WorldWideScience
1

Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

NONE

1997-03-01

2

Abandoning wells working group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

NONE

1997-03-01

3

Abandoned works program  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thousands of improperly abandoned or decommissioned oil and gas wells are threatening the purity of Ontario's source water. This presentation discussed an abandoned works program developed by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. The abandoned works program was established in 2005 in order to plug old oil and gas wells. The program was designed to create a list of abandoned wells, develop a coherent policy, and formulate procurement and contracting protocols. Abandoned wells are defined as wells drilled prior to 1963 with no operator other than the current landowner. There are currently over 200 prioritized wells on the list. Twenty-six contracts have been issued for a total of 33 wells, and 19 wells have been plugged since the program's field operations began in 2006. However, the program is often challenged by the difficulties associated with determining where the wells are located. Many of the wells have been cut off and buried, and access is often dependent on weather conditions and road restrictions. There is also a shortage of contractors who have experience working with older wells. It was concluded that the program will expand by obtaining further funding and modifying its qualification criteria. tabs., figs

4

Pipeline abandonment: a discussion paper on technical and environmental issues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Formation of government/industry joint steering committee to oversee a review of pipeline abandonment and preparation of a discussion paper was reported. The review became urgent in view of the fact that many of the pipeline systems are nearing the end of their useful life, and the current absence of guidelines in Canada to deal with pipeline abandonment, or to offer guidance on ways of assessing abandonment costs and funding. In view of this situation the safety and the environmental, financial, and legal implications of abandoned pipelines have become an increasing concern to regulatory authorities and the oil and gas industry. Issues to be dealt with in the discussion paper include subsidence, contamination, water crossing, erosion, land management, restoration, utility and pipeline crossings, creation of water conduits, the cost of abandonment, operator choice of abandonment options, and the level of surface disturbance associated with such options

5

The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

2010-07-01

6

Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

7

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes ? 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios

8

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

1993-12-01

9

30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...processing waste to abandoned underground workings. 784.25...REGULATORY PROGRAMS UNDERGROUND MINING PERMIT APPLICATIONS-MINIMUM...processing waste to abandoned underground workings. (a...regulatory authority and the Mine Safety and Health...

2010-07-01

10

30 CFR 784.25 - Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings...PLAN § 784.25 Return of coal processing waste to abandoned underground workings...maintenance of any proposed coal processing waste disposal facility,...

2010-07-01

11

Impacts of abandoned mine workings on aspects of urban development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Man-made 'geohazards' (which can take the form of undermining, mine entrances, fault reactivation, mine-water rise, disposed wastes, derelict and contaminated land and subsurface civil engineering activities) are widely distributed in the United Kingdom, which has a history of mining activity dating back more than 3000 years. Many urban environments are located in regions where mining has occurred and abandonment has left a legacy of old workings and mine entries, many of which may still be uncharted and can be hazardous to development. The many aspects of mining and other human activity that give rise to potential geohazards are reviewed. Site investigation techniques appropriate to mining areas are discussed, with particular emphasis on rapid non-destructive (geophysical) survey methods. Some aspects of the current situation with regard to devaluation of properties (buildings) as a result of the availability of information on abandoned mining activities are discussed.

Culshaw, M.G.; McCann, D.M.; Donnelly, L.J. [British Geological Survey, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Urban Geoscience & Geological Hazards Programme

2000-12-01

12

Computer Simulation of the Propagation of Heat in Abandoned Workings Insulated with Slurries and Mineral Substances  

Science.gov (United States)

In the paper the results of investigations aimed at further identification of the phenomena occurring in abandoned workings and connected with the flow of air-gas (methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen and carbon oxidation products) mixture with taking into consideration the impact of supplied mineral substances on the processes of self-heating of the coal left in goaves were presented. The known and successfully used method for the prevention of fires in abandoned workings is the technology of filling goaf with an ash-air mixture, which also raises the issue of the effective use of that mixture. The computer, i.e. digital simulation methods being developed and intended for the purpose of the process discussed here are a good complement of the use of that technology. A developed mathematical model describing the process of additional sealing of gob with wet slurry supplied with three pipelines is based on the balance of volume of the supplied mixture and contained in the body created in goaves. The form of that body was assessed on the basis of the observation results available in literature and the results of model investigations. The calculation examples carried out for the the longwall area and its goaf ventilated with the "U" system allow to state that the introduced modification of the mathematical model describing the flow of the mixture of air, gases, and wet slurry with consideration of the coal burning process in the fire source area was verified positively. The digital prognostic simulations have confirmed a vital impact of the wet slurry supplied into the goaf on the processes of coal burning and also the change of rate and volume flow rate of the air mixture in goaf. As a complement to the above it should be noted that such elements as the place of the slurry supply in comparison with the longwall inclination or fire source area location is of great importance for the effectiveness of the fire prevention used. The development of computer/ digital simulation methods requires further investigations of the model adopted in this study. Those investigations should be aimed at making credible the theoretical model of the mixture flow through porous medium and the supplied mineral material. Such investigations will allow to verify the body form based on the mixture parameters such as humidity, viscosity, and fluidity and depending on the properties of the porous medium. Further development of the modelling of the phenomena discussed in this paper should be based on the methods of use of the description of the flow of fluids and slurry on the basis of 3D models.

Dziurzy?ski, Wac?aw; Krach, Andrzej; Pa?ka, Teresa

2014-03-01

13

The remediation of abandoned workings of a mining area in Ningxiang uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The typical mining under buildings and river was used in a mining area of Ningxiang uranium mine. After the mining ended, 32.1% of the 2.68 m3 abandoned workings did not fill because of limitation of the cut-and-fill mining method at that time. To remedy this, the mine used new filling methods. After the remedial action, the filling coefficient of pits reached 100%, and that of tunnels reached 86%. It can be proved by the monitoring data that the subsiding of surface has been effectively controlled at the abandoned workings

14

Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labo...

Pence Brian; Whetten Kathryn; Ostermann Jan; Messer Lynne; Whetten Rachel; Buckner Megan; Thielman Nathan; Donnell Karen, O.

2011-01-01

15

75 FR 80047 - Equitrans, L.P., Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for Abandonment and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...No. CP11-43-000] Equitrans, L.P., Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for...2010, Equitrans L.P. (Equitrans) and Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC (Big Sandy), 625 Liberty Avenue, Suite 1700,...

2010-12-21

16

Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs, yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working Results The majority of OAC (60.7% engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

Pence Brian

2011-01-01

17

Research work during and after the flooding of an abandoned potash mine in northern Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandoned potash mine of HOPE in northern Germany is flooded with an NaCl solution. A scientific research program running concurrently is to register and evaluate data on the geochemical, geomechanical and geophysical processes occurring before, during and after the flooding. In addition, a seal bulkhead was built using new materials and seals for testing under a liquid pressure of approximately 2.4 MPa. The work is part of a comprehensive research program investigating the processes occurring in a hypothetical water or brine inflow into a repository for radioactive waste in salt formations

18

The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

19

The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

Santiago Pich

2013-09-01

20

Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)  

Science.gov (United States)

The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a little proportion of galena (primary mineral) and ferro-hexahydrite, also indicating mobilization of Fe. As regarding white surface blooms, they are formed mostly of magnesium sulphate with different hydration states. The morphology of these mineral precipitates reveals that they have been subject to cycle of washing and subsequent dehydration, which indicates that these phases present a great mobility in the environment, and they may be contributing to the transport of metals from the tailings into the surroundings soils.

de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

2012-04-01

21

The WISMUT sanitation project - moving of spoil banks and sanitation work on abandoned open pits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ten years after they were started, remedial measures have taken effect in all sites of the WISMUT GmbH. Of the 13 billion DM provided by the German state, about 7.2 billion have been spent - 3.9 billion in eastern Thuringia and 3.3 million in Saxony. A programme of about 480 million DM was completed successfully in 2001. The work also had a positive effect on regional industries as sub-contracts in the order of 180 to 2000 million DM per annum were allotted

22

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs pipeline workers. 2 tabs

23

Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

24

Effects of cessation of pumping at underground working on mine water quality at an abandoned coal mine in Korea  

Science.gov (United States)

Except several big mines, many coal mines were abandoned in the 1980s and 1990s and the pumping of mine water was either completely stopped or greatly reduced in Korea. After large-scale closure of the mines, water chemistry was changed in totally different in that metals such as Fe, Al and Mn, etc in mine water were highly concentrated. Although prediction and monitoring of the changes in the chemistry of mine drainage after the mine closure would be required for preparing the measures, there has been not any effort to monitor the effects of flooding of mine voids on the water chemistry in Korea. This work has been undertaken to assess the changes in water chemistry in the process of flooding of underground workings after cessation of pumping at the Dongwon coal mine located in Kwangwon province in Korea. The water level variations have been monitored by a CTD diver (Van Essen Instruments) installed in the shaft at the mine. The water column of about 200m, approximately one third of the whole shaft, was scanned for the evidence of geochemical stratification in the shaft using the MP troll 9500 (In Situ Inc.). In addition, samples were taken for the chemical analysis, and immediately measured for pH, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity (EC). After the cessation of pumping, mine water recovery in the shaft generally followed a linear trend with only minor deviations, although no data was available for one and half years immediately after the closure of the mine. The average rise velocity of the rebound was about 12 m per month during the monitoring of 15 months. Iron and sulfate contents considerably increased and reached to about 200 mg/L and over 1,260 mg/L, respectively, as the level of mine water rose. However, Al and Mn contents remained relatively constant during the monitoring period, showing irrelevance to the water recovery. The geochemical stratification of the water column of 200m high was not observed and pH and EC were relatively constant, with the measured values of around 6.5 and 2,050 ?S/cm, respectively. The water column of the shaft was in anoxic condition because the value of DO was found lower than 1 mg/L.

Cheong, Y.; Yim, G.; Ji, S.; Park, H.; Lee, H.; Park, S.

2008-05-01

25

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and First Nations : Linkages : Working Paper No. 7.6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) will bring several employment opportunities for Yukon First Nations citizens. This paper presented some recommendations to maximize these employment benefits. The AHPP will cross the territory of 8 of the 14 Yukon First Nations. The current land selections through the Foothills route indicate that 202 km of the 832 km long pipeline will end up on First Nations land. The six channels of economic impact for First Nations include: (1) employment of First Nations citizens on pipeline construction and operation, (2) First Nation-owned business on pipeline construction, (3) employment of First Nations citizens in other Yukon businesses, (4) taxation, (5) availability of natural gas, and (6) additional services and infrastructure that will be incurred. 2 tabs., 1 fig

26

Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO{sub 2} corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11. (au)

Loldrup Fosboel. P.

2007-10-15

27

National impact of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 6.1.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examined the economic impacts of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) for Canada. The proposed project will impact the economy through construction of the pipeline as well as through export of natural gas transmission services. Interest in Alaskan North Slope natural gas has been renewed because of the following 3 main factors: (1) the US energy policy is promoting cleaner burning fuels, particularly for power generation, (2) the recent winter price shocks for both oil and natural gas, and (3) the US effort to protect and guarantee energy supplies. The impact of northern gas and pipeline development was assessed with reference to the impact that spending will have on the Canadian economy. A standard macroeconomic impact model is employed, first by preparing a base case forecast of the economy, assuming that the project does not occur. Secondly, an impact case forecast of the economy was prepared assuming the pipeline is developed and operated. The third step of the procedure involved a comparison of impacts of the first and second procedures. The report presented direct, indirect and induced impacts. The Informetrica Model (TIM) of the national economy is used to obtain behavioural underpinning to the analysis. The model is very detailed in industry terms and links demands on the economy, output and employment of many industries, as well as costs and prices of industries and commodities in a consistent framework. Both the upside and the downside of tork. Both the upside and the downside of the proposed pipeline were presented. 16 figs

28

Strategies for downhole abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB) G-20 Abandonment Guidelines place more of the responsibility for interpreting the regulations and for completing well abandonment work on the companies that originally drilled the wells. The new amendments require the licence holder to proceed with the abandonment of a well without prior approval by the regulatory agency and then run the risk of an audit. While this cuts down on paper work and responsibilities placed on the EUB, it poses a problem for small companies that do not have staff who are familiar with the regulations to prepare abandonment programs. This presentation attempted to clarify some of the issues by discussing: (1) working with the new EUB guidelines, (2) determining the success of squeezing-off primary zones in various areas of Alberta, (3) ensuring water aquifer coverage and problems in accessing the Alberta groundwater data base, (4) gas migration in slated and vertical wells, (5) determining the source of vent flows to receive EUB approval to perforate, (6) cutting costs when setting bridge plugs and perforating on slick lines, and (7) perforating rather than setting long cement plugs in heavy oil sands

29

A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of ttemperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs

30

Degradation of the cast steel parts working in power plant pipelines  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of materialdegradation on the initiation of cracking and on durability under creep and fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The aim of the research was to identify the properties of the material of thefittings cut out of a start-up pipeline connecting two OP-140 boilers with turbines, as well as to identify thereasons of failure of these parts after 100000 hours of operation. Results of...

Renowicz, D.; Hernas, A.; Cies?la, M.; Mutwil, K.

2006-01-01

31

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and the environment : Working Paper No. 7.2.8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented a brief overview of the environmental impacts that may occur if the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) goes ahead as planned. It presents the position of local environmental groups, including the Yukon Conservation Society and the Yukon chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. Both have signed a statement which calls for a system of protected areas to be completed, as well as detailed regional land use plans before construction begins. They also call for a strict environmental assessment process that would include a no-go option and which would examine the potential cumulative effects of the project. This paper presented the general environmental concerns and impacts of construction, with reference to habitat disruption, Southern Lakes Caribou winter habitat, stream crossings, and erosion. It also included several site specific impacts along the existing Foothills pipeline segment that are of particular environmental concern for Kluane Lake, Sheep Mountain, Slims River and Ibex Valley. There are minimal environmental concerns regarding the operation of the pipeline. One potential impact is on air quality near compressor stations through the creation of ice fog in the winter. Noise pollution is another possible problem if inadequate muffler systems are used. Also, the effect of maintaining a wider transportation corridor is not yet known. The proposed construction will likely accelerate oil and gas development in the Yukon which wi and gas development in the Yukon which will have large and long-term impacts. One of the arguments in favour of the natural gas pipeline, is its potential to reduce pollution of SOx, NOx and VOCs on a continental scale by allowing substitution of clean burning natural gas instead of coal or diesel fuels. In terms of the impact on global warming, the pipeline can only reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases if the additional gas does not translate into higher net energy use. One additional concern for the Yukon is how emissions will be charged or credited. For example, will the Yukon be charged for compressor station emissions even if the gas is Alaskan? 3 refs

32

Abandoned vehicles  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

33

Provincial impacts of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.1.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact that the construction and operation of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will have on the Canadian economy was examined. Part 2 of this report presents a series of assumptions where the changes to the economy were explained with reference to the cost of developing facilities, revenues earned by their operations and other determinants that affect jurisdictional and sectorial impacts. The third part of the report presents the implications for the Northwest Territories/Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta since they are the regions that will be directly impacted by the AHPP. The significance of the development that extend beyond the immediately impacted regions was also assessed. For the impact analysis procedure, a base case forecast of the economy was prepared, assuming the project does not go ahead. This was followed by an impact case forecast of the economy in which the pipeline is developed and operated. Direct, indirect and induced effects were described. Two impact cases were considered for both national and regional studies. For the first case, all changes in government balances from increased revenues were assumed to go directly into debt reduction or acquisition of financial assets. For the second case, the governments recycle the increased revenue using a lower employment insurance contribution rate, and keeping federal business tax revenue and federal personal income tax revenue equal to the base case. The general effect of the second scecase. The general effect of the second scenario is to increase the induced effects by increasing disposable income through lower tax rates. The report examined assumptions in the construction phase with reference to capital costs and construction employment. It also examined assumptions in the operational phase with reference to transportation services and operations employment. 7 tabs., 12 figs

34

NOVA making quick work of 290-mile GasAndes pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The highest mountains in the western hemisphere stand between the clean-burning natural gas reserves of Argentina and the 5 million citizens of smog-choked Santiago, Chile. The loftiest peaks of the Andes define the northern half of the border between Argentina and Chile, regularly rearing to more than 20,000 feet above sea level. Aconcagua, the highest peak of all, rises to 22,831 feet at a point just east of Santiago. The lowest pass in this section of the Andes is the Maipo Pass, which climbs to an altitude of 11,200 feet. A 24-inch pipe is being laid toward Santiago along a route directly through the Maipo Pass. Equally surprisingly, the lead partner in the GasAndes pipeline project is neither a state petroleum company nor a multi-national energy giant with a household name. NOVA made the short list of potential partners for the project, but the Canadian team also introduced a new consideration. They suggested a 290-mile route that would travel straight west from Argentina`s Mendoza province to Santiago. This paper discusses construction plans.

NONE

1996-08-01

35

18 CFR 157.18 - Applications to abandon facilities or service; exhibits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Exhibit V or elsewhere, a geographic map of suitable scale and...to be abandoned. This map shall clearly show the...consumers, pipeline or distribution companies and municipalities...supply. Designate on the map those facilities...

2010-04-01

36

The Winfrith effluent pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the preparatory work leading up to the design of the Winfrith pipeline. Details of the existing system are given and some information on the predicted safe levels of radio-active discharge. (author)

37

Abandoned Texas oil fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

1980-12-01

38

Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gs expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

39

Pipeline politics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Attention is paid to the most recent developments in oil and gas pipeline construction plants in South-Eastern Europe. In the first article (Guillet) the role of Turkey in bringing in oil and gas from Central Asia and the Middle East to the European market, while circumventing Russia. In the second article (Michaletos) an overview is given of pipeline developments in South-Eastern Europe, focusing on Greece and the competing (Russian-dominated) Burgas-Alexandroupoli pipeline and the (American-dominated) Ambo pipeline.

Guillet, M.; Michaletos, I.

2007-11-15

40

Having views, abandoning views  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned.

Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

41

Security of pipeline facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This working group provided an update on provincial, federal and industry directions regarding the security of pipeline facilities. The decision to include security issues in the NEB Act was discussed as well as the Pipeline Security Management Assessment Project, which was created to establish a better understanding of existing security management programs as well as to assist the NEB in the development and implementation of security management regulations and initiatives. Amendments to the NEB were also discussed. Areas of pipeline security management assessment include physical safety management; cyber and information security management; and personnel security. Security management regulations were discussed, as well as implementation policies. Details of the Enbridge Liquids Pipelines Security Plan were examined. It was noted that the plan incorporates flexibility for operations and is integrated with Emergency Response and Crisis Management. Asset characterization and vulnerability assessments were discussed, as well as security and terrorist threats. It was noted that corporate security threat assessment and auditing are based on threat information from the United States intelligence community. It was concluded that the oil and gas industry is a leader in security in North America. The Trans Alaska Pipeline Incident was discussed as a reminder of how costly accidents can be. Issues of concern for the future included geographic and climate issues. It was concluded that limited resources are an ongoing concern, and that the regulatory environment is becoming increasingly prescriptive. Other concerns included the threat of not taking international terrorism seriously, and open media reporting of vulnerability of critical assets, including maps. tabs., figs.

Lee, S.C. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Van Egmond, C.; Duquette, L. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2005-07-01

42

Planning for abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this series of papers is to address the pressing issues surrounding the concept of abandonment of Northern North Sea offshore production facilities and structural steel jackets. For many operators there is a notional idea that when you are finished with an offshore production facility and structural steel jackets, they merely sail away over the horizon never to be seen or heard of again, but the real world dictates otherwise. For those that operate today in the Northern North Sea there is perhaps a uniqueness in character related to the design, fabrication, installation and operation of these Northern North Sea offshore production facilities. Approaching now for many the reality of abandonment, removal and disposal of these facilities, the oil and gas industries must now also recognize that unique methodology requires to be developed for implementation to overcome this daunting task of abandonment. Innovative and lateral thinking being employed by those companies and individuals who have risen to take up the challenge to achieve the goals and objectives, developing the ultimate solution to this enormous problem facing the oil and gas industry today. Many common aspects and activities exist for operators to undertake jointly during the planning, engineering and the various implementation stages for this ultimate episode in field life

43

Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

44

30 CFR 57.22223 - Crosscuts before abandonment (III mines).  

Science.gov (United States)

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ...AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards...before workings are abandoned in unsealed...

2010-07-01

45

30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY...SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations...When a refuse pile is to be abandoned, the District...

2010-07-01

46

In-service buckling of heated pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compressive forces may be induced in pipelines by the restraint of axial extensions due to temperature changes or other causes. These forces may cause vertical or lateral buckling of the pipeline. These two buckling modes, which both involve an overall column-type response without gross distortion of the pipeline cross-section, are analyzed on the basis of related work on railroad track. For normal coefficients of friction, the lateral mode occurs at a lower axial load than the vertical mode and is dominant in pipelines unless the line is trenched or buried. The theoretical solutions are illustrated by numerical results for a typical pipeline and some design implications reviewed

47

OPGN approach to SSC abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abandonment of equipment is a fact of life for an aging nuclear station. Whether this equipment is no longer needed, cannot be removed during a modification, remains in place due to economic considerations or other reasons, the continued existence of abandoned equipment poses design, maintenance and operational challenges for the remaining life of the station. Operational Experience has shown a number of incidents when improperly abandoned equipment or system has resulted in significant safety events. This presentation cites some real life examples to highlight the importance of properly abandoning equipment and discusses a proposed methodology.

48

Pipeline perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recently completed 800-mile trans-Alaska pipeline is reviewed from the perspective of its first six months of successful operation. Because of the many environmental and political constraints, the $7.7 billion project is viewed as a triumph of both engineering and capitalism. Design problems were imposed by the harsh climate and terrain and by the constant public and bureaucratic monitoring. Specifications are reviewed for the pipes, valves, river crossings, pump stations, control stations, and the terminal at Valdez, where special ballast treatment and a vapor-recovery system were required to protect the harbor's water and air quality. The article outlines operating procedures and contingency planning for the pipeline and terminal. (DCK)

Kern, J.J.

1978-01-01

49

Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

2011-12-21

50

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

51

Pipelines and transportation: Floating pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Development of new materials for pressure vessel walls for ships to transport compressed natural gas are discussed. This development is particularly welcome in light of the recent tendency to see compressed natural gas (CNG) as the best transportation option for offshore gas reserves that are too far from market for a pipeline and too small for liquefied natural gas (LNG) development. The article contrasts the relative merits and problems of LNG and CNG and concludes that because CNG requires a much smaller capital outlay (e.g. no liquefaction or re-gasification facilities) CNG is an ideal form for natural gas to be transported. Although transporting CNG would require more ships than an LNG project, improvements in technology and the development of high-strength materials have overcome the weight problem, which will help to overcome the economic obstacles that hitherto made CNG transportation a less attractive alternative. Particularly noteworthy is Pressurized Natural Gas (PNG), a technology developed by Knutsen Shipping S.A., a Norwegian leader in the ship transportation of hydrocarbons, and Det Norske Veritas (DNV), providing the first complete set of rules for CNG carriers. The developers contend that by storing gas at ambient temperature inside lengths of vertically stacked 42-inch pipes at roughly 3,500 psi, manufactured according to common pipeline principles, would reduce the weight of the cargo tanks by 50 per cent compared to conventional pressure vessels. Knutsen and DNV are convinced that this would make it economically feasible for large CNG carriers to carry CNG to market as far as 3,000 miles from the gas supply. In Canada, meanwhile, TransCanada Pipelines plans to establish a site in Atlantic Canada for a pilot project to manufacture and test CNG pressure vessels. TransCanada Pipelines is developing its own proprietary CNG tanks, called Gas Transport Modules (GTMs), believing that pressure vessels are better suited to cyclic service than gas pipelines. Various other developments affecting design and safety of CNG tankers are also described.

Roche, P.

2003-08-01

52

Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

53

Abandoned vehicles REMINDER  

CERN Document Server

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

54

Abandoned vehicles - Reminder  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

55

PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

2005-03-14

56

The inverse electroencephalography pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The inverse electroencephalography (EEG) problem is defined as determining which regions of the brain are active based on remote measurements recorded with scalp EEG electrodes. An accurate solution to this problem would benefit both fundamental neuroscience research and clinical neuroscience applications. However, constructing accurate patient-specific inverse EEG solutions requires complex modeling, simulation, and visualization algorithms, and to date only a few systems have been developed that provide such capabilities. In this dissertation, a computational system for generating and investigating patient-specific inverse EEG solutions is introduced, and the requirements for each stage of this Inverse EEG Pipeline are defined and discussed. While the requirements of many of the stages are satisfied with existing algorithms, others have motivated research into novel modeling and simulation methods. The principal technical results of this work include novel surface-based volume modeling techniques, an efficient construction for the EEG lead field, and the Open Source release of the Inverse EEG Pipeline software for use by the bioelectric field research community. In this work, the Inverse EEG Pipeline is applied to three research problems in neurology: comparing focal and distributed source imaging algorithms; separating measurements into independent activation components for multifocal epilepsy; and localizing the cortical activity that produces the P300 effect in schizophrenia.

Weinstein, David Michael

57

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

58

Pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

1997-12-31

59

Proposal of methodology for to implement system of environmental management at works of pipeline; Proposta de metodologia para implementacao de SGA - Sistema de Gestao Ambiental em obras de dutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Proposal presentation of the methodology to implements the environmental management system in works of pipelines with the objective to guarantee the efficacy in the management of the environmental impact and aspects of the activities of the construction and assembly of pipelines, identifiable through the environmental impact study. It initially makes brief explanation over the environmental national politics through of some topics of the mains generals norms of the legislation. After them, the presentation of the methodology through the model of management PDCA: Plan - Do - Check - Act, recommended for the ABNT NBR ISO 14001:2004. For each stage of the model are listed the activities and, of exceptional manner, it makes explanation of the environmental performance evaluation, accordant the ABNT NBR ISO 10031:2004. (author)

Almeida, Maria Rita de Cassia de Souza [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

60

Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

61

Analyzing the Risk of Well Plug Failure after Abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All oil and gas wells will have to be plugged and abandoned at some time. The plugging and abandonment procedure must provide an effective isolation of the well fluids all along the well to reduce environmental risks of contamination and prevent from costly remedial jobs. Previous works have analyzed the plug behavior when submitted to local pressure or thermal changes but no work has looked to the effects of external pressure, thermal and stress changes resulting from a global equilibrium restoration in a hydrocarbon reservoir once production has stopped. This work estimates those changes after abandonment on a reservoir field case using a reservoir simulator in conjunction with a geomechanical simulator. Such simulations provide the pressure and thermal changes and the maximum effective stress changes in the reservoir cap rock where critical plugs are put in place for isolating the production intervals. These changes are used as loads in a well bore stress model that explicitly models an injector well and predict stress rearrangements in the plug after abandonment. Results obtained with the well bore stress model for a conventional class G cement plug show that the main risk of failure is tensile failure because of the low tensile strength of the cement. Actually, soft sealing materials or initially pre-stressed plug appears to be more adapted to the downhole conditions changes that may occurs after well plugging and abandonment. (authors)ment. (authors)

62

Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are preta from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

63

The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreementsmpacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

64

77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID PHMSA-2009-0192] RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline and...Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) seeking to revise the Pipeline Safety Regulations to: establish criteria and...

2012-05-30

65

Wave reworking of abandoned deltas  

Science.gov (United States)

deltas and individual delta lobes frequently face reduction of sediment supply, either from the geologic process of river avulsion or, more recently, due to human activities such as river damming. Using a process-based shoreline evolution model, we investigate wave reworking of delta shorelines after fluvial input elimination. Model results suggest that littoral sediment transport can result in four characteristic modes of delta abandonment, ranging from diffusional smoothing of the delta (or delta lobe) to the development of recurved spits. A straightforward analysis of delta shape and wave characteristics provides a framework for predicting the mode of delta abandonment. The observed morphologies of historically abandoned delta lobes, including those of the Nile, Ebro, and Rhone rivers, fit within this framework. Our results provide quantitative insight into the potential evolution of active delta environments in light of future extreme reduction of fluvial sediment input.

Nienhuis, Jaap H.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Roos, Pieter C.; Hulscher, Suzanne J. M. H.; Giosan, Liviu

2013-11-01

66

Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

67

Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monioil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot points on a line on various types of risks (ecological, economic, social and cultural - architectural); The edition of methodical benefits for carrying out of seminars and distribution of the information through the electronic bulletin, thematic releases and magazines. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring, it is necessary to create public laboratories along a line of the pipeline which would allow leading the analysis of components of the surrounding natural environment. For the personnel of laboratory alongside with carrying out of trainings - seminars, instructions should be prepared, methodical materials, other help data and are created bank of the reference data. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring performed the following works: The organization of the laboratory analysis of the components of a reservoir, traversable pipeline; Revealing observance of zone security norm of the pipeline; The equipment most ecologically dangerous sites of the pipeline in capacities for gathering oil. The purpose of the public plan to reaction to floods of oil is development of instructions for liquidation of consequences of flood and carrying out of necessary actions for minimization of influences on an environment. The public plan of liquidation of consequences of flood should be determined: Coordinating public organization, its functions and duty; a policy of decision-making at liquidation of consequences of flood; Adjustments of communication between public organizations for reception and transfer of the information on failure; Areas of priority protection which should be immediately cleared of oil waste; Export and utilization of the oil waste products collected in area of flood of oil; the monitoring system and monitoring of an environment (air, water and ground) after liquidation of consequences of flood. In conformity of the public plan, carrying out of meetings with the public, for acquaintance and an explanation of the problems, put before the public is necessary also in case of liquidation of consequences

68

Laying pipelines environmentally friendly; Pipelines umweltschonend verlegen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new, semi-open method of laying pipelines needs a significantly lower line width in comparision with the open design and requires no ground water drawdown. [German] Ein neues, halboffenes Verlegeverfahren von Pipelines benoetigt im Vergleich zur offenen Bauweise eine deutlich geringere Trassenbreite und bedarf keiner Grundwasserabsenkung.

Diedrich, Andreas [Herrenknecht AG, Schwanau (Germany)

2013-06-15

69

Geotechnical risks affecting pipelines : the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Geotechnical management practices for pipelines can minimize the risk of accidents caused by hazards such as landslides, foundation subsidence, settlement and erosion. This paper summarized the geotechnical risks affecting pipelines and presented some examples of practical work done by Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto (TBG) along the longest pipeline in South America, the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline. TBG is also responsible for the maintenance and operation of the 2593 km long pipeline which spans from Rio Grande in Bolivia to Canoas in southern Brazil. The pipeline crosses a range of difficult topography where both natural and human hazards can lead to high stress levels that can reach the steel yield strength limit and result in ruptures. The traction, compression, inflection or strain depend on the direction of the movement and the pipe position. The area most prone to geotechnical hazards is in the south due to its hard topography and a variety of geological materials such as colluvium deposits and debris flows. The right-of-way geotechnical risks that affect the pipeline were presented along with some of the practical remedial work that has been done by TBG along the pipeline route. The integrity management plans and the adopted actions that prevent geotechnical accidents were also presented. It was concluded that geotechnical hazard mapping should be emphasized in the planning phase of pipelines. New technologies such as the GEOPIG inspection tool combes such as the GEOPIG inspection tool combined with traditional preventive measures can effectively detect landslide areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

70

Is Philanthropy "Abandoning" Higher Education?  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between philanthropy and higher education has become mutually beneficial and interdependent. So why is there now talk of philanthropy abandoning higher education? In this article, the author dispels some of the current myths and encourages campus leaders to develop a new understanding of what foundations can and cannot offer them.

Bernstein, Alison R.

2003-01-01

71

Development of DP (Dynamic Positioning) to pull-in sub sea pipelines; Utilizacao de barcos de manuseio de ancoras operando com DP (Dynamic Positioning) para arraste de dutos submarinos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sub sea pipeline construction at oil and gas fields, with high concentration of on-bottom facilities, becomes more difficult when mooring operations and pipeline approach to a congested platform have to be performed. One method that has often been applied in Brazil is the so-called 'DP (Dynamic Positioning) pull-in', where PETROBRAS owned pipelay Barge, BGL-1, is moored away from the congested area, while a DP anchor handler pulls the rigid pipeline from BGL-1 to a target near the platform. The method was conceived to avoid mooring operations near the congested platforms as well as to minimize risks due to the pipeline initiation process. Inside the congested area the initiation with aid of a 'dead-man' anchor on the sea bottom, which would be a more conventional solution, becomes impossible in most cases. This paper will discuss the engineering work required to perform the 'DP pull-in' as well as show the operational steps, from the start-up to the final abandonment of the pipeline initiation head inside the target area. (author)

Oliveira, Manoel H.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galgoul, Elton C. [Suporte Engenharia, Luziania, GO (Brazil)

2004-07-01

72

Experimental Study of Oil Pipeline Leak Processes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work provides a description of oil leak/spill processes from containment such as pipeline. Understanding of such processes is important in order to adequately estimate oil spills and to justify an appropriate emergency action for minimizing spills. Internal diameters of pipes used in the study are within 4 inches. Leaks are simulated from plastic pipeline oil containment fitted with valves. The leak response with time when upstream and downstream valves are operated is studied. Within the internal diameters of pipelines considered in the tests, two ranges of leak characteristics are evident; the “holding range” and the “flowing range” characteristics. The consequences of these characteristics in the oil industry operations have been discussed. The work suggests a spill estimation method based on this knowledge. Furthermore, in order to minimise spill in event of pipeline failure, it is observed that the optimum action on pipeline operational valves, is the immediate closure of upstream valve, followed by the downstream valve, nearly simultaneously. Future work will extend the test to larger diameter pipelines to attempt developing a mathematical approach for estimating limits of the “holding range” characteristics of pipelines given appropriate parameters and in-field test.

Bilstad Torleiv

2012-07-01

73

Who abandons embryos after IVF?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

Walsh, A P H

2010-04-01

74

Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

75

Phenomenon of pipeline walking in high temperature pipeline  

OpenAIRE

The thesis describes the phenomenon of pipeline walking by specifically focusing on a short and high temperature pipeline and identifies key parameters of it in terms of the pipeline design. Moreover, a literature study on contributory mechanisms to cause pipeline walking is emphasized in the thesis including general pipeline technology in terms of the pipeline expansion design. A numerical model of pipeline walking based on the thermal transient load is established by the finite element me...

Yoon, Se-hoon

2013-01-01

76

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

77

Economic evaluation of CO2 pipeline transport in China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We build a static hydrodynamic model of CO2 pipeline for CCS application. ? We study the impact on pressure drop of pipeline by viscosity, density and elevation. ? We point out that density has a bigger impact on pressure drop than viscosity. ? We suggest dense phase transport is preferred than supercritical state. ? We present cost-optimal pipeline diameters for different flowrates and distances. - Abstract: Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) is an important option for CO2 mitigation and an optimized CO2 pipeline transport system is necessary for large scale CCS implementation. In the present work, a hydrodynamic model for CO2 pipeline transport was built up and the hydrodynamic performances of CO2 pipeline as well as the impacts of multiple factors on pressure drop behavior along the pipeline were studied. Based on the model, an economic model was established to optimize the CO2 pipeline transport system economically and to evaluate the unit transport cost of CO2 pipeline in China. The hydrodynamic model results show that pipe diameter, soil temperature, and pipeline elevation change have significant influence on the pressure drop behavior of CO2 in the pipeline. The design of pipeline system, including pipeline diameter and number of boosters etc., was optimized to achieve a lowest unit CO2 transport cost. In regarding to the unit cost, whe regarding to the unit cost, when the transport flow rate and distance are between 1–5 MtCO2/year and 100–500 km, respectively, the unit CO2 transport cost mainly lies between 0.1–0.6 RMB/(tCO2 km) and electricity consumption cost of the pipeline inlet compressor was found to take more than 60% of the total cost. The present work provides reference for CO2 transport pipeline design and for feasibility evaluation of potential CCS projects in China.

78

Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 3 discussed issues regarding the inspection, corrosion and integrity management of upstream oil and gas pipelines. It entailed 7 sessions in which issues from the 2005 symposium were reviewed with particular reference to aging pipelines, new materials and inspection of construction. Working Group 3 also discussed internal corrosion monitoring; inline inspection; topical issues; integrity issues for upstream pipeline operators as stipulated in the Canadian Standards Association's Annex N; and non-metallic pipelines. The effect of metallurgy on localized corrosion and localized pitting corrosion was discussed along with corrosion rates and the need for absolute numbers. Solids deposition in oil pipelines versus gas pipelines were reviewed along with probability and reliability based modelling. Carbon dioxide flooding and sequestration was also discussed, with reference to internal monitoring through the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE). It was recommended that the industry could benefit from an unbiased database of failures and that the coordination of product testing would be useful. In this regard, a specification by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers would be useful for manufacturers and installers. tabs., figs.

Grzyb, D. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); McDonald, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Goodfellow, R. [Pangea, Calgary, AB (Canada); Abels, T. [SemCAMS, Calgary, AB (Canada); Jack, T. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Hallihan, M. [Skystone International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stephenson, M. [Husky Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

79

77 FR 58126 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization  

Science.gov (United States)

...Kankakee County, Illinois and abandon in place a 1,158 foot 12-inch pipeline along with related meter, tap and ball valve located in Kankakee County, Illinois. In addition, Natural states that the two I/W wells proposed to be...

2012-09-19

80

Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are "foreground-mask sampling" to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and "selective tracking" to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

Chang Jing-Ying

2010-01-01

81

Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

Jing-Ying Chang

2010-01-01

82

Drake F-76 in-situ abandonment of a high Arctic offshore completion and facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical assessment of the abandonment operations of an offshore natural gas well drilled from an ice platform in 55 m of water off the Northwest Territories of Canada was discussed. The well was drilled offshore Melville Island in 1979 as a prototype gas producer, using a subsea production tree and subsea pipeline bundle to shore. The project was suspended soon after and in 1993 the decision to abandon the well, was made. Equipment refit and design, technical and environmental approvals consumed the next two years. The well head was relocated in the winter of 1995/96, an ice platform was built, an array of purpose-built equipment was assembled and moved to the site, a subsea reconnection was completed, the wellhead was successfully function and pressure tested, the well re-entered and permanently plugged. The subsea tree and associated flowline equipment were decommissioned and abandoned in-situ, and a two-year surface restoration program was initiated. The abandonment of Drake F-76 demonstrated the feasibility of (1) re-entering and abandoning a live gas well from a floating ice platform, (2) adapting a conventional service rig to handle subsea equipment, and (3) the use of conventional wireline and coiled tubing techniques on an offshore ice platform application. 2 refs., 8 figs

83

Scope of current abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abandonment issues in the oil and gas industry, such as well sites, batteries, gas plants, compressor stations, and pipelines, were discussed. Responsibilities of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for informing the Canadian public about energy and environmental issues on behalf of the upstream petroleum industry were reviewed. Industry regulators and those who have jurisdiction over the abandonment of facilities were identified. In Alberta, the main agencies are the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Alberta Environmental Protection, and Alberta Food and Rural Development in addition to the National Energy Board and Indian Oil and Gas Canada. At the end of 1995, 160,000 wells had been drilled in Alberta of which 60,000 are still active, 35,000 are suspended and 70,000 wells have been abandoned. The industry-financed Orphan Well Program was established to provide funds for facility abandonment, decontamination and surface reclamation costs associated with orphaned facilities. CAPP agrees that operators of oil and gas facilities must be held responsible and accountable for the abandonment of their facilities. CAPP is looking for support from government to ensure that enforcement actions limit the number of orphan facilities. tabs., figs

84

Experimental Study of Oil Pipeline Leak Processes  

OpenAIRE

This work provides a description of oil leak/spill processes from containment such as pipeline. Understanding of such processes is important in order to adequately estimate oil spills and to justify an appropriate emergency action for minimizing spills. Internal diameters of pipes used in the study are within 4 inches. Leaks are simulated from plastic pipeline oil containment fitted with valves. The leak response with time when upstream and downstream valves are operated is studied. Within th...

Bilstad Torleiv; Gudmestad Tobias Ove; Agbakwuru Ahamefula Jasper

2012-01-01

85

SEMINAR PUBLICATION: MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AT INACTIVE AND ABANDONED METALS MINE SITES  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental problems associated with abandoned and inactive mines are addressed along with some approaches to resolving those problems, including case studies demonstrating technologies that have worked. New technologies being investigated are addressed also. ...

86

76 FR 9375 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Sealing of Abandoned Areas  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Mine Safety and Health Administration...Information Collection; Sealing of Abandoned Areas AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration...the active working areas of underground coal mines. Seals must be designed...

2011-02-17

87

Root Causes of Project Abandonment in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the root causes of project abandonment in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were distributed to targeted officials playing a role in the administration of project management in the Institutions, namely, bursars, internal auditors, directors of works, directors of physical planning, quantity surveyors in the physical planning and works Units. Four hundred and seventy five completed questionnaires returned were analyzed and tested using relative important index (R.I.I. and simple percentages. The result from the study showed that the root causes of project abandonment in tertiary Institutions in Nigeria like any other government establishment are, the lack of articulated vision and objectives, lack of adequate planning for the project at inception, lack of adequate funds and budgetary allocation before projects are embarked upon, Inefficient and effective legal system, poor contract documentation, corruption and compromises, lack of municipal services, non release of government white papers on investigations carried out on abandonment of projects, lack of true leadership, lack of continuity and Institutions’ long term strategic plans to drive the Institutions, ambiguity in contract documentations. The study concludes that any reason for project abandonment can be related directly or remotely to compromises on the above root causes.

Uket E. Ewa

2013-10-01

88

The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline  

CERN Document Server

Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computational capabilities (50Tflops) to process data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing the LOFAR Pulsar Search Pipeline. These LOFAR pipelines and software tools are being developed as the next gen...

Alexov, A; Mol, J D; Stappers, B; van Leeuwen, J

2010-01-01

89

In-line inspection of transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presentations by Working Group 8 were divided into 2 sessions featuring 7 PowerPoint exhibits dealing with in-line inspection (ILI) of transmission pipelines. The first session provided examples of operator's experience with in-line inspection. The objective was to identify common concerns and obstacles with ILI suppliers, consultants and other pipeline operators. New advancements in tool technologies and services were also presented to show how suppliers are responding to concerns identified in previous workshops. Long term issues that require continued attention include: tool reliability; an industry-wide standard to assess tolerances and performance of tools; ensuring that calibration excavation data is shared with suppliers to improve accuracy in future ILI runs; developing technologies for smaller diameter pipelines; crack tools for gas lines; and, using a range of technologies on a single tool to improve defect characterization and to detect more defects in a single run. The topics of the 7 presentations were as follows: ILI system qualifications standard; developing a baseline inspection program with design and operational decisions on the use of a high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) tool; pipeline integrity management of Imperial Oil's Rainbow Pipeline; ILI new tools and capabilities; state of the art technology; BJ Pipeline Inspection Services' response to operator needs; and, pipeline innovations. tabs., figs.

Keith, K. [Foothills Pipelines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Martens, B.; Feil, W. [Imperial Oil Resources Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Desjardins, G. [Morrison Scientific Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bhatia, A. [Alliance Pipeline Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Westwood, S.; Staszewski, A. [BJ Pipeline Inspection Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Uzelac, N. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stelmachuk, R. [Rosen Pipeline Inspection, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2003-07-01

90

Impact Against Offshore Pipelines  

OpenAIRE

Impact against offshore pipelines is investigated in this thesis. Introductory low velocity experiments on pipeline specimens using the stretch bending rig at the Department of Structural Engineering, NTNU, were carried out. A wedge shaped indenter, previously used for impact tests on similar pipelines, were used to subject pipes to bending. The experimental set-up allowed for application of axial loads and inner pressure to pipes during bending. This thesis is a continuation of three previou...

Mogstad, Ivar; Asheim, Tom Inge

2013-01-01

91

Pipelined Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA  

OpenAIRE

Convolutional encoding is used in almost all digital communication systems to get better gain in BER (Bit Error Rate), and all applications needs high throughput rate. The Viterbi algorithm is the solution in decoding process. The nonlinear and feedback nature of the Viterbi decoder makes its high speed implementation harder. One of promising approaches to get high throughput in the Viterbi decoder is to introduce a pipelining. This work applies a carry-save technique, which gets the advantag...

Nayel Al-Zubi

2013-01-01

92

Gas pipeline construction and negotiations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During this slide presentation, the author discussed the Corridor Pipeline Project. The project represents a portion of the proposed oil sands project that would connect Shell's Muskeg River Mine, located north of Fort McMurray to an upgrader in Fort Saskatchewan. An agreement was reached between Shell Canada, Corridor Pipeline Limited, BC Gas Incorporated, and Trans Mountain Pipe Line Company in July 1998. The agreement called for Corridor Pipeline to construct, own and operate a new 24NPS Diluted Bitumen and 12NPS Diluent pipeline system. Using Aboriginal resources from local communities, the project was aimed at completing the right-of-way clearing work on time and on budget. It was determined that the proximity of the pipeline would have an impact on four Aboriginal groups, the Fort McMurray First Nation, the Chipewyan Prairie First Nation, the Metis Nation of Alberta Zone 1 and the Aboriginal Federated Alliance, all located in the Wood Buffalo Region. Assessments were performed, concerning the existing clearing execution models and the capabilities of the local Aboriginal contractors. A new clearing execution model was commissioned by Corridor Pipeline. Three plans were devised. Under plan A, Neegan would manage the involvement of all four groups for the completion of the right-of-way clearing. Full control of the clearing requirements would be assumed by Neegan in the event that one or more groups of Aboriginal contractors proved unable to complete their clearing requirements on schedule, under plan B. In the case of plan C, in the event that Neegan could not execute plan B, Colt Engineering, augmented by significant Aboriginal workforce support, would be responsible for the right-of-way clearing. In the end, plan A prevailed, and Neegan and the four Aboriginal groups were praised by Corridor and other oil-sands owners in the Wood Buffalo Region for their work. As a result of this successful experience, this model is now being applied to other sectors of work by Neegan and their joint venture partners. 11 figs.

Tuccaro, D. [Neegan Development Corp. Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

2001-07-01

93

Abandonment (field decommissioning): The legal requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main areas to be considered in relation to the abandonment of offshore installations are: (1) the legal requirements to be imposed in relation to abandonment, this will include consideration of English, Norwegian and Dutch law as well as international law; (2) how licensees may protect themselves against joint and several liability for performance of their legal obligations in relation to abandonment by the provision of security; and (3) consideration of practical examples of abandonment such as the abandonment of the Piper Alpha platform on the UK continental shelf and the K13-D platform on the Dutch continental shelf. This paper considers only abandonment of offshore installations as very different considerations apply onshore and applies only to Europe, though the international treaties will also apply elsewhere

94

Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

95

PETROLEUM PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION STUDY  

Science.gov (United States)

This study reviews and analyzes the U.S. petroleum pipeline system, accidental spills, and spill prevention programs. It concludes that improved pipeline spill prevention measures are needed, because pipeline systems are aging, population densities near lines are increasing drama...

96

Continued Distress among Abandoned Dogs in Fukushima  

OpenAIRE

In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fu...

Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

2012-01-01

97

Pipeline transport of biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry was determined. In a practical application of field delivery by truck of biomass to a pipeline inlet, the pipeline will only be economical at large capacity ( >0.5 million dry t/yr for a one-way pipeline, and >1.25 million dry t/yr for a two-way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances ( >75 km [one-way] and >470 km [two-way] at a capacity of 2 million dry t/yr). Mixed hardwood and softwood chips in western Canada rise in moisture level from about 50% to 67% when transported in water; the loss in lower heating value (LHV) would preclude the use of water slurry pipelines for direct combustion applications. The same chips, when transported in a heavy gas oil, take up as much as 50% oil by weight and result in a fuel that is >30% oil on mass basis and is about two-thirds oil on a thermal basis. Uptake of water by straw during slurry transport is so extreme that it has effectively no LHV. Pipeline-delivered biomass could be used in processes that do not produce contained water as a vapor, such as supercritical water gasification. PMID:15054194

Kumar, Amit; Cameron, Jay B; Flynn, Peter C

2004-01-01

98

Steam pipelines' effort and durability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main problem addressed in the paper is the description of an effort and durability of steam pipelines under the conditions of mechanical and thermal interactions.Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling has been used to determine the stress and strain fields in the pipelines and to describe their behaviour under mechanical and thermal loading.Findings: An appropriate model description has been developed. So far, experimental verification of the usefulness of the model description to determine the stress and strain patterns in particular object and for chosen operation conditions has been made. The analysis made has shown that the most probable cause of cracks occurrence on the analyzed chosen pipeline’ inner surfaces are thermal deformations and constraints of their dislocations.Research limitations/implications: The developed description should be useful in problems of behaviour predictions of high temperature components and their durability assessment under different mechanical and thermal loadings in industry practical applications.Originality/value: The method, which more precise description of power industry components behaviour makes possible have been shown in the work. The work is addressed to researchers interested in problems of component behaviour prediction under different loadings that we can meet in the operation practice and to power industry engineering maintenance staff.

J. Okrajni

2007-06-01

99

Slurry pipeline design approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-12-19

100

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

101

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

102

Pipelines 'R' us  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The geopolitical background to the export of oil and gas from Kazakhstan by pipeline is explored with particular reference to the sensitivities of the USA. There are now a number of pipeline proposals which would enable Kazakhstan to get its hydrocarbons to world markets. The construction of two of these formed part of a major oil deal signed recently with China in the face of stiff competition from major US companies. The most convenient and cost effective route, connecting up with Iran's existing pipeline network to the Gulf, is unlikely to be developed given continuing US sanctions against Iran. Equally unlikely seems to be the Turkmenistan to Pakistan pipeline in the light of the political volatility of Afghanistan. US companies continue to face limits on export capacity via the existing Russian pipelines from Kazakhstan. A temporary solution could be to carry some oil in the existing pipeline from Azerbaijan to Georgia which has been upgraded and is due to become operational soon, and later in a second proposed pipeline on this route. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium, consisting of three countries and eleven international companies, is building a 1500 km pipeline from the Tergiz field to Novorossiysk on the Black Sea with a view to completion in 2000. An undersea pipeline crossing the Caspian from Azerbaijan is being promoted by Turkey. There is an international perception that within the next five years Kazakhstan could be in a position to export its oil via as me in a position to export its oil via as many as half a dozen different routes. (UK)

103

The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that university students abandon a healthy lifestyle mainly due to external barriers particularly because of lack of time. On the one hand, women appear to be the ones who, to a great extent, adopt a sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, men are the ones who refer more to abandoning the practice of physical activity due to internal barriers. The majority of the university students gave up practicing sport before entering university alluding to external barriers as their reason for the abandonment. A greater part of the sedentary university students expressing that they will be active in the future, left the practice of sport due to internal barriers.

Manuel Gómez-López

2011-08-01

104

76 FR 43743 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0127] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline...

2011-07-21

105

76 FR 29333 - Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0127] Pipeline Safety: Meetings of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Standards Committee AGENCY: Pipeline...

2011-05-20

106

30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine openings. 57.20021 Section 57.20021...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20021 Abandoned mine openings. Upon abandonment of a...

2010-07-01

107

78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program  

Science.gov (United States)

...OSM 2011-0010] Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program AGENCY: Office of...an amendment to the Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation Plan...October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title IV):...

2013-02-12

108

30 CFR 900.14 - Abandoned mine land programs.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land programs. 900.14 Section... INTRODUCTION § 900.14 Abandoned mine land programs. Programs for reclamation of abandoned mine lands are codified under the...

2010-07-01

109

32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 ...644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements...from its sale, or that abandonment or destruction is required by military...

2010-07-01

110

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM ABANDONED UNDERGROUND COAL MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes current research on abandoned underground coal mines. t forms an initial basis for developing an inventory of methane emissions from such mines. arly measurements have shown that some abandoned coal mines can liberate large volumes of high quality gas (up to ...

111

Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

112

Pipeline Drag Reducers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipeline drag reducers have proven to be an extremely powerful tool in fluid transportation. High molecular weight polymers are used to reduce the frictional pressure loss ratio in crude oil pipelines, refined fuel and aqueous pipelines. Chemical structure of the main used pipeline drag reducers is one of the following polymers and copolymers classified according to the type of fluid to ; low density polyethylene, copolymer of I-hexane cross linked with divinyl benzene, polyacrylamide, polyalkylene oxide polymers and their copolymers, fluorocarbons, polyalkyl methacrylates and terpolymer of styrene, alkyl acrylate and acrylic acid. Drag reduction is the increase in pump ability of a fluid caused by the addition of small amounts of an additive to the fluid. The effectiveness of a drag reducer is normally expressed in terms of percent drag reduction. Frictional pressure loss in a pipeline system is a waste of energy and it costly. The drag reducing additive minimizes the flow turbulence, increases throughput and reduces the energy costs. The Flow can be increased by more than 80 % with existing assets. The effectiveness of the injected drag reducer in Mostorod to Tanta crude oil pipeline achieved 35.4 % drag reduction and 23.2 % flow increase of the actual performance The experimental application of DRA on Arab Petroleum Pipeline Company (Summed) achieved a flow increase ranging from 9-32 %

113

Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

114

Lateral buckling and axial walking of surface laid subsea pipeline  

OpenAIRE

Subsea pipelines are increasingly being required to operate at high temperature and pressure HT/HP. The pipeline installed on the seabed and left exposed have a potential to buckle, walk and change configuration under high temperature and pressure (HT/HP). This could lead to failure of the Pipeline if buckling and walking is not properly controlled or mitigated. The objective of the thesis work is to study and understand the influence of pipeline-soil interaction on the design of surface laid...

Obele, Ifenna

2013-01-01

115

Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology  

OpenAIRE

Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

Rafael Rodríguez Díez; Di?az-aguado, Mari?a B.

2014-01-01

116

Severe service ball valves for high pressure slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Severe Service Ball Valves are a critical component in the design of high pressure slurry pipelines. Compared to conventional oil and gas pipelines, the transportation of mineral slurries at high pressure is a modern technology. This advanced technology would not be possible if valve manufacturers were not able to design and provide equipment that can function with high pressure abrasive fluids. The design of slurry pipelines has become more complicated due to the use of sophisticated controls, varying types of minerals, increased sizes and higher pressures. All of these complexities have challenged valve and actuator manufacturers who need to work closely with the pipeline design companies to find cost-effective and viable solutions. Using examples from existing slurry pipeline operations; this paper examines how high pressure slurry ball valves have become an important component in the successful design, construction and operations of slurry pipelines throughout the world. (author)

Harrison, Malcolm J. [Valvtechnologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

117

49 CFR 192.727 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...reports by mail, fax or e-mail to the Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-10-01

118

49 CFR 195.59 - Abandonment or deactivation of facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE...reports by mail, fax or e-mail to the Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-10-01

119

Generic Data Pipelining Using ORAC-DR  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic data reduction pipeline is, perhaps, the holy grail for data reduction software. We present work which sets us firmly on the path towards this goal. ORAC-DR is an online data reduction pipeline written by the Joint Astronomy Center (JAC) and the UK Astronomy Technology Center (ATC) and distributed as part of the Starlink Software collection (SSC). It is intended to run with a minimum of observer interaction, and is able to handle data from many different instruments, including SCUBA, CGS4, UFTI, IRCAM and Michelle, with support for IRIS2 and UIST under development. Recent work by Starlink in collaboration with the JAC has resulted in an increase in the pipeline's flexibility, opening up the possibility that it could be used for truly generic data reduction for data from any imaging, and eventually spectroscopic, detector.

Allan, Alasdair; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Currie, Malcolm J.; Bly, Martin J.

120

Pipelines to eastern Canada  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

121

GPI Pipeline: Gemini Planet Imager Data Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The GPI data pipeline allows users to reduce and calibrate raw GPI data into spectral and polarimetric datacubes, and to apply various PSF subtraction methods to those data. Written in IDL and available in a compiled version, the software includes an integrated calibration database to manage reference files and an interactive data viewer customized for high contrast imaging that allows exploration and manipulation of data.

GPI instrument Collaboration

2014-11-01

122

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried ou...

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-01-01

123

Worries mount over ability to finance pipeline nukes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concerns over financing the 31 nuclear power plants now in the construction pipeline lead some analysts to question whether plants not already slated for cancellation will be able to survive the increasingly risky investment climate. Any accident or utility default could weaken marginally healthy utilities to the point of default on construction bonds. Junk bonds that spread the percentage points of interest rates are competing in the market with those of other businesses. Regulatory decisions that protect ratepayers increase the risk to investors. The industry needs about $40 billion to finish the plants now in the pipeline, and much of the capital must come from internal generation. Adding to the risk are challenges to emergency and safety procedures, but optimistic analysts feel the market for high risk/high return securities has not reached saturation. One problem is the lack of standardization in calculating the estimated costs of completion versus abandonment. 3 tables

124

Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There were 4 sessions in this working group, which focused on issues concerning corrosion in pipelines. Updates from previous workshops were presented and pipeline goals for 2005 were discussed, along with the updated CSA Z662 and details of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (AEUB) review of the Integrity Management Procedure (IMP) requirements and initiatives. Requirements for sour service pipes were discussed. Pipeline data for 2004 was presented. Issues concerning stress cracking, recommended practice for pipeline horizontal drilling, and geophysical crossings were reviewed. Corrosion, monitoring techniques and regulatory changes were examined. Issues concerning pipeline installation, inspection and training requirements were discussed. Failures and incidents in Alberta were examined. It was noted that smaller companies have lower failure rates than larger companies. Discussion centred on the causes of pipeline failure. It was suggested that many failures due to corrosion were possibly attributed to other causes. Canadian Association for Petroleum Producers (CAPP) recommended practices were reviewed. Session 2 focused on corrosion mitigation and monitoring. Inspection, training for installation inspection and coatings and liners were reviewed. It was noted that iron and manganese counts have become less popular, due to the fact that they do not correlate with under deposit corrosion. Education, pipeline integrity management, design and budget were examined, as well as issues concerning regulator involvement. It was noted that most failures occur in unpiggable lines. Various standards were discussed as well as the CAPP draft on training. External and internal coatings were reviewed, as well as thermal plastic and metallic liners. Pressures from environmental groups, inhibitor volume and increases in steel usage were discussed. Issues for 2007 workshops included technical sessions, performance-based regulations and integrity programs. tabs., figs.

Billey, D. [Pembina Pipeline Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, R. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sizov, V. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Szklarz, K. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

125

Continued Distress among Abandoned Dogs in Fukushima  

Science.gov (United States)

In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5–10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

2012-01-01

126

Abandoning of mining activities - impact on ground water and surface water systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At present a decrease in mining activities occurs in practically all mining areas (both coal and ore) in the Czech Republic. Huge capacities of mine workings in various depths and geological conditions are abandoned and liquidated. Special methods of liquidation of abandoned mine workings by filling, using selected waste as secondary raw materials, are used only exceptionally. In such cases the liquidation proceeds without problems with serious or long-term contamination of the environment, including monitoring of anomalous geomechanical events, ascent of methane to the surface etc. This systematic approach has only one negative feature - prolongation of liquidation works in comparison to simple abandoning and flooding of the mine. This contribution deals with the general aspects of groundwater protection in connection with liquidation of mines by filling of mine workings with secondary raw materials (including legislative problems in Czech Republic). 10 refs., 2 figs

127

76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines...the regulations covering gas transmission pipelines...of gathering lines and underground gas storage facilities. On September 9, 2011, the Interstate Natural Gas Association of...

2011-11-16

128

Water level detection pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present invention, water levels of a feedwater heater and a drain tank in a nuclear power plant are detected at high accuracy. Detection pipeline headers connected to the upper and lower portions of a feedwater heater or a drain tank are connected with each other. The connection line is branched at appropriate two positions and an upper detection pipeline and a lower detection pipeline are connected thereto, and a gauge entrance valve is disposed to each of the detection pipelines. A diaphragm of a pressure difference generator is connected to a flange formed to the end portion. When detecting the change of water level in the feedwater heater or the drain tank as a change of pressure difference, gauge entrance valves on the exit side of the upper and lower detection pipelines are connected by a connection pipe. The gauge entrance valve is closed, a tube is connected to the lower detection pipe to inject water to the diaphragm of the pressure difference generator passing through the connection pipe thereby enabling to calibrate the pressure difference generator. The accuracy of the calibration of instruments is improved and workability thereof upon flange maintenance is also improved. (I.S.)

129

Fiber optic accelerometer for pipeline surveillance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of accelerometers for monitoring vibration due to impacts and other sources associated with pipeline operation is not new, but conventional electric accelerometers present practical problems to be deployed in the field. In this paper we evaluate the use of both commercially available and prototypes of new optical fiber accelerometers for this application. They all share the possibility of operating at long distances from the reading unit. All tests were performed at CTDUT facilities on free pipes as well as on a 14 pol-OD, 100 meters long pipeline loop. Using controlled impacts, several aspects of the application have been analyzed such as different ways of fixing the accelerometers to the pipeline wall, influence of barriers between impact and sensor, and signal propagation through buried sections of pipeline. Results of measurements performed during the operation of the loop are also presented. They include passing PIGs, pumping water out from the system, and working on the tubes to open the loop. Results indicate that the accelerometers can be placed at distances measuring hundreds of meters from the source of vibration, and that the difference in time and frequency behavior of signals measured by sensors placed in different locations along the pipeline may be used to locate and identify that source. (author)

Valente, Luiz C.G.; Cabral, Bruno S. [LUPATECH Monitoring Systems, Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil); Braga, Arthur M.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica

2009-07-01

130

Hazard identification studies applied to oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to assess risks inherent to an Oil Pipeline, it is imperative to analyze what happens 'outside the process'. HAZID (HAZard IDentification) studies are mainly carried out for this purpose. HAZID is a formal study which identifies hazards and risks associated to an operation or facility and enable its acceptability assessment. It is a brainstorming exercise guided by a typical 'Checklist', divided into four Sections: External, Facilities and Health Hazards and Issues pertaining to Project Execution, which are further subdivided into Hazard Categories. For each Category, there are 'Guide-words' and 'Prompts'. Even if an Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment can be performed by means of the above referred 'Checklist', carrying out the actual process can become lengthy and annoying due to the lack of specificity. This work aims at presenting the most suitable 'Checklist' for the identification of Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment, although it could be used for Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment too. Prepared ad hoc, this list, is based on the spill causes established by CONCAWE (CONservation of Clean Air Water in Europe). Performing Oil Pipeline Risk Assessment by means of specially formulated Checklist enables the Study Team to easily identify risks, shortens execution time and provides both accuracy and specificity. (author)

Savio, Augusto; Alpert, Melina L. [TECNA S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)], e-mail: asavio@tecna.com, e-mail: malpert@tecna.com

2008-07-01

131

Integrity management on the Echo pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Echo pipeline is a 12 inch diameter, 153 km long pipeline that runs from Elk Point in Alberta to Hardisty. It is a hot oil pipeline that transports 0.986 SG material at temperatures between 50 and 95 degrees C. Conventional pipelines can operate with a material viscosity up to 1000 cS, but at temperatures of 5-25 degrees C this requires a diluent content up to 20%. The Echo pipeline operates in the same viscosity range, but without diluent which requires the higher operating temperature. For various reasons there are capital cost savings in operating with no diluent at higher temperatures. Another advantage of this system is increased market flexibility. A disadvantage is that non-diluted oil must be kept moving so that excessive cooling does not occur which would cause the oil to reach a non-pumpable viscosity. The design considerations for heat loss to the ground included the effect of oil viscosity and the effect on the soils and root zone temperatures. To mitigate the heat loss effect to acceptable levels 2 inches of insulation and 6 feet of cover were required. A multi-layer coating was necessary that consisted of a primer, corrosion protection tape, polyurethane foam insulation, rockshield tape, and polyethylene jacket. The coating had various disadvantages including: it was difficult to apply over field welds, it was difficult to bend and it prevented the cathodic protection system from working effectively.

Kulcsar, D. [Gibsons Petroleum Company Ltd., Hardisty, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

132

Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

Millán R.

2013-04-01

133

Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

134

Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Falck, C.; Kleppe, T.; Maribu, J.

1997-12-31

135

Northern pipelines : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highwayn natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

136

Diagnostics of Pipelines System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Underground gas storage in Slovakia has a 25 years history. The first phase of building, the object for underground reservoir Láb began in 1977. The underground reservoir is separated into five independent parts, phases of building. All parts are concentrated in central control area. The oldest part of equipment for underground reservoir needs overhaul and maintenance today. The maintenance process uncovers a lot of problems that were created through building process. The great problems are uncovered in the area of pipeline system diagnostics. In the past, maintenance operators faced difficult decisions, to choose the best method or combination of methods to evaluate pipeline condition.

Štroffek, E.

2006-01-01

137

Pipeline inspection with intelligent pigs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Specialized testing instruments, so-called intelligent pigs, can help to monitor the pipeline status and to detect, localize and measure defects in the pipeline wall in the course of an overall inspection programme. The article starts by listing the defects that may occur in the pipeline wall and then presents a survey of intelligent pigs currently on the market. (orig.)

138

Superscalar micro-pipeline structure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The problem of micro-pipeline with big latency has been analyzed. In order to obtain regular temp into micro-pipeline hardware saturation should be used. The synthesis of micro-pipeline controllers into fork dot is presented in two variants – about 2-phase and 4-phase transfer protocol.

Dimitar Tyanev

2012-06-01

139

30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. 924...20 Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plan as...

2010-07-01

140

30 CFR 938.20 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 938...20 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Pennsylvania Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as...

2010-07-01

141

Nondestructive testing of pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nondestructive test methods play an important role in the fabrication, acceptance testing construction, installation surveillance, and operational monitoring of pipelines. The main test methods employed are ultrasonic testing, radiographic testing, and surface crack testing. The basic characteristics of these methods are described. (orig./RW)

142

Pipelines: options and constraints  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper examines the different transportation routes for oil and gas pipelines from the land-locked Caspian Basin region, and the implications of political decisions on the economics of the routes. Details are given of the Caspian Basin oil and gas reserves and production potentials, oil export routes under consideration, the southern route through Iran, and Iran's role in a regional gas network

143

APV6 Pipeline Emulations  

CERN Document Server

The data volume from the CMS inner tracker is large enough that data cannot be read out for every bunch crossing, so data are stored in the front end readout chips until a first level trigger signal is received, after which the interesting data are read out. This will reduce the data rate from 40 MHz to 100 kHz. For the silicon microstrips, the data are read out using the APV6 chip which holds the data in an analogue pipeline for up to 3.2 us. Up to 6 events may be stored in the pipeline at any one time, and data are read out asynchronously. In any system where data arrives with a random distribution in time, a finite sized memory can become full, causing data to be lost. Because of the complex nature of the APV6 pipeline logic, a true estimate of the proportion of data which will be lost can only be achieved by running a computer emulation of the pipeline logic, with a poisson distribu tion of trigger signals. The emulation has also been modified to study the effect of other possible logic designs.

Millmore, Martin

1997-01-01

144

The JWST Calibration Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The James Webb Space Telescope will launch in 2018 and carry four science instruments that will observe the sky at 0.7 - 29 micron: the Near Infrared Camera (NIRCam), the Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS), the Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec), and the Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI). The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is currently building a data reduction pipeline that will provide not only basic calibrated data but also higher level science products. All of the JWST detectors will be operated in non-destructive readout mode. Therefore, the first step in the pipeline will be to calculate the slopes of indivudal non-destructive readout ramps or integrations. The next step will be to generate calibrated slope images that are represent the basic calibrated data. The final step will be to combine data taken across multiple integrations and exposure. For the direct imaging and integral field spectroscopy modes, the pipeline will produce calibrated mosaicks. For the coronagraphic modes, the pipeline will produce contrast curves and PSF subtracted images.

Chen, Christine; Muzerolle, James; Van Dyke Dixon, William; Izela Diaz, Rosa; Bushouse, Howard A.

2015-01-01

145

Decommissioning and abandonment of offshore installations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To the onlooker surprising little thought was given at the project planning stage to the fate of offshore facilities once their production lifetimes had come to an end. Throughout the 1970s at least, international law required the complete removal of all structures and installations one disused or abandoned. Fishermen's organisations were led to believe that such installations would be entirely removed yet many of the designs of these show that removal was not much in the minds of the engineers or project management during the design stages. Changes in the text of the United Nations' Convention on the Law of the Sea and (by their widespread legal adoption) in customary international law may now permit partial removal of installations subject to important safeguards for navigation, the environment and other users of the sea. Of the North Sea states at least one has adopted policies that will minimise the cost associated with offshore decommissioning and abandonment and both the UK and Norway are adopting legislation which will provide for a case by case approach to the decommissioning and abandonment of offshore facilities and allow partial removal options. There has thus been a recent and significant change in approach to the abandonment of offshore oil and gas installations. This chapter reviews the development of abandonment laws and policies, outlines the available removal options, and provides a consideration of the environmental and fishery implications of these nmental and fishery implications of these for the North Sea. (Author)

146

Environmental radioactivity survey in an abandoned uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we report the environmental radioactivity survey in an abandoned uranium mine in China. The air gamma ray absorption dose rate was measured. Radionuclides in uranium mine slag, soil, water, sediment and biological samples, were analyzed. Radon in the air was monitored. The annual radiation dose of the residents in the uranium mine region was assessed. All the work was conducted in line with national standards of China. The survey results show that the radioactive pollution in the region should be disposed immediately. According to the characteristics of the uranium mining pollution sources, we propose some reasonable ways of radiation protection and disposal. (authors)

147

1996/97 abandonment fund annual report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Alberta's Abandonment Fund is funded by a levy on inactive wells and is a key component of the province's program to identify and abandon existing orphan wells and to prevent future occurrences. The fund allows essential resources and liability management to be done with industry's dollars rather than tax payer's dollars. Two representative case studies were presented to demonstrate how orphan well prevention activities are conducted. During fiscal year 1996/97 (the fifth year of the Fund's operation) the fund collected $2,591,497 from the annual levy on inactive wells in the province ($90 per well). During the year under review, the fund initiated or is completing, downhole abandonment operations at 28 orphan wells at an average cost of $62,700 per well. 3 tabs., 1 fig

148

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13

149

The inspection of a radiologically contaminated pipeline using a teleoperated pipe crawler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1950s, the Savannah River Site built an open, unlined retention basin to temporarily store potentially radionuclide contaminated cooling water from a chemical separations process and storm water drainage from a nearby waste management facility that stored large quantities of nuclear fission byproducts in carbon steel tanks. The retention basin was retired from service in 1972 when a new, lined basin was completed. In 1978, the old retention basin was excavated, backfilled with uncontaminated dirt, and covered with grass. At the same time, much of the underground process pipeline leading to the basin was abandoned. Since the closure of the retention basin, new environmental regulations require that the basin undergo further assessment to determine whether additional remediation is required. A visual and radiological inspection of the pipeline was necessary to aid in the remediation decision making process for the retention basin system. A teleoperated pipe crawler inspection system was developed to survey the abandoned sections of underground pipelines leading to the retired retention basin. This paper will describe the background to this project, the scope of the investigation, the equipment requirements, and the results of the pipeline inspection

150

PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

151

30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Abandoned electric circuits...Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH...HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention... § 57.4011 Abandoned electric...

2010-07-01

152

Development of database on circular abandoned channel in Japan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To develop a method for estimating late Quaternary uplift rates of inland mountainous terrains where fluvial terraces are poorly developed, we focused on 'circular abandoned channels', formed by meander cut-offs or river capture of an incised meandering river. We studied about 1,000 circular abandoned channels distributed throughout the Islands of Japan, and developed GIS database on circular abandoned channel in Japan. This database contains formation process, relative heights, degree of dissection and bedrocks of circular abandoned channels. Circular abandoned channels are distributed in inland mountainous terrains, where late Quaternary uplift rates are unknown, and indicate different relative heights along the same river. Relative heights tend to correlate with degree of dissection of the circular abandoned channels, which may indicate that degree of dissection correlate with ages of abandonment of circular abandoned channels. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

153

17 CFR 230.155 - Integration of abandoned offerings.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Integration of abandoned offerings. 230.155 Section 230.155 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General § 230.155 Integration of abandoned offerings....

2010-04-01

154

United States petroleum pipelines: An empirical analysis of pipeline sizing  

Science.gov (United States)

The undersizing theory hypothesizes that integrated oil companies have a strong economic incentive to size the petroleum pipelines they own and ship over in a way that means that some of the demand must utilize higher cost alternatives. The DOJ theory posits that excess or monopoly profits are earned due to the natural monopoly characteristics of petroleum pipelines and the existence of market power in some pipelines at either the upstream or downstream market. The theory holds that independent petroleum pipelines owned by companies not otherwise affiliated with the petroleum industry (independent pipelines) do not have these incentives and all the efficiencies of pipeline transportation are passed to the ultimate consumer. Integrated oil companies on the other hand, keep these cost efficiencies for themselves in the form of excess profits.

Coburn, L. L.

1980-12-01

155

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Institute (United States))

1992-01-01

156

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity.

Zimmerman, R.E.; Wilkey, P.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Isaacson, H.R. [Gas Research Institute (United States)

1992-12-01

157

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

158

Pipeline economics and costs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Operations improved in 1988 for United States regulated petroleum pipeline companies. In almost all categories tracked by the Annual Oil and Gas Journal Pipeline Economics Reports, data from annual reports filed with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) showed improvements or were little worse than flat when compared with earlier data. This paper reports that most noticeable was the better than 9% increase from 1987 in net income for all (major and nonmajor) natural-gas transmission companies on operating revenues that rose for the first time since 1983. Underlying this growth was a surge of more than 21% in volume of gas transported for others along with a slight increase in sales, the latter the first of the 1980s. This growth is reflected in the reversal in operating revenues which have been falling steeply since 1983

159

77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline...national registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

2012-01-13

160

77 FR 16471 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators AGENCY: Pipeline...national registry of pipeline and liquefied natural gas operators. This notice provides...Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

2012-03-21

161

Assessment of mercury in sediments and in the benthic invertebrate Micronecta scholtzi downstream an abandoned pyrite mine  

OpenAIRE

y: The drainage of abandoned mines leads to several ecological problems, particularly the acidification of surface freshwater systems and heavy metal contamination. Mercury (Hg) is of particular interest because of its high toxicity and its ability for bioaccumulation. This work evaluates the magnitude and pattern of Hg dissipation from an abandoned pyrite mines to the local water ecosystem by testing of the stream bottom sediments and water invertebrate Micronecta scholtzi along the pyrite...

Agra, Ana Raquel; Abreu, Sizenando N.; Barata Marti?, Carlos; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.

2010-01-01

162

Russia: the pipeline diplomacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

163

Pipeline risk assessment/risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 7 discussed challenges facing the oil and gas pipeline industry with particular reference to the fundamentals of risk assessment and management. Risk assessment algorithms, methods, techniques and approaches were reviewed along with the likelihood and consequences of algorithms. Underlying programs, processes and procedures were identified, including decision support and performance measures that support a company's risk management program. Emerging focus areas that may require further investigation or industry collaboration were also identified. It was shown that high risk segments of pipelines can be identified through risk-based prioritization which relies on threat identification data, threat assessment data and consequence data. Three basic risk assessment methods were identified, namely subject matter expert (SME); relative assessment and probabilistic assessment. Each was shown to have advantages and limitations. The choice of risk assessment method depends on the needs of individual companies. It was determined that the size of the pipeline also determines the choice of risk assessment method and that the complexity of risk assessment should reflect the outcomes that are needed. Data quality is important, as are validation and feedback for calibration and continuous improvement. The basics for developing a facility risk assessment model were also presented along with a review of regulatory expectations. The National Energy Board strives for goal oriented risk assessment to ensure safe and secure systems that protect the environment and people. Public perception is also an issue that some pipeline companies consider in their risk assessment models. tabs., figs.

Len, N. [Dynamic Risk Assessment Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Skibinsky, D.; Irving, S. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sutherby, B.; Choudhary, U. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Gagnon, D. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

164

Field abandonment costs vary widely worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Options for abandoning offshore producing fields are broad and many variations exist in the world, each having advantages and disadvantages. Platform removal affects both governments and companies and thus, ultimately, affects the bottom line of a project. Typically, wells will be plugged and abandoned, topsides will either be taken to shore or recycled, and substructures can be totally or partially removed, or left in place. Abandoning offshore fields has four distinct stages: (1) develop, assess, and select options and create a detailed planning process that includes engineering and safety preparedness; (2) cease oil or gas production and safely plug and abandon wells; (3) removal all or part of the offshore structure (in most cases); and (4) dispose of or recycle removed equipment. Economic issues include costs, fiscal treatment, and relevant legislation. Operators have different options for offshore installation removal and disposal. The best option depends on several factors such as type of construction, size, distance from shore, weather conditions, and removal complexity. The paper discusses the decommissioning options, cost estimates, fiscal treatment, and regulatory framework

165

Investigation on the effects of entrained air in pipelines  

OpenAIRE

The main goal of this work is the development of a computational program for the quantitative assessment of the effects of entrained air in pipeline systems with respect to their operational safety. Likewise, two specific problems are investigated. (1) The effect of entrained air in form of pockets on hydraulic transients, during pump shutdown. It can be considered the most dangerous maneuver within a pumping pipeline. The computations corresponding to this study were evaluated by using the m...

Pozos Estrada, Oscar

2007-01-01

166

Automated Monitoring of Pipeline Rights-of-Way  

Science.gov (United States)

NASA Ames Research Center and the Pipeline Research Council International, Inc. have partnered in the formation of a research program to identify and develop the key technologies required to enable automated detection of threats to gas and oil transmission and distribution pipelines. This presentation describes the Right-of-way Automated Monitoring (RAM) program and highlights research successes to date, continuing challenges to implementing the RAM objectives, and the program's ongoing work and plans.

Frost, Chard Ritchie

2010-01-01

167

Non-Abandonment as a Foundation for Inclusive School Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors of this article describe an essential feature of inclusive educational practice: "non-abandonment". When students' needs and difficult behavior are overwhelming, teachers may abandon them emotionally as a defensive reaction to their own experience of emotional distress and helplessness. Non-abandonment represents a…

Razer, Michal; Friedman, Victor J.

2013-01-01

168

Also deputies will say something to new pipeline of Slovnaft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil transit company, Transpetrol, expects the new Bratislava-Schwechat pipeline connecting the OMV refinery to the Druzba pipeline to increase the use of the pipeline and improve company revenues by 20%. The Austrian project partner, OMV, looks to the project to decrease transportation costs for Russian oil. One sixth of the 60 km pipeline will be built in Slovakia, but there is a problem - the Slovak Ministry of Environment and the City of Bratislava have not approved the route proposed by Transpetrol. In their opinion, the propose route would endanger the protected area, Zitny ostrov, that provides drinking water to the capital. Slovnaft also plans a new pipeline to replace the old obsolete one used to transport its products to the mineral oils transhipment centre at Bratislava docks. One of the alternatives proposed by Slovnaft is the construction of a pipeline and transhipment centre on Zitny ostrov. Unlike the Transpetrol project, this has already received approval from the Ministry of Environment. Before construction work on the pipeline to Schwechat can start. OMV will have resolve issues related to the supply of oil from Russia. According to the original plans, Yukos, which owns a 49% stake in Transpetrol, was to supply the oil. But due to tax problems in Russia, Yukos lost its main drilling division, Juganskneftgaz

169

Experience with two pipeline river crossings in Argentina  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Alumbrera copper-gold mine located in the Province of Catamarca, northwest region of Argentina, commenced operation in October, 1997. Mine development included a 316 km long, 175 mm diameter slurry pipeline that conveys copper concentrate to a dewatering facility near the city of Tucuman, Province of Tucuman. It became apparent during the first few years of operation that, given the many potential risks of pipeline exposure associated with stream crossings, Minera Alumbrera would have to undertake an aggressive, formal program of risk management of crossings and risk mitigation. In this paper, the experience associated with two crossings is addressed: Rio Villavil; and, Rio Gastona. The original pipeline route through the 10 km length of pipeline connecting Pump Station (PS) 2 to PS 3 was directed along the bottom of the Rio Villavil valley, with most of it located within the flood way of the stream. The exposure of the pipeline at some locations and high risk of further pipeline exposures led to initiation of risk mitigation planning. Remediation work was completed by 2008. Rio Gastona, during the summer of 2001, experienced rapid shifting of the left bank at the crossing resulting in an undermined and unsupported length of pipeline. The subsequent risk mitigation method adopted in 2001 involved the planning and construction of groyne fields along both banks. (author)

Yaremko, Eugene [Northwest Hydraulic Consultants (NHC), Edmonton (Canada); D' Agnillo, Pablo; Diaz, Jose A. [Minera Alumbrera XTRADA Copper S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bravo, Claudio

2009-12-19

170

Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author)

171

Slurry pipeline technology: an overview  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Slurry pipelines represent an economical and environmentally friendly transportation means for many solid materials. This paper provides an over-view of the technology, its evolution and current Brazilian activity. Mineral resources are increasingly moving farther away from ports, processing plants and end use points, and slurry pipelines are an important mode of solids transport. Application guidelines are discussed. State-of-the-Art technical solutions such as pipeline system simulation, pipe materials, pumps, valves, automation, telecommunications, and construction techniques that have made the technology successful are presented. A discussion of where long distant slurry pipelines fit in a picture that also includes thickened and paste materials pipe lining is included. (author)

Chapman, Jay P. [Pipeline Systems Incorporated (PSI), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lima, Rafael; Pinto, Daniel; Vidal, Alisson [Ausenco do Brasil Engenharia Ltda., Nova Lima, MG (Brazil). PSI Div.

2009-12-19

172

A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

Alexander A. Bolonkin

2009-01-01

173

49 CFR 195.210 - Pipeline location.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY...

2010-10-01

174

Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

Miloševi? Marko V.

2011-01-01

175

Abandoned metal mine stability risk evaluation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abandoned mine legacy is critical in many countries around the world, where mine cave-ins and surface subsidence disruptions are perpetual risks that can affect the population, infrastructure, historical legacies, land use, and the environment. This article establishes abandoned metal mine failure risk evaluation approaches and quantification techniques based on the Canadian mining experience. These utilize clear geomechanics considerations such as failure mechanisms, which are dependent on well-defined rock mass parameters. Quantified risk is computed using probability of failure (probabilistics using limit-equilibrium factors of safety or applicable numerical modeling factor of safety quantifications) times a consequence impact value. Semi-quantified risk can be based on failure-case-study-based empirical data used in calculating probability of failure, and personal experience can provide qualified hazard and impact consequence assessments. The article provides outlines for land use and selection of remediation measures based on risk. PMID:19645755

Bétournay, Marc C

2009-10-01

176

Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

177

Monitoring of natural gas pipeline leaks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leak monitoring on natural gas pipelines is very important in guaranteeing operational safety. Many methods are currently used for pipeline leakage monitoring world-wide: the wave method is one of these. This paper investigated the principle of pressure wave technique combined with a denoising method and a working recognition technique. A leak can be detected by the measurement of static pressure and dynamic pressure. Both signals needed to be interpreted, a wavelet packet decomposition technique was used to reduce noise and analyze the signals. The BP neural network was used to identify signal fluctuations. An integrated system based on LabVIEW was developed to monitor operating conditions and locate leaks more accurately . This system was applied in field. The field tests showed that the method developed is accurate and reliable and demonstrated its high practical value.

Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xiong, Min; Yu, Dongliang; Wang, Likun; Wang, Hongchao [RnD center of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang, (China)

2010-07-01

178

Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas  

OpenAIRE

Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L.) Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tiss...

Favas P. J. C.; Pratas J.

2013-01-01

179

Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

2004-12-01

180

Recycling abandoned lead battery sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks0 tons per day in the coming weeks

181

Saint John lateral pipeline project: comprehensive study report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A descripion is given of the results of an environmental impact assessment of the construction of a natural gas pipeline that will bring gas from Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Management Ltd.'s (M and NP) main transmission pipeline to clients in Lake Utopia and Saint John, NB. It will be 110 km long, and the Saint John lateral will join the mainline approximately 2 km south of Big Kedron Lake, NB. Various institutional, industrial, commercial and residential clients will be able to access the pipeline in the future, and it is intended to be capable of future expansion for markets along its route and for markets that become economically feasible in the future. A matrix was developed that relates environmental resources to Environmental Components of Concern (ECCs), and to the rationale for exclusion/inclusion of the ECC as a Valued Environmental Component (VECs). The positive benefits of the pipeline to clients in the Saint John area include: reduced dependence on foreign oil, fuel switching and price competition, lower air emission pollution, increased energy efficiency, and a source of energy that is secure and reliable. VECs were selected based on: concerns of various stakeholders including the public, community groups, scientific parties, Aboriginal groups, government officials and agencies, relevant regulations; relevant literature; and past evaluation experiences, including future developments of the proposed study area. Further selection of the VECs required a. Further selection of the VECs required an examination of the issues picked out via scoping to determine the ways in which the overall project could affect the ECCs, and included construction, operation, decommissioning/abandonment, malfunctions and accidents of the pipeline. The phases of the project as they impacted residually and cumulatively on the VECs were evaluated, and impacts on Valued Socio-Economic Components (VSCs) were assessed also. The mitigation efforts taken will minimize the potential effects of the project on VECs and VSCs. For all of the project phases it is expected that residual effects will be without significance as will be the overall environmental impact. 29 refs

182

Towards the determination of surface collapse type over abandoned mines in the Lorraine iron basin  

OpenAIRE

Surface collapse is a major problem that follows many active or abandoned underground workings. Collapses result from roof deformation of underground workings, and/or controlled or uncontrolled rock caving. The uncontrolled rock caving could result in surface instability problem and loss of materials and/or human life. Over the past 90 years, ans as a result of underground-uncontrolled rock caving, 16 major accidents "surface collapse" has been reported in the French Lorraine iron basin.

El-shayeb, Yasser; Kouniali, Samy; Josien, Jean-pierre; Gueniffey, Yves

2001-01-01

183

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

184

Maglev crude oil pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

This maglev crude oil pipeline consists of two conduits guiding an endless stream of long containers. One conduit carries loaded containers and the other empty returns. The containers are levitated by permanent magnets in repulsion and propelled by stationary linear induction motors. The containers are linked to each other in a manner that allows them, while in continuous motion, to be folded into side by side position at loading and unloading points. This folding causes a speed reduction in proportion to the ratio of container diameter to container length. While in side by side position, containers are opened at their ends to be filled or emptied. Container size and speed are elected to produce a desired carrying capacity.

Knolle, Ernst G.

1994-01-01

185

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-08-17

186

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-04-12

187

Working group 10 : internal corrosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This tenth working group of the Banff 2011conference discussed the internal corrosion of transmission pipe systems. An overview of internal corrosion issues was presented with respect to the corrosivity of heavy oil pipelines and dil-bit pipelines. This presentation gave an insight into new techniques for pipeline sludge corrosivity analysis, the properties of heavy oil and dil-bit pipelines that make sediments present in these lines corrosive, and provided a starting point for discussions. Also the results of a survey aimed at capturing pipeline operating parameters and internal corrosion experience were discussed. Best practices and areas of improvement around internal corrosion management of midstream and transmission gas and liquid pipelines have been identified. Several technology exchange groups were created to discuss and develop new technologies for topics such as cleaning, sludge corrosivity, inhibition and industry survey in order to develop guidelines for consideration as standard practices.

Melvin, Budd; Place, Trevor

2011-07-01

188

Research of Heated Oil Pipeline Shutdown and Restart Process Based on VB and MATLAB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the operation of a heated oil transportation pipeline, the shutdown was caused by some pipeline accidents and repairing. In order to ensure the safety operation of the pipeline, determine the temperature drop and restart pressure was needed at different shutdown is important. This paper builds the heated oil pipeline temperature drop model after shutdown based on the unsteady heat transfer theory and restart model based on fluid transient flow theory. In order to solve the models, MATLAB is adopted a code for the models solving program. VB and MATLAB hybrid programming method which is on the basis of COM technical is utilized to develop a friendly man-machine interface for the heated oil pipeline shutdown and restart simulation software. The practical application shows using of VB and MATLAB hybrid programming method can reduce the work of algorithm developing and enhance the reliability of heated oil pipeline shutdown and restart simulation software.

Changjun Li

2010-12-01

189

Seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines - challenges after three decades of progress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper analyzes the evolution over the past three decades of seismic damage estimation for buried pipelines and identifies some challenges for future research studies on the subject. The first section of this paper presents a chronological description of the evolution since the mid-1970s of pipeline fragility relations - the most common tool for pipeline damage estimation - and follows with a careful analysis of the use of several ground motion parameters as pipeline damage indicators. In the second section of the paper, four gaps on the subject are identified and proposed as challenges for future research studies. The main conclusion of this work is that enhanced fragility relations must be developed for improving pipeline damage estimation, which must consider relevant parameters that could influence the seismic response of pipelines.

Pineda-porras, Omar Andrey [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Najafi, Mohammand [U. OF TEXAS

2009-01-01

190

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

191

The restorationof the dilapidated pipelines using compressed plastic pipes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article provides the information on a promising technology for trenchless repair named Swagelining, which supposes pulling into the old pipeline the new polymer with its preliminary thermo-mechanical compression and further straightening. The coauthors present the results of the calculations determining the thickness of the polyethylene pipes after compression and straightening in the old pipeline depending on the initial diameter in case of different ratio of the diameter to the wall thickness (SDR and the dynamics of the changes in hydraulic performance after repair work on the pipeline using the method Swagelining. The concept of the energy saving potential is formed in addition to a no-dig repair for pressure piping systems, water supply, and its magnitude. On the basis of the research results, the authors formulate the principles of the energy efficiency potential after the implementation of the trenchless technology of drawing the old pipeline with new polymer pipes with their preliminary thermo-mechanical compression and subsequent area enlargement. The technology Swagelining is described and the authors develop a mathematical model that illustrates the behavior of the pipeline in the process of shrink operations. Such parameters are analyzed as changing the diameter of the pipeline at thermo-mechanical compression, the hydraulic parameters of the new (polymer and old (steel pipelines, energy savings on one-meter length of the pipeline. The calculated values of the electric power economy on the whole length of the pipeline repair section with a corresponding flow of transported waters.The characteristics and capabilities of the technology of trenchless renovation Swagelining allows achieving simultaneously the effect of resource saving (eliminationof the defects and, as a consequence, of water leakage and energy saving (reduction in the water transportation cost.A numerical example of the old steel pipeline renovation shows the calculated data, which proves the efficiency of the considered technology. The calculation results can be used as base material for designers when selecting the final decision of the alternative at reconstruction of dilapidated pipelines by Swagelining using a wide range of polymer pipes with the corresponding value of the SDR.

Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

2014-02-01

192

Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

193

Planning of the reforestation at abandoned coal mines using GIS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents a prototype of decision support system for planning the reforestation at abandoned coal mines. The characteristics of deforested zone due to mine development were analyzed and categorized to define the schema of GIS database. Multiple criteria (i.e. forest-climate zone, mining method, visibility, managerial condition, slope gradient, reforestation purpose) were considered to classify the deforested zone and to assign unique IDs to the key index fields in tables. ArcMap, ArcObjects and Visual Basic.NET were used to implement the system. The application to the Samcheok coal block in Korea shows that the system could present a rational solution to select suitable trees for the reforestation and can also provide cost evaluation tools to support the environmental planning work.

Choi, Y.; Oh, S.; Park, H.; Kwon, H.

2009-12-01

194

Pipeline integrity handbook risk management and evaluation  

CERN Document Server

Based on over 40 years of experience in the field, Ramesh Singh goes beyond corrosion control, providing techniques for addressing present and future integrity issues. Pipeline Integrity Handbook provides pipeline engineers with the tools to evaluate and inspect pipelines, safeguard the life cycle of their pipeline asset and ensure that they are optimizing delivery and capability. Presented in easy-to-use, step-by-step order, Pipeline Integrity Handbook is a quick reference for day-to-day use in identifying key pipeline degradation mechanisms and threats to pipeline integrity. The book begins

Singh, Ramesh

2013-01-01

195

Resolution of capsule stoppage in pneumatic pipeline to the analysis facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pneumatic pipeline to the analysis facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant(RRP), a sudden deceleration of capsule velocity was observed at times. This is called stoppage phenomenon of capsule. The purpose of this work is to experimentally find factors, which affect this phenomenon, and to develop a method to avoid such stoppage in pipeline. (author)

196

Development of ship pipeline mounting and manufacturing technologies and their economical substantiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The analysis of technological features of ship pipeline mounting and manufacturing is carried out. Pipe mounting and manufacturing technologies are developed. They are directed to reduction of building cycles and decrease of labor intensiveness of pipeline works when carrying out ship-building orders and on this basis increase of ship-building production efficiency.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2011-12-01

197

Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks  

Science.gov (United States)

The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and leakage release holes were modelled. This pipeline section is 10m long with the leakage hole in the middle. Additionally a small environment subdomain is simulated around the crack. For computation a multiphase solver was utilised. In a first step incompressible and isothermal fluids with no phase change were assumed.

Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

2013-04-01

198

Black powder in gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

199

Pipelines programming paradigms: Prefab plumbing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mastery of CMS Pipelines is a process of learning increasingly sophisticated tools and techniques that can be applied to your problem. This paper presents a compilation of techniques that can be used as a reference for solving similar problems

200

Should executive stock options be abandoned?  

OpenAIRE

Recent corporate scandals around the world have led many to single out executive stock options as one of the main culprits. More corporations are abandoning stock options and reverting to restricted stock. This paper argues that such a change is not entirely justifiable. We first provide a critical review of the pros and cons of executive stock options. We then compare option-based contracts with stock-based contracts using a simple principal-agent model with moral-hazard. In a general ...

Choe, Chongwoo; Yin, Xiangkang

2006-01-01

201

Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

202

History of abandoned infants in Greece  

OpenAIRE

It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Gree...

Maria Athanasopoulou; Mariana Drakopoulos

2010-01-01

203

Biogeochemical behaviour and bioremediation of uranium in waters of abandoned mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discharges of uranium and associated radionuclides as well as heavy metals and metalloids from waste and tailing dumps in abandoned uranium mining and processing sites pose contamination risks to surface and groundwater. Although many more are being planned for nuclear energy purposes, most of the abandoned uranium mines are a legacy of uranium production that fuelled arms race during the cold war of the last century. Since the end of cold war, there have been efforts to rehabilitate the mining sites, initially, using classical remediation techniques based on high chemical and civil engineering. Recently, bioremediation technology has been sought as alternatives to the classical approach due to reasons, which include: (a) high demand of sites requiring remediation; (b) the economic implication of running and maintaining the facilities due to high energy and work force demand; and (c) the pattern and characteristics of contaminant discharges in most of the former uranium mining and processing sites prevents the use of classical methods. This review discusses risks of uranium contamination from abandoned uranium mines from the biogeochemical point of view and the potential and limitation of uranium bioremediation technique as alternative to classical approach in abandoned uranium mining and processing sites. PMID:23354614

Mkandawire, Martin

2013-11-01

204

Suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of upstream oil and gas facilities : informational letter IL 98-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This release of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is intended to clarify the jurisdictional roles of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) and the EUB with regard to their respective responsibilities for the regulation of the suspension, abandonment, decontamination and surface land reclamation of active and inactive upstream oil and gas facilities. The EUB, AEP and industrial operators all have separate roles and responsibilities when active and inactive upstream facilities are suspended or reclaimed. In the future, industry operators will have more interaction with the AEP during the decontamination of a site, while the EUB will concentrate on pollution prevention and abandonment of non-economic facilities. All oilfield waste generated from suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of an active or inactive upstream oil and gas facility will fall under the jurisdiction of the EUB. Contaminated soils, sludges, and waters that are physically removed as a result of decontamination activities are considered to be oilfield wastes. The regulatory responsibility between the AEP and the EUB remains unchanged for the reclamation process of on-lease and off-lease spills, releases or pipeline breaks. Industry operators are no longer allowed to discharge any produced liquid to earthen pits or ponds and are encouraged to reclaim existing ones. 3 figs

205

A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline  

OpenAIRE

Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approxi...

Bolonkin, Alexander A.

2009-01-01

206

Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to id...

Buksa, T.; Pavletic, D.; Sokovic, M.

2010-01-01

207

75 FR 45591 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Technical Pipeline Safety Advisory Committee Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...ACTION: Notice of technical pipeline safety advisory...public meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards...TPSSC) and of the Technical Hazardous Liquid Pipeline...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Cheryl Whetsel by phone at 202-366-...

2010-08-03

208

77 FR 61825 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on Pipeline Data  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0244] Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meeting on...and the National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives (NAPSR) are...identify potential improvements in pipeline safety performance measures....

2012-10-11

209

77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives are hosting a...many challenges with pipeline safety and with protecting the environment...these events is aligned with the needs of the pipeline safety mission, makes use of the...

2012-06-19

210

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2004-10-01

211

77 FR 74276 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0302] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

2012-12-13

212

77 FR 15453 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0342] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...information collection titled, ``Gas Pipeline Safety Program Certification and Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Program Certification,''...

2012-03-15

213

77 FR 46155 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0094] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

2012-08-02

214

49 CFR 192.629 - Purging of pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS...

2010-10-01

215

78 FR 16764 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0302] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...

2013-03-18

216

77 FR 58622 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No...PHMSA-2012-0137] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection...Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety. [FR Doc....

2012-09-21

217

75 FR 73160 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Materials Safety Administration...Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities...Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities...Dioxide Pipelines and Liquefied Natural Gas Facilities....

2010-11-29

218

Autonomous underwater pipeline monitoring navigation system  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper details the development of an autonomous motion-control and navigation algorithm for an underwater autonomous vehicle, the Ocean Server IVER3, to track long linear features such as underwater pipelines. As part of this work, the Nonlinear and Autonomous Systems Laboratory (NAS Lab) developed an algorithm that utilizes inputs from the vehicles state of the art sensor package, which includes digital imaging, digital 3-D Sidescan Sonar, and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers. The resulting algorithms should tolerate real-world waterway with episodic strong currents, low visibility, high sediment content, and a variety of small and large vessel traffic.

Mitchell, Byrel; Mahmoudian, Nina; Meadows, Guy

2014-06-01

219

30 CFR 756.17 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan...

2010-07-01

220

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 936...936.20 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as...

2010-07-01

221

30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 901...901.20 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan,...

2010-07-01

222

30 CFR 756.15 - Required amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.15 Section...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. Pursuant...

2010-07-01

223

30 CFR 925.20 - Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 925...20 Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as...

2010-07-01

224

30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...904.25 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description....

2010-07-01

225

30 CFR 946.20 - Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval...STATE VIRGINIA § 946.20 Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. Virginia Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan as...

2010-07-01

226

30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...926.25 Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...noncoal additions to Montana Abandoned Mine Land Inventory; emergency...

2010-07-01

227

78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Parts 700, 875, 879, et al. Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited...OSM-2012-0010] RIN 1029-AC66 Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited...are proposing changes to our abandoned mine land (AML) reclamation...

2013-02-06

228

30 CFR 756.13 - Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.13 Section...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...Approval of the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. The Navajo...

2010-07-01

229

76 FR 12852 - Louisiana Regulatory Program/Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Louisiana Regulatory Program/Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY...Louisiana regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan under the...Federal regulations, and its abandoned mine land reclamation plan to be...

2011-03-09

230

30 CFR 756.14 - Approval of amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. 756.14 Section...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...amendments to the Navajo Nation's abandoned mine land plan. (a)...

2010-07-01

231

30 CFR 916.20 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 916...916.20 Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...conditionally approved the Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan,...

2010-07-01

232

30 CFR 756.16 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan....

2010-07-01

233

30 CFR 918.20 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 918...918.20 Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as...

2010-07-01

234

30 CFR 920.20 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. 920.20 Section 920.20 Mineral...MARYLAND § 920.20 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine plan. The Maryland Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on March 8,...

2010-07-01

235

30 CFR 914.20 - Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 914...914.20 Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan,...

2010-07-01

236

30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments... § 935.25 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...1997 Revisions to the Ohio Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan to...

2010-07-01

237

30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 904...904.20 Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as...

2010-07-01

238

30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan....

2010-07-01

239

30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 935.20 Section... OHIO § 935.20 Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as...

2010-07-01

240

30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 943...943.20 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan,...

2010-07-01

241

30 CFR 917.20 - Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan. 917.20 Section... § 917.20 Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan. The Kentucky Abandoned Mine Reclamation Plan as submitted on...

2010-07-01

242

30 CFR 913.20 - Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 913...913.20 Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as...

2010-07-01

243

30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

2010-07-01

244

30 CFR 756.18 - Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation...

2010-07-01

245

30 CFR 917.21 - Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... false Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...917.21 Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments...40503-2922. (b) The Kentucky Abandoned Mine Reclamation Amendment,...

2010-07-01

246

30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. 948...948.20 Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West Virginia Abandoned Mine Reclamation Plan as...

2010-07-01

247

30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 915... § 915.20 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as...

2010-07-01

248

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. 77.216-5 Section...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. (a) Prior to abandonment...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of...

2010-07-01

249

30 CFR 756.16 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.16 Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Hopi Tribe's Abandoned...

2010-07-01

250

30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow Tribe's Abandoned...

2010-07-01

251

41 CFR 109-45.902 - Findings justifying abandonment or destruction.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Findings justifying abandonment or destruction. 109-45.902 Section 109-45...DISPOSAL 45-SALE, ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY 45.9-Abandonment or Destruction of Personal Property §...

2010-07-01

252

Maximizing profits associated with abandonment decisions and options  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Economic strategies which are designed to maximize profits associated with abandonment decisions and options focus on: extending field life; offsetting of economic risks onto a third party; reuse of facilities and infrastructure; expansion of associated secondary processing and distribution capabilities and usage; and the sale of abandonment units to a third party

253

Potential effects of large linear pipeline construction on soil and vegetation in ecologically fragile regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Long-distance pipeline construction results in marked human disturbance of the regional ecosystem and brings into question the safety of pipeline construction with respect to the environment. Thus, the direct environmental impact and proper handling of such large projects have received much attention. The potential environmental effects, however, have not been fully addressed, particularly for large linear pipeline projects, and the threshold of such effects is unclear. In this study, two typical eco-fragile areas in western China, where large linear construction projects have been conducted, were chosen as the case study areas. Soil quality indices (SQI) and vegetation indices (VI), representing the most important potential effects, were used to analyze the scope of the effect of large pipeline construction on the surrounding environment. These two indices in different buffer zones along the pipeline were compared against the background values. The analysis resulted in three main findings. First, pipeline construction continues to influence the nearby eco-environment even after a 4-year recovery period. During this period, the effect on vegetation due to pipeline construction reaches 300 m beyond the working area, and is much larger in distance than the effect on soil, which is mainly confined to within 30 m either side of the pipeline, indicating that vegetation is more sensitive than soil to this type of human disturbance. However, the effect may not reach beyond 500 m from the pipeline. Second, the scope of the effect in terms of distance on vegetation may also be determined by the frequency of disturbance and the intensity of the pipeline construction. The greater the number of pipelines in an area, the higher the construction intensity and the more frequent the disturbance. Frequent disturbance may expand the effect on vegetation on both sides of the pipeline, but not on soil quality. Third, the construction may eliminate the stable, resident plant community. During the recovery period, the plant community in the work area of the pipeline is replaced by some species that are rare or uncommon in the resident plant community because of human disturbance, thereby increasing the plant diversity in the work area. In terms of plant succession, the duration of the recovery period has a direct effect on the composition and structure of the plant community. The findings provide a theoretical basis and scientific foundation for improving the environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas pipeline construction as it pertains to the desert steppe ecosystem, and provide a reference point for recovery and management of the eco-environment during the pipeline construction period. PMID:25112841

Xiao, Jun; Wang, Ya-Feng; Shi, Peng; Yang, Lei; Chen, Li-Ding

2014-11-01

254

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

255

API Publication 4507, Abandoned oil and gas industry wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on the potential for abandoned oil and gas industry wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa Sand oil-producing trend of Mississippi and Louisiana to act as conduits for flow of saline water from the Lower Tuscaloosa Sand into underground sources of drinking water. The study included correlation of the stratigraphic units throughout the Lower Tuscaloosa trend; documentation of the engineering characteristics of geologic units and abandoned wells in the trend; estimation of the thickness, porosity, and permeability of drilling mud and sloughed shale in abandoned wells in the trend; and an estimation of where corroded casing might occur in cased abandoned wells in the trend. On the basis of modeling that was performed, it was concluded that it is very unlikely that conditions would ever exist in the Lower Tuscaloosa trend where abandoned oil and gas wells would serve as conduits for movement of water into an underground source of drinking water

256

The legal framework for wellsite abandonment and reclamation in Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legislative framework for wellsite reclamation in Alberta was discussed. The legal requirements that impact on wellsite abandonment and reclamation, with emphasis on the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) were described. In 1994, the Orphan Well fund was established to ensure that wells are properly abandoned in those cases where participants are insolvent. The fund is financed by the petroleum industry. The regulatory requirements for wellsite abandonment are found in the OGCA and the Well Abandonment Guide 20 which provides explicit procedures for both open-hole and cased-hole abandonment. Liability for contaminated sites exists under the contaminated sites provision of the EPEA. Amendments to the OGCA provide for more supervision over licence transfers and the granting of licences to first-time licensees

257

Meanings of consumption and abandonment: understanding smoking cessation symbolism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology t [...] o collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

Maribel Carvalho, Suarez.

2014-06-01

258

30 CFR 948.26 - Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. [Reserved  

Science.gov (United States)

...Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. [Reserved... OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT...Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments....

2010-07-01

259

Reliability of Radiographic Inspection of Steel Pipeline Girth Welds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the radiographic NDT technique was employed for the detection of defects in girth welds of steel pipelines used by the offshore oil industry. Simulation was used to calculate the size of the smallest detectable defect and the corresponding radiographic parameters. The method developed showed good reliability.

Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Carvalho, A. A.; Smid, J.

2008-02-01

260

New territory for NGL pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even though the NGL pipeline industry appears mature, new geographic territory exists for expansion of NGL pipelines. However, the most fertile territory that must be pursued is the collective opportunities to better link the existing NGL industry. Associations like the Gas Processors Association can not perform the role demanded by a need to share information between the links of the chain on a more real time basis. The Association can not substitute for picking up the phone or calling a meeting of industry participants to discuss proposed changes in policies and procedures. All stakeholders must participate in squeezing out the inefficiencies of the industry. Some expansion and extension of NGL pipelines will occur in the future without ownership participation or commitments from the supply and demand businesses. However, significant expansions linking new supply sources and demand markets will only be made as the supply and demand businesses share long-term strategies and help define the pipeline opportunity. The successful industries of the twenty-first century will not be dominated by a single profitable sector, but rather by those industries which foster cooperation as well as competition. A healthy NGL industry will be comprised of profitable supply businesses and profitable demand businesses, linked together by profitable pipeline businesses

261

78 FR 23972 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0061] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...pipeline inspection and improves pipeline safety by providing early detection...state partners, and other pipeline safety stakeholders, including...

2013-04-23

262

76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0295] Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY...with the National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives and the United...management community leaders, pipeline safety regulators, pipeline...

2011-11-07

263

75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0133] Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness...with the National Association of Pipeline Safety Representatives (NAPSR). The...Pipeline trade associations, the Pipeline Safety Trust, the National...

2010-06-09

264

49 CFR 195.57 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE...b) The report shall be mailed to the Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-10-01

265

49 CFR 191.27 - Filing offshore pipeline condition reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE...b) The report shall be mailed to the Office of Pipeline Safety, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2010-10-01

266

75 FR 13807 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0088] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements...

2010-03-23

267

75 FR 9018 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0034] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select...

2010-02-26

268

75 FR 30099 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0088] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration, DOT. ACTION...Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements...

2010-05-28

269

77 FR 2606 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0004] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select...

2012-01-18

270

75 FR 76078 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2010-0323] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must select...

2010-12-07

271

Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

Favas P. J. C.

2013-04-01

272

A 12-year cavern abandonment test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

Brouard B.

2010-06-01

273

Revegetation of an abandoned coal washing site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Various reclamation techniques were applied on an abandoned coal washing pond in western Kentucky. The entire site was treated with fertilizer and lime to add nutrients and neutralize the soil pH. Four main treatments and control plots were established. The treatments included bark; straw and manure; bark, sawdust and manure; and a mixture of sewer sludge and kiln dust. Plots were also treated with a water absorbing synthetic polymer. All plots were seeded with various grasses, legumes, and black locust. The site was measured in 1992 after three growing seasons for woody plant biomass and percent ground cover. Significant differences in both woody plant biomass and percent ground cover were found between the treatments. 6 refs., 3 tabs

274

A 12-year cavern abandonment test  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

Bérest, P.; Brouard, B.; Hévin, G.

2010-06-01

275

Work in Progress: Viviendo entre hospicios. Mecanismos y políticas de control social sobre los niños abandonados en Costa Rica (1860-1930 / Living among Orphanages. Mechanisms of Social Control and Policies Imposed to Abandoned Childrens in Costa Rica (1860-1930  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the concept of childhood for the elite society specially politicians and the rich people of Costa Rica and based on this, assess the presence of control mechanisms, that were made to these people. At the same time it tackles the presence of the Catholic Church in Costa Rican society and more specifically in the care provided to abandoned children. The research will use both official sources (legislation and press and Catholic Church's documents.

Jeimy Trejos Salazar

2011-01-01

276

Creating Data Pipelines for PDS Datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the details of an image processing pipeline and a new Python library providing a convenient interface to Planetary Data System (PDS) data products. The library aims to be a useful tool for general purpose PDS processing. Test images have been extracted from existing PDS data products using the library but will work with lunar images from LRO/LROC. To process high-volume data sets we employ Hadoop, an open-source framework implementing the Map/Reduce paradigm for writing data intensive distributed applications. By harnessing a cluster of processing nodes we are able to extract raw images from data products and convert them to web-friendly formats at the rate of gigabytes per minute. The resultant images have been converted using the Python Image Library. Additionally, the images have been cropped to postage stamp images supporting various zoom levels. The final images, along with some metadata are uploaded to Amazon's S3 data storage system where they are served. Preliminary tests of the pipeline are promising, having processed 10,000 sample files totaling 30 GB in 15 minutes. The resultant jpegs totaled only 3 GB after compression. The code base has not only proven successful in its own right, but also shows Python, an interpreted language, to be a viable alternative to more mainstream compiled languages such as C/C++ or Fortran, especially when combined with Hadoop. This work was funded through NASA ROSES NNX09AD34G.

Balfanz, Ryan; Armbrust, M.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.

2010-01-01

277

Time dependent processing in a parallel pipeline architecture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pipeline architectures provide a versatile and efficient mechanism for constructing visualizations, and they have been implemented in numerous libraries and applications over the past two decades. In addition to allowing developers and users to freely combine algorithms, visualization pipelines have proven to work well when streaming data and scale well on parallel distributed-memory computers. However, current pipeline visualization frameworks have a critical flaw: they are unable to manage time varying data. As data flows through the pipeline, each algorithm has access to only a single snapshot in time of the data. This prevents the implementation of algorithms that do any temporal processing such as particle tracing; plotting over time; or interpolation, fitting, or smoothing of time series data. As data acquisition technology improves, as simulation time-integration techniques become more complex, and as simulations save less frequently and regularly, the ability to analyze the time-behavior of data becomes more important. This paper describes a modification to the traditional pipeline architecture that allows it to accommodate temporal algorithms. Furthermore, the architecture allows temporal algorithms to be used in conjunction with algorithms expecting a single time snapshot, thus simplifying software design and allowing adoption into existing pipeline frameworks. Our architecture also continues to work well in parallel distributed-memory environments. We demonstrate our architecture by modifying the popular VTK framework and exposing the functionality to the ParaView application. We use this framework to apply time-dependent algorithms on large data with a parallel cluster computer and thereby exercise a functionality that previously did not exist. PMID:17968087

Biddiscombe, John; Geveci, Berk; Martin, Ken; Moreland, Kenneth; Thompson, David

2007-01-01

278

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

2005-04-01

279

Researches results of heightened pipelines and valves of third ChNPP power unit vibration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vibrodynamic inspection of 'SEBIM' firm valves and pipelines of 'pointed' steam at third ChNPP power unit were made. The works for replacement of furnishing defective valves for removal of heightened vibration were executed

280

Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2009-07-01

281

Upheaval Buckling of Offshore Pipelines  

OpenAIRE

The main purpose of this thesis was to develop a MATLAB program based on Terndrup-Pedersen? analytical method for upheaval buckling analysis and verify the analytical model by comparing with FE analysis using software SIMLA. In addition, an elastic-plastic pipe model was built in SIMLA to investigate the plastic behavior of pipeline and its effect on the pipeline design.All simulations of the analytical model and FE model are based on the use of MATLAB and SIMLA.A brief introduction to the pr...

Fan, Shengsheng

2013-01-01

282

Stress Analysis of Shallow Sea Gas Pipelines  

OpenAIRE

Shallow sea gas pipelines usually operate in complicated and changeable regional environments and can generate corresponding stresses and displacement under the influence of internal pressures, earthquakes, waves and other loadings. An unevenly distributed stress will lead to shallow sea gas pipeline failure easily. In order to ensure the safety of pipeline, it is necessary to research the stress conditions of the shallow sea gas pipeline and check whether it can meet the safety requirements ...

Xiaonan Wu; Yi Jiang; Hongfang Lu; Shijuan Wu; Xiaoxiao Chen

2014-01-01

283

Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami. FL 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01

284

Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

285

Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

1980-06-01

286

Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data forma [...] t, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

R., Vicentini; M., Menossi.

2007-05-01

287

Some technological aspects for functioning of crude oil pipeline Solun-OKTA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999 and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared specially for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. The pipeline is designed for transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. The pipeline system has been equipped with sophisticated and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

288

Sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problem of the sulfide stress corrosion cracking of pipeline steels and their welded joints have been presented for pipeline steels. Results of hydrogen sulfide stress cracking inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors of three types protective actions on pipeline steels of two grades petroleum range of products are given. (author)

289

Blood cadmium concentration of residents living near abandoned metal mines in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate demographic and lifestyle variables and blood cadmium concentrations in residents living near abandoned metal mines in Korea. Blood cadmium concentrations were measured in 15,161 subjects living around abandoned metal mines (exposed group, n = 14,464) and compared with those living in designated control areas (control group, n = 697). A questionnaire was provided to all subjects to determine age, gender, mine working history, times of residence, smoking habits and dietary water type. The geometric mean (95% confidence intervals) of blood cadmium concentration (1.25 [1.24-1.27] µg/L) in the exposed group was significantly higher than in the control group (1.17 [1.13-1.22] µg/L). Mean residence time and mine working history in the exposed group were significantly higher than in the control group. Blood cadmium concentrations increased with increasing age, and residence time in both groups, and blood cadmium concentrations were higher in current-smokers than in non-smokers in both groups. This study shows the geometric mean of blood cadmium concentration in abandoned mining areas are higher than in non-mining areas in the general adult Korean population. PMID:24851017

Hong, Young-Seoub; Lee, Byung-Kook; Park, Jung-Duck; Sakong, Joon; Choi, Jae-Wook; Moon, Jai-Dong; Kim, Dae-Seon; Kim, Byoung-Gwon

2014-05-01

290

Effects of Land Abandonment In Nutrient Exportation. Some Catchments In Mediterranean Ranges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research project "Management and analysis of land uses, landscape and sustain- able development in natural protected areas" studies the evolution of landscapes after farm abandonment. One way to understand this evolution is studying the information that we can obtained from the water cycle. The first hypotesis of this work is that the vegetable cover of catchments has a decisive role in the hydrological behaviour. This behaviour can be evaluated through the study of hydrographs or through water analy- sis. We have worked in seven catchments with different land uses: Bare rock, Natural forest, Transition forest, Scrubland, Abandoned agricultural fields and Active agricul- tural fields. These catchments are located in the National Park of Sant Llorenç in the Catalan Prelitoral Range (41z40'N, 2zW), with a Mediterranean climate modified by altitude (from 300m to 1100m). Methodology used has been the description of study areas, the calculation of land uses and water analysis of 10 diferent parameters after rain episodes. From the results obtained it is possible to deduce the followings: 1) Behaviour of catchments follows two different paths: natural covers and humanized covers. 2) Scrubland offers a soil protection similar to that of forest. and abandoned lands have a similar behaviour than as active lands; and this for a long period of time (more than fifty years).

Nadal, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Molina, D.; Pelachs, A.; Matamala, N.

291

Guidelines for the abandonment operations in the petroleum and gas industry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decommission operations, in the hydrocarbons sector, are essential to maintain a clean environment. We propose a guidelines to provide a methodology to standardize the decommission procedures establishing a logical structure in the operations. It shows the generations of possible decommission alternatives. They are picked up in three types, abandonment that is to leave the infrastructure in the place, dismantlement that is the total dismounts of the pieces that compose it, reutilization that will be the new use that will be given to the things. Finally, through an appropriate environmental management, to select the best decommission alternatives that mitigate the impacts and the generation of environmental passives. A project can be presented the abandonment, the reutilization and the dismantlement simultaneously. Also, there are forms to organize and to evaluate the process of decommission. The interdisciplinary work has great importance in this process, as well as an appropriate social management with the affected communities

292

Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

Rafael Rodríguez Díez

2014-07-01

293

Economic and fiscal aspects of oil and gas field abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandonment of fields in the North Sea raises a number of physical, environmental, and economic issues. Key economic aspects are (a) the costs incurred in the abandonment operations: (b), the criteria to be employed in determining the optimal timing of field abandonment; (c), the fiscal reliefs available for the expenditures incurred; and, (d) the (financial) security aspects relating to the activity. These topics are discussed in this paper with particular reference to the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS). Comparisons with Norway and the Netherlands are made on the fiscal aspects. (Author)

294

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned mining activity at Mount Hope Road was selected by Rockaway Township to be considered for remediation and inclusion under the Cooperative Agreement.

Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

1999-10-01

295

Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

296

Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition can only occur when the interface temperature is below WAT, the temperature distribution is a necessary information which is obtained by the energy equation. The one-dimensional, transient and laminar flow governing equations are discretized based on the finite volume method, with the upwind scheme to treat the convection term. A totally implicit procedure was employed to handle the time integration term. The set of algebraic equations were solved by the TDMA line by line algorithm. The thickness of the deposited layer is a function of the axial coordinate and presents a monotonic increase at several time instants which is in reasonable agreement whit previous results. (author)

Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

297

The Alaska Highway Pipeline project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice for new electric generation capacity, the demand is increasing rapidly and supply from traditional producing basins is not keeping up. There is a need to connect new sources of gas to the North American grid. Foothills Pipelines Ltd. believe that the gas reserves at Prudhoe Bay and in the Mackenzie Delta will be sent to market at different times via different pipelines. It is also believed that the Alaska Highway Project will be constructed for many valid reasons. Gas development is much more advanced in Alaska than in northern Canada and in addition, the project has already been approved and half of the right-of-way has been acquired. The Alaska Highway pipeline has the support of Alaska and it will follow an existing transportation corridor and will therefore have fewer environmental issues. The Alaskan North Slope has proven reserves of 30-35 Tcf and a production of about 8 Bcfd. During the course of this project, Foothills Pipelines Ltd. will address timing issues, commercial issues, needs of the First nations people as well as the needs of Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. 11 figs

298

"The Giver" and "Shade's Children": Future Views of Child Abandonment and Murder.  

Science.gov (United States)

Examines reasons for child abandonment and murder and how it relates to abandonment in traditional literature. Considers new views of child abandonment and murder (focusing not on overcoming their abandonment, but changing and restructuring their entire society) presented in "The Giver" and "Shade's Children." Discusses the value of the individual…

Gross, Melissa

1999-01-01

299

Residual stresses evaluation in a gas-pipeline crossing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The X-rays diffraction technique is a well established and effectiveness method in the determination of the residual and applied stresses in fine grained crystalline materials. It allows to characterize and to quantify the magnitude and direction of the existing surface stresses in the studied point of the material. The objective of this work is the evaluation of the surface stresses in a 10 in diameter Natural Gas Distribution Pipeline manufactured from API 5 L Gr B steel of COMPAGAS company, in a crossing with a Natural Gas Transportation Pipeline, in Araucaria-PR. This kind of evaluation is important to establish weather you have to perform a repositioning of one of the pipeline or not. The measurements had been made in two transversal sections of the pipe, the one upstream (170 mm of the external wall of the pipeline) and another one downstream (840 mm of the external wall of the pipeline). Each transversal section measurements where carried out in 3 points: 9 hours, 12 hours and 3 hours. In each measured point of the pipe surface, the longitudinal and transversal stresses had been measured. The magnitude of the surface residual stresses in the pipe varied of +180 MPa at the -210 MPa. The residual stress state on the surface of the points 12 hours region is characterized by tensile stresses and by compressive stresses in the points of 3 and 9 hours region. The surface residual stresses in gas-pipeline have been measured using X-ray diffraction method, by double exposure technique, using a portable apparatus, with Cr-K-alpha radiation. (author)

Fonseca, Maria Cindra [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Almeida, Manoel Messias [COMPAGAS, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rebello, Joao Marcos Alcoforado [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Souza Filho, Byron Goncalves de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

300

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

301

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-12-19

302

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes a technology assessment, development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, and experimental measurements on a buried pipe at a test site. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch; Jay L. Fisher

2004-04-01

303

Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2009-07-01

304

Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to identify process failure modes or possibility of the appearance of non-compliance, as well as their possible causes. For qualitative analysis of key input variables of the process, in the paper is used Ishikawa diagram and p-chart.Findings: It is shown that proposed approach to risk assessment in shipbuilding pipeline production is applicable to real casa scenario. The analysis has identified the points in the process with the highest probability of occurrence of nonconformities, or the highest risk for error.Research limitations/implications: As the experimenting has been conducted in shipyard, within production process, research schedule must have been set in accordance with production pace. Also, due to character of production process the data collecting was adopted to the production plan in that particular moment.Practical implications: Dealing with causes of potential nonconformities in the process can significantly contribute to the reliability and robustness of the process. Corrective actions that have been taken based on results of analysis significantly contributed to the level of quality in the pipeline production process.Originality/value: The pepper is dealing with a well known method applied in different production environment that are mostly conservative in production approach. It was shown that successful application of proposed approach can yield benefits especially in improved quality of produced pipelines within shipbuilding industry.

T. Buksa

2010-06-01

305

The program of abandoning uranium mining in Mecsek Mountain, Hungary  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In 1997 the government of Hungary decided to cease uranium mining in the Mecsek mountain. The environmental protection issues in accordance with the abandoning of the mining, and the recultivation of the mine site are overviewed briefly. (R.P.)

306

30 CFR 57.20021 - Abandoned mine openings.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION...LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20021 Abandoned mine openings....

2010-07-01

307

Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

308

THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND  

OpenAIRE

Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attracti...

URSZULA MYGA-PI?TEK; JERZY NITA

2008-01-01

309

Seismic characterization of an abandoned mine site  

Science.gov (United States)

The near-surface rock structure that covers an abandoned marl mine nearby the village of Montevecchia (Italy) was investigated through a combination of seismic surveys. The methods selected for these investigations were refraction seismics and multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). A sort of transillumination experiment was also attempted. All the methods were successful and gave complementary information. Refraction seismics was used to characterize the upper low velocity layer and the second layer of the near-surface structure. The MASW method was necessary to assess the existence of a velocity inversion revealing the presence of a low velocity layer between the 2nd layer and a 4th high velocity layer covering the upper mine gallery. The transillumination experiment validated the presence of the 4th layer and gave an estimate of the average velocity that represents a lower boundary for the P-wave velocity within this layer. Both the refraction and transillumination data were analysed to derive average estimates of attenuation level and rock quality factor.

Arosio, Diego; Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Zanzi, Luigi

2013-06-01

310

Landscape susceptibility, hazard and risk assessments along pipeline corridors in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discussed work that was carried out to inventory landslides and assess hazards along two proposed gas-pipeline routes in the North. Landslide inventories and hazard assessments are necessary to quantify and qualify the risk of environmental impacts from landslides on linear infrastructure. The Yukon Alaska Highway Pipeline and the Mackenzie Gas Project Pipeline, which will both be over 800 kilometres in length, will cross harsh landscapes characterized by permafrost terrain and will be at risk from geological hazards, including landslides with debris flows, earthquakes, subsidence, and permafrost degradation. The work involved inventorying and mapping landslides via aerial photography and field visits to identify the frequency-magnitude relationships for debris flow fans along the route and the creation of qualitative parametric landslide maps for both proposed pipeline corridors. A good correlation was found between actual landslide distribution and the landslide susceptibility maps. For the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Corridor, most landslides have occurred in fine unconsolidated sediments and shallow slopes. Landslides in the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor mostly happened in unconsolidated sediments, but a few took place in bedrock with high relief. The preliminary investigation revealed that a slope hazard exists in both corridors and must be taken into account during pipeline development. The results are intended to facilitate better decision-making for planning, constructing, and maintaining safe and economically viable pipeline routes in Northern Canada. The mapping methodology was outlined. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

Blais-Stevens, A.; Couture, R.; Page, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Koch, J.; Clague, J.J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Lipovsky, P.S. [Yukon Geological Survey, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

2010-07-01

311

Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

2010-12-15

312

Some Positive and Negative Aspects of Mine Abandonment and Their Implications on Infrastructure  

Science.gov (United States)

Many urban and greenfield environments throughout the United Kingdom are located in regions where mining has occurred. Mining dates back to pre-Roman times and includes metalliferous minerals (such as gold, copper, lead & zinc), bulk minerals (such as sand-stone, limestone, gypsum & halite) and coal, the latter being the most important mineral mined both quantitatively and in terms of value. Due to this long mining history, this had resulted in a legacy of mining relics and hazards (such as mine entries, abandoned workings and contaminated land), with presumably many of these sites remaining, as yet, unknown. However, the mechanisms of failure and ground deformation, in general, are appreciated. Over the past few decades the British coal mining industry has experienced a gradual decline. However, individual closed and abandoned mines, as well as entire coalfields can, under appropriate investigations and a favourable economic climate, offer alternative energy resources. These include for instance, for coal bed methane (CBM), coal mine methane (CMM), underground coal gasification (UCG). The objectives of this paper are to draw attention to some less well-documented positive aspects of mine closures and coalfield abandonment.

Donnelly, Laurance; Bell, Fred; Culshaw, Martin

313

Technical development concerning abandonment of low level radioactive wastes into ocean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power stations has increased year by year, and the measures to treat and dispose them safely and surely have become urgent problem. In October, 1976, the Atomic Energy Commission presented the basic policy with ''On the countermeasures to radioactive wastes'', and the necessity of establishing a corporation undertaking the execution of trial disposal was mentioned. The foundation ''Atomic Energy Environment Conditioning Center'' was established accordingly, and it is making the preparation of the required tests and researches and the trial disposal in ocean. Four sea areas were selected as the possible areas for the disposal in ocean, and the survey on the environment of these sea areas was carried out for three years. Since 1977, the detailed survey has been made about the B sea area which seemed to be most desirable. In order to execute the trial disposal in ocean safely and surely, the soundness of solidified bodies, the preparation of a ship for abandonment, the works of transport and abandonment, and the pressurizing test of the drums for abandonment in a high pressure tank were studied. The survey of four sea areas and the evaluation of safety in ocean environment are described. The relevant laws were revised so as to accord with international treaties. The international relations concerning this problem are explained. (Kako, I.)

314

Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

Bourdillon, Y

2005-01-15

315

Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of ecosystem services.

Almudena San Roman Sanz

2013-06-01

316

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

CERN Document Server

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

317

Pipeline system for gas centrifuge  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To enable effective operation for the gas centrifuge cascade system upon failures in the system not by interrupting the operation of all of the centrifuges in the system but by excluding only the failed centrifuges. Constitution: A plurality of gas centrifuges are connected by way of a pipeline and an abnormal detector for the automatic detection of abnormality such as destruction in a vacuum barrel and loss of vacuum is provided to each of the centrifuges. Bypass lines for short-circuitting adjacent centrifuges are provided in the pipelines connecting the centrifuges. Upon generation of abnormality in a centrifuge, a valve disposed in the corresponding bypass is automatically closed or opened by a signal from the abnormal detector to change the gas flow to thereby exclude the centrifuge in abnormality out of the system. This enables to effectively operate the system without interrupting the operation for the entire system. (Moriyama, K.)

318

Laser shearography for inspection of pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shearography is a highly sensitive integral measuring technique to record deformation and strain concentrations on the surface of components. This paper deals with the application of shearography to nondestructive inspection of piping. The principle is based on measuring the surface deformation of the pipe to be inspected by variation of the pressure inside the piping. While shearographic piping inspection is already used for inspection of cooling water pipelines in nuclear and conventional power plants, research work for other types of piping is still going on. The technique is applicable to all kinds of material. Examples for inspection of welding seams in austenitic piping, as well as for connections of piping from reinforced plastics, are given. (orig.)

319

VLSI Implementation of Pipelined Fast Fourier Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Digital Signal Processing (DSP has become a very important and dynamic research area. Now a day’s many integrated circuits dedicated to DSP functions. Unfortunately Existing designs are restricted to a low accuracy and a small sample number. The Fourier transform is widely used in industrial applications as well as in scientific research. The most common use is to transform a function of time into a frequency function. In this paper, we present the efficient implementation of a pipeline FFT. Our design adopts a single-path delay feedback style as the proposed hardware architecture. To eliminate the read-only memories (ROM’s used to store the twiddle factors, the proposed architecture applies a reconfigurable complex multiplier and bit-parallel multipliers to achieve a ROM-less FFT processor, thus consuming lower power than the existing works.

K. Indirapriyadarsini , S.Kamalakumari , G. Prasannakumar

2012-06-01

320

The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

2013-04-01

321

Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost. PMID:23144721

O'Farrell, Brian; Haase, Jana K; Velayudhan, Vimalkumar; Murphy, Ronan A; Achtman, Mark

2012-01-01

322

76 FR 11853 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipeline operators, seeking relief from compliance with certain...pipeline operators who seek relief from compliance with certain...this pipeline to an operating stress of 72% SMYS in Class 1 locations...PHMSA for Pipeline (WGP), relief from the Federal pipeline...

2011-03-03

323

Pipeline network features and leak detection by cross-correlation analysis of reflected waves  

OpenAIRE

This paper describes progress on a new technique to detect pipeline features and leaks using signal processing of a pressure wave measurement. Previous work (by the present authors) has shown that the analysis of pressure wave reflections in fluid pipe networks can be used to identify specific pipeline features such as open ends, closed ends, valves, junctions, and certain types of bends. It was demonstrated that by using an extension of cross-correlation analysis, the identification of featu...

Beck, S. B. M.; Curren, M. D.; Sims, N. D.; Stanway, R.

2005-01-01

324

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais

2011-07-01

325

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

326

Residue management in the Bolivia-Brazil gas pipeline construction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the gas pipeline is a process sequential of assembly phases, where each one of those phases generates residues of the most varied types and amounts, being necessary the forecast of your generation in agreement with the activity that is being executed. During the accomplishment of the works they are generated a lot of times situations where are observed the inadequate disposition of the residues. Those practices, besides the environmental impact that they cause, it can cart in the future, the need of additional investments be proceeded in the recovery of the areas and removal of the residues. This work presents the Program of administration of Residues instituted during the construction of the pipeline Bolivia - Brazil, seeking, on a side to reduce to the minimum the generation of residues and of the other, moths handling guidelines and disposition, in way to minimize the environmental impacts caused by the same ones. (author)

327

Towards a new framework for cross-border pipelines: The International Pipeline Agency (IPA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of cross-border pipelines has greatly increased over the last couple of years and is considered as one of the main ingredients of energy security. However there is no regulatory body regulating their activities, causing problems that disrupt the flow of hydro-carbon resources. A treaty like the Energy Charter Treaty is not sufficient to deal with the problems faced by cross-border pipelines. This viewpoint proposes the need for the creation of a new pipeline agency that can deal with the various issues affecting the pipelines. - Highlights: ? Problem with current mechanisms dealing cross-border pipeline disputes. ? Problem with compliance and enforcement in cross-border pipelines. ? Regulatory aspect of cross-border pipelines. ? New framework for cross-border pipelines.

328

Nonlinear contact between inner walls of deep sea pipelines in buckling process  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study buckling propagation mechanism in deep sea pipelines, the contact between pipeline's inner walls in buckling process was studied. A two-dimensional ring model was used to represent the pipeline and a nonlinear spring model was adopted to simulate the contact between inner walls. Based on the elastoplastic constitutive relationship and the principle of virtual work theory, the coupling effect of pipeline's nonlinear large deformation and wall contact was included in the theoretical analysis with the aid of MATLAB, and the application scope of the theoretical model was also discussed. The calculated results show that during the loading process, the change in external pressure is closely related to the distribution of section stress, and once the walls are contacting each other, the external pressure increases and then remains stable after it reaches a specific value. Without fracture, the pipeline section will stop showing deformation. The results of theoretical calculations agree well with those of numerical simulations. Finally, in order to ensure reliability and accuracy of the theoretical results, the collapse pressure and propagation pressure were both verified by numerical simulations and experiments. Therefore, the theoretical model can be used to analyze pipeline's buckling deformation and contact between pipeline's inner walls, which forms the basis for further research on three-dimensional buckling propagation.

Ma, Weilin; Yu, Jianxing; Zhou, Qingji; Xie, Bin; Cao, Jing; Li, Zhibo

2015-02-01

329

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-11-01

330

Science for watershed decisions on abandoned mine lands; review of preliminary results, Denver, Colorado, February 4-5, 1998  

Science.gov (United States)

From the Preface: There are thousands of abandoned or inactive mines on or adjacent to public lands administered by the U.S. Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, and National Park Service. Mine wastes from many of these abandoned mines adversely affect resources on public lands. In 1995, an interdepartmental work group within the Federal government developed a strategy to address remediation of the many abandoned mines on public lands. This strategy is based on using a watershed approach to address the abandoned mine lands (AML) problem. The USGS, working closely with the Federal land-management agencies (FLMAs), is key for the success of this watershed approach. In support of this watershed approach, the USGS developed an AML Initiative with pilot studies in the Boulder River in Montana and the Animas River in Colorado. The goal of these studies is to design and implement a reliable strategy that will supply the scientific information to the FLMAs so that land managers can develop efficient and cost-effective remediation of AML. The symposium 'Science for Watershed Decisions on Abandoned Mine Lands: Review of Preliminary Results' held in Denver, Colorado, on February 4-5, 1998, provided the FLMAs a first look at the techniques, data, and interpretations being generated by the USGS pilot studies. This multidisciplined effort already is proving very valuable to land managers in making science-based AML cleanup decisions and will continue to be of increasing value as additional and more complete information is obtained. Ongoing interaction between scientists and land managers is essential to insure the efficient continuation and success of AML cleanup efforts.

Nimick, David A.; Von Guerard, Paul

1998-01-01

331

Effect of creep characteristics on pipeline durability  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: The paper presents an assessment of durability of a steam pipeline operating above the threshold temperature. The durability calculations take into account the creep characteristics of the material.Design/methodology/approach: The results of calculations of the degree of wear caused by the creep of a pipeline, made using numerical methods, are presented. The calculation model takes into consideration the basic geometric and material properties of the pipeline, its operating paramete...

Mutwil, K.

2011-01-01

332

Synchronization-Free Parallel Collision Detection Pipeline  

OpenAIRE

We present a first parallel and adaptive collision detection pipeline running on a multi-core architecture. This pipeline integrates a first global synchronization-free parallelization of its major steps and enables to dynamically adapt the parallelism repartition during the simulation. We propose to break the sequentiality of the pipeline by simultaneously executing the two main phases (broad and narrow). We introduce and use a new buffer structure to share objects pairs between threads. To ...

Avril, Quentin; Gouranton, Vale?rie; Arnaldi, Bruno

2010-01-01

333

Recent developments in high productivity pipeline welding  

OpenAIRE

Installation of new pipelines is predicted to grow at a rapid rate over the next twenty years, due in part to the increase use worldwide of combined cycle power generation plant using natural gas a fuel. The need to construct large diameter pipelines over long distances has led to an increased demand to improve the productivity of pipeline girth welding. Many novel techniques have been tried in the past to achieve productivity gains, including laser welding, flash butt welding, homopolar weld...

Yapp, D.; Blackman, S. A.

2004-01-01

334

Pipeline unburial behaviour in loose sand  

OpenAIRE

Small diameter pipelines are routinely used to transport oil and gas between offshore production plants and the mainland, or between remote subsea well-heads and a centralised production facility. The pipelines may be placed on the soil surface but it is more usual that they are placed into trenches, which are subsequently backfilled. For the buried pipelines a well established problem has been that of upheaval buckling. This occurs because the fluid is usually pumped through the pipes at ele...

Schupp, J.; Byrne, Bw; Eacott, N.; Martin, Cm; Oliphant, J.; Maconochie, A.; Cathie, D.

2006-01-01

335

Impact Against Offshore Pipelines : Experiments and Numerical Simulations  

OpenAIRE

In the present thesis impact against offshore pipelines was studied. Incipient fracture in the pipes after impact was of special interest. The present work was a continuation of previous theses on the subject, and part of an ongoing research program between SIMLab (NTNU) and Statoil ASA.Component tests and numerical simulations using ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA were carried out to investigate the problem. Two pipes were impacted at different velocities in the pendulum accelerator at the Depar...

Aune, Vegard; Hovdelien, Morten Sagbakken

2012-01-01

336

Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

1987-03-24

337

System of maintenance of sustainability of oil pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : Development of the ecological science defining interrelation and interaction of system of an alive and lifeless matter, opens new opportunities and decisions of a problem of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines and other engineering constructions and devices of strategic purpose. In work the methodology of system maintenance of stability of oil pipelines is resulted. It is known, that at transport of oil and gas a plenty of automatic and electronic devices, devices are applied to the control and the signal system of parameters of dangerous and harmful factors, a condition of the technological and test equipment, diagnostics and the control of pipelines. The control of parameters of safety of an oil pipeline over the operation, considering influence of heavy climatic conditions during all line, etc. (1, 2, 3) is carried out. Therefore stability of work of various parts of system of an oil pipeline depends on reliability and accuracy of work of devices and devices. However, thus influence of variations of geomagnetic fields and the geodynamic processes breaking the indications of devices and devices which lead to infringement reliability of all design of system of an oil pipeline is not considered. In turn, specified leads to failure, lost of human and natural resources. Now, according to the accepted methodology of a safety of working conditions, potential dangers of any activity, only person, with the subsequent development of measures of proteubsequent development of measures of protection (4) are considered. Proceeding from it all surrounding material world shares on the following objects forming in aggregate working conditions: subjects of work.; means of production; products of work; the industrial environment; technology process; an environmental-climatic complex; fauna and flora; people (work of the person). Apparently from above resulted, in the accepted methodology potential dangers of any activity of the person and corresponding environmental -climatic conditions of the given region accepted for all period of operation of objects of normal work are considered. As a result of it failures occurring periodically, refusals of the equipment and infringement of indications of devices contacted unforeseen circumstances, confluence of casual events, whims of the nature and so forth However last years scientists is proved, that variations of geomagnetic fields and geodynamical processes are the regular phenomena, they -property of a geomagnetic field, instead of a deviation from its normal condition (5). It is necessary to consider, that approach of the sea to a land and its deviation from it, are consequence of global tectonic process which also should be considered for stability of objects of work, and an oil pipeline, in particular. Thus, direct supervision and researches of scientists establish the following periods of century variations: 10,5; 20; 60; 500-600; 900-1000; 150 000 years. Considering the certain periods of influence of the specified variations it is possible to be prepared for them and as much as possible to eliminate or lower potential dangers of activity of the person and properties of the nature. Thus the problem of stability of system object of work - human - nature can be solved

338

The methodology and software for definition of the utmost permissible decrease of the walls thickness of the pipelines subjected to erosive-corrosive wear (ECW)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The methodology and software for assessment of utmost permissible decrease and strength of the walls thickness of the pipelines subjected to erosive-corrosive wear and prognosis of capacity for work of pipelines during definite operation period based on stress-strain state of structure in the defect zone are presented in this work

339

DEVELOPMENT OF AN EMAT IN-LINE INSPECTION SYSTEM FOR DETECTION, DISCRIMINATION, AND GRADING OF STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes prototypes, measurements, and results for a project to develop a prototype pipeline in-line inspection (ILI) tool that uses electromagnetic acoustic transducers (EMATs) to detect and grade stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The introduction briefly provides motivation and describes SCC, gives some background on EMATs and guided ultrasonic waves, and reviews promising results of a previous project using EMATs for SCC. The experimental section then describes lab measurement techniques and equipment, the lab mouse and prototypes for a mule, and scan measurements made on SCC. The mouse was a moveable and compact EMAT setup. The prototypes were even more compact circuits intended to be pulled or used in an ILI tool. The purpose of the measurements was to determine the best modes, transduction, and processing to use, to characterize the transducers, and to prove EMATs and mule components could produce useful results. Next, the results section summarizes the measurements and describes the mouse scans, processing, prototype circuit operating parameters, and performance for SH0 scans. Results are given in terms of specifications--like SNR, power, insertion loss--and parametric curves--such as signal amplitude versus magnetic bias or standoff, reflection or transmission coefficients versus crack depth. Initially, lab results indicated magnetostrictive transducers using both SH0 and SV1 modes would be worthwhile to pursue in a practical ILI system. However, work with mule components showed that SV1 would be too dispersive, so SV1 was abandoned. The results showed that reflection measurements, when normalized by the direct arrival are sensitive to and correlated with SCC. This was not true for transmission measurements. Processing yields a high data reduction, almost 60 to 1, and permits A and C scan display techniques and software already in use for pipeline inspection. An analysis of actual SH0 scan results for SCC of known dimensions showed that length and depth could be determined for deep enough cracks. Defect shadow and short length effects were apparent but may be taken into account. The SH0 scan was done with the mule prototype circuits and permanent magnet EMATs. These gave good enough results that this hardware and the processing techniques are very encouraging for use in a practical ILI tool.

Jeff Aron; Jeff Jia; Bruce Vance; Wen Chang; Raymond Pohler; Jon Gore; Stuart Eaton; Adrian Bowles; Tim Jarman

2005-02-01

340

77 FR 58623 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2007-0039] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, and PHMSA's special...certain requirements in the Federal pipeline safety regulations. This notice...

2012-09-21

341

76 FR 26793 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0063] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is re- publishing...certain requirements in the Federal pipeline safety regulations. This notice...

2011-05-09

342

76 FR 50539 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0136] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...No. 2137-0622, titled ``Pipeline Safety: Public Awareness Program...2137-0622, titled: ``Pipeline Safety: Public Awareness...

2011-08-15

343

75 FR 4610 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0375] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...collection is contained in the pipeline safety regulations, 49 CFR parts 190-199...Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety. [FR Doc. 2010-1876...

2010-01-28

344

78 FR 52821 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0146] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is publishing this...certain requirements in the Federal pipeline safety regulations. This notice...

2013-08-26

345

78 FR 65429 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0041] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is publishing this...certain requirements in the Federal pipeline safety regulations. This notice...

2013-10-31

346

78 FR 52820 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0181] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal pipeline safety laws, PHMSA is publishing this...certain requirements in the Federal pipeline safety regulations. This notice...

2013-08-26

347

75 FR 45696 - Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device Related Distractions  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0194] Pipeline Safety: Personal Electronic Device...personal business. The Federal pipeline safety regulations in 49 CFR Parts 190...potential for distractions affecting pipeline safety. PHMSA reminds owners and...

2010-08-03

348

78 FR 14877 - Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2013-0028] Pipeline Safety: Incident and Accident Reports...Associate Administrator for Pipeline Safety. [FR Doc....

2013-03-07

349

75 FR 43612 - Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit  

Science.gov (United States)

...Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0042] Pipeline Safety: Request for Special Permit...SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Federal Pipeline Safety Laws, PHMSA is publishing this...certain requirements in the Federal Pipeline Safety Regulations. This notice...

2010-07-26

350

78 FR 59906 - Pipeline Safety: Class Location Requirements  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Part...No. PHMSA-2013-0161] Pipeline Safety: Class Location Requirements...response to Section 5 of the Pipeline Safety, Regulatory...

2013-09-30

351

78 FR 30964 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...industry, pipeline operators...strengthen pipeline safety public...Hyatt Regency North Dallas hotel...Docket Management System, U.S...floor of the West Building...personal information provided...industry, pipeline...

2013-05-23

352

78 FR 55775 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...single-phase hazardous liquid pipeline facilities that use Computational Pipeline Monitoring (CPM) leak detection systems to comply with the standards...communications reliability, pipeline operating condition, and product type....

2013-09-11

353

75 FR 53733 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2010-0246] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities...Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...contact information for all liquefied natural gas, hazardous liquid, and...

2010-09-01

354

75 FR 77694 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket...PHMSA-2008-0291] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection...Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators.'' PHMSA...Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting...

2010-12-13

355

Assessment of environmental implications of abandoned oil and gas wells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detailed study was made of the potential for abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa sand of Mississippi and Louisiana to act as conduits for movement of saline water from the Lower Tuscaloosa into underground sources of drinking water (USDW's). Finite-difference numerical modeling determined the extent that water might be forced from the Lower Tuscaloosa sand into a USDW as a result of injection into the Lower Tuscaloosa. Within the range of conditions modeled, water from the Lower Tuscaloosa never traveled into a USDW. On the basis of the modeling, the authors concluded that it is unlikely that abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa would serve as conduits for water movement from the trend into a USDW. The procedures developed in this study should be readily applicable to analysis of the potential for abandoned wells to act as pathways for contaminant flow into USDW's in other oil and gas producing areas of the country

356

30 CFR 75.1721 - Opening of new underground coal mines, or reopening and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated...  

Science.gov (United States)

...and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the...and reactivating of abandoned or deactivated coal mines, notification by the...underground coal mine, and a mine which has been abandoned or deactivated...

2010-07-01

357

30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756...INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS ...amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan....

2010-07-01

358

30 CFR 872.20 - What will OSM do with unappropriated AML funds currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine...  

Science.gov (United States)

...currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine Program ? 872.20 Section...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION MONEYS AVAILABLE...currently allocated to the Rural Abandoned Mine Program ? Under...

2010-07-01

359

41 CFR 102-75.1035 - Are there any restrictions on Federal agencies concerning the abandonment or destruction of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...agencies concerning the abandonment or destruction of improvements on land or related personal...75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1035 Are there...

2010-07-01

360

76 FR 3696 - Western Kentucky Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Webster, Union, Caldwell and Crittenden...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Western Kentucky Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Webster, Union, Caldwell and Crittenden Counties, KY Western Kentucky...Abandonments to abandon all 5 of its remaining lines of railroad in Webster, Union, Caldwell, and Crittenden Counties, KY.\\1\\...

2011-01-20

361

Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

2006-11-01

362

Calculating thermal insulation thickness and embedment depth of underground heat supply pipeline for permafrost soils  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work the authors considered a freezing-and-melting process of soils under the polyurethane-insulated polyethylene heating pipeline, which is used in the regions with permafrost soils. Temperature field dynamics of the “pipeline – soil” system is determined by heat conductivity equation in polar coordinate system. The corresponding two-dimensional Stefan problem is solved by the finite differences method. The authors propose to determine the thickness of pipeline thermal insulation and the embedment depth upon the condition of melting depth reduction to an annual thawed layer of soil identified before the heating season. There are presented results of isotherm calculations for underground heat supply pipelines interacting with frozen soil. These results show that reduction of melting depth to annual thawed layer is probable. The calculations were carried out for simulated soil and temperature conditions of Yakutsk, Republic Sakha, Russia. Nevertheless, the results obtained can be applied in other permafrost areas.

M.P. Akimov

2014-04-01

363

Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

2009-07-01

364

Integer programming formulation and variable neighborhood search metaheuristic for the multiproduct pipeline scheduling problem  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. In this work we address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. We propose an integer linear programming formulation and a variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic in order to compare the performances of the exact and heuristic approaches to the problem. Computational tests in C language and MOSEL/XPRESS-MP language are performed over a real Brazilian pipeline system. (author)

Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Leonardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

365

76 FR 30241 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket...Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and...AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA...focus on better managing these challenges. PHMSA is holding...

2011-05-24

366

Detection of Unauthorized Construction Equipment in Pipeline Right-of-Ways  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The leading cause of incidents on transmission pipelines is damage by third-party construction equipment. A single incident can be devastating, causing death and millions of dollars of property loss. This damage would be prevented if potentially hazardous construction equipment could be detected, identified, and an alert given before the pipeline is hit. Currently there is no method for continuously monitoring a pipeline right-of-way. Instead, companies periodically walk or fly over the pipeline to find unauthorized construction activities. Gas Technology Institute (GTI) is developing a system to solve this problem by using an optical fiber buried above the pipeline as a distributed sensor. A custom optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) is used to interrogate the fiber. Key issues in the development of this technology are the ability to detect encroachment and the ability to discriminate among potentially hazardous and benign encroachments. Advantages of the reflectometry technique are the ability to accurately pinpoint the location of the construction activity and the ability to separately monitor simultaneously occurring events. The basic concept of using OTDR with an optical fiber buried above the pipeline to detect encroachment of construction equipment into the right of way works. Sufficiently rapid time response is possible; permitting discrimination between encroachment types. Additional work is required to improve the system into a practical device.

Maurice Givens; James E. Huebler

2004-09-30

367

Investigation of abandoned surface settling ponds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One of the problems that may appear during the ground reclamation of surface settling ponds of underground mines is enhanced radon exhalation from bottom sediments. This problem becomes more important when the concentration of radium isotopes in sediments is enhanced due to the discharge of radium-bearing waters into the pond. For investigations, special radon accumulation chambers have been designed and constructed. The concentration of radon in these chambers can be measured with the application of Lucas cells or activated charcoal detectors. In the latter method, radon is extracted from charcoal into a liquid scintillator and the sample is measured in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Therefore the lower limit of detection (LLD) of the second method is as low as 0.1 mBq·m-2s-1, while the LLD for Lucas cells is 1.5 mBq·m-2s-1. The above-mentioned methods for the measurement of radon exhalation have been applied to investigations of a surface settling pond of one Polish coal mine, abandoned and emptied at the beginning of 2002. An agreement between the mine management and the local authority was to make the ground reclamation of the pond. A thick layer of sediments with an enhanced concentration of radium isotopes covers the bottom of the pond. The maximum concentration of radium isotopes in these sediments is as high as 2000 Bq/kg for 226Ra and up to 4000 Bq/kg for 228Ra. Two years after the compup>228Ra. Two years after the complete release of brines from the pond, bottom sediments are still soaked with water. Therefore, measurements of radon in soil gas were not possible. On the other hand, in some parts of the pond investigations of radon exhalation coefficient were done. The preliminary results of measurements, conducted in 2002, showed that radon exhalation rates in specific parts of the pond were higher than the highest values of radon exhalation from the ground in the Upper Silesia region. Values of exhalation coefficient up to 200 mBq·m-2s-1 were found. It must be pointed out that preliminary measurements were done in a period when the water had been only partly removed from the pond, and further dry-up of sediments should lead to an increase in radon exhalation. Data from 2003 confirm this assumption. During this period the water content in the bottom sediments was significantly lower than previously, and results of measurements of radon exhalation were sometimes above 300 mBq·m-2s-1. Vegetation transgression into the pond occurred during 2003, mainly weeds. Samples of vegetation were collected from this area to measure the content of radium isotopes and to calculate the transfer factors for radium isotopes. Very high concentrations of radium isotopes were found at several sites. Another reason for the pollution might be the leaching of radium from sediments and contamination of groundwater. Therefore the above mentioned sources of radiation hazard must be taken into account for planning and designing of reclamation operations for surface settling ponds of underground mines. (author)

368

Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and surless than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

369

Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography.

Cohen, K.K.; Trevits, M.A. (Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Research Center)

1992-01-01

370

ORAC-DR: Astronomy data reduction pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

ORAC-DR is a generic data reduction pipeline infrastructure; it includes specific data processing recipes for a number of instruments. It is used at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, AAT, and LCOGT. This pipeline runs at the JCMT Science Archive hosted by CADC to generate near-publication quality data products; the code has been in use since 1998.

Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Cavanagh, Brad; Currie, Malcolm J.; Gibb, Andy

2013-10-01

371

ORAC-DR -- SCUBA Pipeline Data Reduction  

Science.gov (United States)

ORAC-DR is a flexible data reduction pipeline designed to reduce data from many different instruments. This document describes how to use the ORAC-DR pipeline to reduce data taken with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) obtained from the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope.

Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie

372

LSST data pipeline prototyping plans and strategy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this document we describe our approach and strategy for building the prototype for the image-stream analysis data pipeline. We start by describing the main research areas upon which we will be focusing; we then describe our plans on how to carry these research ideas to implement the data pipeline.

Abdulla, G M; Brase, J; Cook, K; Miller, M

2004-05-27

373

Protection of pipelines affected by surface subsidence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface subsidence resulting from underground coal mining can cause problems for buried pipelines. A technique for assessing the level of stress on a subsidence-affected pipeline is introduced. The main contributors to the stress are identified, and mitigation techniques for reducing the stress are proposed. The proposed mitigation techniques were then successfully tested. 13 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

374

Stability of subsea pipelines during large storms.  

Science.gov (United States)

On-bottom stability design of subsea pipelines transporting hydrocarbons is important to ensure safety and reliability but is challenging to achieve in the onerous metocean (meteorological and oceanographic) conditions typical of large storms (such as tropical cyclones, hurricanes or typhoons). This challenge is increased by the fact that industry design guidelines presently give no guidance on how to incorporate the potential benefits of seabed mobility, which can lead to lowering and self-burial of the pipeline on a sandy seabed. In this paper, we demonstrate recent advances in experimental modelling of pipeline scour and present results investigating how pipeline stability can change in a large storm. An emphasis is placed on the initial development of the storm, where scour is inevitable on an erodible bed as the storm velocities build up to peak conditions. During this initial development, we compare the rate at which peak near-bed velocities increase in a large storm (typically less than 10(-3)?m?s(-2)) to the rate at which a pipeline scours and subsequently lowers (which is dependent not only on the storm velocities, but also on the mechanism of lowering and the pipeline properties). We show that the relative magnitude of these rates influences pipeline embedment during a storm and the stability of the pipeline. PMID:25512592

Draper, Scott; An, Hongwei; Cheng, Liang; White, David J; Griffiths, Terry

2015-01-28

375

Battle over proposed Keystone pipeline continues  

Science.gov (United States)

Opposing sides in the battle over the proposed construction of the controversial Keystone XL pipeline continue to push their messages on the issue. The American Petroleum Institute (API) announced on 9 July that it has launched a new advertising campaign in support of the pipeline, which, if built, will ship oil from Canadian tar sands to refineries in the Gulf of Mexico.

Showstack, Randy

2013-07-01

376

37 CFR 1.316 - Application abandoned for failure to pay issue fee.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Application abandoned for failure to pay issue fee. 1.316 Section 1.316 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES...Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of Patent § 1.316 Application abandoned for failure to pay issue...

2010-07-01

377

30 CFR 944.25 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 944.25 Section...WITHIN EACH STATE UTAH § 944.25 Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

378

30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments. 948.25 Section...WEST VIRGINIA § 948.25 Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

379

30 CFR 914.25 - Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 914.25 Section...STATE INDIANA § 914.25 Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

380

30 CFR 946.25 - Approval of Virginia abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Virginia abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 946.25 Section...STATE VIRGINIA § 946.25 Approval of Virginia abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a)...

2010-07-01

381

30 CFR 902.25 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 902.25 Section...EACH STATE ALASKA § 902.25 Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

382

30 CFR 915.25 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 915.25 Section...WITHIN EACH STATE IOWA § 915.25 Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

383

30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906.25 Section...STATE COLORADO § 906.25 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

384

30 CFR 925.25 - Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 925.25 Section...STATE MISSOURI § 925.25 Approval of Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

385

30 CFR 936.25 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 936.25 Section...STATE OKLAHOMA § 936.25 Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

386

30 CFR 916.25 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 916.25 Section...EACH STATE KANSAS § 916.25 Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

387

30 CFR 943.25 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 943.25 Section...EACH STATE TEXAS § 943.25 Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

388

30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 901.25 Section...STATE ALABAMA § 901.25 Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

389

30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 950.35 Section...STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a)...

2010-07-01

390

30 CFR 938.25 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 938.25 Section...PENNSYLVANIA § 938.25 Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

391

30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 902.20 Section 902...EACH STATE ALASKA § 902.20 Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Alaska...

2010-07-01

392

30 CFR 920.25 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 920.25 Section...STATE MARYLAND § 920.25 Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

393

30 CFR 913.25 - Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 913.25 Section...STATE ILLINOIS § 913.25 Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

394

30 CFR 926.21 - Required abandoned mine land plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. 926.21 Section 926.21...WITHIN EACH STATE MONTANA § 926.21 Required abandoned mine land plan amendments. Pursuant to 30 CFR...

2010-07-01

395

30 CFR 918.25 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 918.25 Section...STATE LOUISIANA § 918.25 Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

396

30 CFR 948.26 - Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. [Reserved  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments. [Reserved...EACH STATE WEST VIRGINIA § 948.26 Required abandoned mine land reclamation program/plan amendments....

2010-07-01

397

30 CFR 934.25 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 934.25 Section...NORTH DAKOTA § 934.25 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

398

30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931.25 Section... NEW MEXICO § 931.25 Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2010-07-01

399

40 CFR 147.3011 - Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Plugging and abandonment of Class III wells. 147.3011 Section 147.3011 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...Mountain Ute, and All Other New Mexico Tribes § 147.3011 Plugging and abandonment of Class III...

2010-07-01

400

30 CFR 913.20 - Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 913.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

401

30 CFR 918.25 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 918...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

402

30 CFR 901.20 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 901.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

403

30 CFR 915.20 - Approval of Iowa abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 915.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

404

30 CFR 916.20 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 916.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

405

30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 902.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Alaska...

2010-07-01

406

30 CFR 948.25 - Approval of West Virginia abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments. 948...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine lands reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

407

30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 904...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

408

30 CFR 938.25 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 938...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

409

30 CFR 938.20 - Approval of Pennsylvania abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 938.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

410

30 CFR 946.20 - Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval. 946...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...Abandoned mine land reclamation plan approval....

2010-07-01

411

30 CFR 944.25 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 944...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

412

30 CFR 917.21 - Approval of Kentucky abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. ...Indian, and Other Reclamation Programs. (d) The Kentucky Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan amendment,...

2010-07-01

413

30 CFR 902.25 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 902...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

414

30 CFR 934.25 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 934...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

415

30 CFR 917.20 - Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Approval of the Kentucky abandoned mine reclamation plan. The Kentucky Abandoned Mine Reclamation Plan as submitted on June 4, 1981, is approved. Copies of the approved program are available at the following...

2010-07-01

416

30 CFR 756.18 - Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.18 Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Pursuant to 30 CFR...

2010-07-01

417

30 CFR 926.20 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 926.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Montana...

2010-07-01

418

30 CFR 935.25 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 935...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

419

30 CFR 936.20 - Approval of Oklahoma abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 936.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

420

30 CFR 931.20 - Approval of the New Mexico abandoned mine reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine reclamation plan. 931.20...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT...Abandoned Mine Reclamation Plan as submitted...the approved program are...

2010-07-01

421

30 CFR 935.20 - Approval of Ohio abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 935.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Ohio...

2010-07-01

422

30 CFR 926.25 - Approval of Montana abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 926...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

423

30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 950...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

424

30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...reclamation plan. 950.30...SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT...INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming...Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as submitted...the approved program are...

2010-07-01

425

30 CFR 920.25 - Approval of Maryland abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 920...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

426

30 CFR 943.20 - Approval of Texas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 943.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

427

30 CFR 901.25 - Approval of Alabama abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 901...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

428

30 CFR 914.20 - Approval of Indiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 914.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

429

30 CFR 916.25 - Approval of Kansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 916...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

430

30 CFR 931.25 - Approval of New Mexico abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 931...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

431

30 CFR 906.20 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 906.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Colorado...

2010-07-01

432

30 CFR 924.20 - Approval of Mississippi abandoned mine land reclamation plans.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plans. 924.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plans. The...

2010-07-01

433

30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

434

30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Pursuant to 30 CFR...

2010-07-01

435

30 CFR 948.20 - Approval of State abandoned mine lands reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. 948.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine lands reclamation plan. The West...

2010-07-01

436

30 CFR 918.20 - Approval of Louisiana abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 918.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

437

30 CFR 913.25 - Approval of Illinois abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 913...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments....

2010-07-01

438

30 CFR 756.17 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.17 Approval...Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The following... Preface to Amended Reclamation Plan—Introductory paragraph, program goals and...

2010-07-01

439

30 CFR 904.20 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 904.20 Section...OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF...abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The...

2010-07-01

440

The Kepler Planet Detection Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kepler Science Pipeline provides calibrated pixels, simple and systematic error-corrected aperture photometry, and centroid locations for all 165,000 Long Cadence (LC) target stars sampled at 29.5 min integrations, along with associated uncertainties. The Kepler data products are available on the Multimission Archive at STScI (MAST) Kepler website, http://stdatu.stsci.edu/kepler. The Transiting Planet Search (TPS) module searches through all light curves for evidence of periodic transit signals that occur when a planet crosses the disk of its host star. The Data Validation (DV) pipeline module calculates a suite of diagnostic metrics for each transit-like signature discovered, and also extracts planetary and stellar parameters by fitting a limb-darkened transit model to each potential planetary signature. Based on the first 120 days of data collected by Kepler, over 1200 planetary candidates have been identified, including a plethora of multiple transiting candidates, and at least 16 confirmed or validated planets have been announced.

Jenkins, J.

2011-10-01

441

Tracing buried pipelines using multi frequency electromagnetic  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper the application of multi frequency electromagnetic techniques to locate buried pipelines is described. The survey site has two pipelines of SUMED, one of the world chokepoints. At desert or arid areas, regular geophysical surveys usually are difficult to carry out. EM techniques could be the best among geophysical techniques to be used for this target at these conditions. The EM survey was performed using a GEM-300 multi-frequency electromagnetic profiler. It is of handheld electromagnetic induction-type that measures in-phase and quadrature terrain conductivity without electrodes or direct soil contact. An area of 60 × 15 m was surveyed, that supposed SUMED pipeline existed. Six different frequencies, typically 2025, 2875, 4125, 5875, 8425, 12,025 Hz, have been used simultaneously. The slice maps for in-phase and conductivity distribution at each frequency could help to trace the extension of the pipeline. Two pipelines were traced successfully with 20 m spacing of each others.

El-Qady, Gad; Metwaly, Mohamed; Khozaym, Ashraf

2014-06-01

442

Simulation of the Future LSST Data Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we describe our approach to build a pipeline simulator for the future Large-scale Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). The simulated pipeline will be used to research and evaluate software architectures that are efficient and flexible. It will also be used to define the real-time software and hardware requirements needed to support the anticipated LSST data rates. The LSST data pipeline requirements are still being defined, however, previous surveys can provide a good source for data requirements. Our approach is to use the SuperMacho data pipeline as a prototyping tool to identify a framework for building Modular Data-Centric Pipeline (MDCP) architectures. The prototyping is done in a hierarchical fashion to help capture and define the general data attributes (schema) first. We then model other necessary components based on science and performance requirements. We use identified schemas or data attributes as a way to define a data model for LSST.

Abdulla, G M

2004-07-26

443

Fiscal Year 1993 Well Plugging and Abandonment Program Summary Report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from October 1993 through August 1994. A total of 57 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

NONE

1994-09-01

444

Possibility and limits of life design counselling with an abandoned adolescent  

OpenAIRE

The number of children being abandoned in South Africa is rising steeply. With already existing challenges in the current South African labour market, one must consider the expectations of abandoned adolescents in terms of future careers. It is unreasonable to expect an abandoned adolescent to be guided towards making career decisions using modern career counselling methods, as these were developed for use with individuals from traditional, nuclear families. Most abandoned adolescents are tak...

Crous, Sandra

2011-01-01

445

Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

1993-09-01

446

Pipeline integrity: ILI baseline data for QRA  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The initial phase of a pipeline integrity management program (IMP) is conducting a baseline assessment of the pipeline system and segments as part of Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA). This gives the operator's integrity team the opportunity to identify critical areas and deficiencies in the protection, maintenance, and mitigation strategies. As a part of data gathering and integration of a wide variety of sources, in-line inspection (ILI) data is a key element. In order to move forward in the integrity program development and execution, the baseline geometry of the pipeline must be determined with accuracy and confidence. From this, all subsequent analysis and conclusions will be derived. Tuboscope Pipeline Services (TPS), in conjunction with Pipeway Engenharia of Brazil, operate ILI inertial navigation system (INS) and Caliper geometry tools, to address this integrity requirement. This INS and Caliper ILI tool data provides pipeline trajectory at centimeter level resolution and sub-metre 3D position accuracy along with internal geometry - ovality, dents, misalignment, and wrinkle/buckle characterization. Global strain can be derived from precise INS curvature measurements and departure from the initial pipeline state. Accurate pipeline elevation profile data is essential in the identification of sag/over bend sections for fluid dynamic and hydrostatic calculations. This data, along with pipeline construction, operations, direct assessment and maintenance data is integrated in LinaViewPRO{sup TM}, a pipeline data management system for decision support functions, and subsequent QRA operations. This technology provides the baseline for an informed, accurate and confident integrity management program. This paper/presentation will detail these aspects of an effective IMP, and experience will be presented, showing the benefits for liquid and gas pipeline systems. (author)

Porter, Todd R. [Tuboscope Pipeline Services, Houston, TX (United States)]. E-mail: tporter@varco.com; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: guto@pipeway.com; Marr, James [MARR and Associates, Calgary, AB (Canada)]. E-mail: jmarr@marr-associates.com

2003-07-01

447

Is it time to abandon institutional research ethics committees?  

OpenAIRE

Research on human beings has significantly increased in ethical and scientific complexity. Ethics review is at a fork in the road. Either we significantly increase the resources we provide to support institutional research ethics committees. Or we abandon the institutional base of human research ethics review and move to model of expert suprainstitutional ethics committees.

Savulescu, J.

2002-01-01

448

Abandoning uranium mining in Germany. Rehabilitation of the Wismut site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the unification of Germany in 1989, the Government decided to abandon uranium mining in two lands of the former Eastern Germany, in Saxonia and Thuringia. The closing of the mines and the reclamation and rehabilitation of the site cost more than 10 billion USD. The rehabilitation of the Wismut site is described in detail. (R.P.)

449

30 CFR 56.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

30 ? Mineral Resources ? 1 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Abandoned electric circuits. ? 56.4011 ? Section 56.4011 ? Mineral Resources ? MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ? METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ? SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL...

2010-07-01

450

30 CFR 57.4011 - Abandoned electric circuits.  

Science.gov (United States)

30 ? Mineral Resources ? 1 ? 2010-07-01 ? 2010-07-01 ? false ? Abandoned electric circuits. ? 57.4011 ? Section 57.4011 ? Mineral Resources ? MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ? METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ? SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL...

2010-07-01

451

Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

1994-10-12

452

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (Freedmen's Bureau), which was established by the Congress on March 3, 1865, to assist former slaves in acquiring land, securing employment, legalizing marriages, and pursuing education. After the bureau's abolition through an act of Congress approved on June 10, 1872,…

Chism, Kahlil

2006-01-01

453

Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment

454

39 CFR 946.11 - Disposition of property declared abandoned.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property declared abandoned. 946... RULES OF PROCEDURE RELATING TO THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY...SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.11 Disposition of property declared...

2010-07-01

455

Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development

456

30 CFR 944.20 - Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. 944.20 Section 944.20 Mineral...STATE UTAH § 944.20 Approval of Utah abandoned mine plan. The Utah Abandoned Mine Plan, as submitted on February 9,...

2010-07-01

457

30 CFR 934.20 - Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 false Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. 934.20 Section 934.20 Mineral...DAKOTA § 934.20 Approval of North Dakota abandoned mine plan. The North Dakota Abandoned Mine Plan as submitted on July 28, 1981,...

2010-07-01

458

7 CFR 97.23 - Voluntary withdrawal and abandonment of an application.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of record, if any, or the assignee of record, if any. (b) An application which has been voluntarily abandoned may be revived within 3 months of such abandonment by the payment of the prescribed fee and a showing that the abandonment occurred...

2010-01-01

459

Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will al