WorldWideScience

Sample records for abandoned wells

  1. Abandoning wells working group

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  2. How to find abandoned oil and gas wells

    Johnston, K.H.; Carroll, H.B.; Heemstra, R.J.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1973-01-01

    This guide was written to furnish the coal industry with a description of techniques, instruments, and clues on how to find abandoned oil and gas wells that have penetrated coal seams. The report includes specific information on searching techniques currently in use by several coal mining companies, gas-transmission companies, and waterflood operators, as well as information on State agencies responsible for the enforcement of laws and the preservation and distribution of data pertaining to the drilling, development, and abandonment of oil and gas wells. Comparative tests were performed with several commercial electronic metal detectors to determine the feasibility of using them to aid in the search for abandoned wells and to determine the instrument most suited for that particular use. The role of methane detectors to locate abandoned wells is described, including a case history. Tests were made to develop an efficient procedure to follow in systematically searching an area for metallic clues or hydrocarbon evidence to abandoned wells. The guide describes, in detail, a search sequence, including the collection of basic data, preparation of the selected area, and the physical search. Methods are given for evaluating the results. (auth)

  3. Assessment of environmental implications of abandoned oil and gas wells

    A detailed study was made of the potential for abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa sand of Mississippi and Louisiana to act as conduits for movement of saline water from the Lower Tuscaloosa into underground sources of drinking water (USDW's). Finite-difference numerical modeling determined the extent that water might be forced from the Lower Tuscaloosa sand into a USDW as a result of injection into the Lower Tuscaloosa. Within the range of conditions modeled, water from the Lower Tuscaloosa never traveled into a USDW. On the basis of the modeling, the authors concluded that it is unlikely that abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa would serve as conduits for water movement from the trend into a USDW. The procedures developed in this study should be readily applicable to analysis of the potential for abandoned wells to act as pathways for contaminant flow into USDW's in other oil and gas producing areas of the country

  4. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M.; Reid, Matthew C.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Celia, Michael A.; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that greenhouse gas emission inventories are likely missing methane emission sources. We conducted the first methane emission measurements from abandoned oil and gas wells and found substantial emissions, particularly from high-emitting abandoned wells. These emissions are not currently considered in any emissions inventory. We scaled methane emissions from our direct measurements of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania and calculate that they represent 4–7% of current tota...

  5. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  6. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  7. Numerical Simulation of Abandoned Gob Methane Drainage through Surface Vertical Wells.

    Wei Qin

    Full Text Available The influence of the ventilation system on the abandoned gob weakens, so the gas seepage characteristics in the abandoned gob are significantly different from those in a normal mining gob. In connection with this, this study physically simulated the movement of overlying rock strata. A spatial distribution function for gob permeability was derived. A numerical model using FLUENT for abandoned gob methane drainage through surface wells was established, and the derived spatial distribution function for gob permeability was imported into the numerical model. The control range of surface wells, flow patterns and distribution rules for static pressure in the abandoned gob under different well locations were determined using the calculated results from the numerical model.

  8. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program

  9. Practical Methods for Locating Abandoned Wells in Populated Areas

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Lynn, R.J.

    2007-09-01

    An estimated 12 million wells have been drilled during the 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. Many old oil and gas fields are now populated areas where the presence of improperly plugged wells may constitute a hazard to residents. Natural gas emissions from wells have forced people from their houses and businesses and have caused explosions that injured or killed people and destroyed property. To mitigate this hazard, wells must be located and properly plugged, a task made more difficult by the presence of houses, businesses, and associated utilities. This paper describes well finding methods conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that were effective at two small towns in Wyoming and in a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  10. Early oil well drilling equipment and production practices. [Information helpful in locating abandoned well sites by identification of discarded parts: such abandoned wells are potential hazards in coal mining

    Johnston K.H.; Heemstra, R.J.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of early-day cable tool drilling rig construction and drilling practices is presented. Intimate descriptions of various parts of drilling rigs and prime movers are given as to materials of construction as well as to their use. The body of material is broken down into two main categories: well drilling methods, and well completion and production methods. This information is largely directed to the need for locating abandoned wellsites by identification of equipment parts and layouts. These abandoned wells are potential hazards to people in the coal industry if they intersect coal seams under development. The material is well illustrated from documented sources and general nomenclature is given.

  11. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging. (JSR)

  12. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging

  13. Significant Methane Emissions from Abandoned Oil and Gas wells in Northwest Pennsylvania

    Kang, M.; Zhang, X.; Reid, M. C.; Kanno, C.; Celia, M. A.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Sun, K.; Miller, D. J.; Zondlo, M. A.; Chen, Y.; Onstott, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    Abandoned (no longer operated), Orphaned (abandoned and responsible party unavailable), and/or Lost (location unknown, cannot be confirmed, or not on record) (AOL) wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, and emissions to the atmosphere, of methane and other volatile hydrocarbons. However, little is known about methane fluxes from AOL wells. Of the 12,000 abandoned and orphaned oil and gas wells on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's (PA DEP) list, 36% are in McKean County. McKean County is home to the Bradford Oil Field, the world's first large oil field, which in 1881 produced 83% of America's output. A large fraction of the oil and gas wells in McKean County are AOL and some estimates of the number of AOL wells exceed the number of wells listed by the PA DEP by factors of 20 or more. To characterize AOL wells' potential as a significant methane source, we made first-of-a-kind measurements of methane fluxes from 8 abandoned wells in McKean County using static flux chambers. These wells are on a 40-acre lot, which includes various land cover types. Four of the eight measured wells are in forested areas, while three are in grassland, and one is in wetland areas. Two of the eight wells, one in a forested area and one in the grassland area, are plugged. Fluxes of methane, ethane, propane, and n-butane were measured using flame ionization gas chromatography. To gain insight into the source of methane (biogenic vs. thermogenic), carbon and hydrogen isotopes of methane were analyzed and the ratio of methane to heavier hydrocarbons were computed. In addition, a LI-7700 open path methane analyzer was used to provide on-line methane concentration measurement in the vicinity of AOL wells and in flux chambers. We found methane fluxes from the measured AOL wells to be significantly higher than fluxes observed in similar natural environments. Methane emissions from the two plugged wells were smaller than those from unplugged wells but

  14. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day-1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  15. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells.

    Boothroyd, I M; Almond, S; Qassim, S M; Worrall, F; Davies, R J

    2016-03-15

    This study considered the fugitive emissions of methane (CH4) from former oil and gas exploration and production wells drilled to exploit conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs onshore in the UK. This study selected from the 66% of all onshore wells in the UK which appeared to be properly decommissioned (abandoned) that came from 4 different basins and were between 8 and 79years old. The soil gas above each well was analysed and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells considered 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of it being drilled. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364±677kg CO2eq/well/year with a 27% chance that the well would have a negative flux to the atmosphere independent of well age. This flux is low relative to the activity commonly used on decommissioned well sites (e.g. sheep grazing), however, fluxes from wells that have not been appropriately decommissioned would be expected to be higher. PMID:26822472

  16. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells

    Worrall, Fred; boothroyd, Ian; Almond, Sam; Davies, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of onshore wells could show integrity failures. In this study the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas production wells onshore in the UK were considered as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 49 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results will be expressed in terms of the proportion and extent of well integrity failure, or success, over time since decommissioning and relative to local control sites. The probability of failure and the emissions factor for decommissioned wells will be presented.

  17. Basic Data Report for Well Plugging and Abandonment and Reconfiguration Activities for Fiscal Year 2005

    The FY 2005 program was initiated on March 31, 2005, and concluded on July 16, 2005. The FY 2005 program initially included 25 wells requiring workover (P and A, Magenta reconfiguration, cleaning and keeping). During the process, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requested transfer of two wells (H-7c and H-8c) to their ownership for future livestock watering. These wells were transferred to the BLM through execution of Form wr-03, Declaration of Owner of Underground Water Rights, between the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE), the BLM, and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). One well (H-2b2) was cleaned and retained as a Culebra monitor well for continued use. One well (H-3d) was converted to a shallow well to monitor the formational contact between the Dewey Lake Redbeds Formation and the Santa Rosa Formation in support of the DP-831 discharge permit monitoring program. Nine dual-completion wells were reconfigured as Magenta-only monitor wells, and 12 wells were plugged and abandoned permanently. This report presents the summary in the same order that the wells were worked in the field.

  18. Basic Data Report for Well Plugging and Abandonment and Reconfiguration Activities for Fiscal Year 2005

    None, None

    2006-03-13

    The FY 2005 program was initiated on March 31, 2005, and concluded on July 16, 2005. The FY 2005 program initially included 25 wells requiring workover (P&A, Magenta reconfiguration, cleaning and keeping). During the process, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) requested transfer of two wells (H-7c and H-8c) to their ownership for future livestock watering. These wells were transferred to the BLM through execution of Form wr-03, Declaration of Owner of Underground Water Rights, between the New Mexico Office of the State Engineer (NMOSE), the BLM, and the DOE Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). One well (H-2b2) was cleaned and retained as a Culebra monitor well for continued use. One well (H-3d) was converted to a shallow well to monitor the formational contact between the Dewey Lake Redbeds Formation and the Santa Rosa Formation in support of the DP-831 discharge permit monitoring program. Nine dual-completion wells were reconfigured as Magenta-only monitor wells, and 12 wells were plugged and abandoned permanently. This report presents the summary in the same order that the wells were worked in the field.

  19. Implementation of field techniques to stabilize abandoned oil wells - Boyd's creek, Kentucky

    At Boyd's Creek, commercial crude-oil drilling production began in the early 1860s. Countless unrecorded exploration wells were drilled and many have been found to be improperly abandoned. The Corniferous limestone is the first oil producing interval and is situated at an average subsurface depth of 135 feet. The potential for impacting natural resources is high because of the shallow depth(s) of the Corniferous limestone and the presence of overlying artesian sulfur-water zones which routinely mix with brine and oil in uncased boreholes. The occurrence of limestone related (karstic) features, such as fractures and dissolution cavities, and the close proximity of the Boyd's Creek oil field to nearby surface streams are also of concern. Initially, two abandoned wells were identified as flowing into nearby streams. Pursuant to federal removal authority provided by Subsection (c) of Section 311 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in accordance with Subtitle B of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 and the National Contingency Plan, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated cleanup operations within properties nearest to Boyd's Creek. Most wells are difficult to identify because they lack any casing strings and/or they have been buried with soil to hide uncontrolled flows at the surface. Field operations have included the utilization of multiple geophysical techniques to identify anomaly areas thought to represent buried unplugged wells. These include the excavation of surface soils down to the underlying limestone bedrock to search for cable tool and rotary boreholes, the drilling out of old wells using conventional industry technology and standards to plug them permanently with cement, the construction of temporary underflow dams downgradient from identified oil spills to minimize impacts on Boyd's Creek and its adjoining tributaries, and the burning of spilled product in temporary holding pits to minimize associated cleanup cost

  20. Monitoring well plugging and abandonment plan, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (revised)

    Plugging and abandonment (P ampersand A) of defunct groundwater monitoring wells is a primary element of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) (AJA Technical Services, Inc. 1996). This document is the revised groundwater monitoring well P ampersand A plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 Plant located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach employed by Y-12 Plant GWPP to identify wells that require P ampersand A, the technical methods employed to perform P ampersand A activities, and administrative requirements. Original documentation for Y-12 Plant GWPP groundwater monitoring well P ampersand A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P ampersand A was provided in HSW, Inc. (1991). The original revision of the plan specified that a comprehensive monitoring well P ampersand A schedule be maintained. Wells are added to this list by issuance of both a P ampersand A request and a P ampersand A addendum to the schedule. The current Updated Subsurface Data Base includes a single mechanism to track the status of monitoring wells. In addition, rapid growth of the groundwater monitoring network and new regulatory requirements have resulted in constant changes to the status of wells. As a result, a streamlined mechanism to identify and track monitoring wells scheduled for P ampersand A has been developed and the plan revised to formalize the new business practices

  1. Isotopic fingerprinting of groundwaters in southwestern Ontario: Applications to abandoned well remediation

    Highlights: • We created a tool to predict sources of groundwaters leaking from abandoned wells. • Each of the main aquifers were characterized, for a total suite of over 130 samples. • 8 isotopes (δ18O, δ2H, δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr, δ37Cl and δ81Br) were analyzed. • Our tool well-predicted fluid origins in different real and hypothetical scenarios. • Leaking fluids from wells sampled so far were from a shallow Devonian aquifer. - Abstract: Southwestern Ontario has a legacy of unplugged oil and gas wells drilled in the late 1800s and early 1900s before the advent of government regulatory controls. A number of these wells exhibit artesian flow of salty and/or sulphurous water at the surface, creating a liability to landowners and a possible threat to potable groundwater aquifers and the surface environment. Cost-effective plugging of these wells is hindered by incomplete drilling records regarding well depths, well construction, and geologic information on the sources of the leaking fluids. This study seeks to fill this knowledge gap by characterizing distinct geochemical ‘fingerprints’ for each of the major bedrock water-producing zones that may be the possible sources of the leaking fluids. To this end, over 130 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for a broad suite of isotopic parameters (δ18O, δ2H, δ34SSO4, δ18OSO4, δ13CDIC, 87Sr/86Sr, δ37Cl and δ81Br), and this dataset was combined with available data from previous studies in the area. A Bayesian mixing model, SIAR, was applied to these data to develop a statistical tool for identifying the probable source(s) of leaking fluids. Several hypothetical samples and one real-world example are presented here to demonstrate the model’s performance

  2. Regulatory acceptance of the proposed well abandonment program for the present landfill, Operable Unit 7, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    The regulatory agencies approved a well abandonment program for the Present Landfill, Operable Unit (OU) 7 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, only three months after preparation. The proposed well abandonment program consists of abandoning 26 of the 54 existing monitoring wells in OU 7 that are currently sampled quarterly as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance wells or sitewide groundwater protection wells. Well abandonment was proposed on the basis that the purpose of each well has been fulfilled, the wells fall under the footprint of the landfill cap, the presence of the wells would compromise the integrity of the cap because holes would have to be cut in the synthetic liner, and unequal compaction of the fill material around the wells would potentially cause differential settlement of the cap. The proposal provided the technical justification to abandon the wells in place. The timely approval of the proposal by the regulatory agencies will allow the abandonment of the wells during fiscal year 1995 under the sitewide Well Abandonment and Replacement Program (WARP). Cost savings resulting from a decrease in the number of wells to be sampled under the groundwater monitoring program are estimated at $416,000 per year. This paper presents a summary of the well abandonment program, discusses the timely approvals required for implementation, and present the potential cost savings that can be achieved through implementation of the program

  3. Strontium isotope quantification of siderite, brine and acid mine drainage contributions to abandoned gas well discharges in the Appalachian Plateau

    Chapman, Elizabeth C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Capo, Rosemary C. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Stewart, Brian W. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Geology and Planetary Science; Hedin, Robert S. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weaver, Theodore J. [Hedin Environmental, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Edenborn, Harry M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Unplugged abandoned oil and gas wells in the Appalachian region can serve as conduits for the movement of waters impacted by fossil fuel extraction. Strontium isotope and geochemical analysis indicate that artesian discharges of water with high total dissolved solids (TDS) from a series of gas wells in western Pennsylvania result from the infiltration of acidic, low Fe (Fe < 10 mg/L) coal mine drainage (AMD) into shallow, siderite (iron carbonate)-cemented sandstone aquifers. The acidity from the AMD promotes dissolution of the carbonate, and metal- and sulfate-contaminated waters rise to the surface through compromised abandoned gas well casings. Strontium isotope mixing models suggest that neither upward migration of oil and gas brines from Devonian reservoirs associated with the wells nor dissolution of abundant nodular siderite present in the mine spoil through which recharge water percolates contribute significantly to the artesian gas well discharges. Natural Sr isotope composition can be a sensitive tool in the characterization of complex groundwater interactions and can be used to distinguish between inputs from deep and shallow contamination sources, as well as between groundwater and mineralogically similar but stratigraphically distinct rock units. This is of particular relevance to regions such as the Appalachian Basin, where a legacy of coal, oil and gas exploration is coupled with ongoing and future natural gas drilling into deep reservoirs.

  4. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In geological underground utilisation, operating and abandoned wells have been identified as a main potential leakage pathways for reservoir fluids. In the scope of the well abandonment procedure currently carried out at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Germany, a hydro-mechanical model was built to carry out a coupled analysis of the integrity in the entire wellbore system. The main aim of the present study was to assess the impacts of stress changes associated with CO2 injection as well as the cement backfill undertaken in the scope of well abandonment. A numerical model comprising cement sheaths, steel casings, tubing, multiple packers and wellbore annuli was implemented to enable a detailed representation of the entire wellbore system. The numerical model grid has a horizontal discretisation of 5 m x 5 m to focus on near wellbore effects, whereby element sizes increase with increasing distance from the wellbore. Vertical grid discretisation uses a tartan grid type over the entire model thickness of 1,500 m to ensure a sufficient discretisation of all wellbore system elements as well as of the reservoir unit. The total number of elements amounts to 210,672. Mechanical model parameters were taken from geological, drilling, logging and laboratory test data based on Ketzin pilot site-specific information as well as related literature (Kempka et al., 2014). The coupled calculations were performed using an elasto-plastic constitutive law, whereby an initial simulation run ensured a static mechanical equilibrium to represent the initial state before the start of CO2 injection. Thereto, gravitational load of the overburden rocks and pore pressure distribution following available well logs were integrated for initial model parameterisation including a normal faulting stress regime defined by a horizontal to vertical total stress ratio of 0.85. A correction accounting for the temperature and pressure dependent CO2 density was carried out in advance of each

  5. Remediation of the Old Ecological Load in the Protected Area of the Morava River – Re-abandonment of the Oil and Gas Production Wells

    Petr Bujok; Martin Klempa; Vladimír Slivka; Michal Porzer; Igor Němec; Věra Šťastná; Eva Smejkalová; Jaroslav Zdvořák

    2015-01-01

    The presence of the former oil and gas producing wells that are or can be improperly abandoned creates a possible environmental hazard in terms of contamination of the groundwater and soil in the present. In the area of the Czech Republic, specifically in South Moravia part, which has a long oil and gas production history, plenty of such wells can be found. Finding out the information about their abandonment in archives is often very demandin...

  6. Fiscal Year 1998 Well Installation, Plugging and Abandonment, and Redevelopment summary report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    None

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment, and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1998 at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Five new groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the Y-12 Plant under the FY 1998 drilling program. Two of the wells are located in west Bear Creek Valley, one is in the eastern Y-12 Plant area near Lake Reality, and two are located near the Oil Landfarm Waste Management Area, which were installed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (Bechtel Jacobs) as part of a site characterization activity for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Disposal Cell. Also, two existing wells were upgraded and nine temporary piezometers were installed to characterize hydrogeologic conditions at the Disposal Cell site. In addition, 40 temporary piezometers were installed in the Boneyard/Bumyard area of Bear Creek Valley by Bechtel Jacobs as part of the accelerated remedial actions conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program. Ten monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1998. Two existing monitoring wells were redeveloped during FY 1998 (of these, GW-732 was redeveloped tsvice). All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures from the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA 1992); and the Monitoring Well Installation Plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Energy Systems 1997a). Well installation and development of the non-Y-12 Plant GWPP oversight installation projects were conducted using procedures/guidance defined in the following documents: Work Plan for Support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek East End Volatile Organic Compound Plumes Well Installation Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge

  7. Remediation of the Old Ecological Load in the Protected Area of the Morava River – Re-abandonment of the Oil and Gas Production Wells

    Petr Bujok

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the former oil and gas producing wells that are or can be improperly abandoned creates a possible environmental hazard in terms of contamination of the groundwater and soil in the present. In the area of the Czech Republic, specifically in South Moravia part, which has a long oil and gas production history, plenty of such wells can be found. Finding out the information about their abandonment in archives is often very demanding (sometimes even impossible. During various survey works and re-abandonment attempts it was found out that many wells are originally abandoned improperly, insufficiently or not at all. The occurrence of such wells is not just potential but also very actual hazard for the cultural landscape of the South Moravia, especially for aquifers, agriculture and natural protected areas of national significance. This paper is focused on the possibility of the definitive abandonment of this particular ecological load. The proposed method was verified in laboratory conditions and in the field. It is now a standard form of the re abandonment of oil and gas wells without precise localization in the South Moravian oil fields.

  8. Well plugging and abandonment plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Site environmental characterization and remediation require data obtained from the installation and sampling of wells. When these wells are no longer needed or not producing reliable information, or are damaged and can act as conduits for contaminant migration, they should be identified and properly decommissioned. This is most important for wells of sufficient depth to create the potential for exchange of fluids between different hydrologic units. This plan presents the strategy and detailed approach for well plugging and abandonment (P ampersand A) at Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6). An inventory of 768 wells, the total number known to have been installed in WAG 6 based on a combined review of data and direct field inventory, is provided in Appendix A. All wells that are no required for closure or postclosure surveillance of WAG 6 will be decommissioned. A listing of 69 existing WAG 6 wells that will be maintained for postclosure surveillance is provided in Appendix B, and their locations are shown in Fig. 1. Appendix C contains a list of all WAG 6 wells that will be decommissioned, although some may no longer exist. Their locations are shown in Fig. 2. It is likely that some new wells will be drilled as part of postclosure monitoring of Solid Waste Area 6 (SWSA), but they are beyond the scope of this report. It is intended that this plan provide a basis for developing contracts for cost and schedule determinations for the P ampersand A process

  9. Plugging and abandonment plan for wells and coreholes at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Site environmental characterization and remediation require data obtained from the installation and sampling of wells and coreholes. When these wells and coreholes are no longer needed, are not producing reliable information, or are damaged and can act as conduits for contaminant migration, they should be identified and properly decommissioned. This is most important for wells of sufficient depth to create the potential for exchange of fluids between different hydrologic units. This plan presents the strategy and detailed approach for the well and corehole P ampersand A plan for most of the areas for which ORNL has responsibility. Although wells in Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 and WAG 10 are not specifically addressed in this plan, these wells will be incorporated into the decommissioning program in FY 1993

  10. New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.

  11. A contribution to risk analysis for leakage through abandoned wells in geological CO2 storage

    Kopp, Andreas; Binning, Philip John; Johannsen, K.;

    2010-01-01

    The selection and the subsequent design of a subsurface CO2 storage system are subject to considerable uncertainty. It is therefore important to assess the potential risks for health, safety and environment. This study contributes to the development of methods for quantitative risk assessment of CO...... reservoir database, holding data from over 1200 reservoirs An analytical risk equation is given, allowing the calculation of average risk due to multiple leaky wells with varying distance in the surrounding of the injection well. The reservoir parameters most affecting risk are identified. Using these...... results, the placement of an injection well can be optimized with respect to risk and uncertainty of leakage The risk and uncertainty assessment can be used to determine whether a site, compared to others, should be considered for further investigations or rejected for CO2 storage...

  12. Why most agricultural terraces in steep slopes in semiarid SE Spain remain well preserved since their abandonment 50 years go?

    Cantón, F.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the agricultural terraces in mountain environments are abandoned, like those from the Filabres range in Almería, SE Spain. While many of such terraces show signs of soil erosion (wall disruptions, surface crusts, pipes and gullies, others in steep slopes remain well preserved after 50 years since their abandonment and still seem to play an active role against soil erosion. In order to know both magnitude of soil erosion and controlling factors in different types of abandoned terraces, a rainfall simulation campaign with a portable sprinkler was carried out in 45 representative microsites. Runoff, derived-infiltration and sediment production were measured and their relationships to basic soil parameters (particle size distribution, pH, EC, organic matter content, aggregate stability, geomorphic position, and ground cover, were examined. Under the average applied rainfall intensity (48 mm/h, which represents a precipitation with a return period of 5 years in the area, narrow bench terraces from steep hillslopes, have larger infiltration values and deliver less sediments than large bank terraces in alluvial plains. The presence of stony pavement sieving crusts on narrow-bench terraces and also on un-terraced alluvial fans, play an essential armouring effect against soil erosion while favouring water infiltration. Considerations are made about the evolution of the different types of traditional terraces in the area under both past agricultural and present abandoned status, and also about possible uses under a sustainable land management policy.

    Una gran parte de las terrazas agrícolas en zonas de montaña están abandonadas, como las de la Sierra de los Filabres en Almería, SE de España. Si bien muchas de dichas terrazas muestran señales de erosión hídrica (destrucción de muros, encostramiento superficial, piping y cárcavas, otras en laderas con pendientes acusadas siguen bien conservadas tras 50 años de abandono y

  13. APPLICATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION MAGNETIC METHOD AND GRADIENT METHOD TO LOCATE ABANDONED BRINE-WELLS IN HUTCHINSON, KANSAS, U.S.A.

    CHEN Chao; XIA Jianghai; XIA Sihao; David Laflen; Stephen L. Williams

    2004-01-01

    After successfully locating one abandoned brine well by an electromagnetic method during testing in 2001 and five abandoned brine wells by a high-resolution magnetic method during 2002, a high-resolution magnetic method was again proposed to search for wells in 2003 when a second sensor was employed to acquire data for calculating the pseudo-vertical gradient of magnetic fields. Total area surveyed in 2003 was 1,024,000 ft2, which was divided into grids with an average size of 10,000 ft2 and distributed across eight different sites. Magnetic anomalies and their vertical gradients from known brine wells were first recorded as signatures to identify anomalies caused by possible buried brine wells. Of fifty-one verified anomalies, thirtyone anomalies were due to wells buried at depths from 0 to 8.5 ft: twenty-one 6- to 9-inch abandoned brine wells, seven 1.5- to 3-inch probable water wells, one 16-inch dewatering well for a construction site at a depth of 3 ft, and two 4-inch wells on the ground surface. Approximate monopole shaped anomalies were observed from all these wells after data corrections. However, the range of amplitudes of magnetic anomalies from 7,000 to 28,000 nT from these abandoned brine wells was measured. This range of anomalies is mainly due to the thickness and depth of buried wells. Anomaly amplitudes from 1.5- to 3-inch wells are 4,000 to 8,000 nT and linearly correlate with the buried depth. One 3-inch well that caused an anomaly of 13,000 nT could be the inner pipe of a brine well. Gradient anomalies are roughly in a range of 100 to 200 nT/inch for 1.5-to 3-inch wells and 200 to 300 nT/inch for brine wells.As indicated by the potential-field theory, gradient data possess higher horizontal resolution than the magnetic field itself. Gradient data provide valuable assistance in determining horizontal locations of anomaly sources for excavation. In practice, however, improvement in the horizontal resolution is limited by surveyline spacing. If only

  14. Abandoned vehicles

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. Geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells, DOE Gladys McCall test site, Cameron Parish, Louisiana and DOE Willis Hulin test site, Vermillion Parish, Louisiana

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana--the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  16. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  17. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  18. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  19. Setting plug & abandonment barriers with minimum removal of tubulars

    Nessa, Jon Olav

    2012-01-01

    The useful life of an offshore well is determined by the reserves which it contacts, the pressure support within the reservoir and the continued integrity of the wellbore. When a well has reached the end of its lifetime, plugging operations have to be conducted before permanent abandonment. Conventional Plug and Abandonment (P&A) operations will often require removing a section of the casing in order to create cross sectional barriers for well abandonment. Recently developed and field test...

  20. Investigation report on the discharge of synthetic based drilling mud during abandonment of the Crimson F-81 exploration well by Marathon Canada Petroleum ULC

    This report presented details of an investigation conducted by the Canada-Nova Scotia Offshore Oil and Gas Board in conjunction with Environment Canada to determine the causes of a release of synthetic based mud (SBM) from an exploration well owned by Marathon Canada Petroleum ULC. It was established that the cause of the spill was a failure in a rubber compound seal ring, a part of the riser lower flex joint which, during drilling operations, is located approximately 17.6 meters above the sea floor. The failure allowed the SBM to be discharged until the hydrostatic pressures were equalized. A review of the fate and effects of the SBM discharge undertaken by Marathon Canada was evaluated. An outline of events leading up to the spill was presented. It was determined that the impact was confined to the sea floor at a depth of over 2 km. The SBM dispersed in shallow streams on the sea floor, tending to flow down slope away from the drillsite. SBM is formulated to have low toxicity in the marine environment and the environmental impact of the spill was expected to be minor with no remediation recommended. The investigation also determined that appropriate drilling practices and inspections were conducted by Marathon Canada, and the failure of the seal in the flex joint could not have been reasonably anticipated and avoided. It was concluded that based on this incident, enhanced procedures, documentation and inspections are recommended to prevent a similar event occurring in the future. 1 tab., 10 figs

  1. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  2. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  3. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  4. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  5. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  6. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  7. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  8. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  9. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  10. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  11. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  12. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  13. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  14. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  15. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  16. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  17. Millipede succession in abandoned fields

    Tajovský, Karel

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2000), s. 361-370. ISSN 0015-9301 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Millipedes * abandoned field * fallow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  18. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  2. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  3. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  4. Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges

    The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  6. Patterns and drivers of post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine

    Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Elbakidze, Marine;

    2011-01-01

    Farmland abandonment restructures rural landscapes in many regions worldwide in response to gradual industrialization and urbanization. In contrast, the political breakdown in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union triggered rapid and widespread farmland abandonment, but the spatial patterns of...... substantial spatial variation in abandonment rates. However, many of our a priori hypotheses about the direction of variable influence were rejected. Most importantly, abandonment rates were higher in the plains and lower in marginal areas. The growing importance of subsistence farming in the transition...... period, as well as off-farm income and remittances likely explain these patterns. The breakdown of socialism appears to have resulted in fundamentally different abandonment patterns in the Western Ukraine, where abandonment was a result of the institutional and economic shock, compared to those in Europe...

  7. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  8. Legal aspects of abandoned facilities

    This paper outlines the basic regulatory requirements needed to identify radioactive material licensee owners/operators. Basic actions that must be taken once a radioactive material site is abandoned are also listed. Two such actions in Texas are briefly described. Civil suits requesting penalties, injunctive relief for decontamination, and recovery of response costs pursuant to the Texas regulatory acts have been filed against the potentially responsible parties

  9. Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis

    This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ''Impact Hypothesis'' uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

  10. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  11. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  12. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    2010-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  13. Mapping abandoned agriculture with multi-temporal MODIS satellite data

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    agriculture was widespread. Input data included Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and reflectance bands (NASA Global MODIS Terra and Aqua 16-Day Vegetation Indices for the years 2003 through 2008, ~250-m resolution), as well as phenology metrics calculated with TIMESAT. The data were classified...... with Support Vector Machines (SVM). Training data were derived from several Landsat classifications of agricultural abandonment in the study area. A validation was conducted based on independently collected data. Our results showed that it is possible to map abandoned agriculture for large areas from MODIS...

  14. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  15. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  16. The characteristics of soft rocks and their effect on the long term stability of abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    It is well known that some caving, collapses and subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The authors present the experimental results on the characteristics of soft rocks from abandoned lignite mines in Tokai Region as well as the results of some analyses of their effects on the long-term stability of abandoned lignite mines. (authors)

  17. Radioactive pollution investigation and disposal of abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province

    The environment influence of five abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province from 1950s to 1960s is introduced. By monitoring air absorbed dose rate of external exposure γ radiation, it is found that the pollution scope of No.1 abandoned uranium mine is the biggest in five abandoned uranium mines. The No. 2 and No. 3 mine areas has achieved the limit use after they were desposed. The radioactivity and the gamma nuclein in solid samples(slag, soil, silt) and liquid samples (the surface water, the well water)of No. 1 abandoned uranium mine were further analyzed and measured, the measured values are higher. The pollution of abandoned uranium mines still exists and diffuses after 30 years. According to the monitoring results and the analysis of pollution present situation, suggestions and measures are proposed for the pollution control. (authors)

  18. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  19. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  20. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  1. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  2. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  3. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  4. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  5. Landscape reconstruction planning of abandoned quarries

    Zhou, Linjia; 周麟佳

    2015-01-01

    Zhejiang, with a rich resource of stone, has a long history of stone extraction, where scatter thousands of traditional quarries and as a result many abandoned ones are left, which is challenged economically, ecologically and socially. On account of the soil erosion, security risks and degradation of ecosystem, reusing of the large number of abandoned quarries located in the city or the suburbs have become an important topic on sustainable development in China in resent years. These a...

  6. Abandon jako instytucja morskiego prawa ubezpieczeniowego. Wybrane aspekty prawnoporównawcze

    Ziemiak, Michał P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the issue of abandonment (referred in Poland as “abandon”) in Polish Maritime Code and also in Russian, French and UK legislation. First part opens with overall remarks on marine insurance law as well as abandonment and its functions. Next the author focuses on problems of actual total loss (ATL) and constructive total loss (CTL). Redundant legislative approaches towards defi nitions and purposes of ATL and CTL are presented. This part additionally in...

  7. Transfer Out Patient Not Abandon The Patient

    Deepak Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physician-patient relationship is unique in some aspects and not-so-unique in other aspects when compared to other human interactions. Until-unless for the sake of health promotional activities, this relationship is almost always conceived in the times of human sufferings and consequently culminated when those sufferings have subsided as well as sought out happiness has ensued/been achieved. However, not all physician-patient relationships follow the normal course and/or meet the natural ends. These abnormal relationships are not inconsequential in terms of numbers and/or their effects (short-term and long term on both patients and physicians. Every country has its own baggage in the wake of why, how and what about these abnormal ends to physician-patient relationships; however, the most common causes are the patients’ inability to pay their medical bills, the conflicting goals of physicians and their patients in regards to patients’ sufferings’ management and finally the behavioral issues (patients’ and/or physicians’ interfering these relationships. Irrespective of any cause, the physicians should never forget that the patient can always discharge their physicians and discontinue their relationship with their physicians without any reason (until unless the physicians deem those patients either incapable/non-consentable to do so and/or potential threat to their own personal safety or other people’s safety. Contrarily, physicians can also discharge patients from their care but cannot abandon these patients (1-3 which mean that physicians have to ensure their discharged patients either are referred to or have sought another physician within appropriate time frame post-relationship-discontinuation. Each country has their own medico-legal liabilities that vary in terms of penalties imposed; however, irrespective of the feared legal concerns, the physicians should not forget that ethical essence of medicine is the art of healing that

  8. Effects of Weather Variability on Crop Abandonment

    Kelvin Mulungu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zambia, every year some parts of the maize fields are abandoned post-planting. Reasons for this are not clearly known. In this paper, we examine the influence of soil and climatic factors on crop abandonment using a six-year (2007–2012 panel data by modeling the planted-to-harvested ratio (a good indicator of crop abandonment using a fractional and linear approach. Therefore, for the first time, our study appropriately (as supported by the model specification tests that favour fractional probit over linear models the fractional nature of crop abandonment. Regression results, which are not very different between the two specifications, indicate that, more than anything, high rainfall immediately after planting and inadequate fertilizer are the leading determinants of crop abandonment. In the agro-ecological region where dry planting takes place, low temperature during planting months negatively affects the harvested area. The results have implications on the sustainability of farming systems in the face of a changing climate.

  9. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  10. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Alexandra Gulachenski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission, “greening” can elevate transmission risk by increasing movement of pathogen vectors between fragmented areas and by giving rise to novel human-wildlife interfaces. Idled and derelict infrastructure can further elevate disease risk from vector-borne and water-borne pathogens, which can build up in stagnant and unprotected water that maintenance and routine use of delivery or sanitation systems would otherwise eliminate. Thus, framing “greening” as inherently positive could result in policies and actions that unintentionally exacerbate inequalities by elevating risks rather than delivering benefits. As counter-urbanism is neither a minor pattern of urban development, nor a short-term departure from urban growth, homeowner and municipal management of abandoned areas should account for potential hazards to reduce health risks. Further socioecological assessments of public health risks following abandonment could better ensure the resilience and well-being of communities in shrinking cities.

  11. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  12. Mapping the extent of abandoned farmland in Central and Eastern Europe using MODIS time series satellite data

    The demand for agricultural products continues to grow rapidly, but further agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental costs, making recultivating currently unused farmland an interesting alternative. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to widespread abandonment of agricultural lands, but the extent and spatial patterns of abandonment are unclear. We quantified the extent of abandoned farmland, both croplands and pastures, across the region using MODIS NDVI satellite image time series from 2004 to 2006 and support vector machine classifications. Abandoned farmland was widespread, totaling 52.5 Mha, particularly in temperate European Russia (32 Mha), northern and western Ukraine, and Belarus. Differences in abandonment rates among countries were striking, suggesting that institutional and socio-economic factors were more important in determining the amount of abandonment than biophysical conditions. Indeed, much abandoned farmland occurred in areas without major constraints for agriculture. Our map provides a basis for assessing the potential of Central and Eastern Europe’s abandoned agricultural lands to contribute to food or bioenergy production, or carbon storage, as well as the environmental trade-offs and social constraints of recultivation. (letter)

  13. Exploring the Dynamic Mechanisms of Farmland Abandonment Based on a Spatially Explicit Economic Model for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study in Jiangxi Province, China

    Hualin Xie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmland abandonment has important impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem recovery, as well as food security and rural sustainable development. Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, farmland abandonment has become an increasingly important problem in many countries, particularly in China. To promote sustainable land-use management and environmental sustainability, it is important to understand the socioeconomic causes and spatial patterns of farmland abandonment. In this study, we explored the dynamic mechanisms of farmland abandonment in Jiangxi province of China using a spatially explicit economical model. The results show that the variables associated with the agricultural products yield are significantly correlated with farmland abandonment. The increasing opportunity cost of farming labor is the main factor in farmland abandonment in conjunction with a rural labor shortage due to rural-to-urban population migration and regional industrialization. Farmlands are more likely to be abandoned in areas located far from the villages and towns due to higher transportation costs. Additionally, farmers with more land but lower net income are more likely to abandon poor-quality farmland. Our results support the hypothesis that farmland abandonment takes place in locations in which the costs of cultivation are high and the potential crop yield is low. In addition, our study also demonstrates that a spatially explicit economic model is necessary to distinguish between the main driving forces of farmland abandonment. Policy implications are also provided for potential future policy decisions.

  14. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields

    Elhottová, Dana; Szili-Kovács, T.; Tříska, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2002), s. 435-440. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Grant ostatní: OTKA(HU) T25739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : microbial community * abandoned fields Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  15. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... firm contract; or (2) A facility that did or could now qualify for automatic authorization as...

  16. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  17. Development of database on circular abandoned channel in Japan

    To develop a method for estimating late Quaternary uplift rates of inland mountainous terrains where fluvial terraces are poorly developed, we focused on 'circular abandoned channels', formed by meander cut-offs or river capture of an incised meandering river. We studied about 1,000 circular abandoned channels distributed throughout the Islands of Japan, and developed GIS database on circular abandoned channel in Japan. This database contains formation process, relative heights, degree of dissection and bedrocks of circular abandoned channels. Circular abandoned channels are distributed in inland mountainous terrains, where late Quaternary uplift rates are unknown, and indicate different relative heights along the same river. Relative heights tend to correlate with degree of dissection of the circular abandoned channels, which may indicate that degree of dissection correlate with ages of abandonment of circular abandoned channels. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  19. Quarries - QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN: Abandoned Quarries in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN was derived from a comma-delimited text file named "QUALOC.TXT" contained on the following CD-ROM publication: Hasenmueller, W.A., and Ault,...

  20. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation...

  1. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  3. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  4. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  5. Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen following land abandonment of farmland on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Lei Deng

    Full Text Available The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC and total N (TN. However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grassland sites were established on farmland abandoned for 1, 7, 13, 20, and 30 years. Top soil OC and TN were higher in older grassland, especially in the 0-5 cm soil depths; deeper soil OC and TN was lower in younger grasslands (<20 yr, and higher in older grasslands (30 yr. Soil OC and N storage (0-100 cm was significantly lower in the younger grasslands (<20 yr, had increased in the older grasslands (30 yr, and at 30 years SOC had increased to pre-abandonment levels. For a thirty year period following abandonment the soil C/N value remained at 10. Our results indicate that soil C and TN were significantly and positively correlated, indicating that studies on the storage of soil OC and TN needs to focus on deeper soil and not be restricted to the uppermost (0-30 cm soil levels.

  6. Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances

    The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft

  7. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Millán R.; Sierra M. J.; Schmid T.; Carrasco Gil S.; Sánchez Ledesma D. M.; Díaz Puent F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain) that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg). Nowaday...

  8. Should executive stock options be abandoned?

    Choe, Chongwoo; Yin, Xiangkang

    2006-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals around the world have led many to single out executive stock options as one of the main culprits. More corporations are abandoning stock options and reverting to restricted stock. This paper argues that such a change is not entirely justifiable. We first provide a critical review of the pros and cons of executive stock options. We then compare option-based contracts with stock-based contracts using a simple principal-agent model with moral-hazard. In a general enviro...

  9. Incidence and Treatment Abandonment in Teen And Young Adult Cancers

    Prakash Chitalkar

    2016-03-01

    Results- On analyzing data of three years ,hematolymphoid malignancy(28% cases are the most common cases seen followed by Breast (10% and head and neck (10%,cervix(6%,CNS(5% ,Bone( 4%. 38% TYA cancer patients abandoned treatment . Telephonic tracking, financial support, counseling of whole family are methods employed in reducing abandonment. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 77-79

  10. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  11. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  12. THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON

    Andreea Iluzia IACOB

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

  13. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  14. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  15. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    the S-sequence (18.1±10.4%) than in the SW-sequence (6.7±2.7%); consequently. The pH of the topsoil was higher in the S-sequence, and correlated significantly negatively with the age of abandonment in both sequences (r=‑0.893; p=0.01 in S, and r=‑0.739; p=0.05 in SW). TOC stocks of the top 6 cm soil layers were higher in the S-sequence (1.82±0.71 kg m-2) than in the SW-sequence (0.95 ± 0.49 kg m-2), and correlated significantly positively with the duration of self-restoration. When calculated for the whole profile, TOC stocks were similar in both S- and SW-sequences (S: 8.21±3.31 kg m-2; SW: 8.24±6.01 kg m-2). The TOC accumulation rates of the top 6 cm soil layers exhibited 18.9±10.0 g C m-2y-1 in the S and 7.0±4.2 g C m-2y-1 in the SW-sequence. Sites with the same age of abandonment developed to different vegetation and had different soil features in both chronosequences, indicating that duration of self-restoration is only one of the directive factors in soil development and carbon sequestration processes after abandonment of viticulture on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which was significantly affected by lithology, slope steepness and exposition as well. Keywords: soil organic carbon stocks; soil organic carbon accumulation rates; vineyard abandonment; terraced soils; Tokaj,

  16. Stability analysis of abandoned drift for alternative utilization

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Yoo, In-Kol; Kim, Moon-Seob; Kim, Ryang-Hee [Korea Resources Corp., Seoul(Korea); Yang, Hyung-Sik [Chonnam National University, Kwangju(Korea); Lee, Hi-Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Jae-Dong [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon(Korea)

    2000-04-30

    This study was performed to find the way that is alternative utilization of the drift that had been abandoned by coal industry promotion. To determine whether abandoned drift would be maintained without supports or not, the safety inspection that consists of drift survey, laboratory tests, rock mass classification and numerical analysis was performed. According to the result, there were discontinuity sets those had unfavorable orientation to the drift and rock mass around the drift had generally poor condition. So, it would be much difficult that abandoned drift is maintained without supports. (author). 15 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  17. The Accumulation of Organic Carbon in Mineral Soils by Afforestation of Abandoned Farmland

    Wei, Xiaorong; Qiu, Liping; Shao, Mingan; Zhang, Xingchang; Gale, William J.

    2012-01-01

    The afforestation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic carbon (OC). However, the dynamics between OC inputs after afforestation and the original OC are not well understood. To learn more about soil OC dynamics after afforestation of farmland, we measured the soil OC content in paired forest and farmland plots in Shaanxi Province, China. The forest plots had been established on farmland 18, 24, 48, 100, and 200 yr previously. The natural 13C abundance of soil organic mat...

  18. Mobility of ChNPP release radionuclides in soils of abandoned areas

    Some results on long-term dynamics of migration movability of ChNPP release radionuclides in soils of abandoned areas have been analyzed and summarized. Role of physical-chemical forms of fallout as well as landscape geochemical characteristics of the territory has been estimated. Dynamics of 90Sr migration in soils of fuel tracks of ChNPP fallout is in the main difference in comparison with 137Cs.

  19. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  20. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  1. Abandoned mines at Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the study were: 1 Determine whether abandoned mines on LPO were impacting aquatic biota, 2 Determine whether mines were safety or liability...

  2. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman; Chen Wang; Nur Hamizah Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and ...

  3. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history

  4. Investigation on Health Effects of an Abandoned Metal Mine

    Kim, Soyeon; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Choi, Kyungho; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2008-01-01

    To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone minera...

  5. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado; Karine Franklin Assis; Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira; Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro; Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo; Alexandre Faisal Cury; Silvia Eloiza Priore; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied...

  6. Stripper, shut-in and orphan wells in joint operations

    Low productivity wells, stripper wells, can be an excellent source of income to independent operators or small companies, but a serious financial burden for larger companies. Shut-in wells, for most companies, are either waiting on a market and production facilities, or represent deferred abandonment liabilities. Orphan wells also reflect financial distress. The firm, Cord Oil and Gas Management Ltd., was formed in 1986 to specifically assist oil and gas companies, sophisticated investors and financial institutions with the management, enhancement and disposition of non-core or low productivity assets. This type of production, depending on the number of wells and cumulative production, can be the life blood of a small organization or a serious drain on the administrative personnel and financial resources of larger organizations. Philosophically, industry and/or government needs to manage the eventuality of abandonments by establishing financial criteria. Some suggestions for industry include: (1) establish provisions within joint operating agreements to set aside an abandonment and environmental cleanup fund; (2) minimize the inventory of abandonment candidates by an ongoing program of reclamation; (3) offset abandonment costs with salvage value of tangible equipment under AFE approval; and (4) voluntarily restrict transfer abandonment liabilities with producing assets on a selective basis. Some suggestions for governments include: (1) fund the orphan well by a deposit for every well drilled; (2) restrict the transfer of liabilities for abandoned and inactive wells by ensuring that the transferee is financially capable; and (3) access the chain of title to ensure non-operators remain responsible for the proportionate shares of abandonment and cleanup costs

  7. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  8. Study of Abandoned Heritage Buildings from the Owners’ Perspectives in George Town, Penang.

    Mohd. Shukuri N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoning a heritage building is not a new phenomenon. In George Town, Penang specifically, there are many dilapidated heritage buildings that can be seen. These undeniable eye sores affect Penang’s designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This research aims to identify and assess the issues related to the dangerous hazards of abandoned buildings as well as problems involved in restoring these historical structures in order to determine how severe the current situation is. This study was also carried out to better understand the reasons why owners decide to leave heritage buildings unoccupied to the point that they became unsafe to inhabit. A total of six case studies were carried out with data collection focusing on the historical background of each site, clarification of the causes of neglect to each heritage building and plans made by respective owners towards the future of their properties. The majority of relevant information was gathered through semi-structured interviews.

  9. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  10. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  11. Reclaiming abandoned mining sites: Reurbanization concepts and examples

    The Ruhr District in Germany, one of the oldest and largest hard coal mining regions in Europe, has been in a process of constant change over the last 40 years. Since the end of the World War II, the coal industry has been declining. There have been a number of successful attempts to establish new industries in the Ruhr District. However, the initiation of new industries depends strongly on the availability of space. Since the Ruhr District is a rather populated region, the only chance to gain space is to reclaim the areas formerly used by now obsolete industries. The remediation of former mining sites in the ruhr District and the reestablishment of alternative industries have now become both a challenge for city planners and a prestigious attribute for ambitious politicians. It has become the declared goal of the German government to convert the Ruhr District into the greenest industrial region in the world. This paper discusses geotechnical techniques, as well as economical risks involved, in the recycling of abandoned mining sites. To demonstrate remediation techniques used in Germany, a recent remediation project is described and analyzed

  12. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  13. Investigation of abandoned surface settling ponds

    One of the problems that may appear during the ground reclamation of surface settling ponds of underground mines is enhanced radon exhalation from bottom sediments. This problem becomes more important when the concentration of radium isotopes in sediments is enhanced due to the discharge of radium-bearing waters into the pond. For investigations, special radon accumulation chambers have been designed and constructed. The concentration of radon in these chambers can be measured with the application of Lucas cells or activated charcoal detectors. In the latter method, radon is extracted from charcoal into a liquid scintillator and the sample is measured in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Therefore the lower limit of detection (LLD) of the second method is as low as 0.1 mBq·m-2s-1, while the LLD for Lucas cells is 1.5 mBq·m-2s-1. The above-mentioned methods for the measurement of radon exhalation have been applied to investigations of a surface settling pond of one Polish coal mine, abandoned and emptied at the beginning of 2002. An agreement between the mine management and the local authority was to make the ground reclamation of the pond. A thick layer of sediments with an enhanced concentration of radium isotopes covers the bottom of the pond. The maximum concentration of radium isotopes in these sediments is as high as 2000 Bq/kg for 226Ra and up to 4000 Bq/kg for 228Ra. Two years after the complete release of brines from the pond, bottom sediments are still soaked with water. Therefore, measurements of radon in soil gas were not possible. On the other hand, in some parts of the pond investigations of radon exhalation coefficient were done. The preliminary results of measurements, conducted in 2002, showed that radon exhalation rates in specific parts of the pond were higher than the highest values of radon exhalation from the ground in the Upper Silesia region. Values of exhalation coefficient up to 200 mBq·m-2s-1 were found. It must be pointed out that

  14. ENERGY TRANSPORT AND POTENTIAL OF AN ABANDONED MINE

    BÉLA ILLÉS; JÁNOS ZSUGA; ANIKÓ TÓTH

    2012-01-01

    In the „70s an important copper ore mine was implemented in Recsk, Northern Hungary. Unfortunately as soon as the use of the roadways were finished the activities were suspended, because the decreasing price of the copper on the international market. The mine then was abandoned the roadways and the shafts were flooded by mine water. The abandoned mine has a substantial geothermal potential. The terrestrial heat flow is anomalously high: 0.108 W/m2, the temperature is 59.5 0C at the lower leve...

  15. Patch dynamics and the timing of colonization-abandonment events by male Kirtland’s Warblers in an early succession habitat

    Donner, Deahn M.; Ribic, Christine; Probst, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat colonization and abandonment affects the distribution of a species in space and time, ultimately influencing the duration of time habitat is used and the total area of habitat occupied in any given year. Both aspects have important implications to long-term conservation planning. The importance of patch isolation and area to colonization–extinction events is well studied, but little information exists on how changing regional landscape structure and population dynamics influences the variability in the timing of patch colonization and abandonment events. We used 26 years of Kirtland’s Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) population data taken during a habitat restoration program (1979–2004) across its historical breeding range to examine the influence of patch attributes and temporal large-scale processes, specifically the rate of habitat turnover and fraction of occupied patches, on the year-to-year timing of patch colonization and abandonment since patch origin. We found the timing of patch colonization and abandonment was influenced by patch and large-scale regional factors. In this system, larger patches were typically colonized earlier (i.e., at a younger age) and abandoned later than smaller patches. Isolated patches (i.e., patches farther from another occupied patch) were generally colonized later and abandoned earlier. Patch habitat type affected colonization and abandonment; colonization occurred at similar patch ages between plantation and wildfire areas (9 and 8.5 years, respectively), but plantations were abandoned at earlier ages (13.9 years) than wildfire areas (16.4 years) resulting in shorter use. As the fraction of occupied patches increased, patches were colonized and abandoned at earlier ages. Patches were abandoned at older ages when the influx of new habitat patches was at low and high rates. Our results provide empirical support for the temporal influence of patch dynamics (i.e., patch destruction, creation, and succession) on

  16. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  17. Abandoning uranium mining in Germany. Rehabilitation of the Wismut site

    After the unification of Germany in 1989, the Government decided to abandon uranium mining in two lands of the former Eastern Germany, in Saxonia and Thuringia. The closing of the mines and the reclamation and rehabilitation of the site cost more than 10 billion USD. The rehabilitation of the Wismut site is described in detail. (R.P.)

  18. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    2013-02-12

    ... Program; Part 879, Management and Disposition of Lands and Water; Part 882, Reclamation on Private Land..., Management, and Disposition of Lands and Water. This section is also in conformity with the Tennessee Code... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  19. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  20. Pharma TARP: A Troubled Asset Relief Program for Novel, Abandoned Projects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Tamas Bartfai; Graham Vaughan Lees

    2011-01-01

    Within days of each other, Pfizer, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline announced that they will focus on a few therapeutic areas only and abandon others entirely. Pfizer alone will close well over a hundred drug development projects that have reached two-thirds of the way to launch. The programs are deemed to be too risky and not lucrative enough for Big Pharma in the current climate. Society has a real need for the drugs that are no longer going to be developed for, among others, drug-resistant epile...

  1. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Alexandra Gulachenski; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Amy E. Lesen; Michael J Blum

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission...

  2. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Manuel Gómez-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that university students abandon a healthy lifestyle mainly due to external barriers particularly because of lack of time. On the one hand, women appear to be the ones who, to a great extent, adopt a sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, men are the ones who refer more to abandoning the practice of physical activity due to internal barriers. The majority of the university students gave up practicing sport before entering university alluding to external barriers as their reason for the abandonment. A greater part of the sedentary university students expressing that they will be active in the future, left the practice of sport due to internal barriers.

  3. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  4. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  5. Abandon Hope All Ye Who Enter Here?

    Rowena Pecchenino

    2011-01-01

    Hope plays an important role in all individuals’ lives both today and in the future. While hope and hopelessness are important concepts and the subjects of much theorizing in psychology, theology, philosophy, political science, nursing, as well as in literature and the arts, it is absent from economics. This silence on hope is notable since hope is fundamentally at the centre of choice, especially intertemporal choice, which is at the centre of economic analysis. To place hope at the centre o...

  6. Reconstruction of Jinghua abandoned railway station

    Yang, Guang; 楊光

    2015-01-01

    Old Jinghua railway station is one well-preserved part of Hangjiang Line. It needs to be preserved for the following reasons. Firstly is the history factor that it is the first railway station that designed and built by Chinese in south of china. What is more, Jinghua railway station make great contribution during the anti Japanese war. Secondly, the location of this site is very unique. It is located in the central of Jinghua city and near the connection point of Wu river, wuyi river and Yiw...

  7. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    Traditional lecture-based courses are widely criticised for be- ing less eective in teaching. The question is of course what should replace the lectures and various active learning tech- niques have been suggested and studied. In this paper, we report on our experiences of redesigning a software ......- tive seminars as a replacement of traditional lectures, an activity template for the contents of active seminars, an ac- count on how storytelling supported the seminars, as well as reports on our and the students' experiences....

  8. Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the

  9. Lichens of abandoned zinc-lead mines

    Urszula Bielczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of lichens from areas of zinc-lead ores in Southern Poland and a review of the characteristic lichen biota of these sites is provided. In spite of the devastated and heavy metal contaminated environment, a highly diverse epigeic and epilithic lichen biota was found, including species characteristic of various anthropogenic habitats, particularly zinc and lead enriched substrates (Diploschistes muscorum, Steinia geophana, Sarcosagium campestre, Vezdaea aestivalis and V. leprosa. Also, the high-mountain species Leucocarpia biatorella, as well as very rare in Europe Thelocarpon imperceptum, and several species categorized as very rare, endangered and protected in Poland were recorded. Crustose lichens are the most abundant; among fruticose forms Cladonia spp. predominate and Stereocaulon incrustatum is common.

  10. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  11. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning

    2011-01-01

    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  12. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  13. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  14. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  15. Television method of controlling stowing of abandoned workings

    Zimny, W.

    1978-01-01

    This method describes a method of monitoring stowing of an underground abandoned working by means of a television camera lowered through a drillhole from the surface. The method was used in Poland for the first time in the period from 1974 to 1976. The camera had been previously used to check the technical state of underground sewage systems. The sAV 18 camera can be lowered to a maximum depth of 400 m, it is explosion proof and can be used under conditions of explosion hazard. A scheme of the equipment is given. A method of determining size of old workings using the camera (with light source) is explained. Examples of photos made by the camera (on videotape) of the abandoned working being stowed with a sand-water mixture through a drillhole from the surface are also given. (In Polish)

  16. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pip...

  17. Should High-Frequency Ventilation in the Adult Be Abandoned?

    Nguyen, Albert P; Schmidt, Ulrich H; MacIntyre, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) can improve ventilation-perfusion matching without excessive alveolar tidal stretching or collapse-reopening phenomenon. This is an attractive feature in the ventilation of patients with ARDS. However, two recent large multi-center trials of HFOV failed to show benefits in this patient population. The following review addresses whether, in view of these trails, HFOV should be abandoned in the adult population? PMID:27235314

  18. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support. PMID:16602351

  19. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and to propose mitigation strategies. The methodologies used in this study are combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of literature review, questionnaire survey, and interview. The results show that many risks are involved in housing project, including risks related to environmental impacts, construction, politics, law, management, finance, materials, and economy, of which the probability of risks from unexpected ground condition, project delays, bureaucracy, contractual disputes between developer and landlord, weakness in management by inexperience developer, and financial crisis is very high. It was also found that all relevant parties involved in housing industry are required to have extensive cooperation in advance and should perform systematic risk management strategies in order to mitigate the risks leading to problems associated with abandoned housing projects.

  20. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  1. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

  2. Lymphedema Precautions: Time to Abandon Old Practices?

    Ahn, Soojin; Port, Elisa R

    2016-03-01

    The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice.A 46-year-old premenopausal woman with a body mass index of 21 was found on screening mammography to have a new, approximately 1-cm spiculated mass with associated calcifications in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Stereotactic core biopsy showed a focus of invasive duct carcinoma, strongly positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, with associated ductal carcinoma in situ. Clinical examination revealed no palpable mass or axillary lymphadenopathy. She underwent a left lumpectomy with seed localization and sentinel lymph node biopsy. Final pathology revealed an 8-mm well-differentiated invasive carcinoma without lymphovascular invasion and intermediate grade ductal carcinoma in situ. The margins were clear, and three sentinel lymph nodes were negative for metastasis. The 21-gene recurrence score was 10, suggesting a 7% risk of 10-year distant recurrence with adjuvant endocrine treatment. After the completion of adjuvant radiotherapy (42.50 Gy in 16 fractions to the breast), the patient has returned for a follow-up visit. She is a professional violinist and would like to know what she can do to prevent lymphedema on her upcoming flight to Vienna. PMID:26712226

  3. Well Spacing for Horizontal Wells

    C.D.S. Keuengoua

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the developing phase of a hydrocarbon reservoir and planning for drilling the production wells, it is necessary to drill the wells in an appropriate spacing to achieve maximum economic revenues during the reservoir life span. Well spacing which is the real location and interrelationship between producing oil or gas wells in an oil field is an important parameter. It is determined for the maximum ultimate production of a given reservoir and should be taken in consideration during well planning to avoid drilling of unnecessary wells. This study presents the concept of drainage area on horizontal well and horizontal productivity indices with different equations and their applications. A user friendly Excel Spreadsheet program was developed to calculate the productivity values of horizontal wells using three major available productivity equations. Also, the developed spreadsheet program was used to evaluate the effect of well spacing on the productivities of horizontal wells using productivity index approach and drainage area concept. It also helps to review the comparison between vertical and horizontal wells spacing based on drainage area concept. This program was validated, and then was used to study the effect of horizontal well length on the ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity. The results show that higher ratio of horizontal well productivity to vertical well productivity values are obtained with increase length of the horizontal well. It is a very useful tool for making decision about the application of well spacing for horizontal wells.

  4. The effect of Landsat ETM/ETM+ image acquisition dates on the detection of agricultural land abandonment in Eastern Europe

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.;

    2012-01-01

    seasons for a pre-abandonment-time I (1989) and post-abandonment-time II (1999/2000). Using a factorial experiment, we tested how the classification accuracy and spatial patterns of classified abandonment changed over all possible 49 image-date combinations when mapping both "abandoned arable land...... for the classification, the seasons captured also mattered, and the importance of specific seasonal image dates varied between the pre- and post-abandonment dates. For "abandoned arable land" it was important to have at least one "Spring" or "Summer" image for pre-abandonment and as many images as possible for post...

  5. Pharma TARP: A Troubled Asset Relief Program for Novel, Abandoned Projects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Tamas Bartfai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Within days of each other, Pfizer, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline announced that they will focus on a few therapeutic areas only and abandon others entirely. Pfizer alone will close well over a hundred drug development projects that have reached two-thirds of the way to launch. The programs are deemed to be too risky and not lucrative enough for Big Pharma in the current climate. Society has a real need for the drugs that are no longer going to be developed for, among others, drug-resistant epilepsy, neuropathic and cancer pain, type-2 diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia. The authors propose a radical response by the U.S. government and the National Institutes of Health to rescue these abandoned projects, and to continue selected programs for drug approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. The investment required is small compared to the Troubled Asset Relief Program bank bail out, but the return on investment in financial terms and in satisfying societal needs makes this proposal attractive.

  6. Research on mechanism of groundwater pollution from mine water in abandoned mines

    WANG Lai-gui; LI Xi-lin; LIU Ling; HAN Liang

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the mechanism and regularity of the groundwater contamination from mine water of abandoned mines, experiments were conducted on an abandoned coal mine in Fuxin, a representative city with lots of mine water in northeast China. The groundwater pollution from different contaminants of coal-mining voids (total hardness, SO2-4, Cl and total Fe) and pollution factors transportation situation in the coal rock were simulated by soil column experiment under the conditions of mine water leaching and main water leaching (similar to rainwater leaching), and the water-rock interaction mechanism was discussed during mine water infiltration through saturated coal rock by application of principle of mass conservation, based on physical properties of coal rock, as well as monitored chemical composition. The results show that, compared with the clear water leaching process, trends of change in pollutant concentrations presented different characteristics in the mine water leaching process. Groundwater is contaminated by the water rock interactions such as migration & accumulation, adsorption & transformation,dissolution & desorption and ion exchange during the mine water permeation. The experiments also suggest that at first dissolution rate of some kinds of dissoluble salts is high,but it decreases with leaching time, even to zero during both the mine water leaching and main water leaching.

  7. Ground- and surface-water interactions involving an abandoned underground coal mine in Pike County, Indiana

    Harper, D. [Indiana Geologic Survey, Bloomington, IN (United States); Olyphant, G.A.; Sjogren, D.R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Several highwall pits of an abandoned surface mine in the Springfield Coal Member (Pennsylvanian) are currently occupied by ponds with a total area of approximately 2.3 x 10{sup 4} m{sup 2}. These ponds are adjacent to an abandoned underground mine (Patoka Valley Coal and Coke Company No. 1 Mine) in the same coalbed. The mine underlies about 0.3 km{sup 2} and contains approximately 4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 3} of flooded voids. Monitoring of water levels in wells that are screened in the mine and of the levels of adjacent ponds reveal that average hourly levels vary in unison across a range of less than one meter. The mean potentiometric level of the mine-aquifer, the neighboring ponds, and an artesian spring that issues through the outcrop of the coalbed, are at elevations of about 163 m above sea level. Long-term monitoring and a field experiment that involved pumping of a pond indicated that the mine was connected to two of the ponds and served to recharge, rather than discharge, the ponds. The monitoring and field experiment also allowed determination of the mine aquifers barometric efficiency (0.3) and its storativity (2 x 10{sup -3}) . A water-balance calculation indicates that the average recharge rate of the mine is about 0.1 mm/day.

  8. An engineering approach to predict subsidence likelihood over abandoned coal mines in Illinois

    In this paper, the authors attempt to develop engineering based approaches for estimating safety factors against pillar and floor failures and predicting likelihood of subsidence events over abandoned coal mines in Illinois. There are two critical problems involved in the analysis: determination of geotechnical properties, and consideration of time effect. The authors attempt to solve the problems by generating hypotheses, which are used to modify existing engineering models for estimating pillar and floor safety factors. The modified models are validated using data from two well established databases of subsidence events over active and abandoned mines in Illinois. The data analysis suggests that most of the trough type subsidence events in Illinois were caused by floor failures rather than pillar failures. The subsidence incubation period seems to be directly related to initial floor safety factors at the time of mining. This correlation can be used to predict the likelihood of subsidence and to assess subsidence risks within both spatial and temporal contexts where detailed mine maps are available

  9. Well Spacing for Horizontal Wells

    C.D.S. Keuengoua; Amorin, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the developing phase of a hydrocarbon reservoir and planning for drilling the production wells, it is necessary to drill the wells in an appropriate spacing to achieve maximum economic revenues during the reservoir life span. Well spacing which is the real location and interrelationship between producing oil or gas wells in an oil field is an important parameter. It is determined for the maximum ultimate production of a given reservoir and should be taken in consideration during well plann...

  10. "We Have to Do Something for Ourselves": Using Photovoice and Participatory Action Research to Assess the Barriers to Caregiving for Abandoned and Orphaned Children in Sierra Leone

    Walker, Ashley; Early, Jody

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative participatory action research study was multi-fold: first, to identify the ecological factors which impede and promote health and well-being among orphaned and abandoned children in Sierra Leone; second, to facilitate Photovoice, a participatory action research method, among NGO workers to identify barriers to…

  11. [Analysis of the reasons for abandoning the follow-up and treatment process in women with pre-cancerous cervical lesions in the province of Jujuy: implications for health management].

    Paolino, Melisa; Arrossi, Silvina

    2012-12-01

    Adequate follow-up and treatment of women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) and cancer is key in reducing cervical cancer mortality. This research study aims to analyze the magnitude of abandonment in the follow-up and treatment process, as well as the reasons for this abandonment, in women with HSIL who received care in public health services in the province of Jujuy in 2010. Secondary sources were analyzed and women were interviewed in their homes. The abandonment rate within the study population was 23.5%. Among these women, 40.5% mentioned organizational problems in the health care system as a reason for abandoning and 30.9% mentioned subjective reasons. Our results have been used in the reorganization of the follow-up and treatment process being carried out in the province. PMID:23681458

  12. Relief for marginal wells is better than energy tax

    By increasing production costs and reducing petroleum prices, President Bill Clinton's proposed energy tax would increase marginal well abandonments and hasten the decline of the US oil and gas industry. Instead, the US needs tax law changes to help counteract the increasing number of oil and gas well abandonments in the lower 48 states. The proposed tax would create potential difficulties, while three incentives could be introduced to reduce abandonments and at the same time preserve US government tax revenues that otherwise would be lost. Eliminating the net income limitation on percentage depletion allowances on wells that would otherwise be abandoned would be a great help for marginal well operators. Extended enhanced oil recovery (EOR) credits and broader investment tax credits could also serve the dual purpose of keeping marginal wells operating longer and generating more federal tax revenues. A marginal well investment tax credit should be provided that is not just a credit for incremented investments that exceed investment in prior years. An investment tax credit based on out-of-pocket costs of production, targeted for marginal wells, would be an important incentive to invest in, and continue to maintain, these properties. (author)

  13. Koritnjak: Abandoned rural settlement in the beginning of 2002.

    Martinović Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under non-adequate conditions of social relation to rural area after Second world war, modern development of rural settlements of Serbia has a lot of rural problems. A certain number of rural settlements, after negative general development at the end of XX and in the beginning of XXI century have been in demographical mean disappeared. With this paper, in the example of Koritnjak, is showed the genesis and evolution of settlement which is abandoned in the beginning of 2002, after continuous decrease of total population and non-positive demographical and total development.

  14. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  15. Measures of Vegetation Restoration in Abandoned Mined Lands

    2008-01-01

    By 2004, the occupied and disturbed land area had reached 3.393 million ha by mining, of which forest land took 532 000 ha; In addition, mining also caused 3.721 million -5.316 million ha of degraded forests and woodlands. The impact of mining on environment is multi-fold and deep. Thus it is necessary and significant to approach effective methods to speed up vegetation restoration in abandoned mined lands. Phytoremediation is a relatively new technology (in the lastest decade) and the numbers of plant spec...

  16. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions after land-use abandonment in relation to carbon, nitrogen, and microbial community composition

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Former agricultural land-use has strong legacy effects on biogeochemical cycles as well as on plant and microbial community composition in secondary ecosystems. Since many forests and grasslands have previously been cultivated it is important to understand long-term effects of former arable land use on these ecosystems. We studied the temporal dimension of the impact of former agricultural land use on soil total organic C (TOC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) fractions, and microbial community structure in two chronosequences of abandoned vineyards, differing in exposition and slope. We found that more TOC accumulated in soils of south- than in southwest-exposed sites, which can be attributed to the drier microclimate that decreases organic matter decomposition. TOC concentrations were significantly positive correlated with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations (R=0.99, pslow depletion of P from the soil organic matter (SOM) after cessation of cultivation. This suggests that SOM is an effective intermediate storage of fertilizer-derived P, which slowly releases P. In contrast, labile P concentrations decreased quickly during the first 25 years of land use-abandonment. A linear relation between microbial C and TOC (R=0.83, pfertilizer-derived P, which slowly releases P, but still contains high amounts of P even more than 100 years after land-use abandonment. This has important implications for conservation management as it shows that organic P stocks have to be taken into account for estimating the development potentials of formerly cultivated sites for plant conservation.

  17. Abandonment Fears in Persons with Alzheimer's at Adult Day Care Centers

    Judkins, Wayne A

    1999-01-01

    In my research, I examined abandonment fears in persons with Alzheimerâ s disease at the Salem Veterans Affairs adult day care center. I observed fifty hours at the center, and conducted open-ended interviews with two of the participants and their respective caregivers. These two participants (Ellen and Opel) at the center expressed abandonment fears much more frequently than any of the other participants. I found that most of the time, these two women would express their abandonment f...

  18. Staying Well

    ... for at-home program. By Beth E. Gibson, PT. (last updated September 2015) Download Brochure Taming Stress (. ... for at-home program. By Beth E. Gibson, PT. (last updated September 2015) Download Brochure Wellness Discussion ...

  19. Soil erosion as a consequence of wildfires on recently abandoned citrus orchards in eastern Spain

    A. Cerdà; F. A. González-Peñaloza; Burguet, M.; P. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Fire is a natural factor in the evolution of Earth ecosystems. Due to land abandonment wildfire are widespread in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, which contribute to increase the soil erosion rates. Fire is also found in recently abandoned citrus orchards due to the quick vegetation recovery and the dry biomass found after 2 years of abandonment. Rainfall simulation experiments (1 hour at 45 mm h-1 in a plot of 0.25 m2) show that although land abandonment on irrigated citrus orchards reduces t...

  20. Potential hydrologic characterization wells in Amargosa Valley

    More than 500 domestic, agricultural, and monitoring wells were identified in the Amargosa Valley. From this list, 80 wells were identified as potential hydrologic characterization wells, in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Underground Test Area/Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study (UGTA/RIFS). Previous hydrogeologic studies have shown that groundwater flow in the basin is complex and that aquifers may have little lateral continuity. Wells located more than 10 km or so from the Nevada Test Site (NTS) boundary may yield data that are difficult to correlate to sources from the NTS. Also, monitoring well locations should be chosen within the guidelines of a hydrologic conceptual model and monitoring plan. Since these do not exist at this time, recompletion recommendations will be restricted to wells relatively close (approximately 20 km) to the NTS boundary. Recompletion recommendations were made for two abandoned agricultural irrigation wells near the town of Amargosa Valley (previously Lathrop Wells), for two abandoned wildcat oil wells about 10 km southwest of Amargosa Valley, and for Test Well 5 (TW-5), about 10 km east of Amargosa Valley

  1. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Manuel Gómez-López; Antonio Granero-Gallegos; Antonio Baena-Extremera

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that...

  2. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  3. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation. PMID:10216814

  4. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR)

  5. [Xenophobia and experienced abandonment--a depth-hermeneutic analysis of a single case].

    Taubner, Svenja; Hasper, Fritz; Wahl, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    A single case study is presented from a feasibility study on social, psychic and neurobiological causes of violence in adolescence focusing on right-wing extremist and xenophobic youth. Results from psychological assessments and a structured biografical reconstruction are analyzed. The case illustrates a typical developmental path of a right-wing, xenophobic and violent male adolescent who experienced early and repeated exclusion and social marginalization. Results from psychological testing demonstrated additional developmental risk factors, such as disorganized attachment representations and low mentalizing abilities. A depth-hermeneutic analysis ofa sequence during the attachment interview as well as a reflection of the research setting further illustrates how experiences of exclusion are re-enacted by a combination of fear of abandonment and aggression. PMID:24505859

  6. Werable wellness

    Rozycki, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world full of rush and a ‘relaxed state of being’ might increasingly play a role in today’s fast paced society to overcome contemporary stress and related illnesses such as burn-outs. The Sleephones concept is a wearable wellness device that aims to support relaxation by combing music...

  7. 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 19)

    Mike Lewis

    2011-06-01

    This 2010 Idaho National Laboratory Water Use Report and Comprehensive Well Inventory (Revision 19) provides water use information (monthly annual average and total annual volume) for production and potable water wells at the Idaho National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2010. It also provides detailed information for new, modified, and abandoned (decommissioned) wells and holes. Five new wells were drilled and completed in the latter part of Calendar Years 2009 and 2010. Two wells were modified in Calendar Year 2010 and 66 wells and boreholes reported as abandoned (decommissioned). Detailed construction information for the new and modified wells, along with abandonment information for older wells, is provided. Location maps are provided if survey information was available. This report is being submitted in accordance with the Water Rights Agreement between the State of Idaho and the United States, for the United States Department of Energy (dated 1990) and the subsequent Partial Decree for Water Right 34-10901 issued June 20, 2003.

  8. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  9. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise... Provisions § 19.9 General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise. (a) Acceptance of merchandise. The... Customs-authorized permit to transfer or in-bond entry) is responsible for preparing a Customs Form...

  10. 78 FR 57681 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Iowa

    2013-09-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, Iowa Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  11. 78 FR 48931 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, Ohio

    2013-08-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Lucas County, Ohio Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  12. 76 FR 36617 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Freeborn County, MN

    2011-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Freeborn County, MN Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will...

  13. 78 FR 11733 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Calhoun County, AL

    2013-02-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Calhoun County, AL Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... and historic report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment...

  14. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    2013-12-31

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gaston County, NC Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic...

  15. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    2013-04-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Washington County, Idaho Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 C.F.R. pt... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  16. 78 FR 44190 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Miami County, KS

    2013-07-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Miami County, KS Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by...

  17. Impacts of Land Abandonment on Vegetation: Successional Pathways in European Habitats

    Prévosto, B.; Kuiters, A.T.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Dölle, M.; Schmidt, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Uytvanck, Van J.; Bohner, A.; Kreiner, D.; Stadler, J.; Klotz, S.; Brandl, R.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in traditional agricultural systems in Europe in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different hab

  18. 78 FR 5244 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Fulton County, IL

    2013-01-24

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Fulton County, IL BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  19. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    2013-03-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, Ill. BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt... the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  20. 75 FR 65049 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pulaski County, AR

    2010-10-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pulaski County, AR Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  1. 78 FR 49603 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marengo County, Ala

    2013-08-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Marengo County, Ala Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  2. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    2012-09-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pickens Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pickens County, SC Pickens Railway Company (Pickens) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F... the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  3. 76 FR 72241 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cass County, ND

    2011-11-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cass County, ND BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F--Exempt... and historic report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment...

  4. An exploratory analysis of land abandonment drivers in areas prone to desertification

    Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Hessel, R.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The abandonment of land is a global problemwith environmental and socioeconomic implications. An approach to assess the relationship between land abandonment and a large set of indicators was illustrated in the present study by using data collected in the framework of the European Union DESIRE resea

  5. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    2010-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land... § 902.20 Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Alaska Reclamation Plan,...

  6. Inhomogeneous CTMC Model of a Call Center with Balking and Abandonment

    Burak, Maciej Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a nonstationary multiserver queuing model with abandonment and balking for inbound call centers. We present a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) model which captures the important characteristics of an inbound call center and obtain a numerical solution for its transient state probabilities using uniformization method with steady-state detection. Keywords: call center, transient, Markov processes, numerical methods, uniformization, abandonment, balking

  7. Wellness centrum

    Krchňák, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Diplomová práce „Wellness centrum'' je zpracována ve formě prováděcí dokumentace obsahující všechny náležitosti dle platných norem a předpisů. Navržený objekt je řešen jako třípodlažní budova. Objekt slouží veřejnosti k rekreaci a sportu. V 1S je umístěno technické zázemí, zázemí pro zaměstnance, šatny a posilovna. V 1 NP se nachází kavárna a wellness. Ve 2NP se nachází kanceláře pro administrativu budovy, masáže, solárium, šatny a fitness sál. Budova je založena na základových patk...

  8. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  9. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings

    Semi-aquatic and terrestrial areas on abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in Ontario were studied in order to identify the growth characteristics of the naturally invading species dominating these areas. Semi-aquatic areas of tailings sites have been invaded by cattails. These species formed wetland communities which varied in size, but all were essentially monocultures of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, or of the hybrids T. glauca. Sedges, Scripus cyperinus (wool-grass) and Phragmites australis (reed-grass), were found in transition zones between the cattail stand and the dry section of the tailings site. The expansion of the cattail stands appeared to be controlled by the hydrological conditions on the site, rather than the chemical characteristics of the tailings

  10. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. Litherland, J.C. (2002)

  11. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. PMID:11977938

  12. Childhood lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention.

    Needleman, H L

    1998-12-01

    In 1991, the Public Health Service published the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning. This document marked a fundamental shift in federal policy from finding and treating lead-poisoned children to authentic primary prevention. It spelled out a 15-year strategy to achieve this goal and provided a cost-benefit analysis showing that the monetized benefits far exceeded the costs of abatement. A strong national effort to eliminate the disease developed. Now, 7 years after publication of the plan, primary prevention of lead exposure has been abandoned. This article examines the role of some prevailing attitudes and institutions in derailing the effort. Some institutions--the lead industry, real estate interests, and insurance interests--behaved as anticipated. Others, including private pediatricians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, some federal agencies, and a public interest group ostensibly dedicated to eliminating lead poisoning, also played an unexpected part in derailing the plan. PMID:9842392

  13. GROWING NIPA PALM FOR RESTORATION OF ABANDONED SHRIMP PONDS

    Noparat Bamroongrugsa; Chorthip Purintavarakul

    2006-01-01

    Rapid increase in the production of marine shrimps in the coastal zone has resulted in large - scale conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp ponds. Productions of the shrimps in some regions have been unstable. Consequently, a number of ponds are left idle. Restoring environmental conditions within the pond site by planting a suitable mangrove species considered an option. The experiment herein was carried out to explore the effect of planting methods on growth of Nipa palm in abandoned shrimp ponds in the Southern Thailand. Economically, coastal villagers in this area earn their income from the palm in several ways, the most importantly in Nipa sugar production. Most seedlings were planted on top of furrows were constructed in the pond to avoid flooding, except for some seedlings which were planted in the pond base where additional pond sludge were slightly filled up to compare their growth rates. The results showed that planting seedlings with attached rhizomes had the best growth rate and without seedling death at 14 months after planting. At this stage, however, the height of seedlings grown from the fallen fruits was similar to those growth from bare rooted seedlings (70 cm tall). Also, seedling mortality was not observed when growth from fallen fruits whereas about6% mortality was experienced by the bare rooted ones. Among the bare rooted seedling treatments, however no significant differences in growth rates were found when applying the soil with chemical fertilizers or farm manure or liming with CaCO3. In addition, it was found that seedling growth measured at 40 months after planting for those growths in pond base was almost 100% greater than those grown on the furrows. Therefore, this finding may be applied for the restoration of abandoned shrimp ponds by growing Nipa palm.

  14. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  15. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  16. Abandoned Beach Ridges in the Mejillones Peninsula, Northern Chile: Implications for Paleoseismology of Great Subduction Earthquakes.

    del Río, I. A.; Gonzalez, G.; Antinao, J. L.; McDonald, E.; González-Carrasco, J. F.; Shrivastava, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    The Mejillones Peninsula, in northern Chile, shows a well-preserved set of beach ridges parallel to the present coast. These beach ridges can be observed up to 20 km inland and at 200 m above sea level. Previous dating performed in fossils extracted from the oldest beach ridges yielded ages of 400 ka (Victor et al., 2011). However, numerical ages for younger beach ridges have not been determined, therefore a complete time record is not available. InSar data show that the Mejillones Peninsula was uplifted several centimeters during the last two subduction earthquakes (Antofagasta Mw 8.1, 1995 earthquake and the Mw 7.7, 2007 Tocopilla earthquake) occurred in the area (Loveless et al., 2010). A permanent GPS station deployed by CALTECH (http://web.gps.caltech.edu/~jeff/andes/) in this peninsula has measured a coseismic uplift during the 2007 Tocopilla earthquake. This data suggest that the beach ridges were abandoned as a consequence of coseismic uplift during great subduction earthquakes and therefore they represent the long-term record of past earthquakes. In order to prove this hypothesis we excavated five trenches across the beach ridges. Our idea is to look for stratigraphic evidence of the abandonment mechanism and to collect samples for dating the beach ridges using the method of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The ages will be used to estimate long-term uplift rate and temporal variation of this rate. By confronting short-term uplift rate provided by GPS data with long-term rate we hope to know what it is the amount of the coseismic slip that remain in the geological record.

  17. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  18. Ten Year Evaluation of Carbon Stock in Mangrove Plantation Reforested from an Abandoned Shrimp Pond

    Jirasak Chukwamdee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest carbon stocks—both in terms of the standing biomass and the soil organic carbon (OC—were monitored in the mangrove plantation reforested from an abandoned shrimp pond for the 10 years following land excavation. Excavation to a level of 25 cm below the existing ground level increased the inundation time of tidal water from 463 to 7,597 hours per year, resulting in a significant increase of survival/growth rates for planted mangrove species, Rhizophora mucronata (RM and Bruguiera cylindrica (BC, and of carbon stocks as well. RM showed high rates of standing biomass accumulation with 98.7 ton/ha while 28.8 ton/ha for BC was measured over 10 years in the excavated area. In contrast, the unexcavated area showed low rates of biomass accumulation, 1.04 ton/ha for RM and 0.53 ton/ha for BC in the same period. The excavated area recorded a twofold increase of soil OC in the upper 5 cm of the surface soil from 71.8 to 154.8 ton/ha in 10 years, however it decreased to 68.3 ton/ha in the unexcavated area where soil OC is susceptible to decomposition. These results imply that the potential of carbon sinks in reforested land from abandoned areas cannot be developed unless hydraulic conditions are properly recovered. The fast growing species Avicennia marina (AM grew quickly for the first two years after colonization but its growth slowed down afterwards, showing a limited ability of carbon capture.

  19. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Pence Brian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs, yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and associations of child labour with schooling in a cohort of OAC in 5 LMICs. Methods The Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO study employed a two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify 1480 single and double orphans and children abandoned by both parents ages 6-12 living in family settings in five LMICs: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Regression models examined child and caregiver associations with: any work versus no work; and with working Results The majority of OAC (60.7% engaged in work during the past week, and of those who worked, 17.8% (10.5% of the total sample worked 28 or more hours. More than one-fifth (21.9%; 13% of the total sample met UNICEF's child labour definition. Female OAC and those in good health had increased odds of working. OAC living in rural areas, lower household wealth and caregivers not earning an income were associated with increased child labour. Child labour, but not working fewer than 28 hours per week, was associated with decreased school attendance. Conclusions One in seven OAC in this study were reported to be engaged in child labour. Policy makers and social service providers need to pay close attention to the demands being placed on female OAC, particularly in rural areas and poor households with limited income sources. Programs to promote OAC school attendance may need to focus on the needs of families as well as the OAC.

  20. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12564344

  1. Mitigation of adverse effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine (Bilbao, northern Spain)

    Saiz de Omeñaca, J.; Ereño, I.; Atxabal, K.; Azurmendi, I.

    1993-09-01

    Solid fills arranged in 1-m-thick layers were prepared with stone blocks and pebbles of a drainage bed every 8 m. Runoff gathering in a well and the use of silts and mud lands for bordering and sealing the limestones are the main techniques employed for minimizing unfavorable effects at the Lezama-Leguizamon abandoned open-pit mine. Since there were waste disposal problems in the area, the rate of disposal has made the activity profitable. No significant faults have been detected by control studies, and the objectives are being achieved without problems.

  2. Analyses of floristic composition of the abandoned Cu-dump field Piesky (Staré Hory Mountains, Slovakia)

    Turisová, Ingrid; Sabo, Peter; Štrba, Tomáš; Koróny, Samuel; Andráš, Peter; Širka, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    The Cu-dump field Piesky is an important historical abandoned mining area in the region of central Europe, well known for the high content of heavy metals in its soil, especially copper, the content of which varies from 933.40 to 1485.40 mg kg−1. Floristic and phytosociological research was carried out here during the vegetation seasons in 2011–2014. Altogether a total of 156 taxa of vascular plants were found. The most common species were Acetosella vulgaris, Agrostis capillar...

  3. Wellness hotel

    Bambas, Vratislav

    2013-01-01

    Novostavba Wellness hotelu. Objekt je částečně podsklepen. Hotel se skládá ze tří částí. Střední trakt je železobetonový skelet a má pět nadzemních podlaží. Tato část slouží jako vstupní hala a hlavní schodiště. Boční trakty mají čtyři nadzemní podlaží a jejich nosný systém je příčný stěnový, zděný, ze systému Porotherm. V suterénu se nachází zázemí hotelu a bazén. Do přízemí je umístěno restaurační zařízení. Ve druhém patře se nacházejí pokoje, posilovna a služby. V posledním patře jsou pouz...

  4. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  5. Investigation and evaluation of geopressured-geothermal wells. Notes on Gruy Federal's Well-of-Opportunity program

    1979-02-01

    Obtaining test data from geopressured aquifers along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast by arranging to assume operation of wells already drilled and found nonproductive of conventional oil or gas accumulations before such wells were abandoned by the operators is described. The geopressured aquifers were tested after performing whatever additional operations were required. The monitoring and screening of all wells which might qualify is described. The major activities and important milestones are summarized. (MHR)

  6. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands. PMID:27140199

  7. Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields

    The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

  8. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Huhe

    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  9. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 2: Appendix D

    In an effort to support remedial investigations of abandoned septic tanks by US DOE, this report contains the results of chemical analyses of the contents of these abandoned tanks. Analytical data are presented for the following: volatile/TCLP volatile organics; semivolatile/TCLP semivolatile organics; PCB organics; total petroleum hydrocarbons; and total metals. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. The 20 sites investigated are located on the Nevada Test Site

  10. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  11. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  12. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  13. The U.S. Forest Service abandoned mine land inventory in Colorado: Background, progress, and preliminary findings

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (GIS) creating a geo-referenced data set. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project began in 1991 and is ongoing. To date, field inventories of the Arapaho, Roosevelt, Pike, and Rio Grande National Forests have been completed. Work in the San Isabel, San Juan, White River, Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Grand Mesa National Forests is in progress. Through the 1994 field season approximately 9,667 mine features (openings, dumps, tailings, highwalls, etc.) have been inventoried

  14. Irritations caused by the abandonment of national spent fuel management

    The announcement of the intended expansion of German-French cooperation in the field of reprocessing and the abandonment soon after of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant caught the German nuclear community completely by surprise. The range of reactions extended between profound disappointment and concern on the one hand and relief on the other hand and caused satisfaction and feelings of victory in the nuclear opposition camp. After the short period of time since that decision it is possible to attempt to assess in a more relaxed spirit both the intentions and the resultant new situation in the field of reprocessing in the Federal Republic of Germany. This reveals that also the European solution offers advantages worth being taken into account in addition to the arguments, which are still valid, in favor of reprocessing in Germany. Attention should also be drawn to a different strategy, that of prolonged intermediate storage, which is being employed in major countries, but not being considered in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  15. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  16. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  17. Integrated approach to hazard evaluation of an abandoned oil refinery

    The multiparameter approach to determine the ecological effects of contaminant residues in an abandoned oil refinery site permitted an evaluation of both sensitivity and resilience of responses from the molecular to the population level of organization. The acute and partial chronic toxicity tests of soil and leachates of soil with conventional aquatic organisms scored similar deleterious responses to the same sites as the resident small mammal populations. While there was not a statistically significant correlation between populational, organismal, and molecular level of responses in this study, this was probably due to the inadequacy of the authors current statistical methodology to analyze the interactions. Populational responses appeared to be less sensitive than the molecular or organismal level of effect. Toxicity tests of soil leachates with standard aquatic test organisms may over estimate the potential effects upon resident populations of small mammals. However, the differences may be attributable to the mobility of resident mammals, i.e., avoidance responses to odoriferous areas except for occasional feeding forays. Aromatic and alkyd hydrocarbons appear to be the major contaminant group at most sites but other semi-polar organics, lead, and fluoride were also detected at the most toxic sites

  18. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  19. Proceedings of the NOAMI workshop : a workshop to explore perspectives on risk assessment for orphaned and abandoned mines

    This workshop hosted by the National Orphaned/Abandoned Mines Initiative (NOAMI) discussed risk assessment strategies and perspectives for orphaned and abandoned mines in Canada. Different perspectives related to the risk assessment process were considered by participants from local, provincial, federal, and territorial agencies as well as non-governmental, academic, and mining industry organizations. Strategies for effectively communicating with local communities were discussed. New methods of assessing risk related to bioavailability and bioaccessibility were reviewed along with approaches to risk assessment and risk management in relation to the Environmental Management Act. Case studies of risk assessment and remediation projects were presented. The workshop presentations were divided into the following 6 sessions: (1) keynote, (2) opening panel, (3) human health panel, (4) ecological panel, (5) geotechnical-safety risk assessment panel, and (6) case studies and perspectives. The workshop featured 22 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. A report on detailed ecological risk assessment (DERA) in British Columbia prepared by the Science Advisory Board for Contaminated Sites in British Columbia (BC) was included, as well as a final report that summarized presentations given at the workshop. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Water pollution - control of pollution regulations: water pollution from abandoned mines; pre-notification of mine abandonment consultation paper and draft regulations

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The paper contains proposals to specify the content of the pre-abandonment notices which UK mine operators will be required to give in the future. The proposals are designed to enhance the Environment Agency`s ability to tackle water pollution from abandoned mines. They set out the precise contents of the notification, which mine operators will have to send to the Agency at least six months in advance of any intended abandonment. The regulations will cover coal and non-coal mines. Estimated compliance costs to business have been drawn up following consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, the Health and Safety Executive, the Coal Authority and the Environment Agency. The regulations are due in late spring 1998.

  1. Abandoned Vessels and Barges, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1996) [barge_LOSCO_1996

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset with two accompanying 'sample tables' [vabfldsmpap96] and [vablabsmpap96] that summarize the results of the study to inventory abandoned...

  2. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  3. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using...

  4. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  5. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Site Screening Map, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using...

  6. A systematic inventory of abandoned mines - a powerful tool for risk management

    The Province of Ontario, Canada has undertaken a comprehensive program for the identification and assessment of abandoned mine hazards. This program has been being applied across the entire province covering over one million km3 of territory. A three phased inventory and risk management approach was implemented. Phase 1 involved review of the available literature on abandoned mines. Phase 2 involved field assessments of sites containing potential mine hazards. Phase 3 involved the development and implementation of acknowledge based risk assessment system. The need for the field assessment of over 6,000 sites was identified in Phase I. Critical data on these sites is documented in the Abandoned Mines Informations Systems (AMIS) database. An example of the results of Phase II are presented for one administrative district, covering 304 individual sites. The Abandoned Mines Hazard Rating System (AMHAZ) was developed specifically as a risk management tool for mine hazards. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: VESSELS (Grounded, Abandoned, and Derelict Vessel Points)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for grounded, abandoned, and derelict vessels in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector points in this data...

  8. Contaminants in bats roosting in abandoned mines at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, 1998-1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents levels and potential effects of trace element and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in four bats species collected from four abandoned...

  9. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam;

    2014-01-01

    species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales...... the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After...... identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size = 0.2109, P,0...

  10. Application of X-ray NDE in treating with chemical weapons abandoned by Japan

    According as need of treating with CW abandoned by Japan, this paper designs a X-ray NDE system for chemical weapons. It consist of X-ray shooting unit, control and identification unit and some assistant equipment. (authors)

  11. The application of X-ray NDE in treating with chemical weapons abandoned by Japan

    According as need of treating with CW abandoned by Japan, this paper designs a X-ray NDE system for chemical weapons, it consist of X-ray shooting unit, control and identification unit and some assistant equipments

  12. When Organizations Deinstitutionalize Control Practices: A Multiple-Case Study of Budget Abandonment

    Becker , Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a framework of deinstitutionalization, this study explores the abandonment of budgeting through a multiple-case study of four companies. The findings illustrate how a number of antecedents to deinstitutionalization acted in each setting and show that abandonment was only achieved through skillful agency by dominant insiders to construct the need and manage for change. In addition, an interesting finding of the study is that two of the four companies reversed the deinstitutionalizat...

  13. The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of FGM/C in five African countries

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2010-01-01

    This Innocenti Insight examines the social dynamics of the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in five countries - Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan - and seeks to inform policies and programmes aimed at ending the practice. The experiences from the five countries documented in this Innocenti Insight provide evidence that the abandonment of FGM/C is possible when programmes and policies address the complex social dynamics associated with the practice and chall...

  14. A state-and-transition approach to alpine grasslands under abandonment

    Targetti S; Staglianò N; Messeri A; Argenti G

    2010-01-01

    The abandonment of the traditional pastoral practices is acknowledged as the main causes of the shrub-encroachment in the alpine semi-natural grasslands. In this paper, we proposed a state-and-transition approach in order to organize pastoral vegetation in a simple management-oriented framework integrating ecological data. The study sites were chosen in an inner alpine territory where the abandonment of pastoral practices was more evident than in other alpine regions. Cluster and fuzzy analys...

  15. An exploratory analysis of land abandonment drivers in areas prone to desertification

    Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Acikalin, S; M. Alcalá; Alfama, P.; Atlhopheng, J.; Barrera, J.; Belgacem, A.; Solé-Benet, A.; J. Brito; Chaker, M.; Chanda, R.; Darkoh, M.; ERMOLAEVA O

    2015-01-01

    The abandonment of land is a global problem with environmental and socioeconomic implications. An approach to assess the relationship between land abandonment and a large set of indicators was illustrated in the present study by using data collected in the framework of the European Union DESIRE research project from 808 field sites located in 10 study sites in the Mediterranean region, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. A total of 48 indicators provided information for biophysica...

  16. Analysis and Application of Coal Seam Seismic Waves for detection of Abandoned Mines

    Yancey, Daniel Jackson

    2006-01-01

    It is not uncommon for underground coal mining to be conducted in the proximity of abandoned underground mines that are prone to accumulate water, methane or other toxic gases, and are often either poorly mapped or without good surface survey control. Mining into such abandoned voids poses a great safety risk to personnel, equipment, and production from inundation or toxic/explosive gas release. Often, surface or underground drilling is employed to detect the mine void and e...

  17. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    Jason Sherba; Leonhard Blesius; Jerry Davis

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using th...

  18. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine

    Bori Dols, Jaume; Valles Malet, Bettina; Navarro Flores, Andrés Francisco; Riva Juan, Mª del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters...

  19. Learning to let go: Social influence, learning, and the abandonment of corporate venture capital practices

    Gaba, V.; Dokko, G

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Research summary: This study examines the abandonment of organizational practices. We argue that firm choices in implementing practices affect how firms experience a practice and their subsequent likelihood of abandonment. We focus on utilization of the practice and staffing (i.e. career backgrounds of managers), as two important implementation choices that firms make. The findings demonstrate that practice utilization and staffing choices not only affect abando...

  20. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  1. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  2. Towards a New Psychoanalytic Theory of Abandonment: A Feminist Intervention Via Myth

    Gamboa Solis, Flor De Maria

    2008-01-01

    Summary of early research which led to the current study of the myths Clinical background to the current research on myths My work as an academic and my private clinical practice offered me the opportunity to attend female students and patients who in some way had experienced abandonment due to migration. While listening to them I was often forced to question the clinical strategies I was employing and to interrogate the psychoanalytic approaches that established abandonment as a paradigm of ...

  3. COLONIZATION OF MANGROVE FOREST AT ABANDONED SHRIMP-POND OF SEGARA ANAKAN-CILACAP

    Tjut Sugandawaty Djohan

    2015-01-01

    During the 1996 to 1997, large areas of mangrove forest in the Segara Anakan were cleared and converted into intensive shrimp-ponds. After one to two years, these shrimp-ponds failed and were abandoned. These abandoned ponds created large gap areas and canopy gaps, which were colonized by mangrove shrub and liana. The Segara Anakan mangrove also experienced heavy siltation, and there were tree cuttings from the remnant of the mangrove trees. This research aimed to study the colonization of ma...

  4. NEWBORNS ABANDONMENT: THE DYNAMICS OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS RELEVANCE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Baleeva K. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of newborns abandonment in modern Russia is relevant but understudied. This article discusses the nature and dynamics of the problem. Newborns abandonment is considered in the framework of social and demographic modernization. The problem of newborns abandonment is studied in the context of social orphanhood in Russia. The author focuses on the history of the problem of newborns abandonment, its features in pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and modern Russia. For a deeper understanding of the problem the author held a series of expert interviews and highlighted the main factors that influenced newborns abandonment in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. The main challenges in the development of prevention in modern Russia are identified. The author concludes on the need to reform the system for preventing newborns abandonment as part of the ideology of the family-centered approach and constructing a unified federal structure. The paper uses qualitative methods: literature review, expert interviews. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of social work, sociology, demography, politics, and economics

  5. Monitoring abandoned dreg fields of high-speed railway construction with UAV remote sensing technology

    Lin, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yangchun; Lin, Yi; Du, Xiaolin

    2015-12-01

    High-speed railway construction will produce a large amount of abandoned dregs, so it is necessary to build enough dreg deposition fields along the railway. The task of the department of soil and water conservation is to monitor the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields according to the design in the whole process of railway construction. As long linear construction projects, many high-speed railways go through regions of complex terrain, which poses great difficulties to monitoring current status of abandoned dreg fields. With the advantages of low cost, flexible launch and landing, safety, under-cloud-flying, hyperspatial image resolution, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are very suitable for obtaining remote sensing imagery along the railway. One segment of the high-speed railway from Chongqing to Wanzhou and its neighborhood was chosen as the study area to demonstrate key technologies and specific procedures of monitoring abandoned dreg fields using the UAV system. The UAV system and its components are introduced along with the flight trajectories, acquired UAV imagery, and attitude data. Image preprocessing and generation of DEM and DOM are described in detail followed by image-based measurement accuracy assessment and abandoned dreg field status investigation on the resulting DOM and DEM. Results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the fixed wing UAV system to rapidly monitoring the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields

  6. Numerical simulation of a patent technology for sealing of deep-sea oil wells using nonlinear finite element method

    Abdelal, Gasser F.; Robotham, Antony; Carragher, Paul

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years bridge plugs and cement have been used for well abandonment and work over and are still the material of choice. However the failures of cement abandonments using bridge plugs has been reported on many occasions, some of which have resulted in fatal consequences. A new patented product is designed to address the shortcomings associated with using bridge plugs and cement. The new developed tools use an alloy based on bismuth that is melted in situ using Thermite reaction. The ...

  7. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHmine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  8. Physicochemical characterization and mercury speciation of particle-size soil fractions from an abandoned mining area in Mieres, Asturias (Spain)

    Soils from old cinnabar mining areas usually exhibit high Hg contents, whose mobility depends on soil parameters and environmental conditions. This paper presents the study of the Hg speciation in soil samples from an abandoned Hg mine and metallurgical plant in Mieres (Asturias, Spain), in relation to their mineralogical and chemical composition and their particle-size distribution. A characterization of samples was made by X-Ray Diffraction Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy analyses. A sequential extraction method was applied to establish Hg mobility in the samples and their grain-size subsamples. The highest Hg mobility was found in well-developed soils, as a consequence of the adsorption processes by iron and manganese oxides, whereas in those more contaminated soils, a higher proportion of Hg was leached in the non-mobile fraction. A higher Hg mobility was found in the finest grain-size subsamples, probably due to the accumulation of clay minerals and oxides in these ranges. - Factors affecting mercury mobility in soils influenced by abandoned mining

  9. Preliminary investigation of the hydrogeology and contamination in the area of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    Prior to the introduction of natural gas pipelines in the 1950's, gas for lighting and heating in the US was produced from coal or oil at local manufacturing gas plants. By-products and wastes generated at these plants commonly were disposed of on site. The major wastes, which include tar and oil residues and sludges, spent oxides, and ash materials, can consist of a complex mixture of hundreds of aromatic organic compounds as well as cyanides and metals. An investigation was initiated in January 1989 in the vicinity of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia, to evaluate the hydrogeology and contamination of the area, and to test study techniques that may have application in similar situations. Geologic formations of interest to this investigation include, in descending order, unconsolidated sand and clay layers, The Ocala Limestone, and the Lisbon Formation. Surficial fill overlies the sand and clay layers throughout the study area. High concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and various metals were detected in the unconsolidated sediments in the vicinity of the abandoned gas plant. Maximum concentrations of hydrocarbons detected sediment samples included 560,000 microg/kg naphthalene, 73,000 microg/kg ethylbenzene, 28,000 microg/kg benzene, and 24,000 microg/kg toluene. These higher concentrations of hydrocarbons were present in the vicinity of the former gas holding tanks. In that area, contamination extends at least to the depth of the contact between the unconsolidated sand and clay layers and the Ocala Limestone

  10. Monitoring of the risk of farmland abandonment as an efficient tool to assess the environmental and socio-economic impact of the Common Agriculture Policy

    Milenov, Pavel; Vassilev, Vassil; Vassileva, Anna; Radkov, Radko; Samoungi, Vessela; Dimitrov, Zlatomir; Vichev, Nikola

    2014-10-01

    Farmland abandonment (FLA) could be defined as the cessation of agricultural activities on a given surface of land (Pointereau et al., 2008). FLA, often associated with social and economic problems in rural areas, has significant environmental consequences. During the 1990s, millions of hectares of farmland in the new EU Member States, from Central and Eastern Europe, were abandoned as a result of the transition process from centralized and planned to market economy. The policy tools adopted gradually within the Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union (EU CAP), as well as the EU environmental and structural policies, aimed to prevent further expansion of this phenomenon and to facilitate the revival of the agriculture land, being abandoned (ComReg 1122/2009). The Agri-Environment (AGRI-ENV) component of the Core Information Service (CIS), developed within the scope of the FP7-funded project "geoland2" were designed to support the agricultural user community at pan-European and national levels by contributing to the improvement of more accurate and timely monitoring of the status of agricultural land use in Europe and its change. The purpose of the product ‘Farmland abandonment', as part of the AGRI-ENV package, is to detect potentially abandoned agriculture land, based on multi-annual SPOT data with several acquisitions per year. It provides essential independent information on the status of the agricultural land as recorded in the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS), which is one of the core instruments of the implementation of CAP. The production line is based on object-based image analysis and benefits from the extensive availability of Biophysical parameters derived from the satellite data (geoland2). The method detects/tracks those land (or so-called reference) parcels in the LPIS, holding significant amount of land agriculture found as potentially abandoned. Reference parcels with such change are flagged and reported, enabling the National

  11. Bioaccessibility of U, Th and Pb in particulate matter from an abandoned uranium mine

    Millward, Geoffrey; Foulkes, Michael; Henderson, Sam; Blake, William

    2016-04-01

    Currently, there are approximately 150 uranium mines in Europe at various stages of either operation, development, decommissioning, restoration or abandonment (wise-uranium.com). The particulate matter comprising the mounds of waste rock and mill tailings poses a risk to human health through the inadvertent ingestion of particles contaminated with uranium and thorium, and their decay products, which exposes recipients to the dual toxicity of heavy elements and their radioactive emissions. We investigated the bioaccessibility of 238U, 232Th and 206,214,210Pb in particulate samples taken from a contaminated, abandoned uranium mine in South West England. Sampling included a mine shaft, dressing floor and waste heap, as well as soils from a field used for grazing. The contaminants were extracted using the in-vitro Unified Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe Method (UBM) in order to mimic the digestion processes in the human stomach (STOM) and the combined stomach and gastrointestinal tract (STOM+INT). Analyses of concentrations of U, Th and Pb in the extracts were by ICP-MS and the activity concentrations of radionuclides were determined on the same particles, before and after extraction, using gamma spectroscopy. 'Total' concentrations of U, Th and Pb for all samples were in the range 57 to 16,200, 0.28 to 3.8 and 69 to 4750 mg kg‑1, respectively. For U and Pb the concentrations in the STOM fraction were lower than the total and STOM+INT fractions were even lower. However, for Th the STOM+INT fractions were higher than the STOM due to the presence of Th carbonate species within the gastrointestinal fluid. Activity concentrations for 214Pb and 210Pb, including total, STOM and STOM+INT, were in the range 180 to <1 Bq g‑1 for the dressing floor and waste heap and 18 to <1 Bq g‑1 for the grazing land. Estimates of the bioaccessible fractions (BAFs) of 238U in the most contaminated samples were 39% and 8% in the STOM and STOM+INT, respectively, whereas the

  12. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN: Abandoned Mine Lands, Miscellaneous Site Features in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — AML_POLY, the predecessor of COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN, is a 1:24,000-scale polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations and extents of Abandoned Mine...

  13. Surveying abandoned mine shafts with Remote Radio Transmitter EM methods and Selfpotential

    Bosch, F. P.; Gurk, M.

    2009-04-01

    Abandoned near subsurface mining constructions from the 19th and early 20th century in urbanized areas placed upon former ore mines near the city of Aachen (Germany), as well as in many other regions of the world, provide hazardous risks concerning possible collapses. In many cases, the exact locations of such constructions are not known anymore. For instance, to map covered shafts of one meter diameter on large survey areas, high resolution methods with rapid measurement progress are necessary. Enhanced developments of the traditional Very Low Frequency (VLF) technique such as VLF-gradient and Radiomagnetotellurics (RMT) fulfill these requirements. Continuous ground-contactless VLF-gradient survey quickly provides maps indicating the lateral electric resistivity heterogeneity distribution. Inversions of RMT data provide 2D-resistivity-depth sections and also the interpretation of Self-Potential data gives information about the nature of the VLF-gradient anomalies. The successful combination of the three methods for detecting mineshafts near to the city if Aachen is presented for both an electromagnetic undisturbed and noisy location.

  14. Abandoned metal mines and their impact on receiving waters: A case study from Southwest England.

    Beane, Steven J; Comber, Sean D W; Rieuwerts, John; Long, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Historic mine sites are a major source of contamination to terrestrial and river environments. To demonstrate the importance of determining the significance of point and diffuse metal contamination and the related bioavailability of the metals present from abandoned mines a case study has been carried out. The study provides a quantitative assessment of a historic mine site, Wheal Betsy, southwest England, and its contribution to non-compliance with Water Framework Directive (WFD) Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Surface water and sediment samples showed significant negative environmental impacts even taking account of the bioavailability of the metal present, with lead concentration in the stream sediment up to 76 times higher than the Canadian sediment guidelines 'Probable Effect Level'. Benthic invertebrates showed a decline in species richness adjacent to the mine site with lead and cadmium the main cause. The main mine drainage adit was the single most significant source of metal (typically 50% of metal load from the area, but 88% for Ni) but the mine spoil tips north and south of the adit input added together discharged roughly an equivalent loading of metal with the exception of Ni. The bioavailability of metal in the spoil tips exhibited differing spatial patterns owing to varying ambient soil physico-chemistry. The data collected is essential to provide a clear understanding of the contamination present as well as its mobility and bioavailability, in order to direct the decision making process regarding remediation options and their likely effectiveness. PMID:27023117

  15. Detection and control of fires and heatings in shallow, abandoned coal mines

    Heatings and fires in shallow, abandoned coal mines create an environmentally undesirable hazard in the Witbank area in South Africa, as well as locations in Europe and North America. A research program was set up in South Africa to detect and control the occurrence and extent of subsurface heatings and fires. Prior to any remedial action being taken to control or extinguish a heating or fire, it is essential to evaluate underground conditions in order to determine the most effective control method. Normally, such workings cannot physically be entered due to poor ground conditions and the presence of heat and toxic gases. Two novel detection methods have been developed by the Chamber of Mines Research Organization (COMRO) for the purpose of identifying the nature and extent of such heatings remotely, via surface boreholes. Temperature monitoring allows for the detection of heating intensity and location. To determine areas of uncontrolled air infiltration into the workings, tracer gas technology is used. In addition, a method for controlling a fire which has been successfully used in South Africa is described

  16. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: ► Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. ► Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. ► Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. ► Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  17. Hydrology of an abandoned uranium mine waste rock dump, Northern Territory

    Field studies were conducted on an abandoned, degraded uranium mine in Kakadu National Park to obtain waste rock dump runoff data to test the ability of a landform evolution model to predict gullying caused by concentrated flow. Runoff data were collected from natural rainfall events on a concentrated flow site and an overland flow erosion site on the waste rock dump at Scinto 6 mine. The data were used to fit parameters to a rainfall/runoff model using a non-linear regression package (NLFIT-DISTFW) which allows a single set of parameters to be fitted to four discharge hydrographs simultaneously. The model generally predicted peak discharge and the rising stage of the observed hydrographs well but there was some lag in the falling stage of the predicted hydrographs. Kinematic wave parameters are dependent on each other and the concentrated flow parameter set was not significantly different from the overland flow set. The infiltration parameter sets were statistically different and difference in cumulative infiltration between sites is controlled by sorptivity

  18. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude, E-mail: fortincl@ete.inrs.ca

    2012-05-15

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  19. Island abandonment and sea-level rise: an historical analog from the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Gibbons, S.J.A. [Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo (Canada). Dept. of Geography and Enivronmental Studies; Nicholls, R.J. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Small islands are widely agreed to be vulnerable to human-induced sea-level rise during the 21st century and beyond, with forced abandonment of some low-lying oceanic islands being a real possibility. A regional abandonment of islands in the Chesapeake Bay, USA provides an historical analog of such vulnerability as this has been linked to a mid 19th Century acceleration in relative sea-level rise. Using a case study approach for Holland Island, Maryland, this hypothesis was tested using a range of physical and human historical data. While sea-level rise was the underlying driver, this analysis shows that the abandonment was more complex than a direct response to sea-level rise. Between 1850 and 1900, Holland Island was a booming community and population increased from 37 to 253, with immigration causing the majority of the increase. At the same time, the upland area where people made their homes was steadily diminishing, losing about 15 ha or 38% of the total. After 1900, the island experienced a decrease in population to 169 in 1916, with final abandonment in 1918, with the exception of one family who left by 1920. Final abandonment was triggered by this depopulation as the population fell below a level that could support critical community services, and the community lost faith in their future on Holland Island. It is likely that similar social processes determined the abandonment of the other Chesapeake Bay islands. Looking to the future, it shows that many small low-lying islands could be abandoned due to sea-level rise long before they become physically uninhabitable. (author)

  20. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  1. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities (40K, 232Th and 238U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina gold mine

  2. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TCplants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution

  3. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program 1991 well installation report

    This report is a summary of the well and environmental soil boring information compiled for the groundwater monitoring program of the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1991. It includes discussion of environmental soil borings, surveying, well installations, abandonments, maintenance, and stabilization

  4. Modeling of CO2 Leakage up Through an Abandoned Well from Deep Saline Aquifer to Shallow Fresh Groundwaters

    Humez, Pauline; Audigane, Pascal; Lions, Julie; Chiaberge, Christophe; Bellenfant, Gaël

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a numerical modeling application using the code TOUGHREACT of a leakage scenario occurring during a CO2 geological storage performed in the Jurassic Dogger formation in the Paris Basin. This geological formation has been intensively used for geothermal purposes and is now under consideration as a site for the French national program of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and CO2 geological storage. Albian sandstone, situated above the Dogger limestone is a major strategic ...

  5. CO2 storage potential at Forties oilfield and the surrounding Paleocene sandstone aquifer accounting for leakage risk through abandoned wells

    Babaei, Masoud; Govindan, Rajesh; Korre, Anna; Shi, Ji-Quan; Durucan, Sevket; Quinn, Martyn; McCormac, Mike

    2014-01-01

    A numerical simulation study of CO2 injection into the Forties and Nelson oilfields to estimate their storage potential is presented in this paper. The estimation involves the consideration of key-performance indicator parameters that include: the pressure build-up for different rates and locations of injection, the regional mass fraction of CO2, the volumetric efficiency of the storage reservoirs, and the plume size. Various injection scenarios were compared in terms of these parameters, and...

  6. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

  7. Assessing Degradation of Abandoned Farmlands for Conservation of the Monte Desert Biome in Argentina

    Yannelli, Florencia A.; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E.; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits ( p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery.

  8. Assessing degradation of abandoned farmlands for conservation of the Monte Desert biome in Argentina.

    Yannelli, Florencia A; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits (p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery. PMID:24091587

  9. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  10. Disappointed Love and Suicide: A Randomized Controlled Trial of "Abandonment Psychotherapy" Among Borderline Patients.

    Andreoli, A; Burnand, Y; Cochennec, M-F; Ohlendorf, P; Frambati, L; Gaudry-Maire, D; Di Clemente, Th; Hourton, G; Lorillard, S; Canuto, A; Frances, A

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether ambulatory psychotherapy targeted to abandonment experiences and fears can reduce suicidality and improve outcome in borderline patients referred to the emergency room with major depressive disorder and self-destructive behavior severe enough to require medical/surgical treatment and a brief psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 170 subjects were randomized at hospital discharge into three treatment groups: treatment as usual (TAU), abandonment psychotherapy delivered by certified psychotherapists, and abandonment psychotherapy delivered by nurses. Assessments were performed before randomization and at 3-month follow-up. Continued suicidality and other outcome measures were significantly worse in the treatment-as-usual as compared to both abandonment psychotherapy groups, but there were no differences between the two psychotherapy groups. These results suggest the efficacy of manualized psychotherapy that specifically targets the abandonment fears and experiences that are so common as precipitants to suicidal and self-destructive acts in borderline patients. It does not appear that formal psychotherapy training is associated with better outcomes. PMID:26111250

  11. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest.

    Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane

    2010-12-01

    Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991

  12. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise. PMID:25033786

  13. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  14. Factoid forensics: Have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Simon Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10 or periodically (n = 2 leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  15. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy

    C. Ricotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load, a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy in the period 2001–2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  16. Abandoning of mining activities - impact on ground water and surface water systems

    At present a decrease in mining activities occurs in practically all mining areas (both coal and ore) in the Czech Republic. Huge capacities of mine workings in various depths and geological conditions are abandoned and liquidated. Special methods of liquidation of abandoned mine workings by filling, using selected waste as secondary raw materials, are used only exceptionally. In such cases the liquidation proceeds without problems with serious or long-term contamination of the environment, including monitoring of anomalous geomechanical events, ascent of methane to the surface etc. This systematic approach has only one negative feature - prolongation of liquidation works in comparison to simple abandoning and flooding of the mine. This contribution deals with the general aspects of groundwater protection in connection with liquidation of mines by filling of mine workings with secondary raw materials (including legislative problems in Czech Republic). 10 refs., 2 figs

  17. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Makoto Yokohari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

  18. Medico-legal autopsy of abandoned foetuses and newborns in India.

    Behera, C; Sikary, Asit Kumar; Krishna, Karthik; Garg, Aayushi; Chopra, Saurav; Gupta, S K

    2016-06-01

    Foeticide and the abandonment of newborns are important, albeit frequently neglected, issues. Concealment of childbirth is often seen in the setting of unwanted pregnancy which has been recognised as one of the most important factors in both cases. This study highlights the medico-legal autopsy findings of 238 abandoned foetuses and newborns over a period of 17 years (1996-2012) from the region of South Delhi, India. There was no sex predilection. The majority of the cases were full term. Nearly 35% of the foetuses were still born, about 29% were live born and the remainder were non-viable. Among the live born, death by homicide was more common than a natural death and most were left by the roadside. The abandoning and killing of newborns needs urgent attention, and strict measures are needed to save thousands of innocent lives. PMID:26857075

  19. Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land-based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union...... countries, where the transition from state-command to market-driven economies resulted in widespread agricultural land abandonment, cropland expansion may incur relatively low costs, especially compared with tropical regions. Our objectives were to quantify the drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated......-economic determinants of cropland abandonment and recultivation. We then used recent maps of changes in cropland to (i) spatially characterize the socio-economic, accessibility and soil constraints associated with the recultivation of abandoned croplands and (ii) investigate the environmental trade-offs regarding...

  20. The "Terme Del Corallo" in Livorno, Italy, a Contribution to Try Going Beyond the Abandon

    Verdiani, G.; Fantini, V.

    2012-01-01

    In Livorno, along the Mediterranean sea, in Italy, there is a terrific case of abandon, a historical monument made of fine art elements left to complete decay. The name of the place is "Terme del Corallo" and at its beginning it was a bath area exploiting the salt waters. After its first abandon, no serious efforts were done in years to come behind this situation, the poor and slow moves towards the restoration were stopped and slowed down by inefficiencies and infinite political consideratio...

  1. Application of GIS and RS in Abandoned Land Surveying: A Case Study in Shandong, China

    Li, Jing; Liu, Zishang; Li, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    For the acute contradiction between land and people, cherishing and reasonable using per inch land is a persistent national policy in China, whereas land damage is unavoidable in mining, construction and other activity. There is still a lot of abandoned land unused and with no obligator in China, which will have to be the government’s responsibility to survey, plan how to use them and to complete recovering them. For the abandoned land damage always occurred minimally 25 years ago, it is hard...

  2. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (US). Wildlife & Fisheries Resources Programme

    2005-07-01

    We surveyed bats at 36 abandoned coal mines during summer 2002 and 47 mines during fall 2002 at New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, WV. During summer, we captured three federally endangered Virginia big-eared bats at two mine entrances, and 25 were captured at 12 mine entrances during fall. These represent the first documented captures of this species at coal mines in West Virginia. Future survey efforts conducted throughout the range of the Virginia big-eared bat should include abandoned coal mines.

  3. Framing land abandonment and its consequences on soil and vegetation changes

    José Marqués Pérez, María; Sanz, Verónica; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Kukuls, Imants; Sultana, Daniel; Zdruli, Pandi; Fiori, Valeria; Zucca, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A significant increase in forest areas has been observed in the last decades in Europe due to the abandonment of agricultural activities but also thanks to the implementation of reforestation/afforestation projects. These changes in land use have consequences in soil processes (e.g. erosion rates, accumulation of organic matter, humification, leaching, podzolisation), water and nutrient cycle, or productivity, amongst others. This new situation deserves an analysis of the causes and consequences in different scenarios, as the advantages and disadvantages of land abandonment can be different according to particular circumstances. In ordinary local soil surveys, some of the most widely used indicators to evaluate soil changes are organic carbon, nutrients and pH. Variations of these key soil properties can also be used to evaluate the consequences of land abandonment. On the landscape scale, changes in vegetation cover provide valuable information to analyse and evaluate the extent of land abandonment and its impacts on ecosystem functions and services. The re-establishment of natural vegetation can be seen as an invasive process by shrubs or trees, but it also can be considered as a process of natural restoration of these abandoned lands. This study will cover different soils from different study areas in Soria (Spain; 500 mm annual rainfall and 11ºC of average temperature); in Pula, Sardinia (Italy, 500 mm and 17ºC); in Acquaviva delle Fonti in Bari (Italy, 560 mm and 15.3ºC); in Malta (600 mm and 18ºC) and in the Vidzeme upland, central part of Latvia (Latvia, 703 mm and 5.8 ºC). The variations of the abovementioned indicators will be considered in these different scenarios after several decades of abandonment of the agricultural activities. The analysis will also address the diversity of driving forces related to land productivity, population structure, socio economic conditions and/or policy measures which are leading to land abandonment with different

  4. The reuse of abandoned Acquaresi mine voids for storage of the Masua flotation tailings

    Pier Paolo Manca; Paolo Desogus; Giampaolo Orru`

    2014-01-01

    Often in abandoned mine sites are present both underground voids produced by mining and the tailings of treatment plant. An interesting solution for the rehabilitation of the sites would be to place the tailings of the process in the underground mining voids, thus obtaining the reclamation of surface areas and the stabilization of abandoned voids to prevent the dangerous phenomena of subsidence. However, these operations require inert waste, which must not be source of pollution, and the choice of a water/solid optimum to ensure good conditions of pumpability.

  5. Child abandonment as an indicator of Christianization in the Nordic countries

    Juha Pentikäinen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries, child abandonment seems to have been a commonly accepted social tradition until the acceptance of Christianity. When Christian influences reached the Far North, this old practice was gradually criminalized. When the old practice was criminalized by Christian sanctions and norms, the abandoned, murdered or aborted unbaptized children were experienced supernaturally. Their supranormal manifestations are described in Nordic folk beliefs and narratives concerning dead children; in Old Norse sagas, Swedish and Norwegian provincial and ecclesiastical laws and in Finnish runic poetry, all stemming from the Middle Ages.

  6. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  7. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program CY 2009 Triennial Report Of The Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Program, Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    None

    2013-06-01

    This document is the triennial report for the Well Inspection and Maintenance Program of the Y- 12 Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This report formally documents well inspection events conducted on active and inactive wells at Y-12 during calendar years (CY) 2007 through 2009; it documents well maintenance and plugging and abandonment activities completed since the last triennial inspection event (CY 2006); and provides summary tables of well inspection events, well maintenance events, and well plugging and abandonment events during the reference time period.

  8. Modeling Wood Encroachment in Abandoned Grasslands in the Eifel National Park - Model Description and Testing.

    Silvana Hudjetz

    Full Text Available The degradation of natural and semi-natural landscapes has become a matter of global concern. In Germany, semi-natural grasslands belong to the most species-rich habitat types but have suffered heavily from changes in land use. After abandonment, the course of succession at a specific site is often difficult to predict because many processes interact. In order to support decision making when managing semi-natural grasslands in the Eifel National Park, we built the WoodS-Model (Woodland Succession Model. A multimodeling approach was used to integrate vegetation dynamics in both the herbaceous and shrub/tree layer. The cover of grasses and herbs was simulated in a compartment model, whereas bushes and trees were modelled in an individual-based manner. Both models worked and interacted in a spatially explicit, raster-based landscape. We present here the model description, parameterization and testing. We show highly detailed projections of the succession of a semi-natural grassland including the influence of initial vegetation composition, neighborhood interactions and ungulate browsing. We carefully weighted the single processes against each other and their relevance for landscape development under different scenarios, while explicitly considering specific site conditions. Model evaluation revealed that the model is able to emulate successional patterns as observed in the field as well as plausible results for different population densities of red deer. Important neighborhood interactions such as seed dispersal, the protection of seedlings from browsing ungulates by thorny bushes, and the inhibition of wood encroachment by the herbaceous layer, have been successfully reproduced. Therefore, not only a detailed model but also detailed initialization turned out to be important for spatially explicit projections of a given site. The advantage of the WoodS-Model is that it integrates these many mutually interacting processes of succession.

  9. The accumulation of organic carbon in mineral soils by afforestation of abandoned farmland.

    Xiaorong Wei

    Full Text Available The afforestation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic carbon (OC. However, the dynamics between OC inputs after afforestation and the original OC are not well understood. To learn more about soil OC dynamics after afforestation of farmland, we measured the soil OC content in paired forest and farmland plots in Shaanxi Province, China. The forest plots had been established on farmland 18, 24, 48, 100, and 200 yr previously. The natural (13C abundance of soil organic matter was also analyzed to distinguish between crop- and forest-derived C in the afforested soils. We observed a nonlinear accumulation of total OC in the 0-80 cm depth of the mineral soil across time. Total soil OC accumulated more rapidly under forest stands aged 18 to 48 yr than under forest stands aged 100 or 200 yrs. The rate of OC accumulation was also greater in the 0-10 cm depth than in the 10-80 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforested soils also accumulated nonlinearly across time, with the greatest increase in the 0-20 cm depth. Forest-derived OC in afforest soils accounted for 52-86% of the total OC in the 0-10 cm depth, 36-61% of the total OC in the 10-20 cm depth, and 11-50% of the total OC in the 20-80 cm depth. Crop-derived OC concentrations in the 0-20 cm depth decreased slightly after afforestation, but there was no change in crop-derived OC concentrations in the 20-80 cm depth. The results of our study support the claim that afforestation of farmland can sequester atmospheric CO(2 by increasing soil OC stocks. Changes in the OC stocks of mineral soils after afforestation appear to be influenced mainly by the input of forest-derived C rather than by the loss of original OC.

  10. Response surfaces for CO2 leakage from geologic storage along abandoned wellbores

    Jordan, A.; Carey, J. W.; Pawar, R. J.; Stauffer, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic reservoirs that have previously been drilled for oil and gas exploration is under investigation worldwide as an option for reducing the amount of anthropogenic carbon introduced to the atmosphere. Reservoirs that have already been tapped for hydrocarbon production have several benefits over development of new sites: they tend to be geologically well-understood, with existing wellbore data to help further characterize the local geologic framework; are known to be conducive to trapping buoyant or pressurized fluids; may have infrastructure in place; and are likely to be already impacted ecologically as compared to pristine sites. One downside to using depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is the potential for CO2 leakage along pre-existing wellbores that were either not designed for CO2 sequestration or have been improperly plugged and abandoned. The primary goal of this study is to develop estimates of possible wellbore leakage rates of CO2 from storage reservoirs to the surface and/or into overlaying aquifers, as a function of wellbore properties and the surrounding geologic framework. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of multiphase flow along wellbores across a wide range of geologic and wellbore parameters. Several wellbore scenarios were studied, including a simple wellbore between the CO2 storage reservoir and the surface; a wellbore intersecting a saline aquifer ("thief zone"); and a wellbore intersecting both a thief zone and a freshwater aquifer. The Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE) software was used to analyze results and produce response surfaces for the estimation of wellbore flow rate as a function of the primary factors that influence leakage. These results will be used to develop abstractions for leakage rates to be incorporated in performance assessments of geologic CO2 storage, which will help

  11. Risk assessment and restoration possibilities of some abandoned mining ponds in Murcia Region, SE Spain

    Faz, Angel; Acosta, Jose A.; Martinez-Martinez, Silvia; Carmona, Dora M.; Zornoza, Raul; Kabas, Sebla; Bech, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    In Murcia Region, SE Spain, there are 85 tailing ponds due to intensive mining activities that occurred during last century, especially in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Union. Although mining activity was abandoned several decades ago, those tailing ponds with high amounts of heavy metals still remain in the area. The ponds, due to their composition and location, may create environmental risks of geochemical pollution, negatively affecting soil, water, and plant, animal, and human populations, as well as infrastructures. The main objective of this research is to evaluate the restoration possibilities of two representative mining ponds in order to minimize the risk for human and ecosystems. To achieve this objective, two tailing ponds generated by mining activities were selected, El Lirio and El Gorguel. These ponds are representative of the rest of existent ponds in Sierra Minera de Cartagena-La Unión, with similar problems and characteristics. Several techniques and studies were applied to the tailing ponds for their characterization, including: geophysics, geotechnics, geochemical, geological, hydrological, and vegetation studies. In addition, effects of particulate size in the distribution of heavy metals will be used to assess the risk of dispersion of these metals in finest particles. Once the ponds were characterized, they were divided in several sectors in order to apply different amendments (pig slurry and marble waste) to reduce the risk of metal mobility and improve soil quality for a future phytostabilization. It is known that organic amendments promote soil development processes, microbial diversity, and finally, soil ecosystem restoration to a state of self-sustainability. By comparing the results before and after applications we will be able to evaluate the effect of the different amendments on soil quality and their effectively on risk reduction. Finally, plant metal-tolerant species are used to restore vegetation in the ponds, thereby decreasing

  12. Watershed-scale Evapotranspiration Changed Little over 50 years of Agricultural Land Abandonment in Southern Michigan

    Hamilton, S. K.; Hussain, M. Z.; Lowrie, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The difference between precipitation and stream discharge over annual periods provides an indication of the total water loss to evaporation and evapotranspiration. The response of evaporative water loss to land cover change affects groundwater recharge, stream flow, and lake levels. This study examined the watershed water balance for Augusta Creek, which drains a 95-km2 glacial landscape in southwestern Michigan covered by cropland, grassland, forest, and wetlands. The climate is humid and temperate; between 1964-2014 the water-year precipitation averaged 948 mm and ranged from 695-1386 mm with no temporal trend. Over the study period the percentage of land in agriculture has decreased to about a third of its original extent, with abandoned lands gradually transitioning from old fields to woody vegetation. Comparison of precipitation on the upland watershed to baseflow discharge (USGS data; baseflow estimation by WHAT model) across the 50-year record shows that total evaporative water loss averaged 563 + 103 mm and ranged from 385-897 mm, with no apparent trend over the record. The evaporative water loss accounts for a mean + s.d. of 59 + 6% of precipitation (range, 48-70%). Evaporative water loss was positively related to total precipitation (r2 = 0.74. These results are interpreted using a Budyko plot framework to facilitate comparison with other settings. This water balance approach to infer evaporative water loss compares well with direct measurements in the same watershed since 2009 using eddy covariance (grasslands and crops) and soil moisture monitoring by time-domain reflectometry (grasslands, crops, and forest). Thus the evaporative water loss, which is predominantly by evapotranspiration, has been remarkably similar across a period of changing land cover, leaving a relatively consistent proportion for groundwater recharge and streamflow.

  13. A natural attenuation of arsenic in drainage from an abandoned arsenic mine dump

    At the abandoned As mine in Nishinomaki, Japan, discharged water from the mining and waste dump area is acidic and rich in As. However, the As concentration in the drainage has been decreased to below the maximum contaminant level (0.01 mg/l for drinking water, Japan) without any artificial treatments before mixing with a tributary to populated areas. This implies that the As concentration in water from the waste dump area has been naturally attenuated. To elucidate the reaction mechanisms of the natural attenuation, analysis of water quality and characterization of the precipitates from the stream floor were performed by measuring pH, ORP and electric conductivity on-site, as well as X-ray diffraction, ICP-mass spectrometry and ion-chromatography. Selective extractions and mineral alteration experiments were also conducted to estimate the distribution of As in constituent phases of the precipitates and to understand the stability of As-bearing phases, respectively. The water contamination resulted from oxidation of sulfide minerals in the waste rocks, i.e., the oxidation of pyrite and realgar and subsequent release of Fe, SO4, As(V) and proton. The released Fe(II) transformed to Fe(III) by bacterial oxidation; schwertmannite then formed immediately. While the As concentrations in the stream were lowered nearly to background level downstream, those in the ochreous precipitates were up to several tens of mg/g. The As(V) was effectively removed by the formed schwertmannite and had been naturally attenuated. Although schwertmannite is metastable with respect to goethite, the experiments show that the transformation of schwertmannite to goethite may be retarded by the presence of absorbed As(V) in the structure. Therefore, the attenuation of As in the drainage and the retention of As by schwertmannite are expected to be maintained for the long term

  14. Coexistence of multiple coronaviruses in several bat colonies in an abandoned mineshaft.

    Ge, Xing-Yi; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Ben; Li, Bei; Zhang, Yun-Zhi; Zhou, Ji-Hua; Luo, Chu-Ming; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wu, Li-Jun; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yun; Li, Zong-Xiao; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2016-02-01

    Since the 2002-2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak prompted a search for the natural reservoir of the SARS coronavirus, numerous alpha- and betacoronaviruses have been discovered in bats around the world. Bats are likely the natural reservoir of alpha- and betacoronaviruses, and due to the rich diversity and global distribution of bats, the number of bat coronaviruses will likely increase. We conducted a surveillance of coronaviruses in bats in an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang County, Yunnan Province, China, from 2012-2013. Six bat species were frequently detected in the cave: Rhinolophus sinicus, Rhinolophus affinis, Hipposideros pomona, Miniopterus schreibersii, Miniopterus fuliginosus, and Miniopterus fuscus. By sequencing PCR products of the coronavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene (RdRp), we found a high frequency of infection by a diverse group of coronaviruses in different bat species in the mineshaft. Sequenced partial RdRp fragments had 80%-99% nucleic acid sequence identity with well-characterized Alphacoronavirus species, including BtCoV HKU2, BtCoV HKU8, and BtCoV1, and unassigned species BtCoV HKU7 and BtCoV HKU10. Additionally, the surveillance identified two unclassified betacoronaviruses, one new strain of SARS-like coronavirus, and one potentially new betacoronavirus species. Furthermore, coronavirus co-infection was detected in all six bat species, a phenomenon that fosters recombination and promotes the emergence of novel virus strains. Our findings highlight the importance of bats as natural reservoirs of coronaviruses and the potentially zoonotic source of viral pathogens. PMID:26920708

  15. Tecendo as teias do abandono: além das percepções das mães de bebês prematuros Weaving the web of abandonment: beyond the perceptions of mothers of preterm infants

    Rosangela Torquato Fernandes

    2011-10-01

    abandonment, and abandonment by the partner. Abandonment by the family was seen in childhood and adolescence as well as in pregnancy, and during infant internment. Another point was the perception of caring as a maternal duty leading to the building of the ideal model that a good mother is loving and does not abandon her offspring. Family, social, and health professional support networks can contribute to maternal empowerment that leads to refraining from abandonment. It was concluded that an abandoned mother might in turn become an abandoning mother, and that, support networks providing attention and protection may turn the history of the abandonment cycle around.

  16. Testing geopressured geothermal reservoirs in existing wells. Wells of Opportunity Program final contract report, 1980-1981

    1982-01-01

    The geopressured-geothermal candidates for the Wells of Opportunity program were located by the screening of published information on oil industry activity and through direct contact with the oil and gas operators. This process resulted in the recommendation to the DOE of 33 candidate wells for the program. Seven of the 33 recommended wells were accepted for testing. Of these seven wells, six were actually tested. The first well, the No. 1 Kennedy, was acquired but not tested. The seventh well, the No. 1 Godchaux, was abandoned due to mechanical problems during re-entry. The well search activities, which culminated in the acceptance by the DOE of 7 recommended wells, were substantial. A total of 90,270 well reports were reviewed, leading to 1990 wells selected for thorough geological analysis. All of the reservoirs tested in this program have been restricted by one or more faults or permeability barriers. A comprehensive discussion of test results is presented.

  17. 76 FR 55161 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Middlesex County, Mass.; Springfield Terminal...

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--Middlesex County, Mass... Middlesex County, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02471 and...

  18. Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.

    Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C. PMID:24801568

  19. 75 FR 35513 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash.

    2010-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash... milepost 58.75 near Grandview, in Yakima County, Wash.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service... to the Central Washington Railroad Company (CWRR). See Central Wash. R.R.-- Lease and...

  20. Changes in biomass allocation in species rich meadow after abandonment: Ecological strategy or allometry?

    Bartušková, Alena; Doležal, Jiří; Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, V.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 379-387. ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Biomass allocation * species-rich meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014

  1. Centipede assemblages in abandoned arable field with different plant diversity manipulation

    Tajovský, Karel; Wytwer, J.

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005. s. 69. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. 20.04.2005-22.04.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : centipedes * abandoned arable field * plant diversity manipulation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. 78 FR 43273 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Newton County, Ga.

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Central of Georgia Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Newton County... the intersection of Washington Street SW., and Turner Lake Road SW., in Covington), in Newton...

  3. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo;

    2015-01-01

    abandoned from 2001 to 2012, mainly in Eastern Europe, Southern Scandinavia, and Europe's mountain regions. Yet, recultivation is widespread too (up to 11.2. Mha) and occurred predominantly in Eastern Europe (e.g., European Russia, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania) and in the Balkans. We also tested...

  4. Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants

    Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, Vojtěch; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2010), s. 243-251. ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carbohydrates * meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2010

  5. 78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...

    2013-02-06

    ... environmental problems associated with abandoned mine lands include surface and ground water pollution... February 6, 2013 Part IV Department of the Interior Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30... / Wednesday, February 6, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface...

  6. 75 FR 7302 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2010-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA... Polk County, IA. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 50317, 50032, 50021,...

  7. 75 FR 7303 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2010-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA... milepost 10.50 in Ankeny to milepost 10.70 in Ankeny, in Polk County, IA. The line traverses United...

  8. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  9. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  10. 76 FR 73776 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Coffee County, AL

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Coffee County, AL....2 in Enterprise, in Coffee County, Ala. (the line).\\1\\ The line traverses United States...

  11. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible lands and water; Ranking and selection procedures; Coordination of reclamation work; Acquisition management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  12. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA... to milepost 508.65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United...

  13. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  14. 77 FR 35751 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Manitowoc County, WI

    2012-06-14

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by June 19, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100,...

  15. 78 FR 77791 - Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Scott County, Iowa

    2013-12-24

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by December 27, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room...

  16. 78 FR 17468 - Alabama Railroad Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Monroe County, AL

    2013-03-21

    ... by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by March 26, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA...

  17. 78 FR 17282 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Kaukauna, Outagamie County, WI

    2013-03-20

    ... (whether raised by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent..., if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by March 25, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA...

  18. 76 FR 51470 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In Oswego County, NY

    2011-08-18

    ... (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the exemption's effective date. See..., which address the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA... the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington, DC 20423- 0001) or...

  19. 76 FR 64992 - Carrollton Railroad-Abandonment Exemption-in Carroll County, KY CSX Transportation, Inc...

    2011-10-19

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment and discontinuance on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by October 24, 2011. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA...

  20. 78 FR 67216 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lake County, Ind.

    2013-11-08

    ... Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) at (202) 245-0305. [Assistance for the hearing impaired is... assessment (EA) (or environmental impact statement (EIS), if necessary) prepared by OEA will be served upon... interested persons may contact OEA to obtain a copy of the EA (or EIS). EAs in these abandonment...

  1. 77 FR 38712 - Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Grundy County, Ill.

    2012-06-28

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by July 3, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100,...

  2. 76 FR 43374 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH

    2011-07-20

    ... (whether raised by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an... OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington, DC 20423-0001) or by calling OEA at...

  3. 76 FR 82348 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marietta, Lancaster County, PA

    2011-12-30

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by January 6, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100,...

  4. Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Severiche, W.; Fredericksen, T.; Nabe-Nielsen, L. I.

    2007-01-01

    -eastern Bolivia. Some species benefited from increased light intensities on abandoned logging roads. Others benefited from low densities of competing vegetation on roads with compacted soils. This was the case for the small-seeded species Ficus boliviana C.C. Berg and Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. Some...

  5. 75 FR 73161 - Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In East Carroll Parish, LA

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--In East Carroll Parish, LA Delta Southern Railroad, Inc. (DSR) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  6. 76 FR 2445 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Rolette and Towner Counties, ND

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Rolette and Towner Counties, ND BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 C.F.R. pt. 1152...

  7. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart...

  8. 75 FR 69152 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    2010-11-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI Wisconsin...., and ending at milepost 5.8, on the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation, in Brown County...: Michael J. Barron, Jr., Fletcher & Sippel LLC, 29 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 920, Chicago, IL 60606-2832....

  9. 75 FR 34626 - Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2578 Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1927 to End, revised as...

  10. Environmental impacts of abandoned dredged soils and sediments; available options for their handling, restoration and rehabilitation

    Ohimain, E.I.; Andriesse, W.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Aim and Background. In the process of creating safe navigable waterways for oil exploitation, the companies operating in the Niger Delta generate tons of sulfidic spoils. These are often deposited over bank, mostly upon fringing mangroves, and abandoned. This leads to a myriad of environmental probl

  11. A Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug for Geothermal Well Casing Remediation

    Casing deformation in wells is a common problem in many geothermal fields. Casing remediation is necessary to keep wells in production and occasionally, to even enter the well for an approved plug and abandonment procedure. The costly alternative to casing remediation is to incur the expense of drilling a new well to maintain production or drilling a well to intersect a badly damaged well below the deformation for abandonment purposes. The U.S. Department of Energy and the Geothermal Drilling Organization sponsor research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these remediation expenditures. Sandia, in cooperation with Halliburton Energy Services, has developed a low cost, commercially available, bridge-plug-type packer for use in geothermal well environments. This report documents the development and testing of this tool for use in casing remediation work

  12. Design and Implementation of a CO2 Flood Utilizing Advanced Reservoir Characterization and Horizontal Injection Wells In a Shallow Shelf Carbonate Approaching Waterflood Depletion, Class II

    Wier, Don R. Chimanhusky, John S.; Czirr, Kirk L.; Hallenbeck, Larry; Gerard, Matthew G.; Dollens, Kim B.; Owen, Rex; Gaddis, Maurice; Moshell, M.K.

    2002-11-18

    The purpose of this project was to economically design an optimum carbon dioxide (CO2) flood for a mature waterflood nearing its economic abandonment. The original project utilized advanced reservoir characterization and CO2 horizontal injection wells as the primary methods to redevelop the South Cowden Unit (SCU). The development plans; project implementation and reservoir management techniques were to be transferred to the public domain to assist in preventing premature abandonment of similar fields.

  13. Pediatric malignancies, treatment outcomes and abandonment of pediatric cancer treatment in Zambia.

    Jeremy S Slone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. METHODS: Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0-15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. RESULTS: Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]  = 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.97. Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.05-2.58. CONCLUSIONS: Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  14. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g‑1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g‑1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were

  15. Carbon pool and biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, land use, and agricultural abandonment in the neotropics.

    Kauffman, J Boone; Hughes, R Flint; Heider, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Current rates of deforestation and the resulting C emissions in the tropics exceed those of secondary forest regrowth and C sequestration. Changing land-use strategies that would maintain standing forests may be among the least expensive of climate change mitigation options. Further, secondary tropical forests have been suggested to have great value for their potential to sequester atmospheric C. These options require an understanding of and capability to quantify C dynamics at landscape scales. Because of the diversity of physical and biotic features of tropical forests as well as approaches and intensities of land uses within the neotropics, there are tremendous differences in the capacity of different landscapes to store and sequester C. Major gaps in our current knowledge include quantification of C pools, rates and patterns of biomass loss following land-cover change, and quantification of the C storage potential of secondary forests following abandonment. In this paper we present a synthesis and further analyses from recent studies that describe C pools, patterns of C decline associated with land use, and rates of C accumulation following secondary-forest establishment--all information necessary for climate-change mitigation options. Ecosystem C pools of Neotropical primary forests minimally range from approximately 141 to 571 Mg/ha, demonstrating tremendous differences in the capacity of different forests to store C. Most of the losses in C and nutrient pools associated with conversion occur when fires are set to remove the slashed forest to prepare sites for crop or pasture establishment. Fires burning slashed primary forests have been found to result in C losses of 62-80% of prefire aboveground pools in dry (deciduous) forest landscapes and 29-57% in wet (evergreen) forest landscapes. Carbon emissions equivalent to the aboveground primary-forest pool arise from repeated fires occurring in the first 4 to 10 years following conversion. Feedbacks of climate

  16. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in soils of an abandoned e-waste site in China

    Risk assessment of abandoned e-waste recycling areas received little attention. Herein, we report the concentrations of 16 PCBs and 7 heavy metals in soils near an abandoned e-waste recycling plant in Taizhou, China. Our data showed that levels of tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-PCBs were 9.01, 5.56, 12.93, 3.13 mg/kg, and Pb, Cd, Cu were 6082.9, 42.3, 2364.2 mg/kg soil. Cd was the most prevalent contaminant with Nemerow index value of 44.3. Contaminants have been transported from the abandoned site to nearby areas. The ecology risk assessment based on the high toxicological effect in Chinese hamster ovary cells and earthworms showed that both PCBs and heavy metal residue pose high risk to the ecosystem. Hazard quotient showed that Pb, Cd, Hg and Cu pose high health risks for adults and children. Our results recommended a full examination of the risk and regulatory compliance of abandoned e-waste recycling areas in the future. -- Highlights: • Low-chlorinated PCBs were predominant in the abandoned area. • Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cu posed a high risk (HQ > 10). • Samples were toxic to the Chinese hamster ovary cells and earthworms. • Pollutants have released from the abandoned site to its nearby area. -- The pollutant level and ecological risk in an abandoned e-waste recycling area remains high and pollutants were gradually transported to its surrounding environment

  17. Lifetime of a Natural Gas Storage Well Assessment of Well-Field Maintenance Cost

    Gaz de France has been operating underground gas storage wells since more than 50 years. These wells have been drilled with the current available technologies in oil and gas industry. These technologies had improved a lot in the last decades (slurry compositions, drilling and cementing techniques, etc.) and the lifetime of a well therefore has to be estimated with reference to the techniques in use at the date it was built. These uncertainties and the inaccurate data of the oldest wells (drilling logs and casings specifications) led GDF to investigate the wells lifetime. Two approaches are presented here: - assessing a theoretical lifetime of a well; - calculating the average lifetime of each well using essentially corrosion scenarios and kinetics. Combining the two different approaches, one can better assess well aging and remaining well lifetime in order to schedule the best action (work-over, abandonment) at the proper time. A better knowledge of well's lifetime enables good control of underground storage operational expenditures (OPEX). (author)

  18. Abandoned polluted areas symposium 2005. Proceedings; Altlastensymposium 2005. Tagungsband

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The reduction of the demand on space for settlement and traffic as well as the improvement of cities and rural settlement structures are the most important key questions and challenges of current environmental policy. An intelligent utilisation of the limited resource space is not only related with positive effects of soil protection (Protection of the ''Green Field''). Measures for estate development on industrial, business and settlement fallow grounds contribute to support a long-lasting city development as well to an economic development. In order to improve the re-integration of pre-used land holdings into the real estate business appropriate legal, planning, financial, tax and incentive instruments are required as well as supplemental measures and activity fields like tradable space certification rights, model projects, research incentives, an optimised space management and improved public work. In the frame of this symposium experts report on their experience in the field of space reactivation of large industrial sites and allow for a discussion of their risks, chances and the resulting challenges. A main focus of the conference programme will be the affects of the present European legal guidelines on water and soil protection. (orig.)

  19. Feasibility analysis of using abandoned salt caverns for large-scale underground energy storage in China

    Highlights: • A method is proposed for the evaluation of using an abandoned salt cavern for energy (natural gas) storage. • A feasibility analysis is given of China’s first UGS (Underground Gas Storage) facility using an abandoned salt cavern. • Numerical modeling has been used to investigate mechanical safety of a gas pressurized cavern. • Chinese abandoned salt caverns show good feasibility of being converted to UGSs. • China’s bedded rock salt can meet the requirements for UGS. - Abstract: Rock salt in China is primarily bedded salt, usually composed of many thin salt layers and interlayers (e.g. anhydrite, mudstone, and glauberite). Thus, the feasibility analysis of abandoned salt caverns located in salt beds to be used as Underground Gas Storage (UGS) facilities is full of challenges. In this paper, we introduce the feasibility analysis of China’s first salt cavern gas storage facility using an abandoned salt cavern. The cavern is located in Jintan city, Jiangsu province, China. The mechanical properties and permeability of the bedded salts are obtained by experiments. Based on the results of the analyses, it appears to be quite feasible to convert the abandoned salt caverns of Jintan city to UGS facilities. The stability of the cavern is evaluated by the 3D geomechanical numerical simulations, and the operating parameters are proposed accordingly. Results indicate that the maximum volume shrinkage of the cavern is less than 25% and the maximum deformations are less than 2% of the caverns’ maximum diameters after operating for 20 years. It is recommended that the weighted average internal gas pressure be maintained as 11 MPa to control the extent of the plastic zones to a safe level. Safety factors decrease with operating time, especially those of the interface between rock salt and mudstone layers decrease significantly. Effective strain is generally greater than 2%, and locally is greater than 3% after operating 20 years. The maximum

  20. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  1. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for: inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12, determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment. This plan applies to groundwater monitoring wells installed at Y-12 and the related waste management facilities located within the three hydrogeologic regimes.

  2. Artemisia dominant species succession relating to the soil moisture decrease in abandoned land of the Loess Plateau (China): comparative study of drought-adaptive characteristics.

    Wang, Yong; Yu, Jing; Xia, Pengguo; He, Shaoxuan; Zhou, Ziyun; Han, Ruilian; Liang, Zongsuo

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia scoparia, Artemisia sacrorum and Artemisia giraldii were three dominant Artemisia species which successive grew in the secondary succession on abandoned land of the Loess Plateau. The succession accompanied the soil moisture steady decrease with field age after their abandonment. To elucidate the relationship between the Artemisia species succession and their drought-adaptation, three dominant species and a contrastive species Artemisia annua (mesophyte), were selected to compare their drought-resistant characteristics, including morphological and anatomical traits of leaf and root. Then physiological responses were investigated in mature plants after drought treatment. The results indicated that three dominant species leaf presented drought-adaptive structures, such as bushy trichomes, transitional or isolateral leaf cells, thick cuticles and epidermal cells. However, A. annua had no leaf traits involved in drought-adaptation. In addition, A. sacrorum and A. giraldii contained large root systems, while A. scoparia and A. annua utilized succulent roots. The physiological responses to drought suggested that A. giraldii had strong regulation in water using strategy, growth, as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activity. A. sacrorum and A. giraldii could maintain high ascorbate peroxidase activity and malondialdehyde content, while A. scoparia and A. giraldii presented higher peroxidase activity, ascorbate and soluble sugar content. A. annua exhibited high proline and carotenoid contents under drought. The drought-resistant of the four Artemisia species presented the order of A. giraldii > A. sacrorum > A. scoparia > A. annua, which was consistent with their succession on abandoned land. PMID:27398271

  3. Inventory of orphan oil and natural gas wells in the Dover and Gautreau Village areas of Westmorland County, New Brunswick

    In 1997, the Government of New Brunswick conducted an inventory of orphan wells in the vicinity of Dover and Gautreau Village in Westmorland County. The term orphan wells refers to those oil and natural gas wells which have been abandoned and have no owner. An abandoned well refers to those wells that are no longer active and have been properly plugged. A total of 19 orphan wells were discovered with the help of landowners and historical maps. These wells are believed to have dated from 1860 to 1906. The locations of the wells were determined digitally using the Global Positioning System. The environmental conditions around the orphan wells were evaluated and classified according to a proposed system used by the State of Michigan. The wells were separated into three categories based on the amount of petroleum contamination of soil and water. Water contamination was further divided into contamination of groundwater and surface water. 7 refs., 34 figs

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated and abandoned organic croplands in Finland

    Human activities have enhanced the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from organic soils. Drained peat soils may turn into a source of CO2 and N2O, whereas CH4 emission may generally decrease after drainage. Agricultural use, including ploughing, fertilization and irrigation, further enhances the decomposition of peat, and CO2 and N2O emissions. Cultivated organic soils are therefore significant sources of CO2 and N2O. In this paper we report greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated organic soils, and from abandoned organic agricultural soils, i.e. from organic soils where cultivation practices have ceased. We found that CO2 and N2O emissions from abandoned organic cropland soils do not generally decrease with time after agricultural practices have ceased, whereas CH4 fluxes from the atmosphere into the soil may gradually increase after leaving cultivation. (orig.)

  5. The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics

    Santiago Pich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

  6. Comparison of numerical models for predicting ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems

    Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Kim, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering usually results in ground water rebound after closing a deep underground mine because the mind voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several numerical models have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from ground water rebound. We compared the numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW codes at different spatial and time scales. Based on the comparisons, a new strategy is established to develop a program for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems. This presentation describes the new strategy and its application to an abandoned underground mine in Korea.

  7. Prediction of groundwater rebound at an abandoned coal mine in Korea using GRAM model

    Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Shin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering generally results in groundwater rebound after closing an abandoned underground coal mine since the mine voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from groundwater rebound. This study developed a GRAM model-based program was developed for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems after mine closure. An application of the program to the Dongwon coal mine in Korea showed that the groundwater level modeled at the shaft of Dongwon coal mine is similar to the observed one in the field. The GRAM model-based program is transferable to other mining areas in both industrialized and less-developed countries. Therefore, the program could reduce the time and effort for predicting mine groundwater rebound and to support mine reclamation planning.

  8. [ABANDONED EMBRYOS OR SURPLUS FERTILIZED OOCYTES--SEEKING THE SOLUTION FOR A FROZEN BURNING PROBLEM].

    Fruchter, Ronit Beck; Shalev, Eliezer

    2015-10-01

    Israel is a world leader in the utilization rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). During many IVF cycles, spare fertilized oocytes are cryopreserved. Today, thousands of fertilized oocytes, cryopreserved long ago, are stored in Israeli IVF units. The effort to contact the individuals who own the fertilized oocytes, so that they will approve thawing or finance continued storage, have mostly fAed. In this article we discuss the moral status of the fertilized oocyte and the ethical principles which should govern the way in which we deal with abandoned embryos. We present the different accounts for moral status and the diverse opinions regarding the status of the fertilized oocyte. At the end of the discussion we state our position regarding the ethical way to deal with the abandoned fertilized oocytes. PMID:26742227

  9. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

  10. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  11. Long-Term Retrievability of IVC Filters: Should We Abandon Permanent Devices?

    Thromboembolic disease produces a considerable disease burden, with death from pulmonary embolism in the UK alone estimated at 30,000-40,000 per year. Whilst it is unproven whether filters actually improve longevity, the morbidity and mortality associated with thromboembolic disease in the presence of contraindications to anticoagulation is high. Thus complications associated with filter insertion, and whilst they remain in situ, must be balanced against the alternatives. Permanent filters remain in situ for the remainder of the patient's life and any complications from the filters are of significant concern. Filters that are not permanent are therefore attractive in these circumstances. Retrievable filters, to avoid or decrease long-term filter complications, appear to be a significant advance in the prevention of pulmonary embolism. In this review, we discuss the safety and effectiveness of both permanent and retrievable filters as well as the retrievability of retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters, to explore whether the use of permanent IVC filters can be abandoned in favor of retrievable filters. Currently four types of retrievable filters are available: the Recovery filter (Bard Peripheral Vascular, Tempe, AZ, USA), the Guenther Tulip filter (Cook, Bloomington, IN, USA), the OptEase Filter (Cordis, Roden, The Netherlands), and the ALN filter (ALN Implants Chirurgicaux, Ghisonaccia, France). Efficacy and safety data for retrievable filters are as yet based on small series, with a total number of fewer than 1,000 insertions, and follow-up is mostly short term. Current long-term data are poor and insufficient to warrant the long-term implantation of these devices into humans. The case of fractured wire from a Recovery filter that migrated to the heart causing pericardial tamponade requiring open heart surgery is a reminder that any new endovascular device remaining in situ in the long term may produce unexpected problems. We should also bear in mind that

  12. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  13. Well integrity failure in the UK

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of operational, onshore wells could show integrity failures. A consideration of groundwater and surface water quality monitoring could find no regional impact of historic or current conventional oil and gas exploitation in the UK. As a more direct measure of well legacy this study considered the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas wells onshore in the UK as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 102 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells surveyed, 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of the well being decommissioned. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364 ± 677 kg CO2eq/well/yr with a 27% chance that any well would be a net sink of CH4 independent of well age. This flux is low

  14. An outline of soil nematode succession on abandoned fields in South Bohemia

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 355-371. ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0631 Grant ostatní: MŠMT(CZ) 2004-13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : secondary succession * abandoned field * fallow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.399, year: 2010

  15. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. PMID:27179321

  16. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  17. Adoption, Adaptation, and Abandonment: Appropriation of Science Education Professional Development Learning

    Longhurst, Max L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that impact teacher utilization of learning from professional development is critical in order maximize the educational and financial investment in teacher professional learning. This study used a multicase mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology to investigate the factors that influence teacher adoption, adaption, or abandonment of learning from science teacher professional development. The theoretical framework of activity theory was identified as a useful way t...

  18. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue. Part 1.

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-06-01

    This two-part series explores the phenomenon of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. In Part 1 we focus on defining concealed pregnancy as a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, that can lead to tragic consequences such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be presented (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016). PMID:27451485

  19. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Jake M. Laguador; April B. Tarcelo; Michael Angelo Marasigan; Kuster Kar C. Colina; Nemy H. Chavez

    2013-01-01

    Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respo...

  20. Ecological indicators for abandoned mines, Phase 1: Review of the literature

    Tipping, E.; Jarvis, A. P.; Kelly, M. G.; Lofts, S.; Merrix, F. L.; Ormerod, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mine waters have been identified as a significant issue in the majority of Environment Agency draft River Basin Management Plans. They are one of the largest drivers for chemical pollution in the draft Impact Assessment for the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with significant failures of environmental quality standards (EQS) for metals (particularly Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) in many rivers linked to abandoned mines. Existing EQS may be overprotective of aquatic life which may have adapted over ce...

  1. The detection and tracking of mine-water pollution from abandoned mines using electrical tomography

    Ogilvy, R.D.; Kuras, O.; B. Palumbo-Roe; Meldrum, P.I.; Wilkinson, P.B.; Chambers, J. E.; Klinck, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the environmental and societal impact of mining, particularly in the EU, where the environmental impacts of abandoned mine sites (spoil heaps and tailings) are now subject to the legally binding Water Framework and Mine Waste Directives. Traditional sampling to monitor the impact of mining on surface waters and groundwater is laborious, expensive and often unrepresentative. In particular, sparse and infrequent borehole sampling may fail to capture the...

  2. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    João Lopes Guilherme

    Full Text Available Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain

  3. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Pence Brian; Whetten Kathryn; Ostermann Jan; Messer Lynne; Whetten Rachel; Buckner Megan; Thielman Nathan; O'Donnell Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and ...

  4. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about the waiting time and patience distribution in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent and identically distributed observations by allowing correlated successive waiting times. Assuming a regenerative structure of the sequence of offered waiting times, we establish asymptotic properties of...

  5. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Esmail Fatehifar; Sakineh Jadidi; Bahram Vosugh; Fazel Khaleghi; Mohammad Mosaferi; Behzad Hajalilou

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water sa...

  6. Abandoning Silos for Integration: Implementing Enterprise Risk Management and Risk Governance

    Lundqvist, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Firms began to abandon the “silo” approach to risk management for more integration in the risk management system. Enterprise risk management (ERM) emerged as a framework for the management of integrated risks in a strategy setting supported by risk governance. Practically and empirically there has been no real consensus about what an ERM firm looks like. ERM frameworks provide a variety of conceptualizations of ERM, and empirically there are numerous ways of measuring and identifying ERM. The...

  7. Restoration of Threatened Arable Weed Communities in Abandoned Mountainous Crop Fields

    Kohler, Florian; Vandenberghe, Charlotte; Imstepf, Ralph; Gillet, François

    2010-01-01

    Arable fields maintaining species-rich weed communities have almost disappeared from European mountain areas due to their abandonment or replacement by extensive grazing systems during the last decades. The restoration of arable weed communities have become an important issue in these habitats which have a large potential to contain rare and threatened (red-list) species. In a site in the Swiss Alps, formerly managed for crop production, we investigated in experimental plowed plots the 1-year...

  8. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  9. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  10. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    Ricotta, C.; D. Guglietta; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Euro...

  11. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L.; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M.; Windhorst, David

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of ...

  12. The prevention of mine accident and utilization of abandoned mine openings.

    Cho, Won-Jai; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Chung, So-Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. (1) Research on the prevention of mine accident (V): This research has been conducted to investigate 11 major operating coal mines in respect to mine safety. The safety inspection on 9 coal mines has already been done until 1998. In this year, two coal mines, Sangduck and Maro, were inspected and desirable counter measures were recommended. (2) Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings: The final goal of this study is to establish the model of utilization of abandoned mine openings, to design the utilization model, and to develop the utilization techniques. For these research targets, literature surveys, determination of major factors, and field surveys for candidate mines were performed during first research year. Now in this second year, the candidate mines were deeply surveyed, and finally conceptual design was made for one of these abandoned mines. The Gahak mine which is located in Kwangmyung city, Kyunggido, can be utilized as a bio-park and a cave land. (author). 33 refs., 104 tabs., 21 figs.

  13. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Declining diversity in abandoned grasslands of the carpathian mountains: do dominant species matter?

    Anna Mária Csergő

    Full Text Available Traditional haymaking has created exceptionally high levels of plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains (Romania, the maintenance of which is jeopardized by recent abandonment and subsequent vegetation succession. We tested the hypothesis that the different life history strategies of dominant grasses cause different patterns of diversity loss after abandonment of traditional haymaking in two types of meadow. Although diversity loss rate was not significantly different, the mechanism of loss depended on the life history of dominant species. In meadows co-dominated by competitive stress-tolerant ruderals, diversity loss occurred following the suppression of dominant grasses by tall forbs, whereas in meadows dominated by a stress-tolerant competitor, diversity loss resulted from increased abundance and biomass of the dominant grass. We conclude that management for species conservation in abandoned grasslands should manipulate the functional turnover in communities where the dominant species is a weaker competitor, and abundance and biomass of dominant species in communities where the dominant species is the stronger competitor.

  15. Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Transhumance Abandonment on Mountain Vermio (North Greece

    Anna Sidiropoulou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds between highlands and lowlands following precise, repeated routes, is a common practice in many Mediterranean regions. This livestock movement exploits natural vegetation in both winter and summer pastures. In Greece transhumant herders, drawn by relatively abundant vegetation, usually relocate to mountainous areas between April and October. Mount Vermio was an ideal summer pasture for the nomadic, ethnic group Sarakatsanoi of Thessaly, who used to own big herds. Socio-economic conditions of the 20th century led to the gradual decline of transhumance, resulting in reduction in grazing pressure and changes in vegetation dynamics. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in landscape patterns in response to transhumance abandonment. Landscape metrics were employed to estimate land use/cover in two altitudinal zones. Results reveal that due to the abandonment of transhumance in the highlands landscape fragmentation increased. Meanwhile, in the lowlands, due to the uninterrupted presence of animals, landscape structure is more stable and diversified. Grasslands and agroforestry systems became smaller and more isolated. In conclusion, the abandonment of transhumance led to the overall deterioration of the rural landscape in the highlands.

  16. The option to abandon: stimulating innovative groundwater remediation technologies characterized by technological uncertainty.

    Compernolle, T; Van Passel, S; Huisman, K; Kort, P

    2014-10-15

    Many studies on technology adoption demonstrate that uncertainty leads to a postponement of investments by integrating a wait option in the economic analysis. The aim of this study however is to demonstrate how the investment in new technologies can be stimulated by integrating an option to abandon. Furthermore, this real option analysis not only considers the ex ante decision analysis of the investment in a new technology under uncertainty, but also allows for an ex post evaluation of the investment. Based on a case study regarding the adoption of an innovative groundwater remediation strategy, it is demonstrated that when the option to abandon the innovative technology is taken into account, the decision maker decides to invest in this technology, while at the same time it determines an optimal timing to abandon the technology if its operation proves to be inefficient. To reduce uncertainty about the effectiveness of groundwater remediation technologies, samples are taken. Our analysis shows that when the initial belief in an effective innovative technology is low, it is important that these samples provide correct information in order to justify the adoption of the innovative technology. PMID:25063916

  17. Study on the quality of site in the mining district gangue of abandoned place

    LU Guo-bin; LI Ying; WU Xiang-yun

    2008-01-01

    Being as an example of Fuxin, gangue abandoned place was classified gangue hill and dump. It was built 68 piece of temporary standard fields, which physical and chemical character of soil were researched and analyzed. The quality of district site was estimated, and five type abandoned place were gotten. Stopping draining cash less than 7 a and draining cash gangue hill was regarded as Ⅰ gangue hill. Stopping draining gangue age limit 7-15 a and herbage abundance being CO1p level was regarded as Ⅱ gangue hill.Stopping draining gangue age limit 15~25 a and herbage abundance CO2p level was re-garded as Ⅲ gangue hill. Stopping draining cash gangue age limit over 25 a and herbage abundance CO3p level was regarded as Ⅳ gangue hill. Dump being formed the under-ground layer dug up and stacked in the course of mining was regarded asVgangue hill.The results show that every typical abandoned place can plant vegetable.

  18. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    Jason Sherba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using this fully automated procedure and post processing increased this accuracy to 90%. In order to assess the sensitivity of the road classification to LiDAR ground point spacing, the LiDAR ground point cloud was repeatedly thinned by a fraction of 0.5 and the classification procedure was reapplied. The producer’s accuracy of the road classification declined from 79% with a ground point spacing of 0.91 to below 50% with a ground point spacing of 2, indicating the importance of high point density for accurate classification of abandoned logging roads.

  19. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers. PMID:22933087

  20. Could an abandoned mercury mine area be cropped?

    Rocio, Millán; Elvira, Esteban; Pilar, Zornoza; María-José, Sierra

    2013-08-01

    The Almadén area (Spain) is known for its high natural mercury background as well as for the anthropogenic impact due to mining activities. After the end of these activities, appropriate alternative use of the soil has to be found, and agricultural activities stand out as an environmentally-friendly and potentially profitable alternative, giving to the soil a sustainable use without risks for human or animal health according to current legislation. Experiments performed at different scales (involving hydroponics, growth in pots and lysimeters) allow recommendations to be made regarding the adequacy of cultivation of different crops for animal or human consumption before they are sown in the field. Regarding crops for animal feeding, mercury accumulation in vegetative organs represents a higher potential risk for animals. Nevertheless, seeds and fruits can be used, both for human and animal consumption. Finally, this work will lead the way to obtain a scientific basis for elaborating a list of recommendations on sustainable and safe alternative land use, according to current international legislation. PMID:23489985

  1. Neonatal euthanasia is unsupportable: the Groningen protocol should be abandoned.

    Kon, Alexander A

    2007-01-01

    The growing support for voluntary active euthanasia (VAE) is evident in the recently approved Dutch Law on Termination of Life on Request. Indeed, the debate over legalized VAE has increased in European countries, the United States, and many other nations over the last several years. The proponents of VAE argue that when a patient judges that the burdens of living outweigh the benefits, euthanasia can be justified. If some adults suffer to such an extent that VAE is justified, then one may conclude that some children suffer to this extent as well. In an attempt to alleviate the suffering of extremely ill neonates, the University Medical Center Groningen developed a protocol for neonatal euthanasia. In this article, I first present the ethical justifications for VAE and discuss how these arguments relate to euthanizing ill neonates. I then argue that, even if one accepts the justification for VAE in adults, neonatal euthanasia cannot be supported, primarily because physicians and parents can never accurately assess the suffering of children. I argue that without the testament of the patient herself as to the nature and magnitude of her suffering, physicians can never accurately weigh the benefits and burdens of a child's life, and therefore any such system would condemn to death some children whose suffering is not unbearable. I conclude that because the primary duty of physicians is to never harm their patients, neonatal euthanasia cannot be supported. PMID:17985108

  2. The effect of plant diversity manipulation on the succession of soil fauna in an abandoned arable field

    Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Balík, Vladimír

    Rouen : Université de Rouen, 2004. s. 13. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology and Ecology /14./. 30.08.2004-03.09.2004, Rouen] Keywords : plant diversity manipulation * soil fauna * abandoned arable field Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Some examples of the cavity filling along transportation routes above abandoned room and pillar lignite Mines in Tokai Region

    The authors describe the applications of the integrated cavity filling technique to abandoned lignite mines in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's and the routes of Tokai By-Pass Expressway and the linear motor car railway line for Aichi Exposition pass over these abandoned mines. Since the size of abandoned mines were much larger than the route of the expressway and the elevated monorail, limited areas relevant to their stability had to be only filled. This article describe the details of cavity filling operations in these two projects, which may be some valuable examples for assessing the methods how to deal problems associated with mine closures in long term. (authors)

  4. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver...

  5. Variation in concentrations of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants among eggs in abandoned clutches of a terrestrial raptor.

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Bird eggs are often used to measure various pollutants in monitoring programs. In protected species, however, it might only be possible to collect eggs abandoned by the parent birds. In order to assess the appropriateness of abandoned eggs for contaminant monitoring we examined intra-clutch variation in concentrations of 24 halogenated organic pollutants (16 organochlorines [OCs] and 8 brominated flame retardants) in six abandoned tawny owl (Strix aluco) clutches from central Norway. The variation among eggs within a clutch was low for nearly all compounds (intra-class correlation >0.9 both for lipid- and wet weight). This study suggests that abandoned eggs provide a relatively reliable measurement of lipophilic pollutants in clutches of terrestrial raptors such as the tawny owl. PMID:25463262

  6. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely

  7. Isn't it time to abandon cine film

    Cine has served our needs well since the early 1950s. For the first time, it allowed recording of motion studies of the cardiac structures on film. The cine technique has been standardized over the years, both the camera and the display. Cine filming techniques, however, have not advanced, except for new film products with faster emulsions and better-quality films. Video electronic imaging has made rapid advancements. These were prompted by the broadcast industry when the requirements for color were developed in the 1960s and by the advent of new recording techniques that provided a very stable video time base from analog tape recorders. The medical field has been able to capitalize on these developments and to produce some of our own that have not been applied in the broadcast world. These include pulsed progressive 525-line video acquisition of cardiac images in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. We also have been able to capitalize on the improved detector technology that the broadcast world has developed, such as the plumbicon pickup tubes, which produce images with very little lag and so provide images with improved resolution. These developments also have enabled us to reduce radiation to both the patient and the laboratory personnel, especially with implementation of the pulsed progressive acquisition, with which the dose has been reduced 50%. With the advent of interventional procedures in the cardiac catheterization laboratory, the need to assess images immediately cannot be fulfilled by cine filming because of the requirement for the processing of the film with its inherent delays. Quantification of cardiac structures is required to assess the outcome of interventional techniques

  8. Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain

    Zornoza, R.; Guerrero, C.; J. Mataix-Solera; Scow, K M; V. Arcenegui; J. Mataix-Beneyto

    2009-01-01

    In Eastern Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries, forming an integral part of the Mediterranean forest scene. In the last decades, orchards have been abandoned due to changes in society. This study investigates effects of changes in land use from forest to agricultural land and the posterior land abandonment on soil microbial community, and the influence of soil physico-chemical properties on the microbial community composition (assessed as abundances of ...

  9. Does land abandonment decrease species richness and abundance of plants and animals in Mediterranean pastures, arable lands and permanent croplands?

    Plieninger, Tobias; Gaertner, Mirijam; Hui, Cang; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Obscured by the more prevalent discussion of intensification and expansion of agricultural land, the impacts of the abandonment of many grasslands and croplands of the world in recent decades have received limited attention in the literature. Land abandonment is a common phenomenon in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about the impacts of this process on biodiversity. To upscale existing ca...

  10. Motivation for Technology Adoption and Its Impact on Abandonment: A Case Study of U.S. Cotton Farmers

    Uematsu, Hiroki; Mishra, Ashok K.; Roberts, Roland K.; Lambert, Dayton M.; English, Burton C.

    2011-01-01

    We estimate a bivariate probit model with sample selection to identify factors affecting adoption and abandonment of precision farming technologies for cotton farmers, using the 2009 Southern Cotton Precision Farming Survey conducted in 12 Southern states in the United States. Farmers for whom being at the forefront of agricultural technology is not an important reason for adoption are more likely to abandon precision farming technologies. This study identified various factors associated with...

  11. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO)

    BENDRA B.; M. Sbaa; FETOUANI S.; Lotfi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine o...

  12. Groundwater and Surface Water Contributions to Metals Loading in Bayhorse Creek at the Abandoned Ramshorn Mine Site Near Bayhorse, Idaho

    McDonough, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Many abandoned mines in the United States are littered with waste metals that leach into watersheds and degrade habitats. Although metals-laden waters may appear pristine, fish bioaccumulate high concentrations of metals in their tissues, which create health risks if consumed by humans. This study examines the source and fate of metals in Bayhorse Creek near the abandoned Ramshorn mine outside of Challis, Idaho. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey found high levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromi...

  13. Correlates of Poor Health among Orphans and Abandoned Children in Less Wealthy Countries: The Importance of Caregiver Health

    Nathan Thielman; Jan Ostermann; Kathryn Whetten; Rachel Whetten; Karen O'Donnell

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 153 million children worldwide have been orphaned by the loss of one or both parents, and millions more have been abandoned. We investigated relationships between the health of orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) and child, caregiver, and household characteristics among randomly selected OAC in five countries. METHODOLOGY: Using a two-stage random sampling strategy in 6 study areas in Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania, the Positive Outcomes for Orphans (PO...

  14. GIS-based environmental database for assessing the mine pollution : a case study of an abandoned mine site in Morocco

    Khalil, A.; Hanich, L.; Hakkou, R.; Lepage, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Morocco with important mining activities is increasingly concerned about impacts of mining on the environment. In Morocco, there are approximately 200 abandoned mine sites which vary from small scale underground mines to large scale open-pit mines. Some of these mines, with reactive tailings and waste rocks, are problematic. Indeed, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) pollution from abandoned mines is responsible for soil and water contamination, land resources degradation, changes in landscapes, habita...

  15. Y-12 Groundwater Protection Program Monitoring Well Inspection And Maintenance Plan

    None

    2013-09-01

    This document is the fourth revision of the Monitoring Well Inspection and Maintenance Plan for groundwater monitoring wells installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This plan describes the systematic approach for:  inspecting the physical condition of monitoring wells at Y-12,  determining maintenance needs that extend the life of a well, and  identifying those wells that no longer meet acceptable monitoring well design or well construction standards and require plugging and abandonment.

  16. Free and protected soil organic carbon dynamics respond differently to abandonment of mountain grassland

    S. Meyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change (LUC and management are among the major driving forces of soil carbon (C storage. Abandonment of mountain grassland promotes accumulation of aboveground biomass and litter, but related responses of soil organic matter (SOM dynamics are uncertain. To determine SOM-C turnover we sampled 0–10 cm of soils along land-use gradients (hay meadows, grazed pastures and abandoned grasslands in the European Alps varying in management intensity at Stubai Valley (MAT: 3 °C, P: 1097 mm in Austria and Matsch Valley (MAT: 6.6 °C, P: 527 mm in Italy. We determined C input and decomposition rates of labile water-floatable and free particulate organic matter (wPOM, fPOM <1.6 g cm−3 and stable aggregate-occluded particulate and mineral-associated organic matter (oPOM <1.6 g cm−3, mOM >1.6 g cm−3 using bomb radiocarbon.

    At both sites C turnover decreased from w- and fPOM (4–8 yr to oPOM (76–142 yr to mOM (142–250 yr. Following abandonment C input pathways shifted from root-derived towards litter-derived C. The decomposition rates of labile wPOM-C declined with a decrease in litter quality, while both C input and C decomposition rates of labile fPOM increased with an increase in litter quantity. In contrast, protected stable SOM-C (oPOM-C, mOM-C dynamics remained relatively unaffected by grassland abandonment. Carbon accumulation rates of labile POM fractions decreased strongly with time since LUC (10, 25 and 36 yr. For wPOM-C, for example, it decreased from 7.45 ± 0.99 to 2.18 ± 1.06 to 0.82 ± 0.21 g C m−2 yr−1. At both sites, most C was sequestered in the first years after LUC and labile SOM fractions reached new steady state within 20–40 yr.

    We concluded that w-and fPOM-C vs. oPOM-C dynamics respond differently to grassland management change and thus POM does not represent a homogeneous SOM fraction. Sequestered C is stored in the labile readily

  17. In-situ bioremediation via horizontal wells

    This project is designed to demonstrate in situ bioremediation of groundwater and sediment contaminated with chlorinated solvents. Indigenous microorganisms were stimulated to degrade TCE, PCE and their daughter products in situ by addition of nutrients to the contaminated zone. In situ biodegradation is a highly attractive technology for remediation because contaminants are destroyed, not simply moved to another location or immobilized, thus decreasing costs, risks, and time, while increasing efficiency and public and regulatory acceptability. Bioremediation has been found to be among the least costly technologies in applications where it will work (Radian 1989). Subsurface soils and water adjacent to an abandoned process sewer line at the SRS have been found to have elevated levels of TCE (Marine and Bledsoe 1984). This area of subsurface and groundwater contamination is the focus of a current integrated demonstration of new remediation technologies utilizing horizontal wells. Bioremediation has the potential to enhance the performance of in situ air stripping as well as offering stand-alone remediation of this and other contaminated sites (Looney et al. 1991). Horizontal wells could also be used to enhance the recovery of groundwater contaminants for bioreactor conversions from deep or inaccessible areas (e.g., under buildings) and to enhance the distribution of nutrient or microbe additions in an in situ bioremediation

  18. Using Landscape metrics to analyze the landscape evolution under land abandonment

    Pelorosso, Raffaele; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Gobattoni, Federica; Leone, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The human actions and the human-linked land use changes are the main responsible of the present landscapes and vegetation patterns (Antrop, 2005; Pelorosso et al., 2009). Hence, revised concept of potential natural vegetation has been developed in landscape ecology. In fact, it cannot more be considered as the optimum for a certain landscape, but only as a general indication never widely reached. In particular Ingegnoli and Pignatti (2007) introduced the concept of fittest vegetation as "the most suitable or suited vegetation for the specific climate and geomorphic conditions, in a limited period of time and in a certain defined place with a particular range of incorporable disturbances (including man's) under natural or not natural conditions". Anthropic exploitation of land and its resources to obtain goods and services (Willemen et al, 2008) can be considered therefore the main cause of landscape change as an integrant part of nature, not external. The abandon of the land by farmers or other users it is one of the more felt problems for the marginal territories of Mediterranean basin. It is therefore caused by socio-economic changes of last decades and cause several impact on biodiversity (Geri et al. 2010) and hydro-geological assessment. A mountain landscape has however the capacity to provide goods like timber and services like aesthetic pleasure or regulation of water system. The necessity of a conservation strategy and the development of sustainable socio-economic management plan play a very important role in governing land and quality of life for people and ecosystems also for marginal territory. After a land abandonment, soil conditions and several climatic and orographic characteristic plus human disturbance affect the length of time required by secondary succession, throwing the establishment of vegetation with different association, structure and composition until a (stable or meta-stable) equilibrium is reached (Ingegnoli and Pignatti, 2007). In this

  19. Application of electromagnetic techniques in survey of contaminated groundwater at an abandoned mine complex in southwestern Indiana, U.S.A

    In part of a large abandoned mining complex, electromagnetic geophysical surveys were used along with data derived from cores and monitoring wells to infer sources of contamination and subsurface hydrologic connections between acidic refuse deposits and adjacent undistributed geologic materials. Electrical resistivity increases sharply along the boundary of an elevated deposit of pyritic coarse refuse, which is highly contaminated and electrically conductive, indicating poor subsurface hydrologic connections with surrounding deposits of fine refuse and undisturbed glacial material. Groundwater chemistry, as reflected in values of specific conductance, also differs markedly across the deposit's boundary, indicating that a widespread contaminant plume has not developed around the coarse refuse in more than 40 yr since the deposit was created. Most acidic drainage from the coarse refuse is by surface and is concentrated around stream channels. Although most of the contaminated groundwater within the study area is concentrated within the surficial refuse deposits, transects of apparent resistivity and phase angle indicate the existence of an anomalous conductive layer at depth (> 4 m) in thick alluvial sediments along the northern boundary of the mining complex. Based on knowledge of local geology, the anomaly is interpreted to represent a subsurface connection between the alluvium and a flooded abandoned underground mine

  20. A Coupled Economic and Physical Model of Coastal Adaptation and Abandonment: Are human occupied coastlines a bubble waiting to burst?

    McNamara, D.; Keeler, A.

    2011-12-01

    Policy discussions of adaptation by coastal residents to increasing rates of sea level rise and changing frequency of damaging storms have focused on community land use planning processes. This view neglects the role that market dynamics and climate change expectations play in the way coastal communities choose among risk mitigation options and manage land use decisions in an environment of escalating risks. We use a model coupling physical coastal processes with an agent-based model of behavior in real estate and mitigation markets to examine the interplay of climate-driven coastal hazards, collective mitigation decisions, and individual beliefs. The physical component model simulates barrier island processes that respond to both storms and slow scale dynamics associated with sea level rise. The economic component model is an agent-based model of economic behavior where agents are rational economic actors working off different assessments of future climate-driven events. Agents differentially update their beliefs based on a) how much emphasis they give to observed coastal changes and b) how much weight they give to scientific predictions. In essence, agents differ along a spectrum of how much they believe that the past is the best guide to the future and how quickly they react to new information. We use the coupled model to explore three questions of interest to coastal policy. First, how do the interplay of costal processes, beliefs, and mitigation choices affect the level and stability of real estate prices? Second, how does this interplay affect the incentives for community investments in shoreline protection? Third, how do expectations and reactions to observed events, as well as mitigation investments, affect the built environment in circumstances when climate risks reach very high levels? This last question relates to a key aspect of climate change adaptation on the coast - when does mitigation give way to abandonment as an optimal adaptation strategy

  1. O custo de abandono nas empresas petrolíferas The cost of abandonment in oil industries

    Odilanei Morais dos Santos

    2006-08-01

    abandonment costs in their books in order to give a proper understanding on the accounting information produced by these companies. Abandonment costs valuation must be taken into consideration as part of the capitalized cost of assets (oil wells, equipments and facilities giving rise to a liability account conveying the amount related to future obligations of dismantlement, removal and restoration of oil fields. Such practice has been implemented by SFAS 143 in order to provide uniformity to information released by oil industry companies.

  2. TWRS privatization phase 1 monitoring wells engineering study

    This engineering study provides an evaluation of existing wells and boreholes (wells) within the proposed location for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization Phase 1 demonstration site. Phase 1 is part of the TWRS program that was established to manage, retrieve, treat, immobilize, and dispose of high-level waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. This evaluation is to determine which wells will remain active within the demonstration site based on regulatory, programmatic, or other beneficial use requirements. An initial evaluation of wells within the demonstration site was conducted in 1996. However, changes in construction plans and expansion of the demonstration site necessitated a reevaluation and reclassification of the wells that are within the expanded site. Impacted wells include many of those previously evaluated as well as additional wells identified in or near the expansion areas. Thirty-three wells exist within and immediately adjacent to the identified boundary of the proposed demonstration site. The wells identified for decommissioning will be abandoned according to the well decommissioning plan. Future well requirements within the site include replacement wells for those wells impacted by construction activities, replacements for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) wells going dry, and a new characterization well installed to support a TWRS Phase 2 site assessment

  3. Demodex sp. as a Potential Cause of the Abandonment of Soft Contact Lenses by Their Existing Users.

    Tarkowski, Witold; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Młocicki, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Demodex mites may be a potential etiological factor in the development of various eye and skin disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Demodex in the hair follicles of eyelashes and their potential influence on abandoning soft contact lenses which had been previously well tolerated by their users. A group of 62 users of contact lenses (28 with emerging discomfort and 34 without discomfort) were examined. There is a need to check the existence of a relationship between D. folliculorum or/and D. brevis infestation and the emergence of intolerance to the presence of soft contact lenses. The removed lashes were examined under light microscopy, applying standard parasitological methods if demodicosis is suspected. A positive result was assumed if at least one adult stage, larva, protonymph/nymph, or egg of D. folliculorum and/or D. brevis was present. A positive correlation was observed between the presence of Demodex and intolerance to contact lenses by their existing users (p Demodex sp. infections were observed in 92.86% of patients with intolerance to contact lenses. Our results provide further evidence for the pathogenic role played by the mites in the development of eye diseases. PMID:26290865

  4. Demodex sp. as a Potential Cause of the Abandonment of Soft Contact Lenses by Their Existing Users

    Witold Tarkowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Demodex mites may be a potential etiological factor in the development of various eye and skin disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Demodex in the hair follicles of eyelashes and their potential influence on abandoning soft contact lenses which had been previously well tolerated by their users. A group of 62 users of contact lenses (28 with emerging discomfort and 34 without discomfort were examined. There is a need to check the existence of a relationship between D. folliculorum or/and D. brevis infestation and the emergence of intolerance to the presence of soft contact lenses. The removed lashes were examined under light microscopy, applying standard parasitological methods if demodicosis is suspected. A positive result was assumed if at least one adult stage, larva, protonymph/nymph, or egg of D. folliculorum and/or D. brevis was present. A positive correlation was observed between the presence of Demodex and intolerance to contact lenses by their existing users p<0.05, and Demodex sp. infections were observed in 92.86% of patients with intolerance to contact lenses. Our results provide further evidence for the pathogenic role played by the mites in the development of eye diseases.

  5. Evaluation of fire as a management tool for controlling Schinus terebinthifolius as secondary successional growth on abandoned agricultural land

    Doren, Robert F.; Whiteaker, Louis D.; Larosa, Anne Marie

    1991-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius, native to South America, has become an aggressive woody weed in southern Florida, displacing native vegetation as well as rapidly invading disturbed sites. Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of fire as a management option for controlling Schinus on abandoned farmland in Everglades National Park, known as the “Hole-in-the-Donut,” began in 1979. Study plots were established to monitor any change(s) in herbaceous cover and in numbers and size of Schinus stems. Except in the control plot (which was not burned), each site was burned as often as fuel conditions permitted (usually once every one or two years), through 1985. Results indicated that both the number and density of Schinus stems increased over the course of the study. While plots that burned showed a reduction in the rate of Schinus invasion, invasion still progressed rapidly with or without the occurrence of fire. The increase in Schinus stem density from 1980 to 1985 was highly significant in all transects except one. Herbaceous cover showed no clear trends relative to burning.

  6. Impact of fresh tailing deposition on the evolution of groundwater hydrogeochemistry at the abandoned Manitou mine site, Quebec, Canada.

    Maqsoud, Abdelkabir; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Dionne, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The abandoned Manitou mine site has produced acid mine drainage (AMD) for several decades. In order to limit the detrimental environmental impacts of AMD, different rehabilitation scenarios were proposed and analyzed. The selected rehabilitation scenario was to use fresh tailings from the neighboring Goldex gold mine as monolayer cover and to maintain an elevated water table. In order to assess the impact of the Goldex tailing deposition on the hydrogeochemistry of the Manitou mine site, a network of 30 piezometers was installed. These piezometers were used for continuous measurement of the groundwater level, as well as for water sampling campaigns for chemical quality monitoring, over a 3-year period. Hydrochemical data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results clearly showed the benefic impact of fresh tailing deposition on the groundwater quality around the contaminated area. These findings were also confirmed by the evolution of electrical conductivity. In addition to the improvement of the physicochemical quality of water on the Manitou mine site, new tailing deposition induced an increase of water table level. However, at this time, the Manitou reactive tailings are not completely submerged and possible oxidation might still occur, especially after ceasing of the fresh tailing deposition. Therefore, complementary rehabilitation scenarios should still be considered. PMID:26832863

  7. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  8. Who are wellness customers?

    Marković, Suzana; Raspor, Sanja; Komšić, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Although wellness is becoming an increasingly popular concept in practice, academic research regarding wellness services, in general, and tourists as wellness customers, in particular, is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the main characteristics of wellness customers in hotel wellness settings. The study was conducted in hotel wellness centres in the Opatija Riviera (Croatia). The empirical research was organized in two steps, using two different instruments for collect...

  9. Confirmation of a well's mechanical integrity

    Environmental protection is a major consideration in developing today's offshore resources. Protecting the natural habitat from pollutants is a significant factor in offshore drilling and production. It is also important that shallow, potable water supplies and other important minerals be protected from contamination beneath the surface. Today, wireline techniques can effectively monitor tubular goods and annular cement to determine their capacity to confine potentially harmful materials. The location of corrosion, pits, splits, and other corrosive effects on the inside or outside of tubular goods can be pinpointed, and the magnitude quantitatively evaluated with acceptable accuracy. A system of sectorial evaluation permits the entire tubular periphery to be accurately evaluated for cement shear and hydraulic bond, and to determine if effective zone isolation is established. Data from several test wells and practical field examples support the effectiveness of the sectored, pad-mounted bond log instrument. Recognition of zone isolation and/or hydraulic cement integrity is virtually 100% accurate with the proper measurements, and pinpointing problem areas in a casing string permits effective remedial action to be taken. When conditions are irreparable, the well can be properly plugged and abandoned

  10. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65 and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96. In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76. The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85, coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56, illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75, the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38, and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75. Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  11. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Gomes, Nathália Mota de Faria; Bastos, Meire Cardoso da Mota; Marins, Renata Magliano; Barbosa, Aline Alves; Soares, Luiz Clóvis Parente; de Abreu, Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken; Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65) and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96). In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76). The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85), coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56), illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75), the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38), and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75). Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality. PMID:26600948

  12. Study on Net Nitrogen Mineralization at Forest, Shrubland and Abandoned Agricultural Lands under Standard Laboratory Conditions

    Tecimen, Hüseyin Barış

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current study is based on the data collected in January 2010 from field under authorization of Çatalca-Karacaköy the Chief Forest Enterprise located in the northern Istanbul. Net nitrogen mineralization rates were estimated at soils taken from mixed and thicket age (1.30 m Ø ≈ 20 cm) Oak sp. (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. cerris L., Q. robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein)) forest (OFL), shrub land (dominated with Cistus spp.) (SL), recently abandoned agricultural land (RAAL...

  13. Sudan: An in-depth analysis of the social dynamics of abandonment of FGM/C

    S. Al Hebshi; B. V. Nylund; Samira Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices This paper examines the experience of Sudan by analysing the factors that promote and support the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and other harmful social practices. FGM/C is still widely practiced in all regions of northern Sudan but today actors are mobilizing across the country to end the practice. This paper analyses programmes that support ending FGM/C in Sudan and highlights the key factors that promote collec...

  14. Characterization and phytoremediation of abandoned contaminated mining area in Portugal by INAA

    This study aims to find out a vascular plant species that accumulate relatively high concentrations of arsenic (As) for its use as phytoremediator at abandoned and contaminated mining areas, such as Sao Domingos mines (Portugal). The assessment of As contamination levels in soils and plants of other similar sites in the north of the country (Castromil and Poco de Freitas) was also conducted; and the sample analyses were made by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Agrostis genera have shown higher As transfer coefficients than other studied plant species and, in particular, Agrostis curtisii has shown a reasonable ability to accumulate high concentration of this toxic element. (author)

  15. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about waiting time and patience distributions in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent and...... identically distributed observations by allowing correlated waiting times. Assuming a regenerative structure of offered waiting times, we establish asymptotic properties of estimators of limiting distribution functions and derived functionals. We discuss construction of bootstrap confidence intervals and...... statistical tests, including a simple bootstrap two-sample test for comparing patience distributions. A small simulation study and a real data example are presented....

  16. Leadership's impact in turnover and career abandonment intention: the Azorean Hospital Nurses Case.

    Furtado, Luís Carlos do Rego; Batista, Maria da Graça Câmara; Silva, Francisco José Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The authors aimed to identify nurse managers' leadership behaviors and determine if they had a direct impact on turnover or career abandonment intention among nurses. This descriptive and inferential study was conducted in two public hospitals in Azores (Portugal). The sample consisted of 266 individuals (22 head nurses and 244 staff nurses). Data were collected during May 2010. The most expressive leadership styles were S(2) (persuading) and S(3) (sharing). Nurse retention seems easier when dealing with profile S(2)-S(3) or effective adaptability. This study brings light to a severe problem of nurse retention in Portugal. PMID:21864056

  17. Production rate of Morus Alba pollen grains in an abandoned M. Alba plantation

    Kiyonaga, Jota

    2016-01-01

    As a basic study for pollen analysis, the production rate of Morus alba (white mulberry) pollen grains in an abandoned M. alba plantation was determined over a three-year period from 1997 to 1999. The number of pollen grains per male catkin was assessed and the fall rate of male catkins was measured using five litter traps. The mean production rate was 2.6 × 10^ grains ha^yr^ (range = 2.2-3.4 × 10^ grains ha^yr^). This is near the lower end of the range of pollen production rates that have be...

  18. Ten Year Evaluation of Carbon Stock in Mangrove Plantation Reforested from an Abandoned Shrimp Pond

    Jirasak Chukwamdee; Wijarn Meepol; Keiyo Morimune; Naohiro Matsui

    2012-01-01

    Forest carbon stocks—both in terms of the standing biomass and the soil organic carbon (OC)—were monitored in the mangrove plantation reforested from an abandoned shrimp pond for the 10 years following land excavation. Excavation to a level of 25 cm below the existing ground level increased the inundation time of tidal water from 463 to 7,597 hours per year, resulting in a significant increase of survival/growth rates for planted mangrove species, Rhizophora mucronata (RM...

  19. Mobile-based distributed system for managing abandoned or lost pets

    GARROTE HILDEBRAND, DANIEL; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó Ten, José Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00551-5_24 This paper presents the work in progress of a mobile-based distributed system which aims to minimize the social impact of abandoned or lost animals. System is based on the use of smart mobile devices to provide message warnings of animals localized. Messages are stored in a database to be processed. In order to enter data such as photography, audio and artificial images, system uses different ...

  20. Effects of irrigation and plastic mulch on soil properties on semi-arid abandoned fields

    Meulen, van der, A.; Nol, L.; Cammeraat, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Guadalentín Basin in Spain is one of the driest areas of Europe and has problems with high evaporation rates, and high risks of desertification exist including soil quality loss and soil erosion. Farmers in this semi-arid region use polyethylene covers on their irrigated croplands to reduce evaporation in order to enhance crop yield. When farmers abandon the acres, they leave the plastic covers on the fields. Up to now research has been concentrating on the effects of plastic covers on cr...

  1. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Hyung-Seok Kim; Ji-Whan Ahn; Gi-Chun Han; Mihee Lim; Kwang-Suk You

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching c...

  2. Analysis of preliminary testing of Willis Hulin Well No. 1 (Draft)

    Riney, T.D.

    1991-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has both drilled and tested four deep research wells in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region as part of its program to define the magnitude and recoverability of the geopressured-geothermal energy resource. DOE also took over nine wells from industry (before being abandoned) and tested them for short periods to determine fluid properties. The Willis Hulin Well No. 1, located about 7.5 miles south of the town of Erath, Louisiana, is the first well taken over from industry for possible long-term testing. This well penetrates the deepest known Gulf Coast geopressured-geothermal reservoir.

  3. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Mendonça, Angela Marcia Cabral; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Sant’Anna, Clemax Couto

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Objective To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) receiving routine care. Methods Retrospective (2005–2009) descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%). On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI) (hazard ratio—HR: 0.004; 0.000–0.569) of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00–53.3). Conclusion This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting. PMID:27149514

  4. An alternative method for estimating gas in place values for CBM wells

    Manning, Carmen S.; Pugh, Thomas [Cenovus Energy, Calgary (Canada)], email: Carmen.Manning@cenovus.com, email: Thomas.Pugh@cenovus.com; Malapad, Maggie; Khalid, Salman; Faurschou, Ken [Schlumberger, Calgary (Canada)], email: MMalapad@slb.com, email: Khalid2@slb.com, email: Faurschouk@slb.com

    2011-07-01

    A significant portion of Southern Alberta developed sections have been drilled to ultimate well density and have reached their economic potential for shallow gas. With a renewed focus on Coal Bed Methane (CBM) in southern Alberta, the resource can be easily developed through existing wellbores and infrastructure. As short term gas prices face downward pressure, Schlumberger and Cenovus have devised an alternative method (described here) for estimating gas in place values for CBM wells using currently available wireline log, laboratory core and testing data, in combination with derived algorithms establishing relationships between proximate components and gas content for the Taber and McKay zones of the Belly River coals in Southeastern Alberta. With the current method, an initial minimum cost estimate for survey and acquisition, drilling and abandonment, surface abandonment and laboratory analysis of the core or cuttings is $120 000. As this cost is prohibitive to expanding the resource, an economic low-tier solution was required.

  5. The wellness syndrome

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    Klumme. Wellness er blevet et syndrom, og dets symptomer er angst, selvbebrejdelser og skyldfølelse. Kommentar med udgangspunkt i: Carl Cederström & Andre Spicer, "The Wellness Syndrome" (Polity Books, 2015. 200 p.).......Klumme. Wellness er blevet et syndrom, og dets symptomer er angst, selvbebrejdelser og skyldfølelse. Kommentar med udgangspunkt i: Carl Cederström & Andre Spicer, "The Wellness Syndrome" (Polity Books, 2015. 200 p.)....

  6. Total well dominated trees

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  7. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Esmail Fatehifar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of miningarea were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according tostandard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence(XRF and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP were used. Information about possiblehealth effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villagesand health center of Herris City.Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000μg/L in Valiloo mine opening water. With increasing distance from the mine, concentrationwas decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no healtheffects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic.Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around environmentof the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater andalso downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  8. Effluent water quality and the ochre deposit characteristics of the abandoned Smolnik mine, East Slovakia

    This paper presents the results of a 20-year survey of selected physical and chemical parameters of mine drainage and associated stream sediments at the abandoned Smolnik deposit (East Slovakia). The Smolnik mine was in operation intermittently from the 14th century for Au, Ag, Cu, Fe and pyrite (FeS2). In 1990 - 1994 the mine was finally closed and flooded. In 1997 a remediation effort was initiated in an attempt to improve the quality of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the mine site. Monitoring of the AMD water parameters has continued since 2000 in quarterly intervals. Considering the concentration of dissolved constituents and the flow rate of the AMD, the abandoned Smolnik deposit brings about continuous loading of more than 500 kg of dissolved metals per day to the adjacent Smolnik stream. The ochreous precipitates formed from AMD stream were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Schwertmannite was the dominant solid phase in the precipitates. The chemical analysis of AMD and the elemental composition of related sediments indicated selective scavenging potential of the precipitates for arsenic and other metal species. (authors)

  9. Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine

    Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H. [Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources BGR, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

  10. Practice on medical support in dealing with abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese army in China

    Liu LIU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese abandoned chemical weapons (JACWs are a momentous and eventful historical issue for both China and Japan. Large quantities of chemical weapons abandoned by the Japanese invaders still remain on Chinese soil after 1945 when Japanese invaders were defeated and surrendered. Up to date, JACWs have been found in 19 provinces (cities or districts of mainland China. The types of JACWs include chemical bombs, chemical aerial bombs, gas cylinders and loose packed barrels. The types of toxic agents include mustard gas, irritant agents, choking agents, systemic poisoning agents and etc. In order to eliminate JACWs to reduce injuries produced by toxic agents, Chinese government, in cooperation with Japanese government, organized a special troop to search, excavate, retrieve, and destroy JACWs. Up to date, about 50,000 pieces of poisonous chemical had retrieved and destroyed. The first operation was officially begun in Nanjing in October 2010. The main points of medical support on the operation of destroying JACWs include proper treatment of the newly discovered patients caused by JACWs, preparedness for handling the emergency medical rescue, and to actively provide routine medical support for JACWs operation field.

  11. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.

  12. Medium-term erosion simulation of an abandoned mine site using the SIBERIA landscape evolution model

    This study forms part of a collaborative project designed to validate the long-term erosion predictions of the SIBERIA landform evolution model on rehabilitated mine sites. The SIBERIA catchment evolution model can simulate the evolution of landforms resulting from runoff and erosion over many years. SIBERIA needs to be calibrated before evaluating whether it correctly models the observed evolution of rehabilitated mine landforms. A field study to collect data to calibrate SIBERIA was conducted at the abandoned Scinto 6 uranium mine located in the Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The data were used to fit parameter values to a sediment loss model and a rainfall-runoff model. The derived runoff and erosion model parameter values were used in SIBERIA to simulate 50 years of erosion by concentrated flow on the batters of the abandoned site. The SIBERIA runs correctly simulated the geomorphic development of the gullies on the man-made batters of the waste rock dump. The observed gully position, depth, volume, and morphology on the waste rock dump were quantitatively compared with the SIBERIA simulations. The close similarities between the observed and simulated gully features indicate that SIBERIA can accurately predict the rate of gully development on a man-made post-mining landscape over periods of up to 50 years. SIBERIA is an appropriate model for assessment of erosional stability of rehabilitated mine sites over time spans of around 50 years. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  13. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine.

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Navarro, Andrés; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-07-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters, the quantification of metal concentrations, and the application of aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity bioassays. Chemical analysis of soil samples revealed concentrations of Hg, As, Ba, Pb, Sb, and Zn above international intervention values. Results from terrestrial tests showed detrimental effects in all studied organisms (Eisenia foetida, Folsomia candida, and different plant species) and revealed the avoidance response of earthworms as the most sensitive endpoint. Surprisingly, the most toxic samples were not the ones with higher metal contents but the ones presenting higher electrical conductivity. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio were in accordance with terrestrial tests, confirming the need to couple environmental chemistry with ecotoxicological tools for the proper assessment of metal-contaminated sites. In view of the results, a remediative intervention of the studied area is recommended. PMID:26996905

  14. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    Liu Chuanping [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Gao Yun [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Fangbai, E-mail: cefbli@soil.gd.c [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Lin Lanwen; Wu Changan [Guangdong Public Laboratory of Environmental Science and Technology, Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-15

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg{sup -1} with the mean value of 129 mg kg{sup -1}. In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 mug L{sup -1} in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg{sup -1} for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg{sup -1} and 164 mug L{sup -1}, respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  15. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y). PMID:22073728

  16. Pilot study of environmental monitoring of Konya region near abandoned mercury mine in Turkey.

    Karahalil, Bensu; Ulukaya, Mevlut; Alp, Orkun

    2012-02-01

    Abandoned mines are an important global concern and continue to pose potential threats to human health including environmental damage/s. There is not any specific regulation for mining wastes in Turkey and this situation puts the mining wastes into the dangerous category. Therefore, this study focuses on the environmental effects of the abandoned mercury mines. To demonstrate environmental mercury contamination, fish samples were collected from two different regions which were contaminated and uncontaminated region. As a biomarker of environmental exposure the levels of Hg in fish samples were measured by Cold Vapor-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CVAAS). In fish samples, the levels of Hg were 0.504 ± 0.475 (mg/kg) (Mean ± SD) in Group 1 and 0.04 ± 0.054 (mg/kg) (Mean ± SD) in Group 2. Our data suggested that although mercury mine was closed long time ago, mining waste is still a problem and continues to contaminate the environment. PMID:22020921

  17. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  18. The abandoned undergound Cherno more coal mine (SE Bulgaria) - a source of low grade geothermal energy

    Flooded abandoned coal mines are a potential source of geothermal energy, which could be used for heating and cooling of energy efficient buildings. Cherno More Coal Mine is located in SE Bulgaria and has been closed for more than 20 years. It represents a large human-induced subsurface reservoir which consists of three interconnected coalfields (“Brigadir”, “9.IX.” and “Blagoev”). Their total volume of about 2.0x106 m3 has been calculated considering the size of the stone drifts. The mine water temperature is measured to be about 16°C in the only accessible vertical shaft (“9.IX.” coalfield). This is the first study of an abandoned coal mine in Bulgaria aiming at assessing its low-valued energy potential and evaluating the opportunity for heating and cooling buildings. The geological and hydrogeological characteristics of Cherno More Mine have been analyzed by using existing archive data and conducting additional chemical analysis of water samples and temperature measurements in the mine. The obtained data were used to develop a regional groundwater model of the area and a local hydrothermal model for a thermally-insulated furniture factory located in the vicinity of the vertical shaft. The simulated temperature distribution in the mine during exploitation showed no impact on the production temperature by reinjected water under defined steady state conditions, which created a reliable basis for mine water energy use

  19. Arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at an abandoned tungsten mine, southern China

    In an extensive environmental study, field samples, including soil, water, rice, vegetable, fish, human hair and urine, were collected at an abandoned tungsten mine in Shantou City, southern China. Results showed that arsenic (As) concentration in agricultural soils ranged from 3.5 to 935 mg kg-1 with the mean value of 129 mg kg-1. In addition, As concentration reached up to 325 μg L-1 in the groundwater, and the maximum As concentration in local food were 1.09, 2.38 and 0.60 mg kg-1 for brown rice, vegetable and fish samples, respectively, suggesting the local water resource and food have been severely contaminated with As. Health impact monitoring data revealed that As concentrations in hair and urine samples were up to 2.92 mg kg-1 and 164 μg L-1, respectively, indicating a potential health risk among the local residents. Effective measurements should be implemented to protect the local community from the As contamination in the environment. - It is the first report on arsenic contamination and potential health risk implications at abandoned Lianhuashan tungsten mine.

  20. Assessment of contaminant load changes caused by remining abandoned coal mines

    Determination of contaminant loading changes caused by remining of abandoned coal mines requires knowledge of the characteristics of the hydrologic data before and after remining. Under an approved remining program, a coal mine operator can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming treatment responsibilities of the previously degraded water, as long as these discharging waters are not further degraded. Normality tests performed on the hydrologic data from 57 mine discharges from 24 remining operations indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness (toward the smaller values). Analysis of the differences among medians indicates that the water quality of underground mines was more highly degraded than that of surface mines. Analyses of pre- and post-remining mine discharge water quality and flow rates of the 57 discharges illustrate that most the sites exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in contaminant rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining pollution load was observed to be significantly better or worse than the pre-remining load, as was shown with the correlation and other analyses. Generally, when the mine discharges were degraded as a result of remining, this was caused by short-term changes in flow and/or concentration that occurred shortly after reclamation. Reduction of recharge from the surface and adjacent unmined strata should decrease the mine discharge flow rate and in turn the contaminant load

  1. Review of the energy situation in Germany, 18 months after the decision of abandoning nuclear power

    In March 2011, 3 days after the Fukushima accident, the German government announced the abandoning of nuclear power and its replacement by renewable energies. In 2011 the decrease of electrical power due to the abandoning of nuclear power was compensated according to 3 ways: first a slight decrease of the demand due to the combined effect of the economic crisis and a higher cost of energy, secondly an increase of the renewable energies (+18 TWh) and a cut in the German energy exports by a 2/3 factor from 11 TWh to 6 TWh. In 2012 the situation was less favorable: the German solar industry collapsed, difficulties on the off-shore wind energy appeared, large power fluctuations due to renewable energies disturbed the power grid, adequate sites for wind energy were more and more difficult to find, and high costs of natural gas had damaged the competitiveness of gas-fueled plants. Only coal- and lignite-fueled power plants are on the rise which is bad news for CO2 emissions. (A.C.)

  2. DESIGN AND MECHANICAL INTEGRITY OF CO2 INJECTION WELLS

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Geologic Sequestration (GS is part of a process known as “carbon capture and storage (CCS” and represents the process of injecting CO2, into deep subsurface rock formations for long-term storage. For injecting of CO2 existing wells are used as well as new drilled wells. A well represents the most likely route for leakage of CO2 from geologic carbon sequestration. Maintaining mechanical integrity helps prevent the well and wellbore from becoming conduits for CO2 migration out of the injection zone. The typical components of a CO2 injection well are casing, tubing, cement, and packer. These components are relevant for maintaining mechanical integrity and ensuring CO2 does not migrate upwards from the injection zone into underground source of drinking water (USDW; therefore helping to ensure zonal isolation of the injected carbon dioxide. In order to have the safe underground storage of CO2 well integrity considerations should be present during all phases of well life including design phase, drilling, completion, injection, workover (service and abandonment. The paper describes well design, well integrity and mechanical integrity tests (MITs as a means of measuring the adequacy of the construction of the injection well and as a way to detect problems within the well system.

  3. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines.

    Duncan, Clare; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Thompson, Julian R; Loma, Rona Joy A; Koldewey, Heather J

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves provide vital climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) ecosystem services (ES), yet have suffered extensive tropics-wide declines. To mitigate losses, rehabilitation is high on the conservation agenda. However, the relative functionality and ES delivery of rehabilitated mangroves in different intertidal locations is rarely assessed. In a case study from Panay Island, Philippines, using field- and satellite-derived methods, we assess carbon stocks and coastal protection potential of rehabilitated low-intertidal seafront and mid- to upper-intertidal abandoned (leased) fishpond areas, against reference natural mangroves. Due to large sizes and appropriate site conditions, targeted abandoned fishpond reversion to former mangrove was found to be favourable for enhancing CCMA in the coastal zone. In a municipality-specific case study, 96.7% of abandoned fishponds with high potential for effective greenbelt rehabilitation had favourable tenure status for reversion. These findings have implications for coastal zone management in Asia in the face of climate change. PMID:27289287

  4. Use of on-site mycorrhizal inoculum for plant establishment on abandoned mined lands. Final report, 31 May 1988-31 March 1990

    Helm, D.J.; Carling, D.E.

    1990-04-27

    Natural vegetation succession on abandoned coal-mined lands does not provide sufficient plant cover to control soil erosion in the short term. Soil inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi from an adjacent undisturbed area was used to inoculate balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings to improve plant growth. Soil inoculum contains the species of mycorrhizal fungi indigenous to the area as well as other beneficial organisms. An initial survey of mycorrhizal fungi in soils was conducted to determine the existing levels of mycorrhizal infection on native and disturbed soils. Four experiments were implemented to determine (1) fertilizer and mycorrhizal effects, (2) effects of successional stage of inoculum source, (3) effects of nitrogen sources in conjunction with mycorrhizae, and (4) the combinations of microsites, fertilizer, and mycorrhizae needed to establish vegetation on a steep slope. Soil-borne inoculum improved the growth of balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings over the 2-yr period.

  5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  6. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007)

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  7. Organizational Wellness Modeling

    Constantin OPREAN; Alina Mihaela VANU; Amelia BUCUR

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to establish certain mathematical models for organizational wellness as well as to create some wellness optimization problems applicable to any type of organization (including universities) that might be mathematically solved resorting to aspects of operational research of mathematical analysis. The results obtained associated with a mathematical apparatus enable one to perform analyses, comparisons, interpretations, predictions. All of us have, consciously or ...

  8. Personal Wellness Tools

    ... health trends related to the following: Overall mood Mood disorder symptoms Lifestyle (including sleep, exercise, etc.) Medication and side effects Physical health Using the DBSA Wellness Tracker can ...

  9. Improved germanium well detectors

    Germanium well detectors with metal surface barrier contact are comparable for general use with conventional germanium coaxial detectors. They offer very high sensitivity, the highest presently available

  10. New challenges? Well, certainly!

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    New challenges? Well, certainly! With the internationalization of European higher education, teaching and learning through the medium of a foreign language has become more and more widespread in recent years. This requires, of course, that lecturers as well as students have the necessary language...... proficiency, but research as well as experience on the ground tells us that this is not enough. Everyone must learn to navigate in the multilingual and multicultural learning space because lecturers as well as students may come from different countries and cultures and therefore have different first languages...

  11. L’abandon et l’appel, ou l’optimisme paradoxal de Graham Greene dans The Power and the Glory Abandoned and Called, or Graham Greene’s Paradoxical Optimism in The Power and the Glory

    René Gallet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Power and the Glory is often seen as a pessimistic, if not tragic, work. However, this fails to consider Greene’s little-known statement to the contrary, as well as important aspects of the novel, one of them being the idea of “glory” in the title. In the narrative itself, a fragmented presence of beauty can be discovered as early as the opening scene, and more particularly within Mr Tench’s seedy universe. Two contrasting worlds are thus intermingled from the very beginning, and the rest of the novel is interspersed with similar examples. A related observation can be made about the feeling of abandonment voiced by most of the characters. When examined more closely, the feeling turns out to be highly ambiguous, and not always devoid of bad faith. It should be contrasted with the repeated phenomenon of calls to responsible action. The most striking one is also found in the opening scene, where the fugitive priest is reminded of his duty by the mysterious, though seedy looking, native child. And through the priest a call is addressed to Mr Tench, who fails to perceive anything. This call to his repressed conscience is repeated in the final scene when he witnesses the priest’s execution. Newman’s understanding of man’s condition probably underlies such contrasts “between the beautiful and the treacherous”. The degraded world in which most characters evolve is not to be isolated from the experience of conscience which both confirms the reality of this negative state of affairs and, in varying degrees, distances the characters from it.

  12. L’abandon et l’appel, ou l’optimisme paradoxal de Graham Greene dans The Power and the Glory Abandoned and Called, or Graham Greene’s Paradoxical Optimism in The Power and the Glory

    René Gallet

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Power and the Glory is often seen as a pessimistic, if not tragic, work. However, this fails to consider Greene’s little-known statement to the contrary, as well as important aspects of the novel, one of them being the idea of “glory” in the title. In the narrative itself, a fragmented presence of beauty can be discovered as early as the opening scene, and more particularly within Mr Tench’s seedy universe. Two contrasting worlds are thus intermingled from the very beginning, and the rest of the novel is interspersed with similar examples. A related observation can be made about the feeling of abandonment voiced by most of the characters. When examined more closely, the feeling turns out to be highly ambiguous, and not always devoid of bad faith. It should be contrasted with the repeated phenomenon of calls to responsible action. The most striking one is also found in the opening scene, where the fugitive priest is reminded of his duty by the mysterious, though seedy-looking, native child. And through the priest a call is addressed to Mr Tench, who fails to perceive anything. This call to his repressed conscience is repeated in the final scene when he witnesses the priest’s execution. Newman’s understanding of man’s condition probably underlies such contrasts “between the beautiful and the treacherous”. The degraded world in which most characters evolve is not to be isolated from the experience of conscience which both confirms the reality of this negative state of affairs and, in varying degrees, distances the characters from it.

  13. Cambios en la vegetacion de un campo abandonado despues de un cultivo de trigo Vegetation changes in a field abandoned after a wheat crop

    Silvia Irene Boccanelli

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available La vegetación prístina de los campos altos del sur de Santa Fe (Argentina son distintos tipos de flechillares caracterizados por la abundancia de varias especies del género Stipa. Cuando un campo agrícola se abandona suele revertir a las comunidades prístinas. El objeto de este trabajo es analizar los diez primeros años de la sucesión secundaria de un campo sometido a agricultura durante largo tiempo que se abandonó después de un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum. En el primer año aparece trigo acompañado de malezas anuales (Chenopodium album y Portulaca oleracea; después del primer año una parcela fue colonizada por Baccharis salicifolia y las otras por Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. Los últimos años constituyen una etapa en la que disminuye la diversidad y se establece una fuerte dominancia de Baccharis salicifolia o Carduus acanthoides. El Sorgo de Alepo (Sorghum halepense aparece en las etapas tempranas y perdura durante todo el período con valores altos de abundancia. Aún, prácticamente no han aparecido especies de los flechillares, por lo tanto se concluye que no ha transcurrido suficiente tiempo para que se regenere el flechillar, o porque sus especies no se encuentran en los bancos de semillas o en las proximidades.The natural vegetation of well drained fields of Southern Santa Fe (Argentina are a different kind of communities characterized by the abundance of several species of Stipa. When agricultural lands are abandoned, they are often recolonized by the original vegetation. The object of this paper is to analize the first ten years of secondary succession on a field under a long time of agriculture abandoned after a wheat crop. On the first year, wheat with annual weeds (Chenopodium album and Portulaca oleracea appeared. After the first year, one plot was colonized by Baccharis salicifolia and the others by Carduus acanthoides, Cerastium glomeratum, Ammi majus, etc. The last years

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Wells.

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on wells provides instructional materials for five competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: dug, driven, and chilled wells, aquifer types, deep well…

  15. WELL PURGING STUDY

    Purging of wells with bailers has been a standard practice in the underground storage tank program as well as other groundwater regulatory programs for many years. Several studies in the Northeast and the West have shown that, under certain circumstances, samples collected witho...

  16. Oil and gas wells and pipelines on U.S. wildlife refuges: challenges for managers.

    Pedro Ramirez

    Full Text Available The increased demand for oil and gas places a burden on lands set aside for natural resource conservation. Oil and gas development alters the environment locally and on a much broader spatial scale depending on the intensity and extent of mineral resource extraction. The current increase in oil and gas exploration and production in the United States prompted an update of the number of pipelines and wells associated with oil and gas production on National Wildlife Refuge System (NWRS lands. We obtained geospatial data on the location of oil and gas wells and pipelines within and close to the boundaries of NWRS lands (units acquired as fee simple (i.e. absolute title to the surface land by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. We found that 5,002 wells are located in 107 NWRS units and 595 pipelines transect 149 of the 599 NWRS units. Almost half of the wells (2,196 were inactive, one-third (1,665 were active, and the remainder of the wells were either plugged and abandoned or the status was unknown. Pipelines crossed a total of 2,155 kilometers (1,339 miles of NWRS fee simple lands. The high level of oil and gas activity warrants follow up assessments for wells lacking information on production type or well status with emphasis on verifying the well status and identifying abandoned and unplugged wells. NWRS fee simple lands should also be assessed for impacts from brine, oil and other hydrocarbon spills, as well as habitat alteration associated with oil and gas, including the identification of abandoned oil and gas facilities requiring equipment removal and site restoration.

  17. Quantification of functional soil organic carbon pools in a chronosequence of land abandonment in southern Spain.

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2015-04-01

    Land abandonment is the dominant land use change in the Mediterranean, and determines the soil organic carbon (SOC) as the vegetation recovers during secondary succession. The rate of SOC recovery is influenced by environmental factors such as precipitation, soil properties or other local factors. Using aerial photographs taken in 1956, 1977, 1984, 1998, 2001 and 2009, a chronosequence of crop land abandonment was designed and topsoil samples were taken at each stage of recovery in a region North of Málaga. As SOC is a mixture of functional pools, it is important to isolate organic carbon with distinct functional properties to better understand the overall dynamic over decades. Using fractionation scheme introduced by Zimmermann et al. (2007), five fractions were isolated based on particle size, density and resistance: particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), SOC linked to silt and clay (s & c), SOC attached to sand particles or occluded in aggregates (S+A) and a chemically resistant fraction obtained by NaOCl oxidation (rSOC). Although there were no significant changes in particle-size distribution between the recovery stages (except for the croplands), there was a significant increase of S+A fraction over time (16 to 38%) at the expense of the s & c fraction (84 to 58%), indicating aggregation processes. Carbon concentrations within fractions S+A or rSOC did not change over time. Rather, carbon associated with silt and clay particles (s &c) was significantly affected after a few decades of abandonment. It increased from 5.7 gC.kg-1 in croplands to 10.3 gC.kg-1 in semi-natural plots. The chronosequence showed that carbon can be stored in more stable fractions. Taking into account active carbon (DOC + POM) and intermediate carbon (s & c, S+A) as indicators for carbon dynamics, we showed that the proportion of active carbon increased from 11% to 34% within the chronosequence. On the other hand, the proportion of slow cycling carbon

  18. Prevention of gas escape from abandoned mines; Vermeidung von Gaszutritten aus stillgelegten Grubenfeldern

    Kunz, E.; Meiners, H.; Christensen, H.J.; Litte, B.; Luhmann, L.; Opahle, M.; Pollak, R.; Sheta, H. [Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH, Essen (Germany). Gas and Fire Div.

    2003-07-01

    Many mines were abandoned in the Ruhr district during the past decade. Methane is still released from abandoned mines, although the termination of forced ventilation and backfilling of shafts have largely prevented it, so that only barometric gas release will take place. This project started by identifying the relevant influencing factors of gas release from abandoned mines. Knowledge of residual gas volumes and cavity volumes is of prime importance. For an exemplary coal mine in the central Ruhr district, the remaining coal and gas volumes were estimated in order to calculate residual gas emissions. Gas flow underground and to the surface is governed by available flow paths and obstacles. For this reason, the flow resistance of dams, backfilled shafts and ventilation lines was measured, and fundamental studies on permeability of the top rock were carried out. The influence of technical pressure sinks (blowers, gas removal) on underground gas flow was investigated. Finally, gas flow in different conditions was simulated by model calculations. (orig.) [German] Der aktive Steinkohlenbergbau im Ruhrrevier hat sich sowohl durch Zusammenfuehrung von einzelnen Bergwerken zu Verbundbergwerken als auch durch Anschlussbergwerke flaechenmaessig in noerdlicher Richtung weiter ausgedehnt. Zwangslaeufig folgte eine Zunahme stillgelegter Feldesteile, in denen auch nach Beendigung des Abbaus weiterhin eine Methanabgabe des Gebirges stattfindet. Durch das Beenden der technischen Zwangsbelueftung (=Bewetterung) und Verfuellen der Schaechte wird das kontrollierte Abstroemen des Gases zur Tagesoberflaeche allerdings weitgehend unterbunden. Zu Beginn des Vorhabens stand die Erkundung und Untersuchung der fuer die Ausgasung aus stillgelegten Bereichen relevanten Einflussgroessen im Mittelpunkt. Da nach der Schliessung von Bergwerken nur noch eine barometrische Ausgasung vorhanden ist, ist die Kenntis von Restgasmengen und Hohlraumvolumina von vorrangiger Bedeutung. Daher wurden

  19. Pumping potential wells

    Hershkowitz, N.; Forest, C.; Wang, E. Y.; Intrator, T.

    1987-01-01

    Nonmonotonic plasma potential structures are a common feature of many double layers and sheaths. Steady state plasma potential wells separating regions having different plasma potentials are often found in laboratory experiments. In order to exist, such structures all must find a solution to a common problem. Ions created by charge exchange or ionization in the region of the potential well are electrostatically confined and tend to accumulate and fill up the potential well. The increase in positive charge should eliminate the well. Nevertheless, steady state structures are found in which the wells do not fill up. This means that it is important to take into account processes which 'pump' ions from the well. As examples of ion pumping of plasma wells, potential dips in front of a positively biased electro collecting anode in a relatively cold, low density multidipole plasma is considered. Pumping is provided by ion leaks from the edges of the potential dip or by oscillating the applied potential. In the former case the two dimensional character of the problem is shown to be important.

  20. Dry well cooling device

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  1. A solvable double well

    Mohammedi, N

    2016-01-01

    We study the quantum behaviour of a particle moving in a one-dimensional double well potential. This double well is obtained by gluing together, at the origin, two shifted harmonic oscillator potentials. The Schr\\"odinger equation is exactly solvable. The requirement that discontinuities, in the wavefunction and its first derivative, are absent at the origin, leads to the quantisation of the energy eigenvalues. We also show that oscillations in time take place between two nearby single harmonic oscillator ground states. Finally, the double well potential is augmented by a Dirac delta-function potentials at the origin and the corresponding Schr\\"odinger equation is solved.

  2. Well performance model

    This paper describes the development and application of a comprehensive oil or gas well performance model. The model contains six distinct sections: stimulation design, tubing and/or casing flow, reservoir and near-wellbore calculations, production forecasting, wellbore heat transmission, and economics. These calculations may be performed separately or in an integrated fashion with data and results shared among the different sections. The model analysis allows evaluation of all aspects of well completion design, including the effects on future production and overall well economics

  3. Potential for offshore geothermal developments using deep gas wells

    Teodoriu, C.; Falcone, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE

    2013-08-01

    The development of geothermal resources is steadily increasing as operators meet the challenge of maximising the temperature difference between production and injection wells, while minimising the wellhead temperature of the latter. At present, the minimum working wellhead temperature reported for the heat-to-electricity conversion cycles is limited to about 80 C. The cycle efficiency can be improved by reducing the injection temperature, which is the temperature at which the fluid exits the process. This paper evaluates the potential for generating electricity with a subsea geothermal plant using the difference between downhole reservoir temperature and that of the cold seawater at the mud line. The temperature in the world's oceans is relatively constant, ranging from 0 to 4 C at around 400 meters water depth. The use of these lower offshore water temperatures may help boost geothermal energy development. Deep gas resources are considered to be held within reservoirs below 4600 meters (15000 feet) and are relatively undeveloped as the risks and costs involved in drilling and producing such resources are extremely high. These deep resources have high reservoir temperatures, which offer an opportunity for geothermal exploitation if a new development concept can be formulated. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal application once the gas field has been depleted. The major risks considered in this study include alternative uses of wells in no flow or rapid depletion situations. Reutilisation of the wells of depleted gas reservoirs will invariably lead to lower geothermal development costs compared with starting a geothermal campaign by drilling new wells. In particular, the well design and reservoir development plan should consider reutilising existing well stock, including dry and plugged and abandoned wells for geothermal

  4. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about the waiting time and patience distribution in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent...... and identically distributed observations by allowing correlated successive waiting times. Assuming a regenerative structure of the sequence of offered waiting times, we establish asymptotic properties of estimators of limiting distribution functions and derived functionals. We discuss construction of bootstrap...... confidence intervals and statistical tests, including a simple bootstrap two-sample test for comparing patience distributions. The methods are exemplified in a small simulation study, and a real data example is given involving comparison of patience distributions for two customer classes in a call center....

  5. Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander V.;

    2016-01-01

    Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land-based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union...... socio-economic constraints suggested that the remaining 30.6 (25.7– 30.6) Mha of abandoned croplands were unlikely to provide important contributions to future crop production at current wheat prices but could provide various ecosystem services, and some could support extensive livestock production....... Political and institutional support could foster recultivation by supporting investments in agriculture and rural demographic revitalization. Reclaiming potentially available cropland in the study region could provide a notable contribution to global grain production, with relatively low environmental trade...

  6. Potential for mine water reuse in an abandoned coal mine in northern Spain

    Marques, A.; Garcia-Ordiales, E.; Loredo, J. [Oviedo Univ., Asturias (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This paper investigated the potential re-utilization of mine water in industrial activities. Mine water characterization studies were conducted to evaluate mine waters from the abandoned La Camocha Mine in northwestern Spain. Hydrochemical studies have indicated that the water is bicarbonated with a low sulphate and iron content, and a neutral pH. The concentrations of trace metals are below water legislation for human consumption levels. The water can economically be transported for use in the irrigation of a botanical garden and sports centre located in the same region as the mine. Use of the water will help to preserve rivers and other waterways in the region, and may also minimize the environmental impacts of pumping activities at the mine. Fluid properties for various water samples were provided. 6 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  7. Marine snow derived from abandoned larvacean houses: Sinking rates, particle content and mechanisms of aggregate formation

    Hansen, J.L.S.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Alldredge, A.L.

    1996-01-01

    directly from the water column by divers. ALI aggregates were composed of 1 abandoned house of the larvacean Oikopleura dioica to which numerous diatoms, fecal pellets, ciliales, and amorphous detritus were attached. High vertical flux rates (20000 to 120000 houses m(-2) d(-1)) and settling velocities...... (average 120 m d(-1)) imply a rapid turnover of suspended larvacean houses, and concentrations of diatoms and fecal pellets in the aggregates exceeding ambient concentrations by 3 to 5 orders of magnitude suggest their potential importance in driving the vertical flux of particles. Identical particle...... aggregate contained diatoms in abundances corresponding to those found in 4.5 ml of ambient water. Laboratory measurements showed that larvacean houses scavenge diatoms and fecal pellets while sinking, and observed scavenging rates were similar to those predicted from theory. However, both predicted and...

  8. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Jake M. Laguador

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respondents who were owners of restaurants that utilized charcoal for grilling. The company adopts partnership form of ownership and based on the result of the survey, the study is feasible in the region and raw materials were abundant in the nearby towns and provinces. It is resolute to establish a business which offers high quality and low priced green charcoal in the market as alternative biofuel with payback period of 4 years and 11 monthsbased on the result of financial analysis.

  9. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Hyung-Seok Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT, leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L: 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L: 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT].

  10. The study of DDT in contaminated soil of abandoned DDT factory area of Amangarh Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) is an organo chlorine insecticide mainly used to control mosquito borne diseases and agricultural pests worldwide, including Pakistan. For DDT production a factory was established in 1963 in Amangargh, Nowshehra, KP. Although DDT production and its applications in agriculture have been banned since long and as a result the mentioned factory has also abandoned yet there remains extensive amount of DDT and contaminated sites are still releasing DDT to the environment. As a matter of fact even small amounts of DDT can affect a variety of organisms like small microorganisms, algae and plankton. DDT also causes many problems in fish, birds, mammals and somehow Human Beings. This research examined the soil's DDT concentration and its transformation at various depths of study site. The DDT from each soil sample was extracted using simply solvent extraction method. The residual DDT level found in almost all the soil samples taken was greater than the standard limit (< 17 mgKg/sup -1/). (author)

  11. Primary socialization theory: comments on racism, sexism, generational neglect, abuse, and abandonment.

    Garcia, S A

    1999-06-01

    This article asks whether primary socialization theory adequately deals with the most distressed and disadvantaged members of society, whether for most of them the family, school, and peers are the primary sources of socialization. Children who are subjected to the effects of racism, sexism, physical and mental abuse, inferior dangerous schools, and abandonment to foster care from birth may find other sources of primary socialization which can be either negative and positive. "Nihilism" and "anomie" are used to describe such children's position in their societies, and the article asks if those without benefit of the three primary sources of socialization can find ways to create new and positive norms, or whether they are doomed to lives of hopelessness and deviance. [Translations are provided in the International Abstracts Section of this issue.] PMID:10359218

  12. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  13. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT]. PMID:20049231

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    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  18. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY; SEMIANNUAL

    This report represents the sixth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the White Meadow Mine site, after amended specifications were prepared and continued negotiations took place with the Property Owner, the property ownership was transferred during the reporting period. As a result in the change in property ownership, the remediation project was then to be done by the new Property Owner out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, no additional field work was undertaken during this reporting period subsequent to the previous completion of the geophysical survey. With the termination of the White Meadow

  19. Remediation at Resolution Island: abandoned radar site harbors the highest levels of PCBs in the north

    The abandoned U.S. military site at Resolution Island in Inuktitut is situated approximately 310 km southeast of Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut (formerly the Northwest Territories). The radar site which occupies a surface of approximately three square km is highly contaminated with PCBs. At the time that the base was active in the 1950s, the commercial use of PCBs was widely accepted, little was known about their potential harmful impact, and they were used extensively as insulation oils in transformers and capacitors at the site. The site was abandoned in 1970 and includes a landing beach and refueling area, maintenance compounds, a remote communications centre, a main summit complex, a water supply system, and a number of mixed-waste dumps that contain large amounts of electrical equipment. Field analysis was carried out with Millipore EnviroGard test kits. Laboratory analysis involved gas chromotography performed with an electron capture detector. Contamination was identified around buildings along the valley and also at the bottom of a cliff. A total of 4,000 cubic m of contaminated soil was estimated at concentrations over 50 ppm. Six barriers made from a variety of oil adsorbent booms were constructed across the PCB leachate pathways to prevent further migration to the sea, which are monitored regularly. The contents of 13 pole transformers were sampled, and all oils that were found to be contaminated at 30%-70% PCBs were pumped into metal over-pack barrels with adsorbent material and transported offsite, and other PCB containing components were removed from the main station buildings to a registered storage facility onsite

  20. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY; SEMIANNUAL

    This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort