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1

Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

NONE

1997-03-01

2

Best practices for the abandonment of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline regulations implemented in 2006 require that licensees register all pipelines. Training must also be provided for ground disturbance supervisors. In addition, signage must be maintained on abandoned pipelines, and discontinued pipelines must be properly isolated. Corrosion control and internal inhibition is required for discontinued lines. However, pipelines are often neglected during the well abandonment process. This presentation provided recommendations for coordinating well and pipeline abandonment processes. Pipeline ends can be located, depressurized, flushed and purged while wells are being abandoned. Contaminated soils around the wells can also be identified prior to reclamation activities. Administrative reviews must be conducted in order to provide accurate information on pipeline location, reclamation certification, and line break history. Field operation files must be reviewed before preliminary field work is conducted. Site inspections should be used to determine if all ends of the line are accessible. Landowners and occupants near the line must also be notified, and relevant documentation must be obtained. Skilled technicians must be used to assess the lines for obstructions as well as to cut and cap the lines after removing risers. The presentation also examined issues related to pressure change, movement, cold tapping, and live dead legs. tabs., figs.

Mackean, M.; Reed, R.; Snow, B. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada). Abandonrite Service

2006-07-01

3

Abandoning wells working group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

NONE

1997-03-01

4

The development of the strategy and plan for the decommissioning and abandonment of 36'' offshore oil export pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The decommissioning and abandonment of platforms and pipelines are big challenges for the pipeline industry. This paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment processes based on a study case, the Rabon Grande pipeline system. First, the applicable international codes, standards and regulations associated with the decommissioning of pipelines are discussed. Next, this paper presents a review of the decommissioning and abandonment options and considerations available for the study case. The Rabon Grande pipeline system, which was shut down and isolated in 1990 pending decommissioning, is used as an example of applying decommissioning and abandonment best practice and establishing a realistic scope of work. A decommissioning plan is developed in light of these previous studies, followed by an environmental impact assessment. It is found that contrary to what was done in the case of the Rabon Grande pipeline, when a pipeline is to be shutdown, the best practice methodology is to temporally or fully decommission the system as soon as possible.

Matthews, Richard J. [PIMS of London Ltd, London, (United Kingdom); Galvez Reyes, Marco Antonio [PEMEX Refinacion, Veracruz, (Mexico)

2010-07-01

5

Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

1993-01-01

6

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes {approximately} 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios.

1993-12-01

7

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes ? 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios

1993-01-01

8

World pipeline work set for rapid growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports on international pipeline construction which has entered a fast-growth period, accelerated by the new political and economic realities around the world and increasing demand for natural gas, crude oil and refined petroleum products. Many projects are under way or in planning for completion in the mid- to late 1990s in Europe, South America, Asia and the Middle East. Pipeline And Gas Journal's projection calls for construction or other work on 30,700 miles of new natural gas, crude oil and refined products pipelines in the 1992-93 period outside Canada and the U.S. These projects will cost an estimated $30 billion-plus. Natural gas pipelines will comprise most of the mileage, accounting for almost 23,000 miles at an estimated cost of $26.3 billion. Products pipelines, planned or under construction, will add another 5,800 miles at a cost of $2.8 billion. Crude oil pipelines, at a minimum, will total 1,900 new miles at a cost of slightly under $1 billion

1992-08-01

9

North Slope pipeline work strong; gas pipeline project deferred  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 225 miles of insulated pipelines will be installed on the North Slope as part of a 5-year, $10.5 billion program by Sohio and Arco to maintain output from the field to feed the trans-Alaska oil pipeline. New lines are for waterflood supply systems, low pressure production systems, produced water handling, and gas handling. Pipeline construction is quite active at both Prudhoe Bay and at Kuparuk Field. Future projects include an oil line to the Beaufort Sea, the Polar Gas Project, the Arctic Pilot project, and the Northern Tier Pipeline.

Hale, D.

1982-09-01

10

Guidelines for working around natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

These guidelines for working around natural gas pipelines were drawn up in order to protect Gaz Metro's network, the public and the worker. This is the 5th edition of the guide and it replaces the version of January 2004. Directives are provided for both the planning and the execution stages and an emergency response is provided in case of an accident occurring. This document provides persons intending to work around Gaz Metro's installations with the company's requirements; contact information is also provided for submitting authorization requests.

NONE

2010-09-15

11

Working group 7: pipeline risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This seventh working group of the Banff 2011 conference provided an understanding of risk management process in the pipeline industry, including system-wide risk assessment, risk based integrity systems and risk control techniques. The presentations furnished a basis on which to discuss programs, processes and procedures including reliability based decision support and performance measures that support a company's risk management policy. This workshop was divided into three sessions. The first session focused on the comparison between reliability methods and conventional deterministic methods in terms of accuracy, simplicity and sensitivity. Next, the importance of low probability high consequence events and the processes to prevent them were discussed. The last session discussed the consequences of management processes on failures and risks. The debates following these presentations tried to identify the best management practices to reduce risks, and the regulations and requirements to develop.

Kariyawasam, Shahani; Weir, David

2011-07-01

12

IGNORAL OF WORKING CONDITION AS REASON OF PIPELINE DAMAGE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The ignoral of working condition is very frequent reason of equipment damage. The authors in this work states the reasons of pipeline damage; uneven aeration was reason for the starting of corrosion degradation mechanisms, creating of holes and finally pipeline putting out of service.

Boku?vka, Otakar; Trs?ko, Libor; Novy?, Frantis?ek

2013-01-01

13

Working group 3: upstream pipelines: inspection, corrosion and integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The third topic investigated the latest challenges to upstream pipeline operation and the areas for improvement in upstream integrity in the pipeline industry. The first session of talks reported on the pipeline incident analysis conducted by the CAPP on several companies from 2006 to 2010 in order to identify best management practises and to drive improvement in pipeline integrity management. Reviews of primary failure statistics and failure frequency were conducted with respect to the various materials of pipes. A summary of changes to the CSA standard related to non-metallic pipes was also presented to complete this background overview of the upstream industry. The second session provided more information about these non-metallic pipes, focusing on construction and quality issues with large diameter HDPE pipelines. The third session discussed the ERW pipeline in relation to upstream industry. An integrity management panel discussion was carried out to close this third working group.

Paez, Jorge; Stephenson, Mark [Talisman Energy, (Canada)

2011-07-01

14

The remediation of abandoned workings of a mining area in Ningxiang uranium mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The typical mining under buildings and river was used in a mining area of Ningxiang uranium mine. After the mining ended, 32.1% of the 2.68 m3 abandoned workings did not fill because of limitation of the cut-and-fill mining method at that time. To remedy this, the mine used new filling methods. After the remedial action, the filling coefficient of pits reached 100%, and that of tunnels reached 86%. It can be proved by the monitoring data that the subsiding of surface has been effectively controlled at the abandoned workings

2004-08-01

15

Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labo...

2011-01-01

16

Research work during and after the flooding of an abandoned potash mine in northern Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandoned potash mine of HOPE in northern Germany is flooded with an NaCl solution. A scientific research program running concurrently is to register and evaluate data on the geochemical, geomechanical and geophysical processes occurring before, during and after the flooding. In addition, a seal bulkhead was built using new materials and seals for testing under a liquid pressure of approximately 2.4 MPa. The work is part of a comprehensive research program investigating the processes occurring in a hypothetical water or brine inflow into a repository for radioactive waste in salt formations

1985-01-01

17

Guidelines for working near gas pipelines. 4. ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gaz Metro operates natural gas transmission and distribution systems in Quebec. In order to address safety requirements and reliability issues, the gas utility prepared this guide for those planning excavation or construction work near gas lines or other components of the gas system. The guide does not dictate work methods and practices, but explains how operators at a work site can determine where main gas lines are located, the depth of installations, and the relocation of installations. The guide also describes the execution of work with reference to locating gas lines; parallel trenches; perpendicular trenches; clearance; drilling; protection of pipes; parallel underground installations; crossing of underground installations; related components; final covering of pipes; backfilling; safety; and, blasting. Gaz Metro's service areas were listed along with general characteristics of a gas pipeline. tabs., figs.

NONE

2004-01-01

18

75 FR 80047 - Equitrans, L.P., Big Sandy Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Joint Application for Abandonment and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipeline located in Carter, Floyd, Johnson, and Lawrence Counties in Kentucky; three 3,000 horsepower...the outlet of the Kentucky Hydrocarbon gas processing...Company located in Carter County, Kentucky. Any questions...

2010-12-21

19

Pumped-Slurry Backfilling of Abandoned Coal Mine Workings for Subsidence Control at Rock Springs, Wyoming.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bureau of Mines, at the request of local authorities in Rock Springs, WY., investigated and conducted through contracts a multistage program of exploratory drilling and pumped-slurry backfilling of 15 areas of potential subsidence in abandoned mine wo...

D. L. Donner G. J. Colaizzi R. H. Whaite

1981-01-01

20

The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

2003-12-15

 
 
 
 
21

Deepwater pipeline intervention work with an acoustically controlled power module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stabilization of submarine pipeline free spans along uneven sea bottoms is performed conventionally using technologies such as gravel dumping, post trenching, and mattress installation. A new technology has been developed to support free spans along the 26-inch Transmed Gas Pipelines crossing the Sicily Channel in water depths ranging from 50 m to 510 m. This technology is based on the pipeline mechanical support Atlantis and its installation module Pegaso and was developed keeping requirements such as short installation time, system redundancy, operational flexibility, and simple interface with the support vessel in mind. The installation time reduction is achieved by automatic operational procedures that are controlled acoustically from the surface. Power is stored inside two dedicated battery packs placed on board pegaso; no umbilical cable is necessary, so that a vessel equipped with a normal crane is enough to launch and operate the system. Marine operations carried out in 1993 showed that a support can be installed in about 1 hour. In good weather conditions, three Atlantis were installed in 24 hours, including deck operations for recharging the battery packs. A total of 16 supports was installed along the 4th and 5th Transmed Gas Pipelines. The system has proved to be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to conventional technologies for free-span support, especially in deep waters. A cost/benefit analysis also shows the break-even point of the new technology vs. gravel dumping.

Conter, A.; Launaro, F.; Bigoni, G.

1997-02-01

22

Welding works in the construction of the WWER-10O0 reactor main circulating pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Features of pretreatment and welding experience in the construction of pipelines of the main circulating circuit (MCC), economizer and the ECCS of the WWER-1000 reactor are considered. The pipelines are made of a new clad steel type 10GN2MFA: C 0.08, Si 0.17, Mn 0.8, Cr 0.3, Ni 2-2.7, Mo 0.5-0.7, Cu 0.3, SuP no more than 0.02, V 0.07 (%). Structure of the welded joints of pipelines and heat treatment regimes are described. All welding works were performed by 12 welders. It is concluded that the MCC pipeline welding should be related as one of the most complicated and labour consuming operations

1980-01-01

23

Mineralogical characterization of tailing dams: incidence of abandoned mining works on soil pollution (Linares, Jaén)  

Science.gov (United States)

The metallogenic district of Linares-La Carolina (Jaén, Spain) consists of dyke mineralizations mainly of galena, accompanied by blende, chalcopyrite and barite. Associated to these abandoned mines, relatively extensive areas occupied by spoil heaps and tailing impoundments exist and constitute potential sources of soil pollution by metals and semimetals. In order to analyze the pollution potential of these mining wastes, we have carried out a mineralogical and geochemical study of seven tailing dams and surrounding soils in the area. The mineralogy of the samples was studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, the total metal content of samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Samples were taken from the first 30 cm of the waste piles and soil deposits and white efflorescences were also obtained from the surface of the tailings. In all analyzed heaps, high to very high total contents in Pb (1220-22890 mg/kg), Zn (150-51280 mg/kg), Mn (2658-4160 mg/kg), Ba (1026-19610 mg/kg) and Fe (19400-138000 mg/kg) were observed. The concentrations for these same elements in the studied soils range from 527-9900 mg/kg for Pb, 27-1700 mg/kg for Zn, 506-2464 mg/kg for Mn, 2832-4306 for Ba and 8642-29753 mg/kg for Fe, and these figures indicate a contamination of the soils, according to the guidelines established by the Spanish law. The XRD and SEM results indicate that the tailings are primarily constituted by gangue of the exploited mineralization: quartz, calcite, ankerite, feldspars and phyllosilicates. They are inherited, primary mineral phases. Galena, also primary, appears in low proportion, as well as lepidocrocite, melanterite and cerussite, being these three last secondary minerals and indicating a certain remobilization of metal cations, especially lead and iron. On the other hand, quartz and phyllosilicates predominate in the soils, in which, in addition, is identified a little proportion of galena (primary mineral) and ferro-hexahydrite, also indicating mobilization of Fe. As regarding white surface blooms, they are formed mostly of magnesium sulphate with different hydration states. The morphology of these mineral precipitates reveals that they have been subject to cycle of washing and subsequent dehydration, which indicates that these phases present a great mobility in the environment, and they may be contributing to the transport of metals from the tailings into the surroundings soils.

de la Torre, M. J.; Hidalgo, C.; Rey, J.; Martínez, J.

2012-04-01

24

The Long Term Consequences Of the Phenomenon “Child Abandonment” Caused by Work Abroad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available One or both parents leaving their home to work abroad brings important modification in the family life. Separation can be a forehand event, and all members of the respective family are familiarized with the change it implies. But many times the separation can be unexpected. The abrupt leave becomes, most of the times, a bitter event for the parents, but psycho traumatic for the child/children. In our country the phenomenon is attentively studied by the social workers, by sociologists, by psychologists, by educators, but what is the share of the economists?! Of course, the analysts are interested in the level of contribution in money of the Romanians working abroad reflected either in the GDP of the native country or of the em­ployer countries. But is it enough?! Shouldn’t we indentify and anticipate the work perspective economic consequences of the future active population, coming from families fragmented by life’s shortcomings?!

Prof. Ph. D. C?t?lina Bonciu

2009-05-01

25

Abandonment of infusion in production workings in the Ruhr coalfield; Traenkverzicht in Gewinnungsbetrieben im Ruhrkarbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infusion of coal before extraction is a measure to reduce dust both from the point of view of health protection as well as fire and explosion protection. However, the effectiveness of infusion is higher in highly coalified sections of seams than in sections with low coalification. The highly effective dust suppression measures in the area of coal winning by cutting and stripping have meanwhile allowed the infusion effect to recede into the background, so that it is possible to dispense with this measure in seam areas with low coalification. It was proved in practical tests that the effectiveness of the infusion is no longer detectable, if optimised secondary dust suppression methods are used. Nowadays infusion work can be dispensed with in stratigraphically young seams during coal winning, if it is guaranteed that mining authority requirements to ensure lower dust pollution are met. (orig.)

Kadow, T.; Suedhofer, F. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany); Henke, B.

2004-03-18

26

Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work focuses on corrosion protection of steel and concrete pipes and ways of reducing maintenance and repair cost in distribution systems. Two hot enamel coatings provide a corrosion resistant protection which will withstand mechanical battering during installation and useful life. They are a coal tar enamel, made from coke oven pitch which is modified and filled, and asphalt or bitumen enamel, produced from selected petroleum crudes, oxidized and filled. Cathodic protection can be used to prevent corrosion of the prestressing wires in concrete pipes. Experiences in Australia and the UK are described. A relatation of the depth requirements for water supply pipes in Poland will reduce construction costs. A leak detection system developed in Austria subdivides a pipe network gate valves to locate problems.

Hughes, T.

1980-08-01

27

Analysis of dependence between capital expendutures of construction works and gas distribution pipeline diameter ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????????????????? ????? ?? ?? ????????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Materials consumption rate is used by many authors as the criterion for the assessment of the economic efficiency of gas distribution networks in the course of their design. No doubt that control over the materials consumption rate is of particular importance. However, we believe that it represents one of several constituents of the overall cost of a gas network piping project. Labour expenditures and earth works that are, to some extent, dependent on the diameter of a pipeline, should also be taken into account. Presently, metal and polyethylene pipes of standard diameters are used in gas network development projects. Diameters of pipes of external gas distribution networks are rounded up to the closest standard diameter of pipes as a result of a hydraulic calculation. The cost of construction of a gas pipeline has multiple constituents that may be clustered into three principle groups: 1 earth works, 2 piping; 3 cost of materials. Calculation of the cost of construction of low and medium pressure pipelines to be made of steel and cross-linked polyethylene was performed to find out the cost of a pipeline. The calculations were made in the basic prices of the year 2000 adjusted to the figures of April 2011, given the standard piping conditions in a settlement within central Russia. The data were interpolated by means of a quadratic function. On the basis of the above data, a comparative analysis of capital expenditures in respect of steel and polyethylene piping may be performed. The research also contemplates the structure of expenses associated with the piping of gas distribution networks. Mathematical equations have been derived to perform sufficiently accurate calculations of costs of construction of various types and various lengths of gas pipelines.?????????? ?????? ??????????? ????????? ????????? ???????????? ?? ?? ????????. ???????? ?????????????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????????????? ????????????????????? ????? ?? ?? ????????. ?????????? ??????????? ????????????? ???? ???????????.

Tabunshchikov Yuriy Andreevich

2012-03-01

28

Description of work for 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 stainless steel pipeline integrity testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objectives of this integrity test are to (1) inspect the interior of this pipeline by in-line camera survey and (2) if required, conduct a pressure test on a section of the pipeline. The U-1 and U-2 Cribs were constructed in 1951. From March 1952 to June 1967, the site received cell drainage from Tank 5-2 in the 221-U Building nd waste from the 224-U Building via the overflow from the 241-U-361 Settling Tank. From June 1957 to July 1957, the site received waste from the 224-U Building via the overflow from the 241-U-361 Settling Tank and contaminated solvent from the 276-U Settling Tank solvent storage area. The discharge of 221-U waste was discontinued during shutdown of production operations. From July 1957 to May 1967, the site received waste from the 224-U Building and equipment decontamination and reclamation wastes from operations in the 221-U Building canyon. The scope of work is encompassed in five steps: (1) obtaining access to the pipeline in order to perform an in-line camera survey of the line to the greatest extent possible, (2) evaluating the need for further investigation of the pipeline, (3) blanking the line, as needed, to perform a pressure test, (4) conducting the pressure test, as needed, and (5) documenting the ability of the line to maintain pressure.

Wasemiller, M.A.

1994-06-30

29

Analysis of dependence between capital expendutures of construction works and gas distribution pipeline diameter ?????? ??????????? ??????????? ?????? ??? ????????????? ????????????????????? ????? ?? ?? ????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Materials consumption rate is used by many authors as the criterion for the assessment of the economic efficiency of gas distribution networks in the course of their design. No doubt that control over the materials consumption rate is of particular importance. However, we believe that it represents one of several constituents of the overall cost of a gas network piping project. Labour expenditures and earth works that are, to some extent, dependent on the diameter of a pipeline, should also b...

Tabunshchikov Yuriy Andreevich; Prokhorov VitaliyIvanovich; Bryukhanov Oleg Nikolaevich; Zhila Viktor Andreevich; Klochko Aleksey Konstantinovich

2012-01-01

30

Methods of projection (technological developmental work of pipeline routes for manufacturing pipes without measuring sizes at place  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Methodological developmental work of problem of manufacturing and mounting of ship pipelines without measuring sizes at place is presented. Introduction of methods contributes to increasing in efficiency of shipbuilding production by means of perfecting technologies of manufacturing and mounting of pipes directed to reducing cycles of building and decreasing labour-intensiveness of pipeline works when carrying out ship-building orders.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2012-10-01

31

Estimation of work capacity of welded mounting joints of pipelines of heat resisting steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of a work capacity of circular welds made for the Dsub(y)850 pipeline connection with high pressure vessels of heat resisting steel of the 15Kh1NMFA type has been carried out on the base of test results with small samples and real units. Welds were performed using the manual electric arc welding without the following heat treatment. It has been shown that residual stresses in such welds do not produce an essential effect on the resistance of weld metal and heat affected zone on the formation and developments of cracks

1982-07-01

32

Strategies for downhole abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB) G-20 Abandonment Guidelines place more of the responsibility for interpreting the regulations and for completing well abandonment work on the companies that originally drilled the wells. The new amendments require the licence holder to proceed with the abandonment of a well without prior approval by the regulatory agency and then run the risk of an audit. While this cuts down on paper work and responsibilities placed on the EUB, it poses a problem for small companies that do not have staff who are familiar with the regulations to prepare abandonment programs. This presentation attempted to clarify some of the issues by discussing: (1) working with the new EUB guidelines, (2) determining the success of squeezing-off primary zones in various areas of Alberta, (3) ensuring water aquifer coverage and problems in accessing the Alberta groundwater data base, (4) gas migration in slated and vertical wells, (5) determining the source of vent flows to receive EUB approval to perforate, (6) cutting costs when setting bridge plugs and perforating on slick lines, and (7) perforating rather than setting long cement plugs in heavy oil sands

1997-04-01

33

A study of the behaviour of defects in pipeline girth welds: The work of the European pipeline research group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There are significant differences in girth weld defect acceptance levels, based on workmanship or fitness-for-purpose criteria, in various national and company standards. Results of an experimental test program on defective girth welds by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) were reported. As part of this program the various national girth weld defect acceptance standards were also reviewed, along with a literature review of the significance of non-polar defects in girth welds, and of European girth weld repair and cut-out rates. The EPRG`s own guidelines on defect acceptance levels in girth welds were also summarized. 18 refs., 8 figs.

Hopkins, P.; Pistone, V.; Clyne, A. J.

1992-12-31

34

Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: : Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO2 corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in Chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO2 corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO3 plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO3 is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO3. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO3. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO3 are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO2 corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11.

Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

2008-01-01

35

Methods and materials used by EuRoPol GAZ for coating repair works at technological installations of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper contains information on coating materials used for protection against corrosion during construction of Yamal-Europe Transit Gas Pipeline, as well as review of methods and materials that have been applied for the coating repairs works during past decade of pipeline operation. The paper presents questions of repair works executed on the live gas pipeline and also new methods and materials offered by suppliers in order to solve problems and ensure long-lasting, effective anticorrosion protection during operational use of the pipeline. (author)

2008-06-18

36

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs

2002-04-01

37

Carbon Dioxide Corrosion: : Modelling and Experimental Work Applied to Natural Gas Pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

CO2 corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO2 corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO2-Na2CO3-NaHCO3-MEG-H2O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. ...

Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup

2007-01-01

38

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and First Nations : Linkages : Working Paper No. 7.6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) will bring several employment opportunities for Yukon First Nations citizens. This paper presented some recommendations to maximize these employment benefits. The AHPP will cross the territory of 8 of the 14 Yukon First Nations. The current land selections through the Foothills route indicate that 202 km of the 832 km long pipeline will end up on First Nations land. The six channels of economic impact for First Nations include: (1) employment of First Nations citizens on pipeline construction and operation, (2) First Nation-owned business on pipeline construction, (3) employment of First Nations citizens in other Yukon businesses, (4) taxation, (5) availability of natural gas, and (6) additional services and infrastructure that will be incurred. 2 tabs., 1 fig

2002-04-01

39

Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO{sub 2} corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11. (au)

Loldrup Fosboel. P.

2007-10-15

40

National impact of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 6.1.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examined the economic impacts of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) for Canada. The proposed project will impact the economy through construction of the pipeline as well as through export of natural gas transmission services. Interest in Alaskan North Slope natural gas has been renewed because of the following 3 main factors: (1) the US energy policy is promoting cleaner burning fuels, particularly for power generation, (2) the recent winter price shocks for both oil and natural gas, and (3) the US effort to protect and guarantee energy supplies. The impact of northern gas and pipeline development was assessed with reference to the impact that spending will have on the Canadian economy. A standard macroeconomic impact model is employed, first by preparing a base case forecast of the economy, assuming that the project does not occur. Secondly, an impact case forecast of the economy was prepared assuming the pipeline is developed and operated. The third step of the procedure involved a comparison of impacts of the first and second procedures. The report presented direct, indirect and induced impacts. The Informetrica Model (TIM) of the national economy is used to obtain behavioural underpinning to the analysis. The model is very detailed in industry terms and links demands on the economy, output and employment of many industries, as well as costs and prices of industries and commodities in a consistent framework. Both the upside and the downside of the proposed pipeline were presented. 16 figs

2002-04-01

 
 
 
 
41

A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs

2002-04-01

42

Pumped-slurry backfilling of abandoned coal mine workings for subsidence control at Rock Springs, Wyoming. Report BUMINES-IC-8846  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Bureau of Mines, at the request of local authorities in Rock Springs, WY, investigated and conducted through contracts a multistage program of exploratory drilling and pumped-slurry backfilling of 15 areas of potential subsidence in abandoned mine workings underneath that community. Initially, the Bureau in 1969 had recommended a program of gravity blind flushing of some of the inaccessible mine voids, and in 1970 a new technique, the pumped-slurry injection process, was tested for the first time in a site adjacent to the city area of severe surface subsidence. Success of this initial testing program, and of a large-scale project in Scranton, PA, led to further large-scale projects, funded by Congress, that resulted in the successful backfilling not only of all 15 target areas of potential subsidence in Rock Springs, but also of several areas in other States. Total cost of the projects in Rock Springs, including the original pumped-slurry test, was $3,243,993. A total of about 923,000 tons of sand was injected hydraulically into mine voids, rendering 178 acres of residential and central-downtown areas of Rock Springs less susceptible to subsidence damage.

Colaizzi, G.J.; Whaite, R.H.; Donner, D.L.

1981-07-01

43

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and the environment : Working Paper No. 7.2.8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented a brief overview of the environmental impacts that may occur if the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) goes ahead as planned. It presents the position of local environmental groups, including the Yukon Conservation Society and the Yukon chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. Both have signed a statement which calls for a system of protected areas to be completed, as well as detailed regional land use plans before construction begins. They also call for a strict environmental assessment process that would include a no-go option and which would examine the potential cumulative effects of the project. This paper presented the general environmental concerns and impacts of construction, with reference to habitat disruption, Southern Lakes Caribou winter habitat, stream crossings, and erosion. It also included several site specific impacts along the existing Foothills pipeline segment that are of particular environmental concern for Kluane Lake, Sheep Mountain, Slims River and Ibex Valley. There are minimal environmental concerns regarding the operation of the pipeline. One potential impact is on air quality near compressor stations through the creation of ice fog in the winter. Noise pollution is another possible problem if inadequate muffler systems are used. Also, the effect of maintaining a wider transportation corridor is not yet known. The proposed construction will likely accelerate oil and gas development in the Yukon which will have large and long-term impacts. One of the arguments in favour of the natural gas pipeline, is its potential to reduce pollution of SOx, NOx and VOCs on a continental scale by allowing substitution of clean burning natural gas instead of coal or diesel fuels. In terms of the impact on global warming, the pipeline can only reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases if the additional gas does not translate into higher net energy use. One additional concern for the Yukon is how emissions will be charged or credited. For example, will the Yukon be charged for compressor station emissions even if the gas is Alaskan? 3 refs

2002-04-01

44

Recovery of methane from the abandoned Golden Eagle Mine property  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The abandoned Golden Eagle underground coal mine in Colorado contains gassy coals from which Stroud Oil Properties, Inc. (Stroud) has been recovering gas since 1996. The mine closed permanently in 1996, and during its operation drained methane from gob and ventilation boreholes. Stroud currently produces about 1.8 million cubic feet of near pipeline quality gas per day from six of these boreholes. Although the project has proven successful, gas recovery has been challenging because of low bottom hole pressure and variable borehole performance. Wellhead compressors are required to boost gas pressure for delivery to the main plant. Connecting additional boreholes to the gathering system often decreases production from existing production boreholes. Increasing gas removal has resulted in air leaks that lower gas quality. Stroud monitors the gas quality and blends any below-spec gas with its above-spec gas to ensure that the resulting product meets pipeline standards. This gas is then compressed for sale into a nearby pipeline. Overburden relaxation and finite difference modeling indicate that overlying coal seams and the coal remaining at the margins of the mined out workings contribute a significant amount of gas to the current production.

Hupp, K.L.; Bibler, C.; Pilcher, R.C.

1999-07-01

45

Proceedings of the 11. Banff 2011 pipeline workshop: managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Twelve working groups provided an interactive forum where the management of the integrity, the risk, and the safety of pipeline infrastructures were discussed. Several presentations from operators, regulators and vendors provided the material necessary to initiate debates and information sharing between the participants. This conference brought together speakers from the international and domestic corrosion community to present technical papers and participate in a panel discussion. First they focused on reporting the state-of-the-art technologies and past experience related to the design, construction, operation, testing, maintenance and abandonment of pipelines. The current standards and management processes were examined using in-field examples. Several technology exchange groups were created to further discuss, and foster the development of, new technologies in order to develop guidelines for consideration as standard practices. All 12 working groups sessions have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

NONE

2011-07-01

46

Effect of sensitization degree of Du-300 pipelines welded joints on RBMK RF Mafic working capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of structure, processing and operational factors on operational capability of Du-300 pipeline welded joints of steel type 08Kh18N10T in a multiple forced circulation coolant circuit is analyzed. It is stated that the time to crack initiation at standard water chemistry (WCh) is mainly dictated by the quality of the welded joint, primarily by maximal initial degree of sensitization for a near-weld zone (NWZ) of root of penetration. The WCh (oxygen concentration) has a pronounced effect on crack initiation under conditions of intergranular stress corrosion as well as on crack propagation rate only when the degree of sensitization in NWZ metal of root of joint and across the thickness of pipe exceeds 50 %

2000-06-19

47

Harwell abandons cold fusion research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports the abandonment of cold fusion research at Harwell Laboratory. Following announcements in March 1989, that work in the laboratory, at the University of Utah had produced cold fusion, a team of scientists was assembled at Harwell to attempt to reproduce this exciting possibility. Despite repeated and wide ranging efforts, no evidence of cold fusion has been found by the Harwell team. (author).

Anon.

1989-08-01

48

Waste management plan for pipeline construction works: basic guideline for its preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the stage of implementation of the land pipes enterprise, one of the main environmental aspects to be considered was the creation of solid and liquid waste. To mitigate the possible impacts to the environment, the main adopted mitigate measure was the implementation of a Waste Management Plan - WMP. Thus, the management of waste from pipes construction has the challenge of a great variety of stages and phases for the implementation of pipes and the diversity of local situations related to the topographic and hydro-geologic conditions. Considering the peculiarity of the pipes activities, this article proposes the elaboration of a Basic Guide to be used as reference for the creation of WMP's for similar enterprises, using as foundation the data from the three Gas Pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria; Vitoria - Cacimbas and Cacimbas - Catu. After the analysis of the three mentioned enterprises, it was verified that the waste management generated on the building and assembling of the land pipes normally occurs in accord with previous planning, but there's no systematization for the waste to be better recycled and reutilized, thus mitigating their creation. (author)

Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Araujo, Ronaldo G. de [TELSAN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tania Mara [IMC-SASTE, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Veronez, Fernanda A. [Bourscheid, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2009-07-01

49

Well abandonment : best practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wells are often abandoned due to lack of production and poor economics. This presentation outlined the best practices adopted by Husky Energy when abandoning wells. Wells that required abandonment were tracked and scheduled during well completion activities. Requests to abandon were overseen by engineering, geology, and management teams. An electronic system was used to ensure that the process was fully auditable. A well file review history check was conducted prior to site visits. Geological analyses were conducted to protect groundwater resources. A cement review ensured that any porous zones could be isolated from other porous zones in the well casing. Carbon isotope analyses were then conducted. Perforation intervals and thermal areas were determined. Pressure tests were conducted and cement amounts were documented in order to ensure compliance with Directive 20. The Husky standard completions program included safety procedures as well as an outline completed by an abandonment specialist. Each event or zone was abandoned according to Directive 20 standards. Repairs included abrasive jetting or perforations. Cutting and capping was conducted by Husky's reclamation department. A case study of a non-routine abandonment was also included. tabs., figs.

Trend, C. [Husky Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2006-07-01

50

Having views, abandoning views  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the bKa' brgyud tradition of Tibetan Buddhism, holding a philosophical view cannot produce an understanding of ultimate reality. The article contains some arguments why views must ultimately be abandoned.

Sobisch, Jan-Ulrich

51

Blasting for abandoned-mine land reclamation (closure of individual subsidence features and erratic, undocumented underground coal-mine workings). Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study has examined the feasibility of blasting for mitigating various abandoned mine land features on AML sites. The investigation included extensive field trial blasts at sites in North Dakota and Montana. A blasting technique was used that was based on spherical cratering concepts. At the Beulah, North Dakota site thirteen individual vertical openings (sinkholes) were blasted with the intent to fill the voids. The blasts were designed to displace material laterally into the void. Good success was had in filling the sinkholes. At the White site in Montana erratic underground rooms with no available documentation were collapsed. An adit leading into the mine was also blasted. Both individual room blasting and area pattern blasting were studied. A total of eight blasts were fired on the one acre area. Exploration requirements and costs were found to be extensive.

Workman, J.L.; Thompson, J.

1991-01-01

52

37 CFR 1.138 - Express abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...by Applicant; Abandonment of Application § 1.138 Express abandonment. (a) An application may be expressly abandoned...Patent and Trademark Office. Express abandonment of the application may not be recognized by...

2009-07-01

53

The Winfrith effluent pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper describes the preparatory work leading up to the design of the Winfrith pipeline. Details of the existing system are given and some information on the predicted safe levels of radio-active discharge. (author)

1959-01-01

54

Equipment for welding of details and joints of plastic pipes in work shop conditions and at pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A range of welding machines for operation in workshop conditions and at pipelines is presented. Set of welding equipment for mobile shop, producing prototypes, and mobile facility are developed. In 1989 they will provide the whole operation cycle of production and mounting of details and units of plastic tubes and will enable to organize the centralized production of welded and shaped details in the branch, thus excluding the shortage of these details. 8 refs.; 6 figs.; 2 tabs

1988-01-01

55

The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

2003-02-05

56

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2003-05-01

57

Abandoned vehicles - Reminder  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

58

Abandoned vehicles REMINDER  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

59

The DECam Community Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Dark Energy Survey Project and NOAO have produced a world class, large format camera for the CTIO Blanco Telescope. This camera, called the Dark Energy Camera or DECam, with 62 CCDs and a ˜20 second readout is capable of producing a very large amount of data. NOAO and the DES Data Management (DESDM) team have worked together to develop a Community Pipeline (CP) to produce calibrated data products for community users (the DES has its own dedicated pipeline with the same or similar components). First light and commissioning occurred in the fall of 2012 and the camera and pipeline have had nearly a year of operation and evolution. The CP has recently reach a production level with good data quality products. This paper provides an overview of this DECam Community Pipeline.

Valdes, F.; Gruendl, R.; DES Project

2014-05-01

60

Plugging and abandonment report: Proposed Y-12 centralized landfill expansion, Geotek Project No. 91-2901A.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report presents the results of our plugging and abandonment activities for temporary piezometer wells and soil borings at the Y-12 centralized landfill. The complete scope of work included plugging and abandonment of existing boreholes and temporary ...

J. W. Turner F. Mishu

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Filling abandoned underground facilities with CLSM fly ash slurry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Wisconsin Electric Power Company, working the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Center for By-Products Utilization is identifying the mix proportions for a low strength flowable fly ash slurry. The slurry can be used as backfill for excavation projects and as fill for abandoned underground facilities. The article profiles the development of the slurry and its use to fill abandoned steam service tunnels, sidewalk cavities, steam utility facilities, and sewers. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs., 4 photos.

Naik, T.S.; Ramme, B.W.; Kolbeck, H.J. (Wisconsin University, Milwaukee, WI (USA). Center for By-Products Utilization)

1990-07-01

62

Proceedings of the 10. Banff pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum for discussing issues related to the integrity and safety of pipeline infrastructure. The workshop reviewed state-of-the-art technologies and techniques in pipeline design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance. New areas and initiatives for pipeline research and development were identified along with methods of optimizing pipeline industry communication networks and enhancing the pipeline integrity management process. The workshop included tutorials related to the management of pipeline integrity. The workshop was then divided into 12 working groups: (1) issues for managers; (2) regulatory developments; (3) upstream pipelines, inspection, corrosion and integrity management; (4) design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; (5) management of stress corrosion cracking; (6) protective coatings; (7) pipeline risk management; (8) inspection tools; (9) external corrosion; (10) internal corrosion; (11) facilities integrity management; and (12) managing geotechnical hazards. A closing plenary session discussed developments in Canadian Standards Agency (CSA) pipeline standards development processes. All 12 working group sessions have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cameron, G. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lee, S. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Saad, Z. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

63

Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain) that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg). Nowada...

Millán R.; Sierra M. J.; Schmid T.; Carrasco Gil S.; Sánchez Ledesma D. M.; Díaz Puent F. J.

2013-01-01

64

Analyzing the Risk of Well Plug Failure after Abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

All oil and gas wells will have to be plugged and abandoned at some time. The plugging and abandonment procedure must provide an effective isolation of the well fluids all along the well to reduce environmental risks of contamination and prevent from costly remedial jobs. Previous works have analyzed the plug behavior when submitted to local pressure or thermal changes but no work has looked to the effects of external pressure, thermal and stress changes resulting from a global equilibrium restoration in a hydrocarbon reservoir once production has stopped. This work estimates those changes after abandonment on a reservoir field case using a reservoir simulator in conjunction with a geomechanical simulator. Such simulations provide the pressure and thermal changes and the maximum effective stress changes in the reservoir cap rock where critical plugs are put in place for isolating the production intervals. These changes are used as loads in a well bore stress model that explicitly models an injector well and predict stress rearrangements in the plug after abandonment. Results obtained with the well bore stress model for a conventional class G cement plug show that the main risk of failure is tensile failure because of the low tensile strength of the cement. Actually, soft sealing materials or initially pre-stressed plug appears to be more adapted to the downhole conditions changes that may occurs after well plugging and abandonment. (authors)

2007-01-01

65

Who abandons embryos after IVF?  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

Walsh, A P H

2010-04-01

66

Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the cleanup of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

2012-06-01

67

The Illinois Pipeline Project  

Science.gov (United States)

The Pipeline Project of the Illinois Section of the AAPT (ISAAPT) has been a work in progress since 2004. During that time there have been a number of workshops and cracker barrel sessions focusing on recruiting the next generation of high school physics teachers for Illinois. The ISAAPT has subsequently produced and published guidelines and a recruitment brochure. The Section is now working diligently with other Illinois associations to recruit science teachers of the major disciplines for all levels of school instruction.

Wenning, Carl J.

2006-12-01

68

In-service buckling of heated pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compressive forces may be induced in pipelines by the restraint of axial extensions due to temperature changes or other causes. These forces may cause vertical or lateral buckling of the pipeline. These two buckling modes, which both involve an overall column-type response without gross distortion of the pipeline cross-section, are analyzed on the basis of related work on railroad track. For normal coefficients of friction, the lateral mode occurs at a lower axial load than the vertical mode and is dominant in pipelines unless the line is trenched or buried. The theoretical solutions are illustrated by numerical results for a typical pipeline and some design implications reviewed

1984-01-01

69

Abandonment of offshore petroleum production installations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This chapter examines the international guidelines on the abandonment of offshore petroleum product installations. It then outlines the legal and fiscal background, policy, practice and some reported cases of abandonment. Finally, it considers the response to these issues made by companies engaged in petroleum production to share the burden and risks of paying for abandonment. (UK)

Jones, Gareth; Saunders, Mark [Nabarro Nathanson, London (United Kingdom)

1994-12-31

70

77 FR 31827 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49...Docket ID PHMSA-2009-0192] RIN 2137-AE43 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs AGENCY: Pipeline...

2012-05-30

71

Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

2011-12-21

72

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. In lieu of a field installation on an abandoned pipeline, a preliminary nondestructive testing protocol is being developed to determine the success or failure of the fiber-reinforced liner pipeline repairs. Optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repair methods are ongoing.

Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; George Ritter; Matt Boring; Mark Lozev; Ian Harris; Bill Mohr; Dennis Harwig; Robin Gordon; Chris Neary; Mike Sullivan

2005-07-20

73

Pipelines Archives - Climate &  

... Nope. EnergyEast tar sands pipeline faces growing opposition TransCanada pipeline plan threatens drinking water TransCanada buys another favorable pipeline report Another pipeline disaster: Molasses kills Video: How tar sands threaten our communities How to answer TransCanada’s pipeline spin Stop Energy East! A new resource for pipeline activists Interview with Eastern Ontario anti-pipeline activists Oil industry wrote State Department report on Keystone XL New pipeline plan dwarfs Keystone XL Photos: A tar sands pipeline-in-waiting 1 2 hellip; 4 Next »Find articles by subject … 21st Century BarbarismAfricaAsiaAustraliaBiodiversity BiofuelBoliviaBooks &...

74

Trends in the pipeline industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stress corrosion cracking or SCC, as the number one cause of pipeline failure, has been the major focus for regulators and pipeline operators in Canada and in many other parts of the world, for the past several years. It has been the subject of an inquiry by the National Energy Board of Canada, the first inquiry of its kind in the world. The first major recommendation of the NEB's report was the development of a manual of recommended practices for managing SCC. The second recommendation concerned the development of a SCC database, another first for the industry. The database allows operators to input SCC and other general corrosion data obtained from in situ field investigations. It not only will enhance understanding of SCC, but will also help identify future research needs. The Canadian Energy Pipeline Association (CEPA) also initiated a corrosion management survey among its members . The expectation is that this will lead to the development of a comprehensive strategy for dealing with general corrosion which accounts for about 25 per cent of all ruptures on Canadian pipelines. With pipeline integrity and pipeline safety first on the list of priorities, a risk management program initiated by CEPA that requires a detailed review of how the industry operates, will help to pinpoint sources of risks that may not be recognized in systems that are based primarily on compliance with regulations. On the technology side, in-line inspection tools, high strength steels, composite reinforced linepipe, reinforced thermoplastic pipe for high pressure pipelines, are some of the innovations that are being employed to maintain a high level of pipeline integrity. Add to all this the heightened concern for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change, the highly competitive market conditions, and rising regulatory and public expectations, and it is easy to see why the pipeline industry is an exciting place in which to work.

Hill, R.A. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-07-01

75

Abandonment (field decommissioning): The legal requirements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main areas to be considered in relation to the abandonment of offshore installations are: (1) the legal requirements to be imposed in relation to abandonment, this will include consideration of English, Norwegian and Dutch law as well as international law; (2) how licensees may protect themselves against joint and several liability for performance of their legal obligations in relation to abandonment by the provision of security; and (3) consideration of practical examples of abandonment such as the abandonment of the Piper Alpha platform on the UK continental shelf and the K13-D platform on the Dutch continental shelf. This paper considers only abandonment of offshore installations as very different considerations apply onshore and applies only to Europe, though the international treaties will also apply elsewhere

1994-05-02

76

Root Causes of Project Abandonment in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article explores the root causes of project abandonment in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria. Structured questionnaires were distributed to targeted officials playing a role in the administration of project management in the Institutions, namely, bursars, internal auditors, directors of works, directors of physical planning, quantity surveyors in the physical planning and works Units. Four hundred and seventy five completed questionnaires returned were analyzed and tested using relative important index (R.I.I. and simple percentages. The result from the study showed that the root causes of project abandonment in tertiary Institutions in Nigeria like any other government establishment are, the lack of articulated vision and objectives, lack of adequate planning for the project at inception, lack of adequate funds and budgetary allocation before projects are embarked upon, Inefficient and effective legal system, poor contract documentation, corruption and compromises, lack of municipal services, non release of government white papers on investigations carried out on abandonment of projects, lack of true leadership, lack of continuity and Institutions’ long term strategic plans to drive the Institutions, ambiguity in contract documentations. The study concludes that any reason for project abandonment can be related directly or remotely to compromises on the above root causes.

Uket E. Ewa

2013-10-01

77

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

78

Drake F-76 in-situ abandonment of a high Arctic offshore completion and facilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Technical assessment of the abandonment operations of an offshore natural gas well drilled from an ice platform in 55 m of water off the Northwest Territories of Canada was discussed. The well was drilled offshore Melville Island in 1979 as a prototype gas producer, using a subsea production tree and subsea pipeline bundle to shore. The project was suspended soon after and in 1993 the decision to abandon the well, was made. Equipment refit and design, technical and environmental approvals consumed the next two years. The well head was relocated in the winter of 1995/96, an ice platform was built, an array of purpose-built equipment was assembled and moved to the site, a subsea reconnection was completed, the wellhead was successfully function and pressure tested, the well re-entered and permanently plugged. The subsea tree and associated flowline equipment were decommissioned and abandoned in-situ, and a two-year surface restoration program was initiated. The abandonment of Drake F-76 demonstrated the feasibility of (1) re-entering and abandoning a live gas well from a floating ice platform, (2) adapting a conventional service rig to handle subsea equipment, and (3) the use of conventional wireline and coiled tubing techniques on an offshore ice platform application. 2 refs., 8 figs

1997-06-08

79

Pipeline refurbishing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A novel process for simultaneously removing deteriorated coatings (such as coal tar and asphalt enamel or tape) and providing surface preparation suitable for recoating has been developed for pipelines up to 36 in. (914 mm) in diameter. This patented device provides a near-white metal surface finish. Line travel or bell-hole operations are possible at rates up to 10 times conventional blasting techniques. This article describes development of a tool and machine that will remove pipeline coatings, including coal tar enamel and adhesive-backed plaster tape systems. After coating removal, the pipe surface is suitable for recoating and can be cleaned to a near-white metal finsh (Sa 2 1/2 or NACE No. 2) if desired. This cleaning system is especially useful where the new coating is incompatible with the coating to be removed, the new coating requires a near-white or better surface preparation, or no existing method has been found to remove the failed coating. This cleaning system can remove all generic coating systems including coal tar enamel, asphalt, adhesive-backed tape, fusion-bonded epoxy, polyester, and extruded polyethylene.

McConkey, S.E.

1989-04-01

80

Plugging and abandonment report: Proposed Y-12 centralized landfill expansion, Geotek Project No. 91-2901A  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of our plugging and abandonment activities for temporary piezometer wells and soil borings at the Y-12 centralized landfill. The complete scope of work included plugging and abandonment of existing boreholes and temporary piezometer wells. Twelve boreholes were drilled in the Phase I investigation during May 1989. Five temporary piezometer wells were drilled and installed during March 1991. Drilling and abandonment activities were performed by Geotek from 24, 1991 thru July 11, 1991. A total of 12 working days were required to complete all required drilling and abandonment activities in accordance with project specifications.

Turner, J.W.; Mishu, F. [Geotek Engineering Co., Knoxville, TN (United States)

1991-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

Marshall, W.F.

1997-05-01

82

Pipeline design resists buckling in deep water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work has had a significant effect upon conclusions regarding the depth capability of existing pipelaying procedures. It was found that, while the mechanisms governing the deformation of the pipeline are quite complicated, several simple empirical relationships that are founded on a sound understanding of the basic mechanisms involved could be developed. These relationships are adequate for determining the fundamental requirements of the pipeline during the preliminary design stages. When the strain in the overbend region results in stress exceeding the proportional limit stress in the pipeline, a residual curvature in the pipeline must result. The combined stress due to hydrostatic pressure and reverse bending of the residual curvature on the sea bottom greatly diminishes the depth attainability of the pipeline. The residual curvature caused by stresses exceeding the proportional limit in the overbend region also limits the strain permissible in the sagbend region of the pipeline.

Johns, T.G.; McConnell, D.P.

1984-07-23

83

Parameter method for designing array pipelining algorithms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term pipelined array processor (PAP) covers a new class of array processor suitable for VLSI. In this paper a class of recurrence process is investigated; it could be implemented in PAP. In order to characterise the dynamic procedure of array pipelining, 12 array pipelining parameters are defined. By analysis of the iterative procedure of array pipelining, a theorem of array pipelining representing the relationship among the above parameters is proposed and is expressed by six linear equations. In order to show the power of this parameter method, some new array pipelining algorithms, such as for matrix multiplication, FIR filtering, DFT and triangular matrix inversion are also worked out. These algorithms are more reasonable than existing ones. 4 references.

Li Guo-jie

1982-01-01

84

In Salah export pipeline project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Details of the In Salah gas export pipeline system were presented. Located in southern Algeria, the In Salah gas field has 7 proven fields that are expected to deliver 9 billion cubic meters of dry gas per year. Gas will be transported to market via a pipeline connecting the gas field to a collection point in Hassi R'Mel. Gas will then be fed into gas transport lines for delivery to Europe. The pipeline system consists of 600 km of pipelines, with 460 km of mainline pipes and 140 km of interfield trunk lines. Five Trencor machines were used to dig the trench for the pipeline. Line pipe was double jointed in storage yards, and semi-automatic welding was used for the field joints. A total of 600 km of roads were engineered and graded to gain access to the project. Pipes were purchased from a variety of sources, and continuous monitoring was conducted to ensure that pipes met the required specifications. Mainline welding commenced in September of 2002. Progress on the pipeline averaged 2.7 km per day. Overall weld repairs were estimated at 2.5 per cent. Mechanized UT was used to increase production and ensure quality. Pipelines facilities included 14 block valve stations and scraper traps along the right-of-way. Equipment for the project included 26 sidebooms; 5 graders; 65 dump trucks; 20 water tankers; 21 bulldozers; and 2 rockditchers. A fiber-optic communication cable was also installed alongside the pipeline in a separate ditch. Intensive equipment operator training was conducted during the project's construction period, and safety training was provided for all staff. Audits were conducted regularly throughout the project. Approximately 12 million man-hours were worked for the project, which had an excellent safety record. It was concluded that the project was completed 3 months ahead of schedule. 18 figs.

Khedr, E.; Laurijssen, J. [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

2004-07-01

85

Pipeline network and environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

2012-06-01

86

Children Abandoned in Long-Stay Hospitals.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sample of 68 children from 5 British hospitals were studied in a project designed to provide more information about the extent of the problem of children abandoned in hospitals and to assess the effects of the abandonment on the child. The researchers a...

C. Hood

1976-01-01

87

METHANE EMISSIONS FROM ABANDONED UNDERGROUND COAL MINES  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper summarizes current research on abandoned underground coal mines. t forms an initial basis for developing an inventory of methane emissions from such mines. arly measurements have shown that some abandoned coal mines can liberate large volumes of high quality gas (up to ...

88

Guide 20 : Well abandonment guide. 2. ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations in the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Guide 20 for well abandonment stipulate that a well licensee must conduct abandonment, casing removal, zonal abandonments, and plug backs. The present document describes the following six changes to well abandonment requirements that will take effect on August 1, 2003: (1) an electronic data capture system for Digital Data Submission (DDS) will be in place for licensees to submit non-routine well licence abandonment requests and well abandonment notifications; (2) the licensee must review the existing cement behind the casing string(s) of the well before beginning abandonment operations; (3) all non-saline groundwater must be covered with cement; (4) the licensee must weld a steel plate across the surface casing in a surface abandonment of an open-hole well; (5) the metal cap welded to the surface casing must be metallurgically compatible to the casing and welded according to industry standards; and (6) surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well licence must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. 14 figs.

NONE

2003-08-01

89

The pipeline service obligation under changing LDC purchasing practices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Historically, interstate natural gas pipelines served as aggregators and transporters of gas supplies from the producing fields to the city-gate. In turn, local distribution companies (LDCs) bought gas from pipelines at the city-gate under long-term sales contracts and resold the gas to retail customers. Once a pipeline/LDC sales relationship was established through a regulated certificate process, the LDC was assured of gas supply up to the level of its contract demand (CD) at just and reasonable rates until abandonment of the pipeline's sales service obligation was granted by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). During the years of regulated wellhead pricing and limited gas deliverability, pipelines signed long-term take-or-pay contracts with producers to induce them to develop and commit new gas supplies. Those supply cost obligations were reflected in tariff minimum bill provisions. For years, this pipeline/LDC arrangement was mutually beneficial and provided assured firm service. With the load diversity on large interstate pipeline systems and the make-up provisions under take-or-pay clauses, these gas purchase contracts provided supply reliability without negative economic consequence to the pipelines. Then, with the issuance of FERC Order Nos. 380, 436, and 500, LDCs' obligations to purchase gas from pipeline suppliers according to the terms of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those long term sales agreements were irrevocably altered. The impacts of those orders the elimination of minimum bills and the advent of open access transportation caused a serious erosion of the mutual obligations between pipelines and their LDC customers. The result has been a significant loss of pipeline sales markets as LDC customers have chosen alternative supplied, often at the urging of state public utility commissions (PUCs) to lower short-term costs

1990-10-01

90

The Canol pipeline: a cold region project with no future  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A historical account of the Canadian Oil (Canol) pipeline project in northern Canada was provided. The pipeline was designed to transport crude oil from Norman Wells on the Mackenzie River to Whitehorse in the Yukon, where it was refined and piped to points along the Alaska Highway. It was conceived in 1942, during World War II, when experience and understanding of northern design and construction conditions were in short supply. The project was a major event in Canadian cold region engineering history, costing an estimated 135 million in 1942/43 dollars. The hurried construction of the pipeline resulted in repeated breaks which occurred after start-up, and in the first nine months of operation some seven million litres of crude oil were spilled along the length of the pipeline. A 12.7 million litre storage tank on the banks of the Mackenzie River also burst, sending most of its contents into the water. No attempt was ever made to completely rehabilitate any of the disturbances created by the Canol project. All that remains of the project today are abandoned camps, pipeline sections and pump stations, which are a legacy of the 35 month period during which the project was conceived, constructed, operated and abandoned. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Johnson, K. [UMA Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

1995-12-31

91

Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline  

CERN Multimedia

Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

2007-01-01

92

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

2005-11-16

93

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

94

Robotic equipment for pipeline repair  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hyperbaric welding provides the most reliable method for connection or repair of subsea oil and gas pipelines. Research on hyperbaric arc welding processes indicates that it should be possible to achieve stable welding conditions with Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) to approximately 600m, and with Gas Metal Arc (GMA) and Plasma Arc to at least 1,000m. These depths are well beyond the limits of manned saturation diving. At the present time the limitation on the maximum depth to which these processes can be applied, in practice, is the requirement for completely diverless operation deeper than approximately 350m. Fully diverless hyperbaric welding is not presently available to the industry but several diverless pipeline repair systems which utilize mechanical connectors have been developed. This paper reviews the present status of mechanized hyperbaric welding systems currently being used in the North Sea and discusses some of the work being done to achieve fully diverless robotic pipeline repair with both welding and connectors.

Gibson, D.E.; Barratt, K.; Paterson, J. [National Hyperbaric Centre, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

95

Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

96

A comparative analysis of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims and Methods: A comparative study of abandoned street children and formerly abandoned street children was conducted in La Paz, Bolivia, representing the first such comparative assessment. Between August and December 1997, all abandoned street children in La Paz, Bolivia, who were willing to participate (n = 124) were interviewed repeatedly at night using standardised questionnaires to collect information on family history, demographics, socioeconomics, drug use, and physical/sexual abuse....

2004-01-01

97

Increase of ecological safety of the pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text : For increase of ecological safety of the pipeline, necessary decrease of damage (risk) rendered by the pipeline on surrounding natural environment which depends: on the frequency of damage of the pipeline; on the volume poured oil; on the factor of sensitivity of an environment where flood of oil was. Frequency of damage of the pipeline depends on physico-chemical properties of a material of the pipeline, from its technical characteristics (thickness of a wall, length of a pipe, working pressure), on the seismic area of the district where the pipeline passed and also on the way of lining of the pipeline (underground or overground). The volume poured oil depends on diameter of the received damage, from stability of the pipeline mechanical and other external actions, from an ambient temperature, from capacity of the pipeline, from distance between the latches established in the pipeline, and also from time, necessary for their full closing. The factor of sensitivity of environment depends on geological structure and landscapes of district (mountain, the river, settlements) where passed the pipeline. At designing the pipeline, in report is shown questions of increase of ecological safety of the pipeline are considered at his construction and exploitation. For improvement of ecological safety of the pipeline is necessary to hold the following actions: Ecological education of the public, living near along a line of the oil pipeline; carrying out ecological monitoring; working of the public plan of response to oil spills; For ecological education of the public is necessary: carrying out informing of the public for all (technical, ecological, social and economic and legal) questions connected to an oil pipeline, and also on methods of protection of the rights at participation in acceptance of ecological significant decisions; Creation of public groups for realization of activity on observance of the legislation and to prevention of risks; Exposure of hot points on a line on various types of risks (ecological, economic, social and cultural - architectural); The edition of methodical benefits for carrying out of seminars and distribution of the information through the electronic bulletin, thematic releases and magazines. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring, it is necessary to create public laboratories along a line of the pipeline which would allow leading the analysis of components of the surrounding natural environment. For the personnel of laboratory alongside with carrying out of trainings - seminars, instructions should be prepared, methodical materials, other help data and are created bank of the reference data. For carrying out of public ecological monitoring performed the following works: The organization of the laboratory analysis of the components of a reservoir, traversable pipeline; Revealing observance of zone security norm of the pipeline; The equipment most ecologically dangerous sites of the pipeline in capacities for gathering oil. The purpose of the public plan to reaction to floods of oil is development of instructions for liquidation of consequences of flood and carrying out of necessary actions for minimization of influences on an environment. The public plan of liquidation of consequences of flood should be determined: Coordinating public organization, its functions and duty; a policy of decision-making at liquidation of consequences of flood; Adjustments of communication between public organizations for reception and transfer of the information on failure; Areas of priority protection which should be immediately cleared of oil waste; Export and utilization of the oil waste products collected in area of flood of oil; the monitoring system and monitoring of an environment (air, water and ground) after liquidation of consequences of flood. In conformity of the public plan, carrying out of meetings with the public, for acquaintance and an explanation of the problems, put before the public is necessary also in case of liquidation of consequences of flood of oil in the pipeline

2005-11-01

98

Problems of NPP pipeline mounting improvement  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The problems of improving the quality of technical documents on NPP pipeline mounting are discussed. It is concluded that the time of a power unit coming into commission often depends on timely issue of working drawings

1980-01-01

99

The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

1988-12-01

100

In-line measurement of pipeline stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the need for measuring stress in operating transmission pipelines as related to pipeline integrity assurance. There are three important reasons to measure pipe-wall stress from within the pipeline: (1) Stress information makes it possible to better interpret results of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) metal-loss inspection. MFL signals are affected by pipe stress, and knowledge of the stress condition will allow corrections to be made to the signals. The paper describes completed and ongoing work in this area; (2) Stress data (particularly residual stress) can be an indicator of previous mechanical damage to the pipeline, and in the case of dents, re-rounded from internal pressure, it may be the only indicator of such damage; and (3) Elevated pipe-wall stress can be an indicator of impending failure of the line due to combined loading from internal pressure, thermal effects, and pipeline movement.

Crouch, A.E. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Nondestructive Evaluation Science and Technology Div.

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
101

Laying pipelines environmentally friendly; Pipelines umweltschonend verlegen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new, semi-open method of laying pipelines needs a significantly lower line width in comparision with the open design and requires no ground water drawdown. [German] Ein neues, halboffenes Verlegeverfahren von Pipelines benoetigt im Vergleich zur offenen Bauweise eine deutlich geringere Trassenbreite und bedarf keiner Grundwasserabsenkung.

Diedrich, Andreas [Herrenknecht AG, Schwanau (Germany)

2013-06-15

102

Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

Millán R.

2013-04-01

103

Guidelines for trenching design of submarine pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trenching of subsea pipelines is employed to improve on-bottom stability and to provide protection against trawling activities. In the water depths typical of the central and northern North Sea trenching is rarely required for stability reasons but, with there being extensive fishing activity, trenching is used to provide protection. The loads that can be applied by fishing gear on untrenched pipelines can be substantial. Traditionally all pipelines less than 16`` diameter have been trenched in the North Sea. This document presents new guidelines, developed by the Trenching Guidelines Joint Industry Project (JIP), to assist in evaluating the consequences of leaving pipelines exposed to trawl loads and to provide a rationale for leaving smaller lines untrenched if it is safe and cost effective to do so. The Trenching Guidelines JIP was set up and managed by Trevor Jee Associates with industry wide support from operators, design houses and the HSE. These guidelines provide methods, models and criteria by which subsea pipelines may be designed for interaction with trawl gear. These guidelines are applicable to: rigid steel subsea pipelines; unbonded flexible pipelines; and piggy-back pipelines. A full summary of the work done in the JIP and the development of the guidelines is included as Appendix G of this document. (author)

NONE

1999-10-01

104

Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

2009-01-01

105

Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

NONE

2009-07-15

106

Methane emissions from abandoned underground coal mines. Report for October 1992-September 1993  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper summarizes current research on abandoned underground coal mines. It forms an initial basis for developing an inventory of methane emissions from such mines. Early measurements have shown that some abandoned coal mines can liberate large volumes of high quality gas (up to 750,000 cu ft/day: 21,000 cu m/day). The research has focused on developing improved emission factors and relationships, and improving inventories for methane emissions from surface mining, coal handling, and abandoned underground mines. The work has initially focused on coal mining in the U.S., but will be extended to global coal production. Improved emissions inventories for coal mining operations will enhance the ability of researchers to assess the significance of coal mining in global scale processes. Determination of representative methane emissions relationships and mechanisms for coal mining (especialy abandoned mines) will also be useful to researchers and industrial groups exploring for potential sources of energy.

Ringler, E.; Piccot, S.; Kirchgessner, D.A.

1994-01-01

107

Phenomenon of pipeline walking in high temperature pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The thesis describes the phenomenon of pipeline walking by specifically focusing on a short and high temperature pipeline and identifies key parameters of it in terms of the pipeline design. Moreover, a literature study on contributory mechanisms to cause pipeline walking is emphasized in the thesis including general pipeline technology in terms of the pipeline expansion design. A numerical model of pipeline walking based on the thermal transient load is established by the finite element me...

Yoon, Se-hoon

2013-01-01

108

North America pipeline map  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map

2005-12-01

109

Subsea pipeline connection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus are provided for laying an offshore pipeline or flowline bundle to a deepwater subsea structure. The pipeline or flowline bundle is laid along a prescribed path, preferably U-shape, such that a pullhead at the terminus of the pipeline or flowline bundle falls just short of the subsea structure. A pull-in tool connected to the pipeline or flowline bundle by a short length of pull cable is then landed on and latched to the subsea structure, and the pipeline or flowline bundle is pulled up to the subsea structure by the pull-in tool and pull cable.

Langner, C. G.

1985-12-17

110

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

Agnew, Kieran [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

2013-07-01

111

Pipeline Decommissioning Trial AWE Berkshire UK - 13619  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Paper details the implementation of a 'Decommissioning Trial' to assess the feasibility of decommissioning the redundant pipeline operated by AWE located in Berkshire UK. The paper also presents the tool box of decommissioning techniques that were developed during the decommissioning trial. Constructed in the 1950's and operated until 2005, AWE used a pipeline for the authorised discharge of treated effluent. Now redundant, the pipeline is under a care and surveillance regime awaiting decommissioning. The pipeline is some 18.5 km in length and extends from AWE site to the River Thames. Along its route the pipeline passes along and under several major roads, railway lines and rivers as well as travelling through woodland, agricultural land and residential areas. Currently under care and surveillance AWE is considering a number of options for decommissioning the pipeline. One option is to remove the pipeline. In order to assist option evaluation and assess the feasibility of removing the pipeline a decommissioning trial was undertaken and sections of the pipeline were removed within the AWE site. The objectives of the decommissioning trial were to: - Demonstrate to stakeholders that the pipeline can be removed safely, securely and cleanly - Develop a 'tool box' of methods that could be deployed to remove the pipeline - Replicate the conditions and environments encountered along the route of the pipeline The onsite trial was also designed to replicate the physical prevailing conditions and constraints encountered along the remainder of its route i.e. working along a narrow corridor, working in close proximity to roads, working in proximity to above ground and underground services (e.g. Gas, Water, Electricity). By undertaking the decommissioning trial AWE have successfully demonstrated the pipeline can be decommissioned in a safe, secure and clean manor and have developed a tool box of decommissioning techniques. The tool box of includes; - Hot tapping - a method of breaching the pipe while maintaining containment to remove residual liquids, - Crimp and shear - remote crimping, cutting and handling of pipe using the excavator - Pipe jacking - a way of removing pipes avoiding excavations and causing minimal disturbance and disruption. The details of the decommissioning trial design, the techniques employed, their application and effectiveness are discussed and evaluated here in. (authors)

2013-02-24

112

Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV, published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

Klaus Maas

2007-06-01

113

Structural design of HPHT pipelines - new guideline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High pressure/High Temperature pipelines are characterised from structural point of view by high expansion forces. This may cause Global buckling (or Euler buckling). Design codes often have only functional requirements to global buckling but no calculation procedures or specific design criteria. The guideline on Structural design of HP/HT pipelines will be issued as a public DNV-RP-F110 later this year approaches the design challenges in a systematic manner for three scenarios: exposed pipeline on even seabed; exposed pipelines on un-even seabed; and Buried pipeline. Safety factors are determined based on the sensitivity in moment response from different input parameters. By use of the Recommended Practice, significant reduction in intervention work may be achieved, leaving pipelines exposed on the seabed with spot rock dumping only. This will be even more important for deeper water where intervention work is extremely costly combined with even higher temperatures and pressure. The Recommended Practice on structural design of HP/HT pipelines may even provide feasible and economic solutions to high pressure/high temperature and ultra deep water projects previously classified as non-feasible. The RP is the outcome of a Joint Industry Project called Hotpipe initiated by Statoil and later also sponsored by several oil companies. (author)

Collberg, Leif [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Levold, Erik [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

2005-07-01

114

Seismic response of buried pipelines: a state-of-the-art review  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A state-of-the-art review of the seismic response of buried pipelines is presented. The review includes modeling of soil-pipe system and seismic excitation, methods of response analysis of buried pipelines, seismic behavior of buried pipelines under different parametric variations, seismic stresses at the bends and intersections of network of pipelines. pipe damage in earthquakes and seismic risk analysis of buried pipelines. Based on the review, the future scope of work on the subject is outlined. (orig.)

1999-09-01

115

History of abandoned infants in Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

Maria Athanasopoulou

2010-01-01

116

Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

117

Pipeline enhances Norman Wells potential  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Approval of an oil pipeline from halfway down Canada's MacKenzie River Valley at Norman Wells to N. Alberta has raised the potential for development of large reserves along with controversy over native claims. The project involves 2 closely related proposals. One, by Esso Resources, the exploration and production unit of Imperial Oil, will increase oil production from the Norman Wells field from 3000 bpd currently to 25,000 bpd. The other proposal, by Interprovincial Pipeline (N.W) Ltd., calls for construction of an underground pipeline to transport the additional production from Norman Wells to Alberta. The 560-mile, 12-in. pipeline will extend from Norman Wells, which is 90 miles south of the Arctic Circle on the north shore of the Mackenzie River, south to the end of an existing line at Zama in N. Alberta. There will be 3 pumping stations en route. This work also discusses recovery, potential, drilling limitations, the processing plant, positive impact, and further development of the Norman Wells project.

1981-12-01

118

Apparatus and method for laying pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A reel and bending apparatus and method is described for laying pipelines from a floating vessel on the floor of a body of water in which the pipeline is capable of being unreeled from either the top or bottom of the reel and then translated through two pair of independently housed horizontally disposed rollers working in conjunction with the reel for straightening the pipe in the vertical plane.

Tisdale, B.C.; Nicholson, W.B.

1983-12-19

119

Experimental Study of Oil Pipeline Leak Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work provides a description of oil leak/spill processes from containment such as pipeline. Understanding of such processes is important in order to adequately estimate oil spills and to justify an appropriate emergency action for minimizing spills. Internal diameters of pipes used in the study are within 4 inches. Leaks are simulated from plastic pipeline oil containment fitted with valves. The leak response with time when upstream and downstream valves are operated is studied. Within th...

Agbakwuru Ahamefula Jasper; Gudmestad Tobias Ove; Bilstad Torleiv

2012-01-01

120

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13

 
 
 
 
121

Decontamination device for pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipelines to be decontaminated are parts of pipelines contaminated with radioactive materials, and they are connected to a fluid transfer means (for example, a bladeless pump) and a ball collector by way of a connector. The fluid of a mixture of chemical decontaminating liquid and spheres is sent into pipelines to be decontaminated. The spheres are, for example, heat resistant porous hard or soft rubber spheres. The fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated are circulated by way of bypassing means. The inner surface of the pipelines is decontaminated by the circulation of the fluid. When the bypass means is closed, the fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated is sent to the ball collector, and the spheres are captured by a hopper. Further, the liquid is sent to the filtrating means to filter the chemical contaminating liquid, and sludges contained in the liquid are captured. (I.N.)

1992-12-21

122

The research on magnetic exploring abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During Word war II, a lot of chemical weapons were left by Japanese on our land. It is very difficult to explore because its complicated states underground. There is no document about the details of this. Few of the research work have been done. In order to destroy completely abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese, the paper has given a serious study on the means to explore the chemical weapons for the purpose to protect our environment and benefit our people. After plenty of research and test, we get good results. (authors)

2007-09-01

123

Considerations in reeling bundled pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reel vessel configurations are reviewed, the requirements of reeling in general are summarized, and then the specific problems associated with simultaneous reeled installation of multiple pipelines are set out. Limitations in number and size of flowlines in a bundle are stated. There are two reel vessels and a number of portable reels available, with each of the three working somewhat differently. Their qualitative characteristics are summarized in this paper.

Nock, M.

1995-12-31

124

IDC Infrasound Pipeline development  

Science.gov (United States)

The first atmospheric event built only from infrasound arrivals was reported in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in 2003. In the last decade, 44 infrasound stations from the International Monitoring System (IMS) have been installed and are transmitting data to the IDC. The growing amount of infrasound data and detections produced by the automatic system challenged the station and network processing at the IDC, which require the Organization to improve the infrasound data processing. For nearly 2 years, the IDC resumed automatic processing of infrasound data reviewed by interactive analysis; the detected and located events are being systematically included in the Late Event Bulletin (LEB) and REB. Approximately 16% of SEL3 (Selected Event List 3, produced 6 hours after real-time) events with an infrasound component make it to the IDC bulletins and 41% of SEL3 events rejected after review are built including only 2 associated infrasound phases (and potentially seismic and hydroacoustic detections). Therefore, the process whereby infrasound and seismic detections are associated into an event needed to be investigated further. The IDC works on enhancing the automatic system for the identification of valid signals and the optimization of the network detection threshold. Thus the IDC investigates ways to refine the signal characterization methodology and the association criteria. The objective of this study is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the SEL3 pipeline when generating the LEB and REB bulletins. The study is performed in the virtual Data Exploitation Center (vDEC) from the CTBTO in order to separate the automatic processing into two streams: seismic and hydroacoustic (SH) pipeline on one side, and infrasound (I) pipeline on the other side. The "fusion" of the two parallel event-forming streams will have to be designed. The IDC executes its association algorithm called Global Association (GA) on infrasound data for selective periods of times, which follow the introduction of infrasound in the IDC automatic system. The IDC also anticipates that infrasound rules in GA would be tuned to pursue a lower ratio of false alarms and the IRED (IDC Infrasound Reference Event Database) will be used for testing and validation of potential modification in the infrasound processing software and algorithms.

Mialle, P.; Bittner, P.; Brown, D.; Given, J.

2012-04-01

125

Field abandonment costs vary widely worldwide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Options for abandoning offshore producing fields are broad and many variations exist in the world, each having advantages and disadvantages. Platform removal affects both governments and companies and thus, ultimately, affects the bottom line of a project. Typically, wells will be plugged and abandoned, topsides will either be taken to shore or recycled, and substructures can be totally or partially removed, or left in place. Abandoning offshore fields has four distinct stages: (1) develop, assess, and select options and create a detailed planning process that includes engineering and safety preparedness; (2) cease oil or gas production and safely plug and abandon wells; (3) removal all or part of the offshore structure (in most cases); and (4) dispose of or recycle removed equipment. Economic issues include costs, fiscal treatment, and relevant legislation. Operators have different options for offshore installation removal and disposal. The best option depends on several factors such as type of construction, size, distance from shore, weather conditions, and removal complexity. The paper discusses the decommissioning options, cost estimates, fiscal treatment, and regulatory framework

1997-03-17

126

IMPACT OF ABANDONED WELLS ON GROUND WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

The impact of unplugged wells on ground-water resources is discussed, including a review of case histories and a survey of state laws concerning well abandonment procedures. Model regulations are suggested to guide those states where existing regulations are ineffective or non-ex...

127

Nuisance and abandoned vehicles - ARCHIVE  

powers affected by the Clean Neighbourhoods and ... local environmental quality \\and anti-social behaviour. ... who are thereby deprived of using the ... such a \\capacity, and not for the purposes ... and mobile mechanics), provided the work \\.... (corporate bodies) and others who ... recommended that this is consulted.

128

37 CFR 2.68 - Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 false Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. 2.68 Section...CASES Examination of Application and Action by Applicants § 2.68 Express abandonment (withdrawal) of application. An...

2009-07-01

129

Citizenship program in near communities of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the construction of a pipeline, the IENE - Engineering Unit of PETROBRAS, responsible for the construction and erection of pipelines and related plants in northeastern Brazil, crossed more than 7 states and 250 counties, had implemented a social responsibility program, in special a citizenship program. This action was the result of community studies located near of the pipelines AID - Direct Influence Area (438 yards right and left of the pipeline) and through the evidence that those locations were poor and have no personal documents and citizen position in society. This paper intents to share the experience of IENE about its citizen program that worked in three big lines: community mobilization; citizenship qualification; and citizenship board. This last one, turns possible to people obtains theirs personal documents and exercise the plenitude of citizenship. (author)

Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Vilas Boas, Ianne P. [TELSAN Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bourscheid, Pitagoras [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-12-19

130

77 FR 17119 - Pipeline Safety: Cast Iron Pipe (Supplementary Advisory Bulletin)  

Science.gov (United States)

...the total mileage of cast iron gas pipelines in the United States; and (2...management and replacement of cast iron gas pipelines. PHMSA is committed to working with owners and operators of natural gas cast iron distribution...

2012-03-23

131

Using Self-Organizing Maps Approach to Pipeline Localization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to detect and follow the pipeline in sonar imagery. This work is performed in two steps. The first is to split an image (first experiment) or an transformed line image of pipeline image (second experiment) into regions of uniform texture using the Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix Method (GLCM). The second addresses the unsupervised learning method based on the Artificial Neural Networks (Self-Organizing Map or SOM) used for determining the comparative model of pipeline...

Puttipipatkajorn, Amornrit; Jouvencel, Bruno; Salgado-jimenez, Tomas

2003-01-01

132

Pipeline transport of biomass.  

Science.gov (United States)

The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry was determined. In a practical application of field delivery by truck of biomass to a pipeline inlet, the pipeline will only be economical at large capacity ( >0.5 million dry t/yr for a one-way pipeline, and >1.25 million dry t/yr for a two-way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances ( >75 km [one-way] and >470 km [two-way] at a capacity of 2 million dry t/yr). Mixed hardwood and softwood chips in western Canada rise in moisture level from about 50% to 67% when transported in water; the loss in lower heating value (LHV) would preclude the use of water slurry pipelines for direct combustion applications. The same chips, when transported in a heavy gas oil, take up as much as 50% oil by weight and result in a fuel that is >30% oil on mass basis and is about two-thirds oil on a thermal basis. Uptake of water by straw during slurry transport is so extreme that it has effectively no LHV. Pipeline-delivered biomass could be used in processes that do not produce contained water as a vapor, such as supercritical water gasification. PMID:15054194

Kumar, Amit; Cameron, Jay B; Flynn, Peter C

2004-01-01

133

Pipeline risk management manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic approach to petroleum pipeline risk management is proposed here. This book is organized to serve as a guide for the person or persons who are actually performing pipeline risk assessments. All of the risk evaluation items with their suggested scores are listed on p. xii in this Introduction. This list can be used as a checklist for the actual pipeline evaluations and for subsequent data retention or entry into a computer program. Chapter One explains the reasoning behind the type of risk assessment proposed here. Other forms of risk assessment are listed as well as some concepts of risk assessment in general. Concepts of quality and cost management, as they relate to risk management, are also discussed. Chapter Two provides the foundation for this risk assessment process. Basic assumptions of this model and the structure of the evaluation process are covered. Sectioning of the pipeline and classifying pipeline activities as attributed or preventions are addressed here. The pipeline activities and environmental characteristics that influence risk. Each chapter corresponds to an index which, in turn, corresponds to a historical cause of pipeline failures. These chapters show the suggested scoring for each item and the rational behind including the item in the risk assessment. Chapter Seven details the Leak Impact Factor which is the consequence part of the risk equation. Product handled, population density, and other factors are combined her to assess the potential consequence of a pipeline failure.

1991-01-01

134

Slurry pipeline hydrostatic testing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transportation of concentrates and tailings through long distance pipeline has been proven in recent years to be the most economic, environmentally friendly and secure means of transporting of mine products. This success has led to an increase in the demand for long distance pipeline throughout the mining industry. In year 2007 alone, a total of over 500 km of pipeline has been installed in South America alone and over 800 km are in the planning stages. As more pipelines are being installed, the need to ensure its operating integrity is ever increasing. Hydrostatic testing of long distance pipeline is one of the most economical and expeditious way to proving the operational integrity of the pipe. The intent of this paper is to show the sound reasoning behind construction hydro testing and the economic benefit it presents. It will show how hydro test pressures are determined based on ASME B31.11 criteria. (author)

Betinol, Roy G.; Navarro Rojas, Luis Alejandro [BRASS Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-07-01

135

Pipeline taxation and competitiveness  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted to determine the overall tax burden of the Canadian pipeline sector. Their tax burden was compared to the tax structures in other industries developed for the 1993 Transportation Association of Canada study. An assessment of the tax burden for the pipeline sector showed that it was relatively high compared to other modes of transportation, and was similar to that faced by the railroad industry. The level of property taxes, in particular, was high. The effects of pipeline taxation on competitiveness was discussed. Comparisons with taxation of US pipeline systems revealed that the tax burden borne by Canadian pipelines is about twice that of their US counterparts. 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

NONE

1994-12-01

136

Pipeline AC mitigation misconceptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discussed methods of mitigating the impact of AC voltages on nearby pipelines. Various standards have been established to protect personnel from the electrical hazards of pipelines exposed to AC voltages. Pipelines are susceptible to corrosion when soil resistivity is less than 15,000 Ohm cm. AC corrosion is a function of AC current density and the coating holiday geometry, and an AC current density threshold must be established as part of an effective mitigation system. Most calculation methods for AC mitigation do not distinguish between pipe voltages. Distributed grounding and gradient control mats can be used at pipeline appurtenances when induced voltages exceed 15 V. Fault shields can also be used to reduce coating stress on pipelines near faulted towers. The study concluded by stating that adherence to voltage stress limits for fault conditions can result in the over-design of AC mitigation systems. 9 refs., 8 figs.

Gummow, R.A.; Segall, S.M.; Fieltsch, W. [Correng Consulting Service Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

2010-07-01

137

Subsea pipeline connection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method and apparatus are provided for connecting an offshore pipeline or flowline bundle to a deepwater subsea structure and then laying away from said structure. The pipeline or flowline bundle is deployed vertically from a pipelay vessel to make a hinged connection with the subsea structure. The connection operation is facilitated by a flowline connection tool attached to the pipeline or flowline bundle and designed to be inserted into a funnel located either centrally or to one side of the subsea structure. The connection procedure consists of landing and securing the flowline connection tool onto the subsea structure, then hinging over and connecting the pipeline or flowline bundle to the subsea structure as the pipeline or flowline bundle is laid on the seafloor beginning at the subsea structure.

Langner, C. G.

1985-09-17

138

Recycling abandoned lead battery sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

1993-11-01

139

Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

Miloševi? Marko V.

2011-01-01

140

Seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This work deals with the analysis of the interaction of earthquakes with pipelines transporting and distributing natural gas for industrial and civil use. To this aim, a new large data-set of seismic information classified on the basis of selected seismological, geotechnical and structural parameters is presented and analyzed. Particular attention is devoted to continuous pipelines under strong ground shaking, which is the geotechnical effect due to passage of waves in soil. Results are provided in terms of the likelihood of the loss of containment with respect to Peak Ground Velocity (PGV), a seismic intensity parameter which may be easily retrieved either from local authorities and public databases or from site dependent hazard analysis. Fragility functions and seismic intensity threshold values for the failure and for the loss of containment of gas from pipeline systems are also given. The obtained functions can be easily implemented in existing codes and guidelines for industrial risk assessment, land-use planning, and for the design of public distribution network, with specific reference to Natural—Technological interaction (Na-Tech). -- Highlights: • The seismic vulnerability of natural gas pipelines is analyzed. • A collection of data for pipelines damaged by earthquake is given. • Damage states and risk states for pipelines are defined. • Consequence-based fragility formulations for the loss of containment are given • Seismic threshold values for public authority, risk assessment and gas distribution are shown

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Lateral buckling and axial walking of surface laid subsea pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subsea pipelines are increasingly being required to operate at high temperature and pressure HT/HP. The pipeline installed on the seabed and left exposed have a potential to buckle, walk and change configuration under high temperature and pressure (HT/HP). This could lead to failure of the Pipeline if buckling and walking is not properly controlled or mitigated. The objective of the thesis work is to study and understand the influence of pipeline-soil interaction on the design of surface laid...

Obele, Ifenna

2013-01-01

142

Installation of underwater pipeline using an ice bedding  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A newly developed method for laying underwater pipelines in ice-covered waters uses an artificially formed ice bedding frozen to the bottom of the pipeline. The method involves mounting the pipeline on the surface of the ice over the site of the underwater route, conducting all the required work on the pipeline (welding, insulating, ballasting), attaching the ice bedding to the bottom of the pipeline by successively freezing the water locally, and laying the pipeline underwater by cutting or breaking the ice on both sides of the line. The ice-cutting machines used for this purpose can move at rates of 3-5 ft/min. The advantages claimed for the method include a faster pipelaying operation and, due to the floating action of the ice, a reduction in the bending stresses on the pipe as it sinks.

Kamyshev, M.A.; Kapustin, K.Y.; Pugachenko, V.N.

1980-07-01

143

Severe service ball valves for high pressure slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Severe Service Ball Valves are a critical component in the design of high pressure slurry pipelines. Compared to conventional oil and gas pipelines, the transportation of mineral slurries at high pressure is a modern technology. This advanced technology would not be possible if valve manufacturers were not able to design and provide equipment that can function with high pressure abrasive fluids. The design of slurry pipelines has become more complicated due to the use of sophisticated controls, varying types of minerals, increased sizes and higher pressures. All of these complexities have challenged valve and actuator manufacturers who need to work closely with the pipeline design companies to find cost-effective and viable solutions. Using examples from existing slurry pipeline operations; this paper examines how high pressure slurry ball valves have become an important component in the successful design, construction and operations of slurry pipelines throughout the world. (author)

Harrison, Malcolm J. [Valvtechnologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

144

Retort abandonment: issues and research needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper has identified key issues in retort abandonment and has addressed research needs. Retort abandonment for vertical modified in-situ (VMIS) shale oil recovery is an environmentally sensitive research area that has received recognition only within the past five years. Thus, experimental data and information are, in general, limited. In addition, there is presently a wide spectrum of unresolved issues that range from basic problem definition to technical details of potential control technologies. This situation is compounded by the scale of the problem and the absence of a commercial industry. The problems involve large numbers and will require engineering on a gigantic scale. Abandoned retorts are large - up to 700 feet deep and several hundred feet in cross section. They will exist in huge blocks, several square miles in area, which are inaccessible at several thousand feet below the surface. The processes that will ultimately be used to extract the oil are undefined. The technology is in transition, and representative samples of materials have not been available for research. Research efforts in this area have concentrated on basic studies on the nature and magnitude of environmental problems resulting from VMIS oil extraction. These investigations have used laboratory reactors to generate spent shales and modeling studies to predict water quality and hydrologic impacts. The technology for retort abandonment is just now being developed, using engineering analyses to identify promising environmental control options and laboratory and modeling studies to determine feasibility. We expect that, as the environmental problems are better defined and understood, conventional control technologies will prove to be adaptable to a majority of the problems associated with this new process and that laboratory and modeling research on the problem definition will be refocused on technology development and field experiments.

Fox, J.P.; Persoff, P.; Wagner, P.; Peterson, E.J.

1980-08-01

145

Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative) and morphologic (qualitative). Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki) is defined, which i...

Miloševi? Marko V.; Milivojevi? Milovan; ?ali? Jelena

2011-01-01

146

Assessment of mercury in sediments and in the benthic invertebrate Micronecta scholtzi downstream an abandoned pyrite mine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

y: \tThe drainage of abandoned mines leads to several ecological problems, particularly the acidification of surface freshwater systems and heavy metal contamination. Mercury (Hg) is of particular interest because of its high toxicity and its ability for bioaccumulation. This work evaluates the magnitude and pattern of Hg dissipation from an abandoned pyrite mines to the local water ecosystem by testing of the stream bottom sediments and water invertebrate Micronecta scholtzi along the py...

Agra, Ana Raquel; Abreu, Sizenando N.; Barata Marti?, Carlos; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.

2010-01-01

147

Effects of laminations in pipes to resistance and working life of pipelines; Auswirkung von Doppelungen in Rohren auf die Festigkeit und die Lebensdauer von Mineraloelfernleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of load cycles on pipes with laminations was examined to obtain information about the effects on resistance and working life. Material tests carried out in connection with threshold load tests showed that laminations or also segregations in pipes welded with longitudinal seams always run parallel to the surface and that even with the slight enlargement that sometimes occurs under threshold loading, resistance and working life are not reduced. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Auswirkung von dynamischen Belastungen auf dopplungsbehaftete Rohre wurde untersucht, um Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich der Beeinflussung auf die Festigkeit der Lebensdauer zu gewinnen. Durchgefuehrte Werkstoffuntersuchungen im Zusammenhang mit Schwelllastversuchen zeigten, dass Doppelungen oder auch Seigerungen in laengsnahtgeschweissten Rohren immer oberflaechenparallel verlaufen und dass selbst bei der unter Schwellastbeanspruchung teilweise eingetretenen geringfuegigen Vergroesserung die Festigkeit und die Lebensdauer nicht eingeschraenkt wird. (orig.)

Camp, H.J. de la; Feser, G.; Schmidt, H. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern Hessen Sachsen e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

1998-03-01

148

Pollution from pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During the 1980s, over 3,900 spills from land-based pipelines released nearly 20 million gallons of oil into U.S. waters-almost twice as much as was released by the March 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. Although the Department of Transportation is responsible for preventing water pollution from petroleum pipelines, GAO found that it has not established a program to prevent such pollution. DOT has instead delegated this responsibility to the Coast Guard, which has a program to stop water pollution from ships, but not from pipelines. This paper reports that, in the absence of any federal program to prevent water pollution from pipelines, both the Coast Guard and the Environmental Protection Agency have taken steps to plan for and respond to oil spills, including those from pipelines, as required by the Clean Water Act. The Coast Guard cannot, however, adequately plan for or ensure a timely response to pipeline spills because it generally is unaware of specific locations and operators of pipelines

1991-01-01

149

Hydraulics of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This text/reference addresses all hydraulic aspects of pipeline design. Incorporates many real-life examples from the author's experience in the design and operation of pipelines. Topics covered include basic equations necessary to pipeline design, how to conduct a feasibility study and perform economic analysis, design considerations for pumps and valves, how to suppress cavitation, hydraulic transients, trapped air, and methods of numerical solution of governing equations (including applications to complex piping systems). Includes twenty-five tables for each reference. Extensively illustrated.

Tullis, J.P.

1989-01-01

150

Trouble in the pipeline?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author provides a commentary on the political, economic, environmental and social problems facing the proposed 3 billion US dollars Baku-Ceyhan-Tbilisi export pipeline. The 1760 km long pipeline has been designed to carry 1 million b/d of crude oil from the Caspian Sea to Turkey's Mediterranean coast. The pipeline is being constructed by a BP-led consortium made up of Socar, Statoil, Unocal, TPAO, Eni, Itochu, Amerada Hess, TotalFinaElf and BP. (UK)

Snieckus, Darius

2002-10-01

151

Pipeline transportation trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Trends in heavy oil production, with particular reference to transportation, were reviewed. With increases in production year after year, condensate for blending purposes was forecast to become short in supply. Alternatives to condensate requirements were considered, including alternatives involving the pipeline companies. The forecast was for increased heavy crude production and for some market growth in the USA. The increase in supply and demand put heavy pressure on the pipeline transportation system. Significant new capacity expansion projects have been noted. Changes in the regulatory environment, and changing approaches by pipeline companies towards their customers, involving negotiated settlements, incentive agreements and joint tolls were also reviewed.

Schrage, W. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada)

1996-12-31

152

Innovative approaches to evaluate geochemical risk related to sulphide-bearing Abandoned Mine Lands  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) are often perceived to have significant environmental impacts, particularly on superficial and ground waters, from water contaminated with acid and elevated metals flowing from eroding waste dumps and from underground workings. These conditions would require risk assessment and remediation in case of necessity.

2009-01-01

153

Pipelines fuel marketing effort  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some pipeline companies have launched their own programs to help retain and increase gas' share of the energy market. This article describes pipeline company emphasis on marketing through two programs, one developed by Northern Natural Gas Co. and the other by Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co. Both companies offer flexible pricing programs to encourage largevolume customers to use natural gas. The purpose of Northern's program is to allow the pipeline, in conjunction with the customer utilities, to compete effectively with alternative fuels in the industrial market. Northern's program has proven to be highly successful in retaining industrial loads and in discouraging imports of residual fuel oil into its market territory. Tennessee's program aims to help distributors develop a detailed understanding of the industrial market among other things which are detailed in the article.

1985-02-01

154

Building a major pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

TransCanada Pipelines and Westcoast Energy are two major Canadian natural gas suppliers which support the Northern Pipeline Development project. Indeed, the two industry giants have been leaders of every major Canadian gas pipeline project in the past 15 years and jointly have access to all of North America's five natural gas mega-markets (US Midwest, US Northeast, California, Eastern Canada, Alberta). The paper makes a case for collaboration of producers, communities, pipeline owners, governments and non-governmental organizations to make the Alaska Natural Gas Transportation System a reality; describes the current state of the project; describes the steps the joint partners must take next to advance the projects; and discusses some of the critical questions and issues that must be addressed and which will determine future progress. These are: producers' timetables and development objectives; environmental impacts; the expectations of Northern communities; market demand for natural gas; and the price of natural gas over the long-term

2000-10-16

155

Pipeline Accidental Load Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ship interaction in terms of anchor hooking on a subsea pipeline has been investigated in this thesis. An attempt has been made to predict the most probable anchor interaction loads on the Kvitebjørn gas pipeline in the North Sea if anchor hooking were to occur, and evaluate the structural consequences of an anchor hooking incident. By utilization of AIS ship data provided by the Norwegian Coastal Administration it has been found that 7160 cargo, tanker and tug ships passed the Kvitebjørn g...

Vervik, Stian

2011-01-01

156

Colombian export oil pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

Duncan, K. (Bechtel News, Houston, TX (US)); Enright, B. (Bechtel Inc., Pipeline and Pulp and Paper Operations Group, Bechtel, Houston, TX (US))

1989-06-01

157

The SINFONI pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The SINFONI data reduction pipeline, as part of the ESO-VLT Data Flow System, provides recipes for Paranal Science Operations, and for Data Flow Operations at Garching headquarters. At Paranal, it is used for the quick-look data evaluation. For Data Flow Operations, it fulfills several functions: creating master calibrations; monitoring instrument health and data quality; and reducing science data for delivery to service mode users. The pipeline is available to the science c...

Modigliani, Andrea; Hummel, Wolfgang; Abuter, Roberto; Amico, Paola; Ballester, Pascal; Davies, Richard; Dumas, Christophe; Horrobin, Mattew; Neeser, Mark; Kissler-patig, Markus; Peron, Michele; Rehunanen, Juha; Schreiber, Juergen; Szeifert, Thomas

2007-01-01

158

Transmediterranean gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Signed in October 1977, a contract between Snam S.p.A. and SONATRACH involves (1) supplying Italy with 447 billion CF/yr of gas from Algeria for 25 years beginning in 1981 and (2) constructing a 1550-mile transcontinental pipeline through the Mediterranean Sea to Italy. Snam describes the elaborate contract negotiations, the planning of the pipeline, and the technical difficulties encountered during the pipelaying operation, especially in crossing the Sicily Channel and the Strait of Messina.

Bonfiglioli, G.

1981-05-01

159

Pipeline coating comparison methods for northern pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two high-quality pipe coatings designed for northern environments were compared for their relative costs and suitability for the conditions that will be encountered in the field. Coating selection should consider local conditions to achieve the optimum life-cycle costs for the system. Some of the key factors affecting the integrity of the protective coating on a pipe include the effects of cold temperature and soil types. In this study, both Fusion Bonded Epoxy (FBE) and High Performance Composite Coatings (HPCC) were evaluated for an entire pipeline installation in a northern environment, from the coating plant to the pipe trench. The evaluation focused on the advantages of better abrasion resistance of the HPCC coating. This was compared against the incremental cost of HPCC coating over FBE on large diameter NPS 30 to NPS 48 pipelines. The following parameters influenced the choice of coating: storage, transportation and handling; bending ability under cold weather conditions; pipe installation and backfilling; weld joint coatings; coating repair and cathodic protection and pipeline integrity. Some of the construction costs that are indirectly affected by the choice of pipe coating include right-of-way preparation and restoration; trenching; supervision, service and downtime and specialist crossings. It was concluded that HPCC has better resistance to abrasion than FBE and is more flexible in extremely cold temperatures. Standard FBE is about 10 per cent less expensive than HPCC. In general HPCC will require less coating protection than FBE, depending on site conditions. 3 refs., 18 tabs., 8 figs.

Singh, P. [Shaw Pipe Protection, Calgary, AB (Canada); Purves, G.A. [Cimarron Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

160

Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are common on native landscapes of these areas.

Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
161

77 FR 70543 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and the Liquid Pipeline Advisory...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee and...announces a public meeting of the Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (GPAC...assessments, and safety policies for natural gas pipelines and for hazardous liquid...

2012-11-26

162

Abandon-in-place design experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reducing the snubber population in nuclear power plants is done by replacing then with rigid struts or eliminating them from piping. This is possible due to criteria changes or a more rigorous analysis of the piping. The snubbers are physically removed from the system and plant. Actual removal of the snubbers from some piping systems in often difficult and expensive due to physical access and radiation exposure of workers. This challenge goes beyond the typical snubber reduction task. This challenge is to demonstrate that leaving snubbers in place on the pipe is acceptable without performing testing--abandon-in-place.

Hoffert, A.R.; Barth, M.A.

1996-12-01

163

What will abandonment of nuclear energy cost?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Federal Republic of Germany holds position five on the list of the world's biggest energy consumers. This alone is a fact that puts special emphasis on the public discussion about the peaceful use of nuclear energy, in addition to the current events such as incidents and accidents in nuclear installations. A sober review of the pros and cons of nuclear energy for power generation has to take into account the economic effects and the costs to be borne by the national economy as a result of immediate abandonment of nuclear energy. The article in hand discusses chances, problems, and alternatives to nuclear energy (solar energy and wind power). (orig.)

1988-01-01

164

Water pollution from abandoned coal mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper was written at the time of the Coal Industry Bill, providing for the privatisation of British Coal, was at committee stage. Although the Bill does not specifically address the issue of mine pumping, the cessation of pumping at disused pits may cause serious groundwater and surface water pollution. The paper quotes examples of pollution from abandoned mines (metal, coal, mineral) in the United Kingdom. The case of acidic water seeping from the closed Wheal Jane tin mine, the current problem of pumping the Durham coalfield, and the pollution of the Rhymney River with iron from the old coal mines, Pengam and Britannia are discussed. 47 refs.

Hughes, P. [House of Commons, London (United Kingdom). Science and Environment Section, Department of the Library

1994-03-11

165

Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

1996-08-29

166

Saint John lateral pipeline project: comprehensive study report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A descripion is given of the results of an environmental impact assessment of the construction of a natural gas pipeline that will bring gas from Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Management Ltd.'s (M and NP) main transmission pipeline to clients in Lake Utopia and Saint John, NB. It will be 110 km long, and the Saint John lateral will join the mainline approximately 2 km south of Big Kedron Lake, NB. Various institutional, industrial, commercial and residential clients will be able to access the pipeline in the future, and it is intended to be capable of future expansion for markets along its route and for markets that become economically feasible in the future. A matrix was developed that relates environmental resources to Environmental Components of Concern (ECCs), and to the rationale for exclusion/inclusion of the ECC as a Valued Environmental Component (VECs). The positive benefits of the pipeline to clients in the Saint John area include: reduced dependence on foreign oil, fuel switching and price competition, lower air emission pollution, increased energy efficiency, and a source of energy that is secure and reliable. VECs were selected based on: concerns of various stakeholders including the public, community groups, scientific parties, Aboriginal groups, government officials and agencies, relevant regulations; relevant literature; and past evaluation experiences, including future developments of the proposed study area. Further selection of the VECs required an examination of the issues picked out via scoping to determine the ways in which the overall project could affect the ECCs, and included construction, operation, decommissioning/abandonment, malfunctions and accidents of the pipeline. The phases of the project as they impacted residually and cumulatively on the VECs were evaluated, and impacts on Valued Socio-Economic Components (VSCs) were assessed also. The mitigation efforts taken will minimize the potential effects of the project on VECs and VSCs. For all of the project phases it is expected that residual effects will be without significance as will be the overall environmental impact. 29 refs

1999-01-01

167

The inspection of buried pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of inspecting the cover of a buried pipeline comprising the operations of irradiating the inner wall of the pipeline with neutrons from a radioactive source carried by a vehicle traversing the pipeline, measuring the intensity of ionising radiation within the pipeline arising from nuclear interactions occurring within the cover of the pipeline and its surroundings due to the neutrons emitted by the source, and record the measured intensity of the said ionising radiation together with data representative of the position of the vehicle along the pipeline. Apparatus for carrying out the method also is described. This may comprise a generally cylindrical vehicle or an inflated rubber sphere. (author)

1983-11-30

168

Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

1994-04-24

169

The LOFAR Known Pulsar Data Pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group (PWG) has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipelines to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipelines are being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computational capabilities (50Tflops) to process data streams of up to 23TB/...

Alexov, A.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; Leeuwen, J.

2010-01-01

170

Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local ve...

2007-01-01

171

Multiple pipelines drilled under flooded Mississippi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The installation of a multiple pipeline crossing of the Mississippi River near Geismer, La. was part of the construction of a products pipeline. Crews worked around-the-clock on pipe pull through a bore under the Mississippi River during major flood conditions to complete the multiple line crossing. Explains that as the water level rose, efforts to raise the access road proved successful, and drilling mud and fuel began arriving and were unloaded on a continuous basis during the pull. Points out that crossing the river with directional drillers was a major achievement and a first for multiple lines in a single hole for such a distance.

O' Donnell, H.W.

1983-05-01

172

76 FR 53086 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipeline safety regulations do not now address process management issues such as QMS. Section 192.328 requires a quality assurance plan for construction of pipelines intended to operate at alternative MAOP, but there is no similar requirement...

2011-08-25

173

Comparative study on the transportation charge of crude oil between pipeline and railway in China  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the oil industry, crude and product oil is mainly transported through land pipelines since this is lest costly than rail transportation. However, pipeline systems are sometimes working far from their design capacity, which increases the transportation cost per ton. This paper presents a comparative study of the transportation cost of crude oil between pipeline and railway in China. Research was carried out to determine both pipeline and railway transportation cost, the pipeline charge was established using the minimum attractive rate of return. Results showed that pipeline transport cost decreases with diameter size and increases with distance while railway transportation cost decreases with distance and is not affected by the volume of crude oil. This study showed that pipeline transportation is more advantageous on shorter distances and with thicker pipelines.

Xing, Xiaokai; Wu; Changchun [Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China Univ. of Petroleum-Beijing, Beijing (China); Liu, Bing [Petrochina Oil and Gas Pipeline Control Center, Beijing (China)

2010-07-01

174

Pipesworld : applying planning systems to pipeline transportation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explored issues facing the complex task of managing pipelines that transport large volumes of petroleum products over long distances. Since oil pipelines are generally a few inches wide and several miles long, reasonable amounts of distinct products can be transported with very small loss due to the mixing at liquid boundaries. Optimizing the transportation through oil pipelines in terms of maintenance and environmental safety is a high priority for pipeline operators. This paper presented the Pipesworld model which takes into account features such as product interface constraints, limited product storage capacities and due dates for product delivery. It has been benchmarked as a start-of-art general purpose artificial planning system. This paper also reported the results derived by general purpose artificial intelligence planning systems when applied to the Pipesworld model. It demonstrated how various modelling techniques can be used to enhance the planners performance. Current work in developing Plumber was also presented. This dedicated solver that addresses operational situations uses both general purpose planning techniques as well as domain specific knowledge. When Plumber was incorporated into Pipesworld, its outperformed Fast-Forward, one of the best available general purpose planning systems, suggesting that improved versions of Plumber have the potential to deal with various problem scenarios in pipeline operations. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

Milidiu, R.L.; Santos Liporace, F. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica

2004-07-01

175

Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

1997-01-28

176

Water level detection pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the present invention, water levels of a feedwater heater and a drain tank in a nuclear power plant are detected at high accuracy. Detection pipeline headers connected to the upper and lower portions of a feedwater heater or a drain tank are connected with each other. The connection line is branched at appropriate two positions and an upper detection pipeline and a lower detection pipeline are connected thereto, and a gauge entrance valve is disposed to each of the detection pipelines. A diaphragm of a pressure difference generator is connected to a flange formed to the end portion. When detecting the change of water level in the feedwater heater or the drain tank as a change of pressure difference, gauge entrance valves on the exit side of the upper and lower detection pipelines are connected by a connection pipe. The gauge entrance valve is closed, a tube is connected to the lower detection pipe to inject water to the diaphragm of the pressure difference generator passing through the connection pipe thereby enabling to calibrate the pressure difference generator. The accuracy of the calibration of instruments is improved and workability thereof upon flange maintenance is also improved. (I.S.)

1997-01-14

177

Towards the determination of surface collapse type over abandoned mines in the Lorraine iron basin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Surface collapse is a major problem that follows many active or abandoned underground workings. Collapses result from roof deformation of underground workings, and/or controlled or uncontrolled rock caving. The uncontrolled rock caving could result in surface instability problem and loss of materials and/or human life. Over the past 90 years, ans as a result of underground-uncontrolled rock caving, 16 major accidents "surface collapse" has been reported in the French Lorraine iron basin.

El-shayeb, Yasser; Kouniali, Samy; Josien, Jean-pierre; Gueniffey, Yves

2001-01-01

178

Risk from transport of gas by pipeline ''kokui-perm''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: the length of gas pipelines in Russia is 142 thousands km, 62 % are pipelines of the large diameters. Annually on gas pipelines in Russia there are more than 70 large accidents, more than 50 % from them is accompanied by ignition of gas. The average ecological looses from accident is: destruction arable lands - 78 hectares; removing from consumption agricultural soils - 6,2 hectares; destruction forests - 47,5 hectares. In work the reasons of accidents on gas pipelines of different diameters are analyzed. So, for pipelines a diameter of 1220 mm by the reasons of accidents are: marriage of civil and erection works - 39, 1 %; outside corrosion - 35,9 %; mechanical damages - 9,4 %; defects of pipes - 6,2 %; defects of the factory equipment - 1,6 %; nature disasters and other reasons - 7,8 %. In work the results of risk analysis on a gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' are analysed. The gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' passes near 22 towns and countries, crosses 15 highways, 2 rail ways, 15 rivers. In work the concrete recommendations for management of risk and safety of the population are given. (author)

1998-01-01

179

Liquefaction Hazards and Their Effects on Buried Pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research described involves the evaluation of liquefaction-induced ground movements and their effects on buried pipelines. The work is divided into three components: review of liquefaction phenomena and associated ground displacements; characterizatio...

T. D. O'Rourke P. A. Lane

1989-01-01

180

Ekofisk pipelines undergo requalification  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Requalification of 19 pipelines and 29 risers in the Ekofisk field required new approaches for loads, capacities, and deterioration evaluations and predictions. Requalification is a re-assessment of an installation`s design with changed design parameters so that the facility can continue to operate. In some cases, original design requirements may have been unrealistically conservative. The Ekofisk field experienced seabed subsidence as a result of compaction of the producing formation. A total of 25 pipeline systems with diameters of 6--36 inches now run within the subsidence bowl. The existing pipelines and the risers had to be requalified because of new design conditions. The paper describes Ekofisk subsidence, reasons and regulations for requalification, structural design, materials and corrosion, deterioration mechanisms, subsidence effects, calculation of forces, capacities, accumulated strain, local buckling, and mine lessons learned from the requalification projects.

Tangeland, T.G. [Phillips Petroleum Co. Norway, Stavanger (Norway); Collberg, L. [Det Norske Veritas AS, Oslo (Norway)

1996-09-23

 
 
 
 
181

Pipeline rehabilitation planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

182

Internal pipeline cleaning device  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A device is adapted to move through a pipeline for cleaning the inner periphery of it and consists of a rotatable central hub member constructed of an abrasive resistant material. The device has a chamber for receiving a supply of abrasive material and a number of radial passageways extending outward from the chamber at an angle deviating from the perpendicular of the longitudinal axis of the hub. The radial passageways are in communication with the chamber for receiving the abrasive material therefrom whereby upon rotation of the device the abrasive material will be impinged against the inner periphery of the pipeline at an angle with respect to the perpendicular of the longitudinal axis of the pipeline. 6 claims.

Stolz, W.W.

1980-01-01

183

CPL: Common Pipeline Library  

Science.gov (United States)

The Common Pipeline Library (CPL) is a set of ISO-C libraries that provide a comprehensive, efficient and robust software toolkit to create automated astronomical data reduction pipelines. Though initially developed as a standardized way to build VLT instrument pipelines, the CPL may be more generally applied to any similar application. The code also provides a variety of general purpose image- and signal-processing functions, making it an excellent framework for the creation of more generic data handling packages. The CPL handles low-level data types (images, tables, matrices, strings, property lists, etc.) and medium-level data access methods (a simple data abstraction layer for FITS files). It also provides table organization and manipulation, keyword/value handling and management, and support for dynamic loading of recipe modules (using programs such as EsoRex).

ESO CPL Development Team

2014-02-01

184

The ALMA Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) is a radio interferometer that is being built on the Chajnantor plateau at 5000 m altitude in the Atacama desert in Chile. It will consist of 66 telescopes organized in three arrays providing baselines up to 16 km with a zoom configuration including zero spacings. ALMA will provide unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity in the mm/submm wavelength range to study star and galaxy formation. The ALMA project intends to reach a broad astronomical community. An automatic reduction pipeline is required to deliver science quality data products also for non-experts. The ALMA Pipeline is being developed as a set of additional tasks based on the CASA (Common Astronomy Software Applications) data reduction package. End-to-end processing for interferometry and single dish data has been implemented. The pipeline features are being commissioned incrementally using ALMA Cycle 0 and Cycle 1 data.

Muders, D.; Wyrowski, F.; Lightfoot, J.; Williams, S.; Nakazato, T.; Kosugi, G.; Davis, L.; Kern, J.

2014-05-01

185

Geovisualization of Sub-surface Pipelines: A 3D Approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This century has continued to witness an ever increasing reliance on Geographical Information Systems (GIS technology for the management of utilities’ pipelines world over. Underground cables and pipelines are required to transport essential utilities such as oil, gas, water and electricity from one part of the city to another. Unlike on-surface pipelines, the fact that subsurface pipelines are hidden from the naked eyes makes them susceptible to neglect and damages without being easily noticed. Such damages and consequent pipe failures often have disastrous consequences on the environment and its inhabitants. A common source of subsurface pipeline damage is the accidental cutting of pipelines by excavation workers, oblivious of the precise underground location of such pipelines. This is largely due to the fact that pertinent decisions are usually taken using two dimensional (2D maps as reference; however, information contained in 2D maps are often misinterpreted by both field workers and professionals alike.Three dimensional (3D maps are increasingly becoming popular due to their ability to overcome the limitations inherent in (2D maps. They also aid the proper conceptualization of subsurface pipelines thereby making it easier to work around these pipelines without endangering them. One major drawback though is the exorbitant cost of most of the GIS packages that support the 3D modelling and visualization of subsurface pipelines. Furthermore, the advanced languages used in building many of these packages make it difficult for non-GIS experts and professionals to relate with them. Since people from diverse disciplines (without strong GIS background need to visualize and analyze these subsurface pipelines on a regular basis, it is pertinent to develop a system capable of performing basic 3D visualization functions, in addition to being user-friendly and highly affordable. This paper discusses such a technique, utilizing open-source software.

Abdul-Lateef Balogun

2011-08-01

186

Northern pipelines : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs

2002-01-01

187

Reclamation of abandoned coal mines in the Uinta Basin. [USA - Uinta Basin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Title IV of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA), Public Law 95-87, addresses reclamation of abandoned coal mine lands. The state of Utah has primacy to conduct reclamation activities through the Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas and Mining (DOGM). The Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program (AMRP) within DOGM has completed a total of 36 reclamation projects from 1983 to 1991. One large reclamation project was completed in the Vernal Coal Field and one in the Tabby Mountain Coal Field involving State owned surface and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) coal. The primary goal of the AMRP is to restore landscapes that were disturbed prior to 1977 where there is no continuing reclamation responsibility by a mining company or individual. The Vernal Project was completed in 1985 and 1986 at a cost of 318,000 US dollars. The Red Creek Project was completed in 1988 and 1989 for 81,000 US dollars. A total of 26 abandoned mine sites were reclaimed under the Vernal Project, representing operations from 1891 - 1950. Work involved closure of 60 entries and retoration of 37 acres of disturbed land to wildlife and grazing use. Two abandoned mine sites were reclaimed under the Red Creek Project representing the protection of the coal resource and restoration of four acres of disturbed land to wildlife and grazing use. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Amodt, L.A.

1992-01-01

188

43 CFR 3162.3-4 - Well abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Interior 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Well abandonment. 3162.3-4 Section 3162.3-4 Public...Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.3-4 Well abandonment. (a) The operator shall promptly plug...

2010-10-01

189

The legal framework for wellsite abandonment and reclamation in Alberta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The legislative framework for wellsite reclamation in Alberta was discussed. The legal requirements that impact on wellsite abandonment and reclamation, with emphasis on the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) were described. In 1994, the Orphan Well fund was established to ensure that wells are properly abandoned in those cases where participants are insolvent. The fund is financed by the petroleum industry. The regulatory requirements for wellsite abandonment are found in the OGCA and the Well Abandonment Guide 20 which provides explicit procedures for both open-hole and cased-hole abandonment. Liability for contaminated sites exists under the contaminated sites provision of the EPEA. Amendments to the OGCA provide for more supervision over licence transfers and the granting of licences to first-time licensees

1997-04-01

190

Meanings of Consumption and Abandonment: Understanding Smoking Cessation Symbolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology to collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

Maribel Carvalho Suarez

2014-04-01

191

Meanings of consumption and abandonment: understanding smoking cessation symbolism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In consumption studies, very little attention has been focused on investigating abandonment and, more specifically, its symbolic dimension. The present study aims to investigate how meanings are created and negotiated through the abandonment of cigarettes. This study used a qualitative methodology t [...] o collect and analyze the data generated by one-on-one semi-structured in-depth interviews with 15 Brazilian ex-smokers. Results suggest that abandonment of cigarettes can be offered as a connection, gift, or sacrifice that makes relations special and even magical. As regards abandonment, the present study evidences the interactions and movements of positive and negative meanings related to the consumption and non-consumption of a category. The study proposes a framework that highlights the cooling, decontamination, reinforcement and defensive symbolical movements, thus constructing a tool for analyzing abandonment, offering possible paths of intervention for organizations that are interested in this issue.

Maribel Carvalho, Suarez.

192

77 FR 38132 - Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the Technical...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2009-0203] Pipeline Safety: Meeting of the Technical Pipeline Safety Standards Committee and the...

2012-06-26

193

76 FR 44985 - Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2011-0177] Pipeline Safety: Potential for Damage to Pipeline Facilities Caused by Flooding AGENCY:...

2011-07-27

194

77 FR 36606 - Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2012-0146] Pipeline Safety: Government/Industry Pipeline Research and Development Forum, Public...

2012-06-19

195

The inspection of a radiologically contaminated pipeline using a teleoperated pipe crawler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1950s, the Savannah River Site built an open, unlined retention basin to temporarily store potentially radionuclide contaminated cooling water from a chemical separations process and storm water drainage from a nearby waste management facility that stored large quantities of nuclear fission byproducts in carbon steel tanks. The retention basin was retired from service in 1972 when a new, lined basin was completed. In 1978, the old retention basin was excavated, backfilled with uncontaminated dirt, and covered with grass. At the same time, much of the underground process pipeline leading to the basin was abandoned. Since the closure of the retention basin, new environmental regulations require that the basin undergo further assessment to determine whether additional remediation is required. A visual and radiological inspection of the pipeline was necessary to aid in the remediation decision making process for the retention basin system. A teleoperated pipe crawler inspection system was developed to survey the abandoned sections of underground pipelines leading to the retired retention basin. This paper will describe the background to this project, the scope of the investigation, the equipment requirements, and the results of the pipeline inspection

1995-01-01

196

The visual and radiological inspection of a pipeline using a teleoperated pipe crawler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the 1950s, the Savannah River Site built an open, unlined retention basin to temporarily store potentially radionuclide contaminated cooling water from a chemical separations process and storm water drainage from a nearby waste management facility that stored large quantities of nuclear fission byproducts in carbon steel tanks. The retention basin was retired from service in 1972 when a new, lined basin was completed. In 1978, the old retention basin was excavated, backfilled with uncontaminated dirt, and covered with grass. At the same time, much of the underground process pipeline leading to the basin was abandoned. Since the closure of the retention basin, new environmental regulations require that the basin undergo further assessment to determine whether additional remediation is required. A visual and radiological inspection of the pipeline was necessary to aid in the remediation decision making process for the retention basin system. A teleoperated pipe crawler inspection system was developed to survey the abandoned sections of underground pipelines leading to the retired retention basin. This paper will describe the background to this project, the scope of the investigation, the equipment requirements, and the results of the pipeline inspection.

Fogle, R.F.; Kuelske, K.; Kellner, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site

1995-01-01

197

Electrical fingerprint of pipeline defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pipeline defects are dislocations that connect the source region of the transistor with the drain region. They were widely reported to occur in CMOS, BiCMOS devices and recently in SOI technologies. They can reduce device yield either by affecting the devices functionality or by increasing the current consumption under stand-by conditions. In this work the electrical fingerprint of these dislocations is studied, its purpose is to enable us to identify these defects as the ones responsible for device failure. It is shown that the pipeline defects are responsible for a leakage current from source to drain in the transistors. This leakage has a resistive characteristic and it is lightly modulated by the body bias. It is not sensitive to temperature; vice versa the off-current of a good transistor exhibits the well-known exponential dependence on 1/T. The emission spectrum of these defects was studied and compared with the spectrum of a good transistor. The paper aims to show that the spectrum of a defective transistor is quite peculiar; it shows well defined peaks, whereas the spectrum of a good transistor under saturation conditions is characterized by a broad spectral light emission distribution. Finally the deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) is tried on defective diodes

2004-12-15

198

43 CFR 3263.15 - May I abandon a producible well?  

Science.gov (United States)

...BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.15 May I abandon a producible well? (a) You may abandon a producible well only after you...

2010-10-01

199

30 CFR 756.18 - Required amendments to the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.18 Section... INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.18 Required...Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Pursuant to...

2009-07-01

200

30 CFR 756.16 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.16 Section... INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.16 Approval...Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Hopi...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

30 CFR 925.20 - Approval of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 925.20 Section...of the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Secretary approved the Missouri abandoned mine land reclamation plan, as submitted on...

2009-07-01

202

76 FR 12852 - Louisiana Regulatory Program/Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Program/Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface...regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan under the Surface Mining...regulations, and its abandoned mine land reclamation plan to be consistent with...

2011-03-09

203

30 CFR 756.17 - Approval of the Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 756.17... INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.17 Approval...Hopi Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

2009-07-01

204

77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface...the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan (Arkansas plan) under...regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan, make grammatical...

2012-09-10

205

76 FR 76104 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan AGENCY: Office of Surface...the Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan (Arkansas plan) under...Subchapter R--Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation. This document provides...

2011-12-06

206

30 CFR 756.21 - Required amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.21 Section... INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.21 Required...Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Pursuant to...

2010-07-01

207

30 CFR 756.19 - Approval of the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.19 Section... INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.19 Approval...Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Crow...

2010-07-01

208

Suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of upstream oil and gas facilities : informational letter IL 98-2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This release of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is intended to clarify the jurisdictional roles of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) and the EUB with regard to their respective responsibilities for the regulation of the suspension, abandonment, decontamination and surface land reclamation of active and inactive upstream oil and gas facilities. The EUB, AEP and industrial operators all have separate roles and responsibilities when active and inactive upstream facilities are suspended or reclaimed. In the future, industry operators will have more interaction with the AEP during the decontamination of a site, while the EUB will concentrate on pollution prevention and abandonment of non-economic facilities. All oilfield waste generated from suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of an active or inactive upstream oil and gas facility will fall under the jurisdiction of the EUB. Contaminated soils, sludges, and waters that are physically removed as a result of decontamination activities are considered to be oilfield wastes. The regulatory responsibility between the AEP and the EUB remains unchanged for the reclamation process of on-lease and off-lease spills, releases or pipeline breaks. Industry operators are no longer allowed to discharge any produced liquid to earthen pits or ponds and are encouraged to reclaim existing ones. 3 figs

1998-01-01

209

Applications and limitations of geophysical surveys in locating underground storage tanks and pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Military bases throughout the US utilized underground fuel storage tanks (USTs) and fuel pipelines that became obsolete as base missions changed over time. Many of these USTs and pipelines are currently being investigated as part of base environmental restoration programs. Geophysical survey methods are noninvasive techniques that are used to confirm the existence of or explore for USTs and pipelines. Screening to determine appropriate geophysical techniques and proof-of-principle testing are critical to designing surveys. Two example case histories at military bases are presented. The magnetometer method used in case study 1 employed proof-of-principle testing to validate the method. Case study 2 successfully used the electromagnetic method to locate abandoned fuel distribution lines

1992-04-15

210

Northern pipelines : overview of technical issues surrounding northern pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PFL Consultant Inc. was hired by the Pipeline Unit of the Yukon Government's Economic Development Department to develop a synopsis of technical and engineering issues regarding northern onshore and offshore pipelines. This report identifies and summarizes several key issues that will arise during northern pipeline design, construction and operation. Existing northern pipeline uncertainties were also addressed for construction cost estimates for the following two pipeline options: (1) a pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Fairbanks and along the Alaska Highway called the Alaska Highway Pipeline, and (2) an offshore pipeline to Mackenzie Delta and south along the Mackenzie River called the Over the Top route. This report is intended as an informational tool for both government and non-government organizations to prepare regulations, as well as for northern gas producers and pipeline companies. It does not deal with known conventional onshore and offshore pipeline issues, independent of the impact of northern conditions. The report emphasized that there are no unsolved issues to be addressed for onshore northern pipelines since issues such as frost heave and thaw settlement have been studied. However, there are many unresolved, technical issues regarding offshore northern pipelines in terms of design, construction and operation, such as: (1) ice scour and trenching equipment capability, (2) open water season and ice-strengthened equipment, (3) compression station siting, and (4) accessibility. It was noted that these problems can translate into long construction delays, major cost overruns, and risks regarding reliability and the environment. It was, therefore, concluded that it would be economically unacceptable for large-diameter, long-distance pipeline. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Fernandez, M.L. [PFL Inc. Consultants, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dempster, D.A. [Wolf Island Engineering (Canada)

2001-11-01

211

PLUGGING AND UNPLUGGING OF WASTE TRANSFER PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This project, which began in FY97, involves both the flow loop research on plugging and unplugging of waste transfer pipelines, and the large-scale industrial equipment test of plugging locating and unplugging technologies. In FY98, the related work was performed under the project name ''Mixing, Settling, and Pipe Unplugging of Waste Transfer Lines.'' The mixing, settling, and pipeline plugging and unplugging are critical to the design and maintenance of a waste transfer pipeline system, especially for the High-Level Waste (HLW) pipeline transfer. The major objective of this work is to recreate pipeline plugging conditions for equipment testing of plug locating and removal and to provide systematic operating data for modification of equipment design and enhancement of performance of waste transfer lines used at DOE sites. As the waste tank clean-out and decommissioning program becomes active at the DOE sites, there is an increasing potential that the waste slurry transfer lines will become plugged and unable to transport waste slurry from one tank to another or from the mixing tank to processing facilities. Transfer systems may potentially become plugged if the solids concentration of the material being transferred increases beyond the capability of the prime mover or if upstream mixing is inadequately performed. Plugging can occur due to the solids' settling in either the mixing tank, the pumping system, or the transfer lines. In order to enhance and optimize the slurry's removal and transfer, refined and reliable data on the mixing, sampling, and pipe unplugging systems must be obtained based on both laboratory-scale and simulated in-situ operating conditions.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

212

76 FR 28326 - Pipeline Safety: National Pipeline Mapping System Data Submissions and Submission Dates for Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Pipeline Safety: Updates to Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Reporting Requirements'' (One Rule). This rulemaking...and utility of data collections from operators of natural gas pipelines, hazardous liquid pipelines, and LNG...

2011-05-17

213

Pipelines : moving biomass and energy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Moving biomass and energy through pipelines was presented. Field sourced biomass utilization for fuel was discussed in terms of competing cost factors; economies of scale; and differing fuel plant sizes. The cost versus scale in a bioenergy facility was illustrated in chart format. The transportation cost of biomass was presented as it is a major component of total biomass processing cost and is in the typical range of 25-45 per cent of total processing costs for truck transport of biomass. Issues in large scale biomass utilization, scale effects in transportation, and components of transport cost were identified. Other topics related to transportation issues included approaches to pipeline transport; cost of wood chips in pipeline transport; and distance variable cost of transporting wood chips by pipeline. Practical applications were also offered. In addition, the presentation provided and illustrated a model for an ethanol plant supplied by truck transport as well as a sample configuration for 19 truck based ethanol plants versus one large facility supplied by truck plus 18 pipelines. Last, pipeline transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of syngas was discussed. It was concluded that pipeline transport can help in reducing congestion issues in large scale biomass utilization and that it can offer a means to achieve large plant size. Some current research at the University of Alberta on pipeline transport of raw biomass, bio-oil and hydrogen production from biomass for oil sands and pipeline transport was also presented. tabs., figs.

Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

2006-07-01

214

Norman wells pipeline system 75% complete  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Construction of the field pipeline systems at Esso Resources Canada's Norman Well expansion project progressed at a rapid pace during summer 1983 and 75% of the work has been completed. The project is designed to recover oil from a large part of the field underlying the Mackenzie River, boosting production to 4,000 cu m/day (25,000 bpd) from 475 cu m/day (3,000 bpd). Six artificial islands will be constructed as drilling pads in the north channel of the river and wells will be drilled on 3 natural islands, Goose, Bear, and Frenchy's. The pipeline and electric systems will connect the production systems from all the islands to the central production plant. The field pipeline systems consist of 4 separate systems: a multiphase crude gathering system, a gas and a water injection system, and pipe conduit for electric distribution. A total of 130 km (81 miles) of flow and trunk pipelines will be installed to connect the existing and 150 new development wells.

1983-11-07

215

Pipeline integrity : establishing data management value  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Most pipeline operators must adopt measures beyond the traditional information technology approach of return on investment (ROI) to establish a business case for data management, records management or geographic information systems. This paper addressed issues regarding 4 processes that are critical to a pipelines lifecycle. These include route selection, construction, integrity management and risk assessment. It also investigated the process needed to reveal the value of data management to support pipeline integrity. Several examples and case studies were presented to illustrate establishing value of data management for pipeline integrity. It was noted that both cost saving and cost avoidance must be addressed along with intangible benefits in order to narrow the data management justification margin. It was suggested that this can be achieved by quantifying the benefits of business process improvement, capability creation and risk management. This broad categorization was used to substantiate cost reduction in route selection, construction and operations, as well as cost avoidance through improved risk management. Business process improvements refer to changes in workflow that result in savings through reduction of resources in the form of time, staff or operating expenses. Capability creation refers to the development of new skills within the work force that result in time or operating expense savings. Risk management refers to the reduction in probability of occurrence or consequences. 5 refs., 1 tab.

Dupuis, B. [Baseline Technologies Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Humber, J. [Integrated Informatics Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

216

Historical abandonment of children in the Azores, Portugal.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Data from the period 1779-1828 were extracted from the books recording the entry and subsequent fate of babies abandoned in the Roda in the town of Horta on the island of Faial, Azores. The numbers of babies abandoned increased throughout the period, and their survival rate fluctuated markedly, with a low of under 10% in 1809 to a high of almost 50% in 1813. Overall, just over half the babies abandoned had died within the first year, and over 60% had died within two years. There is no diff...

Smith, Malcolm; Lima, Manuela

1993-01-01

217

Economic and fiscal aspects of oil and gas field abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The abandonment of fields in the North Sea raises a number of physical, environmental, and economic issues. Key economic aspects are (a) the costs incurred in the abandonment operations: (b), the criteria to be employed in determining the optimal timing of field abandonment; (c), the fiscal reliefs available for the expenditures incurred; and, (d) the (financial) security aspects relating to the activity. These topics are discussed in this paper with particular reference to the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS). Comparisons with Norway and the Netherlands are made on the fiscal aspects. (Author)

1992-01-01

218

Global offshore pipeline markets  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this article, two experts forecast a recovery in the offshore pipeline market followed by accelerating growth. A number of clearly definable macro trends are affecting the world offshore oil and gas industry and will be of considerable significance to the offshore pipelines industry. The authors' view is of markets that show every chance of enjoying long-term growth prospects driven by the fundamentals of a continuing increase in demand for offshore oil and gas. The offshore industry however has a highly cyclical nature, due to the impact of variations in oil and gas prices and the differing state of maturity of individual regions. Therefore those companies that are able to offer the widest range of pipe types and diameters and methods of installation across the greatest range of geographic markets are likely to prosper most. Thus, this continues to be a market best suited to those able to operate on a global scale and make a corporate commitment measured in decades

2001-01-01

219

Installation of steel pipelines and flexible pipelines in sideway current  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This master thesis is describing the theoretical & analytical principles of pipeline installation. In the literature survey stage we elaborate on basic information about different types of offshore pipelines. Installation also plays an important and vital role. Therefore in the next step we introduce various installation methods for offshore pipelines and what may govern the choice of an installation method / scenario. Then guidelines and constrains for establishing the different installa...

Karimi, Mina

2012-01-01

220

Strain based design considerations for spiral welded pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pipelines are constructed in hostile environments where the occurrence of imposed plastic deformations can necessitate a strain based design approach. Under such conditions not only the strength and toughness properties have to be considered; also the strain capacity of pipe and weld metal become crucial. Considering the use of spirally welded linepipe sections, the helical seam weld and anisotropic material properties pose real challenges to pipeline designers. In our work, the tensile strai...

Minnebruggen, Koen; Waele, Wim; Denys, Rudi; Thibaux, Philippe

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Investigation on the effects of entrained air in pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of this work is the development of a computational program for the quantitative assessment of the effects of entrained air in pipeline systems with respect to their operational safety. Likewise, two specific problems are investigated. (1) The effect of entrained air in form of pockets on hydraulic transients, during pump shutdown. It can be considered the most dangerous maneuver within a pumping pipeline. The computations corresponding to this study were evaluated by using the m...

Pozos Estrada, Oscar

2007-01-01

222

Pipeline detection device  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A detection device main body is disposed at the outer circumference of a pipeline. A position of a detector incorporated in a detection head disposed slidably to a sliding mechanism is aligned with a position to be detected at the outer circumference of the pipeline. An annular guiding belt is attached to the outer circumference of the pipeline so as to be in parallel with the position to be detected and oppose to a distance sensor mounted on the main body of the detection device. An original point marker is attached to the guiding belt. The distance between the detection device main body and the guiding belt is detected at the original point by the distance sensor to provide it as a standard gap datum. The distance between the detection device main body under movement and the guiding belt is detected by the distance sensor. A correction value is determined by the displacement in axial direction of the pipe based on the detected distance and the standard gap data. Then, a correction control signal is outputted to a sliding motor to correct displacement in the axial direction of the pipe by the detector under movement in the circumferential direction of the pipe. (I.N.)

1992-02-20

223

Pipeline welding goes mechanized  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spread four has bugs in the cornfield--but not to worry. The bug referred to here is a mechanized welding bug, specifically a single welding head, computer-aided gas metal arc (GMAW) system from CRC-Evans Automatic Welding powered by a Miller Electric XMT{reg{underscore}sign} 304 inverter-based welding machine. The bug operator and owner of 32 inverters is Welded Construction, L.P., of Perrysburgh, Ohio. Spread four is a 147-mile stretch of the Alliance Pipeline system (Alliance) cutting through the cornfields of northeast Iowa. While used successfully in Canada and Europe for onshore and offshore pipeline construction for 30 years, this is the first large-scale use of mechanized welding in the US on a cross-country pipeline. On longer, larger-diameter and thicker-wall pipe projects--the Alliance mainline has 1,844 miles of pipe, most of it 36-in. diameter with a 0.622-in. wall thickness--mechanized GMAW offers better productivity than manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). In addition, high-strength steels, such as the API 5L Grade X70 pipe used on the Alliance, benefit from the low-hydrogen content of certain solid and tubular wire electrodes.

Beeson, R.

1999-11-01

224

Planned and proposed pipeline regulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future.

De Leon, C. (U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Washington, DC (US))

1992-04-01

225

Oil pipeline ratemaking changes urged  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the US Department of Justice and US Economic Regulatory Administration, in testimony at US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hearings, FERC should base the permitted rates of return for oil pipelines on pipeline original costs, less depreciation. FERC has used this approach in setting rates for natural gas pipelines and wholesale electric companies, and advocated this approach in an initial decision in Phase I of the trans-Alaska pipeline system ratemaking case. According to the Williams Pipeline Co., FERC should use a fair-value method, which emphasizes system replacement costs at current prices, to establish oil pipeline rates. During periods of inflation, the fair-value method produces a higher rate base than a determination based on the original cost. Arguments for and against the two ratesetting methods, and on the probable effects of their adoption on pipebuilding and competition, are discussed.

1980-07-14

226

Planned and proposed pipeline regulations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future

1992-01-01

227

Role of hydrotransportation pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although oil sands deposits are found in over 70 countries, 75 per cent of the global reserves are in western Canada and Venezuela. In 2005, oil sands production was estimated to be 50 per cent of Canada's total crude oil output and 10 per cent of North American production and supply. With the success of the oil sands, Canada is expected to rank fifth in production of oil worldwide by 2015. As such, all forms of oil sands research is taking place in Canadian universities, government laboratories and private research and development laboratories. Most of the oil sands in Canada are located the Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River deposits in northern Alberta. With the development of new techniques and the increasing price of oil, companies are planning a total of nearly 100 oil sands production facilities, with nearly $100 billion in capital investment, creating tens of thousands of new jobs across Canada by 2012. In oil sands mining and upgrading, materials are used at pressures up to 100 atmospheres, at high and turbulent velocities, and at temperatures ranging from 50 to 500 degrees C. During these processes, materials are exposed to various degradation conditions, including abrasion, erosion, corrosion, fatigue, fracture, creep, and hydrogen embitterment. This paper described the 4 categories of materials issues for the oil sands industry, namely mining and in-situ production; upgrading; transportation; and, refining. In oil sands mining, the oil sands and water are combined to make a slurry that is transported via pipeline to a bitumen-extraction facility. The major challenges of hydrotransport are the effects of fine solids, temperature, bitumen content, and sand grain size on pipeline degradation. The by-products of the oil-sands extraction process include fine tailings which expose the pipelines to high abrasion, wear, and erosion. It was concluded that pipelines can continue to be used reliably and safely for transportation of oil sands between mining and upgrading locations by accurately predicting the causes that lead to degradation of materials used in hydrotransportation pipelines and other process equipment, and by developing methodologies to control the degradation. 13 refs., 1 tab.

Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

2007-01-15

228

Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This manuscript presents a novel, tightly integrated pipeline for estimating a connectome, which is a comprehensive description of the neural circuits in the brain. The pipeline utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to produce a high-level estimate of the structural connectivity in the human brain. The Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline (MRCAP) is efficient and its modular construction allows researchers to modify algorithms to meet their specific requ...

Gray, William R.; Bogovic, John A.; Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Landman, Bennett A.; Prince, Jerry L.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob

2011-01-01

229

Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author)

1980-01-01

230

Trenching the future. [Underwater pipeline construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large diameter pipelines in deep water are often left untrenched in the North Sea. There are, however, many cases where trenching is required. Trenching may be performed either before or after the pipe is layed. The major thrust of current development work is in post-trenching techniques. Three basic categories of trenching methods are described: the jet sled, the plough, and the mechanical trenches.

Pallot, J.

1984-09-01

231

Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

Rafael Rodríguez Díez

2014-07-01

232

Technology of manufacturing and mounting of pipes of marine objects saturated by pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The detailed technological work of the problem of manufacturing and mounting of marine pipelines without measuring sizes at place is presented. Introduction of technology contributes to reduction of cycles of building and decrease in labour-intensiveness of pipeline works when carry-ing out marine orders.

Sakhno Konstantin Nickolaevich

2013-10-01

233

Effects of Land Abandonment In Nutrient Exportation. Some Catchments In Mediterranean Ranges.  

Science.gov (United States)

The research project "Management and analysis of land uses, landscape and sustain- able development in natural protected areas" studies the evolution of landscapes after farm abandonment. One way to understand this evolution is studying the information that we can obtained from the water cycle. The first hypotesis of this work is that the vegetable cover of catchments has a decisive role in the hydrological behaviour. This behaviour can be evaluated through the study of hydrographs or through water analy- sis. We have worked in seven catchments with different land uses: Bare rock, Natural forest, Transition forest, Scrubland, Abandoned agricultural fields and Active agricul- tural fields. These catchments are located in the National Park of Sant Llorenç in the Catalan Prelitoral Range (41z40'N, 2zW), with a Mediterranean climate modified by altitude (from 300m to 1100m). Methodology used has been the description of study areas, the calculation of land uses and water analysis of 10 diferent parameters after rain episodes. From the results obtained it is possible to deduce the followings: 1) Behaviour of catchments follows two different paths: natural covers and humanized covers. 2) Scrubland offers a soil protection similar to that of forest. and abandoned lands have a similar behaviour than as active lands; and this for a long period of time (more than fifty years).

Nadal, J.; Soriano, J. M.; Molina, D.; Pelachs, A.; Matamala, N.

234

Another pipeline disaster: Molasses kills  

...Another pipeline disaster: Molasses kills Climate & Capitalism An ecosocialist journal Home About Ecosocialist Notebook Book Reviews Archives Articles By Subject Articles by ...Press MRzine Economist’s Travelogue You are here: Home / 2013 / September / 16 / Another pipeline disaster: Molasses kills Posted on September 16, 2013 Another pipeline disaster: ... Molasses kills Think about this the next time someone tells you pipelines are safe … Experts say this is the worst maritime environmental disaster ... leaked in Honolulu, spilling 233,000 gallons of molasses into the bay. That’s right, molasses. Sounds like a joke, doesn’t it?...

235

Integrated testing of duplex pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A design is described and results of testing a model of VGR-50 reactor duplex pipeline, used for transportation of hot helium (800 deg C) from reactor to the steam generator and of cold helium (287 deg C) from the steam generator, are presented. The estimation based on measurements showed that leaks through seals are less than 0.2%. The lowest temperature of the metal of the inner pipeline surface didn't exceed 300 deg C in sections with reliable heat insulation. The pipeline aerodynamic resistance was 60x10-5 MPa. The data on measurements of thermomechanical stresses in the pipeline units are presented

1987-01-01

236

Advances in riser and pipeline technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction and mitigation measure considerations, strain based design for deep water and arctic considerations, and fatigue qualification for aggressive fluid conditions. (author)

Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

237

Modelling of liquefaction, scour and natural backfilling processes in relation to marine pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents some rational pipeline design methods related to interaction between pipe and surrounding soil. It describes methods to quantify risk of liquefaction for soft clay and silty sand conditions, the mechanism of underscouring pipelines, the rate in which this underscouring may create critical span lengths, methods to quantify the rate of natural backfill for trenched pipelines, and finally methods for analysis of scour protection by artificial backfill. The work describes some examples of how rational design methods may be found if knowledge from related fields are transferred and utilized for the pipelines. 43 references.

Gravesen, H.; Fredsoe, J.

1983-01-01

238

Working group 10 : internal corrosion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This tenth working group of the Banff 2011conference discussed the internal corrosion of transmission pipe systems. An overview of internal corrosion issues was presented with respect to the corrosivity of heavy oil pipelines and dil-bit pipelines. This presentation gave an insight into new techniques for pipeline sludge corrosivity analysis, the properties of heavy oil and dil-bit pipelines that make sediments present in these lines corrosive, and provided a starting point for discussions. Also the results of a survey aimed at capturing pipeline operating parameters and internal corrosion experience were discussed. Best practices and areas of improvement around internal corrosion management of midstream and transmission gas and liquid pipelines have been identified. Several technology exchange groups were created to discuss and develop new technologies for topics such as cleaning, sludge corrosivity, inhibition and industry survey in order to develop guidelines for consideration as standard practices.

Melvin, Budd; Place, Trevor

2011-07-01

239

Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

2010-01-01

240

Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

2010-12-15

 
 
 
 
241

Experience of the construction of the main circulating circuit pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction technology of the WWER-1000(e) reactor main circulating circuit (MCC), pipelines is described. The MCC pipelines link the main components of the NPP primary coolant circuit: the reactor, steam generators and main circulating pumps. Basic technical parameters of the pipelines for NPP with the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors are presented. The works on the assemblying, erection and welding of the pipelines were carried out during a year, and their labour costs are evaluated as 17600 man- days. The validity of basic technological solutions has been proved. Elongation of the reactor nozzles, simplification of the thermal treatment technology and welding automation are pointed out as practical possible means to lower the labour costs of the construction

1980-01-01

242

A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound. The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

Alexander A. Bolonkin

2009-01-01

243

The integrity of offshore pipeline girth welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes a programme of research into the integrity of offshore pipeline girth welds, and the results obtained. The work has concentrated on two major areas, namely fracture toughness and non-destructive testing. The girth welding processes considered were: Manual vertical down welding with cellulosic coated electrodes (Stovepipe welding). Mechanised metal inert gas (MIG) welding. Manual vertical-up welding with low hydrogen (basic coated) electrodes. Manual vertical down welding with low hydrogen electrodes. Existing procedural and toughness data were collected from offshore pipeline operators and other sources. The above processes were then studied in more detail in order to identify and quantify factors which influenced the toughness of girth welds made with each process/consumable type. Because of its direct importance in assuring girth weld integrity, non-destructive testing (NDT) was examined in detail. The NDT processes considered were: Panoramic X-radiography. Real time filmless radiography. Manual ultrasonic testing (UT). Automated UT (two proprietory systems). Experimental work was carried out for all these processes, with the main objective of defining their current practicalities and capabilities when operating under laybarge conditions. The findings of the studies described above have shown that all the welding processes under consideration are capable of producing girth welds of adequate fracture toughness to meet the requirements of BS 4515:1984, ``Process of welding of steel pipelines on land and offshore``, provided suitable combinations of procedure and consumable are chosen. (author)

Slater, G.; Davey, T.G. [eds.

1986-12-31

244

Monitoring of natural gas pipeline leaks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Leak monitoring on natural gas pipelines is very important in guaranteeing operational safety. Many methods are currently used for pipeline leakage monitoring world-wide: the wave method is one of these. This paper investigated the principle of pressure wave technique combined with a denoising method and a working recognition technique. A leak can be detected by the measurement of static pressure and dynamic pressure. Both signals needed to be interpreted, a wavelet packet decomposition technique was used to reduce noise and analyze the signals. The BP neural network was used to identify signal fluctuations. An integrated system based on LabVIEW was developed to monitor operating conditions and locate leaks more accurately . This system was applied in field. The field tests showed that the method developed is accurate and reliable and demonstrated its high practical value.

Tan, Dongjie; Xu, Bin; Xiong, Min; Yu, Dongliang; Wang, Likun; Wang, Hongchao [RnD center of PetroChina Pipeline Company, Langfang, (China)

2010-07-01

245

Wave Pipelining Using Self Reset Logic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study presents a novel design approach combining wave pipelining and self reset logic, which provides an elegant solution at high-speed data throughput with significant savings in power and area as compared with other dynamic CMOS logic implementations. To overcome some limitations in SRL art, we employ a new SRL family, namely, dual-rail self reset logic with input disable (DRSRL-ID. These gates depict fairly constant timing parameters, specially the width of the output pulse, for varying fan-out and logic depth, helping accommodate process, supply voltage, and temperature variations (PVT. These properties simplify the implementation of wave pipelined circuits. General timing analysis is provided and compared with previous implementations. Results of circuit implementation are presented together with conclusions and future work.

Samiha Mourad

2008-04-01

246

Modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

The laminar flow of a weakly compressible Newtonian fluid in a pipeline is treated by modal methods, aiming at a theoretical basis for the experimental modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines. For two points located at arbitrary positions along a pipeline, the frequency response function between flow rate excitation and pressure response is calculated in closed form, expanded into a modal series including transcendental modal transfer functions, and approximated by finite sums of rational fraction expressions. The preferred modal approximation is recognized as mobility function of a structurally damped mechanical multi-degrees-of-freedom system. Experimental modal analysis procedures for structurally and viscously damped mechanical systems are adapted for hydraulic pipelines and pipeline systems.

Mikota, Gudrun

2013-08-01

247

Heavy oil transportation by pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide there are a number of pipelines used to transport heavy crude oils. The operations are facilitated in a variety of ways. For example, the Alyeska pipeline is an insulated pipeline transporting warm oil over 800 miles. This 48-inch line experiences limited heat loss due to the insulation, volume of oil contained, and heat gain due to friction and pumping. Some European trunk lines periodically handle heavy and waxy crudes. This is achieved by proper sizing of batches, following waxy crudes with non-waxy crudes, and increased use of scrapers. In a former Soviet republic, the transportation of heavy crude oil by pipeline has been facilitated by blending with a lighter Siberian crude. The paper describes the pipeline transport of heavy crudes by Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. The paper describes enhancing heavy oil transportation by emulsion formation, droplet suspension, dilution, drag reducing agents, and heating.

Gerez, J.M.; Pick, A.R. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

248

Electrometrical Methods Application for Detection of Heating System Pipeline Corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

Coated steel underground pipelines are widely used for the petroleum and gaze transportation, for the water and heat supply. The soils, where the pipelines are placed, are usually highly corrosive for pipe's metal. In the places of crippling of external coating the corrosion processes begin, and this can provoke a pipe breakage. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the control of pipeline conditions. The geophysical methods are used to provide such diagnostic. Authors have studied the corrosion processes of the municipal heating system pipelines in Saint-Petersburg (Russia) using the air thermal imaging method, the investigation of electromagnetic fields and spontaneous polarization, measurements of electrode potentials of metal tubes. The pipeline reparation works, which have been provided this year, allowed us to make the visual observation of pipes. The investigation object comprises a pipeline composed of two parallel tubes, which are placed 1-2 meters deep. The fact that the Russian Federation and CIS countries still use the direct heat supply system makes impossible any addition of anticorrosion components to circulating water. Pipelines operate under high pressure (up to 5 atm) and high temperature (designed temperature is 150°C). Tube's isolation is meant for heat loss minimization, and ordinary has poor hydro-isolation. Some pipeline construction elements (sliding and fixed bearings, pressure compensators, heat enclosures) are often non-isolated, and tube's metal contacts with soil. Hard usage condition, ingress of technical contamination cause, stray currents etc. cause high accidental rate. Realization of geophysical diagnostics, including electrometry, is hampered in a city by underground communication systems, power lines, isolating ground cover (asphalt), limitation of the working area with buildings. These restrictions form the investigation conditions. In order to detect and localize isolation (coat) defects authors successfully use the excitation-at-the-mass method measurement together with the measurements of magnetic and electrical components of electromagnetic field. However, the electrical contact between a tube and the soil, as well as the presence of zones of isolation defects is not the direct indicators of corrosion focus places. Authors use the spontaneous polarization method to investigate electrical fields, caused by natural electromotive forces of electrochemical origin. Different types of EM and SP anomalies have been detected. After statistical study and visual observations of extracted pipes, the relations between such anomalies and pipeline condition have been obtained. The places of underground pipeline coat destruction can be specified by complex of geophysical investigations. Also, it is possible to detect the intensity of destruction and corrosion processes in real time.

Vetrov, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Isaev, V.; Rondel, A.; Shapovalov, N.

2004-12-01

249

Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of ecosystem services.

Almudena San Roman Sanz

2013-06-01

250

Saint John lateral pipeline project: comprehensive study report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A descripion is given of the results of an environmental impact assessment of the construction of a natural gas pipeline that will bring gas from Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Management Ltd.'s (M and NP) main transmission pipeline to clients in Lake Utopia and Saint John, NB. It will be 110 km long, and the Saint John lateral will join the mainline approximately 2 km south of Big Kedron Lake, NB. Various institutional, industrial, commercial and residential clients will be able to access the pipeline in the future, and it is intended to be capable of future expansion for markets along its route and for markets that become economically feasible in the future. A matrix was developed that relates environmental resources to Environmental Components of Concern (ECCs), and to the rationale for exclusion/inclusion of the ECC as a Valued Environmental Component (VECs). The positive benefits of the pipeline to clients in the Saint John area include: reduced dependence on foreign oil, fuel switching and price competition, lower air emission pollution, increased energy efficiency, and a source of energy that is secure and reliable. VECs were selected based on: concerns of various stakeholders including the public, community groups, scientific parties, Aboriginal groups, government officials and agencies, relevant regulations; relevant literature; and past evaluation experiences, including future developments of the proposed study area. Further selection of the VECs required an examination of the issues picked out via scoping to determine the ways in which the overall project could affect the ECCs, and included construction, operation, decommissioning/abandonment, malfunctions and accidents of the pipeline. The phases of the project as they impacted residually and cumulatively on the VECs were evaluated, and impacts on Valued Socio-Economic Components (VSCs) were assessed also. The mitigation efforts taken will minimize the potential effects of the project on VECs and VSCs. For all of the project phases it is expected that residual effects will be without significance as will be the overall environmental impact. 29 refs.

NONE

1999-02-01

251

Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

2013-01-01

252

An investigation of highly pressurized transient fluid flow in pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper discusses transient processes in natural gas pipelines. The method of characteristics (MOC) is applied for the analysis of two transient categories, where the governing one-dimensional, hyperbolic conservation equations are linearized and solved without neglecting any of their term. First, we present a parametric study of the pressurized flow encountered when pipelines are utilized for the transportation or the temporary storage of natural gas. The non-ideal compressibility of natural gas is included in the model and its impact on the thermo-hydraulic processes is elucidated. Second, we model the hydrodynamics of a pipeline whose downstream boundary is a periodic discharge rate. The results show that, in response to these boundary conditions, the pressure distribution in the pipeline also undergoes periodic variations. Furthermore, our simulation results confirm the usefulness of MOC for numerical simulation of flow phenomena in pipelines. - Highlights: ? The goal of this work was an investigation of high pressure fluid transients through long pipelines. ? The MOC method was used for the simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in response to transients. ? The first transient type represented the line packing and subsequent pressurization. ? Special attention was given to the effect of non-ideal compressibility of natural gas flow. ? The second type of transients dealt with the effect of periodic downstream boundary conditions.

2012-04-01

253

An investigation of highly pressurized transient fluid flow in pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses transient processes in natural gas pipelines. The method of characteristics (MOC) is applied for the analysis of two transient categories, where the governing one-dimensional, hyperbolic conservation equations are linearized and solved without neglecting any of their term. First, we present a parametric study of the pressurized flow encountered when pipelines are utilized for the transportation or the temporary storage of natural gas. The non-ideal compressibility of natural gas is included in the model and its impact on the thermo-hydraulic processes is elucidated. Second, we model the hydrodynamics of a pipeline whose downstream boundary is a periodic discharge rate. The results show that, in response to these boundary conditions, the pressure distribution in the pipeline also undergoes periodic variations. Furthermore, our simulation results confirm the usefulness of MOC for numerical simulation of flow phenomena in pipelines. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The goal of this work was an investigation of high pressure fluid transients through long pipelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MOC method was used for the simulation of the hydrodynamic processes in response to transients. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The first transient type represented the line packing and subsequent pressurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Special attention was given to the effect of non-ideal compressibility of natural gas flow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The second type of transients dealt with the effect of periodic downstream boundary conditions.

Ouchiha, Zohra, E-mail: zouchiha@gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Loraud, Jean Claude; Ghezal, Abderahmane; Kessal, Mohand; Benzaoui, Ahmed [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Ghiaasiaan, S. Mostafa, E-mail: mghiaasiaan@gatech.edu [G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

2012-04-15

254

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

255

Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

2003-07-01

256

Trans-Austria gas pipeline II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The second Trans-Austria gas pipeline (TAG II) has a diameter of 42'', an operating pressure of 70 bar, a length of 378 km with 278 km in parallel to TAG-I. In August 1984 the engineering work started, the construction started in 4 spreads in August 1986, the start up of 4 sections was in September and October 1987, the three other sections were put in operation in June and July 1988. Additional to the construction of the pipeline the compressor stations are adjusted to the new operating conditions by errection of fifth compressor unit (22 000 KW) in Baumgarten, the restaging of the compressors and the installation of recuperators on the 10 existing compressor units. The construction of a gasdehydration unit in Baumgarten, the updating of the meterstations by installing of flow computers and the extension and renewal of the dispatching center including the exchange of the process computers are other important works. A working group with the engineering company Snamprogetti was responsible for the project with total costs of 7 Mrd. AS. The main contractors are done by OeMV/ZTB, Saipem, Mannesmann and Bonatti; the supplier of the compressor unit, recuperators an ball valves was Nuovo Pignone; OeMV/ZTB supplied the dehydration unit, the pig traps and recuperators. Responsible for the tie-in works and the start up piping was the natural gas department, who organized the work in such a way, that only one stop of the pipeline for 3 days was necessary, noticing that 8 interconnections between TAG-I and TAG-II are foreseen.

Grasser, K.; Schuster, F.

1988-11-01

257

Pipeline device for reactor facility  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pored orifices each having a plurality of coolant flowing holes are disposed by multi-stages along the flowing direction in a pipeline. The diameter of the flow holes is determined by the extent of a pressure loss required depending on the diameter of the pipeline. Alternatively, eccentric single hole orifices are used. The center of the orifice hole is offset from the axial center of the pipeline. The eccentric single hole orifices are disposed such that the offsetting direction of the orifice holes is displaced by 180degC relative to the next stage by rotation around pipeline axis as a center. That is, the eccentric single hole orifices are arranged such that the center for respective orifice holes are arranged so that the centers of the respective pores are not on a line and the main orifice stream passing through the pores of a preceding orifice collides against the plate portion of a succeeding orifice. With such a constitution, a predetermined pressure loss can be obtained even if the space for laying around pipelines is narrow. Further, disturbance of streams in the pipeline is reduced, thereby enabling to reduce vibrations of the pipeline. (I.N.).

Saito, Noboru; Miyano, Hiroshi.

1993-08-06

258

Pipeline device for reactor facility  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pored orifices each having a plurality of coolant flowing holes are disposed by multi-stages along the flowing direction in a pipeline. The diameter of the flow holes is determined by the extent of a pressure loss required depending on the diameter of the pipeline. Alternatively, eccentric single hole orifices are used. The center of the orifice hole is offset from the axial center of the pipeline. The eccentric single hole orifices are disposed such that the offsetting direction of the orifice holes is displaced by 180degC relative to the next stage by rotation around pipeline axis as a center. That is, the eccentric single hole orifices are arranged such that the center for respective orifice holes are arranged so that the centers of the respective pores are not on a line and the main orifice stream passing through the pores of a preceding orifice collides against the plate portion of a succeeding orifice. With such a constitution, a predetermined pressure loss can be obtained even if the space for laying around pipelines is narrow. Further, disturbance of streams in the pipeline is reduced, thereby enabling to reduce vibrations of the pipeline. (I.N.)

1992-01-21

259

Proceedings of the pipeline engineering symposium - 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents the papers given at a symposium on the transport of petroleum and natural gas through pipelines. Topics considered at the symposium included explosion welding, flash-butt welding, computerized welding, flow improvers, carbon dioxide pipelines, submarine pipelines, computer-aided design, repair, reinforced concrete, monitoring, storage, waste processing, and gas condensate pipelines.

Seiders, E.J.

1986-01-01

260

Vortex induced vibrations of free span pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines from offshore petroleum fields must frequently pass over areas with uneven sea floor. In such cases the pipeline may have free spans when crossing depressions. Hence, if dynamic loads can occur, the free span may oscillate and time varying stresses may give unacceptable fatigue damage. A major source for dynamic stresses in free span pipelines is vortex induced vibrations (VIV) caused by steady current. This effect is in fact dominating on deep water pipelines since wave induced velocities and accelerations will decay with increasing water depth. The challenge for the industry is then to verify that such spans can sustain the influence from the environment throughout the lifetime of the pipeline. The aim of the present project is to improve the understanding of vortex induced vibrations (VIV) of free span pipelines, and thereby improve methods, existing computer programs and guidelines needed for design verification. This will result in more cost effective and reliable offshore pipelines when laid on a very rugged sea floor. VIV for multiple span pipeline is investigated and the dynamical interaction between adjacent spans has been shown. The interaction may lead to increased or decreased response of each spans depending on the current speed and the properties for the two spans. The extension of the contact zone between the spans and sea floor parameters will of course also be important for the interaction effect. The influence from temperature variation on vortex induced vibrations has been demonstrated. The response frequency is influenced through changes in pipe tension and sag. Both increase and decrease of the response frequency may be experienced. Moreover, it is shown that the influence from snaking of the pipe on the temperature effect is small, at least for large diameter pipes. A free span pipeline will necessarily oscillate close to the seabed. The presence of the seabed will therefore have some influences on the ambient flow profile and also on the flow pattern around the cylinder during oscillation. Hydrodynamic parameters may therefore vary when the pipe is close to the seabed. In the present work, the influence from spatial varying current profiles is investigated for both single and multiple span pipeline. It is shown that the difference between using uniform and spatial varying current profiles is significant for some current speeds. It is also shown that use of spatial varying current profiles can be even more important for multiple span pipeline. The comparison of VIVANA analysis results with MARINTEK test results has been given. It shows VIVANA predicts the cross-flow response generally much higher than the test measurements, especially for the higher mode responses. To improve understanding of this phenomena, the VIVANA model was tuned to the test model and results are compared in different cases. Attempts were made to obtain a better agreement by adjusting some of the input parameters to VIVANA. The reference point is tuned by changing various hydrodynamic properties, i.e. C{sub L} St and added mass. The response frequencies are also tuned in order to have a better agreement on the results. It is been concluded that the method used here by VIVANA is not able to describe VIV for free spanning pipelines adequately. It is not possible to find a set of parameter in a rational way that will give reasonably correct results. The discrepancy between the analysis and test results are highlighted which confirms the interaction between the in-line and cross-flow vibrations. Discussions are given and addressed on different reasons which may cause this phenomena. An improved strategy for non-linear analysis of free span pipeline is outlined. Time domain analysis for free span pipeline has been performed. The difference between time and frequency domain analysis has also been investigated by varying boundary conditions, pipe properties and axial tension. A significant difference is shown between results from time and frequency domain analysis at each end of the span where the pipe is started to interact

Koushan, Kamran

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
261

The restorationof the dilapidated pipelines using compressed plastic pipes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article provides the information on a promising technology for trenchless repair named Swagelining, which supposes pulling into the old pipeline the new polymer with its preliminary thermo-mechanical compression and further straightening. The coauthors present the results of the calculations determining the thickness of the polyethylene pipes after compression and straightening in the old pipeline depending on the initial diameter in case of different ratio of the diameter to the wall thickness (SDR and the dynamics of the changes in hydraulic performance after repair work on the pipeline using the method Swagelining. The concept of the energy saving potential is formed in addition to a no-dig repair for pressure piping systems, water supply, and its magnitude. On the basis of the research results, the authors formulate the principles of the energy efficiency potential after the implementation of the trenchless technology of drawing the old pipeline with new polymer pipes with their preliminary thermo-mechanical compression and subsequent area enlargement. The technology Swagelining is described and the authors develop a mathematical model that illustrates the behavior of the pipeline in the process of shrink operations. Such parameters are analyzed as changing the diameter of the pipeline at thermo-mechanical compression, the hydraulic parameters of the new (polymer and old (steel pipelines, energy savings on one-meter length of the pipeline. The calculated values of the electric power economy on the whole length of the pipeline repair section with a corresponding flow of transported waters.The characteristics and capabilities of the technology of trenchless renovation Swagelining allows achieving simultaneously the effect of resource saving (eliminationof the defects and, as a consequence, of water leakage and energy saving (reduction in the water transportation cost.A numerical example of the old steel pipeline renovation shows the calculated data, which proves the efficiency of the considered technology. The calculation results can be used as base material for designers when selecting the final decision of the alternative at reconstruction of dilapidated pipelines by Swagelining using a wide range of polymer pipes with the corresponding value of the SDR.

Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

2014-02-01

262

Abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases in Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kentucky courts often treat abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases as synonymous, using the rule that abandonment consists of two elements: (1) a voluntary relinquishment of possession and (2) intent to repudiate ownership. A review of several court cases concludes that the difficulty of proving intention severely limits the lessor's ability to have a lease cancelled due to abandonment. The Kentucky Supreme Court has not held any coal lease to have been abadnoned since 1949. Cancellation due to forfeiture is the lessor's better means of ensuring diligent and capable development of his property, but a court will not decree a forfeiture unless the lease contains a forfeiture clause. 100 references.

VanMeter, L.B.

1983-01-01

263

Reconfigurable pipelined processor  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a reconfigurable pipelined processor for processing data. It comprises: a plurality of memory devices for storing bits of data; a plurality of arithmetic units for performing arithmetic functions with the data; cross bar means for connecting the memory devices with the arithmetic units for transferring data therebetween; at least one counter connected with the cross bar means for providing a source of addresses to the memory devices; at least one variable tick delay device connected with each of the memory devices and arithmetic units; and means for providing control bits to the variable tick delay device for variably controlling the input and output operations thereof to selectively delay the memory devices and arithmetic units to align the data for processing in a selected sequence.

Saccardi, R.J.

1989-09-19

264

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-04-12

265

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-08-17

266

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of fiber-reinforced composite liner repair and deposited weld metal repair technologies were reviewed and evaluated for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Principal conclusions from a survey of natural gas transmission industry pipeline operators can be summarized in terms of the following performance requirements for internal repair: (1) Use of internal repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm (20 in.) to 762 mm (30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. Evaluation trials were conducted on pipe sections with simulated corrosion damage repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liners, carbon fiber-reinforced composite liners, and weld deposition. Additional un-repaired pipe sections were evaluated in the virgin condition and with simulated damage. Hydrostatic failure pressures for pipe sections repaired with glass fiber-reinforced composite liner were only marginally greater than that of pipe sections without liners, indicating that this type of liner is only marginally effective at restoring the pressure containing capabilities of pipelines. Failure pressures for larger diameter pipe repaired with a semi-circular patch of carbon fiber-reinforced composite lines were also marginally greater than that of a pipe section with un-repaired simulated damage without a liner. These results indicate that fiber reinforced composite liners have the potential to increase the burst pressure of pipe sections with external damage Carbon fiber based liners are viewed as more promising than glass fiber based liners because of the potential for more closely matching the mechanical properties of steel. Pipe repaired with weld deposition failed at pressures lower than that of un-repaired pipe in both the virgin and damaged conditions, indicating that this repair technology is less effective at restoring the pressure containing capability of pipe than a carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair. Physical testing indicates that carbon fiber-reinforced liner repair is the most promising technology evaluated to-date. The first round of optimization and validation activities for carbon-fiber repairs are complete. Development of a comprehensive test plan for this process is recommended for use in the field trial portion of this program.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; George Ritter; Bill Mohr; Matt Boring; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-12-31

267

Offshore platforms and pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses problems and topics important for the design and construction of fixed offshore platforms used for drilling and producing petroleum from beneath the sea. A general description of offshore platforms serves as an introduction to the whole problem of offshore structures. A chapter on the hydrodynamic analysis of fixed offshore platforms gives the basis for the layout and construction of such structures. A guide to soil investigation methods essential for the geotechnical analysis of foundation designs for all types of offshore structures concentrates on the instrumentation equipment actually used. Detailed information is given on pile foundations with special emphasis on steel jacket platforms. The behaviour of gravity platforms during the final construction stage is analysed. The basis for the design of subsea pipelines and their stability is treated as well as the scour protection near offshore platforms.

Mazurkiewicz, B.K.

1986-01-01

268

Natural Gas pipelines: economics of incremental capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A number of gas transmission pipeline systems in Australia exhibit capacity constraints, and yet there is little evidence of creative or innovative processes from either the service provides of the regulators which might provide a market-based response to these constraints. There is no provision in the Code in its current form to allow it to accommodate these processes. This aspect is one of many that require review to make the Code work. It is unlikely that the current members of the National Gas Pipeline Advisory Committee (NGPAC) or its advisers have sufficient understanding of the analysis of risk and the consequential commercial drivers to implement the necessary changes. As a result, the Code will increasingly lose touch with the commercial realities of the energy market and will continue to inhibit investment in new and expanded infrastructure where market risk is present. The recent report prepared for the Business Council of Australia indicates a need to re-vitalise the energy reform process. It is important for the Australian energy industry to provide leadership and advice to governments to continue the process of reform, and, in particular, to amend the Code to make it more relevant. These amendments must include a mechanism by which price signals can be generated to provide timely and effective information for existing service providers or new entrants to install incremental pipeline capacity

2000-06-01

269

Plenty more in the US pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An upward trend for pipelaying activity in the Gulf of Mexico is reported. Data from the subsea database developed by Quest Offshore Resources forecasts a major boom for deepwater laying of pipelines, flowlines and umbilicals in North America. Of the ? 2170 miles of projects awarded for 2001-2004, Stolt Offshore has 25% and Allseas have 18%. Heerema, Coflexip Stena Offshore (CSO) and Saibos have 10-11% each. Allseas and CSO have received letters of intent from Shell for work involving the Na Kika export pipelines. Heerema's DCV Balder is lined up to carry out deepwater J-laying associated with the Mardi Gras transportation system, while tenders have been issued for the S-lay portions. Saipem has booked Saibos's new pipelay ship, FDS, for several projects. The US domestic market for pipelaying has now bottomed out and signs of recovery are evident. Most activity in 2000 occurred in shallow to medium water in the Gulf of Mexico, with Horizon Offshore Contractors, Global Industries and Torch Offshore capturing most of the market. Figures for miles of US Gulf of Mexico pipeline installed by the major market players are given for 1996-2000

2001-05-01

270

Northern pipelines backgrounder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market conditions have rekindled interest in oil and gas exploration and development in Canada's north. Natural gas producers agree that the market needs gas from Alaska's North Slope and from the Canadian North if supply is to keep up with North American demand which is forecasted to grow from 25.2 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 2001 to 31.7 tcf by 2010. The north holds vast reserves of natural gas. Proven reserves at Prudhoe Bay total about 30-35 tcf. The ultimate potential of the North Slope can be as high as 100 tcf. Proven reserves in the Mackenzie Delta total about 9 tcf, and its ultimate potential may be as high at 64 tcf. Proven reserves in the Fort Liard area total 1.5 tcf and the potential of the region may be as high as 4 tcf. There are currently four proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to market. They are the Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Project, a mid-Yukon route, and an offshore route. This report states that the Government of Yukon does not believe that the Yukon and Northwest Territories are locked in competition for a single pipeline route. It believes that the Alaska Highway Project and a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta project will be constructed. Regulatory approvals for the Alaska Highway Project are already in place and half of the right of way has been secured since the project has been found to be environmentally acceptable. 9 refs., 5 figs.

NONE

2001-01-01

271

Reliability of internally corroding pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Internal corrosion is an increasing problem world-wide in on and offshore pipelines. This paper describes how the results of genuine high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection together with fitness-for-purpose assessments are used as the basis for defining cost effective rehabilitation strategies for internally corroding pipelines. Strategies are highlighted for pipelines containing `active` corrosion which cannot be eliminated. Attention is given to (1) advances in the methods for assessing the significance of corrosion and (2) the benefits of using modem reliability methodologies which allow the probability of failure with time to be determined. Case studies are presented of the successful use of the above methods.

Jones, D.G.; Dawson, S.J.; Clyne, A.J. [BG plc, Northumberland (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

272

Regulating natural gas pipeline efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Proponents of gas pipeline capacity assignment---sometimes referred to as capacity brokering---would like a policy that would allow holders of gas pipeline capacity contact, usually firm transportation, to resell that capacity for short periods of time when it is not needed. In this paper the authors review the current U.S. policy towards capacity assignment in the context of FERC regulation of interstate pipelines and compare the U.S. debate with Canada's approach. The authors offer a modest proposal to institute a capacity assignment program experiment

1990-10-01

273

RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian states and upon EU states great dependence on Russian pipeline system.

FODOR Cosmin

2010-12-01

274

Natural gas pipeline technology overview.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. In 2001 alone, the nation consumed 21.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. A large portion of natural gas pipeline capacity within the United States is directed from major production areas in Texas and Louisiana, Wyoming, and other states to markets in the western, eastern, and midwestern regions of the country. In the past 10 years, increasing levels of gas from Canada have also been brought into these markets (EIA 2007). The United States has several major natural gas production basins and an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U.S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some key examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and Westcoast Energy pipelines. Major connections join Texas and northeastern Mexico, with additional connections to Arizona and between California and Baja California, Mexico (INGAA 2007). Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. Figure 1.1-1 shows the complex North American natural gas network. The pipeline transmission system--the 'interstate highway' for natural gas--consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter. The primary function of the transmission pipeline company is to move huge amounts of natural gas thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points. These delivery points, called 'city gate stations', are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. Compressor stations at required distances boost the pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes (EPA 2000). The natural gas system is generally described in terms of production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution (NaturalGas.org 2004b). Figure 1.1-2 shows a schematic of the system through transmission. This report focuses on the transmission pipeline, compressor stations, and city gates.

Folga, S. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

2007-11-01

275

76 FR 70953 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of Gas Transmission Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...pipelines should be strengthened, and whether new regulations are needed to govern the safety of gathering lines and underground gas storage facilities. On September 9, 2011, the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America (INGAA) and the...

2011-11-16

276

On the Steady State Motion of Conventional Pipeline Pigs using Incompressible Drive Media  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pig is a maintenance tool used in the Oil and Gas Industry, chiefly to remove solids or liquids from pipelines. It is in essence a sliding seal, which moves due to the action of the fluid pushing it. The aim of this work is to describe the steady state motion of the pipeline pig in terms of several key characteristics.

O Donoghue, Aidan F.

1996-01-01

277

Resolution of capsule stoppage in pneumatic pipeline to the analysis facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In pneumatic pipeline to the analysis facility at Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant(RRP), a sudden deceleration of capsule velocity was observed at times. This is called stoppage phenomenon of capsule. The purpose of this work is to experimentally find factors, which affect this phenomenon, and to develop a method to avoid such stoppage in pipeline. (author)

2005-10-09

278

Pipeline risk assessment and risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this work group was to identify obstacles to the development of better risk management practices and performance standards in the pipeline industry. An outline of developments in pipeline risk assesment management was presented, including an update of the Risk Based Design and Assessment annex and other CSA Z662 code developments. It was suggested that progress in risk management require that acceptable levels of risk and reliability need to be defined. Environmental and safety consequence analysis was recommended, as well as failure frequency estimation and assessment of distribution systems. Guidelines for Integrity Management Programs (IMPs) were reviewed. It was noted that CSA Z662 will become mandatory for sour gas in 2005 and may become mandatory for all onshore pipelines in 2007. Operating company procedures in relation to hazards with significant consequences were discussed. It was noted that companies should assess risks associated with hazards in accordance with the provisions of Clause n.11 or implement actions to monitor for conditions that can lead to failures and eliminate or mitigate such conditions. Plans for 2007 include limiting states for relevant failure causes; limiting states for leaks, ruptures and serviceability; and reliability targets related to population density, diameter and pressure. Provisions to the annex included targets based on maximum safety risks; recovery times; and safety consequence method calibration. A status summary of Canadian Standards Association (CSA) risk for 2005 was presented. Discussions included issues regarding compatibility with standards; validation of models; and the fact that industry opposition is raising the profile of risk. It was concluded that it is necessary to understand the limitations, characteristics and data for different approaches. Public education of risk needs to be addressed and current pipeline performance needs continuous improvement. Failure history is useful but prevention strategies are recommended. tabs., figs.

Colquhoun, I.; Spencer, K. [GE Energy Pipeline Solutions, Calgary, AB (Canada); Coote, B. [Coote Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fowlie, B. [Nu-Trac Management Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

279

Gas in abandoned mines: a hazard and a resource  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Historically underground coal mining activity in the UK coalfields has led to situations developing whereby potentially hazardous mine gases can occur at the surface and, in some instances, enter buildings where they may accumulate to present a safety risk. The paper describes processes which give rise to the different types of gas encountered in abandoned coal mineworkings. The nature and occurrence of surface emissions of gas are summarised. The feasibility is examined of extracting flammable gas from abandoned mines for energy utilisation purposes thus providing a means of reducing surface emission risks. 3 refs., 2 figs.

Creedy, D.P. [Wardell Armstrong, Newcastle-under-Lyne (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

280

A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a t...

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

New technology trends for effective plug and abandonment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plug and Abandonment (P&A) has become a major focus in the petroleum industry and especially in Norway due to the maturity of the fields. Therefore, an extensive number of wells to be abandoned just show how big the challenge will be and how much focus the regulatory authorities should include into this issue. From an operational point of view, P&A is the last phase of the life cycle of a well and hence no return of capital from it is actually expected. Furthermore, the driver for o...

Andrade Toro, Juan Alberto

2013-01-01

282

Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The re-establishment of natural species rich heathlands on abandoned agricultural land is a common land use change in North-West Europe. However, it can take several decades to re-establish natural species rich heathland vegetation. The development rate has found to depend both on soil food web composition and on soil processes. We measured the soil food web composition in three ex-arable fields abandoned 2, 9 and 22 years ago and in a heathland. To characterize food structure, we defined fou...

Holtkamp, R.; Kardol, P.; Wal, A.; Dekker, S. C.; Putten, W. H.; Ruiter, P. C.

2008-01-01

283

Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks  

Science.gov (United States)

The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and leakage release holes were modelled. This pipeline section is 10m long with the leakage hole in the middle. Additionally a small environment subdomain is simulated around the crack. For computation a multiphase solver was utilised. In a first step incompressible and isothermal fluids with no phase change were assumed.

Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

2013-04-01

284

Gastight pipelines: Established technology with new perspectives; Gasisolierte Leitung: Bewaehrte Technologie mit neuen Perspektiven  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The requirements of the deregulated electricity market, the increasing consumption in urban regions and the desire to abandon overhead lines led to the development of second generation gas-tight pipelines which is less costly than the first one. [German] Die Anforderungen des deregulierten Strommarkts, die wachsende Energieversorgung der Last- und der staedtischen Ballungszentren sowie der Wunsch, die optische Beeinflussung schoener Landschaften durch Freileitungen entgegenzuwirken, fuehrten zur Entwicklung der GIL - gasisolierte Leitung - der zweiten Generation und letztlich zu den Kostenreduzierungen der vorgestellten GIL-Technik. (orig.)

Tschaetsch, H.U.

2001-02-01

285

Black powder in gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

286

Data integration for management of pipeline system integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to easily access pipeline information and the increasing number of inspections using distinct techniques from different vendors makes the use of systems in the Integrity Management Program indispensable. For this reason, MOPI has been developed by two Brazilian companies, Pipeway Engenharia in partnership with Minds at Work. This tool allows data recording from the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, the storage of documents, the comparison between the results of different inspections, the planning inspections, contracts and maintenance of the pipeline. Furthermore, the information registered in the system can be accessed by a network user without limitation of time or number of users. This work presents the main details and features of MOPI. (author)

Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

287

Sediment Resuspension in Slurry Pipelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efficient design of a coal slurry pipeline requires a knowledge of the requirements for resuspending the solids following a shutdown. During the transient flow conditions associated with resuspension, power requirements may be significantly higher than th...

D. T. Kao D. J. Wood J. H. LaBoon

1978-01-01

288

Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline  

CERN Multimedia

This manuscript presents a novel, tightly integrated pipeline for estimating a connectome, which is a comprehensive description of the neural circuits in the brain. The pipeline utilizes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to produce a high-level estimate of the structural connectivity in the human brain. The Magnetic Resonance Connectome Automated Pipeline (MRCAP) is efficient and its modular construction allows researchers to modify algorithms to meet their specific requirements. The pipeline has been validated and over 200 connectomes have been processed and analyzed to date. This tool enables the prediction and assessment of various cognitive covariates, and this research is applicable to a variety of domains and applications. MRCAP will enable MR connectomes to be rapidly generated to ultimately help spur discoveries about the structure and function of the human brain.

Gray, William R; Vogelstein, Joshua T; Landman, Bennett A; Prince, Jerry L; Vogelstein, R Jacob

2011-01-01

289

77 FR 2126 - Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2012-0001] Pipeline Safety: Implementation of the National Registry of Pipeline and Liquefied Natural Gas Operators...

2012-01-13

290

77 FR 45417 - Pipeline Safety: Inspection and Protection of Pipeline Facilities After Railway Accidents  

Science.gov (United States)

...wheel and axle assembly had impinged on the pipeline. Although the pipeline was buried about 11 feet deep and protected within a...Cherry Valley, Illinois train derailment, buried pipelines are susceptible to damage even when...

2012-07-31

291

3.000 m-HDD drilling for a gas pipeline in Wales; 3.000 m-HDD-Bohrung fuer Gaspipeline in Wales  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In April 2010, construction of a 3000 m gas pipeline through rocky terrain at Milford Haven, South Wales, was successfully terminated. The pipeline was constructed by the HDD process; it was the longest horizontal pipeline project at the time, and the work was terminated ahead of schedule.

Seamans, Jez [LMR Drilling UK Ltd, Birkenhead, Wirral (United Kingdom)

2011-07-01

292

Abandoning nuclear energy, a total industrial absurdity; Sortir du nucleaire, un non-sens industriel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The abandoning of nuclear energy can not be considered without economic and social damages, it would amplify the des-industrialization process of France and would spoil its energy independence and would mean a step backwards in terms of world strategy. In France the nuclear sector gives work to a total of 410.000 people and generates a total added value of 33 billions euros each year. It would make no sense to stop an activity whose perspective is promising: a lot of reactors in the world will need soon maintenance, upgrading or replacement. (A.C.)

Sorin, F.

2011-09-15

293

A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approxi...

2009-01-01

294

Sand transport in multiphase pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over the life of an oil and gas reservoir, it is likely to encounter sand production. In offshore production fields, as there are lack of processing facilities nearby, gas, liquid and sand are often transported together in long distance pipelines. The existence of sand could accumulate in the pipelines under inappropriate operation condition and eventually will lead to a blockage. Thus, to design such systems requires knowledge on how sand is transported, when and where it will accumulate.&#x...

Yan, Wei

2010-01-01

295

Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: The pipeline production is one of major processes in shipbuilding industry. Quality improvement and risk assessment in this process can yield significant savings, both in terms of internal quality costs as well as in terms of customer satisfactions.Design/methodology/approach: Shipbuilding pipeline production quality improvement has been carried out by application of FMEA (Failure Mode and Effect Analysis) method. For the successful implementation of FMEA method it is necessary to id...

2010-01-01

296

78 FR 36016 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket No. PHMSA-2013-0137] Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety...

2013-06-14

297

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results show that simulated contact can be detected. Future work will involve further refinement of the method and testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2004-10-01

298

AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGING THE INTEGRITY OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the oil and gas industry, management of the integrity of pipeline has grown to become a seriousbusiness because of the overall consequence of pipeline failure: economic, social, environmental,and possibly legal. This research is an attempt to check pipeline failures by carefully following asuite of activities. This suite of activities, also called Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS),is generated for an operational pipeline and populated with data gathered on the pipeline system.An ...

2012-01-01

299

Experimental study on the behavior of segmented buried concrete pipelines subject to ground movements  

Science.gov (United States)

Seismic damage to buried pipelines is mainly caused by permanent ground displacements, typically concentrated in the vicinity of the fault line in the soil. In particular, a pipeline crossing the fault plane is subjected to significant bending, shear, and axial forces. While researchers have explored the behavior of segmented metallic pipelines under permanent ground displacement, comparatively less experimental work has been conducted on the performance of segmented concrete pipelines. In this study, a large-scale test is conducted on a segmented concrete pipeline using the unique capabilities of the NEES Lifeline Experimental and Testing Facilities at Cornell University. A total of 13 partial-scale concrete pressure pipes (19 cm diameter and 86 cm long) are assembled into a continuous pipeline and buried in a loose granular soil. Permanent ground displacement that places the segmented concrete pipeline in compression is simulated through the translation of half of the soil test basin. A dense array of sensors including linear variable differential transducers, strain gauges, and load cells are installed along the length of the pipeline to measure its response to ground displacement. Response data collected from the pipe suggests that significant damage localization occurs at the ends of the segment crossing the fault plane, resulting in rapid catastrophic failure of the pipeline.

Kim, Junhee; Lynch, Jerome P.; Michalowski, Radoslaw L.; Green, Russell A.; Pour-Ghaz, Mohammed; Weiss, W. Jason; Bradshaw, Aaron

2009-03-01

300

Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

1993-01-22

 
 
 
 
301

Inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides an inventory of Tank Farm equipment stored or abandoned aboveground and potentially subject to regulation. This inventory was conducted in part to ensure that Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) does not violate dangerous waste laws concerning storage of potentially contaminated equipment/debris that has been in contact with dangerous waste. The report identifies areas inventoried and provides photographs of equipment.

Hines, S.C.; Lakes, M.E.

1994-10-12

302

THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

URSZULA MYGA-PI?TEK

2008-12-01

303

On the Construction of a New Stellar Classification Template Library for the LAMOST Spectral Analysis Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

The LAMOST spectral analysis pipeline, called the 1D pipeline, aims to classify and measure the spectra observed in the LAMOST survey. Through this pipeline, the observed stellar spectra are classified into different subclasses by matching with template spectra. Consequently, the performance of the stellar classification greatly depends on the quality of the template spectra. In this paper, we construct a new LAMOST stellar spectral classification template library, which is supposed to improve the precision and credibility of the present LAMOST stellar classification. About one million spectra are selected from LAMOST Data Release One to construct the new stellar templates, and they are gathered in 233 groups by two criteria: (1) pseudo g - r colors obtained by convolving the LAMOST spectra with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz filter response curve, and (2) the stellar subclass given by the LAMOST pipeline. In each group, the template spectra are constructed using three steps. (1) Outliers are excluded using the Local Outlier Probabilities algorithm, and then the principal component analysis method is applied to the remaining spectra of each group. About 5% of the one million spectra are ruled out as outliers. (2) All remaining spectra are reconstructed using the first principal components of each group. (3) The weighted average spectrum is used as the template spectrum in each group. Using the previous 3 steps, we initially obtain 216 stellar template spectra. We visually inspect all template spectra, and 29 spectra are abandoned due to low spectral quality. Furthermore, the MK classification for the remaining 187 template spectra is manually determined by comparing with 3 template libraries. Meanwhile, 10 template spectra whose subclass is difficult to determine are abandoned. Finally, we obtain a new template library containing 183 LAMOST template spectra with 61 different MK classes by combining it with the current library.

Wei, Peng; Luo, Ali; Li, Yinbi; Tu, Liangping; Wang, Fengfei; Zhang, Jiannan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Hou, Wen; Kong, Xiao; Wu, Yue; Zuo, Fang; Pan, Jingchang; Jiang, Bin; Liu, Jie; Yi, Zhenping; Zhao, Yongheng; Chen, Jianjun; Du, Bing; Guo, Yanxin; Ren, Juanjuan; Song, Yihan; Wang, Mengxin; Wu, Kefei; Yang, Haifeng; Jin, Ge

2014-05-01

304

30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 756.20 Section... INDIAN TRIBE ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval...Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Revisions to the...

2010-07-01

305

43 CFR 3263.14 - May BLM require me to abandon a well?  

Science.gov (United States)

...BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.14 May BLM require me to abandon a well? If we determine that your well is no longer needed...

2010-10-01

306

43 CFR 3263.10 - May I abandon a well without BLM's approval?  

Science.gov (United States)

...BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Well Abandonment § 3263.10 May I abandon a well without BLM's approval? (a) You must have a BLM-approved Sundry...

2009-10-01

307

78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...  

Science.gov (United States)

...CFR Parts 700, 875, 879, et al. Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation...OSM-2012-0010] RIN 1029-AC66 Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal...

2013-02-06

308

Well-Integrity Survey (Phase II) of Abandoned  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

This report describes the methods used and the results obtained during a field search for abandoned homestead sites and water wells at the former Pantex Ordnance Plant and Texas Tech Research Farm (Pantex site) near Amarillo, Texas. The search was the second phase of a three-phase well-integrity survey at the Pantex site proposed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The methods used to locate the abandoned homestead sites and find water wells consisted of navigating to each site using a global positioning system instrument, conducting initial cesium-magnetometer sweeps at the homestead sites and marking the locations of the magnetic anomalies indicative of metal well casings, establishing mapping grids and conducting magnetometer mapping surveys around the locations of anomalies, and excavating to identify the sources of the anomalies. The existence of abandoned homestead sites was confirmed by remains of foundations and (or) wells at 13 of 18 locations. The existence of abandoned homestead sites was indicated by broken glass and pottery and miscellaneous debris at 3 of the 18 locations. No evidence of past homestead existence was found at 2 of the 18 locations. Eight water wells were found at seven of the abandoned homestead sites. Three of the eight wells are accessible to steel tape measurement two are accessible to more than 297 feet below land surface and one is accessible to 277.8 feet below land surface. Of the five wells not accessible to steel tape measurement, three are closed at the surface and two are blocked by debris at 12 and 3 feet below land surface, respectively. Water levels were not detected in any well that was accessible by steel tape.

1995-01-01

309

Mineral phases identification inside an abandoned Zn/Pb mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The aim of the work is the identification of the sulphurated phase's outbreak on an aragonite, dolomite and calcite-based original rock inside an abandoned mine. The studied Blende/Galena (ZnS/PbS) Mine, located in Lanestosa (Bizkaia, North of Spain) was operative until 1950. After decades, the area has only supported wild life and thus nowadays it could be considered as a polluted site which has become naturalized. The main alteration factors inside the mine are percolated water, gases come from the outside (CO2, O2) and biological activities. Mining activities generates loads of ore minerals and unwanted materials that with the time impact the surrounding environment. The waste includes granular, broken rock and soils ranging in size from the fine sand to large boulders, with the content of fine material largely dependent on the nature of the formation and extraction methods employed during mining. Waste materials geochemistry varies widely from mine to mine and may vary significantly at individual mines over time as different lithologic strata are exposed and geochemical processes alter characteristics of the waste. In order to determine the finest mineral composition in the galleries, several samples were collected. Once dried in a fume hood and sieved, the portions below 250 ?m were subjected to non-destructive Raman spectroscopic analysis. The measurements reflected the ore precursors (primary phases: Blende, and Galena), several primary carbonates (dolomite, calcite and aragonite) with secondary minerals in trace levels (Brookite, Libethenite, Fluorapatita, Anatasa, Quartz, Apatite, Augite, Diopside, Anthracite, Hematite, Cosalite, Epidote, Rutile) and transformation products, probably of recent formation (Smithsonite, Massicot, Plattnerite, Gypsum, Siderite, Mendiphite, Escorodite, Gauberite, Goethite or Mascagnite). The origin of the secondary mineral may be related to percolated rain and snow water. This hypothesis is based in the acidic snow water collected in January of 2009 (pH?5). Acid water dissolves all carbonates and all those soluble salts leached in surface (ZnCO3 or PbCO3). Finally, a basic thermodynamic model has been developed in order to explain the primary mineral phases transformation to the secondary ones. Acknowledgements. This work was financially supported by the BERRILUR II Project (ref. IE06-179, ETORTEK, Basque Government).

2009-09-03

310

Moving ahead : Mackenzie Valley Aboriginal Pipeline Limited Partnership  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation outlined some of the business and partnership opportunities that are developing as a result of the Mackenzie Valley Gas Pipeline project. The proposed project stretches from the northern edge of the Mackenzie Delta, along the Mackenzie River Valley, south to the border between the Northwest Territories and Alberta. The three anchor fields include the Taglu, Parsons Lake and Niglintgak fields. The project, which crosses 4 Aboriginal regions, has been proposed because economic conditions currently favour the development of northern natural gas fields. The pipeline itself will be developed jointly by Imperial Oil, ConocoPhillips Canada, Shell Canada, Exxon Mobil Canada and the Aboriginal Pipeline Group (APG) which consists of 3 of the 4 Aboriginal groups in the Mackenzie Valley. The APG supports, and is an active participant in, the construction of the Mackenzie Valley pipeline. APG's mandate is to maximize the long-term financial return to the Aboriginal groups of the Northwest Territories through ownership in the pipeline. It has negotiated the right to obtain a 33 per cent interest in the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline, the largest commercial deal ever by a Canadian Aboriginal group. The deal ensures the Aboriginal Group a seat at the Board table of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline, long term dividends and opportunities for future generations. APG's estimated share of the $3.8 billion project is $1.3 billion. This presentation outlined how the financing will work as well as enhancements to the original Memorandum of Understanding. 1 tab., 2 figs.

Reid, B. [Aboriginal Pipeline Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

311

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

312

Detection of shallow subsurface cavities associated with old abandoned coal mines of Raniganj coalfield to avoid possible inundation in mines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Old abandoned coal mines of Raniganj Coalfield pose a major problem of inundation. These abandoned old workings are inaccessible in most of the cases. Most of these old workings are shallow in nature. Usually, an Abandoned Mine Plan (AMP) of these workings are not available. If available, these may not be reliable. In the absence of any plan, it is not possible to delineate the old workings either by surveying or drilling. In order to locate these cavities, a High Resolution Shallow Seismic (HRSS) survey is necessary. Before undertaking such a survey, a modelling study is essential in understanding the seismic signature over the subsurface cavities in a variety of geological settings for proper interpretation of cavity anomalies. Seismic responses over one dry and one water-filled cavity have been presented here. The time sections (unmigrated) could detect the subsurface voids with high frequency source for dry cavities. In addition, the migrated time sections clearly detected and delineated galleries filled with air. Similar studies have been extended for water-filled cavities. However, the water-filled cavities can partly be delineated by using the approach described in this paper. This study of void delineation can help planning and design processes to avoid possible inundation from nearby water bodies, surface and ground water. 8 refs., 5 figs.

Mohanty, P.R.; Bhattacharya, B.B. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India)

2001-07-01

313

Identification of vulnerable areas for gully erosion under different scenarios of land abandonment in Southeast Spain  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abandonment of agricultural land is one of the main changes in Mediterranean land use. To mitigate runoff and erosion from abandoned land, it is necessary to identify locations that are vulnerable to erosion as a result of land abandonment. The objective of our study was to identify vulnerable areas for gully erosion using different scenarios of land abandonment in Southeast Spain. The study area was the Carcavo basin, a semi-arid catchment in the province of Murcia (Southeast Spain). A preli...

Lesschen, J. P.; Kok, K.; Verburg, P. H.; Cammeraat, L. H.

2007-01-01

314

Management of major accident hazard pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transco operate over 18,000km of the 28,000km of Major Accident Hazard Pipelines (as defined by the Pipelines Safety Regulations 1996) in the United Kingdom. Although pipelines have proved to be the safest from of transporting energy, there is a potential for hazard. Through the use of appropriate National Standards and internal specifications and procedures, Transco has developed and now operates its high pressure gas transportation system to a low risk level. The Pipelines Safety Regulations has introduced additional duties to pipelines operators including a requirement to pass details of pipelines hazards to Local Authority Emergency Planners. (Author)

Brown, M. [Transco, Newcastle-upon-Tyne (United Kingdom)

1998-07-01

315

Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems When facing persistent balance of payments problems, some countries have resorted to a dual exchange rate system as an alternative to a uniform exchange rate adjustment. Typically, under the dual system, certain selected transactions take place at a fixed official exchange rate, while there remaining transactions are effected at a more depreciated rate, which is usually determined by market forces. This paper examines the circumstances that lead to the adoption of a dual system, and the conditions under which the foreign exchange market can be unified successfully or a later stage. In this paper, the adoption of the dual system is linked to the unsustainability of a crawling peg (or a fixed exchange rate system in the presence of large budgret deficits. We show that the initiai spiral between the financial at the commercial exchange rates and the extent of capital flight largely depends on whether the switch in regime is anticipated or unanticipated. Although the dual system improves the external position of the economy, to the extent that there is no change in domestic noticies the country will continue to experience a deficit in the balance of payments. A correction of these policies is the only enduring solution to the external imbalance, and a precondition for a successful unification of the foreirg exchange market. If the economv unifies the foreign exchange market into a crawling peg, the financial exchahnge rate could be an adequate indicator of the initlal level of which the new exchange rate should be set if a capital outflow is to be avoided. If the economy instead moves to a flexible exchange rate system, the initial value of the exchange rate could be higher or lower than the prevailing financial exchange rate.

Jose Saul Lizondo

1990-03-01

316

Isolation of nuclear coolant pipelines by formation of ice plug  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In heavy-water reactors it is a common practice to use freeze seal technique towards isolation of pipe-line sections from the main system for maintenance work or for system modifications. Adoption of the freeze seal technique with innovative changes to suit the system and site conditions is presented for two particular cases encountered in Indian research reactors. (author)

1989-03-01

317

Offshore pipeline girth welds: vertical-up weld metal database  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data on the performance and toughness of pipeline girth welds used in the offshore industry is drawn together here in a computerised database, with the aim of determining which parameters have a significant influence on them. Typical properties of these welds have also been established, in order to highlight areas requiring further experimental work. (UK)

Slater, G.

1988-12-31

318

Reliability of Radiographic Inspection of Steel Pipeline Girth Welds  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, the radiographic NDT technique was employed for the detection of defects in girth welds of steel pipelines used by the offshore oil industry. Simulation was used to calculate the size of the smallest detectable defect and the corresponding radiographic parameters. The method developed showed good reliability.

Almeida, R. M.; Rebello, J. M. A.; Carvalho, A. A.; Smid, J.

2008-02-01

319

75 FR 32836 - Pipeline Safety: Workshop on Public Awareness Programs  

Science.gov (United States)

...worked well, discuss challenges faced by the pipeline...the Intercontinental Hotel, 2222 W. Loop-South...the hotel directly. Hotel reservations can be made...will be posted at the hotel on the day of the workshop...about member company challenges with implementing...

2010-06-09

320

The TIR as the Pump for the Pipeline  

Science.gov (United States)

Presentation discussing how having the Teacher-in-Residence as a âpoint personâ helps provide continuity for the recruitment of future physics teachers and how this continuity works to keep the pipeline of future physics teachers flowing. Presented at the "Once a TIR Always a TIR" session.

Anderson, Jon

2010-08-02

 
 
 
 
321

20 CFR 725.409 - Denial of a claim by reason of abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Denial of a claim by reason of abandonment. 725.409 Section...Director § 725.409 Denial of a claim by reason of abandonment. (a) A claim may...at any time by the district director by reason of abandonment where the claimant...

2010-04-01

322

43 CFR 3252.16 - How must I abandon a temperature gradient well?  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-10-01 false How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? 3252.16 Section 3252.16 Public Lands...Operations § 3252.16 How must I abandon a temperature gradient well? (a) Before abandoning your well,...

2009-10-01

323

77 FR 51848 - Pipeline Safety: Information Collection Activities  

Science.gov (United States)

...Integrity Management Program for Gas Distribution Pipelines. DATES...of hazardous liquid pipelines and gas pipelines to develop and implement a human...Private sector; Operators of both natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline...

2012-08-27

324

Extracting and utilising mine gases from abandoned coal mines - a few ideas and suggestions for potential developers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of coalbed methane (CBM) developments carried out to date have been primarily concerned with CBM extraction from deep coal seams. Another potential source of CBM is the residual methane, a significant proportion of the mines gas found in some abandoned workings. This is often found at depths considerably shallower than those reached in conventional CBM extraction. The residual gas could be extracted and utilised at relatively low cost, thereby making it economically attractive to potential project developers and financiers. 2 refs.

Cox, A.; Hunt, M. [Energy Intelligence and Marketing Research Ltd., Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

325

Studying of acid-gas pipelines corrosion with impedance spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this research, the acid-gas pipelines of a gas refinery were simulated in laboratory. Acid gas is normally the feed of sulfur recovery plant (SRP) in a gas refinery. For studying corrosion kinetic and related mechanisms the impedance spectroscopy was used. Impedance diagrams were simulated by Boukamp1988 software. It was found that the simulated systems can be equated to a circuit with two time constants. For studying corrosion rate changes a type of inhibitor was utilized. The inhibitor used in this work was an imidazoline, an appropriate based inhibitor formulated with the commercial grade imidazoline and dimmer - trimer acid. It was shown that impedance spectroscopy technique can be used for corrosion monitoring of acid gas pipelines in gas refineries. The impedance spectroscopy will be tried in due course as a suitable technique in field for corrosion control of acid-gas pipelines. (authors)

Neshati, J.; Fardi, M.R.; Ghassem, H. [Corrosion Department, NIOC-RIPI, Pazhooheshgah Bulevard, Khairabad Junction, Old Qom Road Tehran (Iran)

2004-07-01

326

National Energy Board (NEB) pipeline integrity management program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Energy Board (NEB) ensures the safe design, construction and operation of pipelines that cross provincial or national borders. Since 1991, there have been 22 major pipeline failures of which most were closed by corrosion, 5 from stress corrosion cracks, and 3 from slope stability problems. After a meeting of pipeline companies with the NEB, new regulations were put in place. The new regulations include: an emphasis on maintenance, a requirement for proactivity by owners and integrity management guidelines. While the integrity management guidelines are not regulations, they represent industry best practices, allow a degree of flexibility, and allow enforcement based on intent and the use of an audit process. The guidelines are comprised of a management system, a working records management system, condition monitoring, and mitigation.

Hendershot, J. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

327

National Energy Board (NEB) pipeline integrity management program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Energy Board (NEB) ensures the safe design, construction and operation of pipelines that cross provincial or national borders. Since 1991, there have been 22 major pipeline failures of which most were closed by corrosion, 5 from stress corrosion cracks, and 3 from slope stability problems. After a meeting of pipeline companies with the NEB, new regulations were put in place. The new regulations include: an emphasis on maintenance, a requirement for proactivity by owners and integrity management guidelines. While the integrity management guidelines are not regulations, they represent industry best practices, allow a degree of flexibility, and allow enforcement based on intent and the use of an audit process. The guidelines are comprised of a management system, a working records management system, condition monitoring, and mitigation.

Hendershot, J. (National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1999-01-01

328

New territory for NGL pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even though the NGL pipeline industry appears mature, new geographic territory exists for expansion of NGL pipelines. However, the most fertile territory that must be pursued is the collective opportunities to better link the existing NGL industry. Associations like the Gas Processors Association can not perform the role demanded by a need to share information between the links of the chain on a more real time basis. The Association can not substitute for picking up the phone or calling a meeting of industry participants to discuss proposed changes in policies and procedures. All stakeholders must participate in squeezing out the inefficiencies of the industry. Some expansion and extension of NGL pipelines will occur in the future without ownership participation or commitments from the supply and demand businesses. However, significant expansions linking new supply sources and demand markets will only be made as the supply and demand businesses share long-term strategies and help define the pipeline opportunity. The successful industries of the twenty-first century will not be dominated by a single profitable sector, but rather by those industries which foster cooperation as well as competition. A healthy NGL industry will be comprised of profitable supply businesses and profitable demand businesses, linked together by profitable pipeline businesses

1994-03-07

329

Sustainability and strategies for ‘rebuilding’ abandoned territories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study concerns the L’Aquila territory, at a particular point in time (post earthquake, when past and present vulnerabilities call for structural interventions that will ensure powerful and lasting recovery. This article focuses on one particular aspect of the overall work we are carrying out: the identification of appropriate sustainable development materials and technologies for testing in situ. Briefly, and for contextual purposes, we set out the cultural and scientific reference points (familiarity with territorial sustainability levels for appropriate and informed choices that underpin the research statement; we outline the parallel survey topics that complete the strategic territorial development framework, for a better understanding of the subject. In particular, we refer to actions for promoting a different sort of residentiality underpinned by sustainable mobility, and access to services, new job opportunities in eco-industrial clusters for sustainable building and further opportunities stemming from the integration of the agricultural, energy and tourist sectors.

Maria Cristina Forlani

2011-04-01

330

Risk from transport of gas by pipeline ''kokui-perm''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of publication follows: the length of gas pipelines in Russia is 142 thousands km, 62 % are pipelines of the large diameters. Annually on gas pipelines in Russia there are more than 70 large accidents, more than 50 % from them is accompanied by ignition of gas. The average ecological looses from accident is: destruction arable lands - 78 hectares; removing from consumption agricultural soils - 6,2 hectares; destruction forests - 47,5 hectares. In work the reasons of accidents on gas pipelines of different diameters are analyzed. So, for pipelines a diameter of 1220 mm by the reasons of accidents are: marriage of civil and erection works - 39, 1 %; outside corrosion - 35,9 %; mechanical damages - 9,4 %; defects of pipes - 6,2 %; defects of the factory equipment - 1,6 %; nature disasters and other reasons - 7,8 %. In work the results of risk analysis on a gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' are analysed. The gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' passes near 22 towns and countries, crosses 15 highways, 2 rail ways, 15 rivers. In work the concrete recommendations for management of risk and safety of the population are given. (author)

Yelokhin, A. [Dept. of Risk Analysis, Insurance Company LUKOIL, Krasnya, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1998-07-01

331

Propane pipeline restoration; Texas Eastern Products Pipeline maintains customer service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Texas Eastern Products Pipeline determined it needed to rehabilitate a 165-mile segment of an 8-in. liquid propane pipeline between Watkins Glen and Selkirk, N.Y., the company was faced with a dilemma: how could propane deliveries to two of the system's common-carrier terminals be continued during the repair period The company was determined to keep the terminals open so as not to inconvenience customers and sacrifice revenue. This paper describes the approach developed. Through careful planning, monumental employee teamwork and tremendous cooperation from customers, the terminals were kept open.

Mumper, J.A. Jr. (Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co., Watkins Glen, NY (US))

1988-03-01

332

76 FR 30241 - Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and...  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0125] Pipeline Safety: Notice of Public Meetings on Managing Challenges With Pipeline Seam Welds and Improving Pipeline...

2011-05-24

333

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) Investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on buried pipe at a test site as well as on an operating pipeline. Initial results showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 0.7 mile. Unexpected results were that the electrical impedance from the operating pipelines to the soil was very low and, therefore, the changes in impedance and signal resulting from third-party contact were unexpectedly low. Future work will involve further refinement of the method to resolve the issues with small signal change and additional testing on operating pipelines.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alred E. Crouch

2005-04-01

334

Pipeline to provide power in Saskatchewan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The completion of a leading-edge heat recovery project near Kerrobert, Saskatchewan was discussed. The joint project between SaskPower and NRGreen Power involves the capture of exhaust heat from Alliance Pipeline's natural gas compressor station. The waste heat is converted into electricity using patented technology and then fed into Saskatchewan's electrical grid. The compressor station produces about 5 MW of electricity, enough to power about 5,000 homes. The project demonstrates SaskPower's commitment to working with the private sector to develop environmentally low-impact power options. Recovering heat that would otherwise be vented into the atmosphere provides an opportunity for SaskPower and Alliance Pipeline to grow in an environmentally sustainable manner. This project represents the first of four waste heat units being built in Saskatchewan as part of SaskPower's Environmentally Preferred power (EPP) program. It will help provide for new load-growth with environmentally low-impact options as the utility works to determine its next source of base-load power supply.

Anon.

2007-05-15

335

Use of pipe saks on pipeline construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of new technologies applied to pipeline construction and assembling, aimed at enhancing productivity has been searched by PETROBRAS, throughout its subcontractors, assemblers, by transference in the mentioned constructions. Along the construction of Cacimbas Catu Pipeline, Spread 1 A, placed between the Cacimbas Gas Treatment Station (Linhares, ES) and the future Compression Station of Sao Mateus (ES), one, by means of surveys, noticed that the length of flooded or prone to flooding areas was way superior to the ones foreseen in the basic design. One of the broadly used methods for assuring buoyancy control is concreting the pipes. Such method deeply impacts work's logistics in for instance, the pipe stringing work; in this one, a maximum load of two pipes can be transported until the area to applied, what leads to lower productivity and higher risk due to the increase of trips by heavy load trucks. As an alternative to regular concrete, the Pipe Sak System was adopted and such method improved productivity and decreased discontinuities. (author)

Ghio, Alberto F.M.; Caciatori, Angelo [Galvao Engenharia S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ruschi, Allan A.; Santos, Felipe A. dos; Barros, Horacio B. de; Loureiro, Regis R. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

336

On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

2003-07-01

337

West Kazakhstan-Kumkol pipeline project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

West Kazakhstan - Kumkol pipeline project is being considered. Pipeline's putting into operation will maintain the stability of petroleum supply on Kazakstan refineries and would be profitable on entry to the international market. (author)

1997-04-15

338

Report on Boeing Pipeline Leak Detection System.  

Science.gov (United States)

Testing was performed on both simulated (test) and existing (water) pipelines to evaluate the Boeing leak detection technique. This technique uses a transformer mounted around the pipe to induce a voltage level onto the pipeline. The induced ground potent...

W. T. Aichele

1978-01-01

339

Oil pipeline performance review, 1986  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The performance of Canadian oil pipelines for 1986 is reviewed and compared with that of 1985. Total 1986 failures per 1000 km of pipeline were down from 1.4 to 1.2. Costs of repair and cleanup were 31% of the 1985 costs and 58% of the previous 9-year average. In-service length of the systems reporting increased to 32,617 km, deliveries increased 4%, but traffic volume decreased 2%. Thirty-nine failures were reported, of which 13 were due to operational error, 10 to corrosion, and 7 due to equipment failures. The average spill size in 1986 was 21% of the 1985 average, and spilled volume decreased by 81% to 2,055 cubic meters. Failures resulted in 4 injuries, 2 fires, and one explosion with fire. No line pipe failures due to defective pipe were reported. A 10 year statistical summary of oil pipeline performance data also included. 3 figs., 5 tabs.

1986-01-01

340

Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

Pribanic, T.; Awwad, A.; Varona, J.; McDaniel, D.; Gokaltun, S.; Crespo, J. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami. FL 33174 (United States)

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
341

Design Optimization of Innovative High-Level Waste Pipeline Unplugging Technologies - 13341  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Florida International University (FIU) is currently working on the development and optimization of two innovative pipeline unplugging methods: the asynchronous pulsing system (APS) and the peristaltic crawler system (PCS). Experiments were conducted on the APS to determine how air in the pipeline influences the system's performance as well as determine the effectiveness of air mitigation techniques in a pipeline. The results obtained during the experimental phase of the project, including data from pipeline pressure pulse tests along with air bubble compression tests are presented. Single-cycle pulse amplification caused by a fast-acting cylinder piston pump in 21.8, 30.5, and 43.6 m pipelines were evaluated. Experiments were conducted on fully flooded pipelines as well as pipelines that contained various amounts of air to evaluate the system's performance when air is present in the pipeline. Also presented are details of the improvements implemented to the third generation crawler system (PCS). The improvements include the redesign of the rims of the unit to accommodate a camera system that provides visual feedback of the conditions inside the pipeline. Visual feedback allows the crawler to be used as a pipeline unplugging and inspection tool. Tests conducted previously demonstrated a significant reduction of the crawler speed with increasing length of tether. Current improvements include the positioning of a pneumatic valve manifold system that is located in close proximity to the crawler, rendering tether length independent of crawler speed. Additional improvements to increase the crawler's speed were also investigated and presented. Descriptions of the test beds, which were designed to emulate possible scenarios present on the Department of Energy (DOE) pipelines, are presented. Finally, conclusions and recommendations for the systems are provided. (authors)

2013-02-24

342

Risk based cost and duration estimation of permanent plug and abandonment operation in subsea exploration wells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

World wide there are thousands of subsea wells to be abandoned, including the subsea wells in the North Sea. The operation to abandon a well is commonly known as Plug and Abandonment or P&A. Traditionally for offshore subsea wells the Plug and Abandonment operation is done by a semi submersible drilling rig. The cost of such operation for a single well would not be a problem for an operating company, but considering the huge amount of wells that needs to be abandoned new technologies and ...

Raksagati, Sanggi

2012-01-01

343

Project Rulison: well plugging and site abandonment. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document is designed to be used in conjunction with NVO 174 (Rev. 1), the Project Rulison Well Plugging and Site Abandonment Plan, August 1976. NVO 174 (Rev. 1) describes in detail the methods and procedures that were to be used in implementing a plugging and abandonment procedure for the Rulison wells and site. This final report compares the planned actions with the actual disposition of the various tasks and operations. Those activities which departed substantially from the original plan of operation are described along with the operations that occurred as planned. The disposal of all radiological materials is discussed comprehensively in the Rulison Radiation Contamination Clearance Report PNE-R-68 dated June 1977 by the Eberline Instrument Corporation

1977-01-01

344

Some technological aspects of the functioning of the Thessalonica-OKTA oil pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil pipeline Solun-Okta was built according to international technical, ecological and safety standards and enables quick, optimal and continuity supply of OKTA Refinery with crude oil. The building of the pipeline began in 1999, and finished in 2002 with official start-up operation by pumping of first quantity crude oil. After the activation, human environment protection has an important place. A lot of instructions and procedures are prepared especial for this purpose. With a total length about 212 km, pipeline enables transport of crude oil from ECO Refinery to OKTA with a capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. Pipeline is designed for a transport of few types crude oil and their mixtures. Pipeline system has been equipped with sophistic and modern equipment, which will enable quality of the work by controlling and monitoring of the system. (Author)

2004-10-07

345

Markov chain model helps predict pitting corrosion depth and rate in underground pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent reports place pipeline corrosion costs in North America at seven billion dollars per year. Pitting corrosion causes the higher percentage of failures among other corrosion mechanisms. This has motivated multiple modelling studies to be focused on corrosion pitting of underground pipelines. In this study, a continuous-time, non-homogenous pure birth Markov chain serves to model external pitting corrosion in buried pipelines. The analytical solution of Kolmogorov's forward equations for this type of Markov process gives the transition probability function in a discrete space of pit depths. The transition probability function can be completely identified by making a correlation between the stochastic pit depth mean and the deterministic mean obtained experimentally. The model proposed in this study can be applied to pitting corrosion data from repeated in-line pipeline inspections. Case studies presented in this work show how pipeline inspection and maintenance planning can be improved by using the proposed Markovian model for pitting corrosion.

Caleyo, F.; Velazquez, J.C.; Hallen, J. M. [ESIQIE, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Esquivel-Amezcua, A. [PEMEX PEP Region Sur, Villahermosa, Tabasco (Mexico); Valor, A. [Universidad de la Habana, Vedado, La Habana (Cuba)

2010-07-01

346

Overtrawling Studies of Large Diameter Pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As oil and gas operators install larger bundles and pipelines in the North Sea, so fishermen are becoming increasingly concerned with their ability to trawl effectively the seabed in these areas. For protection, the pipeline operators have historically trenched the smaller diameter pipelines, typically up to 16'' diameter, which has meant they normally pose little interference to bottom trawling (demersal) activity. Larger pipelines, however, are generally laid untrenched and therefore present an obstacle for fishermen trawling the seabed. (author)

Munro, James

2003-07-01

347

Integrity Evaluation of Oil and Gas Pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The length of oil and gas pipelines is increased much according to economic reasons and practicality, the construction of pipeline in Asia and Europe is going on global region in recently. This oil and gas pipelines is managed integrity to it's explosion property or environmental pollution riskiness. This paper is dealt with major defects type, using on integrity evaluation methods in developed countries, showing basic data to workout a countermeasure integrity evaluation of domestic pipelines.

2001-02-01

348

Vortex induced vibrations of free span pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pipelines from offshore petroleum fields must frequently pass overareas with uneven seafloor.  In such cases the pipeline may havefree spans when crossing depressions. Hence, if dynamic loads canoccur, the free span may oscillate and time varying stresses maygive unacceptable fatigue damage. A major source for dynamicstresses in free span pipelines is vortex induced vibrations (VIV)caused by steady current. This effect is in fact dominating ondeep water pipelines since wave induced...

Koushan, Kamran

2009-01-01

349

Fatigue of Pipelines resting on Uneven Seabed  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Subsea pipelines represent the most cost effective way of transporting oil and gas from the subsea field to the market. A large network of subsea pipelines has therefore been installed both at the Norwegian continental shelf an elsewhere. In the near-shore areas of Norway, the seabed is irregular and pipeline free-spans are unavoidable. This in combination with significant current action, may cause vortex induced vibration (VIV) and fatigue in the pipeline welds. This project focus on studyin...

Jin, Xing

2011-01-01

350

Gary George - Northern Gateway Pipeline  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Gary George is from Northern Central British Columbia and his Nation lies right near the proposed Northern Gateway Pipeline proposed by Enbridge. This area is near Burns Lake, Houston, and Smithers area. The pipeline will cross the Maurice River near the upper part of the Skeena River. These rivers still have Sockeye, Pink and various other wild salmon runs. He is worried that if there is a spill in the river the ecosystem will suffer terribly. He feels that there will be benefit to the commu...

Weasel Bear, Robyn

2012-01-01

351

Replacing a pipeline SCADA system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reports that Questar Pipeline Co. has replaced an existing IBM Series/1- based pipeline supervisory control an data acquisition system with a VAX-based system. The project was completed with in-house personnel from data processing and gas control departments. The system uses distributed processing, which allows maximum flexibility in development. programmers can design and develop applications and databases, while gas controllers can design screens and reports. This reduces development time and cost. SCADA is a real-time system. Development of graphic displays and reports can be done off line, but must be tested in the real-time environment.

Paige, G.E. (Questar Pipeline Co., Salt Lake City, UT (US))

1991-07-01

352

RUSSIA AND ITS PIPELINE WEAPON  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we intend to present the new power which is given to Russia upon EU due to her great natural resources and due to her control upon pipelines. Now Moscow can exert influence upon countries in Europe not through its revolutionary zeal and its tanks and army, but through its resources. And she knows how to use them and how make the EU dependent on her will: this is a new geopolitics, a 21-th century geopolitics, which is centered upon the control of gas pipelines in Central Asian s...

Benea, Ciprian-beniamin; Fodor, Cosmin

2010-01-01

353

Abandonment and expansion of arable land in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abandonment of arable land is often assumed to happen mostly in marginal areas where the conditions for arable cultivation are relatively unfavorable, whereas arable expansion is expected to occur mostly in areas with favorable conditions. This assumption, used in many land-use change forecasts, was never properly tested, mainly because the relatively short period of full-coverage land-use inventories did not allow a systematic analysis of the phenomena. With the recent release of CORINE 2006...

2011-01-01

354

Site reuse -- Abandoned steel making facility, Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An abandoned steel making site in Pennsylvania`s Monongahela Valley is being remediated and redeveloped for industrial use as a result of proactive local government involvement and progressive regulatory changes. A phased approach of property acquisition and remediation is being used to address environmental and redevelopment issues at the 135-acre site which has a long history of steel making and considerable soil contamination. Pollutants of concern include lead, asbestos arsenic, cadmium and PCBs.

Halperin, A.; Cockcroft, B. [D`Appolonia Engineering and Environmental Services, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31

355

Contamination of surface and groundwater in abandoned Pernek mining area  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pernek – Pezinok mining area is important Sb deposit in the Malé Karpaty Mts. Many dump piles and mine adits left abandoned when the mining activity had stopped. At the present time these become sources of the surface, groundwater, soils and stream sediments contamination. Arsenic and antimony are the trace elements transforming and accumulating in several natural components. Sulphid oxidation and silicate weathering are the main processes participating in surface and groundwater chemical ...

2009-01-01

356

Impact of uranium mines closure and abandonment on groundwater quality  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of the study is to assess the evolving mine water quality of closed uranium mines (abandoned between 1958 and 1992) in the Czech Republic. This paper focuses on the changes in mine water quality over time and spatial variability. In 2010, systematic monitoring of mine water quality was performed at all available locations of previous uranium exploitation. Gravity flow discharges (mine adits, uncontrolled discharges) or shafts (in dynamic state or stagnating) were sampled. Since the qu...

Rapantova?, Nad?a; Lic?binska?, Monika; Babka, Ondr?ej; Grmela, Arnos?t; Pospi?s?il, Pavel

2013-01-01

357

Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps. It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

R. Vicentini

2007-05-01

358

Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

1980-06-01

359

Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009  

Science.gov (United States)

Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

Morton, Douglas

2010-01-01

360

Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site

1999-07-25

 
 
 
 
361

Neonaticide, newborn abandonment, and denial of pregnancy--newborn victimisation associated with unwanted motherhood.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report two cases of newborn death and two cases of near-miss newborn death. One neonate was strangled to death after delivery in the hospital and one died from lethal congenital malformations. The third was found on the verge of death after being abandoned in a dumpster. The fourth was rescued from the toilet bowl by the mother's boyfriend while the mother was in a state of panic. In the three cases where the infants' maternal identities were known, the women were all primiparous and aged 22, 13, and 17 years. The paternity was extramarital, incestuous, and concealed, respectively. Denial or concealment of pregnancy was present in all cases, but none of the women had any overt psychiatric manifestations at the time of delivery. Neonaticide and newborn abandonment are closely associated with denial of pregnancy, and are serious forms of childhood victimisation. Their occurrence in Hong Kong is poorly understood and no representative figures are available. A concerted effort among the health care, social work, and judicial professionals is needed to define the scope of the problem and devise preventive measures. PMID:16495591

Lee, A C W; Li, C H; Kwong, N S; So, K T

2006-02-01

362

Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition can only occur when the interface temperature is below WAT, the temperature distribution is a necessary information which is obtained by the energy equation. The one-dimensional, transient and laminar flow governing equations are discretized based on the finite volume method, with the upwind scheme to treat the convection term. A totally implicit procedure was employed to handle the time integration term. The set of algebraic equations were solved by the TDMA line by line algorithm. The thickness of the deposited layer is a function of the axial coordinate and presents a monotonic increase at several time instants which is in reasonable agreement whit previous results. (author)

Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

363

Optimized sampling frequencies for weld reliability assessments of long pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Girth welds in new pipeline construction can now be fully inspected and evaluated due to recent advances in mechanized ultrasonic technologies that enable 100 per cent real-time inspection. However, long segments of existing pipes are usually not piggable by conventional means, and the high cost of excavation makes it impractical to inspect all or even most of welds. As such, pipeline operators are faced with the problem of obtaining statistically adequate quantities of input data for probabilistic assessments of girth welded pipelines. The challenge of limited or high-cost access to in-service pipelines for property measurement and flaw inspection was also discussed in this paper. A study was conducted to develop a methodology for specifying the minimum, cost-optimized sampling frequency for each of the model input parameters in a multiple girth weld fitness-for-service (FFS) assessment. The sampling frequency specifies the number of samples for each of the model variables to minimize the given cost function. The methodology is based on a user-specified confidence level for the computed reliability of a given pipeline segment, as well as the estimated per-sample cost of obtaining data for each parameter. The methodology is used as an add-on module in the GirthRel computer program and all interactions with the software occur through an additional graphical user interface screen in GirthRel. The advantages of this method in pipeline risk management systems were summarized. This tool is particularly valuable for its ability to express fitness for service in terms of risk-based inspection and maintenance. By-products of this work will also help to align girth weld acceptance criteria with an industry trend toward limit states and reliability-based design. 13 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

Thacker, B.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Warke, R.W. [Letourneau Univ., Longview, TX (United States); Carrasco, C.J. [Texas Univ., El Paso, TX (United States); Amend, B. [Southern California Gas Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

2004-07-01

364

Crack testing in gas pipelines; Risspruefung in Gasleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intelligent pigs for detection of buckling and corrosion in gas and oil pipelines are well known. Crack detection in oil pipelines is possible by ultrasonic methods, but crack detection in gas pipelines used to be very difficult as ultrasound requires a coupling fluid and instruments of this type can be used only with a liquid batch in gas pipelines. A crack detection pig for gas pipelines is described in the contribution which works without coupling fluid by the EMAT process, in which the ultrasonic signal is generated electromagnetically by a current pulse by a coil in the material itself. The EmatScan {sup registered} Cd has been used successfully in several pipelines in the USA. Currently, it is available in 36'' size. (orig.) [German] Messgeraete, sog. intelligente Molche, die das Aufspueren von Beulen und Korrosionsfehlern in Gas- und Oelfernrohrleitungen ermoeglichen, sind seit langem bekannt. Auch Rissfehler koennen seit einigen Jahren in Oelleitungen mit Ultraschall gut geordnet werden. In Gasleitungen war aber bisher das Aufspueren von Rissfehlern mit grossen Aufwand verbunden, da der Ultraschall eine Koppelfluessigkeit benoetigt und diese Geraete in Gasleitungen nur mit einem Fluessigkeitsbatch eingesetzt werden konnten. Ein Risspruefmolch fuer Gasleitungen wurde deshalb dringend benoetigt. Der neue EmatScan {sup registered} CD erlaubt es jetzt, in Gasfernleitungen, ohne Koppelfluessigkeit, Rissfehler mit Ultraschall aufzuspueren. Dabei wird das EMAT-Verfahren eingesetzt. Bei diesem Verfahren wird das Ultraschallsignal auf elektromagnetischen Wege mit einem Stromimpuls durch eine Spule im Material selber erzeugt. Der EmatScan {sup registered} CD hat bereits mehrere Gasfernleitungen in Nordamerika erfolgreich inspiziert. Zurzeit ist er in der Groesse 36'' verfuegbar. (orig.)

Goedecke, H.; Tappert, S.; Smuk, M.; Hugger, A.; Franz, J. [GE Energy, Oil and Gas, Pipeline Solutions, Stutensee (Germany); Wolf, T.

2005-04-01

365

The Alaska Highway Pipeline project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice for new electric generation capacity, the demand is increasing rapidly and supply from traditional producing basins is not keeping up. There is a need to connect new sources of gas to the North American grid. Foothills Pipelines Ltd. believe that the gas reserves at Prudhoe Bay and in the Mackenzie Delta will be sent to market at different times via different pipelines. It is also believed that the Alaska Highway Project will be constructed for many valid reasons. Gas development is much more advanced in Alaska than in northern Canada and in addition, the project has already been approved and half of the right-of-way has been acquired. The Alaska Highway pipeline has the support of Alaska and it will follow an existing transportation corridor and will therefore have fewer environmental issues. The Alaskan North Slope has proven reserves of 30-35 Tcf and a production of about 8 Bcfd. During the course of this project, Foothills Pipelines Ltd. will address timing issues, commercial issues, needs of the First nations people as well as the needs of Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. 11 figs

2000-09-20

366

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management Systems (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

AlAhmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-12-19

367

Saudi Aramco experience towards establishing Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Saudi Aramco pipelines network transports hydrocarbons to export terminals, processing plants and domestic users. This network faced several safety and operational-related challenges that require having a more effective Pipelines Integrity Management System (PIMS). Therefore Saudi Aramco decided to develop its PIMS on the basis of geographical information system (GIS) support through different phases, i.e., establishing the integrity management framework, risk calculation approach, conducting a gap analysis toward the envisioned PIMS, establishing the required scope of work, screening the PIMS applications market, and selecting suitable tools that satisfy expected deliverables, and implement PIMS applications. Saudi Aramco expects great benefits from implementing PIMS, e.g., enhancing safety, enhancing pipeline network robustness, optimizing inspection and maintenance expenditures, and facilitating pipeline management and the decision-making process. Saudi Aramco's new experience in adopting PIMS includes many challenges and lessons-learned associated with all of the PIMS development phases. These challenges include performing the gap analysis, conducting QA/QC sensitivity analysis for the acquired data, establishing the scope of work, selecting the appropriate applications and implementing PIMS. (author)

Al-Ahmari, Saad A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

368

System and method for laying subsea pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A system for laying subsea pipelines is disclosed. The pipeline to be laid is wound on a reel which is rotatably mounted on a support structure. Both the support structure and the reel with the wound pipeline are submergible to a seabed. Both members are intended to be expendable in that once they are submerged and mounted on the seabed, they are not subsequently salvaged. After the support structure with the accompanying reel have been secured to the seabed, the pipeline is drawn off of the reel from its fixed location towards the desired termination point for the pipeline.

Lunde, P.A.

1981-06-16

369

Design and installation of offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The design, transport and installation of a major offshore gas and condensate pipeline for Trinidad's Mahogany field are discussed. In order to supply the Atlantic LNG plant at Point Fortin with gas from the Mahogany reservoir off the east coast of Trinidad, four onshore and offshore facilities are planned. The sub-sea pipeline will be 60 miles long, include a 40 inch gas pipeline and a 12 inch condensate pipeline. The project is described under the headings (i) design, (ii) value added practices, (iii) transportation, (iv) pipeline installation and (v) lessons learned.

Perera, E.M.

1999-11-01

370

Cathodic protection retrofit of an offshore pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cathodic protection (CP) anodes and corrosion coating on two offshore pipelines were damaged during deep water installation. In-situ methods for deep-water inspection and repair of the pipelines` CP and coating systems were developed and used. High-pressure natural gas Pipeline. A design was 5.6 miles of 8.625 in. OD by 0.406 in. W.T. API SL, Grade X-42, seamless line pipe. Pipeline B design was 0.3 miles of similar specification pipe. Both pipelines were mill-coated with 14 mil of fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE) corrosion coating. Girth welds were field-coated with FBE.

Winters, R.H.; Holk, A.C. [Tenneco Energy, Houston, TX (United States)

1997-09-01

371

Pipeline planning and construction field manual  

CERN Multimedia

The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

Menon, E Shashi

1978-01-01

372

Economic model of pipeline transportation systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the work reported here was to develop a model which could be used to assess the economic effects of energy-conservative technological innovations upon the pipeline industry. The model is a dynamic simulator which accepts inputs of two classes: the physical description (design parameters, fluid properties, and financial structures) of the system to be studied, and the postulated market (throughput and price) projection. The model consists of time-independent submodels: the fluidics model which simulates the physical behavior of the system, and the financial model which operates upon the output of the fluidics model to calculate the economics outputs. Any of a number of existing fluidics models can be used in addition to that developed as a part of this study. The financial model, known as the Systems, Science and Software (S/sup 3/) Financial Projection Model, contains user options whereby pipeline-peculiar characteristics can be removed and/or modified, so that the model can be applied to virtually any kind of business enterprise. The several dozen outputs are of two classes: the energetics and the economics. The energetics outputs of primary interest are the energy intensity, also called unit energy consumption, and the total energy consumed. The primary economics outputs are the long-run average cost, profit, cash flow, and return on investment.

Banks, W. F.

1977-07-29

373

Practical methodology of predictive maintenance for pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive practical risk-based methodology is introduced for predictive maintenance (PdM) of pipelines for different failure criteria. Predictive maintenance is one of several forms of proactive maintenance, but the most suitable method of pipeline maintenance consists in monitoring probability of failure (POF) and remaining life. One major cause of loss of containment is progressive growth of pipe wall defects. Any analysis of pipeline state starts with sizes of discovered defects. This methodology assesses pipeline strength according to one of the five design codes (B31Gm, B31mod, DNV, Battelle, and Shell 92) that have been internationally recognized. The comprehensive Gram-Charlier-Edgeworth method is used to calculate the pipeline POF. With this methodology, the most versatile predictive asset maintenance can be implemented, and the pipeline operator can rely on a powerful tool for designing the best specific IMP for each pipeline, using results of specific pig runs.

Timashev, S.A.; Bushinskaya, A.V. [Science and Engineering Center, Reliability and Safety of Large Systems, Ural Branch Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg, (Russian Federation)

2010-07-01

374

Pipeline Contingency; Roerledningsberedskap en teknisk utfordring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1987 Norsk Hydro and Statoil agreed on a joint effort to establish, own and maintain a fast responding pipeline repair system (PRS). They should also enter into agreements with other pipeline operators for participation as permanent members of the PRS user group, and they should promote the use of PRS equipment in pipeline projects. Since 1987, the total length of pipelines covered by the agreement has increased from the initial 1000 km and by the end of 1999 the PRS covers the contingency of more than 7000 km of pipelines. In 1996 Statoil signed a 5-year contract with Stolt Rockwater Joint Venture to cover subsea operations, hyperbaric tie-ins including contingency operations and pipeline repair, using the PRS. The PRS consists of many sub-systems and offers a complete equipment package for all jobs associated with pipeline repair or tie-in operations including pipe cutting and removal of corrosion and/or concrete coating.

Styve, Kjell [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1999-07-01

375

Pipeline risk management manual, second edition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A tested and proven system is presented to prevent loss and assess risks. Now expanded and updated, this widely accepted standard reference guides one in managing the risks involved in pipeline operations. Pipeline engineers, designers, operators, and managers rely on this book`s basic risk assessment model--a practical, straightforward method for analyzing pipeline risks.this new edition covers many additional aspects of pipeline risk management, including: risk and cost of service interruption; risk of sabotage; methods to assess environmentally sensitive and high-value areas; workplace stress; and human error potential. It covers ways to create a resource allocation model by linking risk with cost, and includes clear step-by-step instructions and more than 50 examples. This edition also addresses offshore pipelines and distribution system pipelines as well as cross-country liquid and gas transmission pipelines.

Muhlbauer, W.K.

1996-10-01

376

Landscape susceptibility, hazard and risk assessments along pipeline corridors in Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article discussed work that was carried out to inventory landslides and assess hazards along two proposed gas-pipeline routes in the North. Landslide inventories and hazard assessments are necessary to quantify and qualify the risk of environmental impacts from landslides on linear infrastructure. The Yukon Alaska Highway Pipeline and the Mackenzie Gas Project Pipeline, which will both be over 800 kilometres in length, will cross harsh landscapes characterized by permafrost terrain and will be at risk from geological hazards, including landslides with debris flows, earthquakes, subsidence, and permafrost degradation. The work involved inventorying and mapping landslides via aerial photography and field visits to identify the frequency-magnitude relationships for debris flow fans along the route and the creation of qualitative parametric landslide maps for both proposed pipeline corridors. A good correlation was found between actual landslide distribution and the landslide susceptibility maps. For the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Corridor, most landslides have occurred in fine unconsolidated sediments and shallow slopes. Landslides in the Yukon Alaska Highway Corridor mostly happened in unconsolidated sediments, but a few took place in bedrock with high relief. The preliminary investigation revealed that a slope hazard exists in both corridors and must be taken into account during pipeline development. The results are intended to facilitate better decision-making for planning, constructing, and maintaining safe and economically viable pipeline routes in Northern Canada. The mapping methodology was outlined. 13 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

Blais-Stevens, A.; Couture, R.; Page, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada; Koch, J.; Clague, J.J. [Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Lipovsky, P.S. [Yukon Geological Survey, Whitehorse, YT (Canada)

2010-07-01

377

Hydrological and erosive consequences of farmland abandonment in Europe, with special reference to the Mediterranean region – A review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmland abandonment is a major problem in parts of Europe, particularly in mountain areas and semiarid environments. In such places, farmland abandonment represents a significant land use change from cropping to a complex of plant successions. The present study assesses the hydromorphological effects of land abandonment in Europe, and the consequences thereof with respect to water resource availability and soil erosion. The evolution of abandoned fields depends on (i) the time of abandonment...

Garci?a-ruiz, Jose? Mari?a; Lana-renault, N.

2011-01-01

378

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY; SEMIANNUAL  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort

379

Preliminary evaluation of sediment loss and runoff in an abandoned mine tailing using a portable rainfall simulator  

Science.gov (United States)

Several mines in Central Portugal were abandoned in the last century because of difficulties originated by lack of natural resources or economic factors. In those places, no measures were taken to restrain heavy metals dispersion and, eventually, the contamination of downstream areas and water resources. Abandoned mine soils and tailings usual have high concentrations of heavy metals that could increase the risk of ecosystems pollution and endangering human health; moreover, these sights also exhibit great vulnerability to water erosion. One of such example is the abandoned mine of Sanguinheiro, near Coimbra, that was used in the past to explore lead and zinc minerals. This poster presents a preliminary evaluation, in situ, of sediment loss and runoff from this mining area. Complementary laboratory experiments using a rainfall simulator and soil flumes are also described. The field experiments were conducted in small plots using a portable Kamphorst rainfall simulator (0.26x0.26 m2). The characteristics of the experimental setting restrict the duration and intensity of the simulated rain. In the field experiments reported in this work the equipment was used to simulate extreme short duration rain events, of around 3-5 min, having intensities in the range of around 200-300 mm/h. The experiments were carried out in the main mine tailing, in the secondary mine tailing and in a non-mine area (near the main mine tailing), which was considered as the control reference area. Runoff hydrographs and sediment graphs were obtained in order to provide insight into the vulnerability of the mine soil to water erosion. The understanding of the dynamics of the overland flow processes and of the sediment transport mechanisms in the study areas are essential steps to proceed investigating the drainage basin, which includes the abandoned mine tailings, and the mechanisms of dispersion of heavy metals and contamination of downstream areas.

Jorge, R. G.; de Lima, J. L. M. P.; de Lima, M. I. P.

2010-05-01

380

Haltenpipe and Troll oil pipeline, technology at the forefront  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore pipeline technology coprises a spectrum of technologies within seabed mapping, design, materials, construction, inspection and maintenance. This paper deals with some of the recent developments, characterised by achievements within two specific projects on the Norwegian continental shelf. These developments concern the Troll oil pipeline and the Haltenbank projects. These are the use of advanced subsea mapping and position technology, hydraulic flow modelling simulating unique flow conditions inside a deep and narrow fjord, control of multiple free span behaviour by use of advanced design methology, use of strain based criteria to reduce large scale seabed correction works, high precision pipeline installation in deep weater involving guided laying to ensure the correct position of the pipeline across pre-installed gravel burns and at lateral counteracts, and a midline tie-in concept comprising an above-water welded tie-in of a prefabricated bend section and on bottom installation of hydraulic operated mechanical connectors specially developed for diverless repair contingency in deep waters. 10 figs.

Blaker, F. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

1996-12-31

 
 
 
 
381

The Kepler Completeness Study: A Pipeline Throughput Experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

The Kepler Mission was designed to measure the frequency of Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. A requirement for determining the underlying planet population from a sample of detected planets is understanding the completeness of that sample-what fraction of the planets that could have been discovered in a given data set were actually detected. Here we describe an experiment designed to address a specific aspect of that question, which is the issue of signal throughput efficiency. We investigate the extent to which the Kepler pipeline preserves transit signals by injecting simulated transit signals into the pixel-level data, processing the modified pixels through the pipeline, and measuring their detection statistics. For the single channel that we examine initially, we inject simulated transit signal trains into the pixel time series of each of the 1801 targets for the 89 days that constitute Quarter 3. For the 1680 that behave as expected in the pipeline, on average we find the strength of the injected signal is recovered at 99.6% of the strength of the original signal. Finally we outline the further work required to characterise the completeness of the Kepler pipeline.

Christiansen, Jessie L.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Burke, Christopher J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Jenkins

2014-04-01

382

Automatic analysis pipeline of next-generation sequencing data.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of next-generation sequencing has generated high demand for data processing and analysis. Although there are a lot of software for analyzing next-generation sequencing data, most of them are designed for one specific function (e.g., alignment, variant calling or annotation). Therefore, it is necessary to combine them together for data analysis and to generate interpretable results for biologists. This study designed a pipeline to process Illumina sequencing data based on Perl programming language and SGE system. The pipeline takes original sequence data (fastq format) as input, calls the standard data processing software (e.g., BWA, Samtools, GATK, and Annovar), and finally outputs a list of annotated variants that researchers can further analyze. The pipeline simplifies the manual operation and improves the efficiency by automatization and parallel computation. Users can easily run the pipeline by editing the configuration file or clicking the graphical interface. Our work will facilitate the research projects using the sequencing technology. PMID:24929521

Wenke, Li; Fengyu, Li; Siyao, Zhang; Bin, Cai; Na, Zheng; Yu, Nie; Dao, Zhou; Qian, Zhao

2014-06-20

383

Laser shearography for inspection of pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shearography is a highly sensitive integral measuring technique to record deformation and strain concentrations on the surface of components. This paper deals with the application of shearography to nondestructive inspection of piping. The principle is based on measuring the surface deformation of the pipe to be inspected by variation of the pressure inside the piping. While shearographic piping inspection is already used for inspection of cooling water pipelines in nuclear and conventional power plants, research work for other types of piping is still going on. The technique is applicable to all kinds of material. Examples for inspection of welding seams in austenitic piping, as well as for connections of piping from reinforced plastics, are given. (orig.)

1996-02-01

384

Laser shearography for inspection of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shearography is a highly sensitive integral measuring technique to record deformation and strain concentrations on the surface of components. This paper deals with the application of shearography to nondestructive inspection of piping. The principle is based on measuring the surface deformation of the pipe to be inspected by variation of the pressure inside the piping. While shearographic piping inspection is already used for inspection of cooling water pipelines in nuclear and conventional power plants, research work for other types of piping is still going on. The technique is applicable to all kinds of material. Examples for inspection of welding seams in austenitic piping, as well as for connections of piping from reinforced plastics, are given. (orig.).

Ettemeyer, A. [Ettemeyer Qualitaetssicherung, Neu-Ulm (Germany)

1996-02-01

385

Oil pipeline performance review, 1990  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews the environmental performance of Canadian oil pipelines in spill prevention and control in 1990 and compares it with that in 1989. In 1990, in-service length of the systems reporting increased to 34,907 km. Traffic volume was 235 million m3. Failures dropped 16% from 1989 to 36. Equipment failures accounted for 47%, corrosion for 22% and operational error for 19% of the failures. Repair, damage and clean-up costs were considerably higher at $5,302,000, of which one external corrosion failure contributed $4,500,000. The average spill size was 130 m3 with 72 m3 recovered for a 55.4% recovery rate. No injuries resulted from the failures. An 11 year statistical summary of oil pipeline performance data is included. 3 figs., 5 tabs

1990-01-01

386

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

CERN Document Server

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

387

Impacts of Land Abandonment on Vegetation: Successional Pathways in European Habitats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in Europe's traditional agricultural systems in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different habitats followed similar pathways. The impacts of land abandonment and subsequent woody colonization on vegetation composition and plant traits were studied in five semi-natural open habitats and two...

Pre?vosto, B.; Kuiters, L.; Bernhardt-ro?mermann, M.; Do?lle, M.; Schmidt, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Uytvanck, J.; Bohner, A.; Kreiner, D.; Stadler, J.; Klotz, S.; Brandl, R.

2011-01-01

388

Restoration of montane fen meadows by mowing remains possible after 4 - 35 years of abandonment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The abandonment of management in Swiss fen meadows has reduced their plant species diversity and the fitness of some typical fen species. We examined whether the resumption of mowing can reverse these effects, and if so, which mechanisms are responsible for community change; we also tested whether restoration success depends on the duration since abandonment. Experimental mowing was applied to 15 montane fen meadows of NE Switzerland that had been abandoned for 4–35 years. After two years o...

Billeter, R.; Peintinger, M.; Diemer, M.

2007-01-01

389

Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR)

1991-01-01

390

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais

2011-07-01

391

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

2011-10-24

392

Pipeline network features and leak detection by cross-correlation analysis of reflected waves  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes progress on a new technique to detect pipeline features and leaks using signal processing of a pressure wave measurement. Previous work (by the present authors) has shown that the analysis of pressure wave reflections in fluid pipe networks can be used to identify specific pipeline features such as open ends, closed ends, valves, junctions, and certain types of bends. It was demonstrated that by using an extension of cross-correlation analysis, the identification of featu...

2005-01-01

393

A Data-Parallel Graphics Pipeline Implemented in OpenCL  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This report documents implementation details, results, benchmarks and technical discussions for the work carried out within a master’s thesis at Linköping University. Within the master’s thesis, the field of software rendering is explored in the age of parallel computing. Using the Open Computing Language, a complete graphics pipeline was implemented for use on general processing units from different vendors. The pipeline is tile-based, fully-configurable and provides means of rendering ...

Ek, Joel

2012-01-01

394

Using THELI pipeline in order to reduce Abell 226 multi-band optical images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we review THELI (Erben & Schrimer, 2005), an image processing pipeline developed to reduce multi-pointing optical images taken by mosaic CCD cameras. This pipeline works on raw images by removing several instrumental contaminations, implementing photometric calibration and astrometric alignment, and constructing a deep co-added mosaic image complemented by a weight map. We demonstrate the procedure of reducing NGC3923 images from raw data to the final results. ...

Joveini, R.; Sotoudeh, S.; Roozrokh, A.; Taheri, M.

2013-01-01

395

Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)

Bernardi, Tiaraju P.; Oliveira Neto, Vasco A. de; Siqueira, Jakson [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

396

Inspection pig for gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ultrasonic inspection pig system was described as being under development. This system was said to adopt the unique wheel type ultrasonic sensor which does not need couplant. This pig was designed to detect external corrosion in long-distance pipelines without interruption of the gas service. The wall-thickness measurement performance test and the travel performance test of the inspection pig in the test line confirmed that these performances satisfied the development specifications. However, the effect induced by the inner surface properties of the pipe and the influence of the pipe`s performance over long distances and for a long period of time still needed to be verified in an actual gas pipeline, and while the pipeline was actually in service. Improvements to the prototype model of the inspection pig were expected to include combinations of inspection pigs, with increases in battery and memory capacities to permit them to cope with in increased number of sensors, and hence larger inspection ranges. 15 figs., 3 tabs.

Yoshida, M.; Endo, K.; Masuda, N. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Hashi, E.; Kawanishi, N. [Osaka Gas Co., Osaka (Japan); Ishikara, K.; Morimoto, T.; Naganuma, T.; Kurashima, M. [NKK Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

1992-12-31

397

30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.  

Science.gov (United States)

...participation; Organizational structure; Personnel and staffing policies; Purchasing and procurement systems; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14, 2000 Subheading B....

2010-07-01

398

Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

1995-01-01

399

Channel Response Prediction for Abandoned Channel Restoration and Applicability Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As channel evaluation for abandoned channel restoration design, this study sought to exam channel changes from the past to the present and predict subsequently occurring river responses. For the methodology, channel geomorphology changes were evaluated through image analyses of annual aerial photographs to complement the limited river data. Channel responses were predicted using an analytical stable channel model, the SAM (Stable Channel Analytical Model program, based on a stability theory as well as empirical equations for equilibrium channel. The results of the geomorphological channel changes showed that channels became narrower and bed levels became lower, whereas vegetated bars expanded. The channel response prediction results, narrower channels with deeper depths and mild slopes, were expected compared with the current condition. The channel response, obtained by the field measurement data, image information, and stability theory, are in relatively good agreements showing the reliability of the application suggested in this study. Consequently, the comprehensive channel evaluation approach is expected to be applicable to abandoned channel restoration designs from the aspects of channel geomorphology and hydraulics.

Yonguk Ryu

2011-05-01

400

Managing abandonment and reclamation liability in the midstream energy sector  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation discussed the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Directive 024 and the Large Facility Liability Management Program to manage abandonment and reclamation liability in the midstream energy sector. The program was developed by various members of governmental agencies and members of the oil and gas industry in order to prevent the creation of orphaned facilities as well as to provide a framework for the identification of liabilities. The program currently addresses issues related to suspensions, abandonment, remediation, and the reclamation obligations of licensees. The program provides licences for sulphur recovery plants, standalone straddle plants, and in situ oil sands central processing facilities with design capacities exceeding 5000 m{sup 3} per day. Site specific values are used to determined liabilities and assets. A liability management rating system with multiple liability pools is used to rate liabilities. The assets of midstream companies are determined using nonproducer licensee calculations. Licensees' orphan levies are based on their proportional share of the liability pool, multiplied by the required orphan levy amount. Licensees are responsible for paying their proportional share. A limited look back program is available for up to 24 months after licence transfer approval. The program also examines concerns related to confidentiality issues raised by stakeholders, and fair and equitable treatment between gas plants in different programs. tabs., figs.

Fedorak, H.; Ireland, G. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada). Compliance and Operations Branch

2005-07-01

 
 
 
 
401

Measures for security and supervision of pipelines; Massnahmen zur Pipeline-Sicherheit und -Ueberwachung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In a previous publication, the two authors dealt with the hydraulic problems as regards mineral oil pipelines. The present report describes the measures mainly used to guarantee the safety of such pipelines. (orig.)

Horlacher, Hans-Burkhard [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau und Technische Hydromechanik; Giesecke, Juergen [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau

2010-07-01

402

Towards a new framework for cross-border pipelines: The International Pipeline Agency (IPA)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The role of cross-border pipelines has greatly increased over the last couple of years and is considered as one of the main ingredients of energy security. However there is no regulatory body regulating their activities, causing problems that disrupt the flow of hydro-carbon resources. A treaty like the Energy Charter Treaty is not sufficient to deal with the problems faced by cross-border pipelines. This viewpoint proposes the need for the creation of a new pipeline agency that can deal with the various issues affecting the pipelines. - Highlights: ? Problem with current mechanisms dealing cross-border pipeline disputes. ? Problem with compliance and enforcement in cross-border pipelines. ? Regulatory aspect of cross-border pipelines. ? New framework for cross-border pipelines.

2011-09-01

403

Buried pipelines in large fault movements  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Responses of buried pipelines in large fault movements are examined based upon a non-linear cantilever beam analogy. This analogy assumes that the pipeline in a large deflection zone behaves like a cantilever beam under a transverse-concentrated shear at the inflection point with a uniformly distributed soil pressure along the entire span. The tangent modulus approach is adopted to analyze the coupled axial force-bending moment interaction on pipeline deformations in the inelastic range. The buckling load of compressive pipeline is computed by the modified Newmark`s numerical integration scheme. Parametric studies of both tensile and compressive pipeline responses to various fault movements, pipeline/fault crossing angles, soil/pipe friction angles, buried depths, pipe diameters and thickness are investigated. It is shown by the comparisons that previous findings were unconservative.

Wang, L.J. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Earthquake Engineering Research Lab.; Wang, L.R.L. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-12-31

404

Studying the future of pipeline capacity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over the next five years, many 15- or 20-year contracts between natural gas pipelines and local distribution companies (LDCs) for firm-transportation service will come up for renewal. In addition, clauses in some existing contracts permit LDCs to periodically exercise options to reduce or relinquish portions of their firm-transportation capacity. To the extent that LDC-shippers stepdown, turnback or relinquish capacity, pipelines may be confronted with the possibility of revenue shortfalls. In December, the LDC Caucus released a study exploring the emerging problem of unsubscribed pipeline capacity. The 50-page document -- An Issue Paper Regarding Future Unsubscribed Pipeline Capacity -- describes the causes of capacity relinquishment on interstate natural gas pipelines, estimates the scope of the problem, explores the ramifications and implications for shippers and pipelines, and recommends policy approaches for consideration by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and affected stakeholders. This paper summarizes this document

1996-03-01

405

Mimicking soil crust development of abandoned fields using artificial rain  

Science.gov (United States)

Land abandonment is associated with the interruption of soil tillage operations. This has large impacts on soil surface properties, such soil crust development, prior to vegetation development, inducing increased runoff. This study discusses the changes in soil surface properties by simulating the development of soil crusts after abandonment in comparison to soil crust properties of semi-natural fields. Soil samples were taken from ploughed fields that were under cereal cultivation, and were prone to abandonment in the Canada Hermosa valley in the Guadalentin basin in SE Spain, with a semi-arid climate and an annual rainfall of 270 mm yr-1. Also undisturbed crust samples were taken from nearby abandoned and semi-natural fields on similar parent material. In the laboratory the sampled soils from the cultivated fields were deposited in shallow boxes of 0.5 m2, and underwent four different artificial rainfall treatments with constant but moderate rainfall intensities, totaling one, two, three or four years of annual rainfall with successive drying periods in between. After these rainfall applications, the surface soil of each of these treatments was sampled for thin section preparation. The undisturbed samples taken from the field were also prepared as thin sections. Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were used to study the development of the crusts in relation to the amount of applied rainfall. A clear progressive development of structural crusts at the upper part and in the middle part of the boxes as well as depositional crusts at the lower end of the boxes could be monitored with increasing rainfall amounts. Even after the application of rainfall, equaling one year of natural rainfall, already a clear crust developed by slaking processes and showing clear blockage of fine pores at the soil crust surface. After the artificial application of four years of rainfall even similarities started to appear with the typical characteristics of crusts on semi-natural fields. The artificial crusts showed a structural crust with two micro-horizons, a mm-sized loose non-embedded silt and sand horizon on top of a dense plasmic micro-horizon, in contrast to the semi-natural ones having a sieving crust, consisting of a structural crust with three micro-horizons showing a loose sand and gravel micro-horizon on top of a loose silty micro-horizon on top of a dense plasmic micro-horizon. Despite the limited kinetic impact of the raindrops generated by the drippi