? ????????????? ? ??????????? ?????????????? ?????? ???????? ????????????? ?? ????????, ??????, ?????????????? ? ?????? ??????????. ???????? ??????????????? ????????????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?????????????? ????? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ? ?????? ?? ????????????? ???????? ????????????? ? ? ?????? ????????????? ??????? ??????, ????? ? ???? ?????. ? ???????? ?????????? ????????? ???????????? ???????????? ????? ? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????. ??????? ????? ?????????? ????????? ?????????? ?????????? ??????????? ??????? ???? ? ???? ? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ????????????? ????? ? ??????????? ?? ??????????????, ?????????????? ?????????????? ????????? ???????????? ? ????????????? ??????????? ???????? ?????? ????????????? ????.

Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

2013-07-01

145

The OPUS Pipeline Toolkits  

Science.gov (United States)

The OPUS pipeline, which employs a blackboard architecture, has been processing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data for nearly a year. OPUS was designed for both reusability and extensibility, as well as portability to different platforms and projects. OPUS contains a toolkit of resource files and programs which provide the users with the ability to customize their own pipeline. ASCII resource files can be used to define the configuration of the system, and to add processes to the pipeline dynamically. The OPUS callable routines provide applications with even more flexible methods for interfacing with the OPUS blackboard. This paper will discuss how the OPUS toolkit---both the resource files and the software libraries---is used to configure an OPUS data processing pipeline.

Boyer, C.; Choo, T. H.

146

Investigation of thrust forces under NPP pipeline ruptures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forces acting at a pipeline in the process of its depressurization and boiling water flow are investigated on the basis of experimental works by means of the BAGIRA program complex. Possibility of the BAGIRA complex application when investigating the thrust forces in cases of the NPP pipeline ruptures is shown

147

Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia, Part 1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the field studies of spontaneously abandoned settlements in the Republic of Serbia. Out of 20 analysed settlements, 8 were listed as completely abandoned at the latest Census (2002, while others have been detected in the field, subsequent to the Census. The paper consists of two parts. In the first part, the spatial distribution of spontaneously abandoned settlements is analysed, as well as the components of their geographical position. Three main spatial units of the studied settlements are differentiated: (a the area along the administrative border between central Serbia and the Autonomous province Kosovo and Metohija; (b mountains Stara Planina and Burel; and (c the regions of Vlasina and Krajište. Three components of geographical position are analysed: mathematical-geographical, physio-geographical and administrative-political. Apart from these spatial components, geographical position is analysed in relation to historical circumstances that affected the genesis and evolution of the studied settlements. .

Miloševi? Marko V.

2010-01-01

148

1996/97 abandonment fund annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alberta's Abandonment Fund is funded by a levy on inactive wells and is a key component of the province's program to identify and abandon existing orphan wells and to prevent future occurrences. The fund allows essential resources and liability management to be done with industry's dollars rather than tax payer's dollars. Two representative case studies were presented to demonstrate how orphan well prevention activities are conducted. During fiscal year 1996/97 (the fifth year of the Fund's operation) the fund collected $2,591,497 from the annual levy on inactive wells in the province ($90 per well). During the year under review, the fund initiated or is completing, downhole abandonment operations at 28 orphan wells at an average cost of $62,700 per well. 3 tabs., 1 fig

149

Pipelines to eastern Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

150

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13

151

Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

152

Environmental radioactivity survey in an abandoned uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we report the environmental radioactivity survey in an abandoned uranium mine in China. The air gamma ray absorption dose rate was measured. Radionuclides in uranium mine slag, soil, water, sediment and biological samples, were analyzed. Radon in the air was monitored. The annual radiation dose of the residents in the uranium mine region was assessed. All the work was conducted in line with national standards of China. The survey results show that the radioactive pollution in the region should be disposed immediately. According to the characteristics of the uranium mining pollution sources, we propose some reasonable ways of radiation protection and disposal. (authors)

153

The research on magnetic exploring abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During Word war II, a lot of chemical weapons were left by Japanese on our land. It is very difficult to explore because its complicated states underground. There is no document about the details of this. Few of the research work have been done. In order to destroy completely abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese, the paper has given a serious study on the means to explore the chemical weapons for the purpose to protect our environment and benefit our people. After plenty of research and test, we get good results. (authors)

154

Saint John lateral pipeline project: comprehensive study report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

a. Further selection of the VECs required an examination of the issues picked out via scoping to determine the ways in which the overall project could affect the ECCs, and included construction, operation, decommissioning/abandonment, malfunctions and accidents of the pipeline. The phases of the project as they impacted residually and cumulatively on the VECs were evaluated, and impacts on Valued Socio-Economic Components (VSCs) were assessed also. The mitigation efforts taken will minimize the potential effects of the project on VECs and VSCs. For all of the project phases it is expected that residual effects will be without significance as will be the overall environmental impact. 29 refs

155

78 FR 41496 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees  

Science.gov (United States)

...Safety: Meetings of the Gas and Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committees...public meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee...Committee, and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory Committee...policies for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid pipelines. Both...

2013-07-10

156

77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (GPAC), also known as the...

2012-11-26

157

78 FR 70623 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...SUMMARY: This notice announces a public meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (GPAC) also known as the...

2013-11-26

158

Worries mount over ability to finance pipeline nukes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns over financing the 31 nuclear power plants now in the construction pipeline lead some analysts to question whether plants not already slated for cancellation will be able to survive the increasingly risky investment climate. Any accident or utility default could weaken marginally healthy utilities to the point of default on construction bonds. Junk bonds that spread the percentage points of interest rates are competing in the market with those of other businesses. Regulatory decisions that protect ratepayers increase the risk to investors. The industry needs about $40 billion to finish the plants now in the pipeline, and much of the capital must come from internal generation. Adding to the risk are challenges to emergency and safety procedures, but optimistic analysts feel the market for high risk/high return securities has not reached saturation. One problem is the lack of standardization in calculating the estimated costs of completion versus abandonment. 3 tables

159

IMPACT OF ABANDONED WELLS ON GROUND WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of unplugged wells on ground-water resources is discussed, including a review of case histories and a survey of state laws concerning well abandonment procedures. Model regulations are suggested to guide those states where existing regulations are ineffective or non-ex...

160

LOCATION OF ABANDONED WELLS WITH GEOPHYSICAL METHODS  

Science.gov (United States)

Abandoned wells are sometimes an important element in the contamination of fresh underground water supplies. If a well is not properly plugged and the casing is leaky, it may serve as a conduit for brines or other pollutants to reach a fresh water aquifer. This study was made to ...

 
 
 
 
161

Deep water construction on live oil and gas pipelines using the SmartPlug high-pressure pipeline isolation tools  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The world first successful SmartPlug operation took place at the Dimlington process plant in UK in 1999. Since 1999, the SmartPlug system has been deployed on more than 80 projects worldwide allowing the operators to perform pipeline repair work, modifications, or tie-ins with the pipeline systems full of product, and at full production pressure. Mid-line applications of the SmartPlug system allows the operator to tie a new pipeline into an existing pipeline without displacing the oil or gas and eliminates time needed to flare, depressurize, empty the line and commission the line before start up. The first SmartPlug installations were done to isolate pig trap valves or ESD valve from the pipeline allowing the valve to be replaced at full pipeline pressure, and in some instances while production was flowing. Some pipelines have multiple platforms or fields tied in along the pipeline, and the SmartPlug system is frequently used to isolate a single platform to allow platform removal or riser repair without impacting the production flow in the remaining part of the pipeline system. (author)

Parrott, Ralph; Tveit, Edd; Sauthier, Daniel [PSI, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

2005-07-01

162

38 CFR 17.131 - Payment of abandoned claims prohibited.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Payment of abandoned claims prohibited. 17.131 Section 17.131 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT...of Medical Services Not Previously Authorized § 17.131 Payment of abandoned claims prohibited....

2010-07-01

163

Water level detection pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present invention, water levels of a feedwater heater and a drain tank in a nuclear power plant are detected at high accuracy. Detection pipeline headers connected to the upper and lower portions of a feedwater heater or a drain tank are connected with each other. The connection line is branched at appropriate two positions and an upper detection pipeline and a lower detection pipeline are connected thereto, and a gauge entrance valve is disposed to each of the detection pipelines. A diaphragm of a pressure difference generator is connected to a flange formed to the end portion. When detecting the change of water level in the feedwater heater or the drain tank as a change of pressure difference, gauge entrance valves on the exit side of the upper and lower detection pipelines are connected by a connection pipe. The gauge entrance valve is closed, a tube is connected to the lower detection pipe to inject water to the diaphragm of the pressure difference generator passing through the connection pipe thereby enabling to calibrate the pressure difference generator. The accuracy of the calibration of instruments is improved and workability thereof upon flange maintenance is also improved. (I.S.)

164

Pipeliners go regulator shopping  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The weakening of Alberta`s regulatory grip on gas pipelines was discussed. Palliser Pipeline Limited has challenged Nova Corp`s monopoly by applying to the National Energy Board (NEB) for permission to build a 150-mile pipeline from Calgary to the Saskatchewan border. If the $350 million project proceeds, it would mean that gas would be flowing out of Alberta for the first time through a line that is not operated by Nova Corp. Palliser would operate with a lower shipping toll, set by the NEB rather than Alberta`s Energy and Utilities Board. Alliance Pipeline Ltd. will also apply to the NEB to build a 1850-mile pipeline that would originate in British Columbia, cross Alberta and terminate in Chicago. Nova Corp has implied that it might have to consider charging distance-based tolls if the Palliser bypass line proceeds. However, Palliser countered that it should not be necessary to change the postage stamp system for that small a fraction. Palliser suggested that Nova was simply reacting because it was facing competition for the first time. Final decision is in the hands of the federal government.

Byfield, M.

1996-12-09

165

Progress with the LOFAR Imaging Pipeline  

CERN Document Server

One of the science drivers of the new Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) is large-area surveys of the low-frequency radio sky. Realizing this goal requires automated processing of the interferometric data, such that fully calibrated images are produced by the system during survey operations. The LOFAR Imaging Pipeline is the tool intended for this purpose, and is now undergoing significant commissioning work. The pipeline is now functional as an automated processing chain. Here we present several recent LOFAR images that have been produced during the still ongoing commissioning period. These early LOFAR images are representative of some of the science goals of the commissioning team members.

Heald, George; Pizzo, Roberto; van Diepen, Ger; van Zwieten, Joris E; van Weeren, Reinout J; Rafferty, David; van der Tol, Sebastiaan; Birzan, Laura; Shulevski, Aleksandar; Swinbank, John; Orru, Emanuela; De Gasperin, Francesco; Ker, Louise; Bonafede, Annalisa; Macario, Giulia; Ferrari, Chiara

2010-01-01

166

Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

2008-07-01

167

Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

168

30 CFR 843.22 - Enforcement actions at abandoned sites.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Enforcement actions at abandoned sites. 843.22 Section 843.22... § 843.22 Enforcement actions at abandoned sites. The Office may refrain from...cessation order for a violation at an abandoned site, as defined in §...

2010-07-01

169

Pipeline rehabilitation planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

170

Northern pipelines : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

171

The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation. PMID:10216814

Quinodoz, D

1999-02-01

172

Risk from transport of gas by pipeline ''kokui-perm''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: the length of gas pipelines in Russia is 142 thousands km, 62 % are pipelines of the large diameters. Annually on gas pipelines in Russia there are more than 70 large accidents, more than 50 % from them is accompanied by ignition of gas. The average ecological looses from accident is: destruction arable lands - 78 hectares; removing from consumption agricultural soils - 6,2 hectares; destruction forests - 47,5 hectares. In work the reasons of accidents on gas pipelines of different diameters are analyzed. So, for pipelines a diameter of 1220 mm by the reasons of accidents are: marriage of civil and erection works - 39, 1 %; outside corrosion - 35,9 %; mechanical damages - 9,4 %; defects of pipes - 6,2 %; defects of the factory equipment - 1,6 %; nature disasters and other reasons - 7,8 %. In work the results of risk analysis on a gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' are analysed. The gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' passes near 22 towns and countries, crosses 15 highways, 2 rail ways, 15 rivers. In work the concrete recommendations for management of risk and safety of the population are given. (author)

173

The TROBAR pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

TROBAR is a 60cm robotic telescope installed at the Observatrio de Aras de los Olmos (OAO), approximately 100km north-west of Valencia (Spain). It is currently equipped with a 4K×4K optical camera covering a FoV of 30×30 arcmin^2. We are now implementing a pipeline for the automatic reduction of its data. In this paper we will present the main features of the pipeline, with particular care to some of the algorithms implemented to assess the quality of the produced data and showing their application to synthetic images.

Stefanon, Mauro

174

Diagnostics of Pipelines System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Underground gas storage in Slovakia has a 25 years history. The first phase of building, the object for underground reservoir Láb began in 1977. The underground reservoir is separated into five independent parts, phases of building. All parts are concentrated in central control area. The oldest part of equipment for underground reservoir needs overhaul and maintenance today. The maintenance process uncovers a lot of problems that were created through building process. The great problems are uncovered in the area of pipeline system diagnostics. In the past, maintenance operators faced difficult decisions, to choose the best method or combination of methods to evaluate pipeline condition.

Štroffek, E.

2006-01-01

175

Geovisualization of Sub-surface Pipelines: A 3D Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This century has continued to witness an ever increasing reliance on Geographical Information Systems (GIS technology for the management of utilities’ pipelines world over. Underground cables and pipelines are required to transport essential utilities such as oil, gas, water and electricity from one part of the city to another. Unlike on-surface pipelines, the fact that subsurface pipelines are hidden from the naked eyes makes them susceptible to neglect and damages without being easily noticed. Such damages and consequent pipe failures often have disastrous consequences on the environment and its inhabitants. A common source of subsurface pipeline damage is the accidental cutting of pipelines by excavation workers, oblivious of the precise underground location of such pipelines. This is largely due to the fact that pertinent decisions are usually taken using two dimensional (2D maps as reference; however, information contained in 2D maps are often misinterpreted by both field workers and professionals alike.Three dimensional (3D maps are increasingly becoming popular due to their ability to overcome the limitations inherent in (2D maps. They also aid the proper conceptualization of subsurface pipelines thereby making it easier to work around these pipelines without endangering them. One major drawback though is the exorbitant cost of most of the GIS packages that support the 3D modelling and visualization of subsurface pipelines. Furthermore, the advanced languages used in building many of these packages make it difficult for non-GIS experts and professionals to relate with them. Since people from diverse disciplines (without strong GIS background need to visualize and analyze these subsurface pipelines on a regular basis, it is pertinent to develop a system capable of performing basic 3D visualization functions, in addition to being user-friendly and highly affordable. This paper discusses such a technique, utilizing open-source software.

Abdul-Lateef Balogun

2011-08-01

176

Recycling abandoned lead battery sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks0 tons per day in the coming weeks

177

Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk. PMID:19645755

Bétournay, Marc C

2009-10-01

178

Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

Miloševi? Marko V.

2011-01-01

179

Trans-Alaska pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline system transports nearly 25 percent of the nation's domestically produced crude oil. Since operations began in 1977, the system has delivered over 8 billion barrels of oil to Port Veldez for shipment. This paper reports that concerns have been raised about whether the system is meeting special engineering design and operations requirements imposed by federal and state regulators. GAO found that the five principal federal and state regulatory agencies have not pursued a systematic, disciplined, and coordinated approach to regulating the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. Instead, these agencies have relied on the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, which runs the system, to police itself. It was only after the Exxon Valdez spill and the discovery of corrosion that the regulators began to reevaluate their roles and focus on issues such as whether Alyeska's operating and maintenance procedures meet the pipelines, special engineering design and operating requirements, or whether Alyeska can adequately respond to a large oil spill. In January 1990, the regulators established a joint office to provide more effective oversight of the system. GAO believes that central leadership and a secured funding sources may help ensure that this office provides adequate oversight.

1991-07-01

180

Training Alaska Pipeline Workers  

Science.gov (United States)

The Government, unions, and employers in Alaska are walking a thin line between training enough pipeline workers to meet current demands, and training too many for jobs that may not exist four or five years from now. The article surveys training programs which stress job opportunities for the State's natives. (Author/AJ)

Grace, Michael

1975-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Estimate of gas potential of abandoned coal mines; Gaspotenzialabschaetzung von stillgelegten Kohlenbergwerken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A knowledge of the residual gas quantities in the rock, the gas pressure trend and the effect of the rise of water are particularly important for evaluation of abandoned coal mines with regard to the utilisable residual gas quantities and to identification of possible gas escape areas on the surface. DMT has carried out several projects in particular concerning the subject of endangerment of the surface by gas escapes in conjunction with the rise of water in abandoned collieries. Taking the former Westfalen colliery as an example, the methodology worked out and the derivable information with regard to gas distribution are described in the contribution. (orig.)

Meiners, H. [Abt. Oberflaechenausgasung (DE). Deutsche Montan Technology GmbH (DMT); Kunz, E. [Abt. Wettertechnik, Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH (DMT), Essen (Germany)

2006-01-23

182

76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0127] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the...

2011-05-20

183

77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0146] Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public...

2012-06-19

184

75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...Part 192 [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings...

2010-08-03

185

77 FR 38132 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the...

2012-06-26

186

76 FR 11312 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the...

2011-03-01

187

76 FR 43743 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0127] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the...

2011-07-21

188

76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0177] Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY:...

2011-07-27

189

Orchestrator Telemetry Processing Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

Orchestrator is a software application infrastructure for telemetry monitoring, logging, processing, and distribution. The architecture has been applied to support operations of a variety of planetary rovers. Built in Java with the Eclipse Rich Client Platform, Orchestrator can run on most commonly used operating systems. The pipeline supports configurable parallel processing that can significantly reduce the time needed to process a large volume of data products. Processors in the pipeline implement a simple Java interface and declare their required input from upstream processors. Orchestrator is programmatically constructed by specifying a list of Java processor classes that are initiated at runtime to form the pipeline. Input dependencies are checked at runtime. Fault tolerance can be configured to attempt continuation of processing in the event of an error or failed input dependency if possible, or to abort further processing when an error is detected. This innovation also provides support for Java Message Service broadcasts of telemetry objects to clients and provides a file system and relational database logging of telemetry. Orchestrator supports remote monitoring and control of the pipeline using browser-based JMX controls and provides several integration paths for pre-compiled legacy data processors. At the time of this reporting, the Orchestrator architecture has been used by four NASA customers to build telemetry pipelines to support field operations. Example applications include high-volume stereo image capture and processing, simultaneous data monitoring and logging from multiple vehicles. Example telemetry processors used in field test operations support include vehicle position, attitude, articulation, GPS location, power, and stereo images.

Powell, Mark; Mittman, David; Joswig, Joseph; Crockett, Thomas; Norris, Jeffrey

2008-01-01

190

Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

191

Pipelined Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Convolutional encoding is used in almost all digital communication systems to get better gain in BER (Bit Error Rate, and all applications needs high throughput rate. The Viterbi algorithm is the solution in decoding process. The nonlinear and feedback nature of the Viterbi decoder makes its high speed implementation harder. One of promising approaches to get high throughput in the Viterbi decoder is to introduce a pipelining. This work applies a carry-save technique, which gets the advantage that the critical path in the ACS feedback becomes in one direction and get rid of carry ripple in the “Add” part of ACS unit. In this simulation and implementation show how this technique will improve the throughput of the Viterbi decoder. The design complexities for the bit-pipelined architecture are evaluated and demonstrated using Verilog HDL simulation. And a general algorithm in software that simulates a Viterbi Decoder was developed. Our research is concerned with implementation of the Viterbi Decoders for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA. Generally FPGA's are slower than custom integrated circuits but can be configured in the lab in few hours as compared to fabrication which takes few months. The design implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized for Xilinx FPGA's.

Nayel Al-Zubi

2013-02-01

192

Kepler Science Operations Center pipeline framework  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kepler Mission is designed to continuously monitor up to 170,000 stars at a 30-minute cadence for 3.5 years searching for Earth-size planets. The data are processed at the Science Operations Center at NASA Ames Research Center. Because of the large volume of data and the memory needed, as well as the CPU-intensive nature of the analyses, significant computing hardware is required. We have developed generic pipeline framework software that is used to distribute and synchronize processing across a cluster of CPUs and provide data accountability for the resulting products. The framework is written in Java and is, therefore, platform-independent. The framework scales from a single, standalone workstation (for development and research on small data sets) to a full cluster of homogeneous or heterogeneous hardware with minimal configuration changes. A plug-in architecture provides customized, dynamic control of the unit of work without the need to modify the framework. Distributed transaction services provide for atomic storage of pipeline products for a unit of work across a relational database and the custom Kepler DB. Generic parameter management and data accountability services record parameter values, software versions, and other metadata used for each pipeline execution. A graphical user interface allows for configuration, execution, and monitoring of pipelines. The framework was developed for the Kepler Mission based on Kepler requirements, but the framework itself is generic and could be used for a variety of applications where these features are needed.

Klaus, Todd C.; McCauliff, Sean; Cote, Miles T.; Girouard, Forrest R.; Wohler, Bill; Allen, Christopher; Middour, Christopher; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.

2010-07-01

193

Use of the Alaska hazard ranking model to prioritize the field investigation of petroleum release sites along the Pacific and Arctic Pipelines Incorporated pipeline in southeast Alaska  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Alaska Hazard Ranking Model (AHRM) was used to rank 36 petroleum release sites along a 20 mile section of a four-inch diameter above ground pipeline located in Southeast Alaska. The pipeline was built in 1942 along the White Pass and Yukon Route Railway right-of-way by the US Army to transfer refined petroleum products from Skagway, Alaska to Whitehorse, Yukon. The majority of the pipeline within the State of Alaska is located on land owned and/or managed by the Tongass National Forest and the National Park Service. In 1962, Pacific Arctic Pipelines Incorporated (PAPI) purchased the pipeline from the US Government and began to used it to transfer gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil and jet fuel through the facility until 1994 when the pipeline was abandoned. During the operation of the above ground pipeline, petroleum releases occurred throughout the length of the pipeline due to breaks in the line caused by rock falls, heavy equipment and sudden contractions of the pipe during cold weather. Each release was reported to the appropriate regulatory agency and dealt with at the time they occurred; however, current Alaska regulations require that an environmental assessment be conducted at sites where residual petroleum hydrocarbons may currently exist. As the documented releases occurred over a more than 30 year period in widely varying and distinct topographic and environmental settings, the AHRM was used to rank each release location for further investigation. The AHRM takes into consideration factors such as: the toxicity and quantity of the substance released; release documentation; site access; air exposure; population density and proximity to occupied structures; groundwater usage and potential for exposure; surface water usage and potential for exposure; land use; observed environmental impacts; and the number of contaminant sources.

Hamilton, G.J.; Miller, T.A.; Conlin, B.H. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)] [and others

1997-12-31

194

Energy efficiency comparison between milking pipeline and bucket milking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the diploma work, we compared energy efficiency of milking pipeline and bucket milking by measuring the average energy, time and quantity of water used during milking. Results showed that average time of milking an individual cow was 7.15 minutes for the milk pipeline and 7.46 minutes for the bucket milking. The average amount of electricity spent for vacuum pump was 3.38 kWh/day for milk pipeline and 1.61 kWh/day for bucket milking. The average amount of electricity spent for milk cooling...

Sloms?ek, Marko

2013-01-01

195

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

196

Pipeline economics and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operations improved in 1988 for United States regulated petroleum pipeline companies. In almost all categories tracked by the Annual Oil and Gas Journal Pipeline Economics Reports, data from annual reports filed with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) showed improvements or were little worse than flat when compared with earlier data. This paper reports that most noticeable was the better than 9% increase from 1987 in net income for all (major and nonmajor) natural-gas transmission companies on operating revenues that rose for the first time since 1983. Underlying this growth was a surge of more than 21% in volume of gas transported for others along with a slight increase in sales, the latter the first of the 1980s. This growth is reflected in the reversal in operating revenues which have been falling steeply since 1983

197

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

1992-12-01

198

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

1992-01-01

199

Global offshore pipeline markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

200

Pipeline Calibration for STIS  

Science.gov (United States)

The CALSTIS program for calibration of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph data in the OPUS pipeline differs in several significant ways from calibration for earlier HST instruments, such as the use of FITS format, computation of error estimates, and association of related exposures. Several steps are now done in the pipeline that previously had to be done off-line by the user, such as cosmic ray rejection and extraction of 1-D spectra. Although the program is linked with IRAF for image and table I/O, it is written in ANSI C rather than SPP, which should make the code more accessible. FITS extension I/O makes use of the new IRAF FITS kernel for images and the HEASARC FITSIO package for tables.

Hodge, P. E.; Hulbert, S. J.; Lindler, D.; Busko, I.; Hsu, J.-C.; Baum, S.; McGrath, M.; Goudfrooij, P.; Shaw, R.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; Bohlin, R.

 
 
 
 
201

76 FR 303 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...PHMSA-2010-0229] RIN 2137-AE66 Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous...

2011-01-04

202

77 FR 5472 - Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0026] RIN 2137-AE59 Pipeline Safety: Miscellaneous Changes to Pipeline Safety Regulations AGENCY: Pipeline and...

2012-02-03

203

75 FR 5244 - Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction  

Science.gov (United States)

...Amdt. 192-113] RIN 2137-AE15 Pipeline Safety: Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines; Correction AGENCY: Pipeline and...Regulations to require operators of gas distribution pipelines to develop and implement...

2010-02-02

204

78 FR 41991 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding  

Science.gov (United States)

...Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...pipeline facilities caused by severe flooding. This advisory includes actions that...the integrity of pipelines in case of flooding. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

2013-07-12

205

PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

206

Pipeline vortex induced vibration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pipeline induced vibration caused by a transversal external flow is studied, using the mathematical model developed by Griffin and Skop for flexible cylindrical structures. This model uses the modified Van der Pol equation, for the lift coefficient coupled to the oscilatory movement equation of a cylinder. The finite element method for spatial discretization is used. Numerical results are compared to approximated solutions obtained through the harmonic balance method. (E.G.)

207

Installation of steel pipelines and flexible pipelines in sideway current  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master thesis is describing the theoretical & analytical principles of pipeline installation. In the literature survey stage we elaborate on basic information about different types of offshore pipelines. Installation also plays an important and vital role. Therefore in the next step we introduce various installation methods for offshore pipelines and what may govern the choice of an installation method / scenario. Then guidelines and constrains for establishing the different installa...

Karimi, Mina

2012-01-01

208

Pipeline detection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detection device main body is disposed at the outer circumference of a pipeline. A position of a detector incorporated in a detection head disposed slidably to a sliding mechanism is aligned with a position to be detected at the outer circumference of the pipeline. An annular guiding belt is attached to the outer circumference of the pipeline so as to be in parallel with the position to be detected and oppose to a distance sensor mounted on the main body of the detection device. An original point marker is attached to the guiding belt. The distance between the detection device main body and the guiding belt is detected at the original point by the distance sensor to provide it as a standard gap datum. The distance between the detection device main body under movement and the guiding belt is detected by the distance sensor. A correction value is determined by the displacement in axial direction of the pipe based on the detected distance and the standard gap data. Then, a correction control signal is outputted to a sliding motor to correct displacement in the axial direction of the pipe by the detector under movement in the circumferential direction of the pipe. (I.N.)

209

Pipeline risk assessment/risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 7 discussed challenges facing the oil and gas pipeline industry with particular reference to the fundamentals of risk assessment and management. Risk assessment algorithms, methods, techniques and approaches were reviewed along with the likelihood and consequences of algorithms. Underlying programs, processes and procedures were identified, including decision support and performance measures that support a company's risk management program. Emerging focus areas that may require further investigation or industry collaboration were also identified. It was shown that high risk segments of pipelines can be identified through risk-based prioritization which relies on threat identification data, threat assessment data and consequence data. Three basic risk assessment methods were identified, namely subject matter expert (SME); relative assessment and probabilistic assessment. Each was shown to have advantages and limitations. The choice of risk assessment method depends on the needs of individual companies. It was determined that the size of the pipeline also determines the choice of risk assessment method and that the complexity of risk assessment should reflect the outcomes that are needed. Data quality is important, as are validation and feedback for calibration and continuous improvement. The basics for developing a facility risk assessment model were also presented along with a review of regulatory expectations. The National Energy Board strives for goal oriented risk assessment to ensure safe and secure systems that protect the environment and people. Public perception is also an issue that some pipeline companies consider in their risk assessment models. tabs., figs.

Len, N. [Dynamic Risk Assessment Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Skibinsky, D.; Irving, S. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sutherby, B.; Choudhary, U. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Gagnon, D. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

210

Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot points on a line on various types of risks (ecological, economic, social and cultural - architectural); The edition of methodical benefits for carrying out of seminars and distribution of the information through the electronic bulletin, thematic releases and magazines. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring, it is necessary to create public laboratories along a line of the pipeline which would allow leading the analysis of components of the surrounding natural environment. For the personnel of laboratory alongside with carrying out of trainings - seminars, instructions should be prepared, methodical materials, other help data and are created bank of the reference data. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring performed the following works: The organization of the laboratory analysis of the components of a reservoir, traversable pipeline; Revealing observance of zone security norm of the pipeline; The equipment most ecologically dangerous sites of the pipeline in capacities for gathering oil. The purpose of the public plan to reaction to floods of oil is development of instructions for liquidation of consequences of flood and carrying out of necessary actions for minimization of influences on an environment. The public plan of liquidation of consequences of flood should be determined: Coordinating public organization, its functions and duty; a policy of decision-making at liquidation of consequences of flood; Adjustments of communication between public organizations for reception and transfer of the information on failure; Areas of priority protection which should be immediately cleared of oil waste; Export and utilization of the oil waste products collected in area of flood of oil; the monitoring system and monitoring of an environment (air, water and ground) after liquidation of consequences of flood. In conformity of the public plan, carrying out of meetings with the public, for acquaintance and an explanation of the problems, put before the public is necessary also in case of liquidation of consequences of flood of oil in the pipeline

211

Applications and limitations of geophysical surveys in locating underground storage tanks and pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Military bases throughout the US utilized underground fuel storage tanks (USTs) and fuel pipelines that became obsolete as base missions changed over time. Many of these USTs and pipelines are currently being investigated as part of base environmental restoration programs. Geophysical survey methods are noninvasive techniques that are used to confirm the existence of or explore for USTs and pipelines. Screening to determine appropriate geophysical techniques and proof-of-principle testing are critical to designing surveys. Two example case histories at military bases are presented. The magnetometer method used in case study 1 employed proof-of-principle testing to validate the method. Case study 2 successfully used the electromagnetic method to locate abandoned fuel distribution lines

212

Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft

213

Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

214

Seismic vulnerability of buried pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Earthquakes may cause severe damage to buried pipelines. One dramatic example occurred during the Michoacán earthquakes of September 1985. Many aqueducts and pipelines in Mexico City and in Lázaro Cárdenas failed as a result of those earthquakes. Similar damages were also observed more recently in the earthquakes in Loma Prieta (Marina District, in 1989; in Northridge, California in 1994; and in Kobe, Japan, in 1995.This paper illustrates the kind of problems that take place after the failure of pipelines conducting water, gas or sewage. It also gives the principal causes of those failures, and the methods available today to take into consideration seismic effects for the proper design of buried pipelines. Some simplified procedures for preventing effects due to permanent ground deformation and seismic wave propagation on continuous and segmented pipelines are given, together with some recommendations to be followed when installing buried pipelines in seismic areas.

Xiangyue Li Liu

2003-05-01

215

Abandon jako instytucja morskiego prawa ubezpieczeniowego. Wybrane aspekty prawnoporównawcze  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this paper is to introduce the issue of abandonment (referred in Poland as “abandon”) in Polish Maritime Code and also in Russian, French and UK legislation. First part opens with overall remarks on marine insurance law as well as abandonment and its functions. Next the author focuses on problems of actual total loss (ATL) and constructive total loss (CTL). Redundant legislative approaches towards defi nitions and purposes of ATL and CTL are presented. This part additionall...

Ziemiak, Micha? P.

2009-01-01

216

Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

217

Experience with two pipeline river crossings in Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Alumbrera copper-gold mine located in the Province of Catamarca, northwest region of Argentina, commenced operation in October, 1997. Mine development included a 316 km long, 175 mm diameter slurry pipeline that conveys copper concentrate to a dewatering facility near the city of Tucuman, Province of Tucuman. It became apparent during the first few years of operation that, given the many potential risks of pipeline exposure associated with stream crossings, Minera Alumbrera would have to undertake an aggressive, formal program of risk management of crossings and risk mitigation. In this paper, the experience associated with two crossings is addressed: Rio Villavil; and, Rio Gastona. The original pipeline route through the 10 km length of pipeline connecting Pump Station (PS) 2 to PS 3 was directed along the bottom of the Rio Villavil valley, with most of it located within the flood way of the stream. The exposure of the pipeline at some locations and high risk of further pipeline exposures led to initiation of risk mitigation planning. Remediation work was completed by 2008. Rio Gastona, during the summer of 2001, experienced rapid shifting of the left bank at the crossing resulting in an undermined and unsupported length of pipeline. The subsequent risk mitigation method adopted in 2001 involved the planning and construction of groyne fields along both banks. (author)

Yaremko, Eugene [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants (NHC), Edmonton (Canada); D' Agnillo, Pablo; Diaz, Jose A. [Minera Alumbrera XTRADA Copper S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bravo, Claudio

2009-12-19

218

In-line inspection of transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This working group addressed issues concerning technology, post-inspection and pre-inspection. The importance of good and accurate information gathering was emphasized, as well as ensuring that the right resources are applied to the right project. Field operations and analysis phases were discussed. Post in-line inspection (ILI) data validation issues include the development of opportunities to fix discrimination related data issues through data validation; the fact that data validation should occur pre and post inspection through the tool selection process and correlation digs; and that a communication feedback loop is essential between the operator and tool service provider. Various report validations and verification processes were discussed, as well as repeatability processes and field verifications. Remote Eddy Current Inspection (RFEC) for Unpiggable Pipelines was discussed in relation to a capability demonstration that was conducted at Battelle, where every defect in manufactured pipe was found during the test. Laboratory results indicated that field trials could be expected in 2007. Pipeline Integrity Management (PIM) rules require inspection of natural gas pipelines in high consequence areas. It was concluded that RFEC is well suited for unpiggable pipelines. It was also suggested that a fully completed pigging questionnaire is an important factor to maximize first run success and confidence in the operator's integrity plan through accurate in-line inspection (ILI) data. However, further investigation is required to determine if technician qualification standards in ditch pipeline integrity data gathering should be developed. In addition, it was suggested that an industry standard pigging questionnaire should be developed. A review of API 163 at the next Banff workshop was also suggested, in order to determine if the standard has been successfully implemented. tabs., figs.

Hylton, M. [Cimarron Integrity Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Kothari, M.; Choudhary, U. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

219

Advances in riser and pipeline technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction and mitigation measure considerations, strain based design for deep water and arctic considerations, and fatigue qualification for aggressive fluid conditions. (author)

Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

220

Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
221

Expected natural gas pipeline concept. Kitaisareru tennen gas pipeline koso  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a concept on natural gas pipelines that run through the land of Japan. Natural gas emits CO2 at about half as much as from coal and 2/3 from petroleum to produce the same amount of heat. Promoting the use of such a high-efficiency energy system as cogeneration using natural gas requires a major prerequisite that natural gas is supplied everywhere in Japan. The pipeline concept calls for building two pipelines that run across the land from Hokkaido to Kyushu. The concept assumes the natural gas to be transported in pipelines from such large gas fields in Sakhalin and Yakutsk in north and the pipelines to be linked with China, Southeast Asia and Australia in south. The pipelines will be installed running through the land from north to south over a distance of about 3,300 km from Wakkanai to Kagoshima. A physical possibility is assumed that expressway road ways and railroad ways would be used as pipeline installing spaces. A trial calculation on construction cost for the 3300-km pipeline using public lands as a rule calls for an amount of about three trillion yen under an assumption of installing pipes with a diameter of 1 m and a pressure of 70 atmospheres. 5 figs.

Hirata, M. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

1993-01-01

222

Technology of manufacturing and mounting of pipes of marine objects saturated by pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The detailed technological work of the problem of manufacturing and mounting of marine pipelines without measuring sizes at place is presented. Introduction of technology contributes to reduction of cycles of building and decrease in labour-intensiveness of pipeline works when carry-ing out marine orders.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2013-10-01

223

A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

Alexander A. Bolonkin

2009-01-01

224

The OPUS Pipeline Managers  

Science.gov (United States)

The OPUS pipeline was developed at the Space Telescope Science Institute to convert raw telemetry into calibrated data sets. The challenge was to upgrade a system which currently processes roughly sixty observations per day on a single CPU to one which can accommodate over 600 exposures per day. The OPUS response yields an environment which can handle multiple instances of multiple tasks running on a cluster of machines processing data on multiple paths. To manage such a potentially complex environment, two Motif managers were developed; one to handle processes, the second to handle observations.

Rose, J.; Choo, T. H.; Rose, M. A.

225

The OPUS Pipeline Applications  

Science.gov (United States)

OPUS is both a generic event-driven pipeline environment and a set of applications designed to process the spacecraft telemetry at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. This paper describes those OPUS applications which process the telemetry, validate the integrity of the information, and produce standard FITS (Flexible Image Transport System) data files for further analysis. The applications are to a great extent table-driven in an effort to reduce code changes, improve maintainability, and reduce the difficulty of porting the system. The tables which drive the applications are explained in some detail to illustrate how future missions can take advantage of the OPUS systems.

Rose, James F.

226

Biplex, pipelined FFT  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of implementing a pipelined fast Fourier transform (FFT) is presented that makes full use of the elements that comprise it. For a given bandwidth and spectral resolution, this approach requires 25 percent less memory, and needs only half the logic speed required for the conventional implementation. Since the spectrum is broken into two parts, two analog-to-digital converters, and attendant mixer-filters, are needed. These two input elements need only operate at half the speed of the one they replaced.

Emerson, R. F.

1976-01-01

227

Detection of possible soil contaminations in abandoned sites. Guide for the gathering and evaluation of information on process-typical land contaminations in abandoned industrial and trade sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In industrial cities and regions, the numbers and areas of abandoned sites are particularly large. The more probability of land pollution in former industrial or trade sites poses grave problems to the communities environmental protection departments, town planning departments (especially development planners) and the promotors of the municipal economy: In most cases, decontamination and renewed use of suspect areas can be tackled only after verification of whether there actually is soil or ground water contamination and after establishment of the hazards resulting from these pollutions. Gathering and evaluation of information on the history of use of such sites enables the authorities in charge to make fairly reliable first assessments of hazard potentials from abandoned sites: such information and evaluation serves as a basis for working out concepts for individual and budget-priced investigations to assess risk potentials. (orig.)

228

Work in Progress: Viviendo entre hospicios. Mecanismos y políticas de control social sobre los niños abandonados en Costa Rica (1860-1930) / Living among Orphanages. Mechanisms of Social Control and Policies Imposed to Abandoned Childrens in Costa Rica (1860-1930)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this research is to analyze the concept of childhood for the elite society specially politicians and the rich people of Costa Rica and based on this, assess the presence of control mechanisms, that were made to these people. At the same time it tackles the presence of the Catholic Church in Costa Rican society and more specifically in the care provided to abandoned children. The research will use both official sources (legislation and press) and Catholic Church's documents.

Jeimy Trejos Salazar

2011-01-01

229

Experience of the construction of the main circulating circuit pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction technology of the WWER-1000(e) reactor main circulating circuit (MCC), pipelines is described. The MCC pipelines link the main components of the NPP primary coolant circuit: the reactor, steam generators and main circulating pumps. Basic technical parameters of the pipelines for NPP with the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors are presented. The works on the assemblying, erection and welding of the pipelines were carried out during a year, and their labour costs are evaluated as 17600 man- days. The validity of basic technological solutions has been proved. Elongation of the reactor nozzles, simplification of the thermal treatment technology and welding automation are pointed out as practical possible means to lower the labour costs of the construction

230

Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

2010-07-01

231

Maximizing profits associated with abandonment decisions and options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic strategies which are designed to maximize profits associated with abandonment decisions and options focus on: extending field life; offsetting of economic risks onto a third party; reuse of facilities and infrastructure; expansion of associated secondary processing and distribution capabilities and usage; and the sale of abandonment units to a third party

232

A 12-year cavern abandonment test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

Brouard B.

2010-06-01

233

A 12-year cavern abandonment test  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

Bérest, P.; Brouard, B.; Hévin, G.

2010-06-01

234

Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

Favas P. J. C.

2013-04-01

235

Revegetation of an abandoned coal washing site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various reclamation techniques were applied on an abandoned coal washing pond in western Kentucky. The entire site was treated with fertilizer and lime to add nutrients and neutralize the soil pH. Four main treatments and control plots were established. The treatments included bark; straw and manure; bark, sawdust and manure; and a mixture of sewer sludge and kiln dust. Plots were also treated with a water absorbing synthetic polymer. All plots were seeded with various grasses, legumes, and black locust. The site was measured in 1992 after three growing seasons for woody plant biomass and percent ground cover. Significant differences in both woody plant biomass and percent ground cover were found between the treatments. 6 refs., 3 tabs

236

Head Loss Equations Estimate for Comercials Pipelines Conducting Wastewater from Poultry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to adjust equations to calculate continuous head loss in PVC, zinced steel, galvanized iron pipelines conducting wastewater from poultry with different concentrations of total solids. The head loss was determined by means of four piezometers, 4 m apart along the pipelines. The results indicated that the, for all pipelines, empirical equations adjusted with the methodologies of Duffy e Titchener and Hazen-Williams modified gave good results with coefficient of de...

José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza; Débora Astoni Moreira; Paulo Afonso Ferreira

2010-01-01

237

Meanings of consumption and abandonment: understanding smoking cessation symbolism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology t [...] o collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

Maribel Carvalho, Suarez.

2014-06-01

238

Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

Maribel Carvalho Suarez

2014-04-01

239

Meanings of consumption and abandonment: understanding smoking cessation symbolism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology t [...] o collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

Maribel Carvalho, Suarez.

240

Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

 
 
 
 
241

Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

1999-11-01

242

27 CFR 40.44 - Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products. 40.44 Section...Disposal of forfeited, condemned, and abandoned tobacco products. A Federal...States any forfeited, condemned, or abandoned tobacco products in his...

2010-04-01

243

30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920.20 Section 920.20...MARYLAND § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on March 8,...

2010-07-01

244

30 CFR 756.14 - Approval of amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.14 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756...of amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. (a)...

2010-07-01

245

41 CFR 128-48.305-1 - Abandoned or other unclaimed property.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned or other unclaimed property. 128-48...48-UTILIZATION, DONATION, OR DISPOSAL OF ABANDONED AND FORFEITED PERSONAL PROPERTY 48.3-Disposal of Abandoned and Forfeited Personal Property §...

2010-07-01

246

19 CFR 127.13 - Storage of unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Storage of unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. 127.13 Section 127.13...TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Unclaimed and Abandoned Merchandise § 127.13 Storage of...

2010-04-01

247

30 CFR 756.15 - Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.15 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756...Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. Pursuant...

2010-07-01

248

41 CFR 109-48.101 - Forfeited or voluntarily abandoned property.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Forfeited or voluntarily abandoned property. 109-48.101 Section...48-UTILIZATION, DONATION, OR DISPOSAL OF ABANDONED AND FORFEITED PERSONAL PROPERTY 48.1-Utilization of Abandoned and Forfeited Personal Property...

2010-07-01

249

39 CFR 946.6 - Disposition of abandoned property; additional period for filing claims.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Disposition of abandoned property; additional period for filing...EVIDENCE § 946.6 Disposition of abandoned property; additional period for filing...described in the notice is considered abandoned and becomes the property of the...

2010-07-01

250

30 CFR 946.20 - Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval...EACH STATE VIRGINIA § 946.20 Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. Virginia Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as...

2010-07-01

251

19 CFR 127.41 - Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Government title to unclaimed and abandoned merchandise. 127.41 Section 127...TREASURY GENERAL ORDER, UNCLAIMED, AND ABANDONED MERCHANDISE Title to Unclaimed and Abandoned Merchandise Vesting in Government §...

2010-04-01

252

30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.13 Section... INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.13 Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo...

2010-07-01

253

41 CFR 102-41.80 - When is personal property voluntarily abandoned?  

Science.gov (United States)

... When is personal property voluntarily abandoned? 102-41.80 Section 102-41...41-DISPOSITION OF SEIZED, FORFEITED, VOLUNTARILY ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Voluntarily Abandoned Personal Property § 102-41.80...

2010-07-01

254

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. 77.216-5 Section...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. (a) Prior to abandonment...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of...

2010-07-01

255

Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

2004-12-01

256

Northstar offshore Arctic pipeline project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Northstar Project, located six miles offshore in the Beaufort Sea and approximately eleven miles northwest of Prudhoe Bay, is the first offshore arctic field development to have a subsea oil pipeline. The project involves an alliance of companies, led by BP Exploration (Alaska). This project required the construction of the subsea production pipeline. Winter sea ice-based construction techniques were used to minimize the impact on the fragile environment of the Arctic and to take advantage of the pipeline construction equipment available locally. To render the winter construction feasible, the design of the pipeline was of special importance. To establish practical trench excavation depths required for protection from ice gouging, limit state design for pipe bending was used. Another factor taken into consideration in the pipeline design was pipe bending caused by melting of subsea permafrost in the shallow lagoon area crossed by the most direct rote for the offshore pipeline to the shore. During March and April 2000, the pipeline was successfully installed and tested. It is expected that production will commence in the fourth quarter of 2001. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

Lanan, G.A. [INTEC Engineering, Houston, TX (United States); Ennis, J.O. [BP Exploration Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States)

2001-07-01

257

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-12-31

258

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-04-12

259

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-08-17

260

Innovative approaches to evaluate geochemical risk related to sulphide-bearing Abandoned Mine Lands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) are often perceived to have significant environmental impacts, particularly on superficial and ground waters, from water contaminated with acid and elevated metals flowing from eroding waste dumps and from underground workings. These conditions would require risk assessment and remediation in case of necessity. However AML have heritage and historical value because of their age and the significance of their structures and the processes used. This value could be d...

Servida, Diego

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

An investigation of highly pressurized transient fluid flow in pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses transient processes in natural gas pipelines. The method of characteristics (MOC) is applied for the analysis of two transient categories, where the governing one-dimensional, hyperbolic conservation equations are linearized and solved without neglecting any of their term. First, we present a parametric study of the pressurized flow encountered when pipelines are utilized for the transportation or the temporary storage of natural gas. The non-ideal compressibility of natural gas is included in the model and its impact on the thermo-hydraulic processes is elucidated. Second, we model the hydrodynamics of a pipeline whose downstream boundary is a periodic discharge rate. The results show that, in response to these boundary conditions, the pressure distribution in the pipeline also undergoes periodic variations. Furthermore, our simulation results confirm the usefulness of MOC for numerical simulation of flow phenomena in pipelines. - Highlights: ? The goal of this work was an investigation of high pressure fluid transients through long pipelines. ? The MOC method was used for the simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in response to transients. ? The first transient type represented the line packing and subsequent pressurization. ? Special attention was given to the effect of non-ideal compressibility of natural gas flow. ? The second type of transients dealt with the effect of periodic downstream boundary conditions.

262

An investigation of highly pressurized transient fluid flow in pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses transient processes in natural gas pipelines. The method of characteristics (MOC) is applied for the analysis of two transient categories, where the governing one-dimensional, hyperbolic conservation equations are linearized and solved without neglecting any of their term. First, we present a parametric study of the pressurized flow encountered when pipelines are utilized for the transportation or the temporary storage of natural gas. The non-ideal compressibility of natural gas is included in the model and its impact on the thermo-hydraulic processes is elucidated. Second, we model the hydrodynamics of a pipeline whose downstream boundary is a periodic discharge rate. The results show that, in response to these boundary conditions, the pressure distribution in the pipeline also undergoes periodic variations. Furthermore, our simulation results confirm the usefulness of MOC for numerical simulation of flow phenomena in pipelines. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of this work was an investigation of high pressure fluid transients through long pipelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MOC method was used for the simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in response to transients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first transient type represented the line packing and subsequent pressurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Special attention was given to the effect of non-ideal compressibility of natural gas flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second type of transients dealt with the effect of periodic downstream boundary conditions.

Ouchiha, Zohra, E-mail: zouchiha@gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Loraud, Jean Claude; Ghezal, Abderahmane; Kessal, Mohand; Benzaoui, Ahmed [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa, E-mail: mghiaasiaan@gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

2012-04-15

263

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

264

76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...if an assessment identifies corrosion requiring repair under the criteria of Sec...in investigation and/or repair of pipeline segments other than the location on which corrosion requiring repair was initially...

2011-08-25

265

RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

FODOR Cosmin

2010-12-01

266

Regulating natural gas pipeline efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proponents of gas pipeline capacity assignment---sometimes referred to as capacity brokering---would like a policy that would allow holders of gas pipeline capacity contact, usually firm transportation, to resell that capacity for short periods of time when it is not needed. In this paper the authors review the current U.S. policy towards capacity assignment in the context of FERC regulation of interstate pipelines and compare the U.S. debate with Canada's approach. The authors offer a modest proposal to institute a capacity assignment program experiment

267

Coupling relations and early-warning for "equipment chain" in long-distance pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

Ensuring the safety of long-distance pipelines is an important work for petroleum and petrochemical enterprise. The pump unit and pipeline are taken as an overall research object firstly in this paper. A pipeline leakage detection model is built based on coupling analysis on the state of pump unit. The coupling relations between pump unit and pipeline are uncovered through the research on external characteristics of centrifugal pump and the hydraulic characteristics of long distance pipelines. These relations are verified by theoretical study and field experiment. Compared with the traditional method, the proposed method reduces the high false alarm rate which caused by coupling state of pump unit. The result shows that the proposed method can guarantee the effectiveness and accuracy of safety operation in long-distance pipeline.

Liang, Wei; Lu, Linlin; Zhang, Laibin

2013-12-01

268

Research of Heated Oil Pipeline Shutdown and Restart Process Based on VB and MATLAB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the operation of a heated oil transportation pipeline, the shutdown was caused by some pipeline accidents and repairing. In order to ensure the safety operation of the pipeline, determine the temperature drop and restart pressure was needed at different shutdown is important. This paper builds the heated oil pipeline temperature drop model after shutdown based on the unsteady heat transfer theory and restart model based on fluid transient flow theory. In order to solve the models, MATLAB is adopted a code for the models solving program. VB and MATLAB hybrid programming method which is on the basis of COM technical is utilized to develop a friendly man-machine interface for the heated oil pipeline shutdown and restart simulation software. The practical application shows using of VB and MATLAB hybrid programming method can reduce the work of algorithm developing and enhance the reliability of heated oil pipeline shutdown and restart simulation software.

Changjun Li

2010-12-01

269

Head Loss Equations Estimate for Comercials Pipelines Conducting Wastewater from Poultry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to adjust equations to calculate continuous head loss in PVC, zinced steel, galvanized iron pipelines conducting wastewater from poultry with different concentrations of total solids. The head loss was determined by means of four piezometers, 4 m apart along the pipelines. The results indicated that the, for all pipelines, empirical equations adjusted with the methodologies of Duffy e Titchener and Hazen-Williams modified gave good results with coefficient of determination equivalent to 0.99, therefore, its application is recommended to design of projects with PVC pipelines.

José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza

2010-04-01

270

Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

2003-07-01

271

Working group 10 : internal corrosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This tenth working group of the Banff 2011conference discussed the internal corrosion of transmission pipe systems. An overview of internal corrosion issues was presented with respect to the corrosivity of heavy oil pipelines and dil-bit pipelines. This presentation gave an insight into new techniques for pipeline sludge corrosivity analysis, the properties of heavy oil and dil-bit pipelines that make sediments present in these lines corrosive, and provided a starting point for discussions. Also the results of a survey aimed at capturing pipeline operating parameters and internal corrosion experience were discussed. Best practices and areas of improvement around internal corrosion management of midstream and transmission gas and liquid pipelines have been identified. Several technology exchange groups were created to discuss and develop new technologies for topics such as cleaning, sludge corrosivity, inhibition and industry survey in order to develop guidelines for consideration as standard practices.

Melvin, Budd; Place, Trevor

2011-07-01

272

Work in Progress: Viviendo entre hospicios. Mecanismos y políticas de control social sobre los niños abandonados en Costa Rica (1860-1930 / Living among Orphanages. Mechanisms of Social Control and Policies Imposed to Abandoned Childrens in Costa Rica (1860-1930  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the concept of childhood for the elite society specially politicians and the rich people of Costa Rica and based on this, assess the presence of control mechanisms, that were made to these people. At the same time it tackles the presence of the Catholic Church in Costa Rican society and more specifically in the care provided to abandoned children. The research will use both official sources (legislation and press and Catholic Church's documents.

Jeimy Trejos Salazar

2011-01-01

273

Plenty more in the US pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An upward trend for pipelaying activity in the Gulf of Mexico is reported. Data from the subsea database developed by Quest Offshore Resources forecasts a major boom for deepwater laying of pipelines, flowlines and umbilicals in North America. Of the ? 2170 miles of projects awarded for 2001-2004, Stolt Offshore has 25% and Allseas have 18%. Heerema, Coflexip Stena Offshore (CSO) and Saibos have 10-11% each. Allseas and CSO have received letters of intent from Shell for work involving the Na Kika export pipelines. Heerema's DCV Balder is lined up to carry out deepwater J-laying associated with the Mardi Gras transportation system, while tenders have been issued for the S-lay portions. Saipem has booked Saibos's new pipelay ship, FDS, for several projects. The US domestic market for pipelaying has now bottomed out and signs of recovery are evident. Most activity in 2000 occurred in shallow to medium water in the Gulf of Mexico, with Horizon Offshore Contractors, Global Industries and Torch Offshore capturing most of the market. Figures for miles of US Gulf of Mexico pipeline installed by the major market players are given for 1996-2000

274

Pipeline mapping and strain assessment using ILI (In-line Inspection) tolls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GE PII IMU Mapping inspection system measures pipeline location coordinates (x, y, z) and provides data for determining pipeline curvature and consequential pipeline bending strain. The changes in strain can be used in the application of structural analyses and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems. This paper reviews the Inertia Measuring Unit (IMU) system and field investigation works performed on a high-pressure gas pipeline for E.ON Ruhrgas AG. The Inertial Measuring Unit of the pipeline inspection tool provides continuous measurement of the pipeline centreline coordinates. More than one inspection run was performed which allowed a more accurate strain comparison to be made. Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies, makes it possible to provide a more complete picture of the overall situation. This paper reviews the work involved in detecting, locating and determining the magnitude and type of strain corresponding to the pipeline movement in field. (author)

Purvis, Brian [GE PII Pipeline Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Huewener, Thomas [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

2009-07-01

275

Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks  

Science.gov (United States)

The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and leakage release holes were modelled. This pipeline section is 10m long with the leakage hole in the middle. Additionally a small environment subdomain is simulated around the crack. For computation a multiphase solver was utilised. In a first step incompressible and isothermal fluids with no phase change were assumed.

Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

2013-04-01

276

Building the Alaska Oil Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE tells the story of how environmentalists, Alaska Native peoples, and engineers concerned about the effects of permafrost challenged plans for the Alaska oil pipeline.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2009-02-25

277

Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

278

Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline  

CERN Document Server

This manuscript presents a novel, tightly integrated pipeline for estimating a connectome, which is a comprehensive description of the neural circuits in the brain. The pipeline utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to produce a high-level estimate of the structural connectivity in the human brain. The Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline (MRCAP) is efficient and its modular construction allows researchers to modify algorithms to meet their specific requirements. The pipeline has been validated and over 200 connectomes have been processed and analyzed to date. This tool enables the prediction and assessment of various cognitive covariates, and this research is applicable to a variety of domains and applications. MRCAP will enable MR connectomes to be rapidly generated to ultimately help spur discoveries about the structure and function of the human brain.

Gray, William R; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Landman, Bennett A; Prince, Jerry L; Vogelstein, R Jacob

2011-01-01

279

Development of ship pipeline mounting and manufacturing technologies and their economical substantiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of technological features of ship pipeline mounting and manufacturing is carried out. Pipe mounting and manufacturing technologies are developed. They are directed to reduction of building cycles and decrease of labor intensiveness of pipeline works when carrying out ship-building orders and on this basis increase of ship-building production efficiency.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2011-12-01

280

Seismic vulnerability of buried pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Earthquakes may cause severe damage to buried pipelines. One dramatic example occurred during the Michoacán earthquakes of September 1985. Many aqueducts and pipelines in Mexico City and in Lázaro Cárdenas failed as a result of those earthquakes. Similar damages were also observed more recently in the earthquakes in Loma Prieta (Marina District), in 1989; in Northridge, California in 1994; and in Kobe, Japan, in 1995.This paper illustrates the kind of problems that take place after the fai...

Xiangyue Li Liu; Raúl Flores-Berrones

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Robust Fault Diagnosis for Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the design of a diagnosis system for the detection, identification and reconstruction of faults in pipelines. The design of such diagnosis system is based on redundant relations and nonlinear observers, taking into account faults in sensors, damages in pumps, and unknown extractions. The proposed algorithm is developed based on a model described by nonlinear equations of the fluid behavior in a pipeline, considering the principles of conservation of mass ...

Torres, L.

2014-01-01

282

77 FR 6857 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Improving Pipeline Leak Detection System...  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2012-0021] Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT...recent passage of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory Certainty, and...Washington, DC/Rockville Hotel, 1750 Rockville Pike,...

2012-02-09

283

77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...195 [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0001] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators...

2012-03-21

284

77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0001] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators...

2012-01-13

285

Data integration for management of pipeline system integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to easily access pipeline information and the increasing number of inspections using distinct techniques from different vendors makes the use of systems in the Integrity Management Program indispensable. For this reason, MOPI has been developed by two Brazilian companies, Pipeway Engenharia in partnership with Minds at Work. This tool allows data recording from the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, the storage of documents, the comparison between the results of different inspections, the planning inspections, contracts and maintenance of the pipeline. Furthermore, the information registered in the system can be accessed by a network user without limitation of time or number of users. This work presents the main details and features of MOPI. (author)

Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

286

77 FR 74063 - Amendments to the Abandoned Plan Regulations  

Science.gov (United States)

...individual retirement plan or other account established...services to abandoned plans and their participants...accordance with customary business practices, which would...details of the individual plan, determine whether there...administrators will take advantage of the proposed...

2012-12-12

287

78 FR 14877 - Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

...TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2013-0028] Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT....

2013-03-07

288

77 FR 34457 - Pipeline Safety: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0079] Pipeline Safety: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA),...

2012-06-11

289

Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

Rafael Rodríguez Díez

2014-07-01

290

Effects of Land Abandonment In Nutrient Exportation. Some Catchments In Mediterranean Ranges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research project "Management and analysis of land uses, landscape and sustain- able development in natural protected areas" studies the evolution of landscapes after farm abandonment. One way to understand this evolution is studying the information that we can obtained from the water cycle. The first hypotesis of this work is that the vegetable cover of catchments has a decisive role in the hydrological behaviour. This behaviour can be evaluated through the study of hydrographs or through water analy- sis. We have worked in seven catchments with different land uses: Bare rock, Natural forest, Transition forest, Scrubland, Abandoned agricultural fields and Active agricul- tural fields. These catchments are located in the National Park of Sant Llorenç in the Catalan Prelitoral Range (41z40'N, 2zW), with a Mediterranean climate modified by altitude (from 300m to 1100m). Methodology used has been the description of study areas, the calculation of land uses and water analysis of 10 diferent parameters after rain episodes. From the results obtained it is possible to deduce the followings: 1) Behaviour of catchments follows two different paths: natural covers and humanized covers. 2) Scrubland offers a soil protection similar to that of forest. and abandoned lands have a similar behaviour than as active lands; and this for a long period of time (more than fifty years).

Nadal, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Molina, D.; Pelachs, A.; Matamala, N.

291

Location class change impact on onshore gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During a pipeline life cycle, some significant changes in the population may happen along its route. Such changes are indirectly evaluated by the increase in the amount of buildings constructed along the route, which determines the so called Location Class. Such changes, after licensing, provoke differences between what is required by the standards and what is actually done. This work has two goals. One is to study the requirements of international standards and legislations as well as some solutions used in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Netherlands. This goal intends to provide some technical bases for a comparative analysis on how the location class changes, during the life cycle of a pipeline, are treated in each country. Another goal is to present a risk-based methodology for the guideline development which can be used in decision-making concerning what to do in case of any location class change. Particularly, it has given special attention to the requirements which are imposed for the pipeline operational license continuation. This work is of supreme importance for the Brazilian pipeline segment, since the existing Brazilian design standard, ABNT NBR12712 for transmission and distribution pipeline design, does not deal with that issue. Moreover, a summary of the main solutions found in those countries together with a guideline, customized for the Brazilian reality, is presented. (author)

Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Seixas de [DNV Energy Solutions, Oslo (Norway); Leal, Cesar Antonio [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gas and Energy

2009-07-01

292

Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history

293

Fatigue resistance for pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The contribution describes procedural aspects of fatigue analyses and the influencing parameters to be considered. Experimental analyses involve real components or big test pieces, and relevant influencing parameters like the type of stress, component shape and material characteristics are directly taken into account. In theoretical analyses, global or local concepts are applied. In the case of global concepts, relevant influencing parameters are considered already in the calculation of the Woehler curve which is obtained using large-scale test pieces. As it may be quite time-consuming to calculate these curves, global concepts are used preferably for components of simple geometry that are produced in large numbers. In the case of local concepts, Woehler curves are used which are obtained from simple test pieces, and the various influencing parameters (load type, medium, surface, geometry, etc.) are considered. In concrete applications, the test procedure is specified as a function of the state of knowledge on loads and influencing parameters and in consideration of safety and economic efficiency requirements. In nuclear power plant pipelines and vessels, fatigue strength in operation is influenced by real loads, real stress cycles and the surrounding medium. As it is impossible to specify local loads both in normal and abnormal operation, these must be monitored during operation if higher safety requirements apply. (orig.)

294

76 FR 54531 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of Hurricanes  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0183] Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by the Passage of...

2011-09-01

295

Noise assessment among Alaska pipeline workers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hearing levels were studied in 948 Alaska pipeline workers. The subjects studied here consist of various kinds of industrial workers and office employees. Hearing threshold of office employees are in general agreement with those of non-industrial populations reported in a few surveys from the literature. Consequently, these data of the office employees are used for controls. Industrial workers over 25 years old are significantly affected with hearing loss, particularly those who work as pipefitters, carpenters, and mechanics. With advancing age, deterioration of hearing occurs in all employees studied here. PMID:7312249

Tokita, N

1981-11-01

296

Freezing technique applied to an offshore pipeline at Campos Basin in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility for future increases in production from a planned North South gas pipeline combined with safety issues prompted the production management of Exploration and Production Campos Basin to shut down the pipeline to improve the export capability of the Platform Central Enchova 1 (PCE 1) to Cabiunas pipeline in Brazil. This pipeline is the main 18 inches gas export pipeline from the Campos Basin production area north of Rio de Janeiro and stands in 104 m of water. It originates 113 km offshore at PCE 1. Corrosion inspection performed in April 1996 and March 1997 had indicated significant metal loss in a bend ahead of the platform shut down valve. The decision was then made to utilize an offshore pipeline freezing technique to isolate the pipeline and effect repairs and tests. The technique proved beneficial in allowing the pipeline to return to production much sooner than with conventional methods. Evidently, it was used only after careful evaluation and land testing. The freezing technique reduced the amount of water used in the gas pipeline and allowed for the repairs to be pressure tested prior to the return to operations. The technique is described in the paper. It should be noted that further development will be needed to make this system work in a subsea environment. 8 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

Bueno, S.I.O. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Murray, P.B. [Maritima Petroleo e Engenharia Ltda (Brazil)

2000-07-01

297

The effects of pipeline construction disturbance on soil properties and restoration cycle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disturbance to the physical-chemical properties of soil caused by pipeline installation was evaluated using two soil quality indices to identify the scale of disturbance and the restoration cycle. The integrated soil quality index (SQI) was used to evaluate soil property changes in different pipeline zones (0, 10, 20, and 50 m from the pipeline) at sites 1 and 2. The soil restoration index (SRI) was used to estimate soil recovery from three pipelines with different recovery periods (2, 6, and 8 years) at site 3. The results showed that the adverse effects of pipeline construction on soil properties mainly occurred in the right-of-way (ROW) areas and the impaired zones were in the order trench?>?piling and working areas?>?20 and 50 m. The soil restoration cycle may be complete within 6 years of construction. At site 3, the SRI in the ROW area of a pipeline after 6 years of restoration was close to 100 %, showing full soil recovery. However, the SRI in the disturbed areas of a pipeline after 2 years of restoration was much lower than that after 6 years of restoration, indicating that the soil was still recovering from the disturbance. The topography may change the intensity of disturbance in different areas due to the movement patterns of heavy machinery and traffic routes. There were local variations in the SQI within the pipeline zones, with flat areas suffering greater disturbance than hilly areas, indicating that topography should be considered in a pipeline's environmental impact assessment. PMID:24141486

Shi, Peng; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Chen, Li-Ding

2014-03-01

298

Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

299

Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

2010-12-15

300

Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

Rinehart, Ben N.

1994-08-01

 
 
 
 
301

Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

1977-01-01

302

Optimal Pipeline Connection for the West African Gas Pipeline Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ghana and three other West African countries including Benin, Togo and Nigeria have installed pipelines to establish the flow of natural gas. In this research paper, we combine Prim’s and Steiner Tree algorithms with factor rating method to solve the single source shortest path offshore/onshore pipeline problem. Data on the West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP project was collected and analyzed. We used Prim’s algorithm to find the minimum spanning tree of length 712.30 km. This is a reduction over the original 788.90 km WAGP project design. Factor rating method was then used to find an alternative path of length 723.29 km. Steiner Tree algorithm and geometry were used to obtain an optimal pipeline length of 707.75 km. This is 10.3% reduction of the WAGP length. Our solution is shown to be topologically equivalent to the WAGP network and hence optimal in pipeline distance and project cost.

E.K. Donkoh

2011-02-01

303

Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

2014-11-01

304

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

305

On the Construction of a New Stellar Classification Template Library for the LAMOST Spectral Analysis Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g - r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

Wei, Peng; Luo, Ali; Li, Yinbi; Tu, Liangping; Wang, Fengfei; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Hou, Wen; Kong, Xiao; Wu, Yue; Zuo, Fang; Pan, Jingchang; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Jie; Yi, Zhenping; Zhao, Yongheng; Chen, Jianjun; Du, Bing; Guo, Yanxin; Ren, Juanjuan; Song, Yihan; Wang, Mengxin; Wu, Kefei; Yang, Haifeng; Jin, Ge

2014-05-01

306

New territory for NGL pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even though the NGL pipeline industry appears mature, new geographic territory exists for expansion of NGL pipelines. However, the most fertile territory that must be pursued is the collective opportunities to better link the existing NGL industry. Associations like the Gas Processors Association can not perform the role demanded by a need to share information between the links of the chain on a more real time basis. The Association can not substitute for picking up the phone or calling a meeting of industry participants to discuss proposed changes in policies and procedures. All stakeholders must participate in squeezing out the inefficiencies of the industry. Some expansion and extension of NGL pipelines will occur in the future without ownership participation or commitments from the supply and demand businesses. However, significant expansions linking new supply sources and demand markets will only be made as the supply and demand businesses share long-term strategies and help define the pipeline opportunity. The successful industries of the twenty-first century will not be dominated by a single profitable sector, but rather by those industries which foster cooperation as well as competition. A healthy NGL industry will be comprised of profitable supply businesses and profitable demand businesses, linked together by profitable pipeline businesses

307

Propagating buckles in corroded pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rigid-plastic solutions for the steady-state, quasi-static buckle propagation pressure in corroded pipelines are derived and compared to finite element predictions (ABAQUS). The corroded pipeline is modeled as an infinitely long, cylindrical shell with a section of reduced thickness that is used to describe the corrosion. A five plastic hinge mechanism is used to describe plastic collapse of the corroded pipeline. Closed-form expressions are given for the buckle propagation pressure as a function of the amount of corrosion in an X77 steel pipeline. Buckles that propagate down the pipeline are caused by either global or snap-thorough buckling, depending on the amount of corrosion. Global buckling occurs when the angular extent of the corrosion is greater than 90deg. When the angular extent is less than 90deg and the corrosion is severe, snap-through buckling takes place. The buckle propagation pressure and the corresponding collapse modes also compare well to finite element predictions. (Author)

Fatt, Michelle S. Hoo; Jianghong Xue [Akron Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Akron, OH (United States)

2001-07-01

308

18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Sales by intrastate pipelines. 284.142 Section 284.142 Conservation...AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines. Any intrastate pipeline may,...

2010-04-01

309

Reliability of Radiographic Inspection of Steel Pipeline Girth Welds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the radiographic NDT technique was employed for the detection of defects in girth welds of steel pipelines used by the offshore oil industry. Simulation was used to calculate the size of the smallest detectable defect and the corresponding radiographic parameters. The method developed showed good reliability.

Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Carvalho, A. A.; Smid, J.

2008-02-01

310

Some Positive and Negative Aspects of Mine Abandonment and Their Implications on Infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

Many urban and greenfield environments throughout the United Kingdom are located in regions where mining has occurred. Mining dates back to pre-Roman times and includes metalliferous minerals (such as gold, copper, lead & zinc), bulk minerals (such as sand-stone, limestone, gypsum & halite) and coal, the latter being the most important mineral mined both quantitatively and in terms of value. Due to this long mining history, this had resulted in a legacy of mining relics and hazards (such as mine entries, abandoned workings and contaminated land), with presumably many of these sites remaining, as yet, unknown. However, the mechanisms of failure and ground deformation, in general, are appreciated. Over the past few decades the British coal mining industry has experienced a gradual decline. However, individual closed and abandoned mines, as well as entire coalfields can, under appropriate investigations and a favourable economic climate, offer alternative energy resources. These include for instance, for coal bed methane (CBM), coal mine methane (CMM), underground coal gasification (UCG). The objectives of this paper are to draw attention to some less well-documented positive aspects of mine closures and coalfield abandonment.

Donnelly, Laurance; Bell, Fred; Culshaw, Martin

311

Technical development concerning abandonment of low level radioactive wastes into ocean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power stations has increased year by year, and the measures to treat and dispose them safely and surely have become urgent problem. In October, 1976, the Atomic Energy Commission presented the basic policy with ''On the countermeasures to radioactive wastes'', and the necessity of establishing a corporation undertaking the execution of trial disposal was mentioned. The foundation ''Atomic Energy Environment Conditioning Center'' was established accordingly, and it is making the preparation of the required tests and researches and the trial disposal in ocean. Four sea areas were selected as the possible areas for the disposal in ocean, and the survey on the environment of these sea areas was carried out for three years. Since 1977, the detailed survey has been made about the B sea area which seemed to be most desirable. In order to execute the trial disposal in ocean safely and surely, the soundness of solidified bodies, the preparation of a ship for abandonment, the works of transport and abandonment, and the pressurizing test of the drums for abandonment in a high pressure tank were studied. The survey of four sea areas and the evaluation of safety in ocean environment are described. The relevant laws were revised so as to accord with international treaties. The international relations concerning this problem are explained. (Kako, I.)

312

Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of ecosystem services.

Almudena San Roman Sanz

2013-06-01

313

Maintenance planning under imperfect inspections of corroded pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, a maintenance policy is proposed for pipelines subject to corrosion, by taking into account imperfect inspection results. The degradation of the pipeline is induced by uniform and pitting corrosion, leading to losses in the pipe wall thickness. The inspection is applied to detect the corrosion defects, namely the corrosion depth and width. The inspection has a detection threshold under which no corrosion can be measured. Due to uncertainties, each inspection is affected by the probability of detecting small defects and the probability of wrong assessment in terms of defect existence and size. The present work aims at integrating imperfect inspection results in the cost model for corroded pipelines, where the failure probabilities are computed by reliability methods. A numerical application on a gas pipe shows the influence of inspection quality and cost on the choice of the optimal maintenance planning

314

High pressure gas pipeline under the influence of radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents one of the possible hazardous situations during transportation of gas through the international pipeline. It describes case when at high pressure gas pipeline, due to mechanical or chemical effect, the crack and gas leakage appears and gas is somehow triggered to combusting. As a consequence of heat impingement on the pipe surface will be, change of material properties (decreasing of strength) at high temperatures. In order to avoid greater rapture a reasonable pressure relief rate needs to be applied. Standards in this particular domain of depressurizing procedure are not so exact (DIN EN ISO 23251; API 521). The main part of the work consists of two calculations. First is the numerical simulation of heat radiation of combustible gas which affects the pipeline, done by software FLUENT, and second in Matlab. There are also given conclusions according to achieved results.

Ilic, Marko N.; Ilic, Gradimir S.; Stefanovic, Velimir P.; Pavlovic, Sasa R.; Bojic, Milorad L. j.

2012-11-01

315

Studying of acid-gas pipelines corrosion with impedance spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research, the acid-gas pipelines of a gas refinery were simulated in laboratory. Acid gas is normally the feed of sulfur recovery plant (SRP) in a gas refinery. For studying corrosion kinetic and related mechanisms the impedance spectroscopy was used. Impedance diagrams were simulated by Boukamp1988 software. It was found that the simulated systems can be equated to a circuit with two time constants. For studying corrosion rate changes a type of inhibitor was utilized. The inhibitor used in this work was an imidazoline, an appropriate based inhibitor formulated with the commercial grade imidazoline and dimmer - trimer acid. It was shown that impedance spectroscopy technique can be used for corrosion monitoring of acid gas pipelines in gas refineries. The impedance spectroscopy will be tried in due course as a suitable technique in field for corrosion control of acid-gas pipelines. (authors)

Neshati, J.; Fardi, M.R.; Ghassem, H. [Corrosion Department, NIOC-RIPI, Pazhooheshgah Bulevard, Khairabad Junction, Old Qom Road Tehran (Iran)

2004-07-01

316

Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes  

Science.gov (United States)

Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

2012-01-01

317

76 FR 30241 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0125] Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and Improving Pipeline...

2011-05-24

318

Creating Data Pipelines for PDS Datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the details of an image processing pipeline and a new Python library providing a convenient interface to Planetary Data System (PDS) data products. The library aims to be a useful tool for general purpose PDS processing. Test images have been extracted from existing PDS data products using the library but will work with lunar images from LRO/LROC. To process high-volume data sets we employ Hadoop, an open-source framework implementing the Map/Reduce paradigm for writing data intensive distributed applications. By harnessing a cluster of processing nodes we are able to extract raw images from data products and convert them to web-friendly formats at the rate of gigabytes per minute. The resultant images have been converted using the Python Image Library. Additionally, the images have been cropped to postage stamp images supporting various zoom levels. The final images, along with some metadata are uploaded to Amazon's S3 data storage system where they are served. Preliminary tests of the pipeline are promising, having processed 10,000 sample files totaling 30 GB in 15 minutes. The resultant jpegs totaled only 3 GB after compression. The code base has not only proven successful in its own right, but also shows Python, an interpreted language, to be a viable alternative to more mainstream compiled languages such as C/C++ or Fortran, especially when combined with Hadoop. This work was funded through NASA ROSES NNX09AD34G.

Balfanz, Ryan; Armbrust, M.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.

2010-01-01

319

Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

320

Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
321

Fatigue of Pipelines resting on Uneven Seabed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subsea pipelines represent the most cost effective way of transporting oil and gas from the subsea field to the market. A large network of subsea pipelines has therefore been installed both at the Norwegian continental shelf an elsewhere. In the near-shore areas of Norway, the seabed is irregular and pipeline free-spans are unavoidable. This in combination with significant current action, may cause vortex induced vibration (VIV) and fatigue in the pipeline welds. This project focus on studyin...

Jin, Xing

2011-01-01

322

Integrity Evaluation of Oil and Gas Pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The length of oil and gas pipelines is increased much according to economic reasons and practicality, the construction of pipeline in Asia and Europe is going on global region in recently. This oil and gas pipelines is managed integrity to it's explosion property or environmental pollution riskiness. This paper is dealt with major defects type, using on integrity evaluation methods in developed countries, showing basic data to workout a countermeasure integrity evaluation of domestic pipelines.

323

The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

2013-04-01

324

Building the Alaska pipeline : story of a legend : Frank Moolin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article chronicled the events that took place during the building of the Alaska Pipeline from Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's Northern Coast to the Port of Valdez. In particular, it highlighted the project management led by senior project manager Frank Moolin. The oil companies officially announced their plans to begin the pipeline in February 1969. The estimated cost was $900 million, and completion was targeted for 1972. Moolin was hired by Alyeska, the company formed to design and build the pipeline. The Alaska Pipeline project was launched with little more than a goal and no clear roadmap for achieving it. Project critics claimed that it was impossible to build an 800-mile pipeline through the Alaskan wilderness using conventional methods. In addition to facing obstacles, contingency scenarios, and timetable problems, the oil companies were stopped by environmental groups and Native Alaskans who had no intention of allowing the pipeline to be built on their land. In response, oil companies wanted to lay the pipeline underground, but geologists pointed out that a large portion of Alaska rests on permafrost that cannot support any weight when it thaws. Geological testing revealed that nearly 400 miles of the pipeline had to be built above ground. In January 1974, Frank Moolin's construction crew of 20,000 people began the preparatory work. First, a supply road was built through the northern half of Alaska, from the Yukon River north of Fairbanks to Prudhoe Bay. By March 1975, three million tons of pipe, machinery, spare parts, fuel and food were hauled in, and the pipe-laying began. Moolin motivated his workers and kept morale high throughout the difficult building process. For two years, Moolin kept the problem-ridden project on track. Twelve pump stations had to be built so that 800 miles of pipe could be welded together 40 feet at a time. On June 20, 1977, the valves at Prudhoe Bay were opened, and the first Alaskan crude oil began to flow. The final tab on the Alaska Pipeline project was $8 billion, 10 times the original estimate. 1 fig.

Weinstein, B. [Troy Media Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2009-07-15

325

Challenges of manufacturing offshore gas pipelines; LNG pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over recent years, gas has become an increasingly important commodity in an historically oil-driven economy. Changes in the economics of gas transportation are encouraging organisations to consider new ways of securing access to this fuel and ensuring its economical distribution. The resulting innovation is changing the demands and trends for the gas pipeline market both onshore and, more specifically, offshore. (Author)

Freeman, Richard

2010-07-01

326

Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

327

Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami. FL 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01

328

On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

2003-07-01

329

Technical application for reliability in the study of the variables of the equations in the pipeline project; Aplicacao de tecnicas de confiabilidade no estudo das variaveis das equacoes de projeto de dutos submarinos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents the pipeline reliability study, which consists of carrying out sensibility analysis of the basic variables concerning the pipeline design criteria. The design criteria proposed by Shell and Battelle are considered. (author) 5 refs., 3 figs.

Alves, Teresinha do M.J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Superintendencia de Exploracao e Producao; Ariza, Luis Christian Folch [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Oceanica

1994-07-01

330

Sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels and their welded joints have been presented for pipeline steels. Results of hydrogen sulfide stress cracking inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors of three types protective actions on pipeline steels of two grades petroleum range of products are given. (author)

331

Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

R. Vicentini

2007-05-01

332

Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data forma [...] t, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

R., Vicentini; M., Menossi.

333

Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

1980-06-01

334

Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2009-07-01

335

Application of risk-based inspection to two pipelines of the TRANSPETRO network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inspection and maintenance are a significant part of pipeline operations costs. The objective of this work is to present the results obtained with the application of Risk-Based Inspection to two gas pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. Based on the current state of knowledge about the degradation mechanisms acting on either pipeline and their respective operating conditions, the RBI study recommended that both be inspected next year. Alternatively in one case, the study lays out the conditions by which the pipeline inspection can be postponed to 2007. TRANSPETRO had already decided to inspect the other pipeline this year (for reasons not related to this study) and therefore, the RBI approach is going to be re-applied after the new inspection results are available. This application will set the date for the next inspection. (author)

Leinum, Bente; Bjornoy, Ola [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Oliveira, Luiz Fernando; Oliveira, Cassia [DNV Principia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Claudio Brito [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

336

Some technological aspects for functioning of crude oil pipeline Solun-OKTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999 and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared specially for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. The pipeline is designed for transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. The pipeline system has been equipped with sophisticated and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

337

Some technological aspects of the functioning of the Thessalonica-OKTA oil pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999, and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared especial for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. Pipeline is designed for a transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. Pipeline system has been equipped with sophistic and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

338

Influence of soil properties on the behavior of heated on bottom pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore pipelines have increasingly been operating at high temperatures and high pressures. Compression due to these loads can lead to global buckling, either laterally and/or vertically, depending on the burial depth and soil properties. The amount of embedment of pipelines directly laid on the seabed depends on the soil properties and influences the behavior of pipelines in operation. This work investigates the interaction between the vertical and lateral buckling modes, based on the analytical approach proposed for pipeline global buckling analysis by Hobbs. Furthermore, it presents a sensitivity study characterizing the impact of the determination of accurate soil properties. Finally, a conceptual design procedure, which takes into account the particular case of short pipelines, is provided. The method is presented by means of an example case. (author)

Hallai, Julian [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

339

Remote underwater excavation; A new approach to subsea pipeline repair/reinstatement  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author discusses a new and much more rapid excavation system proving itself in the North Sea pipeline and mud clearance market offers a novel and completely non-destructive method of excavating pipelines. It uses a large-diameter, low-velocity column of water to blow away materials. The small size and light weight of the underwater unit and the way it is deployed buoyantly from the seabed makes it ideal for use on delicate work sites such as pipelines, manifolds and platforms. The Remote Underwater Excavator, or RUE, was originally conceived and deployed in 1988 as a means of rapidly excavating shipwrecks. An early interest from several oil and gas companies, mainly as a pipeline deburial tool in an emergency pipeline repair spread, gave the impetus to commercial development. A completely new, second generation of machines has now been designed and built.

Sills, N.V. (Consortium Resource Management Ltd., Aberdeen, Scotland (GB))

1989-07-01

340

Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Some technological aspects for functioning of crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999 and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared specially for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. The pipeline is designed for transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. The pipeline system has been equipped with sophisticated and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

342

The Alaska Highway Pipeline project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice for new electric generation capacity, the demand is increasing rapidly and supply from traditional producing basins is not keeping up. There is a need to connect new sources of gas to the North American grid. Foothills Pipelines Ltd. believe that the gas reserves at Prudhoe Bay and in the Mackenzie Delta will be sent to market at different times via different pipelines. It is also believed that the Alaska Highway Project will be constructed for many valid reasons. Gas development is much more advanced in Alaska than in northern Canada and in addition, the project has already been approved and half of the right-of-way has been acquired. The Alaska Highway pipeline has the support of Alaska and it will follow an existing transportation corridor and will therefore have fewer environmental issues. The Alaskan North Slope has proven reserves of 30-35 Tcf and a production of about 8 Bcfd. During the course of this project, Foothills Pipelines Ltd. will address timing issues, commercial issues, needs of the First nations people as well as the needs of Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. 11 figs

343

Ultrasonics for undersea pipeline NDT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An automatic ultrasonic testing system has been developed for rapid inspection of welded joints of undersea pipelines, before they leave the pipe laying vessel. The system, Rotoscan 77, is a 'spin-off' development of a nuclear vessel inspection system. The system is described and its advantages are discussed. (U.K.)

344

Lithuania swings left, abandons nuclear plant project | EurActiv  

... Lithuania swings left, abandons nuclear plant project | EurActiv elections,energy,Lithuania,Lithuanian elections,nuclear energy,Visaginas EU news & policy ... VIDEOS Home › Elections › News Lithuania swings left, abandons nuclear plant project [fr] -A + A Published 15 October 2012 ...comment Tags Lithuania, Lithuanian elections, nuclear energy, Visaginas The Labour Party of Russian-born millionaire Victor Uspaskich has emerged as the winner ...of the parliamentary elections in Lithuania. His party is set to form a government with the Social Democrats of Algirdas Butkevicius, who ...

345

Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition can only occur when the interface temperature is below WAT, the temperature distribution is a necessary information which is obtained by the energy equation. The one-dimensional, transient and laminar flow governing equations are discretized based on the finite volume method, with the upwind scheme to treat the convection term. A totally implicit procedure was employed to handle the time integration term. The set of algebraic equations were solved by the TDMA line by line algorithm. The thickness of the deposited layer is a function of the axial coordinate and presents a monotonic increase at several time instants which is in reasonable agreement whit previous results. (author)

Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

346

Spitzer Space Telescope MIPS Germanium Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The MIPS Germanium data reduction pipelines present challenges to remove a wide variety of detector artifacts and still operate efficiently in a loosely coupled multiprocessor environment. The system scheduling architecture is designed to sequentially execute four stages of pipelines. Each pipeline stage is built around perl scripts that can invoke Fortran/C/C++ modules or Informix database stored procedures. All inter-pipeline communication is via the database. The pipeline stages are the elimination of nonlinear and radiation artifacts in the flux measurement, the calibration of the fluxes with both onboard and stellar calibration sources, applying post-facto pointing information, and assembling individual exposures into mosaics.

Henderson, D.; Frayer, D.; Hesselroth, T. D.; Pesenson, M.

2005-12-01

347

Calculation of NPP pipeline seismic stability  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simplified design procedure of seismic pipeline stability of NPP at WWER reactor is described. The simplified design procedure envisages during the selection and arrangement of pipeline saddle and hydraulic shock absorbers use of method of introduction of resilient mountings of very high rigidity into the calculated scheme of the pipeline and performance of calculations with step-by-step method. It is concluded that the application of the design procedure considered permits to determine strains due to seismic loads, to analyze stressed state in pipeline elements and supporting power of pipe-line saddle with provision for seismic loads to plan measures on seismic protection

348

Pipeline planning and construction field manual  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

Menon, E Shashi

1978-01-01

349

Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to identify process failure modes or possibility of the appearance of non-compliance, as well as their possible causes. For qualitative analysis of key input variables of the process, in the paper is used Ishikawa diagram and p-chart.Findings: It is shown that proposed approach to risk assessment in shipbuilding pipeline production is applicable to real casa scenario. The analysis has identified the points in the process with the highest probability of occurrence of nonconformities, or the highest risk for error.Research limitations/implications: As the experimenting has been conducted in shipyard, within production process, research schedule must have been set in accordance with production pace. Also, due to character of production process the data collecting was adopted to the production plan in that particular moment.Practical implications: Dealing with causes of potential nonconformities in the process can significantly contribute to the reliability and robustness of the process. Corrective actions that have been taken based on results of analysis significantly contributed to the level of quality in the pipeline production process.Originality/value: The pepper is dealing with a well known method applied in different production environment that are mostly conservative in production approach. It was shown that successful application of proposed approach can yield benefits especially in improved quality of produced pipelines within shipbuilding industry.

T. Buksa

2010-06-01

350

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-12-19

351

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

352

Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

353

40 CFR 147.2905 - Plugging and abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Osage Mineral Reserve-Class II Wells § 147.2905 Plugging and abandonment...surface and covered with a secure steel cap on top of the surface pipe. The remaining 3 feet shall be filled with dirt....

2010-07-01

354

THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

URSZULA MYGA-PI?TEK

2008-12-01

355

Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development

356

Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment

357

Why We Should Abandon the Idea of the Learning Organization  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose that the idea of the learning organization should be abandoned on the grounds that it was an imaginative idea that has now run its course. The paper seeks to explore the roots of the definition and provoke debate about the wisdom of retaining the concept. The argument is a challenge to readers to…

Grieves, Jim

2008-01-01

358

Abandoning Colorblind Practice in School Counseling  

Science.gov (United States)

Drawing from three case vignettes and the extant literature, the authors seek to identify, problematize, and expand the discussion on colorblind approaches to diversity within the practice of school counseling. The authors discuss how such an approach to working with students from under-represented groups subtly blames the victim, limits the…

Smith, Lance C.; Geroski, Anne M.; Tyler, Katie B.

2014-01-01

359

41 CFR 102-41.195 - How do we dispose of forfeited, voluntarily abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for...  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? 102-41.195...abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use? Report forfeited...abandoned, or unclaimed firearms not retained for official use to the General...

2010-07-01

360

41 CFR 102-41.90 - What happens to voluntarily abandoned personal property retained for official use?  

Science.gov (United States)

...voluntarily abandoned personal property retained for official use? 102-41.90...voluntarily abandoned personal property retained for official use? Voluntarily abandoned personal property retained for official use or transferred to...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

30 CFR 872.20 - What will OSM do with unappropriated AML funds currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...funds currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine Program ? 872.20 Section 872...ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION MONEYS AVAILABLE...funds currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine Program ? Under section...

2010-07-01

362

41 CFR 102-41.95 - Where do we send the reports for voluntarily abandoned personal property?  

Science.gov (United States)

...do we send the reports for voluntarily abandoned personal property? 102-41.95 ...41-DISPOSITION OF SEIZED, FORFEITED, VOLUNTARILY ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Voluntarily Abandoned Personal Property § 102-41.95...

2010-07-01

363

41 CFR 102-41.85 - What choices do I have for retaining or disposing of voluntarily abandoned personal property?  

Science.gov (United States)

...for retaining or disposing of voluntarily abandoned personal property? 102-41.85 ...41-DISPOSITION OF SEIZED, FORFEITED, VOLUNTARILY ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Voluntarily Abandoned Personal Property § 102-41.85...

2010-07-01

364

37 CFR 1.137 - Revival of abandoned application, terminated or limited reexamination prosecution, or lapsed patent.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Revival of abandoned application, terminated or limited...Application § 1.137 Revival of abandoned application, terminated or limited...pursuant to this paragraph to revive an abandoned application, a reexamination...

2010-07-01

365

41 CFR 102-41.115 - May we retain the proceeds received from the sale of voluntarily abandoned personal property?  

Science.gov (United States)

...proceeds received from the sale of voluntarily abandoned personal property? 102-41.115...41-DISPOSITION OF SEIZED, FORFEITED, VOLUNTARILY ABANDONED, AND UNCLAIMED PERSONAL PROPERTY Voluntarily Abandoned Personal Property §...

2010-07-01

366

41 CFR 102-41.85 - What choices do I have for retaining or disposing of voluntarily abandoned personal property?  

Science.gov (United States)

... Voluntarily Abandoned Personal Property § 102-41...of voluntarily abandoned personal property? You may either...of voluntarily abandoned personal property based on the following circumstances: (a) If your...

2010-07-01

367

30 CFR 756.17 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following...the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan are approved. (a...I, Comprehensive/Problem Evaluation Matrix—Description of...

2010-07-01

368

46 CFR 131.530 - Abandon-ship training and drills.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Abandon-ship training and drills. 131.530 Section 131.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 131.530 Abandon-ship training and drills....

2010-10-01

369

76 FR 12852 - Louisiana Regulatory Program/Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977...previously mined areas; cessation orders...abandoned mine land reclamation plan to be consistent...regulation of surface coal mining and...

2011-03-09

370

31 CFR 500.561 - Transfers of abandoned property under State laws.  

Science.gov (United States)

...property to State agencies under State laws governing abandoned property...blocked property, pursuant to the laws of the State governing abandoned...Provided, That the State's laws are custodial in nature, i.e., there is no...

2010-07-01

371

31 CFR 515.554 - Transfers of abandoned property under State laws.  

Science.gov (United States)

...property to State agencies under State laws governing abandoned property...blocked property, pursuant to the laws of the State governing abandoned...Provided, That the State's laws are custodial in nature, i.e., there is no...

2010-07-01

372

25 CFR 215.11 - New leases where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned.  

Science.gov (United States)

...where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned. In cases where the lands have heretofore been leased and lead and zinc ores have been discovered but the mines and mining operations have been abandoned and the leases have been...

2010-04-01

373

30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920.20 Section 920.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING...SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MARYLAND § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine...

2010-07-01

374

Mineral phases identification inside an abandoned Zn/Pb mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the work is the identification of the sulphurated phase's outbreak on an aragonite, dolomite and calcite-based original rock inside an abandoned mine. The studied Blende/Galena (ZnS/PbS) Mine, located in Lanestosa (Bizkaia, North of Spain) was operative until 1950. After decades, the area has only supported wild life and thus nowadays it could be considered as a polluted site which has become naturalized. The main alteration factors inside the mine are percolated water, gases come from the outside (CO2, O2) and biological activities. Mining activities generates loads of ore minerals and unwanted materials that with the time impact the surrounding environment. The waste includes granular, broken rock and soils ranging in size from the fine sand to large boulders, with the content of fine material largely dependent on the nature of the formation and extraction methods employed during mining. Waste materials geochemistry varies widely from mine to mine and may vary significantly at individual mines over time as different lithologic strata are exposed and geochemical processes alter characteristics of the waste. In order to determine the finest mineral composition in the galleries, several samples were collected. Once dried in a fume hood and sieved, the portions below 250 ?m were subjected to non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis. The measurements reflected the ore precursors (primary phases: Blende, and Galena), several primary carbonates (dolomite, calcite and aragonite) with secondary minerals in trace levels (Brookite, Libethenite, Fluorapatita, Anatasa, Quartz, Apatite, Augite, Diopside, Anthracite, Hematite, Cosalite, Epidote, Rutile) and transformation products, probably of recent formation (Smithsonite, Massicot, Plattnerite, Gypsum, Siderite, Mendiphite, Escorodite, Gauberite, Goethite or Mascagnite). The origin of the secondary mineral may be related to percolated rain and snow water. This hypothesis is based in the acidic snow water collected in January of 2009 (pH?5). Acid water dissolves all carbonates and all those soluble salts leached in surface (ZnCO3 or PbCO3). Finally, a basic thermodynamic model has been developed in order to explain the primary mineral phases transformation to the secondary ones. Acknowledgements. This work was financially supported by the BERRILUR II Project (ref. IE06-179, ETORTEK, Basque Government).

375

Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners

376

Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

1993-09-01

377

Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

378

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The dev...

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; Kadry, Seifedine; El-tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

379

Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems When facing persistent balance of payments problems, some countries have resorted to a dual exchange rate system as an alternative to a uniform exchange rate adjustment. Typically, under the dual system, certain selected transactions take place at a fixed official exchange rate, while there remaining transactions are effected at a more depreciated rate, which is usually determined by market forces. This paper examines the circumstances that lead to the adoption of a dual system, and the conditions under which the foreign exchange market can be unified successfully or a later stage. In this paper, the adoption of the dual system is linked to the unsustainability of a crawling peg (or a fixed exchange rate system in the presence of large budgret deficits. We show that the initiai spiral between the financial at the commercial exchange rates and the extent of capital flight largely depends on whether the switch in regime is anticipated or unanticipated. Although the dual system improves the external position of the economy, to the extent that there is no change in domestic noticies the country will continue to experience a deficit in the balance of payments. A correction of these policies is the only enduring solution to the external imbalance, and a precondition for a successful unification of the foreirg exchange market. If the economv unifies the foreign exchange market into a crawling peg, the financial exchahnge rate could be an adequate indicator of the initlal level of which the new exchange rate should be set if a capital outflow is to be avoided. If the economy instead moves to a flexible exchange rate system, the initial value of the exchange rate could be higher or lower than the prevailing financial exchange rate.

Jose Saul Lizondo

1990-03-01

380

VLSI Implementation of Pipelined Fast Fourier Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital Signal Processing (DSP has become a very important and dynamic research area. Now a day’s many integrated circuits dedicated to DSP functions. Unfortunately Existing designs are restricted to a low accuracy and a small sample number. The Fourier transform is widely used in industrial applications as well as in scientific research. The most common use is to transform a function of time into a frequency function. In this paper, we present the efficient implementation of a pipeline FFT. Our design adopts a single-path delay feedback style as the proposed hardware architecture. To eliminate the read-only memories (ROM’s used to store the twiddle factors, the proposed architecture applies a reconfigurable complex multiplier and bit-parallel multipliers to achieve a ROM-less FFT processor, thus consuming lower power than the existing works.

K. Indirapriyadarsini , S.Kamalakumari , G. Prasannakumar

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
381

Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system  

Science.gov (United States)

An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

1982-01-01

382

Test results for the Gemini Planet Imager data reduction pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) is a new facility instrument for the Gemini Observatory designed to detect and characterize planets and debris disks orbiting nearby stars; its science camera is a near infrared integral field spectrograph. We have developed a data pipeline for this instrument, which will be made publicly available to the community. The GPI data reduction pipeline (DRP) incorporates all necessary image reduction and calibration steps for high contrast imaging in both the spectral and polarimetric modes, including datacube generation, wavelength solution, astrometric and photometric calibrations, and speckle suppression via ADI and SSDI algorithms. It is implemented in IDL as a flexible modular system, and includes both command line and graphical interface tools including a customized viewer for GPI datacubes. This GPI data reduction pipeline is currently working very well, and is in use daily processing data during the instrument’s ongoing integration and test period at UC Santa Cruz. Here we summarize the results from recent pipeline tests, and present reductions of instrument test data taken with GPI. We will continue to refine and improve these tools throughout the rest of GPI’s testing and commissioning, and they will be released to the community, including both IDL source code and compiled versions that can be used without an IDL license.

Maire, Jérôme; Perrin, Marshall D.; Doyon, René; Chilcote, Jeffrey; Larkin, James E.; Weiss, Jason L.; Marois, Christian; Konopacky, Quinn M.; Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell; Graham, James R.; Dunn, Jennifer; Galicher, Raphael; Marchis, Franck; Wiktorowicz, Sloane J.; Labrie, Kathleen; Thomas, Sandrine J.; Goodsell, Stephen J.; Rantakyro, Fredrik T.; Palmer, David W.; Macintosh, Bruce A.

2012-09-01

383

The Kepler Completeness Study: A Pipeline Throughput Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kepler Mission was designed to measure the frequency of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. A requirement for determining the underlying planet population from a sample of detected planets is understanding the completeness of that sample-what fraction of the planets that could have been discovered in a given data set were actually detected. Here we describe an experiment designed to address a specific aspect of that question, which is the issue of signal throughput efficiency. We investigate the extent to which the Kepler pipeline preserves transit signals by injecting simulated transit signals into the pixel-level data, processing the modified pixels through the pipeline, and measuring their detection statistics. For the single channel that we examine initially, we inject simulated transit signal trains into the pixel time series of each of the 1801 targets for the 89 days that constitute Quarter 3. For the 1680 that behave as expected in the pipeline, on average we find the strength of the injected signal is recovered at 99.6% of the strength of the original signal. Finally we outline the further work required to characterise the completeness of the Kepler pipeline.

Christiansen, Jessie L.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Burke, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jenkins

2014-04-01

384

[Automatic analysis pipeline of next-generation sequencing data].  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of next-generation sequencing has generated high demand for data processing and analysis. Although there are a lot of software for analyzing next-generation sequencing data, most of them are designed for one specific function (e.g., alignment, variant calling or annotation). Therefore, it is necessary to combine them together for data analysis and to generate interpretable results for biologists. This study designed a pipeline to process Illumina sequencing data based on Perl programming language and SGE system. The pipeline takes original sequence data (fastq format) as input, calls the standard data processing software (e.g., BWA, Samtools, GATK, and Annovar), and finally outputs a list of annotated variants that researchers can further analyze. The pipeline simplifies the manual operation and improves the efficiency by automatization and parallel computation. Users can easily run the pipeline by editing the configuration file or clicking the graphical interface. Our work will facilitate the research projects using the sequencing technology. PMID:24929521

Wenke, Li; Fengyu, Li; Siyao, Zhang; Bin, Cai; Na, Zheng; Yu, Nie; Dao, Zhou; Qian, Zhao

2014-06-01

385

45 CFR 3.5 - Lost and found, and abandoned property.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-10-01 false Lost and found, and abandoned property. 3.5 Section 3.5 ...General § 3.5 Lost and found, and abandoned property. Lost articles which...regulations (41 CFR part 101-48). Abandoned, or other unclaimed property...

2010-10-01

386

7 CFR 1955.55 - Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody and related actions.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody...Management of Property § 1955.55 Taking abandoned real or chattel property into custody...subpart J.) When it appears a borrower has abandoned security property, the...

2010-01-01

387

30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. 934.20 Section 934.20...DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as submitted on July 28,...

2010-07-01

388

25 CFR 215.11 - New leases where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned.  

Science.gov (United States)

...where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned. 215.11 Section 215.11 Indians...where prior leases have been forfeited or abandoned. In cases where the lands have...mines and mining operations have been abandoned and the leases have been canceled or...

2010-04-01

389

Recompression of natural gas during pipeline repair  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gasunie is working to minimize the company's emission of greenhouse gases and set up a so-called (carbon) footprint reduction programme. Recompression of natural gas is a part of that programme, being the better alternative for flaring or venting when a pipeline must be emptied. To fully utilize the recompression concept, a unique recompression unit was designed to make recompression as easy as possible, what was considered to be of vital importance for successful implementation. The unit came into operation in 2006 and Gasunie has integrated recompression in its regular workflow. 30 gas evacuation jobs have since been done with recompression which resulted in a recompressed volume of 13.3 million m{sup 3}(n). This volume represents 238,000 t of CO{sub 2}-equivalents that are prevented of flowing into the atmosphere and a revenue of 3.7 million Euro from the gas that is saved from beingwasted by flaring or venting. The revenue is based on a commodity price of 0.28 Euro/m{sup 3}. The unit did cost 1.5 million Euro, so the return on investment is obvious. If all gas evacuation jobs are considered, there is still some recompression potential left. A limiting factor of recompression is the time it takes. In some cases the time to recompress exceeds the allowable down time of the pipeline. Therefore a second unit is delivered to Gasunie in 2010. With this extra capacity more gas can be recompressed. Gasunie has put in serious effort to get the recompression concept working in all its aspects and is therefore very pleased with the results so far. This is underlined by the fact that a second unit is bought. With recompression Gasunie has found a way to reduce greenhouse emissions in a cost effective way, or even better, in a cost saving way.

Rotink, M.H.; Koppens, B.G. [N. V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)

2013-04-15

390

Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

Zahra Faeli

2010-10-01

391

Studying the future of pipeline capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the next five years, many 15- or 20-year contracts between natural gas pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs) for firm-transportation service will come up for renewal. In addition, clauses in some existing contracts permit LDCs to periodically exercise options to reduce or relinquish portions of their firm-transportation capacity. To the extent that LDC-shippers stepdown, turnback or relinquish capacity, pipelines may be confronted with the possibility of revenue shortfalls. In December, the LDC Caucus released a study exploring the emerging problem of unsubscribed pipeline capacity. The 50-page document -- An Issue Paper Regarding Future Unsubscribed Pipeline Capacity -- describes the causes of capacity relinquishment on interstate natural gas pipelines, estimates the scope of the problem, explores the ramifications and implications for shippers and pipelines, and recommends policy approaches for consideration by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and affected stakeholders. This paper summarizes this document

392

The STScI HST Astrometry Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

An Astrometry Data Processing Pipeline has been developed and deployed at th e Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). This pipeline is responsible for producing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Astrometry Data Sets used to analyze astrometry observations and the operation of the HST Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS). Prior to the STScI Astrometry Data Processing Pipeline becoming operational, HST Astrometry Data Sets were produced by the Astrometry and Engineering Data Processing (AEDP) System at Goddard Spaceflight Center (GSFC). This paper describes the processing performed by the STScI Astrometry Pipeline and how the pipeline was designed and developed to reuse existing software components from the STScI OPUS system. OPUS is an STScI developed automated data pipeline system providing a distributed processing environment used to control and monitor applications executing in a sequential order. OPUS is described in detail in other htmladdnormallinkfoot{papers} {http://www.dpt.stsci.edu/dpt_papers/opus_bib.html}.

Schultz, John J.; Goldstein, Philip; Hyde, Pete; Rose, Mary Alice; Steuerman, Keneth; Baum, John; Perrine, Rick; Swade, Daryl A.

393

Towards a new framework for cross-border pipelines: The International Pipeline Agency (IPA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of cross-border pipelines has greatly increased over the last couple of years and is considered as one of the main ingredients of energy security. However there is no regulatory body regulating their activities, causing problems that disrupt the flow of hydro-carbon resources. A treaty like the Energy Charter Treaty is not sufficient to deal with the problems faced by cross-border pipelines. This viewpoint proposes the need for the creation of a new pipeline agency that can deal with the various issues affecting the pipelines. - Highlights: ? Problem with current mechanisms dealing cross-border pipeline disputes. ? Problem with compliance and enforcement in cross-border pipelines. ? Regulatory aspect of cross-border pipelines. ? New framework for cross-border pipelines.

394

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais

2011-07-01

395

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

396

Sustainability and strategies for ‘rebuilding’ abandoned territories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study concerns the L’Aquila territory, at a particular point in time (post earthquake, when past and present vulnerabilities call for structural interventions that will ensure powerful and lasting recovery. This article focuses on one particular aspect of the overall work we are carrying out: the identification of appropriate sustainable development materials and technologies for testing in situ. Briefly, and for contextual purposes, we set out the cultural and scientific reference points (familiarity with territorial sustainability levels for appropriate and informed choices that underpin the research statement; we outline the parallel survey topics that complete the strategic territorial development framework, for a better understanding of the subject. In particular, we refer to actions for promoting a different sort of residentiality underpinned by sustainable mobility, and access to services, new job opportunities in eco-industrial clusters for sustainable building and further opportunities stemming from the integration of the agricultural, energy and tourist sectors.

Maria Cristina Forlani

2011-04-01

397

Reflex: Scientific Workflows for the ESO Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The recently released Reflex scientific workflow environment supports the interactive execution of ESO VLT data reduction pipelines. Reflex is based upon the Kepler workflow engine, and provides components for organising the data, executing pipeline recipes based on the ESO Common Pipeline Library, invoking Python scripts, and constructing interaction loops. Reflex will greatly enhance the quick validation and reduction of the scientific data. In this paper we summarize the ...

Ballester, Pascal; Bramich, Daniel; Forchi, Vincenzo; Freudling, Wolfram; Garcia-dabo, Cesar Enrique; Gebbinck, Maurice Klein; Modigliani, Andrea; Romaniello, Martino

2011-01-01

398

Pipeline dreams face up to reality  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article gives details of two gas pipelines which are expected to be built in Turkey to meet the estimated demand for gas. The Bluestream joint ENI/Gasprom project pipeline will convey Russian gas across the Black Sea to Turkey, and the PSG joint Bechtel/General Electric venture will bring gas from Turkmenistan to Turkey across the Caspian Sea. Construction of the pipelines and financing aspects are discussed. (uk)

399

European cross-country oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CONCAWE first became involved with oil pipeline safety issues in the mid-1960s when it started collecting information and statistics on incidents and spills related to European cross-country oil pipelines. Annual data have been collected since 1969 through a survey of pipeline operators. The first report was published the same year and annual reports have been published since 1972. Starting in 2006, the annual report has included all historical data with each report superseding the previous one.

Den Haan, K. [CONCAWE, Brussels (Belgium)

2013-04-01

400

Pipeline dreams face up to reality  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article gives details of two gas pipelines which are expected to be built in Turkey to meet the estimated demand for gas. The Bluestream joint ENI/Gasprom project pipeline will convey Russian gas across the Black Sea to Turkey, and the PSG joint Bechtel/General Electric venture will bring gas from Turkmenistan to Turkey across the Caspian Sea. Construction of the pipelines and financing aspects are discussed. (uk)

Ryan, Orla

1999-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

Infrastructure Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAP)  

Science.gov (United States)

How does crude oil get from the northern-most regions of Alaska to southern regions for shipping? This reading, part of a site about the future of energy, describes the Trans-Alaska Pipeline that carries crude oil and runs from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. Information for students covers the need for constant oil temperature during shipping, threats to the pipeline, and the future of the pipeline. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

Project, Iowa P.

2004-01-01

402

Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

403

Stabilité des pipelines non ensouillés. Etude bibliographique Stability of Unburied Pipelines. Bibliographic Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The integrity of an unburied subsea pipeline depends to a very large extent on its stability on the seabed along its entire length. Hence the determination of this stability is of great importance in the engineering design of pipelines. This article proposes to examine the principal problems raised by the stability of unburied pipelines in the field of soil mechanics. These problems mainly concern the reactions of the soil to pipelines and their assessment, i. e. the forces of soil resistance...

Alliot J. M.

2006-01-01

404

Feeler pig - a new tool for multi-size pipeline inspection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The PPG-1/PGP-1 crude pipeline connects platforms Pargo and Garoupa in the Campos Basin. Crude is processed at Garoupa by removing water and transferring it to the coast. For 10 years this pipeline had operated with more than 20% of water. In 2001, the pipeline was surveyed with a Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) pig. The results showed internal corrosion in almost the entire 22 inchpipeline concentrated on its bottom part (channeling corrosion). This type of indication is very difficult to size using MFL tools. The logistic arrangements were made to replace the damaged pipeline, but before the beginning of the work the pipeline was surveyed again using an Ultrasonic (US) pig this time, in order to enhance the sizing of all defects. The results of the US pig confirmed the MFL pig report, so all previous arrangements were maintained with the purpose of replacing the corroded segment. At that time, a new inspection pig was under development at PETROBRAS Research Centre in cooperation with the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (Pontifica Universidade Catolica - PUC-RJ). This new pig, the feeler pig, ran on that pipeline and the results were compared to the two most common methods used in pipeline inspections. (orig.)

Camerini, C.; Marinho, C.; Franzoi, A.; Ibaje, S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freitas, M.; Weid, J. von der [Catholic Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2006-07-01

405

Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)  

Science.gov (United States)

In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TC<1, suggesting a synergic/antagonist effect to occur among metals and plants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, accumulator plants, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

2014-05-01

406

Research and prospect on relationship between microstructure characteristics and strength-toughness of high grade pipeline steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year, high grade pipeline steel is more and more used around the world and researchers are working to improve its physical characteristics. The high strength and toughness characteristics of pipeline steel are closely related to its favourable internal microstructure. This paper summarized the findings of various research into pipeline steel microstructure, including effective grain size, non-metallic inclusions and banded structure. The relationship between the strength and toughness of pipeline steel and its internal microstructure is also analyzed. A solution is proposed for studying the characterization of effective grain size and the micro-mechanical behaviour of inclusions. This work puts forward the application of EBSD technology in research on the grain size of pipeline steel and the need of in situ observation technology in research on inclusions and banded structure.

Ke, Tong; Chuanjing, Zhuang; Xiaodong, He; Xinli, Han; Juan, Song [Tubular goods research center of CNPC, Xi' an (China)

2010-07-01

407

Acoustic system for communication in pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

A system for communication in a pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid. The system includes an encoding and transmitting sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes that transmits a signal in the frequency range of 3-100 kHz into the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid, and a receiver and processor sub-system connected to the pipe, or pipeline, or network of pipes containing a fluid that receives said signal and uses said signal for a desired application.

Martin, II, Louis Peter (San Ramon, CA); Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2008-09-09

408

Dynamics of pipelines with elastic supports  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The strength of pipelines particularly in nuclear power stations, is being increasingly investigated, also relative to dynamic events. Events which initiate these investigations are earthquakes, aircraft crashing onto buildings and pressure waves, for example. The engineer's view attributes directly 'dynamic properties' to the pipelines in these problems, while supports and fixed points (unless one is dealing expressly with sprung parts) are regarded as rigid compared to the pipeline. The article roughly estimates the ratio of the stiffness of pipelines and support structures. This estimate enables one to make quantitative statements on the effect of support stiffness on the inherent frequencies of the whole system and the reaction at the supports. (orig.)

409

Low-velocity impact of pressurised pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Experimental tests are reported on steel pipelines which have been struck by a relatively large rigid wedge-shaped mass travelling up to 10.4m/s. A pipeline is supported across a span, is fully clamped at both ends and is struck at the mid-span and at the one quarter span positions. Most of the pipelines are pressurised with a nitrogen gas. The initial impact energy produces large inelastic ductile deformations of the pipeline and, in some cases, failure. A meth...

2009-01-01

410

Pipeline inspection with UltraScan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Following the merger of Pipeline Integrity International and Pipetronix in November 1999, the new PII now offers a comprehensive and versatile portfolio in non-destructive testing (NDT) for pipeline inspection to its clients. The spectrum of technologies offered is capable of detecting and sizing all common pipeline defects through 'in-line inspection'. Ultrasonic inspection known under the UltraScan {sup trademark} WM and UltraScan {sup trademark} CD brands is renowned for providing the most accurate quantitative information on pipeline defects and is subject of the following article. (orig.)

Wolf, T. [Pipetronix GmbH, Stutensee (Germany)

2001-06-01

411

49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.  

Science.gov (United States)

...195.210 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED...BY PIPELINE Construction §...

2010-10-01

412

Slope monitoring key to maintaining pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two case histories describe instances in which operating pipelines have experienced stress or failure as a result of slope instability. Factors which led to pipeline distress and remedial actions in two actual cases are discussed in this second of two articles on pipeline terrain. Both sites are located very near each other within the west central area of Alberta. Each case history is unique, as were the remedial measures adopted to ensure pipeline integrity. This article is divided into the following areas: Early evidence; Spring thaw; Partial collapse; Another washout; Remediation; Simonette river; Northern slope site; Continued movement; Continued monitoring; and Global positioning survey.

Couperthwaite, S.L.; Marshall, R.G. (Nova, an Alberta Corp., AB (Canada))

1989-09-25

413

Abandonment of the production wells and protection the environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A well for oil and gas production and the deposit of oil and gas form one hydrodynamic system. From the point of view of filtration process, the well is, in comparison with the permeable layer of the deposit, a flow path with the lowest filtration resistance. This also causes the movement of liquids into the well if migration has already been induced in the deposit. This process takes place (without any external actions until the pressure conditions are balanced. The classical ? common abandonment of the production well is performed by plugging the total length (or selected intervals with cement mixtures and by closing with a concrete slab at the depth of about 1.5 m below the ground surface. However, it is expected that the energy of the deposits has been totally or almost totally exhausted and the pressure in the deposit has been lowered to the level enabling the safe, economically reasonable and ecological abandonment.

Mazáè Josef

2004-09-01

414

Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields  

Science.gov (United States)

Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

Davies, Christopher S.

1988-07-01

415

System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -c