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1

Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

NONE

1997-03-01

2

Abandoning wells working group  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

NONE

1997-03-01

3

Locating abandoned waterlogged mine workings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The presence of old waterlogged mine workings in the vicinity of current mining activities presents a major danger of accidental inundation. This problem is particularly acute where plans of old workings, sometimes several centuries old, are inaccurate or not available. In such circumstances, it is necessary to locate old workings by other means. This article briefly examines the validity of geophysical techniques for locating waterlogged old mine workings to assess the hazard of accidental inundation.

Singh, R.N.; Sunu, M.Z.; Pathan, A.G.

1987-10-01

4

Worldwide rehabilitation work is undergoing major changes. [Rehabilitation of oil and gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews methods for the rehabilitation of in-service pipeline systems and the types of protective coatings which appear to work best. The paper also compares the cost benefits of retrofitting the pipeline versus abandonment, replacement, or operation at reduced pressure and flows. A review of the normal procedure for retrofitting a pipeline is discussed and includes administrative procedures, coating removal procedures, surface preparation, and new coating application. A discussion of inherent problems found with both out-of-ditch and in-situ types of rehabilitation. Equipment for surface preparation is also presented and the advantages and disadvantages of each along with the effectiveness on different types of metal surfaces.

Taylor, S.A. (CRC-Evans Rehabilitation Systems, Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01

5

Remedial investigation report on the abandoned nitric acid pipeline at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Upper East Fork Poplar Creek OU-2 consists of the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline. This pipeline was installed in 1951 to transport liquid wastes ? 4,800 ft from Buildings 9212, 9215, and 9206 to the S-3 Ponds. Materials known to have been discharged through the pipeline include nitric acid, depleted and enriched uranium, various metal nitrates, salts, and lead skimmings. A total of nineteen locations were chosen to be investigated along the pipeline for the first phase of this Remedial Investigation. Sampling consisted of drilling down to obtain a soil sample at a depth immediately below the pipeline. Additional samples were obtained deeper in the subsurface depending upon the depth of the pipeline, the depth of the water table, and the point of auger refusal. The nineteen samples collected below the pipeline were analyzed by the Y-12 Plant laboratory for metals, nitrate/nitrite, and isotopic uranium. Samples collected from three boreholes were also analyzed for volatile organic compounds because these samples produced a response with organic vapor monitoring equipment. The results of the baseline human health risk assessment for the Abandoned Nitric Acid Pipeline contaminants of potential concern show no unacceptable risks to human health via incidental ingestion of soil, inhalation of dust, dermal contact with the soil, or external exposure to radionuclides in the ANAP soils, under the construction worker and/or the residential land-use scenarios

1993-01-01

6

Contemporary methods of emergency repair works on transit pipelines. Repair works on in-service pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The paper presents modern methods and relevant technologies of pipeline failure repairs, basing on TD Williamson technique for hermetic plugging of gas pipelines without interrupting service. Rules for management of emergency situations on the Polish Section of Yamal - Europe Transit Gas Pipeline are being discussed as well. (author)

2007-01-01

7

Banff/99 pipeline workshop  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The workshop features 21 papers on various aspects of pipeline integrity and management, which are indexed individually. The workshop objectives were to: provide an interactive forum where the management of the integrity, safety and risk of the pipeline infrastructure could be discussed; provide an opportunity to focus on state-of-the-art technologies and past experiences related to the design, construction, operation, maintenance, performance, and abandonment of pipelines; facilitate and promote the sharing and exchange of information and the development of pipeline industry communication networks; encourage the development and operation of working groups and task forces to address the future challenges associated with pipelines; recognize areas where coordinated efforts could be implemented to enhance the pipeline integrity management process; raise awareness of and reduce land use conflicts; identify new areas and initiatives for pipeline research and development; and publish the workshop proceedings and a final workshop report.

NONE

1999-11-01

8

Environmental education work force pipeline strategic plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document describes an educational program designed to provide a pool of highly qualified administrative, technical, and managerial graduates that are familiar with the Hanford Site and business operations. The program is designed to provide work experience and mentoring to a culturally diverse student base which enhances affirmative employment goals. Short-term and long-term objectives of the program are outlined in the report, and current objectives are discussed in more detail. Goals to be completed by the year 2003 are aimed at defining the criteria necessary to establish partnerships between schools, community organizations, and human resources departments. Actions to be implemented includes providing instructors and equipment, enhancing skills of local teachers, and establishing collaboration with human resources organizations. Long-term goals of the program are to ensure a constant supply of qualified, trained workers to support industry missions. 6 refs., 1 tab.

Ortega, S.U.; Jackson, E.R.

1992-11-01

9

Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working Results The majority of OAC (60.7%) engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample) worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample) met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

Whetten Rachel; Messer Lynne; Ostermann Jan; Whetten Kathryn; Pence Brian; Buckner Megan; Thielman Nathan; O'Donnell Karen

2011-01-01

10

Research work during and after the flooding of an abandoned potash mine in northern Germany  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The abandoned potash mine of HOPE in northern Germany is flooded with an NaCl solution. A scientific research program running concurrently is to register and evaluate data on the geochemical, geomechanical and geophysical processes occurring before, during and after the flooding. In addition, a seal bulkhead was built using new materials and seals for testing under a liquid pressure of approximately 2.4 MPa. The work is part of a comprehensive research program investigating the processes occurring in a hypothetical water or brine inflow into a repository for radioactive waste in salt formations

1985-01-01

11

Proceedings of the Banff 2007 pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum to discuss and learn about a wide range of issues associated with the critical area of maintaining and improving oil and gas pipeline integrity. State-of-the-art technologies and past experiences related to the design, construction, operation, testing, inspection, maintenance, performance and abandonment of pipelines were reviewed along with other topical issues such as pipeline risk assessment and management. The workshop was divided into 12 working groups, each focusing on specific issues, notably: issues for managers; regulatory developments; upstream pipelines; design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; management of stress corrosion cracking (SCC); coatings; pipeline risk assessment and risk management; inspection tools; external corrosion; northern pipelines; internal corrosion; and, facilities integrity management. Detailed accounts of all working group sessions were included. All 12 of the working groups' presentations were catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

Keith, K. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada); Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fox, J. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Shu, L. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada)] (comps.)

2007-07-01

12

Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. METHODS: The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working <21, 21-27, and 28+ hours during the past week, and child labour (UNICEF definition). RESULTS: The majority of OAC (60.7%) engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample) worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample) met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. CONCLUSIONS: One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

Whetten R; Messer L; Ostermann J; Whetten K; Pence BW; Buckner M; Thielman N; O'Donnell K

2011-01-01

13

Four barges mobilized for job: Indian offshore pipeline work demands comprehensive coordination  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes the design, installation, and commissioning timeframe developed for the Oil and Natural Gas Commission of India. Offshore Hyundai International Inc. and Offshore Pipelines International have completed the installation of 47 pipelines, six platforms, and a single-point mooring system in the Arabian Sea. The coordination and work scheduling problems are described along with the engineered placement of the pipelines in an already congested area.

Schmidt, J. (OPI International Inc., Houston, TX (United States))

1994-02-01

14

Gravitational stowing of shallow abandoned workings using a mixture of fly ash and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper evaluates utilization of fly ash from black coal combustion for stowing shallow abandoned workings in coal mines and for grouting cavities close to the ground surface in mining areas. Fly ash from 4 power plants was used: the Jaworzno III, Zabrze, Lagisza and Halemba power plants. Proportion of fly ash to water ranged from 1.5:1 to 3.0:1. Specific density of hydraulic stowing on fly ash basis ranged from 1.37 to 1.72 g/cm/SUP/3. Hardening of fly ash mixture with water was investigated under laboratory conditions. After 3 h the mixture was transformed into a plastic state. Its compression strength exceeded 0.1 kN/cm/SUP/3. After 65 days compression strength ranged from 0.12 to 0.33 kN/cm/SUP/3. With increasing specific density, compression strength of the stowing material on fly ash basis increased. The mixture was characterized by extremely low permeability to water. (9 refs.) (In Polish)

Mazurkiewicz, M.; Piotrowski, Z.

1984-01-01

15

Corporate social responsibility along pipelines: communities and corporations working together  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we present GAIA's findings in three corporate social responsibility projects along pipelines owned by three Brazilian companies in gas, oil and mining sectors. The projects had as the main goal to improve the relationship with communities in the companies' direct influence areas. Clearly, the relationship with communities along pipelines is essential to prevent and reduce industrial hazards. The damage in pipelines due to agriculture, buildings, intentional perforations and traffic of heavy vehicles may cause fatal accidents, environmental and material losses. Such accidents have negative consequences with regard to economy, image and relationship with communities and environmental agencies. From communities' perspective, pipelines deteriorate their life quality due to risk of industrial hazards nearby their houses. The lack of proper information about the pipelines remarkably increases insecurity feelings and discourses against the companies among community leaders. The methodology developed by GAIA comprises companies' and communities' interests and encompasses nine stages. 1. Socio-environmental appraisal or inventory, mapping main risks, communities' needs and their leaders. 2. Communication plan, defining strategies, languages and communication vehicles for each stakeholder group. 3. Inter-institutional meetings to include other institutions in the program. 4. Launching seminar in partnership with local authorities, divulging companies' actions in the cities with pipelines. 5. Multiplier agents formation, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to disseminate correct information about the pipelines such as their functioning, hazard prevention, maintenance actions, and restrictions of activities over the pipelines. 6. Formation on project management, enabling teachers, local leaders and government representatives to elaborate, fund raise and manage socio environmental projects aimed at improving communities' life quality. 7. Follow-up, supporting communities leaders during dissemination of information about pipelines, project fund-raising and implementation. 8. Creation and followup of companies' networks to support some of the projects elaborated by the communities. 9. Impact evaluation, measuring the results accomplished by the whole project after its realization. The overall process is monitored with management and quality tools such as PDCA and processes and results indicators. The elaboration of projects by communities' members, organizing their needs and requests, facilitates management decisions regarding private social investment. During the follow-up, GAIA supports the communities' fund-raising from several organizations, as well as creates networks of potential local supporters. Those initiatives tend to dilute the requests from communities to companies. Thus, companies foment communities' autonomy and citizenship, creating a situation in which both, companies and communities, are benefited. (author)

Carvalho, Edison D.R.; Lopes, Luciano E.; Danciguer, Lucilene; Macarini, Samuel; Souza, Maira de [Grupo de Aplicacao Interdisciplinar a Aprendizagem (GAIA), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

2009-07-01

16

Pressure testing with air works for oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluations of air for pressure testing on Interprovincial Pipe Line Ltd.'s Norman Wells pipeline found it to be a safe, efficient, economic, and environmentally sound medium for pressure testing oil pipelines during winter. Since this use, CSA-Z183 now accepts air as a test medium subject to a maximum pressure limitation equivalent to 90% specified minimum yield strength (SMYS) at the high point of a test selection, 95% at SMYS at the low point, and a minimum leak-test hold period of 24 hr.

Pick, A.R.; Smith, J.D.

1988-06-13

17

Deepwater pipeline intervention work with an acoustically controlled power module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stabilization of submarine pipeline free spans along uneven sea bottoms is performed conventionally using technologies such as gravel dumping, post trenching, and mattress installation. A new technology has been developed to support free spans along the 26-inch Transmed Gas Pipelines crossing the Sicily Channel in water depths ranging from 50 m to 510 m. This technology is based on the pipeline mechanical support Atlantis and its installation module Pegaso and was developed keeping requirements such as short installation time, system redundancy, operational flexibility, and simple interface with the support vessel in mind. The installation time reduction is achieved by automatic operational procedures that are controlled acoustically from the surface. Power is stored inside two dedicated battery packs placed on board pegaso; no umbilical cable is necessary, so that a vessel equipped with a normal crane is enough to launch and operate the system. Marine operations carried out in 1993 showed that a support can be installed in about 1 hour. In good weather conditions, three Atlantis were installed in 24 hours, including deck operations for recharging the battery packs. A total of 16 supports was installed along the 4th and 5th Transmed Gas Pipelines. The system has proved to be a cost-effective and flexible alternative to conventional technologies for free-span support, especially in deep waters. A cost/benefit analysis also shows the break-even point of the new technology vs. gravel dumping.

Conter, A.; Launaro, F.; Bigoni, G.

1997-02-01

18

Reasons for decision in the matter of Yukon Pipelines Limited, application dated 12 July 1995: NH-3-96  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian portion of the Yukon pipeline, built in 1942, was used until 1994 to transport furnace oil, diesel fuel, and gasoline from Skagway, Alaska to Whitehorse, Yukon. Operation of the pipeline ceased in October 1994. The pipeline company, Yukon Pipelines Ltd., applied before the National Energy Board to abandon the pipeline due to its obsolescence and escalating operational costs. This document describes the activities proposed by Yukon Pipelines in its application: Preliminary work for the abandonment, including environmental site assessment, land matters, and financial issues; and abandonment of the facilities, including dismantling of the pipeline, site remediation, and follow-up consultation and reporting. Views of the Board and its decision with respect to the application are also included.

NONE

1996-12-01

19

Most North Sea pipeline work for next 3 years will be for gas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The North Sea is about to see another of its cyclical bursts of trunk pipelining activity. Bulk of the work will be provided by new gas projects. In addition to laying large diameter trunk lines, there will be a steady level of work connecting oil and gas fields to the existing pipeline infrastructure. During the next three summers, the new trunk lines will boost construction equipment utilization well above 50%, but the rate will then fall back to pre-1990 levels. The Article is divided into the following areas: Zeepipe schedule; Nogat schedule: other gas plans; oil projects.

1989-08-21

20

Degradation of the cast steel parts working in power plant pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of materialdegradation on the initiation of cracking and on durability under creep and fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: The aim of the research was to identify the properties of the material of thefittings cut out of a start-up pipeline connecting two OP-140 boilers with turbines, as well as to identify thereasons of failure of these parts after 100000 hours of operation. Results of the investigations were the basisof predicting the lifetime of machine parts and components of devices subjected to complex mechanical andthermal influence. Numerical simulation of work conditions was also performed. Problem of life assessment ofthe pipelines is currently the object of interest of many research centers.Findings: Due to extreme conditions of the start-up pipeline operation, its T-connections are subject to quickwear, and their properties determine the operational reliability and safety of the whole pipeline. For the reasonit is necessary to verify the criteria of pipelines’ durability evaluation applied so far, based on the parameterscharacteristic of the creep process exclusively.Research limitations/implications: In the case discussed, i.e. a T-connection being a start-up pipeline part, thepresent criteria should be expanded with critical values describing fatigue/corrosion processes.Practical implications: The paper introduces the results of investigations of the 0.2C-1.2Cr-0.6Mo-0.3V caststeel used for parts of live steam pipelines working in power plants. Such parts include, e.g. T-connections.Originality/value: The paper show the possibilities of numerical models application.

D. Renowicz; A. Hernas; M. Cie?la; K. Mutwil

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

X-ray fluorescence technique of measuring working stresses in trunk pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The extensive use of trunk pipelines to transport petroleum products and gas calls for measuring techniques to record the strains in pipes during operation. The stresses principally responsible for a risky situation in trunk pipelines during operation are tangential (or circumferential) tensile stresses. The x-ray fluorescence method that we have developed for measuring the working stresses in trunk pipelines has great localization and high sensitivity. It is based on measuring strains by recording the characteristic radiation of an element introduced into a liquid penetrant which fills indentations on the surface of the pipeline. Depending on the magnitude of the working stress that arises as petroleum products or gas are pumped, the volume of the standard indentation changes and, therefore, so does the amount of liquid penetrant introduced into it. In conclusion, we note that this method has a number of advantages over the x-ray structural method. First, the results of the measurements do not depend on the structural state of the material inspected (coarse grain, texture, etc.). Second, the proposed method makes it possible to evaluate the stresses at various points of a large product (pipeline), x-ray structural analysis is applicable only in the laboratory version. Third, the proposed method is implemented with simple (inexpensive) recording equipment. It ensures high inspection productivity (measurement at a point in 20 min) and can be used for noncrystalline materials (plastics, ceramics, etc.)

Bochenin, V.I. [Kurgan Mechanical Engineering Inst. (Russian Federation)

1994-06-01

22

Development of auto-boring work method. [Customer connection to pipeline; installation under roads, etc  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The propulsive work method is applied to the laying of drinking water pipeline. However the gas supply pipeline is laid by the trenching work method for the reason of smallness in diameter, etc. As a result of studying the possible propulsive work method for the small diameter polyethylene (PE) gas supply pipeline, it succeeded in the actual trial of the system, where a rotative unit installed underground, in a 50 cm diameter vertical pit was driven by a propulsive unit horizontally. If it is applied to the road transversal portion, after first locating the main-branch connection point by a metallic sensor, a vertical pit is made by mechanical drilling to that point, building a casing, on which the propulsion unit proper is installed to have auger jointed/added and advanced for the pipeline excavation. After connecting a PE pipe with the thus done auger by a special joint in the arrival pit in the private land, the auger by a special joint in the arrival pit in the private land, the auger is pulled by the reverse operation back to the main-branch connection point, where the connection is made by a long helve tool with a no blow method also on the ground. The actual record has already exceeded 2,000 in number. (6 figs, 1 photo)

Kosaka, Etsuji

1988-09-10

23

Description of work for 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 stainless steel pipeline integrity testing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objectives of this integrity test are to (1) inspect the interior of this pipeline by in-line camera survey and (2) if required, conduct a pressure test on a section of the pipeline. The U-1 and U-2 Cribs were constructed in 1951. From March 1952 to June 1967, the site received cell drainage from Tank 5-2 in the 221-U Building nd waste from the 224-U Building via the overflow from the 241-U-361 Settling Tank. From June 1957 to July 1957, the site received waste from the 224-U Building via the overflow from the 241-U-361 Settling Tank and contaminated solvent from the 276-U Settling Tank solvent storage area. The discharge of 221-U waste was discontinued during shutdown of production operations. From July 1957 to May 1967, the site received waste from the 224-U Building and equipment decontamination and reclamation wastes from operations in the 221-U Building canyon. The scope of work is encompassed in five steps: (1) obtaining access to the pipeline in order to perform an in-line camera survey of the line to the greatest extent possible, (2) evaluating the need for further investigation of the pipeline, (3) blanking the line, as needed, to perform a pressure test, (4) conducting the pressure test, as needed, and (5) documenting the ability of the line to maintain pressure

1967-06-00

24

Abandonment of infusion in production workings in the Ruhr coalfield; Traenkverzicht in Gewinnungsbetrieben im Ruhrkarbon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infusion of coal before extraction is a measure to reduce dust both from the point of view of health protection as well as fire and explosion protection. However, the effectiveness of infusion is higher in highly coalified sections of seams than in sections with low coalification. The highly effective dust suppression measures in the area of coal winning by cutting and stripping have meanwhile allowed the infusion effect to recede into the background, so that it is possible to dispense with this measure in seam areas with low coalification. It was proved in practical tests that the effectiveness of the infusion is no longer detectable, if optimised secondary dust suppression methods are used. Nowadays infusion work can be dispensed with in stratigraphically young seams during coal winning, if it is guaranteed that mining authority requirements to ensure lower dust pollution are met. (orig.)

Kadow, T.; Suedhofer, F. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany); Henke, B.

2004-03-18

25

Crack initiation in steel parts working in boilers and steam pipelines  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of loading history and the processes of material degradation on the crack initiation and on durability under thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions.Design/methodology/approach: Based on the operation data, the conditions of laboratory examinations of specimens were determined. A specialist apparatus unit was used for the examination, enabling the simulation of any spectrum of mechanical load and temperature changes.Findings: The material durability criterion has been defined based on an energy related approach to the problem of crack initiation in steels which work under thermal fatigue conditions.Research limitations/implications: In the case discussed, i.e. a pipeline part, the present criteria should be expanded with critical values describing the total length of cracks initiated on the internal surface of a specimen.Practical implications: The paper refers to the research on steel 10H2M (10CrMo.910) used in the conventional boilers, superheaters and pipelines in power plants.Originality/value: Originality of the paper is the methodology of the lifetime prediction of steam pipeline parts working in thermo-mechanical fatigue conditions.

D. Renowicz; M. Cie?la

2007-01-01

26

What works and what does not: a discussion of popular approaches for the abandonment of female genital mutilation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is reducing in almost all countries in which it is a traditional practice. There are huge variations between countries and communities though, ranging from no change at all to countries and communities where the practice has been more than halved from one generation to the next. Various interventions implemented over the last 30-40 years are believed to have been instrumental in stimulating this reduction, even though in most cases the decrease in prevalence has been slow. This raises questions about the efficacy of interventions to eliminate FGM and an urgent need to channel the limited resources available, where it can make the most difference in the abandonment of FGM. This paper is intended to contribute to the design of more effective interventions by assessing existing knowledge of what works and what does not and discusses some of the most common approaches that have been evaluated: health risk approaches, conversion of excisers, training of health professionals as change agents, alternative rituals, community-led approaches, public statements, and legal measures.

Johansen RE; Diop NJ; Laverack G; Leye E

2013-01-01

27

Vesihuoltolaitosten Verkosto Omaisuuden Hallinta. Toimintamallin Kuvaus Total Management Planning Ohjeistuksen Pohjalta (Pipeline Asset Management of Water and Sewage Works).  

Science.gov (United States)

Asset management has become an interesting topic also with the water and sewage works in Finland. Significant investments will be needed to maintain the reliability and value of this buried asset. The current condition and actual lifetime of pipelines is ...

E. Kupi E. Lehtinen M. Riihimaeki T. Vaelisalo

2008-01-01

28

Development and production of equipment complex for welding and other type of working of plastic pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Results of work on realizing program of welding and working of plastic tubes are presented. The program provides for development of welding equipment and standard-technical documentation for items, produced by welding of plasttic tubes 16-630 mm in diameter. The information, presented in the paper, is of particular interest for desing and mounting organizations, concerned with designing, production and mounting of process pipelines. It also promotes the formation of favourable situration in organizing demand for welding equipment as commodity-marketing requirement. 6 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

1988-01-01

29

Cold work effects on sulfide stress cracking of pipeline steel exposed to sour environments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cold work effects on sulfide stress cracking of a pipeline steel were examined for exposure to a sour gas environment. Cold worked steel was found to be sensitive to hydrogen embrittlement. The fracture toughness decreases with increasing cold work. Sufficiently low values of fracture toughness may be achieved to promote plane strain fracture even in relatively thin laboratory specimens after a steady state level of hydrogen has occurred in the material. Sulfide stress cracking failure of steel with low amounts of cold work (<30%) is by transgranular cleavage fracture, while heavily cold worked steel shows secondary cracks and microvoid coalescence. The results indicate that sulfide stress cracking of the steel is a mixture of anodic stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement. The anodic SCC mechanism is mainly promoted by carbon dioxide and a high level of chloride. (author).

Huang, H.; Shaw, W.J.D. (Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-01-01

30

Description of work for 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 stainless steel pipeline integrity testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this integrity test are to (1) inspect the interior of this pipeline by in-line camera survey and (2) if required, conduct a pressure test on a section of the pipeline. The U-1 and U-2 Cribs were constructed in 1951. From March 1952 to J...

M. A. Wasemiller

1994-01-01

31

Work in Progress: Malleable Software Pipelines for Efficient Many-core System Utilization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper details our current research project on the efficient utilization of many-core systems by utilizing applications based on a novel kind of software pipelines. These pipelines form malleable applications that can change their degree of parallelism at runtime. This allows not only for a well...

Jahn, Janmartin; Kobbe, Sebastian; Pagani, Santiago; Chen, Jian-Jia; Henkel, Jörg

32

Abandoned vehicles  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

33

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and union linkages : Working Paper No. 7.2.7  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large construction projects such as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project typically have an agreement with a union before starting construction in order to avoid strikes and other labour disruptions. Unions can also secure multi-year employment for their workers, creating a win-win situation. There are 4 unions associated with building pipelines. These are United Association of Plumbers and Pipefitters (UA), Teamsters, International Union of Operating Engineers, and Laborers International Union. Only the UA is currently active in construction in the Yukon. Generally, all contractors and sub-contractors must sign a collective agreement. Unions give local hiring priority and have also established targets for First Nations hiring. This study presented charts depicting employment of operators, labourers, teamsters, welders, pipefitters, electricians, carpenters and others, by seasons in Canada in the main union jurisdictions and in building trades. None of the highway, road, bridge or engineering construction firms active in the Yukon is unionized, but some have collective agreements in other jurisdictions. It was noted that these local non-union firms may have difficulty bidding on pipeline related sub-contracts. The four unions along with several pipeline contractors have formed a joint council of northern pipeline construction called the Northern Pipelines Projects Group, which intends to coordinate training programs for pipeline workers. 2 tabs.

2002-01-01

34

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and First Nations : Linkages : Working Paper No. 7.6  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The construction of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) will bring several employment opportunities for Yukon First Nations citizens. This paper presented some recommendations to maximize these employment benefits. The AHPP will cross the territory of 8 of the 14 Yukon First Nations. The current land selections through the Foothills route indicate that 202 km of the 832 km long pipeline will end up on First Nations land. The six channels of economic impact for First Nations include: (1) employment of First Nations citizens on pipeline construction and operation, (2) First Nation-owned business on pipeline construction, (3) employment of First Nations citizens in other Yukon businesses, (4) taxation, (5) availability of natural gas, and (6) additional services and infrastructure that will be incurred. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

Zanasi, L.; Taggart, M. [Informetrica Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2002-04-01

35

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and First Nations : Linkages : Working Paper No. 7.6  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The construction of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) will bring several employment opportunities for Yukon First Nations citizens. This paper presented some recommendations to maximize these employment benefits. The AHPP will cross the territory of 8 of the 14 Yukon First Nations. The current land selections through the Foothills route indicate that 202 km of the 832 km long pipeline will end up on First Nations land. The six channels of economic impact for First Nations include: (1) employment of First Nations citizens on pipeline construction and operation, (2) First Nation-owned business on pipeline construction, (3) employment of First Nations citizens in other Yukon businesses, (4) taxation, (5) availability of natural gas, and (6) additional services and infrastructure that will be incurred. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

2002-01-01

36

Carbon dioxide corrosion: Modelling and experimental work applied to natural gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

CO{sub 2} corrosion is a general problem in the industry and it is expensive. The focus of this study is an oil gas production related problem. CO{sub 2} corrosion is observed in offshore natural gas transportation pipelines. A general overview of the problem is presented in chapter 1. The chemical system consists mainly of CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O. Sodium is injected in the pipelines as NaOH in order to pH-stabilize the pipeline to avoid corrosion and MEG is injected in order to prevent gas hydrates. There are a great number of models available in the literature which may predict CO{sub 2} corrosion. These models are not very accurate and assume ideality in the main part of the equation. This thesis deals with aspect of improving the models to account for the non-ideality. A general overview and extension of the theory behind electrochemical corrosion is presented in chapter 2 to 4. The theory deals with the basic thermodynamics of electrolytes in chapter 2, the extension and general description of electrolyte mass transport in chapter 3, and the electrochemical kinetics of corrosion in chapter 4. A literature overview of CO{sub 2} corrosion is shown in chapter 5 and possible extensions of the models are discussed. A list of literature cites is given in chapter 6. The literature review in chapter 5 shows how FeCO{sub 3} plays a main part in the protection of steel. Especially the solubility of FeCO{sub 3} is an important factor. Chapter 7 discusses and validates the thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3}. The study shows that there is a discrepancy in the properties of FeCO{sub 3}. Sets of consistent thermodynamic properties of FeCO{sub 3} are given. A mixed solvent electrolyte model is regressed in chapter 8 for the CO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. Parameters of the extended UNIQUAC model is fitted to literature data of VLE, SLE, heat excess and validated against heat capacity data. The model is also fitted to experimental data produced and shown in chapter 8 for SLE in the Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-NaHCO{sub 3}-MEG-H{sub 2}O system. The application of the above model is shown in chapter 9. Here the thermodynamic correction factors are calculated. These show how the diffusion process in CO{sub 2} corrosion models deviate from the ideal case. Conclusion and suggestion for future work are presented in chapter 10 and 11. (au)

Loldrup Fosboel. P.

2007-10-15

37

Arsenic input into the catchment of the River Caudal (Northwestern Spain) from abandoned Hg mining works: effect on water quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Asturias (NW Spain) there are many abandoned mines, of which Hg mines are of particular significance from an environmental point of view, due to the presence of Hg and particularly As, which is found either in the form of specific (orpiment and realgar) or non-specific minerals (As-rich pyrite). The instability of these minerals leads to the presence of As-rich mine drainage and spoils heap leachates that enter surface waters or groundwaters. A study including the three most important Hg mines in the region (La Soterraña, Los Rueldos and El Terronal) has been conducted. Watercourses flowing through these mining areas are tributaries of the River Caudal, one of the most important rivers in the area. High concentrations of As were found in some of these waters, which were monitored over a period of three hydrological years and classified according to a water quality index. Those waters sampled close to the mines are generally of poor-to-bad quality, with low alkalinity and in some cases high metal content, but the quality of these waters improves with distance from the mines. The average mass load of As entering the River Caudal has been evaluated as: 200, 12 and 9,800 kg year(-1) from La Soterraña, Los Rueldos and El Terronal mine sites, respectively. Despite the constant input of about 10 tonnes of As per year, the total As concentration remains below analytical detection thresholds on account of the river's high water flow. Nevertheless, an important part of this As load is presumably retained in the river sediments, representing a potential risk of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems.

Ordoñez A; Silva V; Galán P; Loredo J; Rucandio I

2013-08-01

38

National impact of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 6.1.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report examined the economic impacts of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) for Canada. The proposed project will impact the economy through construction of the pipeline as well as through export of natural gas transmission services. Interest in Alaskan North Slope natural gas has been renewed because of the following 3 main factors: (1) the US energy policy is promoting cleaner burning fuels, particularly for power generation, (2) the recent winter price shocks for both oil and natural gas, and (3) the US effort to protect and guarantee energy supplies. The impact of northern gas and pipeline development was assessed with reference to the impact that spending will have on the Canadian economy. A standard macroeconomic impact model is employed, first by preparing a base case forecast of the economy, assuming that the project does not occur. Secondly, an impact case forecast of the economy was prepared assuming the pipeline is developed and operated. The third step of the procedure involved a comparison of impacts of the first and second procedures. The report presented direct, indirect and induced impacts. The Informetrica Model (TIM) of the national economy is used to obtain behavioural underpinning to the analysis. The model is very detailed in industry terms and links demands on the economy, output and employment of many industries, as well as costs and prices of industries and commodities in a consistent framework. Both the upside and the downside of the proposed pipeline were presented. 16 figs.

2002-01-01

39

Deep water pipeline intervention work with an acoustically controlled power module  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stabilisation of submarine pipeline free spans along uneven sea bottoms is conventionally performed using technologies such as gravel dumping, post trenching, matresses installation etc.. A new technology has been developed to support free spans along the 26 inches Transmed Gas Pipelines crossing the Sicily Channel in water depths ranging from 50m to 510m. This technology is based on the pipeline mechanical supports {open_quotes}Atlantis{close_quotes} and their installation module {open_quotes}Pegaso{close_quotes} and was developed having in mind requirements such as short installation time, system redundancy, operational flexibility and simple interface with the support vessel. The installation time reduction is achieved by automatic operational procedures which are acoustically controlled from surface. Power is stored inside two dedicated battery packs placed onboard Pegaso; no umbilical cable is necessary so that a vessel equipped with a normal crane is enough to launch and operate the system. Marine operations carried out in 1993 showed that a support can be installed in about one hour; in good weather conditions three Atlantis were installed in 24 hours including deck operations for recharging the battery packs; as a total sixteen supports were installed along the 4th and 5th Transmed Gas Pipelines. The system has proved to be a cost effective and flexible alternative to conventional technologies for free span support, especially in deep waters. A cost/benefit analysis also shows the breakeven point of the new technology versus gravel dumping.

Conter, A.; Launaro, F.; Bigoni, G.

1995-12-31

40

A comparison : Impact studies and Trans-Alaska Pipeline : Working Paper No. 6.1.2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using data of tariff rates from Industry Canada (IC) and the Yukon Government (YK). The IC impact spans 8 years from 2001 to 2008 with peak investment of $2.4 billion in 2005. The YK impact spans 10 years from 2002 to 2012 and peaks at nearly $2.0 billion in 2006. For the IC impact, the construction phase peaks in 2005 at 0.2 per cent impact on the Canadian Gross Domestic Product. For the YK impact, different government policy assumptions were used to produce 2 different scenarios for the AHPP impact. The first scenario is comparable to the IC impact, because the fiscal policy assumptions are similar. In the second scenario, Gross Domestic Product impacts peak at 0.25 per cent impact on the Canadian economy in 2006 with long-term impacts of nearly 0.13 per cent. The direct effects of both the IC impact and the YK impact are very similar in magnitude and the methodology used in the IC impact and scenario 1 is similar. This report presented a comparison of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) with the AHPP. TAPS is probably the closest pipeline in magnitude to the AHPP, but TAPS is an oil pipeline which results in variations in construction methods and materials. TAPS spans 800 miles and was built in 1970 to carry crude oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. The basic difference between the two lines is that TAPS has to maintain the oil at a high temperature so it will flow, and most of the pipeline has to be suspended above ground, while AHPP can be buried underground and operated at low temperatures. The construction costs per mile are expected to be much lower for the AHPP. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Alaska Highway Pipeline Project and the environment : Working Paper No. 7.2.8  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presented a brief overview of the environmental impacts that may occur if the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) goes ahead as planned. It presents the position of local environmental groups, including the Yukon Conservation Society and the Yukon chapter of the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society. Both have signed a statement which calls for a system of protected areas to be completed, as well as detailed regional land use plans before construction begins. They also call for a strict environmental assessment process that would include a no-go option and which would examine the potential cumulative effects of the project. This paper presented the general environmental concerns and impacts of construction, with reference to habitat disruption, Southern Lakes Caribou winter habitat, stream crossings, and erosion. It also included several site specific impacts along the existing Foothills pipeline segment that are of particular environmental concern for Kluane Lake, Sheep Mountain, Slims River and Ibex Valley. There are minimal environmental concerns regarding the operation of the pipeline. One potential impact is on air quality near compressor stations through the creation of ice fog in the winter. Noise pollution is another possible problem if inadequate muffler systems are used. Also, the effect of maintaining a wider transportation corridor is not yet known. The proposed construction will likely accelerate oil and gas development in the Yukon which will have large and long-term impacts. One of the arguments in favour of the natural gas pipeline, is its potential to reduce pollution of SOx, NOx and VOCs on a continental scale by allowing substitution of clean burning natural gas instead of coal or diesel fuels. In terms of the impact on global warming, the pipeline can only reduce net emissions of greenhouse gases if the additional gas does not translate into higher net energy use. One additional concern for the Yukon is how emissions will be charged or credited. For example, will the Yukon be charged for compressor station emissions even if the gas is Alaskan? 3 refs.

2002-01-01

42

Lifetime for a pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline Integrity International (PII) undertook the inspection and repair of nearly 7,000 km of poorly maintained gas pipeline in Argentina. Major improvements in the cathodic protection system were also carried out. The paper reports on work devised and carried out by PII and the maintenance programme drawn up. The life expectancy of the pipeline has been extended by about 100 years. (UK)

Muschetto, Oscar [Transportadora de Gas del Sur Argentina, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Clyne, Alastair; Dalton, J.A.; Jones, D.G. [Pipeline Integrity International, Cramlington (United Kingdom)

1999-06-01

43

Recovery of methane from the abandoned Golden Eagle Mine property  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The abandoned Golden Eagle underground coal mine in Colorado contains gassy coals from which Stroud Oil Properties, Inc. (Stroud) has been recovering gas since 1996. The mine closed permanently in 1996, and during its operation drained methane from gob and ventilation boreholes. Stroud currently produces about 1.8 million cubic feet of near pipeline quality gas per day from six of these boreholes. Although the project has proven successful, gas recovery has been challenging because of low bottom hole pressure and variable borehole performance. Wellhead compressors are required to boost gas pressure for delivery to the main plant. Connecting additional boreholes to the gathering system often decreases production from existing production boreholes. Increasing gas removal has resulted in air leaks that lower gas quality. Stroud monitors the gas quality and blends any below-spec gas with its above-spec gas to ensure that the resulting product meets pipeline standards. This gas is then compressed for sale into a nearby pipeline. Overburden relaxation and finite difference modeling indicate that overlying coal seams and the coal remaining at the margins of the mined out workings contribute a significant amount of gas to the current production.

Hupp, K.L.; Bibler, C.; Pilcher, R.C.

1999-07-01

44

Cost-benefit analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 8.1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This cost-benefit analysis was conducted to determine if the benefits resulting from the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) exceed the cost. This study referred in particular to the Yukon portion of the pipeline. Although the analysis requires more than just calculations of business profit and loss, it is commonly used for the assessment of alternative public investment. The project includes construction of 4 segments of pipeline and expansion of the pre-build section of the line, with Yukon being the longest of the Canadian portion. Alaskan proven gas reserves contain 35 trillion cubic feet of natural gas with total reserves predicted at 126 tcf. This amount is assumed to be exhausted in 26 to 44 years, depending on the actual capacity of the gas fields. This study evaluated the benefits over a 25 year period. The different boundaries that were used to tabulate costs and benefits included every economic participant, including gas owners in Alaska, the pipeline companies, federal government, residents of Canada, as well as provincial, and First Nations government, and the American consumers. This study focused on the Canadian portion of the project with specific regional considerations. It also includes the distribution of both upstream and downstream net benefits to the United States. The study demonstrated that the AHPP meets the efficiency criteria over a wide range of discount rates. The total net benefits for the project would be in the order of $1 billion to $29 billion, with 10 per cent of those benefits going directly to different levels of the Canadian government and 3 per cent remaining in the Yukon. It was concluded that from a social point of view, the project should go ahead in the national interest if the net present value is positive and that the project would not imply any additional social costs such as withdrawing employment from other areas or incurring additional infrastructure costs. Additional benefits to the Yukon will be realized through improved roads, ports and airports, and from easily accessible natural gas that will displace more polluting and expensive energy sources such as diesel. 14 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

Chmiel, I.; McCracken, M.C. [Informetrica Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)

2002-04-01

45

Provincial impacts of Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.1.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The impact that the construction and operation of the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will have on the Canadian economy was examined. Part 2 of this report presents a series of assumptions where the changes to the economy were explained with reference to the cost of developing facilities, revenues earned by their operations and other determinants that affect jurisdictional and sectorial impacts. The third part of the report presents the implications for the Northwest Territories/Yukon, British Columbia and Alberta since they are the regions that will be directly impacted by the AHPP. The significance of the development that extend beyond the immediately impacted regions was also assessed. For the impact analysis procedure, a base case forecast of the economy was prepared, assuming the project does not go ahead. This was followed by an impact case forecast of the economy in which the pipeline is developed and operated. Direct, indirect and induced effects were described. Two impact cases were considered for both national and regional studies. For the first case, all changes in government balances from increased revenues were assumed to go directly into debt reduction or acquisition of financial assets. For the second case, the governments recycle the increased revenue using a lower employment insurance contribution rate, and keeping federal business tax revenue and federal personal income tax revenue equal to the base case. The general effect of the second scenario is to increase the induced effects by increasing disposable income through lower tax rates. The report examined assumptions in the construction phase with reference to capital costs and construction employment. It also examined assumptions in the operational phase with reference to transportation services and operations employment. 7 tabs., 12 figs.

2002-01-01

46

Waste management plan for pipeline construction works: basic guideline for its preparation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the stage of implementation of the land pipes enterprise, one of the main environmental aspects to be considered was the creation of solid and liquid waste. To mitigate the possible impacts to the environment, the main adopted mitigate measure was the implementation of a Waste Management Plan - WMP. Thus, the management of waste from pipes construction has the challenge of a great variety of stages and phases for the implementation of pipes and the diversity of local situations related to the topographic and hydro-geologic conditions. Considering the peculiarity of the pipes activities, this article proposes the elaboration of a Basic Guide to be used as reference for the creation of WMP's for similar enterprises, using as foundation the data from the three Gas Pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria; Vitoria - Cacimbas and Cacimbas - Catu. After the analysis of the three mentioned enterprises, it was verified that the waste management generated on the building and assembling of the land pipes normally occurs in accord with previous planning, but there's no systematization for the waste to be better recycled and reutilized, thus mitigating their creation. (author)

Serricchio, Claudio; Caldas, Flaviana V. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Araujo, Ronaldo G. de [TELSAN, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tania Mara [IMC-SASTE, Sao Paulo,SP (Brazil); Veronez, Fernanda A. [Bourscheid, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

2009-07-01

47

Harwell abandons cold fusion research  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article reports the abandonment of cold fusion research at Harwell Laboratory. Following announcements in March 1989, that work in the laboratory, at the University of Utah had produced cold fusion, a team of scientists was assembled at Harwell to attempt to reproduce this exciting possibility. Despite repeated and wide ranging efforts, no evidence of cold fusion has been found by the Harwell team. (author).

Anon.

1989-08-01

48

Abandoned Texas oil fields  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Data for Texas abandoned oil fields were primarily derived from two sources: (1) Texas Railroad Commission (TRRC), and (2) Dwight's ENERGYDATA. For purposes of this report, abandoned oil fields are defined as those fields that had no production during 1977. The TRRC OILMASTER computer tapes were used to identify these abandoned oil fields. The tapes also provided data on formation depth, gravity of oil production, location (both district and county), discovery date, and the cumulative production of the field since its discovery. In all, the computer tapes identified 9211 abandoned fields, most of which had less than 250,000 barrel cumulative production. This report focuses on the 676 abandoned onshore Texas oil fields that had cumulative production of over 250,000 barrels. The Dwight's ENERGYDATA computer tapes provided production histories for approximately two-thirds of the larger fields abandoned in 1966 and thereafter. Fields which ceased production prior to 1966 will show no production history nor abandonment date in this report. The Department of Energy hopes the general availability of these data will catalyze the private sector recovery of this unproduced resource.

1980-12-01

49

Recovering pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An apparatus for inserting a recovery plug into a submerged pipeline for recovering the pipeline comprises a support on which a carriage for the plug is mounted. The support is clamped rigidly on the pipeline. The carriage is movable relatively to the support in a direction parallel to the pipeline and is pivotable about an axis parallel to that direction. A double-acting hydraulic cylinder is used to move the carriage. The plug is thus movable from a rest position into an inserted position inside the pipeline. A cutting component is provided for cutting away a possible damaged portion of the pipeline. 25 claims.

Scodino, A.

1980-02-13

50

Pipeline system operability review  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline operators are continuously working to improve the safety of their systems and operations. In the US both liquid and gas pipeline operators have worked with the regulators over many years to develop more systematic approaches to pipeline integrity management. To successfully manage pipeline integrity, vast amounts of data from different sources needs to be collected, overlaid and analyzed in order to assess the current condition and predict future degradation. The efforts undertaken by the operators has had a significant impact on pipeline safety, nevertheless, during recent years we have seen a number of major high profile accidents. One can therefore ask how effective the pipeline integrity management systems and processes are. This paper will present one methodology 'The Pipeline System Operability Review' that can evaluate and rate the effectiveness of both the management systems and procedures, as well as the technical condition of the hardware. The result from the review can be used to compare the performance of different pipelines within one operating company, as well as benchmark with international best practices. (author)

Eriksson, Kjell [Det Norske Veritas (Norway); Davies, Ray [CC Technologies, Dublin, OH (United States)

2005-07-01

51

Abandoned borehole compositions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compositions are described for boreholes which are to become abandoned and also a process for using the same. The compositions contain a mixture of about 89.5% to about 99.4% by weight clay gellant, about 0.5% to about 10% by weight water-soluble alkali metal salt , and about 0.1% to about 3.0% by weight salt of carboxymethylcellulose.

Byerley, T. L.

1981-05-12

52

Neonatal abandonment in Japanese macaques.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study analyzed long-term demographic data relative to a captive colony of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in order to evaluate factors predicting increased probability of infant neonatal abandonment. Overall, 7.7% of liveborn infants were abandoned at birth. Probability of abandonment was significantly increased in primiparous and, to a lesser extent, low-ranking mothers. Primiparous mothers abandoned about 40% of their infants at birth. Mother age and infant sex had no independent effects on the probability of neonatal abandonment. Primiparous mothers that did not abandon their infants suffered increased infant mortality and showed longer interbirth intervals compared to same-age multiparous mothers. These results are partially consistent with adaptive hypotheses predicting maternal divestment under unfavorable conditions, and with proximate explanations linking abandonment to inexperience and stress.

Schino G; Troisi A

2005-04-01

53

Planning for abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The objective of this series of papers is to address the pressing issues surrounding the concept of abandonment of Northern North Sea offshore production facilities and structural steel jackets. For many operators there is a notional idea that when you are finished with an offshore production facility and structural steel jackets, they merely sail away over the horizon never to be seen or heard of again, but the real world dictates otherwise. For those that operate today in the Northern North Sea there is perhaps a uniqueness in character related to the design, fabrication, installation and operation of these Northern North Sea offshore production facilities. Approaching now for many the reality of abandonment, removal and disposal of these facilities, the oil and gas industries must now also recognize that unique methodology requires to be developed for implementation to overcome this daunting task of abandonment. Innovative and lateral thinking being employed by those companies and individuals who have risen to take up the challenge to achieve the goals and objectives, developing the ultimate solution to this enormous problem facing the oil and gas industry today. Many common aspects and activities exist for operators to undertake jointly during the planning, engineering and the various implementation stages for this ultimate episode in field life

1994-01-01

54

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repairs and for fiber-reinforced composite repair. To date, all of the experimental work pertaining to the evaluation of potential repair methods has focused on fiber-reinforced composite repairs. Hydrostatic testing was also conducted on four pipeline sections with simulated corrosion damage: two with composite liners and two without.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2003-05-01

55

Inter provincial input-output analysis of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project : Working Paper No. 7.2.1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The economic impact of the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project (AHPP) was examined using an inter provincial input-output model (IPIO) consisting of 10 provincial input-output matrix sets and 2 territorial IO matrix sets which were then interconnected through inter provincial trade flow. Changes in any province, industry or commodity will impact on other provinces, industries and commodities. The AHPP will cause investment and production of pipeline services to increase. Investment will require additional products from the economy that can come from domestic industries or imported from foreign markets. The purchase and installation of pipeline and any preparation costs would be associated with non-residential structure investment. The report refers to both machinery and equipment capital expenditures, and pipeline cost-of-service. Direct, indirect and induced effects were also examined. The construction phase impact for the Yukon segment of the AHPP will be $2,138 million from structures investment, and $1,231 million from machinery and equipment investment. For the British Columbia segment, the construction phase impact will be $1,711 million from structures investment and $927 million from machinery and equipment investment. The construction phase is expected to generate 50,000 person-years of employment in the Canadian economy over a 10 year construction period, with peak construction occurring in 2006. The construction phase is expected to generate $3,446 million of Gross Domestic Product for Canada, of which $2,318 million will be split between Yukon and British Columbia. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

2002-01-01

56

World pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book is review of the world's most important existing energy, oil, gas, and products pipelines. It describes and summarizes the many pipelines currently under construction or projected. The scope covers more than 70 countries (onshore and offshore), and data are provided about their routes, lengths, diameters, dates of construction, etc. There is also an international directory of organizations and associations relevant to the pipeline industry.

Tiratsoo, J.N.H.

1983-01-01

57

Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

1995-01-01

58

Proceedings of the 10. Banff pipeline workshop : managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This workshop provided an interactive forum for discussing issues related to the integrity and safety of pipeline infrastructure. The workshop reviewed state-of-the-art technologies and techniques in pipeline design, construction, operation, inspection and maintenance. New areas and initiatives for pipeline research and development were identified along with methods of optimizing pipeline industry communication networks and enhancing the pipeline integrity management process. The workshop included tutorials related to the management of pipeline integrity. The workshop was then divided into 12 working groups: (1) issues for managers; (2) regulatory developments; (3) upstream pipelines, inspection, corrosion and integrity management; (4) design, materials, construction, repair and maintenance; (5) management of stress corrosion cracking; (6) protective coatings; (7) pipeline risk management; (8) inspection tools; (9) external corrosion; (10) internal corrosion; (11) facilities integrity management; and (12) managing geotechnical hazards. A closing plenary session discussed developments in Canadian Standards Agency (CSA) pipeline standards development processes. All 12 working group sessions have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

Anderson, B. [Alberta Chamber of Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cameron, G. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lee, S. [Energy Resources Conservation Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Macdonald, D. [SNC-Lavalin Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre; Saad, Z. [Canadian Energy Pipeline Association, Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

59

Stress corrosion cracking of pipelines  

CERN Multimedia

Explains why pipeline stress corrosion cracking happens and how it can be prevented Pipelines sit at the heart of the global economy. When they are in good working order, they deliver fuel to meet the ever-growing demand for energy around the world. When they fail due to stress corrosion cracking, they can wreak environmental havoc. This book skillfully explains the fundamental science and engineering of pipeline stress corrosion cracking based on the latest research findings and actual case histories. The author explains how and why pipelines fall prey to stress corrosio

Cheng, Y Frank

2013-01-01

60

Pipeline stresses. Reliability aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline transport of liquid and gas products is very economical. Today the length of main pipelines in our country is more than 200,000 kilometers and continues to grow at extremely rapid rates. Transport arteries fitted out with the most modern technology, such as the transcontinental gas line stretching about 4000 kilometers from Urengoy to Pomary to Uzhgorod, or the Surgut-Polotsk oil pipeline, are truly becoming the blood-carrying arteries of the entire economy. Soon the network of pipeline transport will include lines for conveying not only liquids and gases but also solid materials-coal lines and container lines. Of course, with the growth and development of this network, the problem of its reliability becomes more and more important, especially according to criteria of the mechanical strength of the line part of the pipe, or, more simply speaking, the steel tube itself, through which the oil, gas, coal, and other products flow. After all damage to the pipeline frequently leads to very serious consequences: pollution of the environment, or breakdowns in the work of enterprises which extract and process mineral and organic raw materials. Causes of and remedies to pipeline stresses are discussed.

Galyuk, V.K.; Fokin, M.F.

1985-09-01

 
 
 
 
61

Abandoned vehicles - Reminder  

CERN Multimedia

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

62

Abandoned vehicles REMINDER  

CERN Document Server

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

63

Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER  

CERN Document Server

The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

Relations with the Host States Service

2004-01-01

64

Pipeline Integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

All over the world, pipelines are one of the most important means of transporting fluids to or from residential or production centres. Being predominantly buried in ground owned by third parties, their flawless condition is taken great interest in by individual citizens and the public. Although pipelines are one of the safest means of transport, a number of damage events have occurred in the past with grave consequences for the safety of the public, the environment, and the prosperity of the enterprises concerned. By means of a Pipeline Integrity Management system, planners and operators ensure that the technical integrity of theses means of transport is safeguarded at any time and can be proved to investors and claimants. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Pipeline leistet als eines der wesentlichsten Transportmittel fuer Fluide einen erheblichen Beitrag fuer die Ver- und Entsorgung von Wohn- und Produktionszentren auf der ganzen Welt. Da Pipelines ueberwiegend im Grund und Boden von Dritten verlegt sind, besteht ein grosses privates und oeffentliches Interesse an der makellosen Beschaffenheit dieser Einrichtungen. Obwohl die Pipeline eines der sichersten Transportmittel ist, traten in der Vergangenheit eine Anzahl von Schadensereignissen auf, die schwere Folgen fuer die oeffentliche Sicherheit, die Umwelt und die Vermoegen der betroffenen Unternehmen hatten. Mit Hilfe eines Pipeline-Integrity-Managementsystems stellen die Planer und Betreiber sicher, dass die technische Integritaet dieser Transportwege zu jeder Zeit gewaehrleistet ist und falls erforderlich auch gegenueber den Investoren oder anderen Anspruchsberechtigten nachgewiesen werden kann. (orig.)

Klaus, E.H. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

1999-02-01

65

Pipeline monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

TransCanada PipeLines Limited has established a comprehensive program for in-line inspection of its extensive pipeline system. TransCanada has been developing inspection tools since 1968 and currently has three types of inspection tools capable of detecting corrosion on either the inside pipe surface or both the inside and outside pipe surfaces and/or mechanical damage (e.g., dents). Development of inspection tools continues and is mentioned briefly.

Jamieson, R.M.; Mc Donald, J.S.

1986-12-01

66

Environmental management of works in pipelines at natural protected areas; Gestao ambiental em obras de faixas de dutos nas areas naturais protegidas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The TRANSPETRO pipeway in the State of Sao Paulo crosses different scenarios, including Permanent Preservation Areas and Conservation Units, as the Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar - PESM, which contains the most extensive Mata Atlantica fragment, with more than 315,000 hectares. The rigor of environmental organisms imposes a number of extra conditions to critical points to be considered in activities with interference in the conservation unit. It was studied the case of thirty two kilometer pipeline substitution of OSBAT pipeway, in the Sao Sebastiao city, in the area covered by the PESM, to know the effective of environmental controls adopted. It was able to analyze the results about the application of management instruments at different levels, including independent external audit, audit of the Company that realized the work activities and audit of the own specialized people of TRANSPETRO and PETROBRAS. (author)

Raul, Vanderlei Lourenco; Alves, Anibal Jose Constantino; Martini, Andrea Dietrich; Lima, Silvia Ferreira de; Campos, Cleber Lucio dos Santos; Ozorio, Tarcisio Faria; Melo Neto, Joao Evangelista de [PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

67

Pipeline encroachment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline encroachment affects developers, the public,the Canadian Standards Association and the Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada (MIACC). Encroachment initiatives involve the MIACC, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) Task Force and the 1997 Pipeline Integrity Workshop. MIACC`s aim with respect to encroachment is to increase awareness and encourage dialogue among key stakeholders when considering changes to existing land uses or new land use development near to or surrounding existing pipelines, or new pipelines adjacent to existing land developments. For MIACC, the key stakeholders include pipelines, developers and local authorities. The CAPP Task Force was established in April 1996 to raise the awareness of municipalities and counties, address implications of developments, inform municipalities and planners about sources of pipeline information, and use a consultative communications process. The CAPP Task Force made certain proposals that included development of a model by-law, improved/continued dialogue between municipalities, planners and developers, development of an information letter by the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board and linkage with the MIACC document.

Scott, I.F. [Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

68

Measuring pipeline movement in geotechnically unstable areas using an inertial geometry pipeline inspection pig  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NOWSCO`s Inertial Geometry Inspection system (GEOPIG) measures pipeline location coordinates (x,y,h) and provides data for measuring pipeline bending strain and strain changes used for structural analysis and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems in geotechnically unstable areas. This paper reviews the results of work to prove such a system`s accuracy and repeatability against deliberately induced strain events in 26 inch operating gas pipeline. An inertial geometry pipeline inspection tool provides nearly continuous measurement of pipeline centerline coordinates. Over time, run to run strain comparisons can be made providing information with respect to possible failure modes and timing.

Czyz, J.A.; Fraccaroli, C.; Sergeant, A.P.

1996-12-31

69

Pipeline regulation in Canada: a guide for landowners and the public  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In Canada, the construction, operation and abandonment of a pipeline is highly regulated by the National Energy Board (NEB). The NEB regulates pipelines, energy development and energy trade at international and interprovincial levels, in the public interest. This document aims to provide landowners and the public with a better understanding of pipeline regulation in Canada and may be useful to companies, environmental groups or anyone interested in knowing about pipeline regulation. This guide explains the regulatory process that companies must follow to be allowed by the NEB to build a pipeline.

NONE

2010-09-15

70

Pipeline repair development in support of the Oman to India gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper provides a summary of development which has been conducted to date for the ultra deep, diverless pipeline repair system for the proposed Oman to India Gas Pipeline. The work has addressed critical development areas involving testing and/or prototype development of tools and procedures required to perform a diverless pipeline repair in water depths of up to 3,525 m.

Abadie, W.; Carlson, W.

1995-12-01

71

On the influence of the UOE forming process on material properties and collapse pressure of deep water pipelines: experimental work  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large diameter pipes for onshore and offshore applications are manufactured using the UOE process. The manufacturing process consists in the cold forming of heavy plates followed by welding and then by an expansion. It has been demonstrated in previous work that, for deep water applications, the cold forming process involved in UOE pipe manufacturing significantly reduces pipe collapse strength. To improve the understanding of these effects, Tenaris has embarked on a program to model the phases of the UOE manufacturing process using finite element methods. Previous phases of this work formulated the basis for the model development and described the 2D approach taken to model the various steps of manufacture. More recent developments included modeling enhancements, some sensitivity analyses, and comparison of predictions to the results of full-scale collapse testing performed at C FER. This work has shown correlations between manufacturing parameters and collapse pressure predictions. The results of the latest phase of the research program are presented in this paper. This work consists of full scale collapse testing and extensive coupon testing on samples collected from various stages of the UOE pipe manufacturing process including plate, UO, UOE, and thermally aged UOE. Four UOE pipe samples manufactured with varying forming parameters were provided by Tenaris for this test program along with associated plate and UO samples. Full-scale collapse and buckle propagation tests were conducted on a sample from each of the four UOE pipes including one that was thermally aged. Additional coupon-scale work included measurement of the through thickness variation of material properties and a thermal ageing study aimed at better understanding UOE pipe strength recovery. The results of these tests will provide the basis for further refinement of the finite element model as the program proceeds into the next phase. (author)

Timms, Chris; Swanek, Doug; DeGeer, Duane [C-FER Technologies, Alberta (Canada); Mantovano, Luciano O. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ernst, Hugo A. [Tenaris Siderca, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Structural Integrity Dept.; Toscano, Rita G. [SIM y TEC, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Souza, Marcos P.; Chad, Luis C. [Tenaris Confab, Pindamonhangaba, SP (Brazil)

2009-07-01

72

Upstream pipelines : inspection, corrosion and integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Accurate inspection techniques are needed to ensure the integrity of pipelines. This working group discussed methods of reducing pipeline failures for a variety of pipes. A summary of recent pipeline performance statistics was presented, as well as details of third party damage and fiberglass pipe failures. A batch inhibitor joint industry project was described. The session demonstrated that integrity program need to be developed at the field-level as well as at the upper management level. Fiberglass pipeline failures are significant problem for pipeline operators. Corrosion monitoring, pigging and specific budgets are needed in order to ensure the successful management of pipeline integrity. New software developed to predict pipeline corrosion rates was discussed, and methods of determining mole fractions and flow regimes were presented. The sessions included updates from regulators and standards agencies as well as discussions of best practices, regulations, codes and standards related to pipeline integrity. The working group was divided into 4 sessions: (1) updates since 2007 with input from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and the Upstream Pipeline Integrity Management Association (UPIMA); (2) integrity of non-metallic pipelines; (3) upstream pipeline integrity issues; and (4) hot topics. tabs., figs.

Paez, J.; Stephenson, M. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)] (comps.)

2009-07-01

73

Effort problem of chemical pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

1998-12-31

74

Vale do Aco pipeline: pipeline natural gas implementation in ArcelorMittal Monlevade steel work; Gasoduto Vale do Aco: implantacao do gas natural via gasoduto na ArcelorMittal Monlevade  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since September 2010, ArcelorMittal Monlevade has gained flexibility and an important opportunity to reduce the cost of its energy mix due to the arrival of the Natural Gas (NG) via Steel Valley Pipeline. The proposal of the project included the substitution of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), Fuel Oil and Compressed Natural Gas for natural gas via pipeline. To support the investment decision, in addition to domestic economic and technical aspects, the macro economic environment concerning the NG was also taken into account. This paper shows the analysis for adjustment of internal equipment, the structure of the contract, the conceptual project of the gas distribution built inside the main events, the gains achieved, the alternatives for the acquisition of NG and operational flexibility of ArcelorMittal Monlevade in case of interruption of supply of natural gas. (author)

Goncalves, Eduardo Sergio da Silva; Arantes, Luiz Flavio Mourao; Ribeiro, Vicente Aleixo Pinheiro [ArcelorMittal Monlevade, Joao Monlevade, MG (Brazil)

2011-12-21

75

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 10 presented experiences acquired from the operation of pipeline systems in a northern environment. There are currently 3 pipelines operating north of 60, notably the Shiha gas pipeline near Fort Liard, the Ikhil gas pipeline in Inuvik and the Norman Wells oil pipeline. Each has its unique commissioning, operating and maintenance challenges, as well as specific training and logistical support requirements for the use of in-line inspection tools and other forms of integrity assessment. The effectiveness of cathodic protection systems in a permafrost northern environment was also discussed. It was noted that the delay of the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project by two to three years due to joint regulatory review may lead to resource constraints for the project as well as competition for already scarce human resources. The issue of a potential timing conflict with the Alaskan Pipeline Project was also addressed as well as land use issues for routing of supply roads. Integrity monitoring and assessment issues were outlined with reference to pipe soil interaction monitoring in discontinuous permafrost; south facing denuded slope stability; base lining projects; and reclamation issues. It was noted that automatic welding and inspection will increase productivity, while reducing the need for manual labour. In response to anticipated training needs, companies are planning to involve and train Aboriginal labour and will provide camp living conditions that will attract labour. tabs., figs.

Dean, D.; Brownie, D. [ProLog Canada Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Fafara, R. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

76

CONVERTING ABANDONED LANDS TO CROPLAND  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of economic conditions, areas of cropland in Ukraine have been left unused for several years. These abandoned lands are now infested with perennial weeds. Producers are interested in converting these lands back to cropland with no-till systems to preserve soil benefits gained by not tillin...

77

Coalfield abandonment: geochemical processes and hydrochemical products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coalfield abandonment leads to profound changes in the subsurface geochemical environment, as ventilated, drained voids are flooded by rising minewaters. This change in geochemical conditions often has dramatic consequences for minewater chemistry, as highly soluble iron sulphate salts (the products of pyrite weathering) are flushed into solution by the rising water. Numerous geochemical reactions act to buffer pH in such systems; others lower it further. The abandoned Durham Coalfield in North East England displays the full range of possible resultant water types, from mature, neutral, brackish pumped minewaters, to acidic and/or ferruginous uncontrolled minewater discharges from workings which have flooded up to surface level. Pumped waters show evidence of ion exchange, and of mixing between fresh recharge waters and deep basinal brines in some areas. The most ferruginous pumped waters are associated with sump drainage in the Hutton Seam (a widely-worked, moderate- to high-sulphur seam). The chemistry of uncontrolled discharges is strongly influenced by pyrite oxidation (present and former), and in some cases by siderite dissolution. The longevity of minewater pollution is controlled by the rate of flushing of `vestigial acidity` (the products of past pyrite oxidation) from the system, and by the degree to which `juvenile acidity` (products of seasonal pyrite oxidation above a fluctuating water table, or of ongoing siderite dissolution) is generated in the long term.

Younger, P. [University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Water Resource Systems Research Unit, Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-12-31

78

Archaeology and pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author attempts to show how archaeologists can benefit greatly in terms of knowledge from the planning and construction of a major gas pipeline. In Britain during the late 1960s and early 1970s, open-cast coal mining, gravel extraction, building development to mention only a few, were beginning to result in the widespread destruction of that country's archaeological heritage. British Gas appointed an archaeologist to act as liaison officer between archaeological groups and the engineers. The engineering side of the operation also benefitted by not having to worry that archaeological work would delay or halt construction. The planning and construction of this 220 mile pipeline was an integrated exercise in dealing with both sides of the pipelaying problems.

Catherall, P.D.

1985-04-01

79

Instrumented Pipeline Initiative  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report summarizes technical progress achieved during the cooperative agreement between Concurrent Technologies Corporation (CTC) and U.S. Department of Energy to address the need for a for low-cost monitoring and inspection sensor system as identified in the Department of Energy (DOE) National Gas Infrastructure Research & Development (R&D) Delivery Reliability Program Roadmap.. The Instrumented Pipeline Initiative (IPI) achieved the objective by researching technologies for the monitoring of pipeline delivery integrity, through a ubiquitous network of sensors and controllers to detect and diagnose incipient defects, leaks, and failures. This report is organized by tasks as detailed in the Statement of Project Objectives (SOPO). The sections all state the objective and approach before detailing results of work.

Thomas Piro; Michael Ream

2010-07-31

80

Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ''Impact Hypothesis'' uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ``Impact Hypothesis`` uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

NONE

1994-12-01

82

Legal aspects of abandoned facilities  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper outlines the basic regulatory requirements needed to identify radioactive material licensee owners/operators. Basic actions that must be taken once a radioactive material site is abandoned are also listed. Two such actions in Texas are briefly described. Civil suits requesting penalties, injunctive relief for decontamination, and recovery of response costs pursuant to the Texas regulatory acts have been filed against the potentially responsible parties.

Ratliff, R.A. [Texas Bureau of Radiation Control, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-12-31

83

Creating a pipeline rehabilitation plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will highlight the various aspects of planning a pipeline rehabilitation project to maximize used resources. The paper will visit in some detail the aspect of pipeline data collection to make rehabilitation decisions, including intelligent pig data and its use, close interval survey and its use, hydrotest data and its use, etc. This paper will also review the analysis of the hydrotest data, the close interval survey data, and its meaning to the overall rehabilitation design and plan. The paper will also assess the various types of pipeline coatings and methods of recoating and typical and innovative cathodic protection methods. The paper will stress analysis of pipeline structural integrity prior to making rehabilitation decisions. It will review cost estimating for various types of pipeline rehabilitation, and look at various alternatives. Finally, this paper will review typical results from various types of rehabilitation and soil conditions. It will emphasize the need to assess the results of the different rehabilitation methods and detail the future pipeline rehabilitation project decision making. The paper will discuss the use of RAP sheets (rehabilitation analysis profile) for data review and suggest various methods to invest rehabilitation dollars to get the greatest quantity of rehabilitation work done for the least cost.

Marshall, W.F.

1997-05-01

84

Mubarek gas pipeline tribute to team effort  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper reviews the engineering and design work along with the installation procedures for a Persian Gulf natural gas pipeline. OPMI Ltd., a joint venture of Offshore Pipelines, Inc., Houston, and Maritime Industrial Services Co., Ltd., United Arab Emirates (UAE), successfully completed this 57.4 mile, 16-inch gas export pipeline for Consolidated Transmissions Inc. The pipeline begins at a platform in the Mubarek field offshore Sharjah, UAE, and runs to a beach termination at the Dugas treatment plant, Jebel Ali, Dubai. The paper describes the site preparation required for installation of the pipeline along with the specific design of the pipeline itself to deal with corrosion, welding processes, condensate dropout, and temperature gradients.

Reggio, R.; Haun, R.

1993-09-01

85

Pipeline design resists buckling in deep water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work has had a significant effect upon conclusions regarding the depth capability of existing pipelaying procedures. It was found that, while the mechanisms governing the deformation of the pipeline are quite complicated, several simple empirical relationships that are founded on a sound understanding of the basic mechanisms involved could be developed. These relationships are adequate for determining the fundamental requirements of the pipeline during the preliminary design stages. When the strain in the overbend region results in stress exceeding the proportional limit stress in the pipeline, a residual curvature in the pipeline must result. The combined stress due to hydrostatic pressure and reverse bending of the residual curvature on the sea bottom greatly diminishes the depth attainability of the pipeline. The residual curvature caused by stresses exceeding the proportional limit in the overbend region also limits the strain permissible in the sagbend region of the pipeline.

Johns, T.G.; McConnell, D.P.

1984-07-23

86

Pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrity; control and deviation from technical integrity; pipelines; pipeline failure assessment; pipeline integrity assessment; leak detection; emergency response. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Guyt, J.; Macara, C.

1997-12-31

87

Removable pipeline plug  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A removable plugging device for a pipeline, and particularly for pressure testing a steam pipeline in a boiling water reactor, wherein an inflatable annular sealing member seals off the pipeline and characterized by radially movable shoes for holding the plug in place, each shoe being pivotally mounted for self-adjusting engagement with even an out-of-round pipeline interior.

1984-01-01

88

Pipeline network and environment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Rio de Janeiro is one of 27 units of Brazil. It is located in the eastern portion of the Southeast and occupies an area of 43 696.054 km², being effectively the 3rd smallest state in Brazil. This state in recent years has suffered from erosion problems caused by the deployment of the network pipeline. The deployment pipeline is part of the activities related to the oil industry has caused a more intense conflict between the environment and economic activities, modifying the soil structure and distribution of surface and subsurface flows. This study aimed to analyze the erosion caused by the removal of soil for the deployment of pipeline transportation, with the consequences of the emergence of numerous gullies, landslides and silting of rivers. For the development of this study were performed bibliographic research, field work, mapping and digital preparation of the initial diagnosis of active processes and what the consequent environmental impacts. For these reasons, we conclude that the problems could be avoided or mitigated if there was a prior geological risk management. (author)

2012-01-01

89

Analysis of the generation and monitoring of impact on fauna in the gas pipeline works in the current environmental legislation; Analise da geracao e monitoramento do impacto sobre a fauna silvestre em obras de gasodutos face a legislacao ambiental vigente  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The impacts to wildlife in areas where gas pipelines will be implemented are considerable, changing the existing balance. The main environmental measure adopted in the cases is the deployment of the Fauna Management Programme. This programme is sub - divided into two: Monitoring and Rescue of the fauna. The tracking step starts before the installation of the venture, with the completion of a first in order to identify the impacts before the venture, and finishes two years after the end of the works. These studies are based on guidelines set in the Normative Instruction of the environmental licensor agency, in which the criteria for implementation are restrictive, often without making a license agency distinction of methodology for enterprises with different characteristics. This article intended to review the criteria and the procedures established by the legislation and its real applicability in gas pipeline projects face to the environmental impacts identified to this activity. For this analysis, the methodology used was the case study of two gas pipelines: Cabiunas - Vitoria (GASCAV) and Cacimbas - Catu (GASCAC). The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed to the Sub-Programme of Rescue of the fauna are satisfactory to control environmental impacts and that the Sub-Programme of Monitoring of the fauna just confirm behaviors and information's previous detected. (author)

Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Akahori, Lisa [TELSAN Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Nascimento, Reinaldo R. [IMC Saste - Construcoes, Servicos e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

90

Global Sea Level Stabilization-Sand Dune Fixation: A Solar-powered Sahara Seawater Textile Pipeline  

CERN Multimedia

Could anthropogenic saturation with pumped seawater of the porous ground of active sand dune fields in major deserts (e.g., the westernmost Sahara) cause a beneficial reduction of global sea level? Seawater extraction from the ocean, and its deposition on deserted sand dune fields in Mauritania and elsewhere via a Solar-powered Seawater Textile Pipeline (SSTP) can thwart the postulated future global sea level. Thus, Macro-engineering offers an additional cure for anticipated coastal change, driven by global sea level rise, that could supplement, or substitute for (1) stabilizing the shoreline with costly defensive public works (armoring macroprojects) and (2) permanent retreat from the existing shoreline (real and capital property abandonment). We propose Macro-engineering use tactical technologies that sculpt and vegetate barren near-coast sand dune fields with seawater, seawater that would otherwise, as commonly postulated, enlarge Earth seascape area! Our Macro-engineering speculation blends eremology with...

Badescu, Viorel; Bolonkin, Alexander A

2007-01-01

91

Northern pipelines : challenges and needs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work group focused on the construction and operation of Northern pipelines. The objective of the group was to raise awareness of issues that should be addressed in the design, construction and operation of pipelines in northern regions. The group examined the physical processes involved in pipe soil interaction in conditions of permanent and discontinuous permafrost. The rationale for a suitable design methodology was outlined, providing a framework for discussion of the various full scale and model scale tests that have been done to date. Issues concerning construction and logistics were discussed, as well as worker safety. Problems of pipeline construction and operation in northern regions include a short construction season; permafrost soil conditions; limited existing infrastructure; large watercourse crossings; and trenching. Regulatory and geotechnical issues were discussed as well as hydraulic designs. An evolution of pipeline steel strength was presented, as well as various welding systems. Technical and regulatory challenges were reviewed, as well as appropriate technologies. Uplift resistance in frozen ground was discussed in relation to ground conditions, heaving rate and temperature. The results of laboratory uplift tests were presented. Arctic test sites and operational experiences include details of heave; centrifuge modeling; thaw settlement; engineering models and river crossings. A case study of the Norman Wells Pipeline was presented with details of maintenance and monitoring activities. tabs., figs.

Murray, A.; Luhowey, A. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Smith, R. [Rayel Enterprises, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

92

Emergency preparedness of OSBRA Pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the experience of PETROBRAS Transporte S. A. - TRANSPETRO in the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA pipeline, showing specific aspects and solutions developed. The company has a standardized approach for the emergency management, based on risk analysis studies, risk management plan and contingency plans. To cover almost 1,000 km of pipeline, the Company avails of Emergency Response Centers and Environmental Defense Center, located at strategic points. In order to achieve preparation, fire fighting training and oil leakage elimination training are provided. Additionally, simulation exercises are performed, following a schedule worked out according to specific criteria and guidelines. As a conclusion, a picture is presented of the evolution of the preparation for emergencies in the OSBRA System which bears the enormous responsibility of transporting flammable products for almost 1,000 km of pipeline, crossing 40 municipalities, 3 states and the Federal District. (author)

Magalhaes, Milton P.; Torres, Carlos A.R.; Almeida, Francisco J.C. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

93

Pipeline monitoring: Limit state criteria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of the work reported herein was to compile data and define criteria for monitoring intervention for local buckling, denting, and tensile failure, based upon data and experience from the pipeline industry. It was established that three separate quantities may be defined for each loading condition; a limit state criterion, a damage state criterion, and an intervention criterion. The definitions of the terms as they relate to pipelines are as follows: limit state criterion--criterion for the onset of ultimate pipeline failure when contents are lost; damage state criterion--criterion for the onset of significant permanent plastic deformation without loss of contents; intervention criterion--quantified criterion for action prior to occurrence of limit state, based upon statistical level of confidence and acceptable level of risk.

Stephens, D.R.; Olson, R.J.; Rosenfeld, M.J.

1991-09-01

94

Continued Distress among Abandoned Dogs in Fukushima  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and he...

Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

95

Guide 20 : Well abandonment guide. 2. ed.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations in the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) Guide 20 for well abandonment stipulate that a well licensee must conduct abandonment, casing removal, zonal abandonments, and plug backs. The present document describes the following six changes to well abandonment requirements that will take effect on August 1, 2003: (1) an electronic data capture system for Digital Data Submission (DDS) will be in place for licensees to submit non-routine well licence abandonment requests and well abandonment notifications; (2) the licensee must review the existing cement behind the casing string(s) of the well before beginning abandonment operations; (3) all non-saline groundwater must be covered with cement; (4) the licensee must weld a steel plate across the surface casing in a surface abandonment of an open-hole well; (5) the metal cap welded to the surface casing must be metallurgically compatible to the casing and welded according to industry standards; and (6) surface equipment, cement pads, debris and produced liquids associated with the well licence must be removed within 12 months of the cutting and capping operation. 14 figs.

NONE

2003-08-01

96

Evolution of abandoned underground hardrock mine closures by the Texas abandoned mine land reclamation program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Texas Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Reclamation program began investigating, designing and implementing hard rock abandoned underground mine closures, after a young boy fell to his death in an abandoned mine opening in 1982. This paper discusses the evolution of abandoned hard rock mine closures in west Texas, by the Texas AML program in response to the development of abandoned underground mine resource information. Case histories are presented of the Texas AML program`s efforts in west Texas including: mine history summaries; site characterization, environmental assessment; design and construction planning considerations, and construction cost information.

Rhodes, M.J. [Railroad Commission of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1997-12-31

97

Development of DP (Dynamic Positioning) to pull-in sub sea pipelines; Utilizacao de barcos de manuseio de ancoras operando com DP (Dynamic Positioning) para arraste de dutos submarinos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sub sea pipeline construction at oil and gas fields, with high concentration of on-bottom facilities, becomes more difficult when mooring operations and pipeline approach to a congested platform have to be performed. One method that has often been applied in Brazil is the so-called 'DP (Dynamic Positioning) pull-in', where PETROBRAS owned pipelay Barge, BGL-1, is moored away from the congested area, while a DP anchor handler pulls the rigid pipeline from BGL-1 to a target near the platform. The method was conceived to avoid mooring operations near the congested platforms as well as to minimize risks due to the pipeline initiation process. Inside the congested area the initiation with aid of a 'dead-man' anchor on the sea bottom, which would be a more conventional solution, becomes impossible in most cases. This paper will discuss the engineering work required to perform the 'DP pull-in' as well as show the operational steps, from the start-up to the final abandonment of the pipeline initiation head inside the target area. (author)

Oliveira, Manoel H.S. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Galgoul, Elton C. [Suporte Engenharia, Luziania, GO (Brazil)

2004-07-01

98

Geotechnical risks affecting pipelines : the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline experience  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Geotechnical management practices for pipelines can minimize the risk of accidents caused by hazards such as landslides, foundation subsidence, settlement and erosion. This paper summarized the geotechnical risks affecting pipelines and presented some examples of practical work done by Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto (TBG) along the longest pipeline in South America, the Bolivia-Brazil natural gas pipeline. TBG is also responsible for the maintenance and operation of the 2593 km long pipeline which spans from Rio Grande in Bolivia to Canoas in southern Brazil. The pipeline crosses a range of difficult topography where both natural and human hazards can lead to high stress levels that can reach the steel yield strength limit and result in ruptures. The traction, compression, inflection or strain depend on the direction of the movement and the pipe position. The area most prone to geotechnical hazards is in the south due to its hard topography and a variety of geological materials such as colluvium deposits and debris flows. The right-of-way geotechnical risks that affect the pipeline were presented along with some of the practical remedial work that has been done by TBG along the pipeline route. The integrity management plans and the adopted actions that prevent geotechnical accidents were also presented. It was concluded that geotechnical hazard mapping should be emphasized in the planning phase of pipelines. New technologies such as the GEOPIG inspection tool combined with traditional preventive measures can effectively detect landslide areas. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

2005-01-01

99

Pipeline integrity inspections.  

Science.gov (United States)

The conference paper gives a short description of the strategies within Statoil Gas Transport for pipeline condition monitoring and control. This is done for ensuring that the pipeline integrity can be maintained during all phases from construction to ope...

P. Lothe

1995-01-01

100

Pipeline watercourse crossings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The costs involved in pipeline construction, the timing of costs and the timing of approvals, overlapping jurisdictions by two or more regulatory authorities, the consequent delays and inconsistent approaches, and the conflicting objectives of regulators and pipeline proponents are the most frequently encountered sources of pipeline stream crossing conflicts between regulators and those responsible for pipeline construction. Both sides suffer as a result: pipeline proponents incur delays and additional costs, and safety and goodwill on the part of the proponents is jeopardized. At the same time, regulators also incur additional costs, loss of confidence and credibility with pipeline proponents. Issues and risks in stream crossing, various water crossing techniques (open trenched, isolated, trenchless, aerial), and techniques for mitigating the risks involved are reviewed. Timely approvals, clear and supportable objectives, pipeline construction with full attention to environmental risks and pipelines that remain safe to the public and to the environment during their lifetime, are mentioned as components of an appropriate vision for the future.

Williams, R. [Westcoast Energy Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

1999-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

In-line measurement of pipeline stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper discusses the need for measuring stress in operating transmission pipelines as related to pipeline integrity assurance. There are three important reasons to measure pipe-wall stress from within the pipeline: (1) Stress information makes it possible to better interpret results of magnetic flux leakage (MFL) metal-loss inspection. MFL signals are affected by pipe stress, and knowledge of the stress condition will allow corrections to be made to the signals. The paper describes completed and ongoing work in this area; (2) Stress data (particularly residual stress) can be an indicator of previous mechanical damage to the pipeline, and in the case of dents, re-rounded from internal pressure, it may be the only indicator of such damage; and (3) Elevated pipe-wall stress can be an indicator of impending failure of the line due to combined loading from internal pressure, thermal effects, and pipeline movement.

Crouch, A.E. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Nondestructive Evaluation Science and Technology Div.

1997-05-01

102

Pipeline operation and safety  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Safety is central to the prosperity of the pipeline industry and the need to maintain high standards of the safety at all times is of paramount importance. Therefore, a primary concern of pipeline operator is adequate supervision and the control of the operation of pipelines. Clearly defined codes of practice, standards and maintenance schedules are necessary if protection is to be afforded to the pipeline system employees, the public at large, and the environment.

Tadors, M.K. [Petroleum Pipelines Co., Cairo (Egypt)

1996-12-31

103

Pipeline accident statistics: Base to pipeline rehabilitation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The climate in which pipeline companies operate continues to change. Industry failures, related to public safety and environmental concerns, are now front page news. New and proposed regulations such as drug and alcohol testing of employees, instruments internal inspection and standardize oil spill response plans, are modifying the way pipeline companies operate. Paralleling these influences, the market place is also changing. Declining domestic production refinery closures and new specification for refined products are altering the pipe line distribution system. All of these changes are presenting new opportunities and many challenges. In 1995, when Conpet S.A. Ploiesti Formalized Pipeline Integrity Program, the reasons for the program were: What is the location to pipeline rehabilitation? What is failure probability? This paper reviews some aspects of the pipeline accident statistic to the Constanta Division of Conpet S.A. Ploiesti.

Chis, T. [Conpet S.A. Ploiesti, Constanta (Romania). Constanta Div.

1996-12-31

104

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

2005-01-01

105

Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2005-07-01

106

Challenges and difficulties in service to legal requirements applicable to a pipeline works at the Amazon rain forest, Brazil; Os desafios e dificuldades no atendimento aos requisitos legais aplicaveis a uma obra na Amazonia  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work brings together the difficulties and results generated in response to Brazilian Environmental Law applicable to a work of pipelines in the Amazon. We are a country that has the most extensive and rich environmental legislation in the world, and Engineering at PETROBRAS, through the Implementation of Enterprise for the North, responsible for the deployment of this pipeline, has ISO 14001:2004 certification, taking as the minimum requirement attending the applicable legal requirements, and serve them in if there are difficulties elsewhere in the country, here in the Amazon it is increased meet the logistical difficulties, the distances from major centres, the needs of technology, information and access to basic resources. This article discusses topics such as: transport of hazardous waste in an environmentally safe way in one of the largest rivers in the world, installing devices sewage treatment in regional boats, and teach the riparian preserve the historic and archaeological findings, these are just examples found. We know that all eyes of the world is impressive return to the Amazon rain forest, and that cross, or rather 'rip' their 383 km of primary forest, virgin land, almost untouched even by the people native of the region, in itself constitutes a great challenge. (author)

Freitas, Wanderleia I.P. de [Universidade do Estado do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus, AM (Brazil); Freitas, Jaluza G.M.R. de; Teixeira, Ivan J.L. [Concremat Engenharia e Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

107

Pipeline integrity inspections  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The conference paper gives a short description of the strategies within Statoil Gas Transport for pipeline condition monitoring and control. This is done for ensuring that the pipeline integrity can be maintained during all phases from construction to operation. Efficient condition monitoring and control can only be performed if the total pipeline integrity is taken into consideration such as design conditions, experience, environmental information, and general improved knowledge or the like for determining the requirement of inspection. Such philosophy will ensure the pipeline integrity better as corrective actions can be taken at a very early stage before any damage to the pipeline system have developed. 1 fig.

Lothe, P.

1995-12-31

108

Structural design of HPHT pipelines - new guideline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High pressure/High Temperature pipelines are characterised from structural point of view by high expansion forces. This may cause Global buckling (or Euler buckling). Design codes often have only functional requirements to global buckling but no calculation procedures or specific design criteria. The guideline on Structural design of HP/HT pipelines will be issued as a public DNV-RP-F110 later this year approaches the design challenges in a systematic manner for three scenarios: exposed pipeline on even seabed; exposed pipelines on un-even seabed; and Buried pipeline. Safety factors are determined based on the sensitivity in moment response from different input parameters. By use of the Recommended Practice, significant reduction in intervention work may be achieved, leaving pipelines exposed on the seabed with spot rock dumping only. This will be even more important for deeper water where intervention work is extremely costly combined with even higher temperatures and pressure. The Recommended Practice on structural design of HP/HT pipelines may even provide feasible and economic solutions to high pressure/high temperature and ultra deep water projects previously classified as non-feasible. The RP is the outcome of a Joint Industry Project called Hotpipe initiated by Statoil and later also sponsored by several oil companies. (author)

Collberg, Leif [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Levold, Erik [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

2005-07-01

109

Practical diagnostics of Russian gas transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Unified gas transmission systems which include about 140 thousand kilometers of pipelines have been developed in Russia. The mains of pipelines cross the regions with difficult natural and climatic conditions, that originates specific distinctions during the fulfilling of the diagnostic works. Conception of the main gas transmission pipelines that is based on the determination of potential danger and individual inspection of each large-scale gas transmission pipeline has been presented in this work. Estimation procedure of flaw detection results with the purpose of operational capability prognostication of a gas transmission pipeline is also shown in this paper. The fields of application of the early and standard diagnostics are considered, and the analysis of possibility of inpipe and outpipe (from the ground) flaw detection is given in the conditions of Russia too. Practical samples of the diagnostics of gas transmission pipelines and technological equipment in several regions (Orenburg, West Siberia, Central Russia) are presented also. Integrated inspection program of RAO Gazprom gas transmission pipelines is shown and the main procedures of its realization beginning since 1995 are given in this document.

Kharionovsky, V. [VNIIGAZ, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1996-12-31

110

The evaluation of low-cycle fatigue durability of the pipeline material working at high temperature in original state and after exploitation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper deals with the fatigue tests in range of low cycle fatigue for the materials used in energetic pipelines. The tests are performed both for the initial state and after long term operating period. The paper presents the evaluation of fatigue durability of 13HMF steel at room temperature and 550oC. On the basis of performed metallurgical studies of material waste after operating period according to the adapted quality criteria has been described. Low-cycle fatigue tests of the material showed the increase of durability after operating period and simultaneously decrease of saturation stress ?an. Decrease of saturation stress ?an for the assumed ranges ??c of the material after its operating period related to saturation stress at the initial state manifests its decreasing of low-cycle loading transmission capacity. (author)

2001-01-01

111

The Oman-India gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In March 1993, the Governments of the Sultanate of Oman and India executed a Memorandum of Understanding for a long term Gas Supply Contract to transport natural gas from Oman to India by pipeline. A feasibility study was undertaken to determine if such a pipeline was technically achievable and economically attractive. Work was initiated with a consortium of internationally recognized major design and construction firms, as well as with consultants knowledgeable in gas supply and demand in the region. Alternative gas supply volumes as well as two distinct pipeline routes were analyzed in significant detail. As a result of this work, it was concluded that a pipeline crossing, taking a direct route from Oman to India, is economically and technically feasible. In September, 1994, the Agreement on Principal Terms for supply of gas to India from Oman was agreed by the respective governmental authorities. The project and its status are described.

Roberts, P.M.

1995-12-31

112

Investor Valuation of the Abandonment Option  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We investigate whether investors price the option to abandon the firm for its liquidationvalue. Theory prices this real option as an American put with both a stochastic strikeprice (liquidation value) and a stochastic value of the underlying security (the value of cashflows). The major empirical implications are that firm value increases in liquidation value,after controlling for expected going-concern cash flows, and that more generalizable assetsproduce more abandonment option value. Using discounted earnings forecasts to proxy forexpected cash flows, and relying on prior literature to categorize asset generalizability, wefind strong support for abandonment option theory's predictions.1. IntroductionWe investigate whether investors use information about the liquidation prices of the firm'sassets to value their option to abandon the continuing business in exchange for the assets'liquidation value. As uncertainty about future cash flows is resolved, investors may wish toe...

Philip G. Berger; Eli Ofek; Itzhak Swary

113

PRS -- A priority ranking system for managing pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline operating companies have a huge investment in pipelines that vary in age from recent construction to more than 50 years old. Aging pipelines contain a variety of operational integrity concerns that most often begin to show up as leaks, but sometimes result in ruptures if not detected soon enough. Fluor Daniel Williams Brothers (FDWB) has developed a management tool that helps pipeline operating companies address this concern and take a proactive approach to pipeline integrity management. Using this methodology, a Priority Ranking System (PRS) is developed which allows early detection and resolution of pipeline integrity concerns. When fully developed, it includes a spreadsheet of annual budgets related to pipeline integrity work and a complete historical record of inspection and rehabilitation results.

Hodgdon, A.M. [Fluor Daniel Williams Brothers, Houston, TX (United States); Wernicke, T. [Texas Utilities Fuel Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1997-05-01

114

Green pipeline dreams; Gruene Pipeline-Traeume  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In theory, Germany and the other EU states would be able to cover their natural gas demand completely with pipeline-supplied biomethane. But will this be really possible in practice? The contribution takes a closer look. (orig.)

Wiedemann, Karsten

2010-11-15

115

The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

1988-01-01

116

The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States.

1988-12-01

117

Crowded country: Gentry pipeline faces infrastructure web  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to support the growing potential production of leases, some Alberta oil and natural gas companies are obliged to pile their infrastructure on top of each other. To illustrate the overcrowding and the problems encountered by some of the companies, a case history describing the trials and tribulations of Gentry Resources, a Calgary-based junior company, is provided. The case history recalls that during the construction of a 11.2 km four-inch pipeline in the Princess/Tide Lake region to tie in their Princess Nisku gas well, the company had to cross 60 different existing pipelines and roads, including an abandoned rail bed. The greatest challenge in building the pipeline was getting the approval of each of many companies active in the region, not to mention the regulatory approvals which also included both environmental and historical assessments. Because of the combination of water and high carbon dioxide content of the gas, Gentry also had to install a dehydration plant to take water out of the gas train to avoid corrosion. Current production is about 2,000 boe/d; future growth in production is likely to be constrained because growth in gas production will strain the existing infrastructure, and space for adding more infrastructure is not available.

Jaremko, D.

2003-12-01

118

Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain) that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg). Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

Millán R.; Sierra M. J.; Schmid T.; Carrasco Gil S.; Sánchez Ledesma D. M.; Díaz Puent F. J.

2013-01-01

119

Pipelined FIR Filter Implementation using FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FIR filters are being designed using HDL languages to enhance the speed of the system. In the whole system if the speed of the individual block is enhanced, the overall speed of the system is enhanced. In order to attain effective utilization hardware is done by applying the pipelining technique. Pipelining is an implementation technique in which multiple instructions are overlapped in execution. The proposed design of this paper is an attempt to optimize the system speed with minimal cost and hardware. The central design concept is to build filters with higher operating frequency without sacrificing the performance of original filters. To enhance system speed and reducing implementation complexity, a lot of work has been done in the process of achieving digital signal processing by use of the FPGA. In a filter the pipelining of multiplication is achieved by shifts and addition method. This paper describes the design of Third order low pass FIR filter with pipelined architecture. The design synthesis is done using Xilinx ISE 12.1 and implemented in Spartan-3E FPGA. By pipelining the delay of FIR filters can be reduced. Pipelined technique may reduce delay and enhances speed as compared to non-pipelined technique.

J.Senthilkumar

2012-01-01

120

CPC (cyclic pipeline computer)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper describes a new computer architecture, called a cyclic pipeline computer (CPC), which is especially suited for Josephson technologies. Since each Josephson logic device acts as a latch, it is possible to use high-pitch and shallow logic pipelining without any increase in delay time and cost which are required in case of pipeline registers in Si (silicon) logic. Hence, both the processor and the main memory can be built from the Josephson devices and can be pipelined with the same pipeline pitch time. The CPC supports MIMD by time sharing the processor and the main memory among multiple instruction streams. This paper also describes the design concept of pipelined memory chips which can be used for realizing a high-performance CPC based on Si technologies

1989-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Decontamination device for pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pipelines to be decontaminated are parts of pipelines contaminated with radioactive materials, and they are connected to a fluid transfer means (for example, a bladeless pump) and a ball collector by way of a connector. The fluid of a mixture of chemical decontaminating liquid and spheres is sent into pipelines to be decontaminated. The spheres are, for example, heat resistant porous hard or soft rubber spheres. The fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated are circulated by way of bypassing means. The inner surface of the pipelines is decontaminated by the circulation of the fluid. When the bypass means is closed, the fluid discharged from the pipelines to be decontaminated is sent to the ball collector, and the spheres are captured by a hopper. Further, the liquid is sent to the filtrating means to filter the chemical contaminating liquid, and sludges contained in the liquid are captured. (I.N.)

1992-12-21

122

Impacts on the physical environment caused by works of the OSBAT 24'' Oil Pipeline; Impactos no meio fisico decorrentes das obras de manutencao do Oleoduto OSBAT 24''  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this article it presents considerations about the essentials transformations and environmental impacts in the physical environment, result of the work of maintenance of OSBAT 24'' Pipeline, located in a stretch from the Sao Sebastiao city (center) and Camburi's district, in Sao Paulo State. The essentials processes, conditions, discernments tools used to classify for its, the actions technology had changed theses processes, the environmental impacts significant, the measures has accepting to control of these processes and environmental impacts. The general sense of article is to reveal about the experience obtained, seeking to broadcast the justifications, features concepts and methods that are responsible for the success reached, as well as, to point out obstacles found and recommendations to guest a quality environmental. (author)

Garibaldi, Celia Maria; Oliveira, Flavio Martiniano de; Kagawa, Adriana; Serra, Ricardo Novaes; Perim, Leandro Amadeu; Endo, Andressa [LENC - Laboratorio de Engenharia e Consultoria Ltda., Cotia, SP (Brazil)

2008-07-01

123

The Noao Newfirm Pipeline  

CERN Multimedia

The NOAO NEWFIRM Pipeline produces instrumentally calibrated data products and data quality measurements from all exposures taken with the NOAO Extremely Wide-Field Infrared Imager (NEWFIRM) at the KPNO Mayall 4-meter telescope. We describe the distributed nature of the NEWFIRM Pipeline, the calibration data that are applied, the data quality metadata that are derived, and the data products that are delivered by the NEWFIRM Pipeline.

Swaters, R A; Dickinson, M E

2009-01-01

124

BPC Trenchless Pipeline System  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The BPC trenchless system features pipeline installation through directional drilling utilizing horizontal directional boring along with state of the art mapping and product coating integrity surveys after pipe placement. The trenchless system developed by BPC reduces environmental disturbances, with savings in reclaiming pipeline right-of-ways such as re-seeding and contouring. It is felt that with smaller pipelines of less than 1,000 metres, a reduction in environmental footprint is now technically feasible using this technology.

Campbell, Martin

2011-03-15

125

Pipeline integrity management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline integrity management was discussed in terms of a comprehensive program and use of technology; use of a proprietary quantitative risk assessment process, notably to measure of the likelihood of incurring an undesirable loss or consequence; and a consistent approach for all pipelines. Pipeline threats and consequences were outlined and risk mitigation processes were identified for external corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, mechanical/third party damage, geotechnical issues, and cathodic protection. Key points that summarized the presentation included TransCanada's personnel, integrity management process, relationship with regulators, corporate strategy, continuous improvement, and pipeline safety. 5 figs.

Chittick, D. [TransCanada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

126

Pipeline pressure control system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes a pressure control system that responds to pressure surges in a pipeline by changing the pipeline pressure in the direction opposite the pressure surge. It comprises: a pipeline; a valve coupled to the pipeline for varying the flow of fluid through the pipeline; a suction pressure sensor coupled to the pipeline upstream of the valve for sensing the suction pressure of the fluid within the pipeline; a discharge pressure sensor coupled to the pipeline down-stream of the valve for sensing the discharge pressure of the fluid within the pipeline; a suction controller coupled to the suction pressure sensor, the suction controller comparing the suction pressure sensed by the suction pressure sensor with a first predetermined pressure setpoint to determine when the suction pressure is lower than the first pressure setpoint by more than a first predetermined amount of at least approximately five psi; and a discharge controller coupled to the discharge pressure sensor. The discharge controller compares the discharge pressure sensed by the discharge pressure sensor with a second predetermined pressure setpoint to determine when the discharge pressure exceeds the second pressure setpoint by more than a second predetermined amount of at least approximately five psi, the valve being moved to a predetermined position in response to either the suction controller determining that the suction pressure is lower than the first pressure setpoint by more than the first predetermined amount or the discharge controller determining that the discharge pressure exceeds the second pressure setpoint by more than the second predetermined amount.

Cho, C.H.

1990-06-19

127

Remarks to the risk assessment for abandoned mine sites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The authors give some remarks to the term risk regarding its use for the assessment of abandoned mine sites. These remarks are based on the recommendation Geotechnical Investigation and Evaluation of Abandoned Mine Sites developed by the working committee Abandoned Mining of the German Society for Geotechnical Engineering (DGGT) and the German Society for Mine Surveying (DMV), published in 2004.By this recommendation, the risk is defined as a product of the occurrence probability and the extent of damage of an unwanted event. The occurrence probability for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms in all probability, probable, less probable or practically impossible. The extent of damage for each unwanted event is described by the linguistic terms insignificant, small, high or very high. A matrix out of these terms is used to define schematically an explicit limiting risk for each unwanted event.The authors point out that a schematic determination of limiting risk should be supported by an unique and comprehensible evaluation of all significant risk factors and parameters influencing the extent of damage. Fuzzy sets can be used instead of a discreet classification leading to more plausible results. The processing of linguistic terms by a fuzzy logic system is demonstrated.

Wolfgang Busch; Klaus Maas

2007-01-01

128

Total pipeline integrity. Greater productivity from aging or underrated pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The save operation of pipelines or pipeline networks and managing their integrity requires a lot more than just controlling the flow of the product in the pipe(s). Besides the efforts for the daily routine work of the dispatcher(s) in the control centre, many more activities take place, that are directly or indirectly connected with the operation of the pipelines. With more and more, former state owned, operator- and transportation-companies being privatised on one hand, and the necessity to reduce the cost of pipeline operation in private companies on the other hand, the question of costs effective pipeline integrity management steps into the foreground. PII Pipeline Solutions has performed the next logical step and introduced the ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' concept to support its customers even better. The paper outlines the essentials of PII's new philosophy by explaining the roots and basics of ''Total Pipeline Integrity'' as well as showing examples how customers have benefitted from this concept in the past and will do so in the future. (orig.)

Kuhn, A. [PII Pipetronix, Stutensee (Germany)

2003-06-01

129

Citizenship program in near communities of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the construction of a pipeline, the IENE - Engineering Unit of PETROBRAS, responsible for the construction and erection of pipelines and related plants in northeastern Brazil, crossed more than 7 states and 250 counties, had implemented a social responsibility program, in special a citizenship program. This action was the result of community studies located near of the pipelines AID - Direct Influence Area (438 yards right and left of the pipeline) and through the evidence that those locations were poor and have no personal documents and citizen position in society. This paper intents to share the experience of IENE about its citizen program that worked in three big lines: community mobilization; citizenship qualification; and citizenship board. This last one, turns possible to people obtains theirs personal documents and exercise the plenitude of citizenship. (author)

Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Vilas Boas, Ianne P. [TELSAN Engenharia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bourscheid, Pitagoras [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-12-19

130

Improving the communications pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gas utilities rely on two types of pipeline to conduct business: One delivers information to, from and between databases at headquarters, regional business offices and maintenance locations. At Peoples Gas System Inc., an increasing reliance on telecommunications was driving up the cost of doing business. Efficiency was suffering. Realizing that something needed to be done, the utility worked with equipment vendors and carriers to devise an integrated solution that satisfies its current requirements and positions the company to readily adopt new technologies as they come down the information pipeline. Like most large companies, Peoples maintains its database in a mainframe computer, which holds information crucial to ongoing operations. Customer, account-management and materials-management information systems are included on the mainframe. Most of the day-to-day action at the utility however, is closer to the customer--and is conducted from 18 offices around the state. In its communications makeover, Peoples installed local-area networks (LANs) in its regional offices to facilitate fast and efficient data exchange between its staff`s desktop computers and to respond to inquires coming in for customers or technicians in the field. LANs typically operate at high speed, allowing the rapid exchange of information within the office. In addition, regional offices regularly communicate with each other, to exchange e-mail and voice communications, over a wide-area network (WAN). Finally, the offices communicate with the corporate mainframe computer at headquarters to access customer data stored there. Together, these services make up the corporate ``internetwork.`` This article describes Peoples Gas System`s new network for data use and transmission.

Hastie, H.

1995-11-01

131

Oilsands pipeline developments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review of the development of pipeline services for the bitumen producing industry was presented with particular focus on the pipeline developments near Fort McMurray in Alberta`s Athabasca oil sand deposit. The first pipeline in the area was constructed in the 1950s by the Great Canadian Oil Sands project. The second pipeline, the Alberta Oil Sands Pipe Line, was constructed during the 1970s by the Alberta Energy Company as part of a Syncrude project. Both pipelines continue to transport upgraded synthetic crude oils and both are operating at full capacity. Since then, other pipelines have been developed to handle dual diluent and diluted bitumen blends. Enbridge is currently building a 30-inch pipeline from the Suncor plant to Cold Lake and Hardistry that will be able to carry a number of grades of synthetic crude and perhaps also diluted black oil. A consortium of Imperial Oil, AMOCO and Koch are in the permitting process to construct the Thicksilver 12/24-inch pipeline to transport diluted bitumen from the Cold Lake area to Hardisty where it can deliver into the Enbridge and Express pipeline systems. TransMountain has proposed to build the Corridor pipeline to transport diluent and diluted bitumen from Shell`s proposed Muskeg River mine north of Fort McMurray to its Scotford refinery near Fort Saskatchewan. All these projects indicate that there will be sufficient pipeline capacity with diverse levels of service and destinations to take care of the increased production forecast for the Athabasca region. Production increases for diluted bitumen up to 25-50 KBPD are predicted. Synthetic crude production is expected to increase from today`s 345 KBPD to 710 KBPD with the Suncor, Syncrude and Shell expansions. Actual rates of increase in production will be dependent primarily upon better crude oil prices. 5 figs.

Doyle, T.D. [Trans Mountain Pipe Line Co. Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

1999-04-01

132

History of abandoned infants in Greece  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008) databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

Maria Athanasopoulou; Mariana Drakopoulos

2010-01-01

133

Steam pipelines' effort and durability  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: The main problem addressed in the paper is the description of an effort and durability of steam pipelines under the conditions of mechanical and thermal interactions.Design/methodology/approach: The FEM modelling has been used to determine the stress and strain fields in the pipelines and to describe their behaviour under mechanical and thermal loading.Findings: An appropriate model description has been developed. So far, experimental verification of the usefulness of the model description to determine the stress and strain patterns in particular object and for chosen operation conditions has been made. The analysis made has shown that the most probable cause of cracks occurrence on the analyzed chosen pipeline’ inner surfaces are thermal deformations and constraints of their dislocations.Research limitations/implications: The developed description should be useful in problems of behaviour predictions of high temperature components and their durability assessment under different mechanical and thermal loadings in industry practical applications.Originality/value: The method, which more precise description of power industry components behaviour makes possible have been shown in the work. The work is addressed to researchers interested in problems of component behaviour prediction under different loadings that we can meet in the operation practice and to power industry engineering maintenance staff.

J. Okrajni; K. Mutwil; M. Cie?la

2007-01-01

134

Maintaining pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The integrity of pipelines carrying hydrocarbons is examined, and types of failures including mechanical, operational, corrosion, natural hazards (eg ground movements) and third party activity are considered. Pipeline integrity management, wayleave management by monitoring, education and supervision, corrosion protection, on-line inspection, validation pressure testing, leak detection, and emergency planning are discussed. (UK)

Whitman, D. [BPA, Hemel Hempstead (United Kingdom)

1998-05-01

135

Welding of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Research Institute for Welding Technology at Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, used basic and cellulose electrodes in welding pipelines fabricated of St 52-3, X-60, and X-70 steels and conducted TEKKEN cracking tests on the sections. Engineers also surveyed the methods used to make circumferential pipeline welds outdoors as well as in workshops in Czechoslovakia and abroad.

Hrbal, P.; Makovicky, V.

1983-12-01

136

Pipeline risk management manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A systematic approach to petroleum pipeline risk management is proposed here. This book is organized to serve as a guide for the person or persons who are actually performing pipeline risk assessments. All of the risk evaluation items with their suggested scores are listed on p. xii in this Introduction. This list can be used as a checklist for the actual pipeline evaluations and for subsequent data retention or entry into a computer program. Chapter One explains the reasoning behind the type of risk assessment proposed here. Other forms of risk assessment are listed as well as some concepts of risk assessment in general. Concepts of quality and cost management, as they relate to risk management, are also discussed. Chapter Two provides the foundation for this risk assessment process. Basic assumptions of this model and the structure of the evaluation process are covered. Sectioning of the pipeline and classifying pipeline activities as attributed or preventions are addressed here. The pipeline activities and environmental characteristics that influence risk. Each chapter corresponds to an index which, in turn, corresponds to a historical cause of pipeline failures. These chapters show the suggested scoring for each item and the rational behind including the item in the risk assessment. Chapter Seven details the Leak Impact Factor which is the consequence part of the risk equation. Product handled, population density, and other factors are combined her to assess the potential consequence of a pipeline failure.

1991-01-01

137

Pipeline risk management manual  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This volume is concerned with management of risks involved with cross-country oil or natural gas pipelines. It covers the following topics: risk assessment cost, management, and practice; pipeline activities and environmental factors that influence risk; leak management; and database management and data evaluation.

Muhlbauer, W.K.

1992-01-01

138

Pipeline transport of biomass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The cost of transporting wood chips by truck and by pipeline as a water slurry was determined. In a practical application of field delivery by truck of biomass to a pipeline inlet, the pipeline will only be economical at large capacity ( >0.5 million dry t/yr for a one-way pipeline, and >1.25 million dry t/yr for a two-way pipeline that returns the carrier fluid to the pipeline inlet), and at medium to long distances ( >75 km [one-way] and >470 km [two-way] at a capacity of 2 million dry t/yr). Mixed hardwood and softwood chips in western Canada rise in moisture level from about 50% to 67% when transported in water; the loss in lower heating value (LHV) would preclude the use of water slurry pipelines for direct combustion applications. The same chips, when transported in a heavy gas oil, take up as much as 50% oil by weight and result in a fuel that is >30% oil on mass basis and is about two-thirds oil on a thermal basis. Uptake of water by straw during slurry transport is so extreme that it has effectively no LHV. Pipeline-delivered biomass could be used in processes that do not produce contained water as a vapor, such as supercritical water gasification.

Kumar A; Cameron JB; Flynn PC

2004-01-01

139

Managing pipeline systems: key roles.  

Science.gov (United States)

While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management. PMID:23678657

Dillow, Geoff

2013-04-01

140

Managing pipeline systems: key roles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

While the UK has an enviable safety record in the management of medical gas systems, it is only via strict adherence to the four tenets - 'continuity, adequacy, identity, and quality' - embodied within Health Technical Memorandum 02-01: 2006 - 'Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' (MGPS) that we can be certain that patients will not be harmed by these systems. So says Geoff Dillow, a former training head at the forerunner to today's Eastwood Park, the National Centre for Hospital Engineering, and co-author of the HTM, who has over 35 years' professional experience in assessing medical gas systems for compliance. In the first of four HEJ guidance articles on 'Managing Medical Gas Pipeline Systems' planned for coming months, he examines the critical role of the MGPS Permit to Work System (PTWS), and describes the parts played by those involved in its implementation and day-to-day management.

Dillow G

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

Disposition of abandoned embryos: a committee opinion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Programs should create and enforce written policies on the designation, retention, and disposal of abandoned embryos. In the absence of program-specific policies, it is ethically acceptable for a program or facility to consider embryos to have been abandoned if at least 5 years have passed since contact with an individual or couple, diligent efforts have been made to contact the individual or couple, and no written instructions from the couple exist concerning disposition. In such cases, programs may dispose of the embryos by removal from storage and thawing without transfer, though in no case should embryos deemed abandoned be donated to other couples or be used in research. This statement replaces the ASRM Ethics Committee document published in 2004 with the same name (Fertil Steril 2004;82:S253).

2013-06-01

142

Slurry pipeline design approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compared to other engineering technologies, the design of a commercial long distance Slurry Pipeline design is a relatively new engineering concept which gained more recognition in the mid 1960 's. Slurry pipeline was first introduced to reduce cost in transporting coal to power generating units. Since then this technology has caught-up worldwide to transport other minerals such as limestone, copper, zinc and iron. In South America, the use of pipeline is commonly practiced in the transport of Copper (Chile, Peru and Argentina), Iron (Chile and Brazil), Zinc (Peru) and Bauxite (Brazil). As more mining operations expand and new mine facilities are opened, the design of the long distance slurry pipeline will continuously present a commercially viable option. The intent of this paper is to present the design process and discuss any new techniques and approach used today to ensure a better, safer and economical slurry pipeline. (author)

Betinol, Roy; Navarro R, Luis [Brass Chile S.A., Santiago (Chile)

2009-12-19

143

An environmental education program for maroon communities: the results of a work carried out along the Cabiunas-Vitoria gas pipeline; Programa de educacao ambiental para comunidades quilombolas: a experiencia do trabalho realizado no Gasoduto Cabiunas-Vitoria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

One of the Environmental Programmes developed for the works of Cabiunas-Vitoria Gas Pipeline (GASCAV) intended to fulfill the conditions of the Installation License, which defined the preparation of Specific Studies and Environmental Programmes to five quilombo communities located at GASCAV's influence area. The challenge of PETROBRAS/Engenharia/IETEG/IEDT Environmental Team was to align the Company's strategic guidelines related to Environmental and Social Responsibility to the necessary criteria for the approval of this Programme by environmental agencies which inspected the Programme: IBAMA (Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources) and FCP (Palmares Cultural Foundation). This work aimed to present the methodology adopted to the proposal of the Environmental Education Programme to Quilombo Communities, as well as to discuss the results achieved with the implementation of this Programme. The results allowed to conclude that the actions developed at the quilombo communities has disseminated the environmental concepts and related to the afro culture, has established partnerships and strengthen the relationship with the surrounding communities. This fact promotes the integration of the Work's economic interests with the social and environmental ones, generating a socio environmental conscience among the residents. (author)

Caldas, Flaviana V.; Serricchio, Claudio [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Izabel C.A. de; Vieira, Rosa M. [Telsan Engenharia, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

2008-07-01

144

Finite-element analysis of pipeline upheaval buckling  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is well known that pipelines may buckle under axial compressive force created by severe temperature change and internal pressure loading conditions. Extensive work has been conducted in the past to understand the beam mode buckling behavior of the pipeline, its impact on pipeline design and, ultimately, the integrity of the pipeline. To fully describe this localized buckling behavior, both the upward and axial displacements of the pipeline need to be considered. This paper presents a large deflection finite-element analysis method with nonlinear material behavior to examine the pipeline response under upheaval buckling condition. The axial displacement caused by thermal expansion and the geometric change of the pipeline due to upheaval motion are examined to better define the pipeline buckling response. By combining both the nonlinear geometry and material effects, it is possible to characterize the extreme responses to determine potential severe damages. A pipeline with a potential for upheaval buckling from a recent North Sea field development was analyzed using the method to evaluate the buckling potential and the pipeline behavior beyond buckling.

Shaw, P.K.; Bomba, J.G. [R.J. Brown and Associates, Houston, TX (United States). Division of Kvaerner Earl and Wright

1994-12-31

145

The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat.

Woodcock A; Hernandez PR; Estrada M; Schultz PW

2012-10-01

146

The consequences of chronic stereotype threat: domain disidentification and abandonment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s "leak" from each juncture of the academic scientific pipeline in disproportionately greater numbers than their White and Asian counterparts. Using structural equation modeling, we tested the stereotype threat-disidentification hypothesis across 3 academic years with a national longitudinal panel of undergraduate minority science students. Experience of stereotype threat was associated with scientific disidentification, which in turn predicted a significant decline in the intention to pursue a scientific career. Race/ethnicity moderated this effect, whereby the effect was evident for Hispanic/Latino(a) students but not for all African American students. We discuss findings in terms of understanding chronic stereotype threat. PMID:22746674

Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P Wesley

2012-07-02

147

Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

2001-02-13

148

Bowen Basin gas pipeline conceptual study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study was conducted in two parts: A feasibility study of pipeline options, conducted by Gutteridge Haskins & Davey; An assessment of seam gas reserves, conducted by CSIRO Exploration & Mining. The first part reviews the alternative pipeline scenarios available for connecting Townsville to the existing pipeline infrastructure currently supplying gas to Gladstone (Duke State Gas Pipeline). The routes reviewed included the proposed PNG pipeline route, which runs slightly inland between Townsville and Gladstone, and two alternative routes to Townsville from either Rolleston or Moura. The second part assesses potential gas reserves. The supply of high concentration methane from Bowen Basin underground coal mines in the period to 2012 is predicted to be 4011 Mm{sup 3} (154.8 PJ) for the 'business as usual' coal production case. Potential annual pipeline production will trend upwards through to 2012, due to increased coal production and mines working deeper, gassier seams. This anticipates raw coal production from all underground mines in the Bowen Basin will reach 60 million tonnes per year in 2012, which continues the recent historical growth rate of coal production.

Paul Bilston; Cliff Mallett

2001-04-01

149

Severe service ball valves for high pressure slurry pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Severe Service Ball Valves are a critical component in the design of high pressure slurry pipelines. Compared to conventional oil and gas pipelines, the transportation of mineral slurries at high pressure is a modern technology. This advanced technology would not be possible if valve manufacturers were not able to design and provide equipment that can function with high pressure abrasive fluids. The design of slurry pipelines has become more complicated due to the use of sophisticated controls, varying types of minerals, increased sizes and higher pressures. All of these complexities have challenged valve and actuator manufacturers who need to work closely with the pipeline design companies to find cost-effective and viable solutions. Using examples from existing slurry pipeline operations; this paper examines how high pressure slurry ball valves have become an important component in the successful design, construction and operations of slurry pipelines throughout the world. (author)

Harrison, Malcolm J. [Valvtechnologies, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

150

Transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nord-West Oelleitung (NWO) operates 2 crude oil pipelines from Wilhemshaven to Koln and Hamburg respectively. German regulations for transporting flammable substances stipulate that 2 independent continuously working procedures be used to detect leaks. Leak detection pigs are used routinely to complement the surveillance system. This paper described the specific issues of transient leak detection in crude oil pipelines. It was noted that traditional methods have failed to detect leaks that occur immediately after pumps are turned on or off because the pressure wave generated by the transient dominates the pressure wave that results from the leak. Frequent operational changes in a pipeline are often accompanied by an increased number of false alarms and failure to detect leaks due to unsteady operations. NWO therefore decided to have the Atmos statistical pipeline leak detection (SPLD) system installed on their pipelines. The key to the SPLD system is the sequential probability ratio test. Comprehensive data validation is performed following reception of pipeline data from the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system. The validated data is then used to calculate the corrected flow imbalance, which is fed into the SPRT to determine if there is an increase in the flow imbalance. Pattern recognition is then used to distinguish a leak from operational changes. The SPLD is unique because it uses 3 computational pipeline monitoring methods simultaneously, namely modified volume balance, statistical analysis, and pressure and flow monitoring. The successful installation and testing of the SPLD in 2 crude oil pipelines was described along with the main difficulties associated with transient leaks. Field results were presented for both steady-state and transient conditions. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

Beushausen, R.; Tornow, S.; Borchers, H. [Nord-West Oelleitung, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Murphy, K.; Zhang, J. [Atmos International Ltd., Manchester (United Kingdom)

2004-07-01

151

Flow lines and pipelines the blue stream project: the most significant deep water pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Full text of publication follows: the first 24-inch pipeline have been successfully installed by Saipem S7000, across the Black Sea, at a water depth of 2150 meters. Work is satisfactorily in progress along the entire route on land and offshore. The Blue Stream project is undoubtedly one of the most challenging project of its type ever attempted because of the difficulties in terms of design, construction, organisation and logistics. The laying of pipelines in deep water requires powerful equipment and advanced design criteria. In this respect, Saipem, having invested heavily in technologically advanced vessels and equipment, places its 30-year plus experience in finding the most appropriate solutions for the ultra deep water projects execution. The installation on Saipem 7000 of a J-lay tower and the increase in its dynamic positioning capacity have enabled Saipem to face with the present most significant deep water pipeline project under way: the Blue Stream-Russia to Turkey Gas Pipeline Project. The design of the Blue Stream Gas Pipelines had to overcome several major challenges including the selection of the appropriate pipeline and anode material due to the combination of high hydrostatic pressure with high levels of hydrogen sulphide; the possible occurrence of soil instabilities along the Russian and Turkish continental slopes with consequent effects on pipeline structural integrity. This paper summaries the various key design considerations and presents the engineering issues results. (authors)

Pulici, M. [Saipem S.p.A., Milan (Italy)

2002-12-01

152

Pipeline vehicle; Kjoeretoey for roerledninger  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention relates to a pipeline vehicle designed for inspection and maintenance. Self-driven vehicle for pipelines characterized by comprising: a cylindrically designed vehicle body through which and/or around which the pipeline`s medium flows, a drive unit on the vehicle body which resiliently bears against the pipeline`s internal surface, a hydraulic system which powers the drive module, a power supply system for operation of the hydraulic system, and a controller which at least controls the vehicle`s movement in the pipeline. 20 figs.

Ruch, O.; Johansen, T.V.; Poerner, H.; Naess, L.; Gebhard, G.; Weber, R.; Heller, M.

1995-04-24

153

Trouble in the pipeline?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The author provides a commentary on the political, economic, environmental and social problems facing the proposed 3 billion US dollars Baku-Ceyhan-Tbilisi export pipeline. The 1760 km long pipeline has been designed to carry 1 million b/d of crude oil from the Caspian Sea to Turkey's Mediterranean coast. The pipeline is being constructed by a BP-led consortium made up of Socar, Statoil, Unocal, TPAO, Eni, Itochu, Amerada Hess, TotalFinaElf and BP. (UK)

Snieckus, Darius

2002-10-01

154

Method for drying pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The interior surface of a pipeline is dried by sequentially passing through the pipeline 1) an aqueous cross-linked gelled pig, 2) a fluid mobility buffer comprising a noncross-linked gelled alkanol from one to 3 carbon atoms, and 3) a dessicating amount of a liquid alkanol from one to 3 carbon atoms. For example, a pipeline was dried by sequentially passing through it a borate cross-linked hydroxypropyl guar gum pig, a fluid mobility buffer comprising methanol thickened with hydroxypropyl cellulose, and methanol. The cross-linked pig also may comprise a guar gum or hydroxypropyl guar gum cross linked with borate, titanate, or zirconium ions. 10 claims.

Purinton, R.J. Jr.

1981-03-10

155

Proceedings of the 2. Canada-India workshop on pipeline integrity : developing an integrity management plan  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 2004, Canada and India established collaborative research and development on oil and gas pipeline integrity. India's interest in Canadian expertise in this area is high due to the expected increase in pipeline activity. Forecasts indicate that India's commercial energy needs will quadruple in the next 25 years. India plans to invest more than $10 billion in gas pipelines, liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminals and gas distribution networks by 2012. This joint declaration on science and technology cooperation resulted in workshops that addressed a wide range of issues associated with maintaining and improving oil and gas pipeline integrity. State-of-the-art technologies and past experiences related to the design, construction, operation, performance and abandonment of pipelines were reviewed along with other topical issues such as pipeline risk assessment and management. The first workshop which took place in Mumbai, India addressed overall integrity issues, coatings, internal corrosion, hydrogen-induced cracking, cathodic protection and pipeline monitoring. The second workshop focused on practical, economical and technical collaborations between Canada and India. This workshop was divided into the following 5 sessions: (1) integrity management planning, (2) current issues, (3) tools available for managing integrity, (4) corrosion control, and (5) new technologies for pipeline applications. The workshop featured 22 presentations, of which 16 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs. figs.

Papavinasam, S.; Revie, W. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab] (comps.)

2008-07-01

156

Pipelines in the constructed environment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

New pipeline construction, the maintenance of existing pipelines, and the rehabilitation or replacement of deteriorating pipelines often takes place with many challenges and constraints imposed by developmental regulations. The 1998 Pipeline Division Conference provided a forum for those involved in the field to share ideas and learn more about the issues faced today. These 92 peer-reviewed papers reflect the current methods and technology in the field of pipeline construction.

Castronovo, J.P.; Clark, J.A. [eds.

1998-07-01

157

Vegetation dynamics during different abandoned year spans in the land of the Loess Plateau of China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this semi-arid area, many studies focused on the two-phase vegetation pattern were carried out to explore a changing vegetation trajectory on degraded land. However, this study conducted an analysis of a two-phase vegetation pattern and explored the successional vegetation trajectories in a positive succession without disturbance. In this work, 60 randomly distributed plots (1?×?1 m) were invested on four abandoned land areas (4-, 12-, 22-, and 50-year abandoned land) to determine attributes of vegetation, and soil physical and nutritional properties. It was found that vegetation distribution development went from homogeneous on 4-year abandoned land to heterogeneous on 50-year abandoned land, with a positive succession. Meanwhile, there was a significant difference in soil physical and nutritional properties for the inside and outside of vegetation patches. Vegetation patches can supply better soil physical and nutritional properties for vegetation than bare patches along the abandoned time. Vegetation diversity changes without a regular trend which may be due to the effect of environment and interspecies competition. This work picked up the slack for vegetation patterns succession research and provided a quantitative analysis approach.

Hou J; Fu B

2013-09-01

158

Generic Data Pipelining Using ORAC-DR  

Science.gov (United States)

A generic data reduction pipeline is, perhaps, the holy grail for data reduction software. We present work which sets us firmly on the path towards this goal. ORAC-DR is an online data reduction pipeline written by the Joint Astronomy Center (JAC) and the UK Astronomy Technology Center (ATC) and distributed as part of the Starlink Software collection (SSC). It is intended to run with a minimum of observer interaction, and is able to handle data from many different instruments, including SCUBA, CGS4, UFTI, IRCAM and Michelle, with support for IRIS2 and UIST under development. Recent work by Starlink in collaboration with the JAC has resulted in an increase in the pipeline's flexibility, opening up the possibility that it could be used for truly generic data reduction for data from any imaging, and eventually spectroscopic, detector.

Allan, Alasdair; Jenness, Tim; Economou, Frossie; Currie, Malcolm J.; Bly, Martin J.

159

Pipeline integrity management.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on some of the issues necessary for pipeline operators to consider when addressing the challenge of managing the integrity of their systems. Topics are: Definition; business justification; creation and safeguarding of technical integrit...

J. Guyt C. Macara

1997-01-01

160

The OPUS Pipeline Toolkits  

Science.gov (United States)

The OPUS pipeline, which employs a blackboard architecture, has been processing Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data for nearly a year. OPUS was designed for both reusability and extensibility, as well as portability to different platforms and projects. OPUS contains a toolkit of resource files and programs which provide the users with the ability to customize their own pipeline. ASCII resource files can be used to define the configuration of the system, and to add processes to the pipeline dynamically. The OPUS callable routines provide applications with even more flexible methods for interfacing with the OPUS blackboard. This paper will discuss how the OPUS toolkit---both the resource files and the software libraries---is used to configure an OPUS data processing pipeline.

Boyer, C.; Choo, T. H.

 
 
 
 
161

Effects of laminations in pipes to resistance and working life of pipelines; Auswirkung von Doppelungen in Rohren auf die Festigkeit und die Lebensdauer von Mineraloelfernleitungen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of load cycles on pipes with laminations was examined to obtain information about the effects on resistance and working life. Material tests carried out in connection with threshold load tests showed that laminations or also segregations in pipes welded with longitudinal seams always run parallel to the surface and that even with the slight enlargement that sometimes occurs under threshold loading, resistance and working life are not reduced. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Auswirkung von dynamischen Belastungen auf dopplungsbehaftete Rohre wurde untersucht, um Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich der Beeinflussung auf die Festigkeit der Lebensdauer zu gewinnen. Durchgefuehrte Werkstoffuntersuchungen im Zusammenhang mit Schwelllastversuchen zeigten, dass Doppelungen oder auch Seigerungen in laengsnahtgeschweissten Rohren immer oberflaechenparallel verlaufen und dass selbst bei der unter Schwellastbeanspruchung teilweise eingetretenen geringfuegigen Vergroesserung die Festigkeit und die Lebensdauer nicht eingeschraenkt wird. (orig.)

Camp, H.J. de la; Feser, G.; Schmidt, H. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern Hessen Sachsen e.V., Muenchen (Germany)

1998-03-01

162

Corrosion management of wet gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes an approach to the design of carbon steel pipelines operating in corrosive service. The intent of this approach is to take full advantage of the reduced costs of carbon steel, while minimizing the risk of failures. This approach is based on: (1) assessing the technical and economic feasibility of carbon steel; (2) designing the pipeline for corrosive service, which mainly means designing the corrosion control system; and (3) implementing a corrosion management program to ensure that corrosion control is properly applied. Industry wide experience shows that carbon steel can be used in very corrosive environments, if the corrosion control system is properly designed and consistently applied. However, the economic feasibility of carbon steel needs to be established for each specific case, using the life cycle cost approach. Corrosion prediction models are used at the design stage to determine the magnitude of the problem, and evaluate different corrosion control options such as gas cooling, pH control, and inhibition. However, all corrosion prediction models have limitations, most notably for accurately evaluating the effect of scaling, oil protection, and inhibitors. Therefore, model predictions must be complemented when necessary with laboratory measurements under relevant conditions, and with accumulated field experience. The concept of inhibition efficiency has been largely abandoned in favor of that of an inhibited corrosion rate, which is mostly independent of the corrosivity of the environment. Laboratory tests are employed to identify the best performing inhibitors. Inhibitor availability, corrosion allowance, and inspection frequency are closely connected through the concept of risk based inspection.

Kapusta, S.D.; Pots, B.F.M. [Shell Global Solutions, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Connell, R.A. [Shell International E and P, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

1999-11-01

163

Colombian export oil pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

Duncan, K. (Bechtel News, Houston, TX (US)); Enright, B. (Bechtel Inc., Pipeline and Pulp and Paper Operations Group, Bechtel, Houston, TX (US))

1989-06-01

164

Pipelines to eastern Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline` expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines` future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs.

Otsason, J. [Vector Pipeline (Canada)

1998-12-31

165

Strain based design of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is becoming widely recognized that the design of pipelines based on a limiting stress basis may, in certain circumstances, be less economic than if they were designed using limiting strain criteria. This paper examines briefly the current state of information relating to formulations which would permit the use of a strain based design methods. The results reported here were generated on part of an initial study funded by the UK Health and Safety Executive. A joint industry funded project has been initiated to extend the range of information and formulations. The program of work for that project is described in the paper.

Walker, A.C. [Mott MacDonald Ltd., London (United Kingdom)]|[Univ. of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Williams, K.A.J. [Mott MacDonald Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

1995-12-31

166

Monitoring corrosion in multiphase pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion and inhibition of carbon steel in multiphase flow were examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and electrochemical noise (ECN) methods. It is found that the corrosion in slug flow is higher than that in full pipe flow. For the inhibitor tests, the experimental results show that the corrosion inhibitor has a better performance at longer exposure time and higher inhibitor concentration. Comparison with full pipe flow, slug flow degrades the inhibitor performance and increases the corrosion rate. The results from this work show that both EIS and ECN are the practical techniques in monitoring of corrosion and inhibition for pipeline steel in multiphase flow. (orig.)

Hong, T.; Chen, Y.; Sun, Y.H.; Jepson, W.P. [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States). Inst. for Corrosion and Multiphase Technology

2001-08-01

167

Recycling abandoned lead battery sites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

1993-01-01

168

Estimate of gas potential of abandoned coal mines; Gaspotenzialabschaetzung von stillgelegten Kohlenbergwerken  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A knowledge of the residual gas quantities in the rock, the gas pressure trend and the effect of the rise of water are particularly important for evaluation of abandoned coal mines with regard to the utilisable residual gas quantities and to identification of possible gas escape areas on the surface. DMT has carried out several projects in particular concerning the subject of endangerment of the surface by gas escapes in conjunction with the rise of water in abandoned collieries. Taking the former Westfalen colliery as an example, the methodology worked out and the derivable information with regard to gas distribution are described in the contribution. (orig.)

Meiners, H. [Abt. Oberflaechenausgasung (DE). Deutsche Montan Technology GmbH (DMT); Kunz, E. [Abt. Wettertechnik, Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH (DMT), Essen (Germany)

2006-01-23

169

Experimental Study of Oil Pipeline Leak Processes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This work provides a description of oil leak/spill processes from containment such as pipeline. Understanding of such processes is important in order to adequately estimate oil spills and to justify an appropriate emergency action for minimizing spills. Internal diameters of pipes used in the study ...

Agbakwuru Ahamefula Jasper; Gudmestad Tobias Ove; Bilstad Torleiv

170

Causes, outcome and prevention of abandonment in retinoblastoma in India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The high-cure rates of 90% in retinoblastoma are not replicated in developing countries due to late presentation and poor compliance to treatment. The present study takes a closer look at causes of abandonment of therapy and effectiveness of counselling in reducing abandonment. PROCEDURE: A retrospective study of children with retinoblastoma registered at our centre from March 2008 through August 2011. RESULTS: Fifty (49.50%) of 101 children registered for treatment abandoned therapy. Abandonment rates were significantly higher in rural as compared to urban children (P?=?0.02). There was no significant difference in rate of abandonment between stages or laterality of disease and other socio-demographic factors. Telephone calls were more effective than letters in tracing patients (31.2% vs. 2.4%). Major reasons cited behind abandonment were financial problems (30%) and unwillingness to enucleate (20%). Of the 12 children who returned and were retreated 6 (50%) died of progressive disease. Nineteen (73%) of those who did not return died at home. Abandonment rates steadily declined from 71.42% in 2008 to 16.66% in 2011 (P?=?0.01) due to effective pre-abandonment counselling by a support team under the National Retinoblastoma Registry of India from 2009. CONCLUSIONS: Abandonment rates for children with retinoblastoma continue to be unacceptably high. Rural background, financial constraints and hesitancy to enucleate were important causes behind abandonment. Outcome of patients who abandoned treatment was uniformly dismal. Inclusion of support team and intensified initial counselling helped in improving compliance.

Kumar A; Moulik NR; Mishra RK; Kumar D

2013-05-01

171

Multiple pipelines drilled under flooded Mississippi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The installation of a multiple pipeline crossing of the Mississippi River near Geismer, La. was part of the construction of a products pipeline. Crews worked around-the-clock on pipe pull through a bore under the Mississippi River during major flood conditions to complete the multiple line crossing. Explains that as the water level rose, efforts to raise the access road proved successful, and drilling mud and fuel began arriving and were unloaded on a continuous basis during the pull. Points out that crossing the river with directional drillers was a major achievement and a first for multiple lines in a single hole for such a distance.

O' Donnell, H.W.

1983-05-01

172

EIS measurements on buried pipelines cathodically protected  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Preliminary studies have been performed aimed at the application of EIS techniques to the monitoring of coating integrity in buried pipelines. Electrochemical techniques are promising for the investigation of coating condition in large components, since they are non destructive and little perturbative. On the other hand, the selection of accurate models is of importance for data reduction and for the understanding of the obtained results. In literature, experimental studies and models are available for application to the case of rebar embedded in concrete. The present work was aimed at designing an experimental program to apply electrochemical techniques to large buried pipelines, using the cathodic protection system as a tool for obtaining impedance spectra.

M.Soprani, M.; Bennardo, A.; Gabetta, G. [Eniricerche SpA, S Donato Milanese (Italy)

1998-12-31

173

The pipeline industry and the Migratory Birds Convention Act  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Canada's Migratory Bird Convention Act was legislated in 1917 to conserve and protect migratory birds and their habitat. It also established the Government of Canada's jurisdiction over coastal and inland bird habitats. This report raises awareness of the broad coverage of the Act which was updated in 1994. It offers environmental management advice to pipeline companies whose activities may affect migratory birds. The activities that affect migratory birds include fires, spills, hazardous materials and land disturbance such as road construction, tree clearing and excavation for pipelines. Sensory disturbances such as lights and noises during pipeline construction may also affect migratory birds. The Migratory Bird Convention Act applies to all stages of industry's activities, including planning, construction, operation, decommissioning and abandonment. The Act does not permit any disturbance to nests or nesting birds during breeding and nesting period which is typically from early April to late August. Pipeline activities are therefore carried out between late summer and the fall season. refs., figs.

NONE

2004-01-01

174

Arctic race: Northern pipeline contest enters urgent stage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The debate over the route to bring to market natural gas from Alaska and Northern Canada is gaining momentum despite fluctuating natural gas prices, global economic anxiety, fear of biological terrorism and questions of aboriginal rights which, at times, seem unresolvable. People like the Premier of the Yukon Territory favour the Alaskan Highway package, as well as the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline, provided that the Alaska route is built. The premier dismisses the arguments in favour of an 'over-the-top' northern route running under the Beaufort Sea from Prudhoe Bay to Inuvik and through the Mackenzie Delta as 'unrealistic'. She argues in favour of the Alaskan route because certain regulatory approvals are already in place, and argues that the risk is that too much delay will turn investors away from Northern gas development as it happened some 30 years ago. Others believe that the smaller, shorter, less expensive Canadian alternative appears to be more ready to go. It has been proposed by the Mackenzie Delta Producers Group and is supported by the native-led government of the Northwest Territories. This route would run from Inuvik to Boundary Lake in Northwestern Alberta. The Delta Group also has a Memorandum of Understanding signed with the Mackenzie Valley Aboriginal Pipeline Corporation providing a one-third ownership in the pipeline for Northern First Nations and giving them a say in employment, training, environmental assessment and pipeline abandonment. Nevertheless the path to construction is rocky since one First Nation Groups refused to negotiate the pipeline right-of-way without first completing land claim negotiations with the federal government. In general, there is a pervasive belief that difficulties will be overcome and one of the pipelines will be built eventually. Experts believe that the North has great potential, and now it is time to realize that potential and bring the resources to market. 3 photos.

Laverty-Wilson, K.

2001-11-05

175

Integrity management on the Echo pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Echo pipeline is a 12 inch diameter, 153 km long pipeline that runs from Elk Point in Alberta to Hardisty. It is a hot oil pipeline that transports 0.986 SG material at temperatures between 50 and 95 degrees C. Conventional pipelines can operate with a material viscosity up to 1000 cS, but at temperatures of 5-25 degrees C this requires a diluent content up to 20%. The Echo pipeline operates in the same viscosity range, but without diluent which requires the higher operating temperature. For various reasons there are capital cost savings in operating with no diluent at higher temperatures. Another advantage of this system is increased market flexibility. A disadvantage is that non-diluted oil must be kept moving so that excessive cooling does not occur which would cause the oil to reach a non-pumpable viscosity. The design considerations for heat loss to the ground included the effect of oil viscosity and the effect on the soils and root zone temperatures. To mitigate the heat loss effect to acceptable levels 2 inches of insulation and 6 feet of cover were required. A multi-layer coating was necessary that consisted of a primer, corrosion protection tape, polyurethane foam insulation, rockshield tape, and polyethylene jacket. The coating had various disadvantages including: it was difficult to apply over field welds, it was difficult to bend and it prevented the cathodic protection system from working effectively.

Kulcsar, D. [Gibsons Petroleum Company Ltd., Hardisty, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

176

Coal-log pipeline system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project tasks include: (1) Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. (2) Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and tests the logs produced. (3) Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. (VC)

Liu, H.

1991-12-01

177

Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs

1997-01-01

178

Commissioning of long subsea pipelines - environmental aspects  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discharges to air and sea are inevitable during precommissioning and commissioning of long subsea pipelines. Large quantities of water is pumped through the pipeline during these operations. This water is normally treated with corrosion inhibiting chemicals to minimise internal corrosion of the pipeline. Chemicals like methanol or glycol may be used to prevent hydrate formation, and will normally be discharged to sea during commissioning. In order to minimise the environmental impact of these operations, while maintaining corrosion protection, the Norwegian Statoil has been working for several years along three main routes such as to develop concepts and methods that minimise the discharged volumes, the use of the most environmentally friendly chemicals available, and to monitor and identify the effects of discharges to various marine species. 3 refs., 4 figs.

Falck, C.; Kleppe, T.; Maribu, J.

1997-12-31

179

Risk from transport of gas by pipeline ''kokui-perm''  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text of publication follows: the length of gas pipelines in Russia is 142 thousands km, 62 % are pipelines of the large diameters. Annually on gas pipelines in Russia there are more than 70 large accidents, more than 50 % from them is accompanied by ignition of gas. The average ecological looses from accident is: destruction arable lands - 78 hectares; removing from consumption agricultural soils - 6,2 hectares; destruction forests - 47,5 hectares. In work the reasons of accidents on gas pipelines of different diameters are analyzed. So, for pipelines a diameter of 1220 mm by the reasons of accidents are: marriage of civil and erection works - 39, 1 %; outside corrosion - 35,9 %; mechanical damages - 9,4 %; defects of pipes - 6,2 %; defects of the factory equipment - 1,6 %; nature disasters and other reasons - 7,8 %. In work the results of risk analysis on a gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' are analysed. The gas pipeline 'Kokui - Perm' passes near 22 towns and countries, crosses 15 highways, 2 rail ways, 15 rivers. In work the concrete recommendations for management of risk and safety of the population are given. (author)

1998-01-01

180

Analysis of gas pipeline failures  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Failure of an operating gas pipeline is a rare event. However, when it does occur, it must be properly analyzed to prevent recurrence. This paper proposes analytical procedures for analyzing pipelines along with examples and characteristics of some typical failures.

Bruno, T.V.; Dahlberg, E.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Pipeline rehabilitation planning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

2005-07-01

182

Pipeline defect evaluation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During their design life, pipelines may degrade and lose strength. The degradation may be due to construction defects, corrosion, erosion, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), fatigue, creep, brittle fracture or freeze damage. The defect may lead to structural failure. Pipeline flaws can be measured or detected using nondestructive evaluation (NDE) such as ultrasonic, eddy current, dye penetrant, radiographic or magnetic particle methods. In fracture mechanics, the actual measured flaw size or assumed initial flaw size, based on the type of NDE method used, is used to evaluate the structural integrity and to determine the remaining life. The measured thickness, retirement thickness and corrosion rate per year are used to calculate the remaining life. This paper will cover an example using NASA`s FLAGRO software to evaluate flaw growth under loading, and remedial methods to improve pipe life from NRC`s PRAISE and ASME B31G criteria to determine when specific pipeline segments must be replaced.

Kannappan, S. [GDS Engineers, Baytown, TX (United States)

1997-05-01

183

Recommissioning NPS 30 pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper will discuss all the steps taken to reclaim an 80 kilometer (50 Mile) NPS 30 pipeline loop, including the project planning, the labor requirements, the techniques utilized to complete the various stages of the project, some of the unique problems encountered, as well as some options that were examined for hydrostatic test leak detection and water treatment. This project was a component of the Trans Mountain, Cdn $30 million, Stage 2 capacity expansion. This component of Stage 2 resulted in an increase of 3,000 m{sup 3}/d (18,909 barrel/d) to the overall pipeline capacity achieving a 36,300 m{sup 3}/d sustainable pipeline pumping capacity (230,000 barrel/d).

Saad, Z.A.; O`Rourke, D.J.

1996-12-31

184

A survey of visualization pipelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most common abstraction used by visualization libraries and applications today is what is known as the visualization pipeline. The visualization pipeline provides a mechanism to encapsulate algorithms and then couple them together in a variety of ways. The visualization pipeline has been in existence for over 20 years, and over this time many variations and improvements have been proposed. This paper provides a literature review of the most prevalent features of visualization pipelines and some of the most recent research directions.

Moreland K

2013-03-01

185

PID control of gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of low cost digital controllers for pipeline control is increasing as the reliability and cost improves. In pipeline applications, the proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controller algorithm is often used. However, the unique problems associated with pipeline operation have caused manufacturers to modify the basic control algorithms. Features such as set point ramping, built in pressure control, freeze on input error, and high and low output limits help assure safe and predictable pipeline operation.

Coltharp, B.; Bergmann, J. [Baker CAC, Kingwood, TX (United States)

1996-09-01

186

Northern pipelines : backgrounder  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Most analysts agree that demand for natural gas in North America will continue to grow. Favourable market conditions created by rising demand and declining production have sparked renewed interest in northern natural gas development. The 2002 Annual Energy Outlook forecasted U.S. consumption to increase at an annual average rate of 2 per cent from 22.8 trillion cubic feet to 33.8 TCF by 2020, mostly due to rapid growth in demand for electric power generation. Natural gas prices are also expected to increase at an annual average rate of 1.6 per cent, reaching $3.26 per thousand cubic feet in 2020. There are currently 3 proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to US markets. They include a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project, and an offshore route that would combine Alaskan and Canadian gas in a pipeline across the floor of the Beaufort Sea. Current market conditions and demand suggest that the projects are not mutually exclusive, but complimentary. The factors that differentiate northern pipeline proposals are reserves, preparedness for market, costs, engineering, and environmental differences. Canada has affirmed its role to provide the regulatory and fiscal certainty needed by industry to make investment decisions. The Government of the Yukon does not believe that the Alaska Highway Project will shut in Mackenzie Delta gas, but will instead pave the way for development of a new northern natural gas industry. The Alaska Highway Pipeline Project will bring significant benefits for the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and the rest of Canada. Unresolved land claims are one of the challenges that has to be addressed for both Yukon and the Northwest Territories, as the proposed Alaska Highway Pipeline will travel through traditional territories of several Yukon first Nations. 1 tab., 4 figs.

2002-01-01

187

Comecon repayments in pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent agreement in Berlin to combine Poland's outstanding debts and eliminate annual renegotiation until 1990 could revitalize international trade and help to stabilize financial markets. Other Comecon countries have also taken steps for closer bilateral East-West ties as a result of the gas pipeline from the Soviet Union to Europe and a scramble to make long-term supply contracts. The pipeline bringing oil and gas to Europe and hard currency to the Soviet Union could be the first significant puncture of the Iron Curtain.

1984-05-01

188

An automatic segmentation algorithm used in pipeline integrity alignment sheet design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pipeline integrity alignment sheet can report pipeline status information from multiple dimensions and gives a better visual idea of pipeline basic information and analysis results; it is therefore an effective way to display data on pipeline integrity. Artificial means are often used in traditional design methods: the designer must arrange segmentation boxes along the pipeline, thus covering it entirely, and has to do so manually. For a pipeline thousands of kilometers long, this method has low efficiency. Therefore, this paper derived an automatic segmentation algorithm from existing curve simplification algorithms, implemented it with the help of the ArcGIS Engine, and used it for the practical work of sheet designing. This paper first defines the pipeline integrity alignment sheet and describes its basic design steps. Then it reviews existing works at home and abroad, and analyses and compares several classical algorithms. Finally, it proposes the automatic method and shows its effectiveness on a practical sample.

Guo, Lei; Zhou, Lijian; Jia, Shaohui; Yi, Li; Yu, Haichong; Han, Xiaoming [PetroChina Pipeline RandD Center, Langfang, Hebei (China)

2010-07-01

189

Troll oil pipeline: A step further in pipeline technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Troll field on the Norwegian Continental Shelf is the largest offshore gas field in Europe with recoverable gas reserves of approximately 1,200 billion Sm{sup 3}. A significant volume of oil is also present in the reservoir of which some 90 million Sm{sup 3} recoverable. The oil is exported from the floating production platform through a 16-in. pipeline, the Troll Oil pipeline, to the existing oil terminal and refinery at Mongstad, north of Bergen in Norway. The Troll Oil pipeline is the first pipeline installed in a deep Norwegian fjord and the challenges during the project development phases and the installation of the pipeline are addressed in this paper. The plan for the development and operation of the pipeline was finally approved by the authorities in December 1993 and the first oil was transported in September 1995. The development may be considered one of the most technically demanding pipeline developments undertaken on the Norwegian Shelf.

Breivik, J.; Opheim, A.; Bjoerndal, T.A.; Lund, S. [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway)

1996-12-01

190

Evaluation of reclaimed abandoned bentonite mine lands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1985, the Abandoned Mined Land Division of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality began reclamation of 4,148 ha of abandoned bentonite mined lands. Calcium amendments and sawmill wood wastes were applied to the regraded spoils to enhance water infiltration, displacement of Na on the clay spoil, and leaching of the displaced Na and other soluble salts. Revegetation of these lands was generally successful, but after several years small areas (0.1--0.2 ha) began to show signs of vegetation die-back and to prescribe corrective treatment options. A randomized block design was imposed on study areas near Upton, Colony, and Greybull, Wyoming to characterize spoil chemical properties of good, moderate, and dead vegetation zones, which were subjectively delineated by visual vegetation cover and density differences. Spoil analyses indicated exchangeable-sodium (Na) concentrations were high and the dead vegetation zones exhibited exchangeable-sodium-percentages (ESP) above 50%, while surrounding good vegetation zones exhibited ESP values <10%. This coupled with low soluble-Na concentrations (<2 cmol/kg) suggests insufficient calcium (Ca) amendments were initially applied to ameliorate the sodic conditions of the spoil. The sampling design used to determine Ca amendment rates, which consisted of a composite of 5 spoil cores taken from each 0.8 ha area, was apparently insufficient to account for the highly heterogeneous spoil material that occurred throughout these abandoned bentonite reclamation sites. To revegetate these small degraded sites, additional Ca amendment would be necessary and reseeding would be required. However, the authors recommend further monitoring of the affected sites to determine if unfavorable conditions continue to degrade the reclaimed landscape before any attempt is made to rehabilitate the affected sites. If the degraded sites are stable, further Remediation efforts are not warranted because small areas of little or no vegetation are common on native landscapes of these areas.

Edinger, K.D.; Schuman, G.E.; Vance, G.F.

1999-07-01

191

A management systems approach to pipeline integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A management systems approach to pipeline integrity was discussed in terms of accident causation models, lessons from accidents, and management systems. Accident causation models include the Heinrich domino theory; epidemiological models; event chain models; and system-based models. A review of the Bellingham pipeline accident showed that if the pipeline had not been weakened by external damage, it likely would have been able to withstand the pressure that occurred on the day of the rupture, and the accident would not have happened. It was also determined that there was inadequate inspection of excavation work during the water treatment plant project and consequently, there was a failure to identify and repair the damage done to the pipeline. The presentation also addressed other findings, such as inaccurate evaluation of in-line pipeline inspection data; failure to manage and protect the supervisory control and data acquisition system (SCADA); and ineffective management oversight of construction and activation of products terminal. The Carlsbad pipeline explosion was also presented as another example of an accident. Several violations by El Paso were cited, including failure to ensure that qualified personnel performed internal corrosion control procedures; failure to perform necessary tests for corrosion; and failure to follow procedures for continuing surveillance of its facilities. Last, the presentation provided a definition of management systems and discussed the characteristics and elements of a management system. These elements included policy and leadership commitment; organizational structure and responsibilities; management of resources; communication plan; document and records management; operational controls; management of change; and continual improvement. 1 fig.

Abes, J. [CC Technologies Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

192

Chinese medicinal composition for abandoning drug addiction  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a Chinese medicinal composition for abandoning drug addiction, which is prepared from the following medicaments in percentage by mass: 30 to 35 percent of stiff silkworm, 30 to 35 percent of scorpion and 30 to 35 percent of centipede and the total content of the three medicaments is 100 percent. The three Chinese medicaments are decocted by slow fire twice, and each time lasts for 20 minutes. A patient drinks the decoction decocted for the first time before sleeping at night and drinks the decoction decocted for the second time before breakfast in the next day, and a course of treatment needs three doses.

LEI ZHANG

193

Method for abandoning an underground storage tank  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of abandoning an underground storage tank in which hydrocarbon substances have been stored comprising the steps of: (a) removing residual substances, if any, from said tank; (b) washing said tank with a detergent solution; (c) removing said detergent solution; and (d) completely filling said tank with a mixture which includes water, sand, a binding agent and a material for enhancing the flowability of said mixture wherein said mixture forms a solid composition with a structural strength similar to that of the surrounding soil.

Hannay, R.C.

1993-08-24

194

Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft.

Caldwell, L.S.

1986-10-01

195

Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

1996-08-29

196

Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Twomey, B.G. [Reverse Engineering Ltd., (United Kingdom)

1996-12-31

197

Abandon-in-place design experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Reducing the snubber population in nuclear power plants is done by replacing then with rigid struts or eliminating them from piping. This is possible due to criteria changes or a more rigorous analysis of the piping. The snubbers are physically removed from the system and plant. Actual removal of the snubbers from some piping systems in often difficult and expensive due to physical access and radiation exposure of workers. This challenge goes beyond the typical snubber reduction task. This challenge is to demonstrate that leaving snubbers in place on the pipe is acceptable without performing testing--abandon-in-place.

Hoffert, A.R.; Barth, M.A.

1996-12-01

198

Pneumatic freight pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a great deal of technology and experience in and from the Pneumatic Tube System industry that must be tapped because it is directly and/or indirectly applicable to the Pneumatic Freight Pipeline industry. Otherwise a great deal of time will be spent re-inventing the wheel.

Weaver, P.B.

1994-12-31

199

Pipelined Viterbi Decoder Using FPGA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Convolutional encoding is used in almost all digital communication systems to get better gain in BER (Bit Error Rate), and all applications needs high throughput rate. The Viterbi algorithm is the solution in decoding process. The nonlinear and feedback nature of the Viterbi decoder makes its high speed implementation harder. One of promising approaches to get high throughput in the Viterbi decoder is to introduce a pipelining. This work applies a carry-save technique, which gets the advantage that the critical path in the ACS feedback becomes in one direction and get rid of carry ripple in the “Add” part of ACS unit. In this simulation and implementation show how this technique will improve the throughput of the Viterbi decoder. The design complexities for the bit-pipelined architecture are evaluated and demonstrated using Verilog HDL simulation. And a general algorithm in software that simulates a Viterbi Decoder was developed. Our research is concerned with implementation of the Viterbi Decoders for Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). Generally FPGA's are slower than custom integrated circuits but can be configured in the lab in few hours as compared to fabrication which takes few months. The design implemented using Verilog HDL and synthesized for Xilinx FPGA's.

Nayel Al-Zubi

2013-01-01

200

Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

78 FR 1850 - Gulf South Pipeline Company, LP; Notice of Application for Abandonment  

Science.gov (United States)

...concerning this application may be directed to Michael E. McMahon, Senior Vice President and General Counsel; J. Kyle Stephens...713) 479- 8252, fax (713) 479-1745 or email: Mike.McMahon@bwpmlp.com, Kyle.Stephens@bwpmlp.com or...

2013-01-09

202

The visual and radiological inspection of a pipeline using a teleoperated pipe crawler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the 1950s, the Savannah River Site built an open, unlined retention basin to temporarily store potentially radionuclide contaminated cooling water from a chemical separations process and storm water drainage from a nearby waste management facility that stored large quantities of nuclear fission byproducts in carbon steel tanks. The retention basin was retired from service in 1972 when a new, lined basin was completed. In 1978, the old retention basin was excavated, backfilled with uncontaminated dirt, and covered with grass. At the same time, much of the underground process pipeline leading to the basin was abandoned. Since the closure of the retention basin, new environmental regulations require that the basin undergo further assessment to determine whether additional remediation is required. A visual and radiological inspection of the pipeline was necessary to aid in the remediation decision making process for the retention basin system. A teleoperated pipe crawler inspection system was developed to survey the abandoned sections of underground pipelines leading to the retired retention basin. This paper will describe the background to this project, the scope of the investigation, the equipment requirements, and the results of the pipeline inspection.

Fogle, R.F.; Kuelske, K.; Kellner, R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Site

1995-01-01

203

The inspection of a radiologically contaminated pipeline using a teleoperated pipe crawler  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the 1950s, the Savannah River Site built an open, unlined retention basin to temporarily store potentially radionuclide contaminated cooling water from a chemical separations process and storm water drainage from a nearby waste management facility that stored large quantities of nuclear fission byproducts in carbon steel tanks. The retention basin was retired from service in 1972 when a new, lined basin was completed. In 1978, the old retention basin was excavated, backfilled with uncontaminated dirt, and covered with grass. At the same time, much of the underground process pipeline leading to the basin was abandoned. Since the closure of the retention basin, new environmental regulations require that the basin undergo further assessment to determine whether additional remediation is required. A visual and radiological inspection of the pipeline was necessary to aid in the remediation decision making process for the retention basin system. A teleoperated pipe crawler inspection system was developed to survey the abandoned sections of underground pipelines leading to the retired retention basin. This paper will describe the background to this project, the scope of the investigation, the equipment requirements, and the results of the pipeline inspection.

1995-01-01

204

The inspection of a radiologically contaminated pipeline using a teleoperated pipe crawler  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the 1950s, the Savannah River Site built an open, unlined retention basin to temporarily store potentially radionuclide contaminated cooling water from a chemical separations process and storm water drainage from a nearby waste management facility that stored large quantities of nuclear fission byproducts in carbon steel tanks. The retention basin was retired from service in 1972 when a new, lined basin was completed. In 1978, the old retention basin was excavated, backfilled with uncontaminated dirt, and covered with grass. At the same time, much of the underground process pipeline leading to the basin was abandoned. Since the closure of the retention basin, new environmental regulations require that the basin undergo further assessment to determine whether additional remediation is required. A visual and radiological inspection of the pipeline was necessary to aid in the remediation decision making process for the retention basin system. A teleoperated pipe crawler inspection system was developed to survey the abandoned sections of underground pipelines leading to the retired retention basin. This paper will describe the background to this project, the scope of the investigation, the equipment requirements, and the results of the pipeline inspection.

Fogle, R.F.; Kuelske, K.; Kellner, R.A.

1995-08-01

205

Northern pipelines : overview of technical issues surrounding northern pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

PFL Consultant Inc. was hired by the Pipeline Unit of the Yukon Government's Economic Development Department to develop a synopsis of technical and engineering issues regarding northern onshore and offshore pipelines. This report identifies and summarizes several key issues that will arise during northern pipeline design, construction and operation. Existing northern pipeline uncertainties were also addressed for construction cost estimates for the following two pipeline options: (1) a pipeline from Prudhoe Bay to Fairbanks and along the Alaska Highway called the Alaska Highway Pipeline, and (2) an offshore pipeline to Mackenzie Delta and south along the Mackenzie River called the Over the Top route. This report is intended as an informational tool for both government and non-government organizations to prepare regulations, as well as for northern gas producers and pipeline companies. It does not deal with known conventional onshore and offshore pipeline issues, independent of the impact of northern conditions. The report emphasized that there are no unsolved issues to be addressed for onshore northern pipelines since issues such as frost heave and thaw settlement have been studied. However, there are many unresolved, technical issues regarding offshore northern pipelines in terms of design, construction and operation, such as: (1) ice scour and trenching equipment capability, (2) open water season and ice-strengthened equipment, (3) compression station siting, and (4) accessibility. It was noted that these problems can translate into long construction delays, major cost overruns, and risks regarding reliability and the environment. It was, therefore, concluded that it would be economically unacceptable for large-diameter, long-distance pipeline. 11 refs., 6 figs.

Fernandez, M.L. [PFL Inc. Consultants, Calgary, AB (Canada); Dempster, D.A. [Wolf Island Engineering (Canada)

2001-11-01

206

Pipeline hydrocarbon transportation: Some operating concerns and R and D trends  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper describes R and D efforts and trends and possible application of new technologies to improve on pipeline construction and operations. The paper also identifies possible solutions for some operating concerns related to pipeline integrity and safety. Safety is defined as protection for humans, the environment and materials/equipment. As in other industries, the oil and gas business too is driven by events; a typical example is the current interest on Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC). Accordingly, there are technical concerns related to the influence of SCC and aging on pipeline integrity and the consequent financial concerns regarding possible pipeline upgrading, derating, abandonment and possible retrieval. Potential new solutions include a proposed flexible tube (currently under development) made out of fiber glass composites. This patented innovation could reduce pipeline construction and operating costs. This tube could also eliminate some problems typically associated with metal corrosion. Also included is the application of Fiber Optic Sensor (FOS) technology to the monitoring and evaluation of pipeline integrity. FOS technology may be utilized to study SCC because of its high resolution, and its insensitivity to electro-magnetic interference, and its real time availability.

Fernandez, M.L. [PFL Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Tapanes, E.E. [Future Fibre Technologies Pty. Ltd., Glen Waverley, Victoria (Australia); Zelitskaya, P.V. [ADC Inc., Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

1996-12-31

207

Vulnerability of pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although pipelines may be damaged due to natural sources such as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) or hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), most pipeline damages are a result of third-party interference, such as unauthorized construction in a right of way. Pipelines are also among the prime targets for sabotage because interruptions in energy distribution can render large segments of a population debilitated. The importance of protecting critical infrastructure was emphasized in this theme issue which disseminated information on vulnerability of pipelines due to third-party intrusions, both intentional and unintentional. It summarized the 10 presentations that were delivered at a pipelines security forum in Calgary, Alberta, addressing Canadian and U.S. government and industry approaches to oil and natural gas pipeline security. The opening keynote address remarked on the evolution of international terror networks, the targeting of the energy sector, and the terrorist threat and presence in Canada. Policies towards critical energy infrastructure protection (CIP) were then examined in light of these threats. A policy shift away from traditional defensive protective security towards an offensive intelligence-led strategy to forestall terrorist threats was advocated. Energy sector representatives agreed that Canada needs an effective national lead agency to provide threat assessments, alert notification, and coordination of information pertaining to CIP. It was agreed that early warning information must come from Canadian as well as U.S. sources in order to be pertinent. The conference session on information collection concentrated on defining what sort of threat information is needed by the energy sector, who should collect it and how should it be shared. It was emphasized that government leadership should coordinate threat reporting and disseminate information, set standards, and address the issues of terrorism risk insurance. Concern was raised about the lack of leadership in the department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada (PSEPC). It was emphasized that current procedures are inadequate and measures should be taken to improve matters. The session on analysis and assessment of threat information dealt with the analysis and assessment of threats to CIP and the consideration of risk, probability and consequences.

Anon.

2006-07-01

208

Produt : a pipeline technological program to face the challenges in Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline companies have turned their focus on new technologies to deal with the natural aging of facilities and on problems with operational procedures. They have also focused on more demanding environmental legislation and saving resources through pipeline rehabilitation. Most of the pipeline work by the Petrobras transportation company in Brazil took place about 20 years ago. This poses a challenge regarding the aging problem for the company, particularly since its monopoly ended in 1997. In order to remain competitive, Petrobras has established a technological pipeline program called PRODUT as well as a Brazilian Network of Pipeline Technology called RBTD (Rede Brasileira de Tecnologia de Dutos). The programs are geared at developing new technologies for pipelines to ensure the success of new challenges of enlargement, modernization and operational reliability of the pipelines. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

Gomes, M.G.F.; Baptista, R.M. [Petrobras Transportation Co., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2000-07-01

209

Pipeline risk assessment/risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Working Group 7 discussed challenges facing the oil and gas pipeline industry with particular reference to the fundamentals of risk assessment and management. Risk assessment algorithms, methods, techniques and approaches were reviewed along with the likelihood and consequences of algorithms. Underlying programs, processes and procedures were identified, including decision support and performance measures that support a company's risk management program. Emerging focus areas that may require further investigation or industry collaboration were also identified. It was shown that high risk segments of pipelines can be identified through risk-based prioritization which relies on threat identification data, threat assessment data and consequence data. Three basic risk assessment methods were identified, namely subject matter expert (SME); relative assessment and probabilistic assessment. Each was shown to have advantages and limitations. The choice of risk assessment method depends on the needs of individual companies. It was determined that the size of the pipeline also determines the choice of risk assessment method and that the complexity of risk assessment should reflect the outcomes that are needed. Data quality is important, as are validation and feedback for calibration and continuous improvement. The basics for developing a facility risk assessment model were also presented along with a review of regulatory expectations. The National Energy Board strives for goal oriented risk assessment to ensure safe and secure systems that protect the environment and people. Public perception is also an issue that some pipeline companies consider in their risk assessment models. tabs., figs.

Len, N. [Dynamic Risk Assessment Systems Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Skibinsky, D.; Irving, S. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Sutherby, B.; Choudhary, U. [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Gagnon, D. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

2007-07-01

210

Maneuvering through a pipeline obstacle course  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Installing a pipeline may not seem like much of a challenge for natural gas companies, but the logistics of laying pipe in the ground is not simple in many cases, and no pipeline project is ever routine. Before lifting a shovel, there are a number of potential obstacles to consider: the possibility of damage to the environment and historical landmarks, the stress-resistance of the pipes themselves --- and, of course, the natural wonders of the world that are nothing less than holy terrors to the contractors who must work around, over and through them. It used to take six to eight months to build a pipeline; now it's one to two years just getting through FERC (the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission). This paper shows that with the right technology, as well as a little creativity, there's no hill too high, no field too fruitful, no ferret too feisty and no regulation too rigid to transport natural gas through pipelines anywhere, anyhow, anytime.

Gast, N.

1992-08-01

211

Coal-log pipeline system development  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The objective of this study is to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or below to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline system. In addition the study will perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs; test the logs from Task 1; conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date; and refine and complete the economic model. A detailed literature search in coal agglomeration has been conducted. This includes all the known previous attempts to agglomerate coal. Some important findings are listed. Some very preliminary tests have been done on making coal logs with and without binder. A small-scale demonstration unit of a coal log pipeline (CLP) has been designed. It uses 1 1/4-inch transparent plastic pipe and the loop is approximately 128 feet in length. The design is shown in a figure; construction has not begun as yet. 1 fig.

1990-01-01

212

Pipeline crawler gets inside information  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new system that can x-ray more than 250 pipeline welds a day at a cost saving estimated at about 50% is being used by an Alberta company. Rivest Bros. Enterprises Ltd., a nondestructive testing company, is working on a 62 km gas transmission line for Saskatchewan Power Corp. The line runs from Bronson Lake to Beacon Hill and is a $6.3 million project with 6 and 12 in pipe and currently does 270 12-in weldsd. The unit is battery powered, self-propelled, 42 in long and weighs 65 lb. The crawler can examine 2 km of pipe without battery change or recharge and can climb a 45/sup 0/ slope. The unit is controlled from outside the pipe by an operator and uses Iridium 192 as its radiation source.

1987-10-26

213

Recoating large diameter gas transmission pipelines in Western Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rehabilitation work on pipeline sections containing damaged or disbanded coating, corrosion and stress corrosion cracking has been - and continues to be - done manually. It is slow and labor intensive, usually with inconsistent results. Automated equipment for coating removal, surface preparation and coating application has been developed to provide superior performance and results while decreasing labor requirements. It is making rehabilitation of pipelines an increasingly attractive alternative to new construction. (author)

Leahy, T.D. [TransCanada PipeLines, Saskatchewan (Canada); Prior, M.R. [Marine Pipeline Construction, Alberta (Canada); Taylor, S.A. [CRC Evans Rehabilitation Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

1999-07-01

214

Atmospheric monitoring at abandoned mercury mine sites in Asturias (NW Spain).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mercury concentrations are usually significant in historic Hg mining districts all over the world, so the atmospheric environment is potentially affected. In Asturias, northern Spain, past mining operations have left a legacy of ruins and Hg-rich wastes, soils and sediments in abandoned sites. Total Hg concentrations in the ambient air of these abandoned mine sites have been investigated to evaluate the impact of the Hg emissions. This paper presents the synthesis of current knowledge about atmospheric Hg contents in the area of the abandoned Hg mining and smelting works at 'La Peña-El Terronal' and La Soterraña, located in Mieres and Pola de Lena districts, respectively, both within the Caudal River basin. It was found that average atmospheric Hg concentrations are higher than the background level in the area (0.1 microg Nm(-3)), reaching up to 203.7 microg Nm(-3) at 0.2 m above the ground level, close to the old smelting chimney at El Terronal mine site. Data suggest that past Hg mining activities have big influences on the increased Hg concentrations around abandoned sites and that atmospheric transfer is a major pathway for Hg cycling in these environments.

Loredo J; Soto J; Alvarez R; Ordóñez A

2007-07-01

215

Biogeochemical behaviour and bioremediation of uranium in waters of abandoned mines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The discharges of uranium and associated radionuclides as well as heavy metals and metalloids from waste and tailing dumps in abandoned uranium mining and processing sites pose contamination risks to surface and groundwater. Although many more are being planned for nuclear energy purposes, most of the abandoned uranium mines are a legacy of uranium production that fuelled arms race during the cold war of the last century. Since the end of cold war, there have been efforts to rehabilitate the mining sites, initially, using classical remediation techniques based on high chemical and civil engineering. Recently, bioremediation technology has been sought as alternatives to the classical approach due to reasons, which include: (a) high demand of sites requiring remediation; (b) the economic implication of running and maintaining the facilities due to high energy and work force demand; and (c) the pattern and characteristics of contaminant discharges in most of the former uranium mining and processing sites prevents the use of classical methods. This review discusses risks of uranium contamination from abandoned uranium mines from the biogeochemical point of view and the potential and limitation of uranium bioremediation technique as alternative to classical approach in abandoned uranium mining and processing sites.

Mkandawire M

2013-01-01

216

Biogeochemical behaviour and bioremediation of uranium in waters of abandoned mines.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discharges of uranium and associated radionuclides as well as heavy metals and metalloids from waste and tailing dumps in abandoned uranium mining and processing sites pose contamination risks to surface and groundwater. Although many more are being planned for nuclear energy purposes, most of the abandoned uranium mines are a legacy of uranium production that fuelled arms race during the cold war of the last century. Since the end of cold war, there have been efforts to rehabilitate the mining sites, initially, using classical remediation techniques based on high chemical and civil engineering. Recently, bioremediation technology has been sought as alternatives to the classical approach due to reasons, which include: (a) high demand of sites requiring remediation; (b) the economic implication of running and maintaining the facilities due to high energy and work force demand; and (c) the pattern and characteristics of contaminant discharges in most of the former uranium mining and processing sites prevents the use of classical methods. This review discusses risks of uranium contamination from abandoned uranium mines from the biogeochemical point of view and the potential and limitation of uranium bioremediation technique as alternative to classical approach in abandoned uranium mining and processing sites. PMID:23354614

Mkandawire, Martin

2013-01-26

217

Highly Pipelined Asynchronous FPGAs  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present the design of a high-performance, highly pipelinedasynchronous FPGA. We describe a veryne-grain pipelinedlogic block and routing interconnect architecture, and showhow asynchronous logic can eciently take advantage of thislarge amount of pipelining. Our FPGA, which does notuse a clock to sequence computations, automatically selfpipelines" its logic without the designer needing to be explicitlyaware of all pipelining details. This property makesour FPGA ideal for throughput-intensive applications andwe require minimal place and route support to achieve goodperformance. Benchmark circuits taken from both the asynchronousand clocked design communities yield throughputsin the neighborhood of 300-400 MHz in a TSMC 0.25mprocess and 500-700 MHz in a TSMC 0.18m process.

John Teifel; Rajit Manohar

218

Pipeline corridors through wetlands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents preliminary findings from six vegetational surveys of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROW) through wetlands and quantifies the impacts of a 20-year-old pipeline ROW through a boreal forest wetland. Six sites of various ages were surveyed in ecosystems ranging from coastal marsh to forested wetland. At all sites except one, both the number and the percentage of wetland species on the Row approximated or exceeded those in the adjacent natural area. The boreal forest study showed that (1) adjacent natural wetland areas were not altered in type; (2) water sheet flow restriction had been reversed by nature; (3) no nonnative plant species invaded the natural area; (4) three-quarters of the ROW area was a wetland, and (5) the ROW increased diversity

1992-01-01

219

Predicting pipeline hydrate formation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A significant improvement in thermodynamic modelling of the blockage of pipelines by gas hydrates is reported which agrees well with experimental data. It also offerers advantages over commercial flowsheet simulators. This should help to reduce safety hazards and operational problems in North Sea oil and gas production facilities. The reliability of the model has been tested by comparison with data from experiment and literature. (UK)

Tohidi, B.; Danesh, A.; Todd, A. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

1997-09-25

220

The SDSS Imaging Pipelines  

CERN Multimedia

We summarise the properties of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) project, discuss our software infrastructure, and outline the architecture of the SDSS image processing pipelines. We then discuss two of the algorithms used in the SDSS image processing; the KL-transform based modelling of the spatial variation of the PSF, and the use of galaxy models in star/galaxy separation. We conclude with the first author's personal opinions on the challenges that the astronomical community faces with major software projects.

Lupton, R H; Ivezic, Z; Knapp, G R; Kent, S; Lupton, Robert; Gunn, James E.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Knapp, Gillian R.; Kent, Stephen

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Russia: the pipeline diplomacy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

2005-01-01

222

Also deputies will say something to new pipeline of Slovnaft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The oil transit company, Transpetrol, expects the new Bratislava-Schwechat pipeline connecting the OMV refinery to the Druzba pipeline to increase the use of the pipeline and improve company revenues by 20%. The Austrian project partner, OMV, looks to the project to decrease transportation costs for Russian oil. One sixth of the 60 km pipeline will be built in Slovakia, but there is a problem - the Slovak Ministry of Environment and the City of Bratislava have not approved the route proposed by Transpetrol. In their opinion, the propose route would endanger the protected area, Zitny ostrov, that provides drinking water to the capital. Slovnaft also plans a new pipeline to replace the old obsolete one used to transport its products to the mineral oils transhipment centre at Bratislava docks. One of the alternatives proposed by Slovnaft is the construction of a pipeline and transhipment centre on Zitny ostrov. Unlike the Transpetrol project, this has already received approval from the Ministry of Environment. Before construction work on the pipeline to Schwechat can start. OMV will have resolve issues related to the supply of oil from Russia. According to the original plans, Yukos, which owns a 49% stake in Transpetrol, was to supply the oil. But due to tax problems in Russia, Yukos lost its main drilling division, Juganskneftgaz.

2005-03-17

223

Pipeline welding goes mechanized  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Spread four has bugs in the cornfield--but not to worry. The bug referred to here is a mechanized welding bug, specifically a single welding head, computer-aided gas metal arc (GMAW) system from CRC-Evans Automatic Welding powered by a Miller Electric XMT{reg{underscore}sign} 304 inverter-based welding machine. The bug operator and owner of 32 inverters is Welded Construction, L.P., of Perrysburgh, Ohio. Spread four is a 147-mile stretch of the Alliance Pipeline system (Alliance) cutting through the cornfields of northeast Iowa. While used successfully in Canada and Europe for onshore and offshore pipeline construction for 30 years, this is the first large-scale use of mechanized welding in the US on a cross-country pipeline. On longer, larger-diameter and thicker-wall pipe projects--the Alliance mainline has 1,844 miles of pipe, most of it 36-in. diameter with a 0.622-in. wall thickness--mechanized GMAW offers better productivity than manual shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). In addition, high-strength steels, such as the API 5L Grade X70 pipe used on the Alliance, benefit from the low-hydrogen content of certain solid and tubular wire electrodes.

Beeson, R.

1999-11-01

224

Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L.) Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank) can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

Favas P. J. C.; Pratas J.

2013-01-01

225

The intermediate disturbance hypothesis should be abandoned.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A leading idea about how disturbances and other environmental fluctuations affect species diversity is the intermediate disturbance hypothesis (IDH). The IDH states that diversity of competing species is, or should be expected to be, maximized at intermediate frequencies and/or intensities of disturbance or environmental change. I argue that the IDH has been refuted on both empirical and theoretical grounds, and so should be abandoned. Empirical studies only rarely find the predicted humped diversity-disturbance relationship. Theoretically, the three major mechanisms thought to produce humped diversity-disturbance relationships are logically invalid and do not actually predict what they are thought to predict. Disturbances and other environmental fluctuations can affect diversity, but for different reasons than are commonly recognized.

Fox JW

2013-02-01

226

Revegetation of an abandoned coal washing site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Various reclamation techniques were applied on an abandoned coal washing pond in western Kentucky. The entire site was treated with fertilizer and lime to add nutrients and neutralize the soil pH. Four main treatments and control plots were established. The treatments included bark; straw and manure; bark, sawdust and manure; and a mixture of sewer sludge and kiln dust. Plots were also treated with a water absorbing synthetic polymer. All plots were seeded with various grasses, legumes, and black locust. The site was measured in 1992 after three growing seasons for woody plant biomass and percent ground cover. Significant differences in both woody plant biomass and percent ground cover were found between the treatments. 6 refs., 3 tabs

1995-01-01

227

A 12-year cavern abandonment test  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

Bérest P.; Brouard B.; Hévin G.

2010-01-01

228

Pipeline integrity : control by coatings  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This presentation provided background information on the history of cross-country pipelines in India. It discussed the major use of gas. The key users were described as being the power and fertilizer industries, followed by vehicles using compressed natural gas to replace liquid fuels and thereby reduce pollution. The presentation also addressed the integrity of pipelines in terms of high production, safety, and monitoring. Integrity issues of pipelines were discussed with reference to basic design, control of corrosion, and periodic health monitoring. Other topics that were outlined included integrity by corrosion control; integrity by health monitoring; coatings requirements; classification of UCC pipeline coatings; and how the pipeline integrity approach can help to achieve coatings which give design life without any failure. Surface cleanliness, coating conditions, and the relationship between temperature of Epoxy coating and the time of adhesive coating were also discussed. Last, the presentation provided the results of an audit of the HBJ pipeline conducted from 1999 to 2000. tabs., figs.

Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

2008-07-01

229

Planned and proposed pipeline regulations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Research and Special Programs Administration administers the Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (NGPSA) and the Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (HLPSA). The RSPA issues and enforces design, construction, operation and maintenance regulations for natural gas pipelines and hazardous liquid pipelines. This paper discusses a number of proposed and pending safety regulations and legislative initiatives currently being considered by the RSPA and the US Congress. Some new regulations have been enacted. The next few years will see a great deal of regulatory activity regarding natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines, much of it resulting from legislative requirements. The office of Pipeline Safety is currently conducting a study to streamline its operations. This study is analyzing the office's business, social and technical operations with the goal of improving overall efficiency, effectiveness, productivity and job satisfaction to meet the challenges of the future.

De Leon, C. (U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Research and Special Programs Administration, Washington, DC (US))

1992-04-01

230

Performance analysis of pipeline architecture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelining has emerged as a powerful technique for obtaining a high throughput rate. The authors analyse pipeline architecture reviewing many problems of instruction pipeline. The measure of effectiveness in executing a job on a pipelined processor is given by efficiency deduced from the space-time relationship. An expression for efficiency has been deduced when segment times are unequal. Performance of instruction pipeline suffers when conditional branch instructions are present in a program. An expression has been deduced relating efficiency with the number of procedural dependencies in a program. The suitability of the program for execution on a pipelined processor may be determined by dynamic measurement of instruction frequencies as suggested here. 10 references.

Basu, A.; Chowdhury, A.K.

1982-10-01

231

Oil pipeline ratemaking changes urged  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

According to the US Department of Justice and US Economic Regulatory Administration, in testimony at US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) hearings, FERC should base the permitted rates of return for oil pipelines on pipeline original costs, less depreciation. FERC has used this approach in setting rates for natural gas pipelines and wholesale electric companies, and advocated this approach in an initial decision in Phase I of the trans-Alaska pipeline system ratemaking case. According to the Williams Pipeline Co., FERC should use a fair-value method, which emphasizes system replacement costs at current prices, to establish oil pipeline rates. During periods of inflation, the fair-value method produces a higher rate base than a determination based on the original cost. Arguments for and against the two ratesetting methods, and on the probable effects of their adoption on pipebuilding and competition, are discussed.

1980-07-14

232

Alternatives to conventional pipeline financing  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The natural gas pipeline sector has recently experienced changes in regulations, ownership, competition and tolling methodology. As the Canadian oil and gas industry is becoming more competitive, new opportunities for financial creativity are opening up in the pipeline sector. Income trusts are a type of financial structure that have emerged in Canada recently and appear to be very well suited to financing pipelines. Incentive cost recovery and revenue sharing agreements are also developments which will impact on Canadian pipeline financing. Income trusts have several advantages over traditional debt and equity financing. Characteristics of income trusts that support this argument were reviewed. It was this author`s view that many liquid or natural gas pipelines, with long estimated useful lives and predictable cash flows, make excellent assets for an income trust vehicle. To illustrate, several recent examples of existing oil and gas pipelines were cited that are being restructured as an income trust, or other similar financing vehicle.

Potter, D.A. [Scotia Capital Markets, Oil and Gas Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1997-12-31

233

THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

Tudorel ANDREI; Alina PROFIROIU; Andreea Iluzia IACOB; Bogdan-Vasile ILEANU

2011-01-01

234

Performance of MSGC with analog pipeline readout  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We analyse some of the performance characteristics of a chromium MSGC operated with Ar-DME 50%-50% in a test beam at CERN. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency has been achieved with this gas mixture using cathode analog pipeline readout. We also determine optimal parameters for the sampling algorithm in order to work in a random trigger experiment (fixed target). (orig.)

1997-01-01

235

Performance of MSGC with analog pipeline readout  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We analyse some of the performance characteristics of a chromium MSGC operated with Ar-DME 50%-50% in a test beam at CERN. Excellent signal-to-noise ratio and efficiency has been achieved with this gas mixture using cathode analog pipeline readout. We also determine optimal parameters for the sampling algorithm in order to work in a random trigger experiment (fixed target). (orig.).

Gomez, F. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Adeva, B. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gracia, G. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Lopez, M.A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Nunez, T. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Pazos, A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Plo, M. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Santamarina, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Vazquez, P. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

1997-01-01

236

Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author).

1980-01-01

237

Role of hydrotransportation pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Although oil sands deposits are found in over 70 countries, 75 per cent of the global reserves are in western Canada and Venezuela. In 2005, oil sands production was estimated to be 50 per cent of Canada's total crude oil output and 10 per cent of North American production and supply. With the success of the oil sands, Canada is expected to rank fifth in production of oil worldwide by 2015. As such, all forms of oil sands research is taking place in Canadian universities, government laboratories and private research and development laboratories. Most of the oil sands in Canada are located the Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River deposits in northern Alberta. With the development of new techniques and the increasing price of oil, companies are planning a total of nearly 100 oil sands production facilities, with nearly $100 billion in capital investment, creating tens of thousands of new jobs across Canada by 2012. In oil sands mining and upgrading, materials are used at pressures up to 100 atmospheres, at high and turbulent velocities, and at temperatures ranging from 50 to 500 degrees C. During these processes, materials are exposed to various degradation conditions, including abrasion, erosion, corrosion, fatigue, fracture, creep, and hydrogen embitterment. This paper described the 4 categories of materials issues for the oil sands industry, namely mining and in-situ production; upgrading; transportation; and, refining. In oil sands mining, the oil sands and water are combined to make a slurry that is transported via pipeline to a bitumen-extraction facility. The major challenges of hydrotransport are the effects of fine solids, temperature, bitumen content, and sand grain size on pipeline degradation. The by-products of the oil-sands extraction process include fine tailings which expose the pipelines to high abrasion, wear, and erosion. It was concluded that pipelines can continue to be used reliably and safely for transportation of oil sands between mining and upgrading locations by accurately predicting the causes that lead to degradation of materials used in hydrotransportation pipelines and other process equipment, and by developing methodologies to control the degradation. 13 refs., 1 tab.

Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

2007-01-15

238

Modelling of liquefaction, scour and natural backfilling processes in relation to marine pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work presents some rational pipeline design methods related to interaction between pipe and surrounding soil. It describes methods to quantify risk of liquefaction for soft clay and silty sand conditions, the mechanism of underscouring pipelines, the rate in which this underscouring may create critical span lengths, methods to quantify the rate of natural backfill for trenched pipelines, and finally methods for analysis of scour protection by artificial backfill. The work describes some examples of how rational design methods may be found if knowledge from related fields are transferred and utilized for the pipelines. 43 references.

Gravesen, H.; Fredsoe, J.

1983-01-01

239

Advances in riser and pipeline technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As oil and gas production continues to move into new frontier areas, novel applications of the existing riser and pipeline technologies need to be developed to meet the often more stringent requirements encountered in these environments. The challenges include ultra deep water, harsh environments, aggressive fluid conditions, and local content objectives, etc. They will require industry to constantly extend, expand, and enhance the broad range of solution options. Also, the existing design criteria in industry may need to be revised or new criteria may need to be developed to satisfy these needs. Exxon Mobil (Em) employs, and works with others in industry to promote robust design and operating practices. This approach requires in-depth understanding, sound engineering principles, advanced analysis, uncertainty management, and supportive qualification test data. It enables confident selection, extrapolation, and innovation of technologies to address new riser system and pipeline challenges. Focus on fundamental is imperative to ensure integrity of the selected systems during fabrication, installation, and operation phases. Recent and past project experience in deep water Gulf of Mexico and West Africa provides many successful examples of this approach. This paper reviews several examples of the key riser system and pipeline technology enhancements recently achieved by EM to provide confidence in addressing technical and project application challenges. Riser system technology enhancements addressed in this paper include steel catenary riser (SCR) application on turret-moored FPSO with severe motions, pipe-in-pipe (PIP) hybrid production riser to effectively manage gas lift and flow assurance requirements, irregular wave analysis methodology for flexible risers and umbilicals to reduce conservatism, and qualification of riser and pipeline VIV prediction and mitigation methods. Pipeline technology enhancements detailed in this paper include lateral buckling prediction and mitigation measure considerations, strain based design for deep water and arctic considerations, and fatigue qualification for aggressive fluid conditions. (author)

Kan, Wan C.; Mortazavi, Mehrdad; Weir, Michael S. [ExxonMobil Development Company, Dallas, TX (United States)

2009-12-19

240

Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

2009-07-01

 
 
 
 
241

Seismic assessment for offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An international consensus on seismic design criteria for onshore pipelines has been established during the last thirty years. The need to assess seismic design for offshore pipelines has not been similarly recognized. In this paper, the geotechnical hazard for a pipeline routed across steep slopes and irregular terrains affected by earthquakes, is discussed. The integrity of both natural and artificial load bearing supports is assessed.d The response of the pipeline to direct excitation from soil or through discontinuous, sparsely distributed natural or artificial supports, is commented.

Bruschi, R. [Snamprogetti, Fano (Italy); Gudmestad, O.T.; Blaker, F. [Statoil a.s., Stavanger (Norway); Nadim, F. [Norwegian Geotechnical Inst., Oslo (Norway)

1995-12-31

242

Pipeline vehicle. Kjoeretoey for roerledning  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The invention deals with a self-driven vehicle for offshore pipelines. The vehicle comprises a cylindrically designed vehicle body through which and/or around which the pipeline's medium flows, a drive unit on the vehicle body which resiliently bears against the pipeline's internal surface, a hydraulic system which powers the drive module, a power supply system for operation of the hydraulic system, and a controller which at least controls the vehicle's movement in the pipeline. 16 figs.

Ruch, O.; Naess, L.; Gebhard, G.; Johansen, T.V.; Poerner, H.; Weber, R.; Heller, M.

1994-03-28

243

INNOVATIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC SENSORS FOR PIPELINE CRAWLERS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Internal inspection of pipelines is an important tool for ensuring safe and reliable delivery of fossil energy products. Current inspection systems that are propelled through the pipeline by the product flow cannot be used to inspect all pipelines because of the various physical barriers they encounter. Recent development efforts include a new generation of powered inspection platforms that crawl slowly inside a pipeline and are able to maneuver past the physical barriers that can limit inspection. At Battelle, innovative electromagnetic sensors are being designed and tested for these new pipeline crawlers. The various sensor types can be used to assess a wide range of pipeline anomalies including corrosion, mechanical damage, and cracks. The Applied Energy Systems Group at Battelle is concluding the first year of work on a projected three-year development effort. In this first year, two innovative electromagnetic inspection technologies were designed and tested. Both were based on moving high-strength permanent magnets to generate inspection energy. One system involved translating permanent magnets towards the pipe. A pulse of electric current would be induced in the pipe to oppose the magnetization according to Lenz's Law. The decay of this pulse would indicate the presence of defects in the pipe wall. This inspection method is similar to pulsed eddy current inspection methods, with the fundamental difference being the manner in which the current is generated. Details of this development effort were reported in the first semiannual report on this project. This second semiannual report focuses on the development of a second inspection methodology, based on rotating permanent magnets. During this period, a rotating permanent magnet exciter was designed and built. The exciter unit produces strong eddy currents in the pipe wall. The tests have shown that at distances of a pipe diameter or more, the currents flow circumferentially, and that these circumferential currents are deflected by pipeline defects such as corrosion and axially aligned cracks. Simple sensors are used to detect the change in current densities in the pipe wall.

J. Bruce Nestleroth

2004-11-05

244

Pipeline flow of heavy oil with temperature-dependent viscosity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The heavy oil produced offshore needs to be transported through pipelines between different facilities. The pipelines are usually laid down on the seabed and are submitted to low temperatures. Although heavy oils usually present Newtonian behavior, its viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Therefore, the prediction of pressure drops along the pipelines should include the solution of the energy equation and the dependence of viscosity to temperature. In this work, an asymptotic model is developed to study this problem. The flow is considered laminar and the viscosity varies exponentially with temperature. The model includes one-dimensional equations for the temperature and pressure distribution along the pipeline at a prescribed flow rate. The solution of the coupled differential equation is obtained by second-order finite difference. Results show a nonlinear behavior as a result of coupled interaction between the velocity, temperature, and temperature dependent material properties. (author)

Maza Quinones, Danmer; Carvalho, Marcio da Silveira [Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mail: msc@puc-rio.br

2010-07-01

245

National pipeline map for U.S. being developed  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The US Transportation Department`s (DOT) Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) has launched a process to establish a national pipeline mapping system by October 1998. When completed, the system will show the location, of and critical data for major natural gas, hazardous liquids, and liquefied natural gas pipelines and facilities. It will not include service, distribution, gathering, or spur lines. OPS plans to add additional data layers into the system, including information on population densities, environmentally sensitive areas, natural-disaster probability and high-consequence areas, hydrography, and transportation networks. The agency will use the system to depict pipelines in relation to the public and the environment and to work with other government agencies and the industry during an incident.

Crow, P.

1997-06-16

246

Magnetic properties of pipeline steel under mechanical stress  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Conventional inspection tools examine the pipe wall for cracks or metal loss as caused by corrosion. The detection of regions of high stress levels in pipelines is desirable as this is the ultimate cause of pipeline failures. High stress regions are caused at defects by the gas or oil pressure and pipeline bending in unstable terrain. The present work describes investigations to determine isostress and isofield effects on the magnetic properties of pipeline steel. An experimental apparatus was built with a pneumatically controlled stressing mechanism. Magnetic field and stress are computer controlled. Automatic data recording is provided. The isostress experiments carried out at various stress levels were to determine total, reversible and irreversible components of magnetization, relative differential permeability and magnetostriction. Some isofield measurements were undertaken to show stress-induced magnetization at the permanent point and on the anhysteretic curve. The thermodynamic correlation between magnetostrictive and magnetomechanical effects were tested using the reversible components only. 16 refs., 52 figs., 4 tabs.

Schonbachler, M.V.

1987-01-01

247

Sustainability of social-environmental programs along pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sustainability of Social and Environmental programs along pipelines, have shown to be a major challenge. Gas pipelines in Bolivia and Brazil operate in a diversity of environments and communities with different cultures, values and expectations. However, the pipeline network can also provide opportunities for contributing to regional development and working with local populations on topics of mutual interest. Many of these are quite strategic because they arise from topics of mutual interest for both the company and neighboring populations, and because they provide opportunities for achieving results of mutual benefit. These opportunities could include helping to make gas available to local communities, contributions to urban planning, hiring local services and other initiatives. Sustainable and integrated Social and Environmental programs are therefore key to a successful pipeline operation. These opportunities are often missed or under valued. Some successful examples are presented from Transredes S.A., Bolivia. (author)

Doebereiner, Christian [Shell Southern Cone Gas and Power (Brazil); Herrera, Brigitte [Transredes S.A. (Bolivia)

2005-07-01

248

A Cheap Aerial Gas Pipeline  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: At present time gas pipelines are designed from steel and located on ground surface. That is very expensive and building requests a lot of time. Research and utilization of an old author idea: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude through neutral seas, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance is delineated. Approach: A lift force of 1 m3 of methane equals approximately 0.5 kg (1 pound). The lightweight film flexible pipeline can be located in air at high altitude and, as such, did not damage the environment. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. Results: Researcher showed: This aerial pipeline dramatically decreased the cost and time of construction relative to conventional pipelines of steel which saved energy and greatly lowers the capital cost of construction. Article contained a computed project for delivery 24 billion m3 of gas and tens of million tons of oil, water or other payload per year. Conclusion: Design of new cheap aerial pipelines, a large flexible tube deployed at high altitude, for delivery of natural (fuel) gas, water and other payload over a long distance (neutral sea) was delineated. The offered idea an aerial pipe line was researched. It was shown new pipelines radically decreased pipeline cost and construction time. Using the lift force of this pipeline and wing devices payloads of oil, water, or other fluids, or even solids such as coal, cargo, passengers can be delivered cheaply at long distance. This pipeline and wing devices also allowed to delivery the other goods.

Alexander A. Bolonkin

2009-01-01

249

Kvitebjoern gas pipeline repair - baptism of remote pipeline repair system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

On the 1st of November 2007, severe anchor damage was discovered on the 30 inch Kvitebjoern gas export pipeline. The damage constituted a localised dent and a 17deg buckle, but no leakage. Statoil has invested in building an effective repair contingency structure for the large pipeline network on the Norwegian Continental shelf, with particular focus on the large gas export pipelines. The repair method for the Kvitebjoern pipeline was remotely operated using two Morgrip couplings and a spool. The installation used the purpose built Pipeline Repair System stored at Killingoey and couplings produced and tested back in 2005. This presentation will cover the initial damage investigations, the temporary operational phase, the repair preparations, the actual repair and lessons learned. (Author)

Gjertveit, Erling

2010-07-01

250

Biotech pipeline: Bottleneck ahead  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vast array of new genetically engineered drugs are heading for market - but an FDA backlog is holding them up. Patients may have to wait far longer than the biotech enthusiasts suggest before they reap the benefits of those new drugs. There is little hope the FDA will get the money it needs to do the job. The agency's pipeline is clogged with at least 58 monoclonal antibody-based drugs at all stages of testing to diagnose and treat a wide range of diseases, including a half-dozen cancers, diabetes, and sepsis.

Gibbons, A.

1991-10-18

251

Pipeline cover stability  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The stability of pipeline covers was studied under the combined action of wave and current in a physical model. The influence of crest height, side slope, rock diameter, wave height, wave period and water depth was derived from the test results. The wave characteristics and water depth could be included in the near-bed orbital velocity. A relation between the loading, defined by the mobility parameters and a dimensionless damage was established. The development of the damage in time could be described by the number of waves and the initial damage after 1,000 waves.

Klomp, W.H.G. [Delft Hydraulics (Netherlands); Tonda, P.L.

1995-12-31

252

Sour gas pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The considerations special to sour-gas operations, particularly internal corrosion-control and corrosion-monitoring programs to protect the facility, the employees, and the public, are discussed. If the system can remove the hydrogen sulfide, protect the pipeline, or dehydrate the gas, the corrosion should be controllable; on-stream pigging for main trunklines enhances these methods. Common corrosion-monitoring devices, which should be examined at least every 6 months, include weight-loss coupons and hydrogen probes. Employee training that covers hazards, precautions, and revival techniques is indispensable to the safety of the operation.

Ballard, B.D.

1980-01-01

253

Thermally isolated pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The pipelines is provided for gases, particluarly helium, at temperature of about 1000/sup 0/C (pressure about 40 bar) and is used as the connection be tween a gas cooled high temperature reactor and a heat load. The pipe consists of a temperature-resistant inner tube, which is composed of several pipe sections, which are supported on ball bearings, and a gas tight pressurised outer tube. There are supports and insulation between the two tubes. The sub-claims concern fixing of and bearings for the pipe sections. The description is very detailed and supplemented by drawings.

Matentzoglu, N.; Schumacher, G.; Zentis, A.; Klas, E.; Sonnenkalb, P.

1980-08-28

254

Pipeline architecture for image segmentation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Image segmentation is a slow but fundamental process in many image processing and computer vision systems. A pipeline architecture is presented. The pipeline uses eight processors and a simple one-pass segmentation algorithm to speed up image segmentation by two orders of magnitude. 8 references.

Douglass, R.J.

1982-01-01

255

Desiccant drying of gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prevention of hydrates buildup and corrosion in gas pipelines after hydrostatic testing is increasingly important to those in the gas industry. This paper outlines a dry air method used in Denmark for drying gas pipelines. The psychrometric principles, drying method, and humidity measurements are described.

LaCasse, G.A.; Ingvordsen, T.

1988-09-01

256

Environmental impact assessment of pipelining  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technical feature: Environmental impact analysis of pipeline construction is discussed. Such an assessment includes identification of alternatives, physical impacts, and biological impacts. Crops may be damaged, soil eroded, and terrestrial ecosystems disturbed following pipeline construction. The use of environmental impact analysis prior to construction may help avoid potential adverse impacts. Guidelines for conducting an assessment are summarized. (2 diagrams, 1 photo, 3 tables)

Rees, C.P.

1980-02-01

257

Clamp for arctic pipeline support  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This patent describes a ring clamp for supporting and anchoring a large diameter metallic arctic pipeline comprising substantially rigid, curved clamp portions adapted to completely encircle the pipeline and fastening means connecting the clamp portions, the clamp portions having inner and outer layers of fiber reinforced rigid polymer material and an intermediate core layer of honeycomb-form aramid paper.

Morton, A.W.

1988-11-29

258

Modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

The laminar flow of a weakly compressible Newtonian fluid in a pipeline is treated by modal methods, aiming at a theoretical basis for the experimental modal analysis of hydraulic pipelines. For two points located at arbitrary positions along a pipeline, the frequency response function between flow rate excitation and pressure response is calculated in closed form, expanded into a modal series including transcendental modal transfer functions, and approximated by finite sums of rational fraction expressions. The preferred modal approximation is recognized as mobility function of a structurally damped mechanical multi-degrees-of-freedom system. Experimental modal analysis procedures for structurally and viscously damped mechanical systems are adapted for hydraulic pipelines and pipeline systems.

Mikota, Gudrun

2013-08-01

259

Heavy oil transportation by pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Worldwide there are a number of pipelines used to transport heavy crude oils. The operations are facilitated in a variety of ways. For example, the Alyeska pipeline is an insulated pipeline transporting warm oil over 800 miles. This 48-inch line experiences limited heat loss due to the insulation, volume of oil contained, and heat gain due to friction and pumping. Some European trunk lines periodically handle heavy and waxy crudes. This is achieved by proper sizing of batches, following waxy crudes with non-waxy crudes, and increased use of scrapers. In a former Soviet republic, the transportation of heavy crude oil by pipeline has been facilitated by blending with a lighter Siberian crude. The paper describes the pipeline transport of heavy crudes by Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc. The paper describes enhancing heavy oil transportation by emulsion formation, droplet suspension, dilution, drag reducing agents, and heating.

Gerez, J.M.; Pick, A.R. [Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

260

Ground penetrating radar for identification of mine tunnels and abandoned mine stopes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface and underground mining operations are often hindered by unknown tunnels and stopes and the precise locations of adjacent workings. Mine safety and planning are adversely affected especially in previously undermined areas where historical records are incomplete or nonexistent. The results of several ground penetrating radar (GPR) studies for the detection of known mine tunnels in underground coal, salt and gold mines are presented. A case study to locate unknown, abandoned mine workings at a surface gold mine successfully located all workings to a depth of 11 m (36 ft). 11 refs., 9 figs.

Fenner, T. [Geophysical Survey Systems Inc., North Salem, NH (United States)

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Mixed stream pipeline structure  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High temperature water (low temperature water) in a branched pipe and low temperature water (high temperature water) in a main pipe are jointed at a junction, to form an intermediate temperature fluid in the main pipe. The branched pipe having a restricted portion is connected, by welding, to the main pipe at the junction. Static pressure is reduced at the restricted portion due to the restriction by so much as the increase of the flow speed. A thermal sleeve is protruded at the exit of the branched pipe in the same axial direction with the branched flow. A bypass structure is disposed for communicating from the main pipe to the branched pipe after joining of flows. The intermediate temperature fluid partially flows in the bypass pipe by pressure reduction at the restricted portion. The intermediate temperature fluid in the bypass pipe is mixed with the fluid in the branched pipe with no great temperature difference, and the temperature difference of the fluid in the branched pipe relative to that in the main pipe is reduced. This suppresses temperature fluctuation on the wall surface at the junction by decreasing the temperature difference at the joint flow mixing portion of the high temperature water pipeline and the low temperature water pipeline, thereby enabling to suppress thermal fatigue of the material. (I.N.).

Takahashi, Shiro; Nakamura, Shozo; Shiina, Koji; Fujimura, Hidekazu; Koyama, Kazuhito; Asada, Yukihiro

1994-11-15

262

Innovative recontouring of abandoned surface-coal-mined lands. Open file report, 1 October 1979-30 May 1983  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report describes the work performed and the results obtained under a study directed toward identifying innovative recontouring strategies for abandoned surface-coal-mine lands. The study examined nine specific sites considered typical of abandoned mine lands in the United States. Recontouring costs for these sites were estimated first using conventional reclamation equipment (dozers, scrapers, etc.) as a base case, and second using large dragline stripping equipment for comparison. Using the cost and efficiency data generated during these studies, five innovative techniques were devised and applied to appropriate sites for cost estimation.

Bowen, P.; Philips, G.; Mathieson, G.; Consalis, G.; Tausan, G.

1983-09-01

263

Pipeline and parallel-pipeline FFT processors for VLSI implementations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In some signal processing applications, it is desirable to build very high performance fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors. To meet the performance requirements, these processors are typically highly pipelined. Until the advent of VLSI, it was not possible to build a single chip which could be used to construct pipeline FFT processors of a reasonable size. However, VLSI implementations have constraints which differ from those of discrete implementations, requiring another look at some of the typical FFT algorithms in the light of these constraints. In this paper, several methods for computing the FFT in hardware are reviewed. Pipeline structures for the Cooley-Tukey algorithm and the Good prime factor algorithm are presented. The various small base modules required for the construction of these processors are examined with VLSI implementations in mind. For prime bases, an algorithm due to Rader is used which is easier to implement in a pipeline than the minimum multiply algorithms of Winograd. The Winograd technique of centralizing the multiplies of several relatively prime bases is used to develop a pipeline which requires less hardware than pipelines based on the algorithms above. A notation is then presented which allows parallel-pipeline versions of FFT processors to be developed for all of these algorithms. These versions are well suited for use in VLSI implementations due to the efficient use of chip I/O bandwidth between the stages of the FFT algorithms.

Wold, E.H.; Despain, A.M.

1984-05-01

264

Summary report of the Banff 2001 pipeline workshop : Managing pipeline integrity, a workshop for sharing technology and experience  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This sixth pipeline industry workshop consisted of 4 tutorials and 11 Working Groups with 35 working group sessions. Participants included representatives of transmission and production companies, regulators, government agencies, consulting firms, vendors, research and development laboratories and academia. Three new Working Groups were established to deal with issues for managers in the pipeline industry; upstream pipelines inspection, corrosion and integrity management; and, the challenges and needs of offshore and Arctic pipelines. Tutorial topics included in-line inspection, risk management and risk analysis, R-STRENG methods used to evaluate the pressure carrying capability of corroded pipes, and the application of GIS technologies to integrity management. A working group was also created to develop recommended practices for lead reduction that will contribute to better pipeline integrity. Continued research and development is needed in modeling of corrosion growth, external corrosion at girth welds, stress corrosion cracking, environmental impact of impressed current cathodic protection groundbeds, and in-line inspection tools. It was recommended that standards should be developed for testing and application of high temperature coatings and for field applied coatings. It was also recommended that guidelines be developed for internal corrosion monitoring programs.

Fowlie, B.E. [Nu-Trac Management Consulting Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Revie, R.W. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Materials Technology Lab

2001-07-01

265

Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

2003-07-01

266

Pipeline coating inspection in Mexico applying surface electromagnetic technology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The main problems in the pipeline systems in Mexico include: extremely aggressive soil characterized by a high clay content and low resistivity, interconnection between several pipes, including electrical contacts of active pipelines with out of service pipes, and short distances between pipes in comparison with their depths which reduce the resolution of coating inspection. The results presented in this work show the efficiency of the Surface Electromagnetic Pipeline Inspection (SEMPI) technology to determine the technical condition of pipelines in situations before mentioned. The SEMPI technology includes two stages: regional and detailed measurements. The regional stage consists of magnetic field measurements along the pipeline using large distances (10 - 100 m) between observation points to delimit zones with damaged coating. For quantitative assessing the leakage and coating resistances along pipeline, additional measurements of voltage and soil resistivity measurements are performed. The second stage includes detailed measurements of the electric field on the pipe intervals with anomalous technical conditions identified in the regional stage. Based on the distribution of the coating electric resistance and the subsoil resistivity values, the delimitation of the zones with different grade of coating quality and soil aggressiveness are performed. (author)

Delgado, O.; Mousatov, A.; Nakamura, E.; Villarreal, J.M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP), Mexico City (Mexico); Shevnin, V. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Cano, B. [Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), Mexico City (Mexico)

2009-07-01

267

Abandoned Mine Waste Repositories: Site Selection, Design, and Cost.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is conducting priority cleanups of abandoned mine sites on public lands. Typically, these sites contain tailings piles, cyanide heaps, and rock dumps that historically were constructed in or near drainages and now are r...

K. L. Ford M. Walker

2003-01-01

268

Restructuring the Railroads: Cost Savings for Branchline Abandonments.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examines the economic viability of light density rail lines and attempts to measure the potential costs savings from the abandonment of unviable lines. Chapter II presents the economic factors which should be used in measuring viability and mak...

R. G. Harris

1977-01-01

269

Research of Heated Oil Pipeline Shutdown and Restart Process Based on VB and MATLAB  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available During the operation of a heated oil transportation pipeline, the shutdown was caused by some pipeline accidents and repairing. In order to ensure the safety operation of the pipeline, determine the temperature drop and restart pressure was needed at different shutdown is important. This paper builds the heated oil pipeline temperature drop model after shutdown based on the unsteady heat transfer theory and restart model based on fluid transient flow theory. In order to solve the models, MATLAB is adopted a code for the models solving program. VB and MATLAB hybrid programming method which is on the basis of COM technical is utilized to develop a friendly man-machine interface for the heated oil pipeline shutdown and restart simulation software. The practical application shows using of VB and MATLAB hybrid programming method can reduce the work of algorithm developing and enhance the reliability of heated oil pipeline shutdown and restart simulation software.

Changjun Li; Xia Wu; Wenlong Jia

2010-01-01

270

Trans-Austria gas pipeline II  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The second Trans-Austria gas pipeline (TAG II) has a diameter of 42'', an operating pressure of 70 bar, a length of 378 km with 278 km in parallel to TAG-I. In August 1984 the engineering work started, the construction started in 4 spreads in August 1986, the start up of 4 sections was in September and October 1987, the three other sections were put in operation in June and July 1988. Additional to the construction of the pipeline the compressor stations are adjusted to the new operating conditions by errection of fifth compressor unit (22 000 KW) in Baumgarten, the restaging of the compressors and the installation of recuperators on the 10 existing compressor units. The construction of a gasdehydration unit in Baumgarten, the updating of the meterstations by installing of flow computers and the extension and renewal of the dispatching center including the exchange of the process computers are other important works. A working group with the engineering company Snamprogetti was responsible for the project with total costs of 7 Mrd. AS. The main contractors are done by OeMV/ZTB, Saipem, Mannesmann and Bonatti; the supplier of the compressor unit, recuperators an ball valves was Nuovo Pignone; OeMV/ZTB supplied the dehydration unit, the pig traps and recuperators. Responsible for the tie-in works and the start up piping was the natural gas department, who organized the work in such a way, that only one stop of the pipeline for 3 days was necessary, noticing that 8 interconnections between TAG-I and TAG-II are foreseen.

Grasser, K.; Schuster, F.

1988-11-01

271

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned mining activity at Mount Hope Road was selected by Rockaway Township to be considered for remediation and inclusion under the Cooperative Agreement.

Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

1999-10-01

272

Pipeline mapping and strain assessment using ILI (In-line Inspection) tolls  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

GE PII IMU Mapping inspection system measures pipeline location coordinates (x, y, z) and provides data for determining pipeline curvature and consequential pipeline bending strain. The changes in strain can be used in the application of structural analyses and integrity evaluation of pipeline systems. This paper reviews the Inertia Measuring Unit (IMU) system and field investigation works performed on a high-pressure gas pipeline for E.ON Ruhrgas AG. The Inertial Measuring Unit of the pipeline inspection tool provides continuous measurement of the pipeline centreline coordinates. More than one inspection run was performed which allowed a more accurate strain comparison to be made. Repeatability is important to establish the reasons for increasing strain values detected at specific pipeline sections through in-line inspection surveys conducted in regular intervals over many years. Moreover, the flexibility resulting from a combination of different sensor technologies, makes it possible to provide a more complete picture of the overall situation. This paper reviews the work involved in detecting, locating and determining the magnitude and type of strain corresponding to the pipeline movement in field. (author)

Purvis, Brian [GE PII Pipeline Solutions, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Huewener, Thomas [E.ON Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

2009-07-01

273

Reliability prediction of corroding pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recent data collection studies relating to loss of containment of pipeline and risers indicate that corrosion is now the dominant failure mode for steel pipelines in the North Sea area. As the North Sea pipeline infrastructure ages, it is expected that the proportion of pipelines failing by corrosion will increase further and this raises the question of the relationship between probability of pipeline corrosion failure and the reliability of the corrosion control and monitoring systems used by operators to prevent corrosion failures. This paper describes a methodology for predicting the probability of corrosion failure of a specific submarine pipeline or riser system. The paper illustrates how the model can be used to predict the safe life of a pipeline, given knowledge of the underlying corrosion behavior and corrosion control system and how the time to failure can be updated in the light of inspection and monitoring results enabling inspection policy to be evaluated for its impact on risk. The paper also shows how different assumptions concerning the underlying cause of failure influences the estimation of the probability of failure.

Strutt, J.E.; Allsopp, K.; Newman, D.; Trille, C. [Cranfield Univ. (United Kingdom)

1996-12-01

274

Grid soil sampling adoption and abandonment in cotton production  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Technology adoption in precision agriculture has received considerable attention, while abandonment has received little. Survey data are now available to evaluate adoption and abandonment decisions. Understanding the factors motivating technology adoption and abandonment has implications for educational efforts directed toward improving the efficiency of production inputs and for research and development to improve the value of precision agriculture technologies. The objective of this research was to identify factors motivating the adoption and abandonment of grid soil sampling in precision cotton production. These decisions were evaluated assuming a random utility model. Data were obtained from a 2005 survey of cotton producers in 11 Southeastern states in the USA. Results from limited dependent variable regressions indicate that younger producers who farmed more cotton area, owned more of their cropland, planted larger amounts of non-cotton area, used a computer for farm management and used a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) in the field were more likely to adopt grid soil sampling for cotton precision farming. Results also suggest that producers with more cotton area who owned livestock and adopted management zone soil sampling were more likely to abandon grid soil sampling, while those who used a PDA in the field, used grid soil sampling for more years and followed up grid soil sampling with variable-rate fertilizer application were less likely to abandon grid soil sampling for cotton production.

Walton JonathanC; Roberts RolandK; Lambert DaytonM; Larson JamesA; English BurtonC; Larkin SherryL; Martin StevenW; Marra MicheleC; Paxton KennethW; Reeves JeanneM

2010-04-01

275

Occupation profile : pipeline transportation helpers, labourers and semi-skilled workers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jobs in pipeline transportation involve a variety of material handling, cleaning and routine general labouring activities, such as painting, snow removal, cutting grass, and general clean up both inside and outside of pipeline facilities. They may also assist with reclamation and routine construction work. The jobs include pipeline maintenance, pipeline rehabilitation, station helpers and terminal helpers. This document provided the national occupational classification (NOC) codes that include jobs for pipeline transportation workers and provided examples of benchmark job titles. It described the main responsibilities of the job as well as the minimum qualifications for entry. The characteristics and nature of this occupation were outlined along with unique regional considerations; other work related conditions; key competencies and related training; work opportunities; employment outlook; employers; and wages. refs., tabs., figs.

NONE

2008-07-15

276

Geothermal Well Site Restoration and Plug and Abandonment of Wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana-the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports and procedures, daily workover and current conditions report, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

Rinehart, Ben N.

1994-08-01

277

Plenty more in the US pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An upward trend for pipelaying activity in the Gulf of Mexico is reported. Data from the subsea database developed by Quest Offshore Resources forecasts a major boom for deepwater laying of pipelines, flowlines and umbilicals in North America. Of the {approx} 2170 miles of projects awarded for 2001-2004, Stolt Offshore has 25% and Allseas have 18%. Heerema, Coflexip Stena Offshore (CSO) and Saibos have 10-11% each. Allseas and CSO have received letters of intent from Shell for work involving the Na Kika export pipelines. Heerema's DCV Balder is lined up to carry out deepwater J-laying associated with the Mardi Gras transportation system, while tenders have been issued for the S-lay portions. Saipem has booked Saibos's new pipelay ship, FDS, for several projects. The US domestic market for pipelaying has now bottomed out and signs of recovery are evident. Most activity in 2000 occurred in shallow to medium water in the Gulf of Mexico, with Horizon Offshore Contractors, Global Industries and Torch Offshore capturing most of the market. Figures for miles of US Gulf of Mexico pipeline installed by the major market players are given for 1996-2000.

Hillegeist, P. [Quest Offshore, Houston, TX (United States)

2001-05-01

278

Plenty more in the US pipeline  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An upward trend for pipelaying activity in the Gulf of Mexico is reported. Data from the subsea database developed by Quest Offshore Resources forecasts a major boom for deepwater laying of pipelines, flowlines and umbilicals in North America. Of the ? 2170 miles of projects awarded for 2001-2004, Stolt Offshore has 25% and Allseas have 18%. Heerema, Coflexip Stena Offshore (CSO) and Saibos have 10-11% each. Allseas and CSO have received letters of intent from Shell for work involving the Na Kika export pipelines. Heerema's DCV Balder is lined up to carry out deepwater J-laying associated with the Mardi Gras transportation system, while tenders have been issued for the S-lay portions. Saipem has booked Saibos's new pipelay ship, FDS, for several projects. The US domestic market for pipelaying has now bottomed out and signs of recovery are evident. Most activity in 2000 occurred in shallow to medium water in the Gulf of Mexico, with Horizon Offshore Contractors, Global Industries and Torch Offshore capturing most of the market. Figures for miles of US Gulf of Mexico pipeline installed by the major market players are given for 1996-2000

2001-01-01

279

Compressive strain limits for buried pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Buried pipelines subjected to large differential ground movements experience deformation-induced stresses and strains that can cause local buckling, or pipe wrinkling. Severe wrinkling is a structural integrity concern, as it can lead to pipeline rupture. To assess this situation, current practice takes a conservative approach that suggests that compressive strains in a pipeline should be limited in order to avoid local buckle initiation. The research project discussed in this paper has developed an alternative approach that recognizes the ability of a pipe to plastically deform and wrinkle without being functionally impaired, provided a rational limit is set on the amount of wrinkling that is allowed to take place. This paper presents and discusses selected results from the four phases of this research work: (1) an assessment of existing data and analytical methods; (2) a large-scale experimental testing program; (3) development of a non-linear finite element model; and (4) development of new design criteria and semi-empirical prediction methods.

Zimmerman, T.J.E.; Stephens, M.J.; DeGeer, D.D.; Chen, Q. [Centre for Frontier Engineering Research, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

280

INTERNAL REPAIR OF PIPELINES  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The two broad categories of deposited weld metal repair and fiber-reinforced composite liner repair technologies were reviewed for potential application for internal repair of gas transmission pipelines. Both are used to some extent for other applications and could be further developed for internal, local, structural repair of gas transmission pipelines. Preliminary test programs were developed for both deposited weld metal repair and for fiber-reinforced composite liner repair. Evaluation trials have been conducted using a modified fiber-reinforced composite liner provided by RolaTube and pipe sections without liners. All pipe section specimens failed in areas of simulated damage. Pipe sections containing fiber-reinforced composite liners failed at pressures marginally greater than the pipe sections without liners. The next step is to evaluate a liner material with a modulus of elasticity approximately 95% of the modulus of elasticity for steel. Preliminary welding parameters were developed for deposited weld metal repair in preparation of the receipt of Pacific Gas & Electric's internal pipeline welding repair system (that was designed specifically for 559 mm (22 in.) diameter pipe) and the receipt of 559 mm (22 in.) pipe sections from Panhandle Eastern. The next steps are to transfer welding parameters to the PG&E system and to pressure test repaired pipe sections to failure. A survey of pipeline operators was conducted to better understand the needs and performance requirements of the natural gas transmission industry regarding internal repair. Completed surveys contained the following principal conclusions: (1) Use of internal weld repair is most attractive for river crossings, under other bodies of water, in difficult soil conditions, under highways, under congested intersections, and under railway crossings. (2) Internal pipe repair offers a strong potential advantage to the high cost of horizontal direct drilling (HDD) when a new bore must be created to solve a leak or other problem. (3) Typical travel distances can be divided into three distinct groups: up to 305 m (1,000 ft.); between 305 m and 610 m (1,000 ft. and 2,000 ft.); and beyond 914 m (3,000 ft.). All three groups require pig-based systems. A despooled umbilical system would suffice for the first two groups which represents 81% of survey respondents. The third group would require an onboard self-contained power unit for propulsion and welding/liner repair energy needs. (4) Pipe diameter sizes range from 50.8 mm (2 in.) through 1,219.2 mm (48 in.). The most common size range for 80% to 90% of operators surveyed is 508 mm to 762 mm (20 in. to 30 in.), with 95% using 558.8 mm (22 in.) pipe. An evaluation of potential repair methods clearly indicates that the project should continue to focus on the development of a repair process involving the use of GMAW welding and on the development of a repair process involving the use of fiber-reinforced composite liners.

Robin Gordon; Bill Bruce; Ian Harris; Dennis Harwig; Nancy Porter; Mike Sullivan; Chris Neary

2004-04-12

 
 
 
 
281

Offshore platforms and pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses problems and topics important for the design and construction of fixed offshore platforms used for drilling and producing petroleum from beneath the sea. A general description of offshore platforms serves as an introduction to the whole problem of offshore structures. A chapter on the hydrodynamic analysis of fixed offshore platforms gives the basis for the layout and construction of such structures. A guide to soil investigation methods essential for the geotechnical analysis of foundation designs for all types of offshore structures concentrates on the instrumentation equipment actually used. Detailed information is given on pile foundations with special emphasis on steel jacket platforms. The behaviour of gravity platforms during the final construction stage is analysed. The basis for the design of subsea pipelines and their stability is treated as well as the scour protection near offshore platforms.

Mazurkiewicz, B.K.

1986-01-01

282

The creation of a national pipeline mapping system, a joint government/industry approach  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Department of Transportation`s Office of Pipeline Safety (OPS) is working with other federal and state agencies and the pipeline industry to create a national pipeline mapping system. This system, when complete, will show the location and selected attributes of the major natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines and liquefied natural gas facilities operating in the US. OPS will add additional data layers into the system, including layers on population, unusually sensitive areas, natural disaster probability and high consequence areas, hydrography, and transportation networks. OPS will use the system to depict pipelines in relation to the public and the environment, and to work with other government agencies and industry during an incident. A Joint Government/Industry Pipeline Mapping Quality Action Team (MQAT II) was formed to work with OPS on creating the digital pipeline location and attribute layer. The Team is sponsored by OPS, the American Petroleum Institute, the American Gas Association and the Interstate Natural Gas Association of America, and includes representatives from multiple federal and state government agencies and the natural gas and hazardous digital pipeline industry. MQAT II has drafted national pipeline mapping standards that will be used to create the digital pipeline layer. These include standards for electronic data and paper map submissions, metadata, and the pipeline mapping repository. The Team is currently pilot testing the draft standards and establishing relationships with state agencies, industry, and others to exchange data that meets the standards. Operator participation is voluntary. This voluntary participation hopes to encourage industry to upgrade the quality of the pipeline data in a manner that is consistent with their other business needs. This paper presents a brief history of the mapping initiative, the draft national pipeline mapping standards, what will be requested of the pipeline industry, and the information and preliminary results of the pilot tests, ways the pipeline industry can convert from paper to digital maps in a cost-effective manner and tools that will help them in the conversion, and tools that will help them meet the pipeline mapping data standards.

Sames, C.M. [Dept. of Transportation (United States). Office of Pipeline Safety

1998-12-31

283

Subsea pipeline operational risk management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Resources used for inspection, maintenance, and repair of a subsea pipeline must be allocated efficiently in order to operate it in the most cost effective manner. Operational risk management aids in resource allocation through the use of risk assessments and cost/benefit analyses. It identifies those areas where attention must be focused in order to reduce risk. When they are identified, a company`s resources (i.e., personnel, equipment, money, and time) can then be used for inspection, maintenance, and/or repair of the pipeline. The results are cost effective risk reduction and pipeline operation with minimum expenditure.

Bell, R.L.; Lanan, G.A.

1996-12-31

284

WATER OUTLET OF IRRIGATION PIPELINE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

FIELD: equipment for drop irrigation of farm crops using flexible irrigation pipelines. ^ SUBSTANCE: water outlet has pipeline wall with water discharge opening. Water outlet is made in the form of outside head with water discharge opening having length equal to three-four inner diameters thereof. Channels are provided at a distance making 0.5-0.7 the diameter of opening from its inlet edge, said channels being designed for connecting inner cavity of opening with atmosphere. Diameter of each channel is equal to 0.1-0.2 the inner diameter of water discharge opening. ^ EFFECT: enhanced reliability in operation of pipeline and provision for adjustable water feeding. ^ 1 dwg

ABEZIN VALENTIN GERMANOVICH; KARPUNIN VASILIJ VALENTINOVICH; KARPUNIN VASILIJ VASIL EVICH; SERDJUKOV DMITRIJ ANATOL EVICH; SALDAEV ALEKSANDR MAKAROVICH

285

Reliability of internally corroding pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Internal corrosion is an increasing problem world-wide in on and offshore pipelines. This paper describes how the results of genuine high resolution magnetic flux leakage (MFL) inspection together with fitness-for-purpose assessments are used as the basis for defining cost effective rehabilitation strategies for internally corroding pipelines. Strategies are highlighted for pipelines containing `active` corrosion which cannot be eliminated. Attention is given to (1) advances in the methods for assessing the significance of corrosion and (2) the benefits of using modem reliability methodologies which allow the probability of failure with time to be determined. Case studies are presented of the successful use of the above methods.

Jones, D.G.; Dawson, S.J.; Clyne, A.J. [BG plc, Northumberland (United Kingdom)

1998-12-31

286

Northern pipelines backgrounder  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Market conditions have rekindled interest in oil and gas exploration and development in Canada's north. Natural gas producers agree that the market needs gas from Alaska's North Slope and from the Canadian North if supply is to keep up with North American demand which is forecasted to grow from 25.2 trillion cubic feet (tcf) in 2001 to 31.7 tcf by 2010. The north holds vast reserves of natural gas. Proven reserves at Prudhoe Bay total about 30-35 tcf. The ultimate potential of the North Slope can be as high as 100 tcf. Proven reserves in the Mackenzie Delta total about 9 tcf, and its ultimate potential may be as high at 64 tcf. Proven reserves in the Fort Liard area total 1.5 tcf and the potential of the region may be as high as 4 tcf. There are currently four proposals for pipelines to move northern gas to market. They are the Mackenzie Delta Project, the Alaska Highway Project, a mid-Yukon route, and an offshore route. This report states that the Government of Yukon does not believe that the Yukon and Northwest Territories are locked in competition for a single pipeline route. It believes that the Alaska Highway Project and a stand-alone Mackenzie Delta project will be constructed. Regulatory approvals for the Alaska Highway Project are already in place and half of the right of way has been secured since the project has been found to be environmentally acceptable. 9 refs., 5 figs.

NONE

2001-01-01

287

Investigation of CO2 release pressures in pipeline cracks  

Science.gov (United States)

The CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technology can prevent or reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide. The main idea of this technology is the segregation and collection of CO2 from facilities with a high emission of that greenhouse gas, i.e. power plants which burn fossil fuels. To segregate CO2 from the exhaust gas the power plant must be upgraded. Up to now there are three possible procedures to segregate the carbon dioxide with different advantages and disadvantages. After segregation the carbon dioxide will be transported by pipeline to a subsurface storage location. As CO2 is at normal conditions (1013,25 Pa; 20 °C) in a gaseous phase state it must be set under high pressure to enter denser phase states to make a more efficient pipeline transport possible. Normally the carbon dioxide is set into the liquid or supercritical phase state by compressor stations which compress the gas up to 15 MPa. The pressure drop makes booster stations along the pipeline necessary which keep the CO2 in a dens phase state. Depending on the compression pressure CO2 can be transported over 300km without any booster station. The goal of this work is the investigation of release pressures in pipeline cracks. The high pressurised pipeline system consists of different parts with different failure probabilities. In most cases corrosion or obsolescence is the reason for pipeline damages. In case of a crack CO2 will escape from the pipeline and disperse into the atmosphere. Due to its nature CO2 can remain unattended for a long time. There are some studies of the CO2 dispersion process, e.g. Mazzoldi et al. (2007, 2008 and 2011) and Wang et al. (2008), but with different assumptions concerning the pipeline release pressures. To give an idea of realistic release pressures investigations with the CFD tool OpenFOAM were carried out and are presented within this work. To cover such a scenario with an accidental release of carbon dioxide a pipeline section with different diameters and leakage release holes were modelled. This pipeline section is 10m long with the leakage hole in the middle. Additionally a small environment subdomain is simulated around the crack. For computation a multiphase solver was utilised. In a first step incompressible and isothermal fluids with no phase change were assumed.

Gorenz, Paul; Herzog, Nicoleta; Egbers, Christoph

2013-04-01

288

Process safety management in the pipeline industry: parallels and differences between the pipeline integrity management (IMP) rule of the Office of Pipeline Safety and the PSM/RMP approach for process facilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In 2001, the Federal Office of Pipeline Safety promulgated its pipeline integrity management rule for hazardous liquid pipelines. A notice of proposed rule making for a similar rule for gas pipelines was issued in January 2003. A final rule must be in place by the end of 2003. These rules derive from formal risk management initiatives of both the pipeline industry and the regulators beginning in the early to mid-1990s. The initiatives and resulting rules built on many of the process safety and risk management concepts and frameworks of the process industries, as modified for pipelines. Looking closely at the parallels and the differences is an interesting study of how the technical, public and industry-specific requirements affect the types of regulations, supporting management system frameworks and the technical activities for improving hazardous materials process safety. This paper is based on the experience of the author in project work with federal and state regulators and with industry groups and companies, in both the process and pipeline industries over the last 17 years. It provides insights into various alternative pathways for communicating process safety concepts and improving process safety as the concepts are translated into specific company and even individual employee actions. It specifically highlights how the commonalities and differences in the types and configurations of physical assets and operating practices of the pipeline companies and process facilities affect respective cultures, language and actions for process safety management.

DeWolf GB

2003-11-01

289

Status of planning, licensing and construction of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant at project abandonment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Construction of the first industrial-scale reprocessing plant in the Federal Republic of Germany started in December 1985. In the first quarter of 1989, when several peripheral structures, e.g., the fuel storage building, were already completed, all construction work was stopped. It had been decided that foreign capacities were to be used for reprocessing spent fuel from German nuclear power plants. In this paper, the status of construction work, of planning and of the licensing procedures at the time of project abandonment are outlined. Reference to the legal background is given. (orig.).

1989-01-01

290

Data integration for management of pipeline system integrity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The need to easily access pipeline information and the increasing number of inspections using distinct techniques from different vendors makes the use of systems in the Integrity Management Program indispensable. For this reason, MOPI has been developed by two Brazilian companies, Pipeway Engenharia in partnership with Minds at Work. This tool allows data recording from the design, construction and operation of the pipeline, the storage of documents, the comparison between the results of different inspections, the planning inspections, contracts and maintenance of the pipeline. Furthermore, the information registered in the system can be accessed by a network user without limitation of time or number of users. This work presents the main details and features of MOPI. (author)

Araujo, Anne A. de; Miranda, Ivan Vicente Janvrot; Silva, Jose Augusto Pereira da [Pipeway Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Frederico S.; Magalhaes, Joao Alfredo P. [Minds at Work, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

291

Black powder in gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Despite its common occurrence in the gas industry, black powder is a problem that is not well understood across the industry, in terms of its chemical and physical properties, source, formation, prevention or management of its impacts. In order to prevent or effectively manage the impacts of black powder, it is essential to have knowledge of its chemical and physical properties, formation mechanisms and sources. The present paper is divided into three parts. The first part of this paper is a synopsis of published literature. The second part reviews the recent laboratory and field work conducted at Saudi Aramco Research and Development Center to determine the compositions, properties, sources and formation mechanisms of black powder in gas transmission systems. Microhardness, nano-indentation, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) techniques were used to analyze a large number of black powder samples collected from the field. Our findings showed that black powder is generated inside pipelines due to internal corrosion and that the composition of black powder is dependent on the composition of transported gas. The final part presents a summary and brief discussion of various black powder management methods. (author)

Sherik, Abdelmounam [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

2009-07-01

292

75 FR 63774 - Pipeline Safety: Safety of On-Shore Hazardous Liquid Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...Company pipeline in Oklahoma, a 2005 failure on an Enterprise Products Operating line in Missouri, and a 2008 failure on an Oneok NGL Pipeline in Iowa. Better, more effective methods of preventing, detecting, assessing and remediating SCC in pipelines...

2010-10-18

293

75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines  

Science.gov (United States)

...PHMSA-2009-0421] Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines...the importance of prompt and effective leak detection capability in protecting public...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Pipeline leak detection is one of the many layers...

2010-01-26

294

Technical development concerning abandonment of low level radioactive wastes into ocean  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The amount of radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power stations has increased year by year, and the measures to treat and dispose them safely and surely have become urgent problem. In October, 1976, the Atomic Energy Commission presented the basic policy with ''On the countermeasures to radioactive wastes'', and the necessity of establishing a corporation undertaking the execution of trial disposal was mentioned. The foundation ''Atomic Energy Environment Conditioning Center'' was established accordingly, and it is making the preparation of the required tests and researches and the trial disposal in ocean. Four sea areas were selected as the possible areas for the disposal in ocean, and the survey on the environment of these sea areas was carried out for three years. Since 1977, the detailed survey has been made about the B sea area which seemed to be most desirable. In order to execute the trial disposal in ocean safely and surely, the soundness of solidified bodies, the preparation of a ship for abandonment, the works of transport and abandonment, and the pressurizing test of the drums for abandonment in a high pressure tank were studied. The survey of four sea areas and the evaluation of safety in ocean environment are described. The relevant laws were revised so as to accord with international treaties. The international relations concerning this problem are explained.

Hitomi, S. (Radioactive Waste Management Center, Tokyo (Japan))

1981-02-01

295

Risk management for gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The USA is embarking on a bold experiment to determine whether pipeline safety can be improved by using risk management as a tool to address specific needs in a pipeline system. The United States is establishing a program to demonstrate that risk management is a safe alternative to prescriptive regulation. This pipeline program is unique, requiring program and technical measures of performance to determine if safety is improved. The implementation guidelines were developed jointly by gas and liquids hydrocarbon transmission pipeline companies, and the federal and state regulators. These guidelines are: the Regulatory Framework; the Risk Management Demonstration Standard; and the Guidance on Performance Measures. This paper will outline the implementation of the risk management demonstration program. (au) 10 refs.

Willke, T.L.; Leewis, K.G. [Gas Research Inst. (United States); DeWolf, G.B.; Harrison, M.R.; Shires, T.M. [Radian International LLC (United States)

1997-11-01

296

Update on pipeline repair methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A comprehensive review of pipeline repair methods has been recently completed under the sponsorship of the American Gas Association`s, Pipeline Research Committee. This paper is intended to summarize the important results of that review. First and foremost, two relatively new methods of repair are reviewed. One involves the use of a continuous-fiber fiberglass composite material which can be applied as an alternative to a steel sleeve for the reinforcement of nonleaking defects. The second is the use of deposited weld metal to replace metal lost to external corrosion. This latter technique is not new in principle, but recent research has shown how it can be done safely on a pressurized pipeline. The other significant outcome of the comprehensive review was a set of guidelines for using all types of repairs including full-encirclement sleeves and repair clamps. Pipeline operators can use these guidelines to enhance their current repair procedures, or to train new personnel in maintenance techniques.

Kiefner, J.F. [Kiefner and Associates, Inc., Worthington, OH (United States); Bruce, W.A. [Edison Welding Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Stephens, D.R. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

297

Modularized machine for reconditioning pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A partial ring construction is described for use with a pipeline reconditioning machine that is positionable about a pipeline, comprising two first arcuate members attached side to side by a first length of chain that has an engageable portion along its length and a first plurality of outwardly extending lugs along each side of the engageable portion that are attached to the periphery of said two first arcuate members such that a gap remains between said two first arcuate members where a plurality of spacers are placed and the engageable portion of said first length of chain bridges said gap, said partial ring construction having an inner radius greater than the radius of the pipeline, and having a periphery of anywhere from about 180[degree] up to less than 360[degree], enough to allow for placement of said partial ring construction over the pipeline.

Chapman, G.R.

1993-08-24

298

Location class change impact on onshore gas pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During a pipeline life cycle, some significant changes in the population may happen along its route. Such changes are indirectly evaluated by the increase in the amount of buildings constructed along the route, which determines the so called Location Class. Such changes, after licensing, provoke differences between what is required by the standards and what is actually done. This work has two goals. One is to study the requirements of international standards and legislations as well as some solutions used in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom and Netherlands. This goal intends to provide some technical bases for a comparative analysis on how the location class changes, during the life cycle of a pipeline, are treated in each country. Another goal is to present a risk-based methodology for the guideline development which can be used in decision-making concerning what to do in case of any location class change. Particularly, it has given special attention to the requirements which are imposed for the pipeline operational license continuation. This work is of supreme importance for the Brazilian pipeline segment, since the existing Brazilian design standard, ABNT NBR12712 for transmission and distribution pipeline design, does not deal with that issue. Moreover, a summary of the main solutions found in those countries together with a guideline, customized for the Brazilian reality, is presented. (author)

Cardoso, Cassia de Oliveira; Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Seixas de [DNV Energy Solutions, Oslo (Norway); Leal, Cesar Antonio [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Faertes, Denise [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gas and Energy

2009-07-01

299

Design and construction of pipeline integrated oil storage caverns  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The key features of the design and construction of the Hardisty Cavern Storage Project were presented. This underground facility can store 480,000 cubic metres of crude oil. The project represents a unique integration of existing underground salt caverns into a major North American crude oil transportation hub through which 64 million cubic metres of oil pass through annually. A control centre in Edmonton operates the facility by remote control. This paper focused on the unique hydraulic challenges related to cavern operation with multiple product characteristics. The movement of crude oil between the cavern storage facilities and low flow rate feed pipelines or high flow rate transportation pipelines was also discussed. The facilities required integrity testing of the existing 4 caverns spread over 65 hectares of property, drilling of new wells, abandonment of existing wells, and a piping network to interconnect the caverns, the brine pond and flush water system. The facilities initial and geographic considerations were summarized along with the design of the facilities in terms of geological features. The unique considerations for the use of the caverns for hydrocarbon storage included well drilling and the complex brine system design along with high pressure product injection into and withdrawals from the caverns. The movement of product between storage caverns and transportation lines involved many processes with varying characteristics. Facility design had to identify each of these process and provide appropriate equipment. 1 tab., 5 figs.

Broyles, J.; Dusseault, P. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Vanden Elsen, F. [CCS Energy Services, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2004-07-01

300

Pipeline integrity through cathodic protection  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline integrity management is defined as a process for assessing and mitigating pipeline risks in an effort to reduce both the likelihood and consequences of incidents. Defects on pipelines result in production losses, environmental losses, as well as loss of goodwill and subsequent financial losses. This presentation addressed pipeline integrity through cathodic protection. It noted that pipeline integrity can be strengthened by successfully controlling, monitoring and mitigating corrosion strategies. It can also be achieved by avoiding external and internal corrosion failures. A good coating offers the advantages of low current density; lower power consumption; low wear of anodes; larger spacing between cathodic protection stations; and minimization of interference problems. The presentation reviewed cathodic protection of cross-country pipelines; a sacrificial cathodic protection system; and an impressed current cathodic protection system. The efficiency of a cathodic system was shown to depend on the use of reliable power sources; proper protection criterion; efficient and effective monitoring of cathodic protection; proper maintenance of the cathodic protection system; and effective remedial measures. Selection criteria, power sources, and a comparison of cathodic protection sources were also presented. Last, the presentation addressed protection criteria; current interruption circuits; monitoring of the cathodic protection system; use of corrosion coupons; advantages of weightless coupons; checking the insulating flanges for shorted bolts; insulated/short casings; anodic and cathodic interference; common corridor problems; and intelligent pigging. tabs., figs.

Kumar, N. [Gas Authority India Ltd., New Delhi (India); Khanna, A.S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Bombay (India)

2008-07-01

 
 
 
 
301

Solving an unpiggable pipeline challenge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Technically, any pipeline can be retrofitted to enable in line inspection. Sensibly however, the expense of excavations and construction of permanent facilities have been, in many cases, exceedingly prohibitive. Even where traditional modifications are feasible from engineering perspectives, flow interruption may not be an option - either because they are critical supply lines or because the associated lost revenues could be nearly insurmountable. Savvy pipeline integrity managers know the safety issue that is at stake over the long term. They are also well aware of the accuracy benefits that high-quality in-line inspection data offer over potentially supply disruptive alternatives such as hydrostatic testing. To complicate matters further, many operators, particularly in the US, now face regulatory pressure to assess the integrity of their yet-uninspected pipelines located in highly populated areas. This paper describes an important project National Grid undertook that made use of a unique pipeline access method that did not require permanent installation of expensive facilities required for in line inspection of a pipeline previously considered 'unpiggable'. Since the pipeline was located in an urban area, flow disruption had to be minimized. This paper will define the project background, its challenges, outcomes and lessons learned for the future. (author)

Walker, James R. [GE Oil and Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom); Kern, Michael [National Grid, New Hampshire (United Kingdom)

2009-07-01

302

Pipeline inspection with intelligent pigs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Specialized testing instruments, so-called intelligent pigs, can help to monitor the pipeline status and to detect, localize and measure defects in the pipeline wall in the course of an overall inspection programme. The article starts by listing the defects that may occur in the pipeline wall and then presents a survey of intelligent pigs currently on the market. (orig.)[de] Pipelines stellen das sicherste und wirtschaftlichste Transportsystem fuer grosse Mengen von Gas und Fluessigkeiten dar. Es verwundert daher kaum, dass das internationale Pipelinenetz inzwischen viele Millionen Kilometer umfasst und jaehrlich um mehrere zehntausend Kilometer weiter anwaechst. Jedoch koennen bei jedem technischen Bauteil, also auch bei Pipelines, Fehler auftreten. Jedes technische Bauteil bzw. jede technische Komponente besteht aus einem Werkstoff, der einem ''Alterungsprozess'' unterliegt. Intelligente Molche koennen, als Bestandteil eines Gesamtueberwachungsprogrammes helfen, den Zustand von Pipelines zu ueberpruefen und Fehler in der Pipelinewand zu detektieren, zu lokalisieren und quantitativ zu vermessen. Im vorliegenden Beitrag wird ein Ueberblick ueber diese intelligenten Molche gegeben. (orig.)

1995-01-01

303

Canada's pipelines; vital links in the energy supply chain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some 700,000 km of underground pipelines across Canada move virtually all of the country's daily crude oil and natural gas production to consumers in Canada and to export market to the United States. In 1999, Canada produced 6.0 trillion cubic feet (170 billion cubic metres) of natural gas and 945 million barrels (150 million cubic metres) of liquid hydrocarbons; most of it moved to their ultimate destination by pipelines. This booklets provides an overview of the pipeline system as a major transportation network, explains how pipelines work, how they are regulated, how they are constructed, and the safety and environmental aspects of pipelines operations. There is also a discussion of the economics of pipelines; for example how rates are set and the costs incurred in transporting oil and gas. A look into the future and other sources of relevant information are also provided. The booklet is replete with maps showing the major gas fields and pipeline routes, graphs which display the growth in production over time, tables discussing the various types of pipelines, and many photographs illustrative of the construction, operation, monitoring and maintenance of pipelines.

NONE

2000-10-01

304

The effect of chestnut coppice forests abandon on slope stability: a case study  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet chestnut has been fundamental for Italian mountainous economies for many centuries. This kind of forest was traditionally managed by coppicing in shortly rotation (15-20 years) to rapidly produce wood biomass until half of XX century. In the last decades these forests were in large part abandoned due to change in economy which made coppiced forest management unprofitable, especially in steeper slopes and where forest viability is scarce. As a consequence most of them are over aged and very dense, leading to an observed increasing in localized slope instability, primary because of the uprooting of stools (Vogt et al., 2006). In this work the effect of the abandon of chestnut coppice on slope stability was analyzed, focusing on shallow landslides triggering. The mechanical contribution to soil shear strength of differently managed chestnut stand was estimated and compared in terms of additional root cohesion. The study area is located in the Valcuvia Valley (Lombardy Prealps - Northern Italy) at an elevation about 600 m a.s.l., where two different stands, one managed and the other abandoned (over 40 year aged), were chosen. The two sampling stands are on cohesionless slopes (quaternary moraine deposits) and are homogeneous with regard to the substrate, exposure and elevation. Slope steepness influences heavily forestry practices and steeper stands are more frequently abandoned than stands on gentler terrain: in fact in the abandoned coppice the slope was higher (35 degrees against 13 in the managed stand) and no stands completely homogeneous can be found. In each site the main characteristics of the stand were surveyed and a trench in each stand was excavated to analyze root diameter and number distribution with depth; root specimens were also collected for the tensile force determination through laboratory tensile tests. Root distribution and force were then used to estimate root cohesion values through a Fiber Boundle Model (Pollen and Simon, 2005). Results, as expected, show that management didn't affect root mechanical properties, whereas root distribution within the soil profile did. In terms of additional root cohesion, values are higher in the managed stand, and lower in the abandoned one, at least in the first 50 cm of soil. In the abandoned stand, in fact, roots reach deeper layers of soil (100 cm) than the managed one (50 cm), mainly because of an unexpected greater soil depth. To assess the implication of such results in terms of slope stability, a simple infinite slope model was applied to the two conditions. The results showed that the abandoned stand is prone to instability also with a low level of saturation. On the contrary, by applying the additional root cohesion profile obtained in the managed stand to the steeper slopes, stability should be guaranteed, except in the case of total saturation. In conclusion, although more investigations are required especially to extend the number of stands, coppicing practice seem to be fundamental to prevent shallow landsliding in sweet chestnut forests over cohesionless slopes.

Vergani, Chiara; Bassanelli, Chiara; Rossi, Lorenzo; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Battista Bischetti, Gian

2013-04-01

305

Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability.

Campbell, J. Elliott; Lobell, David B.; Genova, Robert C.; Zumkehr, Andrew; Field, Christopher B.

2013-09-01

306

Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

2013-01-01

307

REALTIME MONITORING OF PIPELINES FOR THIRD-PARTY CONTACT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Third-party contact with pipelines (typically caused by contact with a digging or drilling device) can result in mechanical damage to the pipe, in addition to coating damage that can initiate corrosion. Because this type of damage often goes unreported and can lead to eventual catastrophic failure of the pipe, a reliable, cost-effective method is needed for monitoring and reporting third-party contact events. The impressed alternating cycle current (IACC) pipeline monitoring method consists of impressing electrical signals on the pipe by generating a time-varying voltage between the pipe and the soil at periodic locations where pipeline access is available. The signal voltage between the pipe and ground is monitored continuously at receiving stations located some distance away. Third-party contact to the pipe that breaks through the coating changes the signal received at the receiving stations. In this project, the IACC monitoring method is being developed, tested, and demonstrated. Work performed to date includes (1) a technology assessment, (2) development of an IACC model to predict performance and assist with selection of signal operating parameters, (3) investigation of potential interactions with cathodic protection systems, and (4) experimental measurements on operating pipelines. Based on information recently found in published studies, it is believed that the operation of IACC on a pipeline will cause no interference with CP systems. Initial results on operating pipelines showed that IACC signals could be successfully propagated over a distance of 3.5 miles, and that simulated contact can be detected up to a distance of 1.4 miles, depending on the pipeline and soil conditions.

Gary L. Burkhardt; Alfred E. Crouch

2005-10-01

308

The Geysers pipeline project  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A unique public/private partnership of local, state, federal and corporate stakeholders are constructing the world`s first wastewater-to-electricity system at The Geysers. A rare example of a genuinely {open_quotes}sustainable{close_quotes} energy system, three Lake County communities will recycle their treated wastewater effluent through the southeast portion of the The Geysers steamfield to produce approximately 625,000 MWh annually from six existing geothermal power plants. In effect, the communities` effluent will produce enough power to indefinitely sustain their electric needs, along with enough extra power for thousands of other California consumers. Because of the project`s unique sponsorship, function and environmental impacts, its implementation has required: (1) preparation of a consolidated state environmental impact report (EIR) and federal environmental impact statement (EIS), and seven related environmental agreements and management plans; (2) acquisition of 25 local, state, and federal permits; (3) negotiation of six federal and state financial assistance agreements; (4) negotiation of six participant agreements on construction, operation and financing of the project, and (5) acquisition of 163 easements from private land owners for pipeline construction access and ongoing maintenance. The project`s success in efficiently and economically completing these requirements is a model for geothermal innovation and partnering throughout the Pacific Rim and elsewhere internationally.

Dellinger, M.; Allen, E.

1997-01-01

309

Optimal Pipeline Connection for the West African Gas Pipeline Project  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ghana and three other West African countries including Benin, Togo and Nigeria have installed pipelines to establish the flow of natural gas. In this research paper, we combine Prim’s and Steiner Tree algorithms with factor rating method to solve the single source shortest path offshore/onshore pipeline problem. Data on the West African Gas Pipeline (WAGP) project was collected and analyzed. We used Prim’s algorithm to find the minimum spanning tree of length 712.30 km. This is a reduction over the original 788.90 km WAGP project design. Factor rating method was then used to find an alternative path of length 723.29 km. Steiner Tree algorithm and geometry were used to obtain an optimal pipeline length of 707.75 km. This is 10.3% reduction of the WAGP length. Our solution is shown to be topologically equivalent to the WAGP network and hence optimal in pipeline distance and project cost.

E.K. Donkoh; S.K. Amponsah and K.F. Darkwah

2011-01-01

310

Preliminary investigation of the hydrogeology and contamination in the area of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Prior to the introduction of natural gas pipelines in the 1950's, gas for lighting and heating in the US was produced from coal or oil at local manufacturing gas plants. By-products and wastes generated at these plants commonly were disposed of on site. The major wastes, which include tar and oil residues and sludges, spent oxides, and ash materials, can consist of a complex mixture of hundreds of aromatic organic compounds as well as cyanides and metals. An investigation was initiated in January 1989 in the vicinity of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia, to evaluate the hydrogeology and contamination of the area, and to test study techniques that may have application in similar situations. Geologic formations of interest to this investigation include, in descending order, unconsolidated sand and clay layers, The Ocala Limestone, and the Lisbon Formation. Surficial fill overlies the sand and clay layers throughout the study area. High concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and various metals were detected in the unconsolidated sediments in the vicinity of the abandoned gas plant. Maximum concentrations of hydrocarbons detected sediment samples included 560,000 microg/kg naphthalene, 73,000 microg/kg ethylbenzene, 28,000 microg/kg benzene, and 24,000 microg/kg toluene. These higher concentrations of hydrocarbons were present in the vicinity of the former gas holding tanks. In that area, contamination extends at least to the depth of the contact between the unconsolidated sand and clay layers and the Ocala Limestone

1991-01-01

311

The RNA-Seq Analysis pipeline on Galaxy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Q: How do I know my RNA-Seq experiments worked well A: RNA-Seq QC PipelineQ: How do I detect transcripts which are over expressed or under expressed in my samples A: Counting and Statistic AnalysisQ: What do I do if I don't have a reference genome A: Rnnotator de novo Assembly.

Meng, Xiandong; Martin, Jeffrey; Wang, Zhong

2011-05-31

312

Investigation on the effects of entrained air in pipelines  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The main goal of this work is the development of a computational program for the quantitative assessment of the effects of entrained air in pipeline systems with respect to their operational safety. Likewise, two specific problems are investigated. (1) The effect of entrained air in form of pockets ...

Pozos Estrada, Oscar

313

Abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases in Kentucky  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kentucky courts often treat abandonment and forfeiture of coal leases as synonymous, using the rule that abandonment consists of two elements: (1) a voluntary relinquishment of possession and (2) intent to repudiate ownership. A review of several court cases concludes that the difficulty of proving intention severely limits the lessor's ability to have a lease cancelled due to abandonment. The Kentucky Supreme Court has not held any coal lease to have been abadnoned since 1949. Cancellation due to forfeiture is the lessor's better means of ensuring diligent and capable development of his property, but a court will not decree a forfeiture unless the lease contains a forfeiture clause. 100 references.

VanMeter, L.B.

1983-01-01

314

Pipeline systems - Safety for assets and transport regularity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This review regarding safety for assets and financial interests for pipeline systems has showed how this aspect has been taken care of in the existing petroleum legislation. It has been demonstrated that the integrity of pipeline systems with the respect to maintaining petroleum transport is important for all parties involved, including third party`s interest and national interests. Examples have been given to provide a picture of the value of transported petroleum products. Finally, the scope of work for as well as observations after a supervisory activity related to safety for the transported product, have been referenced. 1 fig., 1 tab.

Anfinsen, K.A.

1997-12-31

315

National Energy Board (NEB) pipeline integrity management program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Energy Board (NEB) ensures the safe design, construction and operation of pipelines that cross provincial or national borders. Since 1991, there have been 22 major pipeline failures of which most were closed by corrosion, 5 from stress corrosion cracks, and 3 from slope stability problems. After a meeting of pipeline companies with the NEB, new regulations were put in place. The new regulations include: an emphasis on maintenance, a requirement for proactivity by owners and integrity management guidelines. While the integrity management guidelines are not regulations, they represent industry best practices, allow a degree of flexibility, and allow enforcement based on intent and the use of an audit process. The guidelines are comprised of a management system, a working records management system, condition monitoring, and mitigation.

Hendershot, J. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1999-11-01

316

National Energy Board (NEB) pipeline integrity management program  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The National Energy Board (NEB) ensures the safe design, construction and operation of pipelines that cross provincial or national borders. Since 1991, there have been 22 major pipeline failures of which most were closed by corrosion, 5 from stress corrosion cracks, and 3 from slope stability problems. After a meeting of pipeline companies with the NEB, new regulations were put in place. The new regulations include: an emphasis on maintenance, a requirement for proactivity by owners and integrity management guidelines. While the integrity management guidelines are not regulations, they represent industry best practices, allow a degree of flexibility, and allow enforcement based on intent and the use of an audit process. The guidelines are comprised of a management system, a working records management system, condition monitoring, and mitigation.

Hendershot, J. (National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada))

1999-01-01

317

Coal log pipeline research at the University of Missouri  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Project tasks: Perform the necessary testing and development to demonstrate that the amount of binder in coal logs can be reduced to 8% or lower to produce logs with adequate strength to eliminate breakage during pipeline transportation, under conditions experienced in long distance pipeline systems. Prior to conducting any testing and demonstration, grantee shall perform an information search and make full determination of all previous attempts to extrude or briquette coal, upon which the testing and demonstration shall be based. Perform the necessary development to demonstrate a small model of the most promising injection system for coal-logs, and test the logs produced from Task 1. Conduct economic analysis of coal-log pipeline, based upon the work to date. Refine and complete the economic model. Prepare a final report for DOE.

Liu, H.

1992-03-01

318

Design considerations for paste and thickened tailings pipeline systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Paste and thickened tailings systems are high-density slurries. The drivers for developing paste and thickened tailings include shortage of water in arid regions; potential for reduced environmental impact; increased stability; and new technology. In the oil sands industry, these tailings offer high consolidation, reduced storage volume and heat recovery. This presentation described the rheomalaxis behaviour of paste and thickened tailings in terms of their unsheared to fully sheared properties. It also outlined Paterson and Cooke's newly developed proprietary flow behaviour models to predict the flow behaviour of slurries in pipelines. The design of single and multiphase pipeline systems was also presented. It was concluded that although the technology for paste and thickened tailings pipelines is well developed, more work is needed to better understand laminar flow behaviour of wide particle size distribution tailings. tabs., figs.

Cooke, R. [Paterson and Cooke, Denver, CO (United States)

2008-07-01

319

Phase I report of regional pipeline corridor and setback study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study was conducted by Stantec to locate proposed new energy sector pipelines in the most efficient manner and safest location in Alberta. Policy options were identified along with a risk based method used for the conduct of this study. Recommendations for pipeline setbacks were also made. The lands considered for this study were all within the four Alberta Industrial Heartland Association (AIHA) municipal partners, namely: Strathcona, Sturgeon, and Lamont Counties and the City of Fort Saskatchewan. Phase I of the project involved research and analysis. The present report provides an overview of background information concerning the study, community planning, pipelines, corridors, regulatory questions, and risk assessment. In phase II, a series of workshops involving various stakeholders will result in the development of options and the completion of the risk assessment work. A draft report will be prepared at the end of the consultation process, which will conclude phase III.

NONE

2003-06-01

320

Application of Sewage Sludge to the Abandoned Mining Land Reclamation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on the analysis of the existing problems in reclaming abandoned m ining land and their negative effect on the e-cological environment, and in view of the 1imited factors to reclaim abandoned m in ing land, this paper puts forwardthe suggestions of using sewage sludge as an alternative in m in ing land reclamation. Application of sewage sludge in reclamation has be eficialeffects, such as increasing organic mattercontent, preventing so ilerosion, recovering vegetation, and prom oting microbial population and its activities. Unfavorable factors including heavy metal and organicpollutant for applications of sewage sludge and their countermeasures are also discussed.

Mo Cehai; Cai Quanying; Wu Qitang; Wang Jianghai

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Target and method of vegetation recovery at abandoned mine slope  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The main target of ecological environment improvement for abandoned mine is side slope stability control and vegetation recovery. Ever green broad leaf forest, the exotic zonal vegetation in Zhejiang province is the target forest for the improvement of abandoned mine slope. But limited by special site and growth condition, selection of plant for envi- ronment improvement should be similar with nearby ones, thus making the future community stable. Exotic species like Lespedeza thunbergii were recommended for the plantation by seed spray and container seedling plantation.

Liu Bentong; Wang Zhiming

2005-01-01

322

Architectural synthesis of arithmetic pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept of pipelining offers an economical way to realize temporal parallelism, and is used in most of today's supercomputers. This research presents a formal technique for the synthesis of non-linear arithmetic pipelines from computations represented by directed graphs. First, only acyclic graphs in which every node is an operation that executes in one time unit are considered, then the technique is generalized to cyclic graphs in which each node is a pipelined operation with a different number of stages. In both cases, it is assumed that the computation is iterated a large number of times and that branching instructions are not allowed. A set of mapping functions transforms the computation graph into a correct pipeline with maximum throughput and minimum cost. The synthesis minimizes the cost of the interconnection links among the processors whose number is set by the designer. The minimization is performed by a limited search which can be extended for better results at the expense of an exponential computation time. A new approach for mapping computation graphs on a set of processors connected through a crossbar switch, is also introduced. This architecture is called pipeline net. By mapping more than one node to a processor, and rescheduling the computation graph, this technique reduces the execution time over the partitioning approach previously proposed in the literature. Moreover, it eliminates the need for intermediate storage and simplifies the machine-level programming effort. This technique can be automated and is proved to preserve the correctness of the computation.

Batarekh, C.

1989-01-01

323

New territory for NGL pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Even though the NGL pipeline industry appears mature, new geographic territory exists for expansion of NGL pipelines. However, the most fertile territory that must be pursued is the collective opportunities to better link the existing NGL industry. Associations like the Gas Processors Association can not perform the role demanded by a need to share information between the links of the chain on a more real time basis. The Association can not substitute for picking up the phone or calling a meeting of industry participants to discuss proposed changes in policies and procedures. All stakeholders must participate in squeezing out the inefficiencies of the industry. Some expansion and extension of NGL pipelines will occur in the future without ownership participation or commitments from the supply and demand businesses. However, significant expansions linking new supply sources and demand markets will only be made as the supply and demand businesses share long-term strategies and help define the pipeline opportunity. The successful industries of the twenty-first century will not be dominated by a single profitable sector, but rather by those industries which foster cooperation as well as competition. A healthy NGL industry will be comprised of profitable supply businesses and profitable demand businesses, linked together by profitable pipeline businesses.

1994-01-01

324

Correlations betwen rotational viscosimeter and pilot plant data in CWS pipeline system design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal can be transported most economically over great distances using a pipeline. Notwithstanding the good technical results achieved by CWS technologies, technical areas, which deserve further development work, still exist. Design data for pipeline systems are usually obtained using pilot plants. The aim of this work is to investigate the correlations between data achieved using a rotational viscometer and data from a pilot plant. The high correlations obtained between the two types of data suggests that it is possible to use a simple rotational viscometer instead of a specially designed pilot plant in the design of pipelines.

Bandelloni, M.; Donnini, G.; Rinaldi, R.; Tucci, M. [Univ. of Florence (Italy)

1995-12-31

325

Propane pipeline restoration; Texas Eastern Products Pipeline maintains customer service  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When Texas Eastern Products Pipeline determined it needed to rehabilitate a 165-mile segment of an 8-in. liquid propane pipeline between Watkins Glen and Selkirk, N.Y., the company was faced with a dilemma: how could propane deliveries to two of the system's common-carrier terminals be continued during the repair period The company was determined to keep the terminals open so as not to inconvenience customers and sacrifice revenue. This paper describes the approach developed. Through careful planning, monumental employee teamwork and tremendous cooperation from customers, the terminals were kept open.

Mumper, J.A. Jr. (Texas Eastern Products Pipeline Co., Watkins Glen, NY (US))

1988-03-01

326

Pipeline fixings for pipelines in nuclear power stations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The pipelines run at a distance from a concrete wall. Frame type steel constructions made of U-section profiled rods which can be loaded in the elastic range act as pipeline fixings. They are fixed, in turn, via their free ends to steel supports which can be subjected to plastic deformation, which are themselves connected to the concrete wall via supports. The distance between the steel supports and the concrete wall must be such that it is greater than the maximum expected deformation of the steel supports. This achieves dumping of the load peaks for pipework fracture forces in all directions in the concrete wall. (DG)

1979-01-01

327

Researches results of heightened pipelines and valves of third ChNPP power unit vibration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vibrodynamic inspection of 'SEBIM' firm valves and pipelines of 'pointed' steam at third ChNPP power unit were made. The works for replacement of furnishing defective valves for removal of heightened vibration were executed

2001-01-01

328

On-line chemical cleaning of pipelines; Limpieza quimica de ductos en linea  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concern of efficiency and maintenance in the pipeline industry, due to fluids and sediments, has led the development of new methods of cleaning. Some methods of cleaning are described in this work with their advantages and disadvantages.

Cross, Michael Brent [Brenntag Stinnes Logistics, Muelheim/Ruhr (Germany)

2003-07-01

329

Creating Data Pipelines for PDS Datasets  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the details of an image processing pipeline and a new Python library providing a convenient interface to Planetary Data System (PDS) data products. The library aims to be a useful tool for general purpose PDS processing. Test images have been extracted from existing PDS data products using the library but will work with lunar images from LRO/LROC. To process high-volume data sets we employ Hadoop, an open-source framework implementing the Map/Reduce paradigm for writing data intensive distributed applications. By harnessing a cluster of processing nodes we are able to extract raw images from data products and convert them to web-friendly formats at the rate of gigabytes per minute. The resultant images have been converted using the Python Image Library. Additionally, the images have been cropped to postage stamp images supporting various zoom levels. The final images, along with some metadata are uploaded to Amazon's S3 data storage system where they are served. Preliminary tests of the pipeline are promising, having processed 10,000 sample files totaling 30 GB in 15 minutes. The resultant jpegs totaled only 3 GB after compression. The code base has not only proven successful in its own right, but also shows Python, an interpreted language, to be a viable alternative to more mainstream compiled languages such as C/C++ or Fortran, especially when combined with Hadoop. This work was funded through NASA ROSES NNX09AD34G.

Balfanz, Ryan; Armbrust, M.; Smith, A.; Gay, P. L.

2010-01-01

330

A review on vibrations of marine pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

When pipelines are not buried, unsupported pipeline spans may exist in most locations. When spans develop due to scour they may change location from time to time, while in the case of pipeline crossings or seabed unevenness (where the bed is non-erodible), the locations are fixed. The span length may vary from 10 to 100 times the pipeline diameter, with a clearance from the sea bottom which may be in the range from practically nil to 2 or even 3 times the pipeline diameter, Orgill et al. (1992). Such a pipeline span, when exposed to flow action, may undergo flow-induced vibrations. A comprehensive review is presented of vibrations of marine pipelines. The review is organized in four main sections, namely vibrations of wall-free cylinders in steady current, vibrations of wall-free cylinders in waves, the influence of he close proximity of the seabed and finally forces on a vibrating pipeline.

Sumer, B.M.; Fredsoe, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark)

1994-12-31

331

CAPP perspective on pipeline encroachment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers` (CAPP) perspective on pipeline encroachment and the issues that encroachment raises for the industry were discussed. Historically, as encroachment occurred, industry carried the cost of pipeline modification or re-routing. There is no legislated requirement for industry to bear this cost, but it seemed reasonable in the past to do so, based on the level of expenditures and frequency of requirement. This practice may no longer be reasonable. CAPP and the Energy and Utilities Board established the Pipeline Encroachment Task Force in April 1996 in order to address these issues: risk assessment and risk management, changing land use, raising awareness with municipalities and counties, and financial and operational consequences of encroachment of Canadian Standards Association Standard Z662-96.

Nutter, J. [Imperial Oil, Calgary, AB (Canada)

1997-07-01

332

Influence of soil properties on the behavior of heated on bottom pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore pipelines have increasingly been operating at high temperatures and high pressures. Compression due to these loads can lead to global buckling, either laterally and/or vertically, depending on the burial depth and soil properties. The amount of embedment of pipelines directly laid on the seabed depends on the soil properties and influences the behavior of pipelines in operation. This work investigates the interaction between the vertical and lateral buckling modes, based on the analytical approach proposed for pipeline global buckling analysis by Hobbs. Furthermore, it presents a sensitivity study characterizing the impact of the determination of accurate soil properties. Finally, a conceptual design procedure, which takes into account the particular case of short pipelines, is provided. The method is presented by means of an example case. (author)

Hallai, Julian [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

333

Application of risk-based inspection to two pipelines of the TRANSPETRO network  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Inspection and maintenance are a significant part of pipeline operations costs. The objective of this work is to present the results obtained with the application of Risk-Based Inspection to two gas pipelines operated by TRANSPETRO. Based on the current state of knowledge about the degradation mechanisms acting on either pipeline and their respective operating conditions, the RBI study recommended that both be inspected next year. Alternatively in one case, the study lays out the conditions by which the pipeline inspection can be postponed to 2007. TRANSPETRO had already decided to inspect the other pipeline this year (for reasons not related to this study) and therefore, the RBI approach is going to be re-applied after the new inspection results are available. This application will set the date for the next inspection. (author)

Leinum, Bente; Bjornoy, Ola [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Oliveira, Luiz Fernando; Oliveira, Cassia [DNV Principia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Claudio Brito [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2005-07-01

334

Using Geographic Information System - GIS - for pipeline management: case of Urucu-Coari LPG pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This technical paper seeks to demonstrate the stages run during the GIS - Geographic Information System accomplishment as for the follow-up of a pipeline work. The GLPDUTO (LPG Pipeline) Urucu-Coari work shall be the focus of this paper. The main challenges in the compilation of data generated in the work site will be presented, as well the importance for the definition of which data should be relevant, so that the construction company and PETROBRAS could follow up its evolution. The GIS development has been performed since January 2007 and should be finished by the first semester of 2009. The following stages for GIS definition for the work management will be presented: brief history of the project - project conception, purpose, structure implemented and accomplishment expectations; survey data in loco - raw data obtained directly during the carrying out of the work and generated in the project and implantation stage; treated data - data resulting from raw data, but already treated as for the GIS environment; routines developed - specific tools created for the consolidation of the data to be manipulated on GIS in an optimized and functional way; result presented - GIS in its final conception, developed and input with the routines and data regarding the project. (author)

Furquim, Maysa P.O. [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

2009-07-01

335

AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO MANAGING THE INTEGRITY OF OIL AND GAS PIPELINES: PIPELINE INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the oil and gas industry, management of the integrity of pipeline has grown to become a seriousbusiness because of the overall consequence of pipeline failure: economic, social, environmental,and possibly legal. This research is an attempt to check pipeline failures by carefully following asuite of activities. This suite of activities, also called Pipeline Integrity Management System (PIMS),is generated for an operational pipeline and populated with data gathered on the pipeline system.An analysis of the data collected on the pipeline over a period of five years indicates improvedmonitoring, reliability, availability, and compliance to regulatory guidelines in the operation of thepipeline systems.

M. A. Usman; S. E. Ngene

2012-01-01

336

Soil characterization for seabed/pipeline interaction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation of soil parameters related to pipeline design was described with emphasis on definition of design problems, planning, evaluation of sampling, in-situ testing and laboratory testing techniques, special problems related to shallow depth sediments, and properties of backfill material in pipeline trenches, particularly thermal parameters. It is believed, based on experience in several North Sea projects, that comprehensive soil investigations will increase safety, and reduce the cost over the pipeline`s lifetime. 7 refs., 1 fig.

By, T.; Nutt, N.; Lunne, T. [Norwegian Geotechnical Institute, Oslo (Norway)

1996-12-31

337

Improvement in treatment of mixtures generated between batches of different products in OSBRA (Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline) pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sao Paulo Brasilia Pipeline (OSBRA) starts at the Planalto Refinery (REPLAN) and supplies gasoline, diesel oil and LPG to the mid-west region of Brazil. The pipeline is 786 kilometers long with diameter of 20 inches in its first segment and 178 kilometers with 12 inches in the second. The fuels are pumped by seven unmanned pump stations and are delivered to five tank farms. At first, these products were pumped into the pipeline in batches of diesel or LPG between gasoline batches. These sequences allowed the dilution of the mixtures generated between the two products during the pipeline transportation to the pure product tanks, keeping compliance to the former standards. The diesel/gasoline mixtures were diluted direct to pure product tanks and the LPG/gasoline mixtures were submitted to flashing in a vessel before dilution. In 2001, the National Petroleum Agency changed the LPG and diesel oil standards. This new regulation turned the OSBRA installations unable to dilute the whole mixture volume generated during pipeline transportation. Sending part of the mixture back to the Refinery turned a mandatory task, increasing the costs and making the LPG pipeline transportation unprofitable. To overcome this situation, a new product was developed - QINTER. The QINTER can be diluted in suitable rates either to diesel or gasoline keeping the compliance of these fuels to the new standards at the receiving tanks. The QINTER is currently pumped into the pipeline between the batches of diesel oil and gasoline. The standard solution to treat the mixture created between LPG and gasoline batches, a fractional tower, was studied but it showed to be of dubious profitability and it would compel changes to the existing working schedule time, from Monday to Friday (6:00 am to 10:00 pm) to a 24:00 h/day continuous work. An alternative project was developed. Three flash recirculation vessels were designed to allow the mixtures of LPG with vapor stream and gasoline with liquid stream to keep to the new standards. This solution is seven times cheaper and it allow keeping up to the original working schedule time. Furthermore, a new operational procedure was established launching pigs at the edges of the mixtures. The aim of this pig procedure was to reduce LPG/Gasoline mixture volumes that should be treated before dilutions at the receiving tank/vessel. Pipeline shutdowns were minimized and mixture entrances into the manifold pump stations were controlled to reduce the mixture volumes. This paper describes the new technologies developed and the auspicious final results obtained. (author)

Kotchetkoff Neto, Andre Paulo; Agostineti, Antonio; Almeida, Marcio Manhaes Gomes de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2009-07-01

338

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TONWSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the tenth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, engineering continued during this reporting period toward development of the Construction Plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

Gary Gartenberg

2003-02-01

339

Grape RNA-Seq analysis pipeline environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Motivation: The avalanche of data arriving since the development of NGS technologies have prompted the need for developing fast, accurate and easily automated bioinformatic tools capable of dealing with massive datasets. Among the most productive applications of NGS technologies is the sequencing of cellular RNA, known as RNA-Seq. Although RNA-Seq provides similar or superior dynamic range than microarrays at similar or lower cost, the lack of standard and user-friendly pipelines is a bottleneck preventing RNA-Seq from becoming the standard for transcriptome analysis. Results: In this work we present a pipeline for processing and analyzing RNA-Seq data, that we have named Grape (Grape RNA-Seq Analysis Pipeline Environment). Grape supports raw sequencing reads produced by a variety of technologies, either in FASTA or FASTQ format, or as prealigned reads in SAM/BAM format. A minimal Grape configuration consists of the file location of the raw sequencing reads, the genome of the species and the corresponding gene and transcript annotation. Grape first runs a set of quality control steps, and then aligns the reads to the genome, a step that is omitted for prealigned read formats. Grape next estimates gene and transcript expression levels, calculates exon inclusion levels and identifies novel transcripts. Grape can be run on a single computer or in parallel on a computer cluster. It is distributed with specific mapping and quantification tools, but given its modular design, any tool supporting popular data interchange formats can be integrated. Availability: Grape can be obtained from the Bioinformatics and Genomics website at: http://big.crg.cat/services/grape. Contact: david.gonzalez@crg.eu or roderic.guigo@crg.eu

Knowles, David G.; Roder, Maik; Merkel, Angelika; Guigo, Roderic

2013-01-01

340

Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, (more) or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

Vicentini, R.; Menossi, M.

2007-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Pipeline bottoming cycle study. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical and economic feasibility of applying bottoming cycles to the prime movers that drive the compressors of natural gas pipelines was studied. These bottoming cycles convert some of the waste heat from the exhaust gas of the prime movers into shaft power and conserve gas. Three typical compressor station sites were selected, each on a different pipeline. Although the prime movers were different, they were similar enough in exhaust gas flow rate and temperature that a single bottoming cycle system could be designed, with some modifications, for all three sites. Preliminary design included selection of the bottoming cycle working fluid, optimization of the cycle, and design of the components, such as turbine, vapor generator and condensers. Installation drawings were made and hardware and installation costs were estimated. The results of the economic assessment of retrofitting bottoming cycle systems on the three selected sites indicated that profitability was strongly dependent upon the site-specific installation costs, how the energy was used and the yearly utilization of the apparatus. The study indicated that the bottoming cycles are a competitive investment alternative for certain applications for the pipeline industry. Bottoming cycles are technically feasible. It was concluded that proper design and operating practices would reduce the environmental and safety hazards to acceptable levels. The amount of gas that could be saved through the year 2000 by the adoption of bottoming cycles for two different supply projections was estimated as from 0.296 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a low supply projection to 0.734 trillion ft/sup 3/ for a high supply projection. The potential market for bottoming cycle equipment for the two supply projections varied from 170 to 500 units of varying size. Finally, a demonstration program plan was developed.

1980-06-01

342

Pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The pipeline for macro- and microarray analyses (PMmA) is a set of scripts with a web interface developed to analyze DNA array data generated by array image quantification software. PMmA is designed for use with single- or double-color array data and to work as a pipeline in five classes (data format, normalization, data analysis, clustering, and array maps). It can also be used as a plugin in the BioArray Software Environment, an open-source database for array analysis, or used in a local version of the web service. All scripts in PMmA were developed in the PERL programming language and statistical analysis functions were implemented in the R statistical language. Consequently, our package is a platform-independent software. Our algorithms can correctly select almost 90% of the differentially expressed genes, showing a superior performance compared to other methods of analysis. The pipeline software has been applied to 1536 expressed sequence tags macroarray public data of sugarcane exposed to cold for 3 to 48 h. PMmA identified thirty cold-responsive genes previously unidentified in this public dataset. Fourteen genes were up-regulated, two had a variable expression and the other fourteen were down-regulated in the treatments. These new findings certainly were a consequence of using a superior statistical analysis approach, since the original study did not take into account the dependence of data variability on the average signal intensity of each gene. The web interface, supplementary information, and the package source code are available, free, to non-commercial users at http://ipe.cbmeg.unicamp.br/pub/PMmA.

R. Vicentini; M. Menossi

2007-01-01

343

Grape RNA-Seq analysis pipeline environment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

MOTIVATION: The avalanche of data arriving since the development of NGS technologies have prompted the need for developing fast, accurate and easily automated bioinformatic tools capable of dealing with massive datasets. Among the most productive applications of NGS technologies is the sequencing of cellular RNA, known as RNA-Seq. Although RNA-Seq provides similar or superior dynamic range than microarrays at similar or lower cost, the lack of standard and user-friendly pipelines is a bottleneck preventing RNA-Seq from becoming the standard for transcriptome analysis. RESULTS: In this work we present a pipeline for processing and analyzing RNA-Seq data, that we have named Grape (Grape RNA-Seq Analysis Pipeline Environment). Grape supports raw sequencing reads produced by a variety of technologies, either in FASTA or FASTQ format, or as prealigned reads in SAM/BAM format. A minimal Grape configuration consists of the file location of the raw sequencing reads, the genome of the species and the corresponding gene and transcript annotation. Grape first runs a set of quality control steps, and then aligns the reads to the genome, a step that is omitted for prealigned read formats. Grape next estimates gene and transcript expression levels, calculates exon inclusion levels and identifies novel transcripts. Grape can be run on a single computer or in parallel on a computer cluster. It is distributed with specific mapping and quantification tools, but given its modular design, any tool supporting popular data interchange formats can be integrated. AVAILABILITY: Grape can be obtained from the Bioinformatics and Genomics website at: http://big.crg.cat/services/grape.

Knowles DG; Röder M; Merkel A; Guigó R

2013-03-01

344

The Alaskan gas pipeline conflict  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new conflict analysis technique is employed to study the dispute surrounding the selection of a natural gas pipeline route to transport gas from the American state of Alaska and also northern Canada to southern markets in the United States and Canada. The improved metagame analysis algorithm is the type of conflict analysis method that is used for providing a framework to study systematically the Alaskan gas pipeline controversy and to put the historical information into proper perspective. In addition, the methodology is utilized for predicting the possible feasible political solutions to the conflict.

Savich, P.; Fraser, N.M.; Hippel, K.W.

1983-03-01

345

Abandoning uranium mining in Germany. Rehabilitation of the Wismut site  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the unification of Germany in 1989, the Government decided to abandon uranium mining in two lands of the former Eastern Germany, in Saxonia and Thuringia. The closing of the mines and the reclamation and rehabilitation of the site cost more than 10 billion USD. The rehabilitation of the Wismut site is described in detail. (R.P.)

1999-01-01

346

THE SCENIC VALUE OF ABANDONED MINING AREAS IN POLAND  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abandoned Polish mining areas are commonly heavily transformed so that they endanger no longer the environment. A disadvantage is that the newly created areas commonly contribute to the monotonous urban-industrial landscape, rather than providing additional value. This is partly due to legislation that hampers a more diversified management of abandoned mining areas as potentially valuable landforms. One of the legal barriers that restricts the possibilities of making these areas more attractive, regards the utilization of remaining exploitation holes (i.e. land depressions of at least 2 m deep, formed as a result of open-pit mining of energy, chemical, building or metallurgical resources) and waste heaps as important cultural and scenic elements. Such a new use of these old mininginduced phenomena is important if it is intended not only to involve the regional population in the process of exploring and exploiting the earth’s resources, but also to confront them with some negative consequences of these activities, including shaping the landscape in which these objects are situated. The current attitude towards a new architecture for abandoned mining areas should be reconsidered; particularly the present-day approach based on narrow specializations – for instance of experts in mineral exploitation, spatial planning or environmental protection – should be replaced by interdisciplinary action regarding shaping the landscape of abandoned mining areas.

URSZULA MYGA-PI?TEK; JERZY NITA

2008-01-01

347

Soil food web structure during ecosystem development after land abandonment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The re-establishment of natural species rich heathlands on abandoned agricultural land is a common land use change in North-West Europe. However, it can take several decades to re-establish natural species rich heathland vegetation. The development rate has found to depend both on soil food web comp...

Holtkamp, R.; Kardol, P.; Wal, A., van der; Dekker, S.C.; Putten, W.H., van der; Ruiter, P.C., de

348

Should the US abandon efforts to develop commercial fusion power  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article presents viewpoints and rationale for continuing and disbanding the US efforts to develop commercial fusion power. The views of W.D. Kay, an assistant professor of political science at Northeastern University, are presented regarding - yes, abandon efforts. Meanwhile, the views of Edwin Keutes, former director of the Magnetic Fusion Program for DOE, are presented for continued development.

Kay, W.D.; Kinter, E.E.

1993-01-22

349

Impact of International Coffee Agreement abandonment on Indonesian coffee prices.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

International Coffee Agreement (ICA) impact on prices, premiums, and discounts for coffee grades are determined. Data for 967 transactions from 1987 to 1991 are used to estimate a hedonic price model. ICA abandonment reduced prices received and reduces the premiums paid for wet-processed high quality Robusta coffee.

Tilley DS; Indahsari GK

1996-04-01

350

Psychoanalysis and the Brain – Why Did Freud Abandon Neuroscience?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, was initially a neuroscientist but abandoned neuroscience completely after he made a last attempt to link both in his writing, “Project of a Scientific Psychology,” in 1895. The reasons for his subsequent disregard of the brain remain unclear though. I h...

Northoff, Georg

351

The Bison pipeline project : Public disclosure document  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A public disclosure document was published by Bison Pipeline Limited concerning its plans for an 800 million dollar, 516-kilometre long pipeline for the transportation of bitumen to the Edmonton area from the Athabasca oil sands. The plans call for the pipeline to accommodate bitumen from a number of different shippers. Bison Pipeline Limited (Bison Pipeline) is a wholly owned subsidiary of BC Gas Inc. The expertise required for the design, construction and operation of the pipeline system will be provided by Trans Mountain Pipe Line Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of BC Gas Incorporated. Potential shippers, such as TrueNorth Energy and Petro-Canada have joined in engineering and technical studies. A single insulated pipeline is the preferred option. Another option that could be considered is a more conventional dual pipeline system carrying diluent and diluted bitumen. The submission to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board will contain the alternative that best meets the needs of the customers and various stakeholders. The preferred design (insulated pipeline) represents the focus of the public disclosure document, and Bison Pipeline has indicated that it is ready to discuss both designs during the stakeholder consultation process. Background information was provided in the first section of the document, followed by a brief overview of Bison Pipeline. The system characteristics were listed and the pipeline route identified. The design characteristics were provided, as well as the project timeline. Contact information was provided at the end of the document. 1 tab., 5 figs.

NONE

2002-01-01

352

A model to predict the characteristics of fires following the rupture of natural gas transmission pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The gas industry has an excellent safety record in operating high pressure transmission pipelines. Nevertheless, it is important that pipeline operators have an understanding of the possible consequences of an accidental gas release, which may ignite, in order to help manage the risks involved and to develop appropriate standards and design codes for pipeline operations. The most serious type of hypothetical incident that could affect a high pressure gas transmission pipeline, involves a full pipe rupture. This paper describes the extension and validation of a physically-based phenomenological model of jet fires for predicting the size and position of the fires resulting from underground gas pipeline ruptures and to predict thermal radiation levels around such fires. The application of the complete model to underground pipeline ruptures has been made possible by the development of a crater source sub-model which provides suitable input parameters to the fire structure calculation. Predictions of the complete model have been compared with the results from two full-scale pipeline rupture tests, which has demonstrated the performance of the model for a range of realistic scenarios. The work was undertaken by an international collaboration of gas companies, as part of a programme of research to obtain information on the consequences of accidental gas releases from transmission pipelines. (author)

Cleaver, R.P.; Cumber, P.S. [Advantica Technologies Ltd., Loughborough (United Kingdom); Genillon, P. [Gaz de France, Saint-Denis la Plaine (France)

2001-01-01

353

Analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines; Analise de integridade e risco para dutos onshore  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The increasing expansion of the oil and gas industry in Brazil, the current legal requirements relating to security, health and environment in the industrial installations, is necessary that the companies, responsible by the operation of pipelines for oil and gas transport, adopt efficient techniques to assure the operational continuity of these of trustworthy form and insurance. To fulfill this important function it is important that the companies implement a management program to control and register the integrity of the pipelines during the all operational life cycle. Inside of this context of management of the integrity of pipelines, the DNV developed the software ORBIT Pipeline with the intention to serve as an important tool to monitor the technique and security condition of the pipeline, to define the frequency and content technician of the inspection program and to recommend the work of intervention or repair in pipeline when necessary. Additionally to these activities that are carried through directly in the ORBIT Pipeline, also an evaluation of the activity of third part and the land/soil movement is made inside of the systematic for analysis of integrity and risk for onshore pipelines performed by DNV. (author)

Lima, Marco Aurelio [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2008-07-01

354

78 FR 14414 - The Alabama Great Southern Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gadsden, Etowah County, Ala...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gadsden, Etowah County, Ala.; Tennessee, Alabama, and Georgia Railway Company--Abandonment...miles of interconnected rail line in Gadsden, Etowah County, Ala. Specifically, AGS proposes to: (1) Abandon 3.10...

2013-03-05

355

Fiscal year 1993 well plugging and abandonment program, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from December 1992 through August 20, 1993. A total of 70 wells and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the US Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

1993-09-01

356

Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition can only occur when the interface temperature is below WAT, the temperature distribution is a necessary information which is obtained by the energy equation. The one-dimensional, transient and laminar flow governing equations are discretized based on the finite volume method, with the upwind scheme to treat the convection term. A totally implicit procedure was employed to handle the time integration term. The set of algebraic equations were solved by the TDMA line by line algorithm. The thickness of the deposited layer is a function of the axial coordinate and presents a monotonic increase at several time instants which is in reasonable agreement whit previous results. (author)

Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

2010-07-01

357

The Alaska Highway Pipeline project  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As natural gas is becoming the fuel of choice for new electric generation capacity, the demand is increasing rapidly and supply from traditional producing basins is not keeping up. There is a need to connect new sources of gas to the North American grid. Foothills Pipelines Ltd. believe that the gas reserves at Prudhoe Bay and in the Mackenzie Delta will be sent to market at different times via different pipelines. It is also believed that the Alaska Highway Project will be constructed for many valid reasons. Gas development is much more advanced in Alaska than in northern Canada and in addition, the project has already been approved and half of the right-of-way has been acquired. The Alaska Highway pipeline has the support of Alaska and it will follow an existing transportation corridor and will therefore have fewer environmental issues. The Alaskan North Slope has proven reserves of 30-35 Tcf and a production of about 8 Bcfd. During the course of this project, Foothills Pipelines Ltd. will address timing issues, commercial issues, needs of the First nations people as well as the needs of Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. 11 figs.

2000-01-01

358

Pipeline gathering system operations model  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A computer model to aid in the analysis of pipeline gathering system operations has been developed. The model simulates the actual daily operation of the gathering system, on a task by task basis, taking into account terrain, climate, and facility breakdowns. The model can be used to project operating requirements for new systems or analyze problems in existing systems. 9 refs.

Ryan, M.E.

1980-01-01

359

Pipeline design codes compared graphically  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The safety levels implied by the criteria for the major design codes governing offshore pipeline and riser construction are compared. This article focuses on graphic comparisons to provide insights into the relative safety levels implied by the codes' criteria. These comparisons center on an examination of the theoretical basis for each design code.

Stephens, D.R.; McConnell, D.P.

1985-07-29

360

Belovo-Novosibirsk Coal Slurry Pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 259 km pilot-industrial coal slurry pipeline is being designed and planned for operation in 1985 between Belovo and Novosibirsk, USSR. Slurry preparation, pipeline design, pump station configuration, and starting and stopping procedures are proposed and presented for successful operation of coal slurry pipelines over long distances. A smaller pipeline section of 300 m is planned for operation in 1983 at the Belovo ''Inskaya'' mine to test pump station operating regimes, rheological characteristics of slurry from different coal trademarks, and pipeline operations under both summer and winter conditions. 2 figures.

Jvarsheishvili, A.G.; Tevzadze, T.Sh.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Review of pipeline integrity management practices  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipeline integrity is the cornerstone of many industrial and engineering systems. This paper provides a review and analysis of all aspects related to pipeline integrity. Pipeline threats are explained and failures are classified. Design practices are discussed using pressure criteria. Inspection techniques are studied and used as a basis for describing the corresponding integrity assessment techniques, which are linked with integrity monitoring and maintenance criteria. Finally, pipeline integrity management system design is presented using activity models, process models, and knowledge structures. The paper will be useful for further development of automated tools to support pipeline integrity management.

Kishawy, Hossam A. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa ON L1H 7K4 ON (Canada); Gabbar, Hossam A., E-mail: hossam.gabbar@uoit.c [Faculty of Energy Systems and Nuclear Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe St. N., Oshawa ON L1H 7K4 ON (Canada)

2010-07-15

362

Pipeline planning and construction field manual  

CERN Document Server

The objective of this book is to provide engineers with the necessary tools and techniques for formulating plans, designs, cost estimates and specifications for pipeline construction and field maintenance and modernization programs. Packed with easy to read and understand tables, pipeline schematics, bullet lists and ""what to do next"" checklists. This easy to use book covers the design, construction, and operation of onshore pipeline systems. The incorporate construction methods, commissioning, pressure testing, and start up into the design of a pipeline system. The focus is on pipeline r

Menon, E Shashi

1978-01-01

363

Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems When facing persistent balance of payments problems, some countries have resorted to a dual exchange rate system as an alternative to a uniform exchange rate adjustment. Typically, under the dual system, certain selected transactions take place at a fixed official exchange rate, while there remaining transactions are effected at a more depreciated rate, which is usually determined by market forces. This paper examines the circumstances that lead to the adoption of a dual system, and the conditions under which the foreign exchange market can be unified successfully or a later stage. In this paper, the adoption of the dual system is linked to the unsustainability of a crawling peg (or a fixed exchange rate) system in the presence of large budgret deficits. We show that the initiai spiral between the financial at the commercial exchange rates and the extent of capital flight largely depends on whether the switch in regime is anticipated or unanticipated. Although the dual system improves the external position of the economy, to the extent that there is no change in domestic noticies the country will continue to experience a deficit in the balance of payments. A correction of these policies is the only enduring solution to the external imbalance, and a precondition for a successful unification of the foreirg exchange market. If the economv unifies the foreign exchange market into a crawling peg, the financial exchahnge rate could be an adequate indicator of the initlal level of which the new exchange rate should be set if a capital outflow is to be avoided. If the economy instead moves to a flexible exchange rate system, the initial value of the exchange rate could be higher or lower than the prevailing financial exchange rate.

Miguel Kiguel; Jose Saul Lizondo

1990-01-01

364

Quantitative risk analysis preoperational of gas pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this analysis is to predict how it can be affected the individual risk and the public's general security due to the operation of a gas pipeline. In case that the single or social risks are considered intolerable, compared with the international standards, to be recommended measures of mitigation of the risk associated to the operation until levels that can be considered compatible with the best practices in the industry. The quantitative risk analysis calculates the probability of occurrence of an event based on the frequency of occurrence of the same one and it requires a complex mathematical treatment. The present work has as objective to develop a calculation methodology based on the previously mentioned publication. This calculation methodology is centered in defining the frequencies of occurrence of events, according to representative database of each case in study. Besides, it settles down the consequences particularly according to the considerations of each area and the different possibilities of interferences with the gas pipeline in study. For each one of the interferences a typical curve of ignition probabilities is developed in function from the distance to the pipe. (author)

Manfredi, Carlos; Bispo, Gustavo G.; Esteves, Alvaro [Gie S.A., Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2009-07-01

365

Computing the Pipelined Phase-Rotation FFT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phase-rotation FFT is a new form of the FFT that replaces data movement with multiplications byconstant phasor multipliers. The result is an FFT that is simple to pipeline. This paper reports somefundamental new improvements to the original phase-rotation FFT design, provides a complete descriptionof the algorithm directly in terms of the parallel pipeline, and describes a radix-2 implementation on theiWarp computer system that balances computation and communication to run at the full-bandwidth of thecommunications links, regardless of the input data set size.Supported in part by the Advanced Research Projects Agency, Information Science and Technology Office, under the title"Research on Parallel Computing," ARPA Order No. 7330. Work furnished in connection with this research is provided underprime contract MDA972--90--C--0035 issued by ARPA/CMO to Carnegie Mellon University, and in part by the Air Force Office ofScientific Research under Contract F49620--92--J--0131. Also...

David R. O'hallaron; Langhorne P. Withers; John E. Whelchel; Peter J. Lieu

366

THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report represents the thirteenth Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this semi annual reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township's Jacobs Road Compost Storage Facility, construction was completed during this reporting period and surface monitoring began. Surface monitoring was conducted periodically at the Mt. Hope Road subsidence work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort.

Gary Gartenberg

2003-12-01

367

Oil pipeline valve automation for spill reduction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Liquid pipeline codes generally stipulate placement of block valves along liquid transmission pipelines such as on each side of major river crossings where environmental hazards could cause or are foreseen to potentially cause serious consequences. Codes, however, do not stipulate any requirement for block valve spacing for low vapour pressure petroleum transportation, nor for remote pipeline valve operations to reduce spills. A review of pipeline codes for valve requirement and spill limitation in high consequence areas is thus presented along with a criteria for an acceptable spill volume that could be caused by pipeline leak/full rupture. A technique for deciding economically and technically effective pipeline block valve automation for remote operation to reduce oil spilled and control of hazards is also provided. In this review, industry practice is highlighted and application of the criteria for maximum permissible oil spill and the technique for deciding valve automation thus developed, as applied to ORSUB pipeline is presented. ORSUB is one of the three initially selected pipelines that have been studied. These pipelines represent about 14% of the total length of petroleum transmission lines operated by PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO) in Brazil. Based on the implementation of valve motorization on these three pipeline, motorization of block valves for remote operation on the remaining pipelines is intended, depending on the success of these implementations, on historical records of failure and appropriate ranking. (author)

Mohitpour, Mo; Trefanenko, Bill [Enbridge Technology Inc, Calgary (Canada); Tolmasquim, Sueli Tiomno; Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2003-07-01

368

Customer service drives pipelines' reorganization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate's net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG's income, it was vital that the merger of Northern's 950 employees with Transwestern's 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

1997-01-01

369

Customer service drives pipelines` reorganization  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concept behind formation of Enron Transportation and Storage tells plenty about this new gas industry. When executives at the Enron Gas Pipeline Group considered plans last year to streamline operations by merging the support functions of Transwestern Pipeline and their other wholly owned pipeline company, Northern Natural Gas, seamless customer service was foremost on their agenda. Instead of worrying about whether employees would favor one pipeline over the other, perhaps to the detriment of customers, they simply created a new organization that everyone would swear the same allegiance to. The 17,000-mile, 4.1 Bcf/d Northern system serves the upper Midwest market and two major expansion projects were completed there last year. Transwestern is a 2,700-mile system with an eastward capacity of 1 Bcf/d and westward of 1.5 Bcf/, that traditionally served California markets. It also ties into Texas intrastate markets and, thanks to expansion of the San Juan lateral, to southern Rocky Mountain supplies. Although Enron Corp. continues to position itself as a full-service energy company, the Gas Pipeline Group continues to fuel much of corporate`s net income, which was $584 million last year. With ET and S comprising a significant portion of GPG`s income, it was vital that the merger of Northern`s 950 employees with Transwestern`s 250 indeed be a seamless one. It was not easy either psychologically or geographically with main offices in Omaha, NE and Houston as well as operations centers in Minneapolis, MN; Amarillo, TX; W. Des Moines, IA; and Albuquerque, NM. But the results have been gratifying, according to William R. Cordes, President of ET and S and Nancy L. Gardner, Executive Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

Share, J.

1997-06-01

370

Designing pipelines in karst (sink) regions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the cost vs. performance tradeoffs for establishing safety factors for pipelines built in regions where local settling of soil can occur (karst, or sink, regions), Russian scientists calculated the probability of localized buckling of the pipeline as a function of the diameter of the sink region, found a critical value for the probability, and used that critical value, together with a safety factor, to optimize the design of the pipeline route with an equation that could account for both the cost and engineering parameters. Suggestions for minimizing the probability of pipeline buckling in a sink region include reducing the soil adhesion to the pipeline, reinforcing the pipeline, and strengthening the suspension of the pipeline.

Karpov, E.G.

1981-04-01

371

Sustainability and strategies for ‘rebuilding’ abandoned territories  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study concerns the L’Aquila territory, at a particular point in time (post earthquake), when past and present vulnerabilities call for structural interventions that will ensure powerful and lasting recovery. This article focuses on one particular aspect of the overall work we are carrying out: the identification of appropriate sustainable development materials and technologies for testing in situ. Briefly, and for contextual purposes, we set out the cultural and scientific reference points (familiarity with territorial sustainability levels for appropriate and informed choices) that underpin the research statement; we outline the parallel survey topics that complete the strategic territorial development framework, for a better understanding of the subject. In particular, we refer to actions for promoting a different sort of residentiality underpinned by sustainable mobility, and access to services, new job opportunities in eco-industrial clusters for sustainable building and further opportunities stemming from the integration of the agricultural, energy and tourist sectors.

Maria Cristina Forlani; Donatella Radogna

2011-01-01

372

Prediction of scour below submerged pipeline crossing a river using ANN.  

Science.gov (United States)

The process involved in the local scour below pipelines is so complex that it makes it difficult to establish a general empirical model to provide accurate estimation for scour. This paper describes the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate the pipeline scour depth. The data sets of laboratory measurements were collected from published works and used to train the network or evolve the program. The developed networks were validated by using the observations that were not involved in training. The performance of ANN was found to be more effective when compared with the results of regression equations in predicting the scour depth around pipelines. PMID:21977642

Azamathulla, H M; Zakaria, Nor Azazi

2011-01-01

373

Prediction of scour below submerged pipeline crossing a river using ANN.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The process involved in the local scour below pipelines is so complex that it makes it difficult to establish a general empirical model to provide accurate estimation for scour. This paper describes the use of artificial neural networks (ANN) to estimate the pipeline scour depth. The data sets of laboratory measurements were collected from published works and used to train the network or evolve the program. The developed networks were validated by using the observations that were not involved in training. The performance of ANN was found to be more effective when compared with the results of regression equations in predicting the scour depth around pipelines.

Azamathulla HM; Zakaria NA

2011-01-01

374

External pipeline coating selection for new and existing buried pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of existing and new pipelines are externally coated. The opportunity to examine buried pipelines has shown that selection of both shop and over-the-ditch field applied coatings has resulted in many failures. Coating selection in 19896 has become more complex because of the abundance of available products. Not only are there many available coating types but there are also competitive products within each category. The safe approach is to select a coating that will perform well under the most severe conditions but this approach can be very costly and often a lesser coating is selected with the realization that it affects the risk of failure. This paper addresses the criteria that need to be considered during coating selection and provides an outline for the decision making process. Examples are used to illustrate the effect of different factors on coating performance.

Brown, M.D. [Charter Coating Service Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

375

Making pipelines safer : pipeline software gives operators more complete picture  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This article describes software to improve upon paper-based systems of managing pipelines. The software, marketed as PipeCraft, was developed by GreenPipe Industries Inc. PipeCraft is a set of integrated tools for the design, operation, and maintenance of pipelines as well as for the creation of mandatory safety and environmental documents. Its originators claim it is the only available software that takes an integrated view of underground infrastructure and deals with all aspects of it. PipeCraft comes with on line help, help desk support, and software upgrades. Data can be shared across the Internet, a company intranet, local area networks (LANS), or wide area networks (WANS). The latest release comes with a corrosion model. Optionally, PipeCraft users can subscribe to Valtus Imagery Services database of aerial photography and download images of the appropriate geographical area for use with PipeCraft. 1 ref., 3 figs.

Harrison, L.

2004-08-01

376

Russia: the pipeline diplomacy; Russie: la diplomatie du pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

First world producer of oil and gas, Russia wishes to use its mastery of energy distribution to recover its great power status. The oil and gas pipelines network is the basement used by Russia to build up its hegemony in Europe. The Russian oil and gas companies are also carrying out a long-term strategy of international expansion, in particular thanks to investments in the neighboring countries for the building of new infrastructures or the purchase of oil refineries. (J.S.)

Bourdillon, Y

2005-01-15

377

Abandonment of the production wells and protection the environment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A well for oil and gas production and the deposit of oil and gas form one hydrodynamic system. From the point of view of filtration process, the well is, in comparison with the permeable layer of the deposit, a flow path with the lowest filtration resistance. This also causes the movement of liquids into the well if migration has already been induced in the deposit. This process takes place (without any external actions) until the pressure conditions are balanced. The classical ? common abandonment of the production well is performed by plugging the total length (or selected intervals) with cement mixtures and by closing with a concrete slab at the depth of about 1.5 m below the ground surface. However, it is expected that the energy of the deposits has been totally or almost totally exhausted and the pressure in the deposit has been lowered to the level enabling the safe, economically reasonable and ecological abandonment.

Bujok Petr; Herman Zdzislaw; Mazáè Josef

2004-01-01

378

A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

Jakub Bo?ydar Wi?niewski

2010-01-01

379

Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia.

Hetem RS; Mitchell D; de Witt BA; Fick LG; Meyer LC; Maloney SK; Fuller A

2013-10-01

380

Cheetah do not abandon hunts because they overheat.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hunting cheetah reportedly store metabolic heat during the chase and abandon chases because they overheat. Using biologging to remotely measure the body temperature (every minute) and locomotor activity (every 5 min) of four free-living cheetah, hunting spontaneously, we found that cheetah abandoned hunts, but not because they overheated. Body temperature averaged 38.4°C when the chase was terminated. Storage of metabolic heat did not compromise hunts. The increase in body temperature following a successful hunt was double that of an unsuccessful hunt (1.3°C ± 0.2°C versus 0.5°C ± 0.1°C), even though the level of activity during the hunts was similar. We propose that the increase in body temperature following a successful hunt is a stress hyperthermia, rather than an exercise-induced hyperthermia. PMID:23883578

Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; de Witt, Brenda A; Fick, Linda G; Meyer, Leith C R; Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea

2013-07-24

 
 
 
 
381

Project Rulison: well plugging and site abandonment. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This document is designed to be used in conjunction with NVO 174 (Rev. 1), the Project Rulison Well Plugging and Site Abandonment Plan, August 1976. NVO 174 (Rev. 1) describes in detail the methods and procedures that were to be used in implementing a plugging and abandonment procedure for the Rulison wells and site. This final report compares the planned actions with the actual disposition of the various tasks and operations. Those activities which departed substantially from the original plan of operation are described along with the operations that occurred as planned. The disposal of all radiological materials is discussed comprehensively in the Rulison Radiation Contamination Clearance Report PNE-R-68 dated June 1977 by the Eberline Instrument Corporation

1977-01-01

382

The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

1981-01-01

383

[Weaving the web of abandonment: beyond the perceptions of mothers of preterm infants].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The scope of this study was to analyze the events involved in preterm infant abandonment by their mothers. A qualitative study was carried out with 12 mothers of preterm infants interned in the NICU of the Federal University of Maranhão - Brazil. The techniques were semi-structured interviews and a focus group performed during internment and in follow-up in the outpatient unit. The sample was defined according to saturation criteria. Content analysis was utilized by thematic scrutiny. The results showed several modes of abandonment in the mothers' life history: abandonment by relatives, social abandonment, and abandonment by the partner. Abandonment by the family was seen in childhood and adolescence as well as in pregnancy, and during infant internment. Another point was the perception of caring as a maternal duty leading to the building of the ideal model that a good mother is loving and does not abandon her offspring. Family, social, and health professional support networks can contribute to maternal empowerment that leads to refraining from abandonment. It was concluded that an abandoned mother might in turn become an abandoning mother, and that, support networks providing attention and protection may turn the history of the abandonment cycle around.

Fernandes RT; Lamy ZC; Morsch D; Lamy Filho F; Coelho LF

2011-10-01

384

Setting priorities for abandoned-mine land research. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In FY 1987, Congress transferred the abandoned mine land (AML) research program and $1.9 million in funding from the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) to the Bureau of Mines (BOM). Subsequently the BOM asked National Research Council (NRC) to recommend research priorities and criteria for evaluating AML reclamation research proposals. The committee identified the highest-priority research problems which are: water quality; subsidence; mine waste; and revegetation, are ranked as the top four research priorities in all regions.

1987-01-01

385

Corridors of power : technology influences heavy oil pipeline construction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Advances in heavy oil transportation technology and their benefits to the petroleum industry were discussed. Interprovincial Pipe Line Inc., (IPL) uses two in-line heaters on its heavy oil pipelines at Edmonton and Hardisty to lower viscosity. The heaters are normally installed in hot, dry climates, but they can also work well in cold weather applications. The heaters warm-up the crude to reduce its viscosity and to increase pipeline capacity. The use of the heaters is restricted for two reasons: (1) environmental damage caused by the effects of heat on surrounding soils and vegetation, and (2) heat loss suffered by pipelines that can not be properly re-insulated. IPL is also developing the use of Drag Reducing Agents (DRA) to increase heavy oil flow rates. DRA is a long-chained polymer that reduces friction of crude against the pipeline wall to increase capacity. It is not yet economical for system-wide application. Ultimately, it would be desirable to have a technology that could eliminate completely the use of diluent to transport heavy oil. It was noted that with time and effort, this ideal should be achievable. 3 figs.

Ni, E.

1998-09-01

386

Visual pipeline tracking for an autonomous underwater vehicle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vision system for our Prototype Intelligent Submarine for Cableless Inspection and Surveying (PISCIS) project is described. This is a proposed project for the use of a cableless autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) for inspection of pipelines. The current work is concentrated on building a vehicle, a high level control system, and a low cost vision system for pipeline tracking. The vision system is dependent on input from position and heading sensors for pipeline recognition. Robust image interpretation is important because humans can not interact with the system and correct errors. Reliable image segmentation is the crucial stage towards achieving robustness. This is harder to achieve in the underwater environment than in a structured industrial environment, or even in a land based autonomous system. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt at using vision for autonomous underwater pipeline tracking. The details of the vision system is given with an emphasis on image segmentation. A brief overview of the background of the project is given. 12 refs., 5 figs.

Hallset, J.O.

1991-04-01

387

Target reliability levels for pipeline limit states design  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The limit states design appendix currently being developed for inclusion in the Canadian Standards Association pipeline design code, Z662, Oil and Gas Pipeline Systems contains preliminary partial safety factors that were selected on the basis that they result in designs similar to those produced using the existing working stress design standards. This paper suggests an approach for selecting partial factors for limit states design of pipelines based on formal reliability analysis. Such an approach recognizes that consistent safety levels can be achieved for different pipeline sections by varying the target reliability as a function of the severity of failure consequences, where consequences are measured in terms of public safety, economic costs, and damage to the environment. Where the consequences of failure are more severe, higher reliability is required. Where the consequences are less severe, lower reliability can be tolerated, with the same risk level being achieved. This paper reviews the limit states design method and discusses the selection of target reliability levels and the reliability analysis procedures used to calibrate partial design factors.

Zimmerman, T.J.E.; Chen, Q.; Pandey, M.D. [Centre for Engineering Research Inc., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

388

Haltenpipe and Troll oil pipeline, technology at the forefront  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Offshore pipeline technology coprises a spectrum of technologies within seabed mapping, design, materials, construction, inspection and maintenance. This paper deals with some of the recent developments, characterised by achievements within two specific projects on the Norwegian continental shelf. These developments concern the Troll oil pipeline and the Haltenbank projects. These are the use of advanced subsea mapping and position technology, hydraulic flow modelling simulating unique flow conditions inside a deep and narrow fjord, control of multiple free span behaviour by use of advanced design methology, use of strain based criteria to reduce large scale seabed correction works, high precision pipeline installation in deep weater involving guided laying to ensure the correct position of the pipeline across pre-installed gravel burns and at lateral counteracts, and a midline tie-in concept comprising an above-water welded tie-in of a prefabricated bend section and on bottom installation of hydraulic operated mechanical connectors specially developed for diverless repair contingency in deep waters. 10 figs.

Blaker, F. [Statoil, Stavenger (Norway)

1996-12-31

389

Capsule injection system for a hydraulic capsule pipelining system  

Science.gov (United States)

An injection system for injecting capsules into a hydraulic capsule pipelining system, the pipelining system comprising a pipeline adapted for flow of a carrier liquid therethrough, and capsules adapted to be transported through the pipeline by the carrier liquid flowing through the pipeline. The injection system comprises a reservoir of carrier liquid, the pipeline extending within the reservoir and extending downstream out of the reservoir, and a magazine in the reservoir for holding capsules in a series, one above another, for injection into the pipeline in the reservoir. The magazine has a lower end in communication with the pipeline in the reservoir for delivery of capsules from the magazine into the pipeline.

Liu, Henry (Columbia, MO)

1982-01-01

390

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

2011-01-01

391

Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais

2011-07-01

392

Bolivian gas-pipeline: the start-up; Gasoduto boliviano: foi dada a largada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

After 40 years of negotiations between Brazil and Bolivia, the construction of the Brazil-Bolivia gas pipeline was finally started. Up to 2003, PETROBRAS (The Brazilian holding petroleum company - State owned and controlled) will probably buy over than 12 million cubic meters per day of imported gas which will be transported to Brazil through the above mentioned pipeline. This work discusses the above mentioned issues 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Siqueira, Claudia

1997-08-01

393

Analytic prognostic for petrochemical pipelines  

CERN Document Server

Pipelines tubes are part of vital mechanical systems largely used in petrochemical industries. They serve to transport natural gases or liquids. They are cylindrical tubes and are submitted to the risks of corrosion due to high PH concentrations of the transported liquids in addition to fatigue cracks due to the alternation of pressure-depression of gas along the time, initiating therefore in the tubes body micro-cracks that can propagate abruptly to lead to failure. The development of the prognostic process for such systems increases largely their performance and their availability, as well decreases the global cost of their missions. Therefore, this paper deals with a new prognostic approach to improve the performance of these pipelines. Only the first mode of crack, that is, the opening mode, is considered.

Jaoude, Abdo Abou; El-Tawil, Khaled; Noura, Hassan; Ouladsine, Mustapha

2012-01-01

394

Designing the ideal pipeline coating  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pipelines must be kept from leaking during their Engineered Design Life (EDL). The most effective way to achieve this is by using a corrosion protection system consisting of protective coatings and cathodic protection (CP). The ideal pipeline coating will achieve this objective, with due considerations being given to operating conditions and life expectancy. A sound understanding of the fundamentals of substrate surface chemistry, corrosion theory, coating technology and cathodic protection principles are essential for designing such a coating and its integration with an optimum corrosion control system. This paper will examine some of the important fundamentals and conclusions will be drawn, which should help with the selection of an ideal coating system for different operating and environment conditions.

Pfaff, T.A. [Valspar Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1995-12-31

395

Pipelined Multipliers and FPGA Architectures  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper studies pipelined multiplication techniques for implementation on FPGAs with emphasis on the utilisation of FPGA hardware resource. Performance of multiplier implementations are measured for commercially available FPGA architectures where two inherent issues are introduced and investigated. These being the imbalance of critical interconnect delay between general routing and static carry interconnects, and the amount of FPGA logic area used and its poor utilisation. For each of these issues suggestions are proposed and investigated. 1 Introduction Multiplication on FPGAs is considered an expensive operation. For high throughput multiplier implementations where the result is calculated in a pipelined parallel fashion, large Logic Cell (LC) counts are required. The advent of fast-carry logic has allowed multiplier implementations to achieve sustainable speeds for many DSP operations. However for increasing bit size multiplication operations, high LC counts still prov...

Mathew Wojko

396

Nova Gas's pipeline to Asia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The involvement of the Calgary-based company NOVA Gas International (NGI) in Malaysia's peninsular gas utilization (PGU) project, was described. Phase I and II of the project involved linking onshore gas processing plants with a natural gas transmission system. Phase III of the PGU project was a gas transmission pipeline that began midway up the west coast of peninsular Malaysia to the Malaysia-Thailand border. The complex 549 km pipeline included route selection, survey and soil investigation, archaeological study, environmental impact assessment, land acquisition, meter-station construction, telecommunication systems and office buildings. NGI was the prime contractor on the project through a joint venture with OGP Technical Services, jointly owned by NGI and Petronas, the Thai state oil company. Much of NGI's success was attributed to excellent interpersonal skills, particularly NGI's ability to build confidence and credibility with its Thai partners.

1996-01-01

397

Radon concentrations in abandoned mines, Cumbria, UK: safety implications for industrial archaeologists  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a number of surveys performed in a geographical area of the UK, part of which until recently was considered low radon risk. The Cumbrian region was identified by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) in its 1999 guide as an area without a significant radon problem in the built environment. The geology of the region, which includes the Northern Pennine Orefield is varied, but consists of granites, andesites, tuffs, carbonates, sandstones and shales. Mineralisation has taken place (mostly lead and copper ores) primarily along fault and fracture zones, one example being Copper Valley, northwest of Coniston village. This work quantifies the risk of exposure to radon in a number of abandoned mine environments. High radon levels, up to 28 589 Bq m-3, have been measured in parts of one mine. This study demonstrates that industrial archaeologists (such as the Cumbrian Amenity Trust Mining History Society or CATMHS members) and explorers of abandoned mines can be at risk from radon exposure and it proposes a management scheme to allow industrial archaeologists to continue exploration whilst minimising the risk to health from radon.

Gillmore, G.; Alizadeh Gharib, H.; Denman, A.; Phillips, P.; Bridge, D.

2011-05-01

398

Hydrologic analysis for ecological risk assessment of watersheds with abandoned mine lands  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As part of on-going study of acid mine drainage (AMD), a comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted in the Leading Creek Watershed in southeast Ohio. The watershed is influenced by agriculture and active and abandoned coal-mining operations. This work presents a broad overview of several quantitative measures of hydrology and hydraulic watershed properties available for in risk assessment and evaluates their relation to metrics of ecology. Data analysis included statistical comparisons of metrics of ecology, ecotoxicology, water quality, and physically based parameters describing land use, geomorphology, flow, velocity, and particle size. A multiple regression analysis indicated that abandoned mining operations dominated impacts upon aquatic ecology. It also indicated low flow velocity measurements and a ratio of maximum velocity to average velocity at low flow where helpful in describing variation in macroinvertebrate Total Taxa scores. Other key parameters also identified strong impact relationships with biodiversity trends and included pH, simple knowledge of any mining upstream, calculated % of the subshed covered by strip mines, and the measured depth of streambed sediments from site to site.

Gallagher, D.; Babendreier, J.; Cherry, D.

1999-07-01

399

Time-scale issues in the remediation of pervasively-contaminated groundwaters at abandoned mine sites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Groundwater bodies in abandoned deep mine workings or perched within waste rock heaps or backfill are often pervasively contaminated with ecotoxic metals. Effective remediation of such groundwaters requires the interception and treatment (by passive or active means) of virtually the entire flow of groundwater. Design of remedial interventions has to be based on an adequate conceptualization of time-scale issues concerning the generation and dissipation of metal loadings and acidity. Combined laboratory, field and modelling studies of a number of mined systems are revealing the relative importance of geochemical attenuation and hydraulic flushing processes in determining the temporal evolution of groundwater quality at abandoned mine sites. Of particular importance in the short term is the flushing from the system of the products of the dissolution of hydroxy-sulphate salts, which are taken into solution during flooding of mines or waste rock repositories. In the longer term, the interplay between sources of acidity and alkalinity is seen to be the dominant factor. General lessons that can be drawn from these studies are well illustrated by the early evidence of substantial natural attenuation occurring at Lindsay Colliery, South Wales, which was flooded in 1998-99.

Younger, P.L.; Banwart, S.A.

2002-08-01

400

Radon concentrations in abandoned mines, Cumbria, UK: safety implications for industrial archaeologists  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a number of surveys performed in a geographical area of the UK, part of which until recently was considered low radon risk. The Cumbrian region was identified by the Building Research Establishment (BRE) in its 1999 guide as an area without a significant radon problem in the built environment. The geology of the region, which includes the Northern Pennine Orefield is varied, but consists of granites, andesites, tuffs, carbonates, sandstones and shales. Mineralisation has taken place (mostly lead and copper ores) primarily along fault and fracture zones, one example being Copper Valley, northwest of Coniston village. This work quantifies the risk of exposure to radon in a number of abandoned mine environments. High radon levels, up to 28 589 Bq m?3, have been measured in parts of one mine. This study demonstrates that industrial archaeologists (such as the Cumbrian Amenity Trust Mining History Society or CATMHS members) and explorers of abandoned mines can be at risk from radon exposure and it proposes a management scheme to allow industrial archaeologists to continue exploration whilst minimising the risk to health from radon.

G. Gillmore; H. Alizadeh Gharib; A. Denman; P. Phillips; D. Bridge

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Research and prospect on relationship between microstructure characteristics and strength-toughness of high grade pipeline steel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Each year, high grade pipeline steel is more and more used around the world and researchers are working to improve its physical characteristics. The high strength and toughness characteristics of pipeline steel are closely related to its favourable internal microstructure. This paper summarized the findings of various research into pipeline steel microstructure, including effective grain size, non-metallic inclusions and banded structure. The relationship between the strength and toughness of pipeline steel and its internal microstructure is also analyzed. A solution is proposed for studying the characterization of effective grain size and the micro-mechanical behaviour of inclusions. This work puts forward the application of EBSD technology in research on the grain size of pipeline steel and the need of in situ observation technology in research on inclusions and banded structure.

Ke, Tong; Chuanjing, Zhuang; Xiaodong, He; Xinli, Han; Juan, Song [Tubular goods research center of CNPC, Xi' an (China)

2010-07-01

402

BTC pipeline sparks Kazakh interest  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The recent opening of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline from Azerbaijan to Turkey (see 'The Month in Brief', June 2006) may allow the export of crude oil from Kazakhstan directly to the Mediterranean as well as crude from Azerbaijan. The line has plenty of spare capacity at present and Kazakhstan has indicated it may try and export around 500,000 bpd by that route. (author)

Anon

2006-07-15

403

CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTERNAL INDUCED CORROSION DEGRADATION OF AJAOKUTA-ABUJA GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Characterization of External Induced corrosion degradation of Ajaokuta- Abuja gas pipeline system was successfully carried out. The objective of this work is to analyze the mechanism of corrosion, analyze the effect of the corrosion on oil and gas pipeline and to evaluate the corrosion potential of a pipeline route. These were achieved by carrying out resistivity experiment on every one kilometer on the right of way (ROW) of the pipeline. Soil and water aggressiveness test was also carried out on soil and water sample of the pipeline route respectively. The resistivity result was considerably high, chemical analysis revealed that the soil and wateracidity is between the pH of 6.7 and 8.2 respectively, which is moderately alkaline in nature, which makes the soil environment not conducive for pipelines due to potential for corrosion attack. The chloride content of the soil and water were also high. Based on the experimental results, it was proposed that the pipe should be laid on2-5m below the ground and that the galvanic anode for cathodic protection be located 1m below the ground, in order to avoid corrosion. It is therefore necessary to note that characterization of external corrosion is quite different from internal pipeline corrosion characterization.

ADEDIPE OYEWOLE

2011-01-01

404

Shore approach of Camarupim pipeline  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Camarupim Field is located in the northern portion of Espirito Santo Basin and was discovered from the drilling of the well 1-ESS-164 in 2006. It is a gas field which start of the production is in mid of 2009. The production unit will be a FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) and the gas will flow through a pipeline with diameter ranging from 12 inches and 24 inches with approximately 60 km long, from the FPSO Cidade de Sao Mateus to UTGC (Unit for Treatment of Gas Cacimbas-Linhares-ES). The FPSO will have processing capacity of 10MMm3/day of gas. Due to the approach of the pipeline in the continental portion, located in an environmental protection area and place of spawning of sea turtles, the connection between the stretch of sea and land pipeline running through a shore approach, known and proven technique of horizontal directional drilling about 950m in length. This paper will be shown the assumptions adopted, the technique employed, the challenges faced by the team and the lessons learned to build the directional hole. (author)