WorldWideScience

Sample records for abandoned sites

  1. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  2. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Inventory Sites 201601

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  3. Abandoning uranium mining in Germany. Rehabilitation of the Wismut site

    After the unification of Germany in 1989, the Government decided to abandon uranium mining in two lands of the former Eastern Germany, in Saxonia and Thuringia. The closing of the mines and the reclamation and rehabilitation of the site cost more than 10 billion USD. The rehabilitation of the Wismut site is described in detail. (R.P.)

  4. Reclaiming abandoned mining sites: Reurbanization concepts and examples

    The Ruhr District in Germany, one of the oldest and largest hard coal mining regions in Europe, has been in a process of constant change over the last 40 years. Since the end of the World War II, the coal industry has been declining. There have been a number of successful attempts to establish new industries in the Ruhr District. However, the initiation of new industries depends strongly on the availability of space. Since the Ruhr District is a rather populated region, the only chance to gain space is to reclaim the areas formerly used by now obsolete industries. The remediation of former mining sites in the ruhr District and the reestablishment of alternative industries have now become both a challenge for city planners and a prestigious attribute for ambitious politicians. It has become the declared goal of the German government to convert the Ruhr District into the greenest industrial region in the world. This paper discusses geotechnical techniques, as well as economical risks involved, in the recycling of abandoned mining sites. To demonstrate remediation techniques used in Germany, a recent remediation project is described and analyzed

  5. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  6. Study on the quality of site in the mining district gangue of abandoned place

    LU Guo-bin; LI Ying; WU Xiang-yun

    2008-01-01

    Being as an example of Fuxin, gangue abandoned place was classified gangue hill and dump. It was built 68 piece of temporary standard fields, which physical and chemical character of soil were researched and analyzed. The quality of district site was estimated, and five type abandoned place were gotten. Stopping draining cash less than 7 a and draining cash gangue hill was regarded as Ⅰ gangue hill. Stopping draining gangue age limit 7-15 a and herbage abundance being CO1p level was regarded as Ⅱ gangue hill.Stopping draining gangue age limit 15~25 a and herbage abundance CO2p level was re-garded as Ⅲ gangue hill. Stopping draining cash gangue age limit over 25 a and herbage abundance CO3p level was regarded as Ⅳ gangue hill. Dump being formed the under-ground layer dug up and stacked in the course of mining was regarded asVgangue hill.The results show that every typical abandoned place can plant vegetable.

  7. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and heavy metals in soils of an abandoned e-waste site in China

    Risk assessment of abandoned e-waste recycling areas received little attention. Herein, we report the concentrations of 16 PCBs and 7 heavy metals in soils near an abandoned e-waste recycling plant in Taizhou, China. Our data showed that levels of tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-PCBs were 9.01, 5.56, 12.93, 3.13 mg/kg, and Pb, Cd, Cu were 6082.9, 42.3, 2364.2 mg/kg soil. Cd was the most prevalent contaminant with Nemerow index value of 44.3. Contaminants have been transported from the abandoned site to nearby areas. The ecology risk assessment based on the high toxicological effect in Chinese hamster ovary cells and earthworms showed that both PCBs and heavy metal residue pose high risk to the ecosystem. Hazard quotient showed that Pb, Cd, Hg and Cu pose high health risks for adults and children. Our results recommended a full examination of the risk and regulatory compliance of abandoned e-waste recycling areas in the future. -- Highlights: • Low-chlorinated PCBs were predominant in the abandoned area. • Pb, Cd, Hg, and Cu posed a high risk (HQ > 10). • Samples were toxic to the Chinese hamster ovary cells and earthworms. • Pollutants have released from the abandoned site to its nearby area. -- The pollutant level and ecological risk in an abandoned e-waste recycling area remains high and pollutants were gradually transported to its surrounding environment

  8. Medium-term erosion simulation of an abandoned mine site using the SIBERIA landscape evolution model

    This study forms part of a collaborative project designed to validate the long-term erosion predictions of the SIBERIA landform evolution model on rehabilitated mine sites. The SIBERIA catchment evolution model can simulate the evolution of landforms resulting from runoff and erosion over many years. SIBERIA needs to be calibrated before evaluating whether it correctly models the observed evolution of rehabilitated mine landforms. A field study to collect data to calibrate SIBERIA was conducted at the abandoned Scinto 6 uranium mine located in the Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The data were used to fit parameter values to a sediment loss model and a rainfall-runoff model. The derived runoff and erosion model parameter values were used in SIBERIA to simulate 50 years of erosion by concentrated flow on the batters of the abandoned site. The SIBERIA runs correctly simulated the geomorphic development of the gullies on the man-made batters of the waste rock dump. The observed gully position, depth, volume, and morphology on the waste rock dump were quantitatively compared with the SIBERIA simulations. The close similarities between the observed and simulated gully features indicate that SIBERIA can accurately predict the rate of gully development on a man-made post-mining landscape over periods of up to 50 years. SIBERIA is an appropriate model for assessment of erosional stability of rehabilitated mine sites over time spans of around 50 years. Copyright (2000) CSIRO Australia

  9. GIS-based environmental database for assessing the mine pollution : a case study of an abandoned mine site in Morocco

    Khalil, A.; Hanich, L.; Hakkou, R.; Lepage, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Morocco with important mining activities is increasingly concerned about impacts of mining on the environment. In Morocco, there are approximately 200 abandoned mine sites which vary from small scale underground mines to large scale open-pit mines. Some of these mines, with reactive tailings and waste rocks, are problematic. Indeed, Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) pollution from abandoned mines is responsible for soil and water contamination, land resources degradation, changes in landscapes, habita...

  10. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007)

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  11. Decontamination of abandoned sites. An introduction into the problems of land decontamination

    Starting from a brief overview of the history of origin of soil and ground water pollution in Berlin and its surroundings by gas, chemical, and petroleum works, old landfills, manufactories of arms and ammunition as well as gasoline depots or sites of gasoline depots, the brochure describes the legal situation and procedure (list of 'intervention' values) and goes on to outline the situation regarding the ground under Berlin, existing pollutants, and methods for dealing with land contamination. In five abandoned sites (waste oil refinery, copper refinery, waste solvent treatment plant, asphalt factory and drugs factory), different methods for eliminating soil and ground water contamination were used. Their efficacy is assessed on the basis of their soil and pollutant-specific suitability; the decontamination achieved is indicated. (BBR)

  12. Remediation at Resolution Island: abandoned radar site harbors the highest levels of PCBs in the north

    The abandoned U.S. military site at Resolution Island in Inuktitut is situated approximately 310 km southeast of Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut (formerly the Northwest Territories). The radar site which occupies a surface of approximately three square km is highly contaminated with PCBs. At the time that the base was active in the 1950s, the commercial use of PCBs was widely accepted, little was known about their potential harmful impact, and they were used extensively as insulation oils in transformers and capacitors at the site. The site was abandoned in 1970 and includes a landing beach and refueling area, maintenance compounds, a remote communications centre, a main summit complex, a water supply system, and a number of mixed-waste dumps that contain large amounts of electrical equipment. Field analysis was carried out with Millipore EnviroGard test kits. Laboratory analysis involved gas chromotography performed with an electron capture detector. Contamination was identified around buildings along the valley and also at the bottom of a cliff. A total of 4,000 cubic m of contaminated soil was estimated at concentrations over 50 ppm. Six barriers made from a variety of oil adsorbent booms were constructed across the PCB leachate pathways to prevent further migration to the sea, which are monitored regularly. The contents of 13 pole transformers were sampled, and all oils that were found to be contaminated at 30%-70% PCBs were pumped into metal over-pack barrels with adsorbent material and transported offsite, and other PCB containing components were removed from the main station buildings to a registered storage facility onsite

  13. Analysis of abandoned potential CERCLA hazardous waste sites using historic aerial photographs

    Aerial photographs of varying scale from federal agencies and commercial aerial service companies covering the years 1938, 1942, 1948, 1952, 1957, 1960, 1970, 1971, 1977, and 1986 of the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, (Gunpowder Neck 7.5 Minute United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Map) were evaluated for identification of potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) hazardous waste sites and land use changes for approximately 1500 acres (610 hectares) used in the testing of military-related chemicals and munitions on Carroll Island and Graces Quarters. Detailed testing records exist only for July 1964 to December 1971, thus making the interpretation of aerial photographs a valuable tool in reconstructing past activities from the late 1930s to June 1964 and guiding future sampling locations in the multiphased CERCLA process. Many potential test sites were activated by either clear-cutting tracks of vegetation or using existing cleared land until final abandonment of the site(s) circa 1974-1975. Ground inspection of open-quotes land scarringclose quotes at either known or suspected sites was essential for verifying the existence, location, and subsequent sampling of potential CERCLA sites. Photomorphic mapping techniques are described to delineate and compare different land use changes in past chemical and munitions handling and testing. Delineation of features was based on photographic characteristics of tone, pattern, texture, shape, shadow, size, and proximity to known features. 7 refs., 9 figs

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF OKLAHOMA ABANDONED DRILLING AND PRODUCTION SITES AND ASSOCIATED PUBLIC EDUCATION/OUTREACH ACTIVITIES

    Mike Terry

    2002-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has participated with the Oklahoma Energy Resource Board (OERB) since 1995 by providing grant funding for on-going work in both environmental assessment of abandoned oilfield exploration and production sites and associated public education/outreach activities. The OERB, a state agency created in 1993 by the Oklahoma legislature, administers programs funded by an assessment of one tenth of one percent on all oil and natural gas produced and sold in the state of Oklahoma. Approximately one half of the funds are used to assess and remediate abandoned oilfield sites and the other half are being used to educate about the importance of the oil and natural gas industry and OERB's environmental efforts. Financial participation through grant funding by the U.S. D.O.E. has been $200,000 annually which represents approximately 3 percent of OERB's private funding. Most of OERB's revenues come from an assessment of 1/10th of 1% on the sale of crude and natural gas in Oklahoma. The assessment is considered voluntary in that any interest owner may ask for a refund annually of their contributions to the fund. On average, 95% of the assessment dollars have remained with OERB, which shows tremendous support by the industry. This Final Report summarizes the progress of the three year grant. The purpose of this three-year project was to continue the progress of the OERB to accomplish its environmental and educational objectives and transfer information learned to other organizations and producing states in the industry.

  15. Human health risk assessment in restoring safe and productive use of abandoned contaminated sites.

    Wcisło, Eleonora; Bronder, Joachim; Bubak, Anicenta; Rodríguez-Valdés, Eduardo; Gallego, José Luis R

    2016-09-01

    In Europe soil contamination has been recognized as a serious problem. The needs to remediate contaminated sites are not questionable, although the remediation actions are often hindered by their very high financial costs. On the other hand, the abandoned contaminated sites may have the potential for redevelopment and creating conditions appropriate for their productive reuse bringing social, economic and environmental benefits. The main concern associated with the contaminated sites is their potential adverse health impact. Therefore, in the process of contaminated site redevelopment the risk assessment and the subsequent risk management decisions will play a crucial role. The main objective of this study was to illustrate the role of the human health risk assessment (HRA) in supporting site remediation and reuse decisions. To exemplify the significance of the HRA process in this field the Nitrastur site, located in Asturias, Spain was used. Risks resulting from soil contamination with arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) were assessed under three potential future land use patterns: industrial, residential and recreational. The results of the study indicated that soil at the Nitrastur site might pose non-cancer and cancer risks to potential future receptors - industrial workers, residents and recreational users. Arsenic and lead are the main substances responsible for the health risk and the primary drivers of remedial decisions at the site. The highest total cancer risks were observed under the residential scenario, followed in descending order by the recreational and industrial ones. The remedial maps illustrate in which areas remediation activities are required, depending on a given land use pattern. The obtained results may be used to develop, analyse, compare and select the remedial options within the intended land use pattern. They may also be used to support the decisions concerning the

  16. Hazard evaluation of soil contaminants from an abandoned oil refinery site with chemical and biological assays

    The phytotoxic characteristics of soil and leachates of soil from an abandoned oil refinery site were evaluated with rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed germinations and root elongation assays. Toxicity of soil leachates to aquatic animals was determined with acute and martial chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia, fathead minnows, and Microtox reg-sign. Soil samples from uncontaminated (control) and selected contaminated areas within the old refinery were extracted with Toxic Characteristics Leachate Procedure (TCLP), an aqueous procedure and a supercritical carbon dioxide method. Aqueous extracts of soil from the oil leaded gasoline storage area exhibited greatest effects in all tests. Aqueous extracts from this site also caused a significant reduction in rice root development. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction proved to be a quick and non-toxic procedure for isolating non-polar organics for assay with aquatic toxicity tests. Subsequent supercritical extracts collected in solvent can help characterize the class of toxicants through HPLC and Gas Chromatography. The toxic constituents were characterized with a Toxicity Identification/Toxicity Reduction Evaluation protocol to fractionate the contaminants into conventional non-polar organics, weak acids, base-neutrals, or heavy metals for subsequent analysis

  17. Geophysical void detection at the site of an abandoned limestone quarry and underground mine in southwestern Pennsylvania

    Locating underground voids, tunnels, and buried collapse structures continues to present a difficult problem for engineering geoscientists charged with this responsibility for a multitude of different studies. Solutions used and tested for void detection have run the gamut of surface geophysical and remote sensing techniques, to invasive trenching and drilling on closely-spaced centers. No where is the problem of locating underground voids more ubiquitous than in abandoned mined lands, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines continues to investigate this problem for areas overlying abandoned coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Because of the great diversity of resources mined, the problem of void detection is compounded by the myriad of geologic conditions which exist for abandoned mined lands. At a control study site in southwestern Pennsylvania at the Bureau's Lake Lynn Laboratory, surface geophysical techniques, including seismic and other methods, were tested as a means to detect underground mine voids in the rather simple geologic environment of flat-lying sedimentary strata. The study site is underlain by an abandoned underground limestone mine developed in the Wymps Gap Limestone member of the Mississippian Mauch Chunk Formation. Portals or entrances into the mine, lead to drifts or tunnels driven into the limestone; these entries provided access to the limestone where it was extracted by the room-and-pillar method. The workings lie less than 300 ft from the surface, and survey lines or grids were positioned over the tunnels, the room-and-pillar zones, and the areas not mined. Results from these geophysical investigations are compared and contrasted. The application of this control study to abandoned mine void detection is apparent, but due to the carbonate terrain of the study site, the results may also have significance to sinkhole detection in karst topography

  18. Abandoned Uranium Mines (AUM) Site Screening Map Service, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using...

  19. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Site Screening Map, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — As described in detail in the Five-Year Report, US EPA completed on-the-ground screening of 521 abandoned uranium mine areas. US EPA and the Navajo EPA are using...

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  1. Are plants growing at abandoned mine sites suitable for phytoremediation of contaminated soils?

    Bini, Claudio; Buffa, Gabriella; Fontana, Silvia; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Plants growing on abandoned mine sites are of particular interest in the perspective to remediate contaminated soils by phytoremediation, a low cost and environmental friendly technique which uses metal-accumulator plants to clean up moderately contaminated areas. The choice of plants is a crucial aspect for the practical use of this technique, given the ability to accumulate metals in their tissues, being genetically tolerant to high metal concentrations. Up today, more than 400 native plants that hyperaccumulate metals are reported, Brassicaceae being the family with the largest number of hyperaccumulator species. For example, Alyssum bertoloni is well known as Ni accumulator, as well as Thlaspi caerulescens for Zn and Brassica napus for Pb. However, metal hyperaccumulation is not a common phenomenon in terrestrial higher plants, and many of the European hyperaccumulator plants are of small biomass, and have a slow growth rate. Therefore, there is an urgent need for surveying and screening of plants with ability to accumulate metals in their tissues and a relatively high biomass. In recent years, a survey of soils and plants growing on contaminated areas at several abandoned sulphide mines in Italy was carried out by working groups of the Universities of Florence, Siena, Cagliari, Bologna, Udine and Venice, in order to evaluate the ability of these plants to colonize mine waste and to accumulate metals, in the perspective of an ecological restoration of contaminated sites. We investigated the heavy metal concentration of the waste material, and the soils developed from, in order to determine the extent of heavy metal dispersion, and the uptake by plants, and deserved attention to wild plants growing at that sites, to find out new metal-tolerant species to utilize in soil remediation. Current results of these investigations, with particular emphasis on the Tuscan areas, are reported here. All the studied profiles are strongly enriched in metals; their

  2. CENSUS AND STATISTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL AND WATER QUALITY AT ABANDONED AND OTHER CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    Alan R. Dutton; H. Seay Nance

    2003-06-01

    Commercial and centralized drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites receive a portion of spent drilling fluids for disposal from oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) operations. Many older and some abandoned sites may have operated under less stringent regulations than are currently enforced. This study provides a census, compilation, and summary of information on active, inactive, and abandoned CCDD sites in Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas, intended as a basis for supporting State-funded assessment and remediation of abandoned sites. Closure of abandoned CCDD sites is within the jurisdiction of State regulatory agencies. Sources of data used in this study on abandoned CCDD sites mainly are permit files at State regulatory agencies. Active and inactive sites were included because data on abandoned sites are sparse. Onsite reserve pits at individual wells for disposal of spent drilling fluid are not part of this study. Of 287 CCDD sites in the four States for which we compiled data, 34 had been abandoned whereas 54 were active and 199 were inactive as of January 2002. Most were disposal-pit facilities; five percent were land treatment facilities. A typical disposal-pit facility has fewer than 3 disposal pits or cells, which have a median size of approximately 2 acres each. Data from well-documented sites may be used to predict some conditions at abandoned sites; older abandoned sites might have outlier concentrations for some metal and organic constituents. Groundwater at a significant number of sites had an average chloride concentration that exceeded nonactionable secondary drinking water standard of 250 mg/L, or a total dissolved solids content of >10,000 mg/L, the limiting definition for underground sources of drinking water source, or both. Background data were lacking, however, so we did not determine whether these concentrations in groundwater reflected site operations. Site remediation has not been found necessary to date for most abandoned

  3. Solution of underground mine gas emissions on surface of abandoned mining sites where steep deposited coal seams have been exploited

    The solution of uncontrolled gas emissions from abandoned underground coal mine sites in Ostrava-Karvina coal-field to surface ground in connection with old mine shafts and drifts and with old mining workings in horizontal and inclined coal seams has many forms. It varies according to geological and mining conditions and the disposition of the site surface. Since four years the gas emission risk has appeared in the area of former exploited vertical coal seams within the historical centre of Orlova town, which is protected by State Monument Protection office. A project based on such special nature of mining-geological and urban conditions was elaborated and already implemented. (authors)

  4. Regulatory acceptance of the proposed well abandonment program for the present landfill, Operable Unit 7, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado

    The regulatory agencies approved a well abandonment program for the Present Landfill, Operable Unit (OU) 7 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, only three months after preparation. The proposed well abandonment program consists of abandoning 26 of the 54 existing monitoring wells in OU 7 that are currently sampled quarterly as Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance wells or sitewide groundwater protection wells. Well abandonment was proposed on the basis that the purpose of each well has been fulfilled, the wells fall under the footprint of the landfill cap, the presence of the wells would compromise the integrity of the cap because holes would have to be cut in the synthetic liner, and unequal compaction of the fill material around the wells would potentially cause differential settlement of the cap. The proposal provided the technical justification to abandon the wells in place. The timely approval of the proposal by the regulatory agencies will allow the abandonment of the wells during fiscal year 1995 under the sitewide Well Abandonment and Replacement Program (WARP). Cost savings resulting from a decrease in the number of wells to be sampled under the groundwater monitoring program are estimated at $416,000 per year. This paper presents a summary of the well abandonment program, discusses the timely approvals required for implementation, and present the potential cost savings that can be achieved through implementation of the program

  5. Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. (duckweed) in tailing waters of two abandoned uranium mining sites in Saxony, Germany.

    Mkandawire, Martin; Dudel, E Gert

    2005-01-01

    Accumulation of arsenic in Lemna gibba L. was investigated in tailing waters of abandoned uranium mine sites, following the hypothesis that arsenic poses contamination risks in post uranium mining in Saxony, Germany. Consequently, macrophytes growing in mine tailing waters accumulate high amounts of arsenic, which might be advantageous for biomonitoring arsenic transfer to higher trophic levels, and for phytoremediation. Water and L. gibba sample collected from pond on tailing dumps of abandoned mine sites at Lengenfeld and Neuensalz-Mechelgrun were analysed for arsenic. Laboratory cultures in nutrient solutions modified with six arsenic and three PO(4)(3-) concentrations were conducted to gain insight into the arsenic-L. gibba interaction. Arsenic accumulation coefficients in L. gibba were 10 times as much as the background concentrations in both tailing waters and nutrient solutions. Arsenic accumulations in L. gibba increased with arsenic concentration in the milieu but they decreased with phosphorus concentration. Significant reductions in arsenic accumulation in L. gibba were observed with the addition of PO(4)(3-) at all six arsenic test concentrations in laboratory experiments. Plant samples from laboratory trials had on average twofold higher bioaccumulation coefficients than tailing water at similar arsenic concentrations. This would be attributed to strong interaction among chemical components, and competition among ions in natural aquatic environment. The results of the study indicate that L. gibba can be a preliminary bioindicator for arsenic transfer from substrate to plants and might be used to monitor the transfer of arsenic from lower to higher trophic levels in the abandoned mine sites. There is also the potential of using L. gibba L. for arsenic phytoremediation of mine tailing waters because of its high accumulation capacity as demonstrated in this study. Transfer of arsenic contamination transported by accumulations in L. gibba carried with

  6. Abandoned vehicles

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  7. Coal Mines, Abandoned - COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN: Abandoned Mine Lands, Miscellaneous Site Features in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, 1:24,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — AML_POLY, the predecessor of COAL_AML_FEATURES_IN, is a 1:24,000-scale polygon-based ESRI ArcView shapefile that shows the locations and extents of Abandoned Mine...

  8. Heavy Metal Behavior in Lichen-Mine Waste Interactions at an Abandoned Mine Site in Southwest Japan

    Yuri Sueoka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lichen, Stereocaulon exutum Nylander, occurring in a contaminated abandoned mine site was investigated to clarify (1 the behavior of heavy metals and As during the slag weathering processes mediated by the lichen; and (2 the distribution of these elements in the lichen thallus on slag. The heavy metals and As in the slag are dissolved from their original phases during the weathering process by lichen substances (organic acids and hypha penetration, in addition to non-biological weathering. The dissolved elements are absorbed into the lichen thallus. Some of these dissolved elements are distributed in the cells of the hyphae. The others are distributed on the surface of the hyphae as formless particles and show lateral distribution inside the cortex of the thallus. The Cu and Zn concentrations in the thalli are positively correlated with the concentrations in the corresponding substrata and a positive intercept in the regression curve obtained using a linear function. These chemical characteristics make this lichen a good biomarker for Cu and Zn contamination of the substrata of the lichen. Therefore, the present study supposes that Stereocaulon exutum has a possible practical application in biomonitoring or risk assessment of heavy metal pollution at abandoned mine sites.

  9. The risk of collapse in abandoned mine sites: the issue of data uncertainty

    Longoni, Laura; Papini, Monica; Brambilla, Davide; Arosio, Diego; Zanzi, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    Ground collapses over abandoned underground mines constitute a new environmental risk in the world. The high risk associated with subsurface voids, together with lack of knowledge of the geometric and geomechanical features of mining areas, makes abandoned underground mines one of the current challenges for countries with a long mining history. In this study, a stability analysis of Montevecchia marl mine is performed in order to validate a general approach that takes into account the poor local information and the variability of the input data. The collapse risk was evaluated through a numerical approach that, starting with some simplifying assumptions, is able to provide an overview of the collapse probability. The final results is an easy-accessible-transparent summary graph that shows the collapse probability. This approach may be useful for public administrators called upon to manage this environmental risk. The approach tries to simplify this complex problem in order to achieve a roughly risk assessment, but, since it relies on just a small amount of information, any final user should be aware that a comprehensive and detailed risk scenario can be generated only through more exhaustive investigations.

  10. Hydro-mechanical simulations of well abandonment at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage verify wellbore system integrity

    Unger, Victoria; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In geological underground utilisation, operating and abandoned wells have been identified as a main potential leakage pathways for reservoir fluids. In the scope of the well abandonment procedure currently carried out at the Ketzin pilot site for CO2 storage in Germany, a hydro-mechanical model was built to carry out a coupled analysis of the integrity in the entire wellbore system. The main aim of the present study was to assess the impacts of stress changes associated with CO2 injection as well as the cement backfill undertaken in the scope of well abandonment. A numerical model comprising cement sheaths, steel casings, tubing, multiple packers and wellbore annuli was implemented to enable a detailed representation of the entire wellbore system. The numerical model grid has a horizontal discretisation of 5 m x 5 m to focus on near wellbore effects, whereby element sizes increase with increasing distance from the wellbore. Vertical grid discretisation uses a tartan grid type over the entire model thickness of 1,500 m to ensure a sufficient discretisation of all wellbore system elements as well as of the reservoir unit. The total number of elements amounts to 210,672. Mechanical model parameters were taken from geological, drilling, logging and laboratory test data based on Ketzin pilot site-specific information as well as related literature (Kempka et al., 2014). The coupled calculations were performed using an elasto-plastic constitutive law, whereby an initial simulation run ensured a static mechanical equilibrium to represent the initial state before the start of CO2 injection. Thereto, gravitational load of the overburden rocks and pore pressure distribution following available well logs were integrated for initial model parameterisation including a normal faulting stress regime defined by a horizontal to vertical total stress ratio of 0.85. A correction accounting for the temperature and pressure dependent CO2 density was carried out in advance of each

  11. Abandonments, Solidarities and Logics of Care: Hospitals as Sites of Sectarian Conflict in Gilgit-Baltistan.

    Varley, Emma

    2016-06-01

    Using data collected over nearly three years of ethnographic fieldwork in the Gilgit-Baltistan region of northern Pakistan, my paper explores hospital spaces, clinical services and treatment encounters as conduits for the expression and propagation of conflictive Shia-Sunni sectarianism. Where my prior research has investigated the political etiologies (Hamdy in Am Ethnol 35(4):553-569, 2008) associated with Gilgiti women's experiences of childbirth during 'tensions', as Shia-Sunni hostilities are locally known, this paper focuses on healthcare providers' professional and personal navigations of an episode of conflict whose epicentre was at the District Headquarter Hospital, Gilgit-Baltistan's foremost government hospital. Through critical evaluation of the impacts of Shia-Sunni tensions on the social, administrative and clinical practices and consequences of medicine, my paper analyses the complex ways that clinics in crisis serve as zones of contact (Pratt in Profession 91:33-40, 1991) and abandonment (Biehl in Soc Text 68(19):131-149, 2001; Subjectivity: ethnographic investigations, 2007), in which neglect and harm are directed along lines of sectarian affiliation to produce vulnerability, spectacular violence and death for healthcare providers and patients. PMID:25985747

  12. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects. PMID:26921546

  13. Impact of fresh tailing deposition on the evolution of groundwater hydrogeochemistry at the abandoned Manitou mine site, Quebec, Canada.

    Maqsoud, Abdelkabir; Neculita, Carmen Mihaela; Bussière, Bruno; Benzaazoua, Mostafa; Dionne, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The abandoned Manitou mine site has produced acid mine drainage (AMD) for several decades. In order to limit the detrimental environmental impacts of AMD, different rehabilitation scenarios were proposed and analyzed. The selected rehabilitation scenario was to use fresh tailings from the neighboring Goldex gold mine as monolayer cover and to maintain an elevated water table. In order to assess the impact of the Goldex tailing deposition on the hydrogeochemistry of the Manitou mine site, a network of 30 piezometers was installed. These piezometers were used for continuous measurement of the groundwater level, as well as for water sampling campaigns for chemical quality monitoring, over a 3-year period. Hydrochemical data were analyzed using principal component analysis. Results clearly showed the benefic impact of fresh tailing deposition on the groundwater quality around the contaminated area. These findings were also confirmed by the evolution of electrical conductivity. In addition to the improvement of the physicochemical quality of water on the Manitou mine site, new tailing deposition induced an increase of water table level. However, at this time, the Manitou reactive tailings are not completely submerged and possible oxidation might still occur, especially after ceasing of the fresh tailing deposition. Therefore, complementary rehabilitation scenarios should still be considered. PMID:26832863

  14. Biological assessment of remedial action at the abandoned uranium mill tailings site near Naturita, Colorado

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Pursuant to the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to conduct remedial action to clean up the residual radioactive materials (RRM) at the Naturita uranium processing site in Colorado. The Naturita site is in Montrose County, Colorado, and is approximately 2 miles (mi) (3 kilometer [km]) from the unincorporated town of Naturita. The proposed remedial action is to remove the RRM from the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan disposal site. To address the potential impacts of the remedial action on threatened and endangered species, the DOE prepared this biological assessment. Informal consultations with the U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) were initiated in 1986, and the FWS provided a list of the threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. This list was updated by two FWS letters in 1988 and by verbal communication in 1990. A biological assessment was included in the environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed remedial action that was prepared in 1990. This EA addressed the impacts of moving the Naturita RRM to the Dry Flats disposal site. In 1993, the design for the Dry Flats disposal alternative was changed. The FWS was again consulted in 1993 and provided a new list of threatened and endangered species that may occur in the Naturita study area. The Naturita EA and the biological assessment were revised in response to these changes. In 1994, remedial action was delayed because an alternate disposal site was being considered. The DOE decided to move the FIRM at the Naturita site to the Upper Burbank Quarry at the Uravan site. Due to this delay, the FWS was consulted in 1995 and a list of threatened and endangered species was provided. This biological assessment is a revision of the assessment attached to the Naturita EA and addresses moving the Naturita RRM to the Upper Burbank Quarry disposal site.

  15. Geophysical investigations of near-surface materials and groundwater quality at abandoned mine land site No. 1087, Pike County, Indiana

    Reclamation of Abandoned Mine Land (AML) Site No. 1087 (Midwestern) includes extensive use of coal-combustion byproducts such as fly ash and fixated scrubber sludge (FSS) as fill and cover materials. Prior to reclamation, a deposit of coarse-grained pyritic refuse in the central part of the site was the primary source for acidic mine drainage. The FSS tends to have a low permeability, so it was applied over the refuse to serve as a barrier to vertical recharge and thereby inhibit generation and mobilization of additional acidity. Repeated post-reclamation measurements of soil-water content using a neutron moisture gauge provide evidence that vertical recharge is, in fact, not occurring through the FSS. However, a previously existing plume of acidic water extends beyond the area of the refuse into adjacent areas of disturbed overburden (spoil). Electrical resistivity profiles using the offset Wenner method were used to delineate the horizontal extent of the refuse and to quantify spatial variability of groundwater chemistry within the refuse and adjacent spoil. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to precisely determine the thickness and extent of the FSS layer and its relation to the refuse and to the surrounding plume of acidic water. Together, these techniques provide a complete three-dimensional representation of the FSS, refuse, spoil, and plume of acidic groundwater

  16. Post-mining safety implementations and environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites in Limousin. 2006 status (and perspectives 2007); Mises en securite en apres-mine et aspects environnementaux des anciens sites miniers en Limousin. Bilan 2006 (et perspectives 2007)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document summarizes the actions carried out in 2006 at some French abandoned mine sites: 1 - safety implementations and risks abatement in the framework of post-mining actions: coal mines of Ahun (23) and Argentat (19), antimony mines of Biard (87); 2 - remedial actions at the tin/tungsten mine of Puy-les-Vignes (87) and at the gold mine of Chatelet (23); 3 - 2007 post-mining perspectives; 4 - environmental aspects of abandoned mine sites: gold mines of Chatelet (23), Cheni and Bourneix (87), uranium mines of Haute-Vienne (expertise, control of effluents, financial warranties about tailings storage sites maintenance). (J.S.)

  17. Abandoned mine site characterization for remediation: The case of the Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal)

    Uranium mining activities at Cunha Baixa ceased in 1993 and a preliminary assessment of its chemical environmental impact was performed. Acid drainage affects surface and groundwater quality up to 1-1.5 km downward from the mining site. High levels of sulphate, Al, Mn, U, and low pH values (<4.5-5) make these waters unsuitable for irrigation and livestock watering. Irrigation of acid soils (pH <4.5) with contaminated waters presents risks to the crops owing to a high content of U in the available soil fraction. Consequently, maize harvested in these soils showed amounts of uranium in roots and leaves that may pose some risk when it is used for animal feeding and the plant residues are used for soil fertilization. According to the 'tolerable daily intake' of uranium, the low uranium content in corn allows it to be used to feed animals and for flour to make bread. Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were detected in mine water, but mine wastes submitted to static and kinetic laboratory tests (acid based accounting and a 'humidity cell test') did not show any capacity to generate acid drainage from sulphide oxidation throughout the testing period. Nevertheless, open pit mine wastes can be a source of water pollution in the Cunha Baixa mining area. Acid drainage can also be a residue from the heap leaching process used in the past to recover uranium from low grade ore. (author)

  18. Abandoned coal mining sites: using ecotoxicological tests to support an industrial organic sludge amendment.

    Chiochetta, Claudete G; Radetski, Marilice R; Corrêa, Albertina X R; Tischer, Vinícius; Tiepo, Erasmo N; Radetski, Claudemir M

    2013-11-01

    The different stages involved in coal mining-related activities result in a degraded landscape and sites associated with large amounts of dumped waste material. Remediation of these contaminated soils can be carried out by application of industrial organic sludge if the concerns regarding the potential negative environmental impacts of this experimental practice are properly addressed. In this context, the objective of this study was to use ecotoxicological tests to determine the quantity of organic industrial sludge that is required as a soil amendment to restore soil production while avoiding environmental impact. Chemical analysis of the solids (industrial sludge and soil) and their leachates was carried out as well as a battery of ecotoxicity tests on enzymes (hydrolytic activity), bacteria, algae, daphnids, earthworms, and higher plants, according to standardized methodologies. Solid and leachate samples of coal-contaminated soil were more toxic than those of industrial sludge towards enzyme activity, bacteria, algae, daphnids, and earthworms. In the case of the higher plants (lettuce, corn, wild cabbage, and Surinam cherry) the industrial sludge was more toxic than the coal-contaminated soil, and a soil/sludge mixture (66:34% dry weight basis) had a stimulatory effect on the Surinam cherry biomass. The ecotoxicological assessment of the coal-contaminated soil remediation using sludge as an amendment is very important to determine application rates that could promote a stimulatory effect on agronomic species without negatively affecting the environment. PMID:23114837

  19. Groundwater and Surface Water Contributions to Metals Loading in Bayhorse Creek at the Abandoned Ramshorn Mine Site Near Bayhorse, Idaho

    McDonough, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Many abandoned mines in the United States are littered with waste metals that leach into watersheds and degrade habitats. Although metals-laden waters may appear pristine, fish bioaccumulate high concentrations of metals in their tissues, which create health risks if consumed by humans. This study examines the source and fate of metals in Bayhorse Creek near the abandoned Ramshorn mine outside of Challis, Idaho. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey found high levels of arsenic, cadmium, chromi...

  20. Wild plants as tools for the remediation of abandoned mining sites with a high arsenic content

    Martínez-Lopez, Salvadora; Martínez-Sanchez, MJose; Perez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martínez, Lucia B.; Bech, Jaume

    2014-05-01

    species has been evaluated. The exposure pathway considered has been oral ingestion, calculating the contribution of the plant to the daily dose based on the arsenic concentration in the leaves of the plants analyzed. The Bioconcentration Factors are generally very low, the transfer Factors being somewhat higher although rarely exceed the unity. When dealing with phytoremediation of contaminated sites, the contribution of the As level in plants to the daily diet of animals should be used as an indicator for a suitable selection of the vegetal species to be used.

  1. Simulation of long-term erosion on an abandoned mine site using the SIBERIA landscape evolution model

    The SIBERIA catchment evolution model can simulate the evolution of landforms over many years as a result of runoff and erosion. This study discusses testing of the reliability of the erosion predictions of the model in a field study. Using erosion parameters calibrated from field studies of rainfall and runoff from the waste rock dump batters, the SIBERIA landscape evolution model was calibrated and then used to simulate erosion over 50 years on the abandoned Scinto 6 mine site. Scinto 6 is a former uranium mine located in the Kakadu Region, Northern Territory, Australia. The SIBERIA runs simulated the geomorphic development of the gullies on the man-made batters of the waste rock dump. The waste rock of the mine had been dumped in the characteristic pattern of a flat top and steep sided batters typical of many former and current dumps and there had been significant degradation from both sheet and gully erosion. Traditional erosion models cannot model this type of degradation because their erosion model cannot change the landform, while SIBERIA does change the landform. The gully position, depth volume and morphology on the waste rock dump were compared with that of SIBERIA simulations. The geomorphic development of the waste rock dump indicated that SIBERIA can simulate features that arise from the long-term effect of erosion and also their rate of development on a man-made post-mining landscape over periods of up to 50 years. The detailed results of this specific study will be discussed with specific discussion of the type of data required and the implications of the uncertain erosion physics on the reliability of the predictions

  2. A national strategy for identification, prioritisation and management of pollution from abandoned non-coal mine sites in England and Wales. I. Methodology development and initial results.

    Mayes, W M; Johnston, D; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2009-10-15

    In regions affected by historic non-coal (principally metal) mining activity, government agencies are often faced with the challenge of deploying limited remedial resources at abandoned mine sites to achieve maximum improvements in the chemical and ecological quality of impacted ground and surface waters. As such, strategies for the defensible allocation of public funds require comprehensive and systematic frameworks by which to identify and prioritise polluting sites for remediation. This paper describes the development and initial findings of such a national initiative in England and Wales which allies catchment-scale environmental impact assessments using existing public archive data, with recognition of the uncertainty in impact appraisals arising from disparities in data availability between sites and regions. The methodology identifies polluting sites and takes account not only of the chemical and ecological impacts of mine water discharges on receiving watercourses, but also of socio-economic factors such as conservation and heritage concerns, which can both impede or complement efforts to remediate mine sites. Using a Geographic Information System database and a suite of spatial analyses employing Boolean operators, both the extent of the pollution problem from abandoned non-coal mines in England and Wales (6% of 7815 surface water bodies are affected nationally) and the insight that can be gleaned from systematic analyses of existing archive data are highlighted. The results of the nationwide survey can be used as a dynamic database to inform future remedial planning, in terms of prioritising impacted river basins and abandoned non-coal mine sites themselves for either remediation or future monitoring efforts. As the assessment framework is built upon existing water quality and ecological data and mine site/geological data, there is considerable scope for the approach to be applied elsewhere where the legacy of historic mining persists through the

  3. Water-Rock Interactions Influencing Mercury Fate and Transport from an Abandoned Mine Site to an Aquatic Ecosystem

    Jewett, D. G.; Engle, M. A.; Reller, G. J.; Bauman, J. B.; Manges, E.

    2001-12-01

    Clear Lake, located 150 km north of San Francisco, is one of the largest fresh water lakes in California and is an important economic resource for the region. Elevated mercury levels in fish in Clear Lake were identified in the late 1970s, resulting in a fish consumption advisory for the lake. Although Clear Lake is located in a region of naturally occurring mercury deposits, the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM) Superfund Site, an abandoned mine adjacent to the lake, also is a source for a modern-day mercury flux to the local aquatic ecosystem. An investigation to characterize the hydrogeologic and geochemical setting at the SBMM and understand water-rock interactions and their influence on mercury migration into Clear Lake is in progress. Historic mining operations produced ~4.7 x 106 kg of Hg from the SBMM, leaving a 9.3 ha open pit surrounded by 49 ha of mine waste. The pit, which receives water from the underlying hydrothermal system and surface and ground waters from the immediate watershed, filled when mining ceased. Water in the pit is acidic due to the oxidation of H2S gas and sulfur-bearing minerals. Clear Lake and the open pit are separated by a distance of about 250 m, but the water level in the pit is 3-4 m greater than that of the lake. Subsurface outflow is a major component of discharge from the pit with ground water flowing to Clear Lake through the mercury-laden waste rock and overburden. Ground-water outflow from the pit through mine wastes is greatest when water levels create a combination of near-maximum hydraulic gradients and increased saturated thickness. Major ion and trace element analyses have identified several distinct water types at the SBMM, which, with the exception of Hg, are stable at most locations over time. Elevated Hg concentrations are associated with low pH ( ~pH 3), high Eh (typically >400 mV) waters, with the highest concentrations (up to 350 μ g/L) reported for water samples collected from wells located between the pit and

  4. Transfer of sediment-associated metals downstream of abandoned and active mining sites in the Quesnel River catchment, British Columbia

    M. van der Perk; Lipzig, M.L.H.M. van; Karimlou, G.; Owens, P.N.; Petticrew, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Metal mining may have considerable impact on downstream water and sediment composition. The rate and extent that metals move downstream determine the magnitude and time scale of downstream sediment contamination. Conversely, the downstream metal content of sediments provide important clues of sediment transfer. To examine the downstream transfer of sediment-associated metals, samples of bed sediments and suspended sediments were collected from small streams draining an abandoned hydraulic gol...

  5. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF STATE DATA RELATED TO ABANDONED CENTRALIZED AND COMMERCIAL DRILLING-FLUID DISPOSAL SITES IN LOUISIANA, NEW MEXICO, OKLAHOMA, AND TEXAS

    H. Seay Nance

    2003-03-01

    This 2003 Spring Semi-Annual Report contains a summary of the Final Technical Report being prepared for the Soil Remediation Requirements at Commercial and Centralized Drilling-Fluid Disposal (CCDD) Sites project funded by the United States Department of Energy under DOE Award No. DE-AC26-99BC15225. The summary describes (1) the objectives of the investigation, (2) a rationale and methodology of the investigation, (3) sources of data, assessment of data quality, and data availability, (4) examples of well documented centralized and commercial drilling-fluid disposal (CCDD) sites and other sites where drilling fluid was disposed of, and (5) examples of abandoned sites and measures undertaken for their assessment and remediation. The report also includes most of the figures, tables, and appendices that will be included in the final report.

  6. Geothermal well site restoration and plug and abandonment of wells, DOE Gladys McCall test site, Cameron Parish, Louisiana and DOE Willis Hulin test site, Vermillion Parish, Louisiana

    Rinehart, Ben N.

    1994-08-01

    A report is presented on the final phase of an energy research program conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) involving two geothermal well sites in the State of Louisiana--the Gladys McCall site and the Willis Hulin site. The research program was intended to improve geothermal technology and to determine the efficacy of producing electricity commercially from geopressured resource sites. The final phase of the program consisted of plug and abandonment (P&A) of the wells and restoration of the well sites. Restoration involved (a) initial soil and water sampling and analysis; (b) removal and disposal of well pads, concrete, utility poles, and trash; (c) plugging of monitor and freshwater wells; and (d) site leveling and general cleanup. Restoration of the McCall site required removal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), which was costly and time-consuming. Exhibits are included that provide copies of work permits and authorizations, P&A reports, and cost and salvage reports. Site locations, grid maps, and photographs are provided.

  7. Environmental assessment of Oklahoma abandoned drilling and production sites and associated public education outreach activities. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1995

    Terry, M.

    1996-01-29

    Oklahoma oil producers and royalty owners are taking part in the nation`s first oil industry funded environmental cleanup and education program. The program is administered by the Oklahoma Energy Resources Board (OERB), a state agency which was created by the Oklahoma Independent Energy Education and Marketing Act. The purpose of this project will be accomplished through two primary objectives: (1) Conduct environmental assessment of abandoned oil and gas drilling and production sites where no responsible owner can be found and transfer environmental technology to oil and gas operators; and (2) Provide a comprehensive public education/outreach program to increase public awareness of the importance of the Oklahoma oil (and gas) industry. Technical progress is reported for these tasks.

  8. Early oil well drilling equipment and production practices. [Information helpful in locating abandoned well sites by identification of discarded parts: such abandoned wells are potential hazards in coal mining

    Johnston K.H.; Heemstra, R.J.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description of early-day cable tool drilling rig construction and drilling practices is presented. Intimate descriptions of various parts of drilling rigs and prime movers are given as to materials of construction as well as to their use. The body of material is broken down into two main categories: well drilling methods, and well completion and production methods. This information is largely directed to the need for locating abandoned wellsites by identification of equipment parts and layouts. These abandoned wells are potential hazards to people in the coal industry if they intersect coal seams under development. The material is well illustrated from documented sources and general nomenclature is given.

  9. Effect of Biogeochemical Redox Processes on the Fate and Transport of As and U at an Abandoned Uranium Mine Site: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    Troyer, Lyndsay D.; Stone, James J.; Borch, Thomas

    2014-01-28

    Although As can occur in U ore at concentrations up to 10 wt-%, the fate and transport of both U and As at U mine tailings have not been previously investigated at a watershed scale. The major objective of this study was to determine primary chemical and physical processes contributing to transport of both U and As to a down gradient watershed at an abandoned U mine site in South Dakota. Uranium is primarily transported by erosion at the site, based on decreasing concentrations in sediment with distance from the tailings. equential extractions and U X-ray absorption near-edge fine structure (XANES) fitting indicate that U is immobilised in a near-source sedimentation pond both by prevention of sediment transport and by reduction of UVI to UIV. In contrast to U, subsequent release of As to the watershed takes place from the pond partially due to reductive dissolution of Fe oxy(hydr)oxides. However, As is immobilised by adsorption to clays and Fe oxy(hydr)oxides in oxic zones and by formation of As–sulfide mineral phases in anoxic zones down gradient, indicated by sequential extractions and As XANES fitting. This study indicates that As should be considered during restoration of uranium mine sites in order to prevent transport.

  10. Environmental evaluation of the feasibility of disposal and utilization of coal combustion residues in abandoned mine sites

    The combustion of fossil fuels to generate electricity produces large volumes of solid wastes containing chemicals particularly trace elements. About one fourth of these 80 million tons of coal combustion residues are currently utilized and the remaining accumulate in on site piles and ponds, or are carried away to landfills for disposal. The US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated regulations governing the disposal of such solid wastes in an environmentally acceptable manner. The major impetus behind these regulations is protection of ground water. Since landfill sites are becoming more scarce, it is highly desirable to find large volume beneficial uses for these combustion residues provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. This study determines the possibility of returning these residues to abounded mine sites for reclamation with subsequent evaluation of environmental implications on groundwater quality. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  11. Analysis of Site Selection of Abandoned Dregs Field for Mountain High-speed Railway%山区高速铁路弃渣场选址分析

    王明慧; 蒋树平; 张桥; 金琰

    2013-01-01

    研究目的:山区高速铁路修建过程中,由于地形复杂、设计标准高等原因,常导致弃渣量巨大,对资金、环保、工期、施工安全等有较大影响,过去有的设计由于对选址与设计原则把握不当,往往在施工阶段不得不进行变更,造成人力物力的浪费,甚至埋下安全隐患.渝万铁路90%的线路位于山区与丘陵,且穿越多个林地与水源保护区,因此如何正确合理地进行选址和设计成为一项重要的课题.研究结论:结合渝万铁路的特点,通过研究得出以下结论:(1)弃渣场应尽量减少农田耕地的占用,选址一般应远离居民区和环境敏感区,少干扰地方交通;(2)要注重地质勘察,做好防护工程,避免引发滑坡等地质灾害;(3)回填弃渣场一举两得,有条件时应尽量采用.山沟和山脚弃渣场弃渣量大,占地少,弃渣方便,应作为山区铁路弃渣场主要选址.研究成果可为今后山区高速铁路弃渣场的设置提供参考.%Research purposes: In the construction process of mountain high - speed railway, a large number of abandoned dregs are produced because of the complex terrain and high design criteria, and it has a big effects on the construction cost, environmental protection, construction period and construction safety. As the principles of the site selection and design were implemented improperly, some previous designs had to be changed in construction stage to produce the big wastes of the manpower and material resources, even bring about the hidden safety danger. The 90% tracks of Yichang - Wanzhou Railway are located in the mountain and hill areas, with crossing some forest and water resource areas. How to reasonably select the site of the abandoned dregs field and how to design it are the very important works in the construction process of the mountain high - speed railway. Research conclusions: Based on the features of the Chongqing - Wanzhou Railway, it is concluded from the study

  12. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  13. Guam Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Guam. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  14. Florida Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Florida. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. Abandoned vehicles REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  16. Abandonned vehicles - REMINDER

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  17. Abandoned vehicles - Reminder

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service (service-parking-longterm@cern.ch) before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  18. Geophysical and intrusive site investigations to detect an abandoned coal-mine access shaft, Apedale, Staffordshire, UK

    Banham, SG; Pringle, JK

    2011-01-01

    Derelict coal mine workings at Apedale in Staffordshire, United Kingdom were the focus for a multi-disciplinary geophysical and intrusive site investigation. Objectives were to: 1) locate the surface entrance to a coal mine access shaft, 2) determine the inclined shaft’s changing depth below present ground level, 3) determine if it was open, partly or fully filled, 4) locate it beneath a known shaft if (1) was unsuccessful and finally 5) compare geophysical mineshaft detection techniques in d...

  19. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    Pokorný, Richard; Peterková, Marie Tereza

    2016-01-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932–1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online...

  20. The abandoned surface mining sites in the Czech Republic: mapping and creating a database with a GIS web application

    Pokorný, Richard; Tereza Peterková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Based on the vectorization of the 55-volume book series the Quarry Inventories of the Czechoslovak Republic/Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, published in the years 1932-1961, a new comprehensive database was built comprising 9958 surface mining sites of raw materials, which were active in the first half of the 20th century. The mapped area covers 40.9 % of the territory of the Czech Republic. For the purposes of visualization, a map application, the Quarry Inventories Online, was created that enables the data visualization.

  1. Evaluation of subsurface exploration, sampling, and water-quality-analysis methods at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Parks, W.S.; Carmichael, J.K.; Mirecki, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Direct Push Technology (DPT) and a modified-auger method of sampling were used at an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, to collect lithologic data and ground-water samples in an area known to be affected by a subsurface creosote plume. The groundwater samples were analyzed using (1) gas chromatography with photo-ionization detection (GS/PID), (2) high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (3) colonmetric phenol analysis, and (4) toxicity bioassay. DPT piezocone and cone-penetrometer-type tools provided lithologic data and ground-water samples at two onsite stations to a depth of refusal of about 35 feet below land surface. With the assistance of an auger rig, this depth was extended to about 65 feet by pushing the tools in advance of the augers. Following the DPT work, a modified-auger method was tested by the USGS. This method left doubt as to the integrity of the samples collected once zones of contamination were penetrated. GC/PID and HPLC methods of water-quality analysis provided the most data concerning contaminants in the ground-water and proved to be the most effective in creosote plume detection. Analyses from these methods showed that the highest concentrations of contaminants were detected at depths less than about 35 feet below land surface. Phenol analyses provided data supplemental to the HPLC analyses. Bioassay data indicated that toxicity associated with the plume extended to depths of about 55 feet below land surface.

  2. The use of geosynthetics covers for the ecological rehabilitation of the abandoned dump sites and tailing dams for radioactive waste from the uranium mining industry

    Full text: The mining and the preparation of the uranium ore generate important quantities of waste which is deposited in dump sites and tailing dams. Consequently, important terrain surfaces are affected by the technological operations and the environmental impact is high. It is then important to cover and ecologically rehabilitate the areas where mining and ore preparation took place and to minimize the long-term effect. The actual technology for ecologic rehabilitation allows generally satisfactory solutions for the sealing and the stabilization of the polluted areas, using natural, synthetic materials or combination of these. Of a particular interest for the abandoned areas where activities of uranium ore extraction or preparation took place is the radioactivity, which generates effects on a long term. A technically acceptable solution for cover and ecological rehabilitation of these areas must not only prevent the infiltration of the rainfall water into the waste body, but also reduce the level of gamma radiation and eliminate the ex-filtration of any contaminated material, including radioactive gases. Also, as the mining areas and the dump-sites are in most cases in remote locations, with difficult access, limited technical possibilities and no reserves of clay that can be used as sealing barrier. This situation requires technical solutions, installation techniques and operations that can be carried out with limited equipment. The purpose of this article is to describe the main phases and some partial results of the research program, which was started more than one year ago in order to establish a solution for cover and rehabilitation of the abandoned dump sites and tailing dams which is applicable, guaranteed on long-term and independent of mineral sealing materials. The research programme was structured on both laboratory tests and large scale field tests that allowed the careful monitoring of the geosynthetic package used for sealing and cover concerning

  3. Water quality, organic chemistry of sediment, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee

    Bradfield, A.D.; Flexner, N.M.; Webster, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of water quality, organic sediment chemistry, and biological conditions of streams near an abandoned wood-preserving plant site at Jackson, Tennessee, was conducted during December 1990. The study was designed to assess the extent of possible contamination of water and biota in the streams from creosote-related discharge originating at this Superfund site. Central Creek, adjacent to the plant, had degraded water quality and biological conditions. Water samples from the most downstream station on Central Creek contained 30 micrograms per liter of pentachlorophenol, which exceeds the State's criterion maximum concentrations of 9 micrograms per liter for fish and aquatic life. Bottom-sediment samples from stations on Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, napthalene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1,400 to 2,500 micrograms per kilogram. Chronic or acute toxicity resulted during laboratory experiments using test organisms exposed to creosote-related contaminants. Sediment elutriate samples from Central Creek caused slightly to highly toxic effects on Ceriodaphnia dubia. Pimephales promelas, and Photobacterium phosphoreum. Fish-tissue samples from this station contained concentrations of naphthalene. dibenzofuran, fluorene, and phenanthrene ranging from 1.5 to 3.9 micrograms per kilogram Blue-green algae at this station represented about 79 percent of the organisms counted, whereas diatoms accounted for only 11 percent. Benthic invertebrate and fish samples from Central Creek had low diversity and density. Sediment samples from a station on the South Fork Forked Deer River downstream from its confluence with Central Creek contained concentrations of acenaphthene, anthracene, chrysene, fluoranthene, fluorene, pyrere, and phenanthrene ranging from 2,800 to 69,000 micrograms per kilogram. Sediment elutriate samples using water as elutriate from this station contained concentrations of extractable organic compounds ranging from an estimated

  4. The distributions of BTEX compounds in the ambient atmosphere of the Nan-Ji-Do abandoned landfill site in Seoul

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Min-Young

    In this study, the concentrations of major aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which include benzene, toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, and ethylbenzene were measured at the Nan-Ji-Do (NJD) landfill site during the spring and fall season of 2000. According to our study, the mean (and median) concentration values for these VOC species were computed to be 1.65 (1.12) ppb for benzene, 9.62 (6.63) ppb for toluene, 1.84 (1.08) ppb for m, p-xylene, 0.83 (0.46) ppb for o-xylene, and 1.17 (0.78) ppb for ethylbenzene; large differences in two statistical terms appear to originate from the consistent occurrences of data sets with unusually high concentrations such that they induce eccentricities in the predictable, Gaussian-type patterns of their frequency distribution. The concentration levels of major aromatic species in our study area, when compared with those of other environmental settings, are slightly higher or comparable to those typically found in urbanized areas affected by various anthropogenic source types. The findings of the moderately high concentration levels at NJD may reflect at least partially the effects of efficient mixing at high elevation of 95 m, despite the fact that large quantities of VOCs are emitted from this landfill area. Inspection of our measurement data further indicated that in many occasions these VOCs can be subordinate to different, but distinctive, patterns of periodicity over diurnal or seasonal scale. Results of correlation analysis indicate that toluene is correlated most significantly and abundantly with both VOC and the concurrently determined environmental parameters, while benzene lacks strong correlations even with other aromatic VOCs. In light of the peculiarity in the behavior of benzene, we suggest that the processes affecting BTEX levels in the landfill area may be distinguished from other source processes that can also be important in the urbanized areas.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis and arsenate reduction effect of the arsenic-reducing bacteria enriched from contaminated soils at an abandoned smelter site

    ZHANG Xuexia; JIA Yongfeng; WANG Xin; XU Liying

    2008-01-01

    Microbial reduction of As(V) (i.e., arsenate) plays an important role in arsenic (As) mobilization in aqueous environment. In this study, we investigated As(Ⅴ) reduction characteristics of the bacteria enriched from the arsenic-contaminated soil at an abandoned smelter site. It was found that As(Ⅴ) was completely reduced to As(Ⅲ) (i.e., arsenite) in 21 h. After 3-d incubation, a yellow solid was precipitated and the concentration of As(Ⅲ) decreased sharply. After 150 h incubation, ca. 65% of soluble arsenic was removed from the solution. The analysis of the precipitate by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed that the main component was crystalline arsenic sulfide (ASS). Microbial mediated reduction and mobilization of adsorbed As(Ⅴ) on ferric hydroxide was also examined. In the microcosm slurry experiment, ca. 53% of the adsorbed As(V) was reduced to As(Ⅲ) by the bacteria, which resulted in an appreciable release of arsenic into aqueous phase. The released arsenic was present predominantly as As(Ⅲ). The microbial diversity was analyzed by 16S rDNA-dependent molecular phylogeny. A near-full-length 16S rDNA gene clone library was constructed. The 197 clones were analyzed using RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and 72 OTUs were obtained, which contributed 51% of the content for total clone number in six OTUs. Six bacterial clones in these six OTUs were selected for sequencing and the sequenced clones were found to belong to the group Caloramator, Clostridium, and Bacillus.

  6. Legal aspects of abandoned facilities

    This paper outlines the basic regulatory requirements needed to identify radioactive material licensee owners/operators. Basic actions that must be taken once a radioactive material site is abandoned are also listed. Two such actions in Texas are briefly described. Civil suits requesting penalties, injunctive relief for decontamination, and recovery of response costs pursuant to the Texas regulatory acts have been filed against the potentially responsible parties

  7. Abandoning wells working group

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The primary objective of this working group is to identify major technical, regulatory, and environmental issues that are relevant to the abandonment of offshore wellbores. Once the issues have been identified, the working group also has the objective of making recommendations or providing potential solutions for consideration. Areas for process improvement will be identified and {open_quotes}best practices{close_quotes} will be discussed and compared to {open_quotes}minimum standards.{close_quotes} The working group will primarily focus on wellbore abandonment in the Gulf of Mexico. However, workshop participants are encouraged to discuss international issues which may be relevant to wellbore abandonment practices in the Gulf of Mexico. The Abandoning Wells Group has identified several major areas for discussion that have concerns related to both operators and service companies performing wellbore abandonments in the Gulf of Mexico. The following broad topics were selected for the agenda: (1) MMS minimum requirements and state regulations. (2) Co-existence of best practices, new technology, and P & A economics. (3) Liability and environmental issues relating to wellbore abandonment.

  8. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 1

    This report documents the activities and findings of the Phase I Preliminary Characterization of Abandoned Septic Tank Systems. The purpose of the preliminary characterization activity was to investigate the Tiger Team abandoned septic systems (tanks and associated leachfields) for the purpose of identifying waste streams for closure at a later date. The work performed was not to fully characterize or remediate the sites. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. A total of 20 sites were investigated for the preliminary characterization of identified abandoned septic systems. Of the 20 sites, 19 were located and characterized through samples collected from each tank(s) and, where applicable, associated leachfields. The abandoned septic tank systems are located in Areas 5, 12, 15, 25, and 26 on the Nevada Test Site

  9. Use of on-site mycorrhizal inoculum for plant establishment on abandoned mined lands. Final report, 31 May 1988-31 March 1990

    Helm, D.J.; Carling, D.E.

    1990-04-27

    Natural vegetation succession on abandoned coal-mined lands does not provide sufficient plant cover to control soil erosion in the short term. Soil inoculum of mycorrhizal fungi from an adjacent undisturbed area was used to inoculate balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings to improve plant growth. Soil inoculum contains the species of mycorrhizal fungi indigenous to the area as well as other beneficial organisms. An initial survey of mycorrhizal fungi in soils was conducted to determine the existing levels of mycorrhizal infection on native and disturbed soils. Four experiments were implemented to determine (1) fertilizer and mycorrhizal effects, (2) effects of successional stage of inoculum source, (3) effects of nitrogen sources in conjunction with mycorrhizae, and (4) the combinations of microsites, fertilizer, and mycorrhizae needed to establish vegetation on a steep slope. Soil-borne inoculum improved the growth of balsam poplar cuttings and alder seedlings over the 2-yr period.

  10. Puerto Rico Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Puerto Rico. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  11. American Samoa Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for American Samoa. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  12. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lanai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lanai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Oahu

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Oahu, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  14. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Rota

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Rota. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Molokai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Molokai, Hawaii. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  16. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Saipan

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Saipan. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  17. CNMI Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Tinian

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Tinian. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  18. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kauai

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kauai. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  19. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maui

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maui. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral habitats...

  20. Nonequilibrium leaching behavior of metallic elements (Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) from soils collected from long-term abandoned mine sites.

    Kim, Juhee; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-09-01

    Leaching of metallic elements (Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb) from two mine-impacted soils (DY and BS) was evaluated by batch decant-refill and seepage flow experiments. During eight consecutive leaching steps, aqueous As concentrations remained relatively constant (approx. 1.6 and 0.1 mg L(-)(1) for DY and BS, respectively), while Cu (0.01-3.2 mg L(-1)), Zn (0.2-42 mg L(-1)), and Cd (0.004-0.3 mg L(-1)) were quickly reduced. The reduction of Pb concentration (0.007-0.02 mg L(-1) and 0.2-0.9 mg L(-1) for DY and BS, respectively) was much lesser. This pattern was well-explained by the biphasic leaching model by allocating a large fast leaching fraction (ffast>0.2) for Cu, Zn, and Cd while a negligible ffast for As and Pb (impact observed for As. Element export was enhanced after flow interruption, especially under fast seepage. A transient drop in As export in slow seepage was likely due to sorption back to soil phase during the quiescent period. The ratio of Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) and SO4(2-) concentration, related to the dissolution of sulfide minerals, were also seepage rate-dependent. The results of batch and column studies imply that the leachate concentration will be enhanced by initial seepage and will be perturbed after quiescent wetting period. The conversion from kinetically leachable pool to readily leachable pool is likely responsible for nonequilibrium metal leaching from the long-term abandoned mine soils. PMID:25935604

  1. Toxicity assessment using Lactuca sativa L. bioassay of the metal(loid)s As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn in soluble-in-water saturated soil extracts from an abandoned mining site

    Bagur-Gonzalez, Maria Gracia [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Estepa-Molina, Carmen [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain); Martin-Peinado, Francisco [Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Soil Science, Granada (Spain); Morales-Ruano, Salvador [Univ. of Granada-CSIC, Inst. Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, Faculty of Sciences, Granada (Spain); Univ. of Granada, Faculty of Sciences, Dept. of Mineralogy and Petrology, Granada (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    We used the different soluble-in-water concentrations of As, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from contaminated soils in an abandoned mining area (anthropogenic origin) to assess the phytotoxicity of the abandoned site using the results obtained with a Lactuca sativa L. bioassay. Material and methods The study has been carried out on potentially polluted samples from the Rodalquilar mining district (southern Spain). The area was sampled according to the different metallurgical treatments for gold extraction used in each one: dynamic cyanidation and heap leaching. The saturation extracts were obtained by filtering each saturated paste with a vacuum-extraction pump, in which measurements of metal(loid) concentrations, pH and electrical conductivity were made. The variables evaluated in the bioassay, defined as toxicity indices ranging from -1 (maximum phytotoxicity) to >0 (hormesis), were seed germination (SG) and root elongation (RE) of lettuce seeds. Results and discussion In areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil toxicity. According to these results, samples from the western area showed moderate to low toxicity, which was closely related to water-soluble As concentrations. Samples from the eastern area had a high degree of toxicity in 40% of the soils. Conclusions The comparison of the two indices (SG and RE) defined using the L. sativa L. bioassay indicates that, for areas with a low degree of contamination, the most sensitive toxicity index is RE, whereas in highly contaminated areas, both RE and SG are good estimators of soil phytotoxicity. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods such as HCA and PCA enabled us to conclude that the low/moderate phytotoxicity of the soils is related to the extraction process used for the recovery of gold (mainly dynamic cyanidation in tanks located in the eastern area) and to the As and Pb contents. (orig.)

  2. Reconnaissance of Soil, Ground Water, and Plant Contamination at an Abandoned Oilfield-Service Site near Shawnee, Oklahoma, 2005-2006

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, began a reconnaissance study of a site in Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, in 2005 by testing soil, shallow ground water, and plant material for the presence of trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Chemical analysis of plant material at the site was investigated as a preliminary tool to determine the extent of contamination at the site. Thirty soil samples were collected from 15 soil cores during October 2005 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Five small-diameter, polyvinyl-chloride-cased wells were installed and ground-water samples were collected during December 2005 and May 2006 and analyzed for trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds. Thirty Johnsongrass samples and 16 Coralberry samples were collected during September 2005 and analyzed for 53 constituents, including trace elements. Results of the soil, ground-water, and plant data indicate that the areas of trace element and semivolatile organic compound contamination are located in the shallow (A-horizon) soils near the threading barn. Most of the trace-element concentrations in the soils on the study site were either similar to or less than trace-element concentrations in background soils. Several trace elements and semivolatile organic compounds exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Human Health Medium-Specific Screening Levels 2007 for Tap Water, Residential Soils, Industrial Indoor Soils, and Industrial Outdoor Soils. There was little or no correlation between the plant and soil sample concentrations and the plant and ground-water concentrations based on the current sample size and study design. The lack of correlation between trace-element concentrations in plants and soils, and plants and ground water indicate that plant sampling was not useful as a preliminary tool to assess contamination at the study site.

  3. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  4. The management of abandoned sites at the basin collieries of center and southern France and the procedure of stoppage of mining works

    The basin collieries of center and southern France (HBCM) have launched since 1993 the procedures of stoppage of mining works as foreseen by the mining rights and which will lead to the renunciation of their 148 concessions once the remediation of the sites has been completed. In order to cope with the enormous work of file and work follow up, a rigorous procedure and organization has been implemented in order to obtain all necessary prefecture by-laws by the end of 2005. (J.S.)

  5. Geoconservation of abandoned goldmines and granite quarries in the Vredefort Dome World Heritage Site, South Africa / Jacobus Marthinus Jansen van Rensburg

    Van Rensburg, Jacobus Marthinus Jansen

    2012-01-01

    Since the Vredefort Dome‟s listing as a World Heritage Site in June 2005, the area has seen a steady increase in tourists to both the local towns of Parys and Vredefort and the Vredefort Structure. Tourists venturing into the field in an attempt to explore the area have an insatiable appetite for information. By unfolding the gold and granite mining heritage of the area, a world of interesting facts and fables is exposed. The special geological character of the Vredefort Dome World Heritag...

  6. New buildings in abandoned mining sites: the Oer-Erkenschwick equestrian and leisure center; Neue Freizeitimmobilien auf alten Bergwerksstandorten: das Pferdesport- und Freizeitzentrum Oer-Erkenschwick

    Dodt, J.; Noll, H.P. [Montan-Grundstuecksgesellschaft mbH (MGG), Essen (Germany)

    2001-10-11

    The Montan-Grundstueckgesellschaft GmbH, Essen is planning an equestrian and leisure centre on the site of the Ewald Colliery in Oer-Erkenschwick. Indoor riding schools and outdoor facilities for horse riding with the main emphasis on western riding will be developed on a 65 ha site. Other facilities for children such as a children's ranch, a public golf course with a driving range, restaurants likewise with a western theme, a conference hotel and other amenities for overnight stays will also be provided. This innovative concept is a positive impulse for the structural change in the Emscher-Lippe region. (orig.) [German] Die Montan-Grundstueckgesellschaft mbH, Essen, plant auf dem Gelaende des Bergwerks Ewald Fortsetzung in Oer-Erkenschwick ein Pferdesport- und Freizeitzentrum. Auf 65 ha Flaeche sollen Reithallen und Aussenanlagen fuer den Pferdesport mit Schwerpunkt Westernreiten entstehen. Ergaenzend sind weitere Freizeitangebote fuer Kinder, wie etwa eine Kinderranch, ein oeffentlicher Golfplatz mit einer Abschlagshalle, ebenfalls im Westernbereich thematisierte Erlebnisgastronomie, ein Tagungshotel und andere Uebernachtungsmoeglichkeiten vorgesehen. Dieses innovative Konzept wuerde einen deutlichen, positiven Impuls fuer den Strukturwandel in der Region Emscher-Lippe bedeuten. (orig.)

  7. Acid-generating salts and their relationship to the chemistry of groundwater and storm runoff at an abandoned mine site in southwestern Indiana, USA

    Cation distributions in twenty samples of acid-generating salts were compared to those in groundwater and storm runoff from a coal-refuse deposit in an effort to identify source-product relationships. Two mineral suites, one primarily composed of melanterite, rozenite and szomolnokite, and the other composed almost entirely of copiapite, were found to be most abundant at the study site. Comparisons of cation distributions in salts with those in water samples led to an hypothesis that a copiapite-rich suite precipitated from vadose-zone groundwater that was brought to the surface by evaporative forcing. The copiapite-rich suite, which contained larger concentrations of aluminum, calcium and zinc than the melanterite-rozenite-szomolnokite mineral suite, was the primary source of solutes in captured storm runoff. An analysis of samples collected during a summer thunderstorm indicated that the chemistry of surface runoff varied little with time or with distance downstream. The cation distributions in samples of groundwater indicated that iron-rich pore waters observed near the surface in late autumn may have influenced water chemistry in the deeper portions of the unsaturated zone during the 1989 recharge season. The results of this study show that the solutes produced by the two observed salt suites can be distinguished by their mole percent iron and that the source-product relationships can explain observed variability in mine drainage chemistry at the study site

  8. Water pollution from abandoned mines

    Iversen, E.; Johannessen, M.

    1987-01-01

    The report provides a country-wide overview of abandoned pyrite mines where operations have been fairly extensive. The water pollution situation is assessed on the basis of reported investigations, inspections and chemical analyses from the individual areas. In cases where larger watercourses (Orkla, Gaula), and the upper stretch of the Glåma are affected the situation appears to be adequately described. However abandoned mine areas may also cause local pollution problems, and here documentat...

  9. Millipede succession in abandoned fields

    Tajovský, Karel

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2000), s. 361-370. ISSN 0015-9301 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : Millipedes * abandoned field * fallow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. US Virgin Islands Abandoned Vessel Inventory

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for US Virgin Islands. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  11. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Maro Reef, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Maro Reef, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  12. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Hawaii Island

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Hawaii Island. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  13. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Midway Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Midway Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of...

  14. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Kure, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Kure, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction of coral...

  15. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Lisianski Island, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for Lisianski Island, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  16. Who abandons embryos after IVF?

    Walsh, A P H

    2010-04-01

    This investigation describes features of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) patients who never returned to claim their embryos following cryopreservation. Frozen embryo data were reviewed to establish communication patterns between patient and clinic; embryos were considered abandoned when 1) an IVF patient with frozen embryo\\/s stored at our facility failed to make contact with our clinic for > 2 yrs and 2) the patient could not be located after a multi-modal outreach effort was undertaken. For these patients, telephone numbers had been disconnected and no forwarding address was available. Patient, spouse and emergency family contact\\/s all escaped detection efforts despite an exhaustive public database search including death records and Internet directory portals. From 3244 IVF cycles completed from 2000 to 2008, > or = 1 embryo was frozen in 1159 cases (35.7%). Those without correspondence for > 2 yrs accounted for 292 (25.2%) patients with frozen embryos; 281 were contacted by methods including registered (signature involving abandoned embryos did not differ substantially from other patients. The goal of having a baby was achieved by 10\\/11 patients either by spontaneous conception, adoption or IVF. One patient moved away with conception status unconfirmed. The overall rate of embryo abandonment was 11\\/1159 (< 1%) in this IVF population. Pre-IVF counselling minimises, but does not totally eliminate, the problem of abandoned embryos. As the number of abandoned embryos from IVF accumulates, their fate urgently requires clarification. We propose that clinicians develop a policy consistent with relevant Irish Constitutional provisions to address this medical dilemma.

  17. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  18. NUEVAS EVIDENCIAS SOBRE LA EDAD DE ABANDONO DEL SITIO ARQUEOLÓGICO PLAZUELAS (GUANAJUATO, MÉXICO MEDIANTE LA DATACIÓN ARQUEOMAGNÉTICA DE UN PISO QUEMADO (New Evidence of the Date of Abandonment of the Plazuelas Archaeological Site in Guanajuato, Mexico through Archaeomagnetic Dating of a Burned Floor

    Juan Morales

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la datación arqueomagnética de un piso quemado del sitio arqueológico Plazuelas, Guanajuato. La carencia de una datación para la edad de abandono del sitio, detallada en relatos etnohistóricos, así como de carbón asociado a esta etapa, motivó la aplicación de un método alternativo de datación, independiente de los métodos tradicionales. La edad obtenida en este estudio, como la más probable para la última exposición al fuego del piso analizado, es bastante congruente con las evidencias arqueológicas disponibles para el sitio Plazuelas. Difícilmente una exposición posterior al fuego (ya sea de origen natural o provocada por el hombre daría como resultado una combinación de valores para los tres parámetros magnéticos determinados que convergieran en el intervalo de edad estimado para el abandono del sitio en cuestión. ENGLISH: The results of the archaeomagnetic dating of a burned floor from the archaeological site Plazuelas, Guanajuato, Mexico, are presented. The lack of an absolute date for the age of abandonment of the site, which is detailed in ethnohistorical accounts, as well as the lack of carbon remains conclusively associated with this stage, led to the implementation of an alternative method. The age obtained in this study, most likely representing the floor’s last exposure to fire, is quite consistent with the available archaeological evidence for the site’s date of abandonment. A subsequent exposure to fire (either natural or anthropogenic would not likely yield a combination of three magnetic parameters that would converge around the estimated period of abandonment of the site under study.

  19. A systematic inventory of abandoned mines - a powerful tool for risk management

    The Province of Ontario, Canada has undertaken a comprehensive program for the identification and assessment of abandoned mine hazards. This program has been being applied across the entire province covering over one million km3 of territory. A three phased inventory and risk management approach was implemented. Phase 1 involved review of the available literature on abandoned mines. Phase 2 involved field assessments of sites containing potential mine hazards. Phase 3 involved the development and implementation of acknowledge based risk assessment system. The need for the field assessment of over 6,000 sites was identified in Phase I. Critical data on these sites is documented in the Abandoned Mines Informations Systems (AMIS) database. An example of the results of Phase II are presented for one administrative district, covering 304 individual sites. The Abandoned Mines Hazard Rating System (AMHAZ) was developed specifically as a risk management tool for mine hazards. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  20. Localized Detection of Abandoned Luggage

    Jing-Ying Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoned luggage represents a potential threat to public safety. Identifying objects as luggage, identifying the owners of such objects, and identifying whether owners have left luggage behind are the three main problems requiring solution. This paper proposes two techniques which are “foreground-mask sampling” to detect luggage with arbitrary appearance and “selective tracking” to locate and to track owners based solely on looking only at the neighborhood of the luggage. Experimental results demonstrate that once an owner abandons luggage and leaves the scene, the alarm fires within few seconds. The average processing speed of the approach is 17.37 frames per second, which is sufficient for real world applications.

  1. Preliminary characterization of abandoned septic tank systems. Volume 2: Appendix D

    In an effort to support remedial investigations of abandoned septic tanks by US DOE, this report contains the results of chemical analyses of the contents of these abandoned tanks. Analytical data are presented for the following: volatile/TCLP volatile organics; semivolatile/TCLP semivolatile organics; PCB organics; total petroleum hydrocarbons; and total metals. The abandoned systems potentially received wastes or effluent from buildings which could have discharged non-domestic, petroleum hydrocarbons, hazardous, radioactive and/or mixed wastes. The 20 sites investigated are located on the Nevada Test Site

  2. Brent Spar abandonment - impact hypothesis

    This report describes the predicted fate of the Brent Spar storage and offloading platform following its proposed deep sea abandonment. Based on the characteristics of the Brent Spar and the contents of the buoy this ''Impact Hypothesis'' uses currently available knowledge of the North East Atlantic deep sea environment. Three scenarios based on possible outcomes are considered, incllcuding the release of metals into the water following corrosion of the structure. (UK)

  3. An exploratory analysis of land abandonment drivers in areas prone to desertification

    Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Acikalin, S; M. Alcalá; Alfama, P.; Atlhopheng, J.; Barrera, J.; Belgacem, A.; Solé-Benet, A.; J. Brito; Chaker, M.; Chanda, R.; Darkoh, M.; ERMOLAEVA O

    2015-01-01

    The abandonment of land is a global problem with environmental and socioeconomic implications. An approach to assess the relationship between land abandonment and a large set of indicators was illustrated in the present study by using data collected in the framework of the European Union DESIRE research project from 808 field sites located in 10 study sites in the Mediterranean region, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa and Asia. A total of 48 indicators provided information for biophysica...

  4. The problem of abandoned uranium tailings in northern Saskatchewan

    Two Saskatchewan tailings sites, Lorado and Gunnar, covering approximately 89 ha., were abandoned in the early 1960s leaving untreated tailings in lakes and depressions. This report reviews the literature on environmental conditions in abandoned uranium tailings and available managmenet and mitigation options, and identifies research requirements essential for proper treatment of these two sites. The recommended management plan includes isolation of the exposed tailings area from surface waters, stabilization of the exposed tailings surfaces, diversion of runoff around tailings, treatment of overflow water before release, and implementation of an environmental monitoring program. Revegetation appears to be a promising stabilization measure, but research is needed into propagation methods of appropriate native species. Studies of the existing geological and hydrological conditions at both sites, detailed characterization of the wastes, field testing of different surface treatment methods, and nutrient cycling investigations are also needed

  5. Blasting to stabilize abandoned underground mines in eastern and midwestern coal fields: A feasibility study. Open File Report

    The study was designed to assist individuals involved with problem of abandoned mines that are subsiding. The study analyzed the practicality and desirability of using blasting to stabilize subsiding abandoned underground mines. Application of blasting to subsidence problems could provide a valuable alternative technology to classical methods of injecting fill material into abandoned mines to fill voids and prevent subsidence. By blasting, subsidence can be induced in a controlled manner, completed, and the site returned to its desired usage

  6. Multiple factors drive regional agricultural abandonment.

    Osawa, Takeshi; Kohyama, Kazunori; Mitsuhashi, Hiromune

    2016-01-15

    An understanding of land-use change and its drivers in agroecosystems is important when developing adaptations to future environmental and socioeconomic pressures. Agricultural abandonment occurs worldwide with multiple potentially positive and negative consequences; however, the main factors causing agricultural abandonment in a country i.e., at the macro scale, have not been identified. We hypothesized that socio-environmental factors driving agricultural abandonment could be summarized comprehensively into two, namely "natural" and "social", and the relative importance of these differs among regions. To test this postulate, we analyzed the factors currently leading to agricultural abandonment considering ten natural environment variables (e.g., temperature) and five social variables (e.g., number of farmers) using the random forest machine learning method after dividing Japan into eight regions. Our results showed that agricultural abandonment was driven by various socio-environmental factors, and the main factors leading to agricultural abandonment differed among regions, especially in Hokkaido in northern Japan. Hokkaido has a relatively large area of concentrated farmland, and abandonment might have resulted from the effectiveness of cultivation under specific climate factors, whereas the other regions have relatively small areas of farmland with many elderly part-time farmers. In such regions, abandonment might have been caused by the decreasing numbers of potential farmers. Thus, two different drivers of agricultural abandonment were found: inefficient cultivation and decreasing numbers of farmers. Therefore, agricultural abandonment cannot be prevented by adopting a single method or policy. Agricultural abandonment is a significant problem not only for food production but also for several ecosystem services. Governments and decision-makers should develop effective strategies to prevent further abandonment to ensure sustainable future management of agro

  7. A state-and-transition approach to alpine grasslands under abandonment

    Targetti S; Staglianò N; Messeri A; Argenti G

    2010-01-01

    The abandonment of the traditional pastoral practices is acknowledged as the main causes of the shrub-encroachment in the alpine semi-natural grasslands. In this paper, we proposed a state-and-transition approach in order to organize pastoral vegetation in a simple management-oriented framework integrating ecological data. The study sites were chosen in an inner alpine territory where the abandonment of pastoral practices was more evident than in other alpine regions. Cluster and fuzzy analys...

  8. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    Jason Sherba; Leonhard Blesius; Jerry Davis

    2014-01-01

    LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using th...

  9. Fiscal year 1995 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from September 1994 through August 1995. A total of 67 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned if (1) its construction did not meet current standards (substandard construction); (2) it was irreparably damaged or had deteriorated beyond practical repair; (3) its location interfered with or otherwise impeded site operations, construction, or closure activities; or (4) special circumstances existed as defined on a case-by-case basis and approved by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) Manager. This summary report contains: general geologic setting of the Y-12 Plant and vicinity; discussion of well plugging and abandonment methods, grouting procedures, and waste management practices (a Waste Management Plan for Drilling Activities is included in Appendix C); summaries of plugging and abandonment activities at each site; and quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and health and safety protocols used during the FY 1995 Plugging and Abandonment Program

  10. Continued distress among abandoned dogs in Fukushima.

    Nagasawa, Miho; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2012-01-01

    In Fukushima, Japan, a prolonged refugee situation caused by a major nuclear incident after the earthquake of March 11, 2011 has led to the unintentional abandonment of many pets. We received stray or abandoned dogs from rescue centers in Fukushima Prefecture. During re-socialization training and health care, we accessed the behavioral characteristics and the urine cortisol level of each dog and compared them with those of other abandoned dogs not involved in this earthquake. The dogs from Fukushima showed significantly lower aggression toward unfamiliar people, trainability, and attachment to their caretakers; also, urine cortisol levels in the dogs from Fukushima were 5-10-fold higher than those in abandoned dogs from another area of Japan. These results suggested that the dogs from Fukushima suffered through an extremely stressful crisis. PMID:23061007

  11. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Polygons Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  12. Coal Mines, Abandoned - AML Points Feature

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set portrays the approximate location of Abandoned Mine Land Problem Areas containing public health, safety, and public welfare problems created by past...

  13. Landscape reconstruction planning of abandoned quarries

    Zhou, Linjia; 周麟佳

    2015-01-01

    Zhejiang, with a rich resource of stone, has a long history of stone extraction, where scatter thousands of traditional quarries and as a result many abandoned ones are left, which is challenged economically, ecologically and socially. On account of the soil erosion, security risks and degradation of ecosystem, reusing of the large number of abandoned quarries located in the city or the suburbs have become an important topic on sustainable development in China in resent years. These a...

  14. The rail abandonment process: A southern perspective

    One factor in evaluating the desirability of rail transport for high-level radioactive wastes or spent fuels is the frequency, or lack thereof, with which railroad and railroad lines have been, and are, abandoned. If DOE makes a decision to use the rail option and a line is subsequently abandoned, the choice results in increased cost, time delays and possibly safety problems: Information is therefore needed prior to the decision-making process to evaluate the desirability of the rail shipping option. One result of the abandonments mentioned herein, as well as other later abandonments, is the creation of a US rail system undergoing an evolutionary process in the 1980s as far-reaching as the changes that occurred when the industry was in its infancy a century and-a-half ago. The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors leading to some of these changes by tracing the historical development of the rail abandonment process, with particular emphasis on the rise of regional railroads, their problems in the modern era and current trends in rail abandonments as well as their effects on the southeastern United States

  15. Rail abandonments in the South and their effect on NWPA rail shipments

    The railroad industry will have a very critical role in the eventual shipping of commercial spent fuel and defense high-level waste as provided under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 and the 1987 amendments. The transport of spent fuel is expected to be accomplished by rail from 19 of the South's 27 reactor sites to the proposed Yucca Mountain repository or possible monitored retrievable storage facility. The decline in total track availability, however, could significantly impact the federal government's transportation program. Particularly the situation of continuing abandonments may limit rail opportunities at numerous reactor locations. Commercial nuclear reactor sites have the unfortunate problem of not being located on Class I railroad mainline tracks. The reactor sites are generally located in areas with limited rail traffic and thus vulnerable to rail abandonment procedures. The general deregulation of the railroad industry under the Staggers Act of 1980 also assisted in making rail abandonment, through the Interstate Commerce Commission, a rather simple and quick process. The effects of deregulation, however, have provided alternatives to abandonment. In particular, the Staggers Act has led to an enormous surge in the growth of short line and regional railroads. Such railroads have been able to effectively operate rail lines which Class I railroads found unprofitable. The short lines and regionals were also encouraged to competitively negotiate contracts directly with shippers. While these railroads may help reduce the number of abandonment applications, they may also represent higher shipping costs. The South has experienced a great number of abandonments since the 1960's. Many of the abandonments have been significant in length and have affected areas near nuclear plants expected to ship by rail

  16. The reuse of abandoned Acquaresi mine voids for storage of the Masua flotation tailings

    Pier Paolo Manca; Paolo Desogus; Giampaolo Orru`

    2014-01-01

    Often in abandoned mine sites are present both underground voids produced by mining and the tailings of treatment plant. An interesting solution for the rehabilitation of the sites would be to place the tailings of the process in the underground mining voids, thus obtaining the reclamation of surface areas and the stabilization of abandoned voids to prevent the dangerous phenomena of subsidence. However, these operations require inert waste, which must not be source of pollution, and the choice of a water/solid optimum to ensure good conditions of pumpability.

  17. Effects of Weather Variability on Crop Abandonment

    Kelvin Mulungu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In Zambia, every year some parts of the maize fields are abandoned post-planting. Reasons for this are not clearly known. In this paper, we examine the influence of soil and climatic factors on crop abandonment using a six-year (2007–2012 panel data by modeling the planted-to-harvested ratio (a good indicator of crop abandonment using a fractional and linear approach. Therefore, for the first time, our study appropriately (as supported by the model specification tests that favour fractional probit over linear models the fractional nature of crop abandonment. Regression results, which are not very different between the two specifications, indicate that, more than anything, high rainfall immediately after planting and inadequate fertilizer are the leading determinants of crop abandonment. In the agro-ecological region where dry planting takes place, low temperature during planting months negatively affects the harvested area. The results have implications on the sustainability of farming systems in the face of a changing climate.

  18. History of abandoned infants in Greece

    Maria Athanasopoulou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is since mythology to classical ages in Greece, since Medieval Ages to the end of the 19th century in Smyrna and in Athens, that history indicates the abandonment of the infants as a phenomenon always existing. A time flashback and the research of the phenomenon through the historic examples contribute unequivocally to the remonstrance of the social facts in each era.Aim: The aim of this study was to critically review all the historical data and the evidence from the international and Greek literature and to explore the factors that are accountable for to the infant’s abandonment and especially in Greece.Method: A critical literature search was performed using of MEDLINE and CINAHL (1990-2008 databases. The literature review referred to historical data related to the care of the abandoned infants since ancient Greek times.Conclusion: The literature review leads to the conclusion that the detection of the historical sources combines a “mosaic” which reflects the multiple needs of the Greek society, with target to encounter the infant abandonment. The ways used each time in order the phenomenon to be faced, not rarely were doubted. Still they stand as the salutary solutions for the abandoned infants and they are explained and established through the social background of each era and through the needs serviced each time.

  19. W.B. Lewis Lecture: Cleaning-up abandoned uranium mines in Saskatchewan's North

    Thirty-six now-abandoned uranium mine and mill sites were developed and operated on or near Lake Athabasca, in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, from approximately 1957 through 1964. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. After closure in the 1960's, these mine and mill sites were abandoned with little remediation and no reclamation being done. The governments of Canada and Saskatchewan are now funding the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites and have contracted the management of the project to the Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC). The clean-up activity is underway, with work at many of the smaller sites largely completed, work at the Gunnar site well underway, and a beginning made at the Lorado site. This lecture presents an overview of these operations. (author)

  20. Long-term ecological behaviour of abandoned uranium mill tailings

    Semi-aquatic and terrestrial areas on abandoned or inactive uranium mill tailings in Ontario were studied in order to identify the growth characteristics of the naturally invading species dominating these areas. Semi-aquatic areas of tailings sites have been invaded by cattails. These species formed wetland communities which varied in size, but all were essentially monocultures of Typha latifolia, T. angustifolia, or of the hybrids T. glauca. Sedges, Scripus cyperinus (wool-grass) and Phragmites australis (reed-grass), were found in transition zones between the cattail stand and the dry section of the tailings site. The expansion of the cattail stands appeared to be controlled by the hydrological conditions on the site, rather than the chemical characteristics of the tailings

  1. Changes in soil carbon and nitrogen following land abandonment of farmland on the Loess Plateau, China.

    Lei Deng

    Full Text Available The revegetation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic C (SOC and total N (TN. However, the dynamics of both soil OC and N storage following the abandonment of farmland are not well understood. To learn more about soil C and N storages dynamics 30 years after the conversion of farmland to grassland, we measured SOC and TN content in paired grassland and farmland sites in the Zhifanggou watershed on the Loess Plateau, China. The grassland sites were established on farmland abandoned for 1, 7, 13, 20, and 30 years. Top soil OC and TN were higher in older grassland, especially in the 0-5 cm soil depths; deeper soil OC and TN was lower in younger grasslands (<20 yr, and higher in older grasslands (30 yr. Soil OC and N storage (0-100 cm was significantly lower in the younger grasslands (<20 yr, had increased in the older grasslands (30 yr, and at 30 years SOC had increased to pre-abandonment levels. For a thirty year period following abandonment the soil C/N value remained at 10. Our results indicate that soil C and TN were significantly and positively correlated, indicating that studies on the storage of soil OC and TN needs to focus on deeper soil and not be restricted to the uppermost (0-30 cm soil levels.

  2. Infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia.

    Razali, Salmi; Kirkman, Maggie; Ahmad, S Hassan; Fisher, Jane

    2014-10-01

    Infant abandonment and infanticide are poorly understood in Malaysia. The information available in the public arena comes predominantly from anecdotal sources. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia and to estimate annual rates for the most recent decade. Summaries of data about infanticide and illegal infant abandonment were gathered from police records; the annual number of live births was ascertained from the national registry. The estimated inferred infanticide rates for Malaysia were compared with the infanticide rates among countries of very high, high, medium, and low rankings on the Human Development, Gender Inequality, and Gini indices. From 1999 to 2011, 1,069 cases of illegal infant abandonment were recorded and 1,147 people were arrested as suspected perpetrators. The estimated inferred infanticide rate fluctuated between 4.82 and 9.11 per 100,000 live births, a moderate rate relative to the infanticide rates of other countries. There are substantial missing data, with details undocumented for about 78-87% of cases and suspected perpetrators. Of the documented cases, it appeared that more boys than girls were victims and that suspected perpetrators were predominantly Malays who were women, usually mothers of the victim; the possibility of arrest bias must be acknowledged. Economic and social inequality, particularly gender inequality, might contribute to the phenomena of infanticide and abandonment. Strategies to reduce rates of infanticide and illegal infant abandonment in Malaysia will require strengthening of the surveillance system and attention to the gender-based inequalities that underpin human development. PMID:25048164

  3. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO)

    BENDRA B.; M. Sbaa; FETOUANI S.; Lotfi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine o...

  4. Soil microbial community of abandoned sand fields

    Elhottová, Dana; Szili-Kovács, T.; Tříska, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2002), s. 435-440. ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/99/P033 Grant ostatní: OTKA(HU) T25739 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6066911 Keywords : microbial community * abandoned fields Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.979, year: 2002

  5. 18 CFR 157.216 - Abandonment.

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abandonment. 157.216 Section 157.216 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT... firm contract; or (2) A facility that did or could now qualify for automatic authorization as...

  6. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, French Frigate Shoals, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for French Frigate Shoals. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical destruction...

  7. Development of database on circular abandoned channel in Japan

    To develop a method for estimating late Quaternary uplift rates of inland mountainous terrains where fluvial terraces are poorly developed, we focused on 'circular abandoned channels', formed by meander cut-offs or river capture of an incised meandering river. We studied about 1,000 circular abandoned channels distributed throughout the Islands of Japan, and developed GIS database on circular abandoned channel in Japan. This database contains formation process, relative heights, degree of dissection and bedrocks of circular abandoned channels. Circular abandoned channels are distributed in inland mountainous terrains, where late Quaternary uplift rates are unknown, and indicate different relative heights along the same river. Relative heights tend to correlate with degree of dissection of the circular abandoned channels, which may indicate that degree of dissection correlate with ages of abandonment of circular abandoned channels. A CD-ROM is attached as an appendix. (J.P.N.)

  8. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  9. Quarries - QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN: Abandoned Quarries in Indiana (Indiana Geological Survey, Point Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — QUARRIES_ABANDONED_IN was derived from a comma-delimited text file named "QUALOC.TXT" contained on the following CD-ROM publication: Hasenmueller, W.A., and Ault,...

  10. Nurses' Attitudes and Knowledge of Their Roles in Newborn Abandonment

    Cesario, Sandra K.

    2003-01-01

    The practice of abandoning newborns shortly after birth has always existed. Occurring in primitive and contemporary societies, the motivations for newborn abandonment are varied and dependent upon the social norms of a specific geographic region at a given point in time. Because the desire to abandon an infant has had no support system in American society, such unwanted infants have been abandoned in a manner leading to their deaths. In response, many states have passed safe-haven legislation...

  11. Assessing Degradation of Abandoned Farmlands for Conservation of the Monte Desert Biome in Argentina

    Yannelli, Florencia A.; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E.; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits ( p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery.

  12. Assessing degradation of abandoned farmlands for conservation of the Monte Desert biome in Argentina.

    Yannelli, Florencia A; Tabeni, Solana; Mastrantonio, Leandro E; Vezzani, Nazareth

    2014-01-01

    Land abandonment is a major issue worldwide. In Argentina, the Monte Desert is the most arid rangeland, where the traditional conservation practices are based on successional management of areas excluded to disturbances or abandoned. Some areas subjected to this kind of management may be too degraded, and thus require active restoration. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether passive succession-based management is a suitable approach by evaluating the status of land degradation in a protected area after 17-41 years of farming abandonment. Soil traits and plant growth forms were quantified and compared between sites according to time since abandonment and former land use (cultivation and grazing). Two variables were calculated using the CORINE-CEC method, i.e., potential (PSER) and actual (ASER) soil erosion risk. PSER indicates the erosion risk when no vegetation is present, while ASER includes the protective role of vegetation cover. Results showed that land use history had no significant effect on plant growth forms or soil traits (p > 0.05). After more than 25 years since abandonment of farming activities, soil conditions and vegetation cover had improved, thus having a lower ASER. Nevertheless, the present soil physical crusts may have delayed the full development of vegetation, enhancing erosion processes. Overall, this study indicates that succession-based management may not be the best practice in terms of conservation. Therefore, any effort for conservation in the Monte Desert should contemplate the current status of land degradation and potential vegetation recovery. PMID:24091587

  13. Working Models about Mother-Child Relationships in Abandoned Children.

    Garcia-Torres, Belen; Guerrero, Pilar Garcia-Calvo

    2000-01-01

    Sixty abandoned and 36 non-abandoned school-aged children were told six short stories about mother-child relationships. Abandoned children showed less positive affect attribution to the mother, more compliant behavior in the child, and more justification of the mother when her behaviors were unfair. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  14. 30 CFR 256.56 - Lease-specific abandonment accounts.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lease-specific abandonment accounts. 256.56... OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Bonding § 256.56 Lease-specific abandonment accounts. (a) The Regional Director may authorize you to establish a lease-specific abandonment account...

  15. Why do leaf-tying caterpillars abandon their leaf ties?

    Michelle Sliwinski

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaf-tying caterpillars act as ecosystem engineers by building shelters between overlapping leaves, which are inhabited by other arthropods. Leaf-tiers have been observed to leave their ties and create new shelters (and thus additional microhabitats, but the ecological factors affecting shelter fidelity are poorly known. For this study, we explored the effects of resource limitation and occupant density on shelter fidelity and assessed the consequences of shelter abandonment. We first quantified the area of leaf material required for a caterpillar to fully develop for two of the most common leaf-tiers that feed on white oak, Quercus alba. On average, Psilocorsis spp. caterpillars consumed 21.65 ± 0.67 cm2 leaf material to complete development. We also measured the area of natural leaf ties found in a Maryland forest, to determine the distribution of resources available to caterpillars in situ. Of 158 natural leaf ties examined, 47% were too small to sustain an average Psilocorsis spp. caterpillar for the entirety of its development. We also manipulated caterpillar densities within experimental ties on potted trees to determine the effects of cohabitants on the likelihood of a caterpillar to leave its tie. We placed 1, 2, or 4 caterpillars in ties of a standard size and monitored the caterpillars twice daily to track their movement. In ties with more than one occupant, caterpillars showed a significantly greater propensity to leave their tie, and left sooner and at a faster rate than those in ties as single occupants. To understand the consequences of leaf tie abandonment, we observed caterpillars searching a tree for a site to build a shelter in the field. This is a risky behavior, as 17% of the caterpillars observed died while searching for a shelter site. Caterpillars that successfully built a shelter traveled 110 ± 20 cm and took 28 ± 7 min to find a suitable site to build a shelter. In conclusion, leaf-tying caterpillars must frequently

  16. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  17. Detecting abandoned objects using interacting multiple models

    Becker, Stefan; Münch, David; Kieritz, Hilke; Hübner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, the wide use of video surveillance systems has caused an enormous increase in the amount of data that has to be stored, monitored, and processed. As a consequence, it is crucial to support human operators with automated surveillance applications. Towards this end an intelligent video analysis module for real-time alerting in case of abandoned objects in public spaces is proposed. The overall processing pipeline consists of two major parts. First, person motion is modeled using an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) filter. The IMM filter estimates the state of a person according to a finite-state, discrete-time Markov chain. Second, the location of persons that stay at a fixed position defines a region of interest, in which a nonparametric background model with dynamic per-pixel state variables identifies abandoned objects. In case of a detected abandoned object, an alarm event is triggered. The effectiveness of the proposed system is evaluated on the PETS 2006 dataset and the i-Lids dataset, both reflecting prototypical surveillance scenarios.

  18. Soil, vegetation and total organic carbon stock development in self-restoring abandoned vineyards

    József Novák, Tibor; Incze, József; Spohn, Marie; Giani, Luise

    2016-04-01

    Abandoned vineyard's soil and vegetation development was studied on Tokaj Nagy-Hill, which is one of the traditional wine-producing regions of Hungary, it is declared as UNESCO World Heritage site as cultural landscape. Spatial distribution and pattern of vineyards were changing during the last several hundreds of years, therefore significant part of abandoned vineyards were subjected to long-term spontaneous secondary succession of vegetation and self-restoration of soils in absence of later cultivation. Two chronosequences of spontaneously regenerating vineyard abandonments, one on south (S-sequence) and one on southwest (SW-sequence) slope with differing times since their abandonment (193, 142, 101, 63, 39 and 14 years), were compiled and studied. The S-sequence was 25-35% sloped and strongly eroded, and the SW-sequence was 17-25% sloped and moderately eroded. The sites were investigated in respect of vegetation characteristics, soil physico-chemical characteristics, total organic carbon stocks (TOC stocks), accumulation rates of total organic carbon (TOC accumulation rates), and soil profiles, which were classified according to the World Reference Base (WRB) 2014. Vegetation development resulted in shrub-grassland mosaics, supplemented frequently by protected forb species and forest development at the earliest abandonment in S-sequence, and predominantly to forest vegetation in SW-sequence, where trees were only absent at the 63 and 14 years old abandonment sites. In all sites soils on level of reference groups according to WRB were classified, and Cambisols, Regosols, Calcisols, Leptosols, Chernozems and Phaeozems were found. Soils of the S-sequence show shallow remnants of loess cover with colluvic and redeposited soil materials containing 15-65% skeletal volcanic rock of weathering products coated by secondary calcium carbonates. The SW-sequence profiles are developed on deep loess or loess derivatives. The calcium-carbonate content was higher in profiles of

  19. Investigation of abandoned surface settling ponds

    One of the problems that may appear during the ground reclamation of surface settling ponds of underground mines is enhanced radon exhalation from bottom sediments. This problem becomes more important when the concentration of radium isotopes in sediments is enhanced due to the discharge of radium-bearing waters into the pond. For investigations, special radon accumulation chambers have been designed and constructed. The concentration of radon in these chambers can be measured with the application of Lucas cells or activated charcoal detectors. In the latter method, radon is extracted from charcoal into a liquid scintillator and the sample is measured in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. Therefore the lower limit of detection (LLD) of the second method is as low as 0.1 mBq·m-2s-1, while the LLD for Lucas cells is 1.5 mBq·m-2s-1. The above-mentioned methods for the measurement of radon exhalation have been applied to investigations of a surface settling pond of one Polish coal mine, abandoned and emptied at the beginning of 2002. An agreement between the mine management and the local authority was to make the ground reclamation of the pond. A thick layer of sediments with an enhanced concentration of radium isotopes covers the bottom of the pond. The maximum concentration of radium isotopes in these sediments is as high as 2000 Bq/kg for 226Ra and up to 4000 Bq/kg for 228Ra. Two years after the complete release of brines from the pond, bottom sediments are still soaked with water. Therefore, measurements of radon in soil gas were not possible. On the other hand, in some parts of the pond investigations of radon exhalation coefficient were done. The preliminary results of measurements, conducted in 2002, showed that radon exhalation rates in specific parts of the pond were higher than the highest values of radon exhalation from the ground in the Upper Silesia region. Values of exhalation coefficient up to 200 mBq·m-2s-1 were found. It must be pointed out that

  20. Integrated approach to hazard evaluation of an abandoned oil refinery

    The multiparameter approach to determine the ecological effects of contaminant residues in an abandoned oil refinery site permitted an evaluation of both sensitivity and resilience of responses from the molecular to the population level of organization. The acute and partial chronic toxicity tests of soil and leachates of soil with conventional aquatic organisms scored similar deleterious responses to the same sites as the resident small mammal populations. While there was not a statistically significant correlation between populational, organismal, and molecular level of responses in this study, this was probably due to the inadequacy of the authors current statistical methodology to analyze the interactions. Populational responses appeared to be less sensitive than the molecular or organismal level of effect. Toxicity tests of soil leachates with standard aquatic test organisms may over estimate the potential effects upon resident populations of small mammals. However, the differences may be attributable to the mobility of resident mammals, i.e., avoidance responses to odoriferous areas except for occasional feeding forays. Aromatic and alkyd hydrocarbons appear to be the major contaminant group at most sites but other semi-polar organics, lead, and fluoride were also detected at the most toxic sites

  1. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  2. Abandonment: Technological, organisational and environmental challenges

    The paper deals with the abandonment of offshore wells. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex multi-disciplined issue, which raises a number of technical, organisational and environmental challenges. The success of a planned decommissioning operation depends on the development of a clear understanding of the complex blend of drivers which control the decommissioning process and their inter-relationship. Due to the complexity of the inter-relationship between the primary drivers one cannot separate the technological, organisational and environmental issues raised by the decommissioning of offshore installations. The optimal solution will be a compromise between all the decommissioning drivers mentioned in this paper. 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Phase-in, abandonment, and cost disallowances

    The major regulatory challenge to the electric utility industry appears to be coming from the financial side with its bookkeeping and financial reporting requirements. The author describes the accounting procedures and problems associated with straightforward phase-in rate treatment, abandonment, excess capacity, cost allowances, etc. She concludes that the available options to the Financial Accounting Standards Board are to adopt either the proposed exposure draft or a modification of the draft, to drop the proposed draft of amendments to Statement No. 71, or issue a whole new exposure draft

  4. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Millán R.; Sierra M. J.; Schmid T.; Carrasco Gil S.; Sánchez Ledesma D. M.; Díaz Puent F. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain) that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg). Nowaday...

  5. Should executive stock options be abandoned?

    Choe, Chongwoo; Yin, Xiangkang

    2006-01-01

    Recent corporate scandals around the world have led many to single out executive stock options as one of the main culprits. More corporations are abandoning stock options and reverting to restricted stock. This paper argues that such a change is not entirely justifiable. We first provide a critical review of the pros and cons of executive stock options. We then compare option-based contracts with stock-based contracts using a simple principal-agent model with moral-hazard. In a general enviro...

  6. Setting plug & abandonment barriers with minimum removal of tubulars

    Nessa, Jon Olav

    2012-01-01

    The useful life of an offshore well is determined by the reserves which it contacts, the pressure support within the reservoir and the continued integrity of the wellbore. When a well has reached the end of its lifetime, plugging operations have to be conducted before permanent abandonment. Conventional Plug and Abandonment (P&A) operations will often require removing a section of the casing in order to create cross sectional barriers for well abandonment. Recently developed and field test...

  7. Study of Abandoned Heritage Buildings from the Owners’ Perspectives in George Town, Penang.

    Mohd. Shukuri N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abandoning a heritage building is not a new phenomenon. In George Town, Penang specifically, there are many dilapidated heritage buildings that can be seen. These undeniable eye sores affect Penang’s designation as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. This research aims to identify and assess the issues related to the dangerous hazards of abandoned buildings as well as problems involved in restoring these historical structures in order to determine how severe the current situation is. This study was also carried out to better understand the reasons why owners decide to leave heritage buildings unoccupied to the point that they became unsafe to inhabit. A total of six case studies were carried out with data collection focusing on the historical background of each site, clarification of the causes of neglect to each heritage building and plans made by respective owners towards the future of their properties. The majority of relevant information was gathered through semi-structured interviews.

  8. GROWING NIPA PALM FOR RESTORATION OF ABANDONED SHRIMP PONDS

    Noparat Bamroongrugsa; Chorthip Purintavarakul

    2006-01-01

    Rapid increase in the production of marine shrimps in the coastal zone has resulted in large - scale conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp ponds. Productions of the shrimps in some regions have been unstable. Consequently, a number of ponds are left idle. Restoring environmental conditions within the pond site by planting a suitable mangrove species considered an option. The experiment herein was carried out to explore the effect of planting methods on growth of Nipa palm in abandoned shrimp ponds in the Southern Thailand. Economically, coastal villagers in this area earn their income from the palm in several ways, the most importantly in Nipa sugar production. Most seedlings were planted on top of furrows were constructed in the pond to avoid flooding, except for some seedlings which were planted in the pond base where additional pond sludge were slightly filled up to compare their growth rates. The results showed that planting seedlings with attached rhizomes had the best growth rate and without seedling death at 14 months after planting. At this stage, however, the height of seedlings grown from the fallen fruits was similar to those growth from bare rooted seedlings (70 cm tall). Also, seedling mortality was not observed when growth from fallen fruits whereas about6% mortality was experienced by the bare rooted ones. Among the bare rooted seedling treatments, however no significant differences in growth rates were found when applying the soil with chemical fertilizers or farm manure or liming with CaCO3. In addition, it was found that seedling growth measured at 40 months after planting for those growths in pond base was almost 100% greater than those grown on the furrows. Therefore, this finding may be applied for the restoration of abandoned shrimp ponds by growing Nipa palm.

  9. The detection and tracking of mine-water pollution from abandoned mines using electrical tomography

    Ogilvy, R.D.; Kuras, O.; B. Palumbo-Roe; Meldrum, P.I.; Wilkinson, P.B.; Chambers, J. E.; Klinck, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the environmental and societal impact of mining, particularly in the EU, where the environmental impacts of abandoned mine sites (spoil heaps and tailings) are now subject to the legally binding Water Framework and Mine Waste Directives. Traditional sampling to monitor the impact of mining on surface waters and groundwater is laborious, expensive and often unrepresentative. In particular, sparse and infrequent borehole sampling may fail to capture the...

  10. Restoration of Threatened Arable Weed Communities in Abandoned Mountainous Crop Fields

    Kohler, Florian; Vandenberghe, Charlotte; Imstepf, Ralph; Gillet, François

    2010-01-01

    Arable fields maintaining species-rich weed communities have almost disappeared from European mountain areas due to their abandonment or replacement by extensive grazing systems during the last decades. The restoration of arable weed communities have become an important issue in these habitats which have a large potential to contain rare and threatened (red-list) species. In a site in the Swiss Alps, formerly managed for crop production, we investigated in experimental plowed plots the 1-year...

  11. Soil organic carbon accumulation in afforested/abandoned arable fields in Taiwan

    Lin, Yi-Han; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Afforestation or abandonment of arable fields has been proposed as a way to increase terrestrial carbon storage and mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions. When the arable fields are afforested or abandoned, the accumulation in soil organic carbon (SOC) is a key pool to sequestrate carbon. However, high uncertainties still exist in the tropics and subtropics because of fast SOC turnover rates and variable land use managements in these areas. In this study, a total of eleven sites with afforested/abandoned age over 15 years and elevation ranging from 16 to 2,056 m were investigated. We examined the increments of SOC by comparing with the adjacent tilled (e.g. croplands) and non-tilled (e.g. tea plantation or orchards) fields in two sampling layers, 0 - 10 and 10 - 20 cm in depth. In addition, density fractionation of SOC was also conducted in order to differentiate SOC into light fraction, intra-aggregate fraction, and heavy fraction to gain more information about the mechanism of SOC sequestration. Our results indicated that the increments of SOC concentration and stock varied with elevation, land use management, and soil depth. For the sites with elevation below 500 m, the SOC concentration and stock in the abandoned fields were 14.3 ± 0.9 mg C g‑1 and 14.6 ± 4.6 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, and 10.2 ± 6.3 mg C g‑1and 6.4 ± 6.2 Mg C ha‑1 higher than the adjacent non-tilled fields for surface 0-10 cm. For the sites with elevation above 500 m, the SOC concentration in the abandoned arable fields were 22.8 ± 12.8 mg C g‑1 higher than the adjacent tilled fields, but the SOC stock might not be different due to high stone content in abandoned field. Moreover, the SOC concentration and stock in abandoned field were not different or even less than non-tilled fields where organic amendments were frequently applied. The increments of SOC for 10-20 cm soils were less evident than those for surface 0-10 cm soils, and the differences were

  12. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers. PMID:22933087

  13. Pediatric malignancies, treatment outcomes and abandonment of pediatric cancer treatment in Zambia.

    Jeremy S Slone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There exist significant challenges to the receipt of comprehensive oncologic treatment for children diagnosed with cancer in sub-Saharan Africa. To better define those challenges, we investigated treatment outcomes and risk factors for treatment abandonment in a cohort of children diagnosed with cancer at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH, the site of the only pediatric oncology ward in Zambia. METHODS: Using an established database, a retrospective cohort study was conducted of children aged 0-15 years admitted to the pediatric oncology ward between July 2008 and June 2010 with suspected cancer. Diagnosis, mode of diagnosis, treatment outcome, and risk factors for abandonment of treatment were abstracted from this database and clinical medical records. RESULTS: Among 162 children treated at the UTH during the study time period that met inclusion criteria, only 8.0% completed a treatment regimen with most of the patients dying during treatment or abandoning care. In multivariable analysis, shorter distance from home to the UTH was associated with a lower risk of treatment abandonment (Adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR]  = 0.48 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.97. Conversely maternal education less than secondary school was associated with increased risk for abandonment (aOR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.05-2.58. CONCLUSIONS: Despite availability of dedicated pediatric oncology treatment, treatment completion rates are poor, due in part to the logistical challenges faced by families, low educational status, and significant distance from the hospital. Alternative treatment delivery strategies are required to bring effective pediatric oncology care to the patients in need, as their ability to come to and remain at a central tertiary care facility for treatment is limited. We suggest that the extensive system now in place in most of sub-Saharan Africa that sustains life-long antiretroviral therapy for children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV

  14. Long-term effect of land use change on soil quality: Afforestation and land abandonment in semi-arid Spain

    Zethof, Jeroen; Cammeraat, Erik; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Soils under the Mediterranean climate are vulnerable for degradation, especially after land abandonment. Abandonment is an important factor in the Mediterranean landscape as vegetation regeneration is hampered due to the characteristic semi-arid and sub-humid Mediterranean climate regime. During the past 70 year extensive afforestation projects have been conducted with the aim to protect landscapes and soils against degradation. While large investments are still being made, little is known about the impact of afforestation on soil quality on a longer time scale. During the past decade, there is a growing interest in qualifying and quantifying the carbon storage in soils by such afforestation projects, to get a better understanding of the carbon cycle and look for possibilities to fixate atmospheric CO2 in the soil. It is generally accepted that afforestation projects will increase the soil carbon pool, but data on this process is scarce. Therefore an intensive fieldwork has been carried out in Murcia, southeastern Spain to study the effects of land abandonment and afforestation on soil quality along a chronosequence and included two afforested areas (from the early '70s and 1993). The Pinus halepensis trees were planted in rows, for which the underlying calcrete was broken. Samples were taken to study changes in soil quality (Aggregate stability, Corg, N, P, K, Na), Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) stocks and soil hydraulic properties, such as infiltration and water retention, between the afforestation projects, abandoned agricultural plots of similar age, semi-natural vegetation, cereal crop fields and almond orchards. As the natural vegetation is characterized by a spotted pattern of bare areas and trees, forming so-called "islands of fertility", both bare and vegetation covered sub-sites were sampled. First results showed a positive effect of both land abandonment and afforestation on the soil aggregation. Especially the 40-year-old plots showed underneath trees

  15. An Overview of the Antecedents and Consequences of Abandoned Residential Housing Projects in Malaysia – A solution from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective

    Mohd Hasyim Hj. Mumin; Fakhrul Anwar Zainol

    2015-01-01

    The issue of abandoned residential housing projects in Malaysia is a matter that should be given more importance in the country. This study aims to identify what are the causes, examine how it affects affected home buyers, and to suggest the solutions from Blue Ocean Strategy (BOS) Perspective. To achieve the goals, this study focused on reviewing relevant literatures and observing the site of abandoned housing projects. From the review of the literatures, the main objective is to find out wh...

  16. Incidence and Treatment Abandonment in Teen And Young Adult Cancers

    Prakash Chitalkar

    2016-03-01

    Results- On analyzing data of three years ,hematolymphoid malignancy(28% cases are the most common cases seen followed by Breast (10% and head and neck (10%,cervix(6%,CNS(5% ,Bone( 4%. 38% TYA cancer patients abandoned treatment . Telephonic tracking, financial support, counseling of whole family are methods employed in reducing abandonment. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 77-79

  17. Long-Term Forest Dynamics and Land-Use Abandonment in the Mediterranean Mountains, Corsica, France

    Almudena San Roman Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Human practices have had an impact on Mediterranean ecosystems for millennia, particularly through agricultural and pastoral activities. Since the mid-19th century, land-use abandonment has led to the expansion of shrubland and forest, especially in the mountainous areas of the northern Mediterranean basin. Knowledge of these factors is vital to understanding present forest patterns and predicting future forest dynamics in the Mediterranean mountains. We aimed to analyze and understand how land-use abandonment affected spatial modifications of landscapes in two study areas, 44,000 ha and 60,000 ha, located on the island of Corsica, France, representing a typical Mediterranean environment with chestnut forests. Our approach used land-cover archive documents from 1774, 1913, 1975, and 2000, and human population history, 1770 to present day, to describe landscape patterns following land-use abandonment. This research showed that dramatic changes in landscape at the two study areas were caused by the suspension of human influence and the interruption of traditional farming practices. Over the study period, both study sites showed significant reforestation of shrubland and cultivated areas marked by the presence of Quercus ilex forests (+3.40% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 and by Pinus pinaster (+3.00% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000 at one study site that had experienced heavy rural exodus. At the same time, areas containing chestnut forests decreased by 50% between 1774 and 2000 (-0.09% yr-1 between 1774 and 1975 and -1.42% yr-1 between 1975 and 2000. Shrubland expansion remained limited at both study sites. Our study highlights the value of small-scale approaches for understanding the ecological consequences of land-use abandonment and present and future land-management decisions. Discussion concludes on the importance of working with long-term series for studies on resilience in social-ecological systems and on the consequences in terms of provision of

  18. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY

    Gary Gartenberg, P.E., P.P.

    1999-10-01

    This report represents the fourth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government--Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. During this reporting period the Engineering Design for remediation of the surface safety hazards associated with the White Meadow Mine was completed. Construction Plans and Technical Specifications were completed and competitive bids were solicited by the Township for completion of the work. The electrical resistivity survey analysis and report was completed for the Green Pond Mines site at the Township Compost Storage Facility. The geophysical survey results confirmed evidence of abandoned mining activity at the Green Pond Mine site which was previously identified. During this reporting period, the time frame of the Cooperative Agreement between the Township and the Department of Energy was extended. An additional site of subsidence with in the Township related to abandoned

  19. A 12-year cavern abandonment test

    Brouard B.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1997-1998, an abandonment test was performed in a 950-m deep, 8000-m3 salt cavern operated by GDF SUEZ at Etrez, France. In this relatively small brine-filled cavern, which had been kept idle for 15 years before the test, thermal equilibrium was reached. A special system was designed to monitor leaks, which proved to be exceedingly small. In these conditions, brine permeation and cavern creep closure are the only factors to play significant roles in pressure evolution. This test strongly suggested that obtaining an equilibrium pressure such that the effects of these two factors were exactly equal would be reached in the long term. Four years later, pressure monitoring in the closed cavern resumed. Pressure evolution during the 2002-2009 period confirmed that cavern brine pressure will remain constant and significantly smaller than geostatic pressure in the long term, precluding any risk of fracturing and brine seepage to the overburden layers.

  20. Heavy metals biogeochemistry in abandoned mining areas

    Favas P. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants growing on the abandoned Portuguese mines, highly contaminated with W, Sn, As, Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb, have been studied for their biogeochemical indication/prospecting and mine restoration potential. The results of analysis show that the species best suited for biogeochemical indicating are: aerial tissues of Halimium umbellatum (L. Spach, for As and W; leaves of Erica arborea L. for Bi, Sn, W and mostly Pb; stems of Erica arborea L. for Pb; needles of Pinus pinaster Aiton and aerial tissues of Pteridium aquilinum (L. Kuhn for W; and leaves of Quercus faginea Lam. for Sn. The aquatic plant studied (Ranunculus peltatus Schrank can be used to decrease the heavy metals, and arsenic amounts into the aquatic environment affected by acid mine drainages.

  1. THE ESTIMATION OF DIMENSION AND FACTORS OF SCHOOL ABANDON

    Andreea Iluzia IACOB

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available During the transition period, in Romania, the dimension of school abandon had risen. The main goals of the study are: to estimate the school abandon rate by each educational level in Romania, to identify the factors which affect school abandon on urban and rural areas and at development regions level; to analyze the causes of earlier school abandon. In the same time, the analysis had also followed the temporal component, by including in the database the last decade statistical information. The school abandon was measured as the difference between the numbers of pupils/students found at the end of the school year and the same category enrolled at the beginning of the same year.

  2. Abandoning pipelines working group regulatory issues

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The history of hydrocarbon development in Louisiana and off its coast is one of the interdependence of technological innovation, entrepreneurial risk-taking, resource management, judicial decisions, legislation, marketing, employee good will, infrastructure and support services, coupled with favorable geologic structures that made early exploration and development relatively easy. Mariners sailing off the coast of Louisiana and Texas in the 1600`s recorded one of the earliest known natural oil seeps. They shrugged it off as unimportant, as there was no market for the substance they witnessed. The seepage, however, provided a tiny clue to the vast storehouse of hydrocarbons trapped in the earth`s crust extending from the uplands, through Louisiana`s swamps and marshes, and into the subaqueous habitats of the Gulf of Mexico-the world`s ninth largest body of water. In all cases, each move into a new geographic province required considerable change in operation philosophy and in the science supporting the exploration and development activity. As technology changed, or was developed to meet the industry`s needs, new frontiers were explored. However, with time-as is the case with any nonrenewable resource-fields and wells lost their productive life. They had to be abandoned. In fact, the Minerals Management Service suggests that within the next 10 years the offshore industry will remove 150 platforms per year, or nearly half of the current number of production units. The industry will be asked to dispose of nearly one unit every 2.4 days. If this is the case, abandonment issues are going to continue to surface.

  3. Restoration of contaminated soils in abandoned mine areas (Tuscany, Italy)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation have been nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, and have left on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including surface and groundwater, soils, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The main processes occurring at these sites are: rock disgregation, fragments migration, dust dispersion, oxidation (Eh>250mV), acidification (pHmine sites in Tuscany, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on representative soil profiles (Spolic Technosols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) overcoming legislation limits on average. Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. The results obtained suggest that the abandoned mine sites represent actual natural laboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, plants growing on these substrates are genetically adapted to metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution of natural parks in these areas could enhance their educational and scientific value, contributing in the meantime to general population amusement and recreation. Finally, it is the occasion for soil scientists to submit to the scientific community new classification proposals of this new kind of soils. Key-words: mine waste, heavy metals, phytoremediation, soil genesis, soil classification

  4. Rehabilitating mangrove ecosystem services: A case study on the relative benefits of abandoned pond reversion from Panay Island, Philippines.

    Duncan, Clare; Primavera, Jurgenne H; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Thompson, Julian R; Loma, Rona Joy A; Koldewey, Heather J

    2016-08-30

    Mangroves provide vital climate change mitigation and adaptation (CCMA) ecosystem services (ES), yet have suffered extensive tropics-wide declines. To mitigate losses, rehabilitation is high on the conservation agenda. However, the relative functionality and ES delivery of rehabilitated mangroves in different intertidal locations is rarely assessed. In a case study from Panay Island, Philippines, using field- and satellite-derived methods, we assess carbon stocks and coastal protection potential of rehabilitated low-intertidal seafront and mid- to upper-intertidal abandoned (leased) fishpond areas, against reference natural mangroves. Due to large sizes and appropriate site conditions, targeted abandoned fishpond reversion to former mangrove was found to be favourable for enhancing CCMA in the coastal zone. In a municipality-specific case study, 96.7% of abandoned fishponds with high potential for effective greenbelt rehabilitation had favourable tenure status for reversion. These findings have implications for coastal zone management in Asia in the face of climate change. PMID:27289287

  5. Abandoned PbZn mining wastes and their mobility as proxy to toxicity: A review.

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Mickus, Kevin; Camacho, Lucy Mar

    2016-09-15

    Lead and zinc (PbZn) mines are a common occurrence worldwide; and while approximately 240 mines are active, the vast majority have been abandoned for decades. Abandoned mining wastes represent a serious environmental hazard, as Pb, Zn and associated metals are continuously released into the environment, threatening the health of humans and affecting ecosystems. Iron sulfide minerals, when present, can form acid mine drainage and increase the toxicity by mobilizing the metals into more bioavailable forms. Remediation of the metal waste is costly and, in the case of abandoned wastes, the responsible party(ies) for the cleanup can be difficult to determine, which makes remediation a complex and lengthy process. In this review, we provide a common ground from a wide variety of investigations about concentrations, chemical associations, and potential mobility of Pb, Zn and cadmium (Cd) near abandoned PbZn mines. Comparing mobility results is a challenging task, as instead of one standard methodology, there are 4-5 different methods reported. Results show that, as a general consensus, the metal content of soils and sediments vary roughly around 1000mg/kg for Zn, 100 for Pb and 10 for Cd, and mobilities of Cd>Zn>Pb. Also, mobility is a function of pH, particle size, and formation of secondary minerals. New and novel remediation techniques continue to be developed in laboratories but have seldom been applied to the field. Remediation at most of the sites has consisted of neutralization (e.g. lime,) for acid mine discharge, and leveling followed by phytostabilization. In the latter, amendments (e.g. biochar, fertilizers) are added to boost the efficiency of the treatment. Any remediation method has to be tested before being implemented as the best treatment is site-specific. Potential treatments are described and compared. PMID:27179321

  6. Transfer Out Patient Not Abandon The Patient

    Deepak Gupta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Physician-patient relationship is unique in some aspects and not-so-unique in other aspects when compared to other human interactions. Until-unless for the sake of health promotional activities, this relationship is almost always conceived in the times of human sufferings and consequently culminated when those sufferings have subsided as well as sought out happiness has ensued/been achieved. However, not all physician-patient relationships follow the normal course and/or meet the natural ends. These abnormal relationships are not inconsequential in terms of numbers and/or their effects (short-term and long term on both patients and physicians. Every country has its own baggage in the wake of why, how and what about these abnormal ends to physician-patient relationships; however, the most common causes are the patients’ inability to pay their medical bills, the conflicting goals of physicians and their patients in regards to patients’ sufferings’ management and finally the behavioral issues (patients’ and/or physicians’ interfering these relationships. Irrespective of any cause, the physicians should never forget that the patient can always discharge their physicians and discontinue their relationship with their physicians without any reason (until unless the physicians deem those patients either incapable/non-consentable to do so and/or potential threat to their own personal safety or other people’s safety. Contrarily, physicians can also discharge patients from their care but cannot abandon these patients (1-3 which mean that physicians have to ensure their discharged patients either are referred to or have sought another physician within appropriate time frame post-relationship-discontinuation. Each country has their own medico-legal liabilities that vary in terms of penalties imposed; however, irrespective of the feared legal concerns, the physicians should not forget that ethical essence of medicine is the art of healing that

  7. Stability analysis of abandoned drift for alternative utilization

    Kim, Bo-Hyun; Yoo, In-Kol; Kim, Moon-Seob; Kim, Ryang-Hee [Korea Resources Corp., Seoul(Korea); Yang, Hyung-Sik [Chonnam National University, Kwangju(Korea); Lee, Hi-Keun [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Jae-Dong [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon(Korea)

    2000-04-30

    This study was performed to find the way that is alternative utilization of the drift that had been abandoned by coal industry promotion. To determine whether abandoned drift would be maintained without supports or not, the safety inspection that consists of drift survey, laboratory tests, rock mass classification and numerical analysis was performed. According to the result, there were discontinuity sets those had unfavorable orientation to the drift and rock mass around the drift had generally poor condition. So, it would be much difficult that abandoned drift is maintained without supports. (author). 15 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  8. How do soil properties and soil carbon stocks change after land abandonment in Mediterranean mountain areas?

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Cammeraat, Erik; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2016-04-01

    Land abandonment and subsequent revegetation processes (due to secondary succession and afforestation practices) are global issues with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Moreover, the effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions, and afforestation practices are increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and are considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. The MED-AFFOREST project aims to gain more insight into the discussion by exploring the following central research questions: (i) what is the impact of land abandonment on soil properties? and (ii) how do soil organic carbon change after land abandonment? The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil properties and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, meadows, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees were analysed. Results showed that changes in soil properties after land abandonment were limited, even if afforestation practices were carried out and no differences were observed between natural succession and afforestation. The results on SOC dynamics showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10 cm), (ii) when all the profile was considered no significant differences were observed between meadows and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) meadows should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration

  9. Mercury distribution in an abandoned metallurgical plant

    Millán R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to evaluate the spatial distribution of Hg in the soil-plant system within an area where intense activity of Hg was dominant over a long period. An abandoned metallurgical plant from the 17th-18th centuries was chosen as the study area. It is situated in Almadenejos within the Almadén mining district (Spain that constitutes the largest and most unusual concentration of mercury in the world and has provided a third of the entire world production of mercury (Hg. Nowadays, this study area is covered with cinnabar mine tailings and village habitants use it for livestock. The area has elevated Hg concentrations of natural origin and from human activities. Soil parameters are similar throughout the study area; however, data reveal high variability in total and available Hg concentrations in soils, making it difficult to establish a tendency. Marrubium vulgare L.has been studied due to its high presence in the field plot, and there is no evidence of phenological toxicity. Furthermore, in spite of elevated Hg concentrations, a good biological activity is tested in the soil samples. All these characteristics, spatial variation, high Hg concentration, good biological activity, enhance the peculiarity of the study area for studies involving Hg.

  10. 7 CFR 97.104 - Application or certificate abandoned.

    2010-01-01

    ... 97.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY... abandoned certificates shall be published in the Official Journal, indicating that the variety has...

  11. Abandoned mines at Little Pend Oreille National Wildlife Refuge

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of the study were: 1 Determine whether abandoned mines on LPO were impacting aquatic biota, 2 Determine whether mines were safety or liability...

  12. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  13. Object-Based Classification of Abandoned Logging Roads under Heavy Canopy Using LiDAR

    Jason Sherba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR-derived slope models may be used to detect abandoned logging roads in steep forested terrain. An object-based classification approach of abandoned logging road detection was employed in this study. First, a slope model of the study site in Marin County, California was created from a LiDAR derived DEM. Multiresolution segmentation was applied to the slope model and road seed objects were iteratively grown into candidate objects. A road classification accuracy of 86% was achieved using this fully automated procedure and post processing increased this accuracy to 90%. In order to assess the sensitivity of the road classification to LiDAR ground point spacing, the LiDAR ground point cloud was repeatedly thinned by a fraction of 0.5 and the classification procedure was reapplied. The producer’s accuracy of the road classification declined from 79% with a ground point spacing of 0.91 to below 50% with a ground point spacing of 2, indicating the importance of high point density for accurate classification of abandoned logging roads.

  14. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman; Chen Wang; Nur Hamizah Ariffin

    2015-01-01

    Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and ...

  15. Brent spar experience haunts N. Sea platform abandonments

    This paper reviews the environmental conflicts that oil and gas industry officials have recently encountered in their attempts to abandon offshore platforms. It reviews the various governmental policies which are in effect in the North Sea area and the effect these policies have had on removal or deepsea disposal of these facilities. It provides a prospectus of soon to be abandoned facilities in the North Sea countries and a summary of removal operations in recent history

  16. Investigation on Health Effects of an Abandoned Metal Mine

    Kim, Soyeon; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Choi, Kyungho; Jang, Jae-Yeon; Jeong, Woo-Chul; Kim, Dae-Seon; Yu, Seungdo; Kim, Young-Wook; Lee, Kwang-Young; Yang, Seoung-Oh; Jhung, Ik Jae; Yang, Won-Ho; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2008-01-01

    To investigate potential health risks associated with exposure to metals from an abandoned metal mine, the authors studied people living near an abandoned mine (n=102) and control groups (n=149). Levels of cadmium, copper, arsenic, lead, and zinc were measured in the air, soil, drinking water, and agricultural products. To assess individual exposure, biomarkers of each metal in blood and urine were measured. β2-microglobulin, α1-microglobulin, and N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase and bone minera...

  17. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado; Karine Franklin Assis; Fabiana de Cássia Carvalho Oliveira; Andréia Queiroz Ribeiro; Raquel Maria Amaral Araújo; Alexandre Faisal Cury; Silvia Eloiza Priore; Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied...

  18. Free and protected soil organic carbon dynamics respond differently to abandonment of mountain grassland

    S. Meyer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Land-use change (LUC and management are among the major driving forces of soil carbon (C storage. Abandonment of mountain grassland promotes accumulation of aboveground biomass and litter, but related responses of soil organic matter (SOM dynamics are uncertain. To determine SOM-C turnover we sampled 0–10 cm of soils along land-use gradients (hay meadows, grazed pastures and abandoned grasslands in the European Alps varying in management intensity at Stubai Valley (MAT: 3 °C, P: 1097 mm in Austria and Matsch Valley (MAT: 6.6 °C, P: 527 mm in Italy. We determined C input and decomposition rates of labile water-floatable and free particulate organic matter (wPOM, fPOM <1.6 g cm−3 and stable aggregate-occluded particulate and mineral-associated organic matter (oPOM <1.6 g cm−3, mOM >1.6 g cm−3 using bomb radiocarbon.

    At both sites C turnover decreased from w- and fPOM (4–8 yr to oPOM (76–142 yr to mOM (142–250 yr. Following abandonment C input pathways shifted from root-derived towards litter-derived C. The decomposition rates of labile wPOM-C declined with a decrease in litter quality, while both C input and C decomposition rates of labile fPOM increased with an increase in litter quantity. In contrast, protected stable SOM-C (oPOM-C, mOM-C dynamics remained relatively unaffected by grassland abandonment. Carbon accumulation rates of labile POM fractions decreased strongly with time since LUC (10, 25 and 36 yr. For wPOM-C, for example, it decreased from 7.45 ± 0.99 to 2.18 ± 1.06 to 0.82 ± 0.21 g C m−2 yr−1. At both sites, most C was sequestered in the first years after LUC and labile SOM fractions reached new steady state within 20–40 yr.

    We concluded that w-and fPOM-C vs. oPOM-C dynamics respond differently to grassland management change and thus POM does not represent a homogeneous SOM fraction. Sequestered C is stored in the labile readily

  19. Railroad Lines - RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN: Active and Abandoned Rail System in Indiana, 2005 (Indiana Department of Transportation, 1:1200, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — RAIL_SYSTEM_ACTIVE_ABANDONED_INDOT_IN is a line shapefile that contains all active and abandoned rail lines in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana Department...

  20. Characterization and phytoremediation of abandoned contaminated mining area in Portugal by INAA

    This study aims to find out a vascular plant species that accumulate relatively high concentrations of arsenic (As) for its use as phytoremediator at abandoned and contaminated mining areas, such as Sao Domingos mines (Portugal). The assessment of As contamination levels in soils and plants of other similar sites in the north of the country (Castromil and Poco de Freitas) was also conducted; and the sample analyses were made by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Agrostis genera have shown higher As transfer coefficients than other studied plant species and, in particular, Agrostis curtisii has shown a reasonable ability to accumulate high concentration of this toxic element. (author)

  1. Who Says There Is No Life after Abandonment? A Grounded Theory on the Coping of Abandoned Filipino Elderly in Nursing Homes

    de Guzman, Allan B.; Lacorte, Jeremy C.; Lacsamana, Andrea Keith G.; Lagac, Mark Lawrence M.; Laguador, Jobel M.; Lapid, Jazminn Jessica R.; Lee, Lyndcie Miriele C.

    2012-01-01

    Cases of abandoned elderly are increasing worldwide. By and large, this group struggles with the sudden change in living arrangement as well as abandonment by their families. Consequently, many elderly are forced into living in nursing homes for the remainder of their lives. Abandonment among these elderly negatively affects how they view…

  2. Population and community profiles of small mammals inhabiting an abandoned oil refinery

    Mark-recapture techniques were used to assess population and community dynamics of resident small mammals on three contaminated and three reference sites located on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Contaminated sites included areas adjacent to oil sludge containment and sedimentation pits and a land farm for treating oily sludges. Reference sites were selected based on their ecological similarity to contaminated sites. Small mammals were trapped from January 1991 to August 1992 at eight week intervals except during summer and winter during which traps were checked at 3 week intervals. Diversity was typically highest on toxic sites due primarily to the presence of house mice (Mus musculus). Similarity in small mammal community composition between sites differed most in summer. Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were the most abundant species on all sites. Reproductive activity of adult female cotton rats and survival of trappable cotton rats did not differ between sites. However, minimum number known alive and recruitment of juveniles was highest on references sites, indicating that in-utero and neonatal survival may differ between reference and contaminated sites

  3. 棕地地下水污染修复技术筛选方法研究——以某废弃化工厂污染场地为例%Screening process of brownfield site groundwater remedial technologies:a case study of an abandoned chemical factory contaminated site

    李玮; 王明玉; 韩占涛; 张敏; 刘丽雅

    2016-01-01

    科学合理的地下水污染修复技术筛选方法对于有效修复受污染地下水体、节约修复工程成本、保护地下水资源、维护生态系统安全和人体健康具有重要意义.以某化工厂遗址早期排污渗坑为目标污染源,在结合水文地质勘查和地下水人体健康风险评价的基础上确定场地受污染地下水修复目标污染物,根据污染物迁移性、降解性、人体健康风险等指标及抽出处理、化学修复、生物修复、渗透反应格栅等地下水污染修复技术特点,使用偏好顺序结构评估法(PROMETHEE)进行修复技术筛选.结果显示,该场地地下水中主要污染物为1,2-二氯乙烷、1,4-二氯苯等有机污染物,其中1,2-二氯乙烷在呼吸吸入条件下的最大致癌风险达9.54×10-7.化学清除、监测自然衰减等四项技术适用于该场地地下水1,2-二氯乙烷修复,化学清除法综合排序分值最高,而在成本优先控制条件下,监测自然衰减技术更为适宜.研究对于我国场地地下水污染调查评估及修复工作具有积极的参考意义.%Scientific and reasonable screening method of groundwater pollution remediation technologies is of great importance to efficient remediate the polluted groundwater,saving remediation program cost and groundwater resource and ecology and human health protection.Considered as a target pollution source,hydrological survey combined with groundwater pollution human health risk were conducted in a discarded chemical factory site with a drain contamination pool,and PROMETHEE method was used to screen efficient technologies for local groundwater pollution remediation based on pollutants characteristics such as migration,degradation and human health risk,and technologies applicability analysis among pump & treat,chemical reduction,bioremediation and permeable reactive barriers,etc.Study results suggested that local groundwater was polluted by organic pollutants such as 1,2-DCA

  4. Land contamination and soil evolution in abandoned mine areas (Italy)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Spiandorello, Massimo

    2014-05-01

    In Italy ore research and exploitation are nearly exhausted since the end of the last century, leaving on the land a huge amount of mine waste, therefore provoking evident environmental damage including landscape, vegetation and the food chain, and a potential threat to human health. The increasing environmental consciousness of general population compelled Public Administrators to set down effective legislation acts on this subject (e.g. D.L. 152/2006), and more generally on environmental contamination. In this work we present the results of a survey carried out at several mixed sulphides mine sites in Italy, exploited for at least a millennium, and closed in the '60s of the last century. Biogeochemical analyses carried out on 50 soil profiles (mostly Entisols and Inceptisols) and vegetation in the proximal and distal areas of ore exploitation show metal concentrations overcoming legislation limits on average (Cu up to 3160 mg kg-1 , Pb up to 23600 mg kg-1, Zn up to 1588 mg kg-1, Fe up to 52,30 %). Ni, Cr and Mn concentrations, instead, are generally below the reference levels. Metal concentrations in native vegetation of the examined areas are moderately to highly elevated. Significant amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn in roots of Plantago major and Silene dioica, in leaves of Taraxacum officinale, and Salix spp, have been recorded. Essential elements, in particular, present Translocation Coefficients (TC) >1, with Mn>Zn>Cu>Fe. Toxic elements (Cd, Cr, Pb), instead, present TCplants, according to their role in mineral nutrition. The results obtained suggest the abandoned mine sites to represent actual natural aboratories where to experiment new opportunities for restoration of anthropogenically contaminated areas, and to study new pedogenetic trends from these peculiar parent materials. Moreover, the examined plants are genetically adapted to naturally metal-enriched soils, and therefore may be utilized in phytoremediation of contaminated sites. Furthermore, the institution

  5. Seasonal energy storage using bioenergy production from abandoned croplands

    Bioenergy has the unique potential to provide a dispatchable and carbon-negative component to renewable energy portfolios. However, the sustainability, spatial distribution, and capacity for bioenergy are critically dependent on highly uncertain land-use impacts of biomass agriculture. Biomass cultivation on abandoned agriculture lands is thought to reduce land-use impacts relative to biomass production on currently used croplands. While coarse global estimates of abandoned agriculture lands have been used for large-scale bioenergy assessments, more practical technological and policy applications will require regional, high-resolution information on land availability. Here, we present US county-level estimates of the magnitude and distribution of abandoned cropland and potential bioenergy production on this land using remote sensing data, agriculture inventories, and land-use modeling. These abandoned land estimates are 61% larger than previous estimates for the US, mainly due to the coarse resolution of data applied in previous studies. We apply the land availability results to consider the capacity of biomass electricity to meet the seasonal energy storage requirement in a national energy system that is dominated by wind and solar electricity production. Bioenergy from abandoned croplands can supply most of the seasonal storage needs for a range of energy production scenarios, regions, and biomass yield estimates. These data provide the basis for further down-scaling using models of spatially gridded land-use areas as well as a range of applications for the exploration of bioenergy sustainability. (letter)

  6. How to find abandoned oil and gas wells

    Johnston, K.H.; Carroll, H.B.; Heemstra, R.J.; Armstrong, F.E.

    1973-01-01

    This guide was written to furnish the coal industry with a description of techniques, instruments, and clues on how to find abandoned oil and gas wells that have penetrated coal seams. The report includes specific information on searching techniques currently in use by several coal mining companies, gas-transmission companies, and waterflood operators, as well as information on State agencies responsible for the enforcement of laws and the preservation and distribution of data pertaining to the drilling, development, and abandonment of oil and gas wells. Comparative tests were performed with several commercial electronic metal detectors to determine the feasibility of using them to aid in the search for abandoned wells and to determine the instrument most suited for that particular use. The role of methane detectors to locate abandoned wells is described, including a case history. Tests were made to develop an efficient procedure to follow in systematically searching an area for metallic clues or hydrocarbon evidence to abandoned wells. The guide describes, in detail, a search sequence, including the collection of basic data, preparation of the selected area, and the physical search. Methods are given for evaluating the results. (auth)

  7. Factors associated with abandonment of infants born to HIV positive women: results from a Ukrainian birth cohort

    Bailey, Heather; Semenenko, Igor; Pilipenko, Tatyana; Malyuta, Ruslan; Thorne, Claire

    2010-01-01

    Social marginalisation and other challenges facing HIV-positive pregnant women in Ukraine may put them at increased risk of relinquishing their infants to the state. We described rates of infant abandonment (exclusive non-parental care to most recent follow up, censored at two years of age) and investigated associated factors using logistic regression models, in 4759 mother-infant pairs enrolled across six Ukrainian sites in the European Collaborative Study from 2000 to May 2009. Median mater...

  8. Assessment of environmental implications of abandoned oil and gas wells

    A detailed study was made of the potential for abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa sand of Mississippi and Louisiana to act as conduits for movement of saline water from the Lower Tuscaloosa into underground sources of drinking water (USDW's). Finite-difference numerical modeling determined the extent that water might be forced from the Lower Tuscaloosa sand into a USDW as a result of injection into the Lower Tuscaloosa. Within the range of conditions modeled, water from the Lower Tuscaloosa never traveled into a USDW. On the basis of the modeling, the authors concluded that it is unlikely that abandoned oil and gas wells in the Lower Tuscaloosa would serve as conduits for water movement from the trend into a USDW. The procedures developed in this study should be readily applicable to analysis of the potential for abandoned wells to act as pathways for contaminant flow into USDW's in other oil and gas producing areas of the country

  9. ENERGY TRANSPORT AND POTENTIAL OF AN ABANDONED MINE

    BÉLA ILLÉS; JÁNOS ZSUGA; ANIKÓ TÓTH

    2012-01-01

    In the „70s an important copper ore mine was implemented in Recsk, Northern Hungary. Unfortunately as soon as the use of the roadways were finished the activities were suspended, because the decreasing price of the copper on the international market. The mine then was abandoned the roadways and the shafts were flooded by mine water. The abandoned mine has a substantial geothermal potential. The terrestrial heat flow is anomalously high: 0.108 W/m2, the temperature is 59.5 0C at the lower leve...

  10. Mapping abandoned agriculture with multi-temporal MODIS satellite data

    Alcantara, Camilo; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Prishchepov, Alexander;

    2012-01-01

    agriculture was widespread. Input data included Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and reflectance bands (NASA Global MODIS Terra and Aqua 16-Day Vegetation Indices for the years 2003 through 2008, ~250-m resolution), as well as phenology metrics calculated with TIMESAT. The data were classified...... with Support Vector Machines (SVM). Training data were derived from several Landsat classifications of agricultural abandonment in the study area. A validation was conducted based on independently collected data. Our results showed that it is possible to map abandoned agriculture for large areas from MODIS...

  11. Biomass and Volume Yield in Mature Hybrid Poplar Plantations on Temperate Abandoned Farmland

    Benoit Truax

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed clone-specific allometric relationships, with the objective of calculating volume and biomass production after 13 years in 8 poplar plantations, located across an environmental gradient, and composed of 5 unrelated hybrid poplar clones. Allometry was found to be very similar for clones MxB-915311, NxM-3729 and DNxM-915508, all having P. maximoviczii parentage. Clones DxN-3570 and TxD-3230 also had a similar allometry; for a given DBH they have a lower stem volume, stem biomass and branch biomass than P. maximoviczii hybrids. Strong Site × Clone interactions were observed for volume and woody biomass growth, with DxN and TxD hybrids only productive on low elevation fertile sites, whereas P. maximovizcii hybrids were also very productive on higher elevation sites with moderate to high soil fertility. At the site level (5 clones mean, yield reached 27.5 and 22.7 m3/ha/yr. on the two best sites (high fertility and low elevation, confirming the great potential of southern Québec (Canada for poplar culture. The productivity gap between the most and least productive sites has widened from year 8 to year 13, highlighting the need for high quality abandoned farmland site selection in terms of climate and soil fertility. Although clone selection could optimize yield across the studied environmental gradient, it cannot fully compensate for inadequate site selection.

  12. Worker and environmental protection issues in the remediation of an abandoned source manufacturing facility.

    Hoffman, Daniel E

    2003-02-01

    The Gulf Nuclear Superfund Site located in Odessa, Texas, was an abandoned radioactive source production facility slated for cleanup as a Removal Action under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region VI Superfund program. Prior to cessation of operations and abandonment of the facility in 1992, it was used for the production of radioactive sources used in the oil and gas industry and nuclear medicine applications. Pangea Group was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Kansas City District to perform remediation of the site and other contaminated debris, cleaning of interior building surfaces, building demolition, and excavation/removal of contaminated soils and septic system. The project scope also included loading, containerization and transportation of low-level radioactive wastes for offsite disposal. Primary radionuclides present at the facility were 137Cs, 60Co, and 241Am. The project also included packaging and removal of radioactive sources and mixed waste consisting of radiologically contaminated lead shot and lead source containers. Included in the paper is a discussion of primary worker protection and environmental protection measures employed on the project. Worker protection issues included the control of industrial and construction safety hazards as well as control of external and internal radiation dose. Control of air emissions and contaminated wastewater were also very important, especially due to the location of the site. The site was located in an area containing both residential and commercial properties. Several residences and businesses were located immediately adjacent to the site. The project involved the participation of the USACE Kansas City District, EPA Region 6, and the Texas Bureau of Radiological Health. Field work on the project started in April 2001 and was completed approximately five months later. PMID:12564344

  13. 78 FR 9803 - Tennessee Abandoned Mine Land Program

    2013-02-12

    ... Program; Part 879, Management and Disposition of Lands and Water; Part 882, Reclamation on Private Land..., Management, and Disposition of Lands and Water. This section is also in conformity with the Tennessee Code... program in full, effective October 1, 1984. See 49 FR 38874. Abandoned Mine Lands Program (Title...

  14. Into the Woods Again: Three Recent Young Adult Novels of Parental Abandonment.

    Munde, Gail

    1997-01-01

    Takes a look at three recent young adult novels that are stories of children abandoned by their parents, and shows how each retains the essential features of the Hansel and Gretel folktale, a prototype of abandonment stories. (SR)

  15. Reconstruction of Jinghua abandoned railway station

    Yang, Guang; 楊光

    2015-01-01

    Old Jinghua railway station is one well-preserved part of Hangjiang Line. It needs to be preserved for the following reasons. Firstly is the history factor that it is the first railway station that designed and built by Chinese in south of china. What is more, Jinghua railway station make great contribution during the anti Japanese war. Secondly, the location of this site is very unique. It is located in the central of Jinghua city and near the connection point of Wu river, wuyi river and Yiw...

  16. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    1993-12-10

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices.

  17. Abandoned Mine Waste Working Group report

    The Mine Waste Working Group discussed the nature and possible contributions to the solution of this class of waste problem at length. There was a consensus that the mine waste problem presented some fundamental differences from the other classes of waste addresses by the Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT) working groups. Contents of this report are: executive summary; stakeholders address the problems; the mine waste program; current technology development programs; problems and issues that need to be addressed; demonstration projects to test solutions; conclusion-next steps; and appendices

  18. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day-1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  19. The study of DDT in contaminated soil of abandoned DDT factory area of Amangarh Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT) is an organo chlorine insecticide mainly used to control mosquito borne diseases and agricultural pests worldwide, including Pakistan. For DDT production a factory was established in 1963 in Amangargh, Nowshehra, KP. Although DDT production and its applications in agriculture have been banned since long and as a result the mentioned factory has also abandoned yet there remains extensive amount of DDT and contaminated sites are still releasing DDT to the environment. As a matter of fact even small amounts of DDT can affect a variety of organisms like small microorganisms, algae and plankton. DDT also causes many problems in fish, birds, mammals and somehow Human Beings. This research examined the soil's DDT concentration and its transformation at various depths of study site. The DDT from each soil sample was extracted using simply solvent extraction method. The residual DDT level found in almost all the soil samples taken was greater than the standard limit (< 17 mgKg/sup -1/). (author)

  20. Public views of reclaiming an abandoned coal mine: the Macoupin County project

    Bernard, J. R.

    1980-07-01

    An abandoned underground coal mine waste area in Macoupin County, Illinois, has been reclaimed for demonstration and research purposes near the city of Staunton. According to federal law, end uses of reclaimed coal mines must be determined in part by local concerns. This study examined local residents' preferences for land uses and their social and economic evaluations of reclamation at the Macoupin County site. Personal interviews with 119 residents revealed preferences for recreational use of the demonstration area; however, responses were probably influenced by prior awareness of land-use intentions. Generally, very positive evaluations of the reclamation were received. Willingness to pay for reclamation appears to be linked to fulfillment of desired recreational uses on the site and socioeconomic status of the respondent. In general, the research results provide further evidence that the value of abatement of environmental damage from mining is recognized and supported in economic terms at the public level.

  1. Determinants of the exclusive breastfeeding abandonment: psychosocial factors

    Mariana Campos Martins Machado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess the determinants of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. METHODS Longitudinal study based on a birth cohort in Viçosa, MG, Southeastern Brazil. In 2011/2012, 168 new mothers accessing the public health network were followed. Three interviews, at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum, with the new mothers were conducted. Exclusive breastfeeding abandonment was analyzed in the first, second, and fourth months after childbirth. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was applied to identify depressive symptoms in the first and second meetings, with a score of ≥ 12 considered as the cutoff point. Socioeconomic, demographic, and obstetric variables were investigated, along with emotional conditions and the new mothers’ social network during pregnancy and the postpartum period. RESULTS The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding abandonment at 30, 60, and 120 days postpartum was 53.6% (n = 90, 47.6% (n = 80, and 69.6% (n = 117, respectively, and its incidence in the fourth month compared with the first was 48.7%. Depressive symptoms and traumatic delivery were associated with exclusive breastfeeding abandonment in the second month after childbirth. In the fourth month, the following variables were significant: lower maternal education levels, lack of homeownership, returning to work, not receiving guidance on breastfeeding in the postpartum period, mother’s negative reaction to the news of pregnancy, and not receiving assistance from their partners for infant care. CONCLUSIONS Psychosocial and sociodemographic factors were strong predictors of early exclusive breastfeeding abandonment. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and provide early treatment to nursing mothers with depressive symptoms, decreasing the associated morbidity and promoting greater duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Support from health professionals, as well as that received at home and at work, can assist in this process.

  2. Dynamics of phosphorus fractions after land-use abandonment in relation to carbon, nitrogen, and microbial community composition

    Spohn, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Former agricultural land-use has strong legacy effects on biogeochemical cycles as well as on plant and microbial community composition in secondary ecosystems. Since many forests and grasslands have previously been cultivated it is important to understand long-term effects of former arable land use on these ecosystems. We studied the temporal dimension of the impact of former agricultural land use on soil total organic C (TOC), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) fractions, and microbial community structure in two chronosequences of abandoned vineyards, differing in exposition and slope. We found that more TOC accumulated in soils of south- than in southwest-exposed sites, which can be attributed to the drier microclimate that decreases organic matter decomposition. TOC concentrations were significantly positive correlated with total nitrogen (TN) concentrations (R=0.99, pslow depletion of P from the soil organic matter (SOM) after cessation of cultivation. This suggests that SOM is an effective intermediate storage of fertilizer-derived P, which slowly releases P. In contrast, labile P concentrations decreased quickly during the first 25 years of land use-abandonment. A linear relation between microbial C and TOC (R=0.83, pfertilizer-derived P, which slowly releases P, but still contains high amounts of P even more than 100 years after land-use abandonment. This has important implications for conservation management as it shows that organic P stocks have to be taken into account for estimating the development potentials of formerly cultivated sites for plant conservation.

  3. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Alexandra Gulachenski; Ghersi, Bruno M.; Amy E. Lesen; Michael J Blum

    2016-01-01

    Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission...

  4. Factors associated with succession of abandoned agricultural lands along the Lower Missouri River, U.S.A

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Gallagher, M.; Young, N.; Rohweder, J.J.; Knutson, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    The 1993 flood of the Missouri River led to the abandonment of agriculture on considerable land in the floodplain. This abandonment led to a restoration opportunity for the U.S. Federal Government, purchasing those lands being sold by farmers. Restoration of this floodplain is complicated, however, by an imperfect understanding of its past environmental and vegetative conditions. We examined environmental conditions associated with the current placement of young forests and wet prairies as a guide to the potential successional trajectory for abandoned agricultural land subject to flooding. We used Bayesian mixed-effects logistic regression to examine the effects of flood frequency, soil drainage, distance from the main channel, and elevation on whether a site was in wet prairie or in forest. Study site was included as a random effect, controlling for site-specific differences not measured in our study. We found, after controlling for the effect of site, that early-successional forest sites were closer to the river and at a lower elevation but occurred on drier soils than wet prairie. In a regulated river such as the lower Missouri River, wet prairie sites are relatively isolated from the main channel compared to early-successional forest, despite occurring on relatively moister soils. The modeled results from this study may be used to predict the potential successional fate of the acquired agricultural lands, and along with information on wildlife assemblages associated with wet prairie and forest can be used to predict potential benefit of these acquisitions to wildlife conservation. ?? 2009 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal propagules in soils from a tropical forest and an abandoned cornfield in Quintana Roo, Mexico: visual comparison of most-probable-number estimates.

    Ramos-Zapata, José A; Guadarrama, Patricia; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge; Orellana, Roger

    2011-02-01

    The present study was aimed at comparing the number of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) propagules found in soil from a mature tropical forest and that found in an abandoned cornfield in Noh-Bec Quintana Roo, Mexico, during three seasons. Agricultural practices can dramatically reduce the availability and viability of AMF propagules, and in this way delay the regeneration of tropical forests in abandoned agricultural areas. In addition, rainfall seasonality, which characterizes deciduous tropical forests, may strongly influence AMF propagules density. To compare AMF propagule numbers between sites and seasons (summer rainy, winter rainy and dry season), a "most probable number" (MPN) bioassay was conducted under greenhouse conditions employing Sorgum vulgare L. as host plant. Results showed an average value of 3.5 ± 0.41 propagules in 50 ml of soil for the mature forest while the abandoned cornfield had 15.4 ± 5.03 propagules in 50 ml of soil. Likelihood analysis showed no statistical differences in MPN of propagules between seasons within each site, or between sites, except for the summer rainy season for which soil from the abandoned cornfield had eight times as many propagules compared to soil from the mature forest site for this season. Propagules of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi remained viable throughout the sampling seasons at both sites. Abandoned areas resulting from traditional slash and burn agriculture practices involving maize did not show a lower number of AMF propagules, which should allow the establishment of mycotrophic plants thus maintaining the AMF inoculum potential in these soils. PMID:20714755

  6. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Manuel Gómez-López

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that university students abandon a healthy lifestyle mainly due to external barriers particularly because of lack of time. On the one hand, women appear to be the ones who, to a great extent, adopt a sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, men are the ones who refer more to abandoning the practice of physical activity due to internal barriers. The majority of the university students gave up practicing sport before entering university alluding to external barriers as their reason for the abandonment. A greater part of the sedentary university students expressing that they will be active in the future, left the practice of sport due to internal barriers.

  7. Shot to Death: The Fate of Abandoned Places in the Hands of Artists

    Nezaket Tekin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the use of abandoned places by photographers. I review this subject from a perspective of remembering and forgetting. Giving examples of artists, especially photographer’s works whose subjects are abandoned places in Izmir and Detroit, I interpret photographs of abandoned places in the context of hauntology and ghost-metaphors.

  8. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  9. Lichens of abandoned zinc-lead mines

    Urszula Bielczyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A list of lichens from areas of zinc-lead ores in Southern Poland and a review of the characteristic lichen biota of these sites is provided. In spite of the devastated and heavy metal contaminated environment, a highly diverse epigeic and epilithic lichen biota was found, including species characteristic of various anthropogenic habitats, particularly zinc and lead enriched substrates (Diploschistes muscorum, Steinia geophana, Sarcosagium campestre, Vezdaea aestivalis and V. leprosa. Also, the high-mountain species Leucocarpia biatorella, as well as very rare in Europe Thelocarpon imperceptum, and several species categorized as very rare, endangered and protected in Poland were recorded. Crustose lichens are the most abundant; among fruticose forms Cladonia spp. predominate and Stereocaulon incrustatum is common.

  10. Effect of biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperature on the soil respiration of abandoned mine soil

    Kim, Yong Seong; Kim, Juhee; Hwang, Wonjae; Hyun, Seunghun

    2015-04-01

    Contaminated soils near an abandoned mine site included the high acidic mine tailing have received great interest due to potential risk to human health, because leachable elements in low pH continuously release from mine site soil with ground water and precipitation event. Biochar, which is the obtained pyrolysis process of biomass, is used as a soil amendments and carbon storage. Especially, many researchers report that the biochar application to soil show increasing soil pH, CEC, adsorption capacity of various elements, as well as, enhanced microbial activity. Therefore, biochar application to contaminated soil near abandoned mine site is expected to have a positive effects on management of these site and soils through the decreased leachability of contaminants. However, effects of biochar application to these site on the soil respiration, as a common measure of soil health, are poorly understood. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of biochar application to abandoned mine site soil on the microbial activity with soil respiration test. Biochar was obtained from giant Miscanthus in a slow pyrolysis process (heating rate of 10° C min-1 and N2 gas flow rate of 1.2 L min-1) at the temperature of 400° C (BC4) and 700° C (BC7), respectively. All biochar samples were prepared with grinding and sieving for particle size control (150~500μm). Soil sample was collected from abandoned mine site at Korea (36° 58'N, 128° 10'E). Main contaminants of this soil were As (12.5 g kg-1), Pb (7.3 g kg-1), and Zn (1.1 g kg-1). Biochars were applied (5% by dry weight) to the soil (final mixture weight were 800g), and then moisture contents were adjusted to 100% field capacity (-0.33 bar) in the respirometer with vacuum pump. CO2 efflux of each samples was continuously assessed using continuous aeration system (air flow rate 25 cc min-1) using air cylinder during 130hr (at 20° C and darkness condition). The CO2 emitted from the samples were carried to the

  11. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  12. A case study of a large open pit uranium AML [Abandoned Mine Land] Project Gas Hills, Wyoming

    The Abandoned Mine Lands Program (AML), authorized under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides funding for the abatement of health and safety hazards on lands disturbed by mining prior to enactment of the Act. A good example of the implementation of the AML Program in Wyoming is the A-8 Pit. The reclamation site is located in the East Gas Hills Uranium Mining District of Wyoming. Reclamation activities include selective handling of 3.5 million cubic yards of backfill, controlling pit dewatering and water treatment, installing second order drainage channel and riprap control structures, and salvaging sufficient coversoils and topsoils for site revegetation

  13. Development of a low-cost cableless geophone and its application in a micro-seismic survey at an abandoned underground coal mine

    Dai, Kaoshan; Li, Xiaofeng; Lu, Chuan; You, Qingyu; Huang, Zhenhua; Wu, H. Felix

    2015-04-01

    Due to the urbanization in China, some building construction sites are planned on areas above abandoned underground mines, which pose a concern for the stability of these sites and a critical need for the use of reliable site investigations. The array-based surface wave method has the potential for conducting large-scale field surveys at areas above underground mines. However, the dense deployment of conventional geophones requires heavy digital cables. On the other hand, the bulky and expensive standard stand-alone seismometers limit the number of stations for the array-based surface wave measurements. Therefore, this study developed a low-cost cableless geophone system for the array-based surface wave survey. A field case study using this novel cableless geophone system was conducted at an abandoned underground mine site in China to validate its functionality.

  14. Effluent water quality and the ochre deposit characteristics of the abandoned Smolnik mine, East Slovakia

    This paper presents the results of a 20-year survey of selected physical and chemical parameters of mine drainage and associated stream sediments at the abandoned Smolnik deposit (East Slovakia). The Smolnik mine was in operation intermittently from the 14th century for Au, Ag, Cu, Fe and pyrite (FeS2). In 1990 - 1994 the mine was finally closed and flooded. In 1997 a remediation effort was initiated in an attempt to improve the quality of acid mine drainage (AMD) from the mine site. Monitoring of the AMD water parameters has continued since 2000 in quarterly intervals. Considering the concentration of dissolved constituents and the flow rate of the AMD, the abandoned Smolnik deposit brings about continuous loading of more than 500 kg of dissolved metals per day to the adjacent Smolnik stream. The ochreous precipitates formed from AMD stream were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Schwertmannite was the dominant solid phase in the precipitates. The chemical analysis of AMD and the elemental composition of related sediments indicated selective scavenging potential of the precipitates for arsenic and other metal species. (authors)

  15. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine.

    Bori, Jaume; Vallès, Bettina; Navarro, Andrés; Riva, Maria Carme

    2016-07-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters, the quantification of metal concentrations, and the application of aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity bioassays. Chemical analysis of soil samples revealed concentrations of Hg, As, Ba, Pb, Sb, and Zn above international intervention values. Results from terrestrial tests showed detrimental effects in all studied organisms (Eisenia foetida, Folsomia candida, and different plant species) and revealed the avoidance response of earthworms as the most sensitive endpoint. Surprisingly, the most toxic samples were not the ones with higher metal contents but the ones presenting higher electrical conductivity. Aquatic ecotoxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, Raphidocelis subcapitata, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio were in accordance with terrestrial tests, confirming the need to couple environmental chemistry with ecotoxicological tools for the proper assessment of metal-contaminated sites. In view of the results, a remediative intervention of the studied area is recommended. PMID:26996905

  16. Assessment of contaminant load changes caused by remining abandoned coal mines

    Determination of contaminant loading changes caused by remining of abandoned coal mines requires knowledge of the characteristics of the hydrologic data before and after remining. Under an approved remining program, a coal mine operator can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming treatment responsibilities of the previously degraded water, as long as these discharging waters are not further degraded. Normality tests performed on the hydrologic data from 57 mine discharges from 24 remining operations indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness (toward the smaller values). Analysis of the differences among medians indicates that the water quality of underground mines was more highly degraded than that of surface mines. Analyses of pre- and post-remining mine discharge water quality and flow rates of the 57 discharges illustrate that most the sites exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in contaminant rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining pollution load was observed to be significantly better or worse than the pre-remining load, as was shown with the correlation and other analyses. Generally, when the mine discharges were degraded as a result of remining, this was caused by short-term changes in flow and/or concentration that occurred shortly after reclamation. Reduction of recharge from the surface and adjacent unmined strata should decrease the mine discharge flow rate and in turn the contaminant load

  17. Review of the energy situation in Germany, 18 months after the decision of abandoning nuclear power

    In March 2011, 3 days after the Fukushima accident, the German government announced the abandoning of nuclear power and its replacement by renewable energies. In 2011 the decrease of electrical power due to the abandoning of nuclear power was compensated according to 3 ways: first a slight decrease of the demand due to the combined effect of the economic crisis and a higher cost of energy, secondly an increase of the renewable energies (+18 TWh) and a cut in the German energy exports by a 2/3 factor from 11 TWh to 6 TWh. In 2012 the situation was less favorable: the German solar industry collapsed, difficulties on the off-shore wind energy appeared, large power fluctuations due to renewable energies disturbed the power grid, adequate sites for wind energy were more and more difficult to find, and high costs of natural gas had damaged the competitiveness of gas-fueled plants. Only coal- and lignite-fueled power plants are on the rise which is bad news for CO2 emissions. (A.C.)

  18. Converting Limbo Lands to Energy-Generating Stations: Renewable Energy Technologies on Underused, Formerly Contaminated Sites

    Mosey, G.; Heimiller, D.; Dahle, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Brady-Sabeff, L.

    2007-10-01

    This report addresses the potential for using 'Limbo Lands' (underused, formerly contaminated sites, landfills, brownfields, abandoned mine lands, etc. ) as sites for renewable energy generating stations.

  19. Electromagnetic conductivity and magnetic surveys for characterization of an abandoned nuclear reactor facility

    Electromagnetic conductivity and total field magnetic surveys were conducted over a 14 acre portion of a site used during the Manhattan Project for nuclear research and plutonium production. While the facility was decommissioned and abandoned in 1953, there is presently some concern related to the potential for movement of radioactively contaminated ground water and sediments through high permeability underground features, such as tunnels or pipes. In addition, a number of underground storage tanks were left in place when the site was abandoned. The objectives of the surveys were to enhance the available data base related to the locations of underground features. The electromagnetic results clearly defined the presence of steam lines, water mains, electrical utility lines, building foundations, underground storage tanks, and a tunnel. The magnetic results were ineffective in detecting elongated subsurface features and provided relatively poor definition of building foundations. However, the magnetic results did detect disposal areas and reactor remains that were poorly defined by the electromagnetic data. The differences in the two data sets demonstrate the need for both electromagnetic and magnetic surveys in site characterization studies. Thirteen of the excavated anomalies were associated with buried utility features that could serve as high permeability conduits for ground water or sediment movement. The deepest of these was a 6 inch water main at a depth of 6 feet. The remainder of the utilities were at depths of 4 feet or less. Three of the anomalies resulted from underground storage tanks that ranged in size from 1000 gallons to 5000 gallons. Seven of the anomalies resulted from general waste disposal areas. The use of historical documentation combined with electromagnetic and magnetic surveys provided a cost effective method for baseline characterization of the complex underground features associated with a nuclear reactor facility

  20. A Critique of Block on Abortion and Child Abandonment

    Jakub Bożydar Wiśniewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper offers a critique of Block on the issues of abortion and child abandonment. Block regards aborting a fetus or abandoning a child as an instance of exercising one’s libertarian right of expelling trespassers from one’s private property. I argue that the above reasoning is flawed due to the lack of the appreciation of the fact that if one voluntarily initiates the causal chain which leads to someone else ending up on his property, the latter person cannot be considered a trespasser. Furthermore, in the light of the above observation, any direct effects resulting from that person’s eviction should be considered the responsibility of the property’s owner. All of this follows from the simple logical fact that in all links of the causal chain under consideration the owner is the ultimate causal agent.

  1. Abandoned coal mine tunnels: Future heating/power Supply centers

    Luo Pingjia; Chen Ning

    2011-01-01

    We have studied three plans for re-use of the abandoned mine roadway tunnels as an energy center.These are the thermostat plan,the thermal accumulator plan,and the CAES plan.Calculations show that the thermostat plan can provide over 15,000 m2 of building air-conditioning/heating load for each kilometer of roadway,but electric power is needed to run the system.Numerical research proved that the accumulation of hot water in the roadway for seasonal heating purposes (a temperature swing from 90 to 54 ℃) is a viable possibility.The CAES plan proposes using the discarded coal mine tunnel as a peaking power station with an energy storage density over 7000 kJ/m3.It can be concluded that presently abandoned coal mines could be reformed into future energy centers for a city.

  2. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  3. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  4. Television method of controlling stowing of abandoned workings

    Zimny, W.

    1978-01-01

    This method describes a method of monitoring stowing of an underground abandoned working by means of a television camera lowered through a drillhole from the surface. The method was used in Poland for the first time in the period from 1974 to 1976. The camera had been previously used to check the technical state of underground sewage systems. The sAV 18 camera can be lowered to a maximum depth of 400 m, it is explosion proof and can be used under conditions of explosion hazard. A scheme of the equipment is given. A method of determining size of old workings using the camera (with light source) is explained. Examples of photos made by the camera (on videotape) of the abandoned working being stowed with a sand-water mixture through a drillhole from the surface are also given. (In Polish)

  5. The Consequences of Chronic Stereotype Threat: Domain Disidentification and Abandonment

    Woodcock, Anna; Hernandez, Paul R.; Estrada, Mica; Schultz, P. Wesley

    2012-01-01

    Stereotype threat impairs performance across many domains. Despite a wealth of research, the long-term consequences of chronic stereotype threat have received little empirical attention. Beyond the immediate impact on performance, the experience of chronic stereotype threat is hypothesized to lead to domain disidentification and eventual domain abandonment. Stereotype threat is 1 explanation why African Americans and Hispanic/Latino(a)s “leak” from each juncture of the academic scientific pip...

  6. Should High-Frequency Ventilation in the Adult Be Abandoned?

    Nguyen, Albert P; Schmidt, Ulrich H; MacIntyre, Neil R

    2016-06-01

    High-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) can improve ventilation-perfusion matching without excessive alveolar tidal stretching or collapse-reopening phenomenon. This is an attractive feature in the ventilation of patients with ARDS. However, two recent large multi-center trials of HFOV failed to show benefits in this patient population. The following review addresses whether, in view of these trails, HFOV should be abandoned in the adult population? PMID:27235314

  7. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells

    Worrall, Fred; boothroyd, Ian; Almond, Sam; Davies, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the potential legacy of increased onshore, unconventional gas production by examining the integrity of decommissioned, onshore, oil and gas wells in the UK. In the absence of a history of unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the UK, conventional onshore sites were considered and an examination of pollution incidents records had suggested that only a small fraction of onshore wells could show integrity failures. In this study the fugitive emissions of methane from former oil and gas production wells onshore in the UK were considered as a measure of well integrity. The survey considered 49 decommissioned (abandoned) wells from 4 different basins that were between 8 and 78 years old; all but one of these wells would be considered as having been decommissioned properly, i.e. wells cut, sealed and buried by soil cover to the extent that the well sites were being used for agriculture. For each well site the soil gas methane was analysed multiple times and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land-use and soil type. The results will be expressed in terms of the proportion and extent of well integrity failure, or success, over time since decommissioning and relative to local control sites. The probability of failure and the emissions factor for decommissioned wells will be presented.

  8. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support. PMID:16602351

  9. Identification of Risks Pertaining to Abandoned Housing Projects in Malaysia

    Hamzah Abdul-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing industry is one of the most dynamic, risky, and challenging industries. In Malaysia, this industry has a poor reputation for managing risks, with many major projects failing to be completed within the allotted time. Due to the inherent risks involved in construction projects, it is essential to recognize the risks that cause problems associated with abandoned housing projects. Therefore, this study aims to identify the risks that contribute to issues of abandoned housing projects and to propose mitigation strategies. The methodologies used in this study are combination of qualitative and quantitative methods of literature review, questionnaire survey, and interview. The results show that many risks are involved in housing project, including risks related to environmental impacts, construction, politics, law, management, finance, materials, and economy, of which the probability of risks from unexpected ground condition, project delays, bureaucracy, contractual disputes between developer and landlord, weakness in management by inexperience developer, and financial crisis is very high. It was also found that all relevant parties involved in housing industry are required to have extensive cooperation in advance and should perform systematic risk management strategies in order to mitigate the risks leading to problems associated with abandoned housing projects.

  10. Secondary Forests from Agricultural Abandonment in Amazonia 2000-2009

    Morton, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    Ongoing negotiations to include reducing emissions from tropical deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) in a post-Kyoto climate agreement highlight the critical role of satellite data for accurate and transparent accounting of forest cover changes. In addition to deforestation and degradation, knowledge of secondary forest dynamics is essential for full carbon accounting under REDD+. Land abandonment to secondary forests also frames one of the key tradeoffs for agricultural production in tropical forest countries-whether to incentivize secondary forest growth (for carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation) or low-carbon expansion of agriculture or biofuels production in areas of secondary forests. We examined patterns of land abandonment to secondary forest across the arc of deforestation in Brazil and Bolivia using time series of annual Landsat and MODIS data from 2000-2009. Rates of land abandonment to secondary forest during 2002-2006 were less than 5% of deforestation rates in these years. Small areas of new secondary forest were scattered across the entire arc of deforestation, rather than concentrated in any specific region of the basin. Taken together, our analysis of the satellite data record emphasizes the difficulties of addressing the pool of new secondary forests in the context of REDD+ in Amazonia. Due to the small total area of secondary forests, land sparing through agricultural intensification will be an important element of efforts to reduce deforestation rates under REDD+ while improving agricultural productivity in Amazonia.

  11. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits. PMID:17923250

  12. Suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of upstream oil and gas facilities : informational letter IL 98-2

    This release of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is intended to clarify the jurisdictional roles of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) and the EUB with regard to their respective responsibilities for the regulation of the suspension, abandonment, decontamination and surface land reclamation of active and inactive upstream oil and gas facilities. The EUB, AEP and industrial operators all have separate roles and responsibilities when active and inactive upstream facilities are suspended or reclaimed. In the future, industry operators will have more interaction with the AEP during the decontamination of a site, while the EUB will concentrate on pollution prevention and abandonment of non-economic facilities. All oilfield waste generated from suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of an active or inactive upstream oil and gas facility will fall under the jurisdiction of the EUB. Contaminated soils, sludges, and waters that are physically removed as a result of decontamination activities are considered to be oilfield wastes. The regulatory responsibility between the AEP and the EUB remains unchanged for the reclamation process of on-lease and off-lease spills, releases or pipeline breaks. Industry operators are no longer allowed to discharge any produced liquid to earthen pits or ponds and are encouraged to reclaim existing ones. 3 figs

  13. Coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia: evidence from radiocarbon dates of abandoned nests of Orange-footed Scrubfowl

    The late Holocene history of monsoon rainforest retreat was explored by radiocarbon dating abandoned Orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt Gaimard) nests in coastal savannas in the Northern Territory of Australia. Previous work has demonstrated that in savanna environments this rainforest bird can not build nor maintain the large heaps of soil and leaf litter that it uses for nests. Excavations of two earthen mounds in a savanna habitat verified that they were abandoned Scrubfowl nests, and not Aboriginal middens, given their lack of stratigraphy, non-sequential dating of charcoal in a vertical profile, and absence of archaeological material. Radiocarbon dates of material taken from the surface of abandoned nests were determined for three sites on the coast of the Northern Territory. These analyses revealed that for all three sites, rainforests have contracted within the last 1800 years BP. On Elcho Island an abandoned nest was found to contain the land snail Xanthomelon spheroidea Le Guillou (known to prefer rainforest habitat) with a modern radiocarbon age, suggesting recent contraction of rainforest. The results of this study further weaken the theory that Aboriginal burning was a major cause of rain forest fragmentation in the monsoon tropics, and possibly elsewhere in Australia

  14. Coastal rainforest boundary dynamics during the late Holocene in monsoonal Australia: evidence from radiocarbon dates of abandoned nests of Orange-footed Scrubfowl

    Bowman, D.M.J.S.; Panton, W.J. [Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, Darwin, NT (Australia); Head, J. [Australian National Univ, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Quaternary Dating Research Centre

    1997-12-31

    The late Holocene history of monsoon rainforest retreat was explored by radiocarbon dating abandoned Orange-footed Scrubfowl (Megapodius reinwardt Gaimard) nests in coastal savannas in the Northern Territory of Australia. Previous work has demonstrated that in savanna environments this rainforest bird can not build nor maintain the large heaps of soil and leaf litter that it uses for nests. Excavations of two earthen mounds in a savanna habitat verified that they were abandoned Scrubfowl nests, and not Aboriginal middens, given their lack of stratigraphy, non-sequential dating of charcoal in a vertical profile, and absence of archaeological material. Radiocarbon dates of material taken from the surface of abandoned nests were determined for three sites on the coast of the Northern Territory. These analyses revealed that for all three sites, rainforests have contracted within the last 1800 years BP. On Elcho Island an abandoned nest was found to contain the land snail Xanthomelon spheroidea Le Guillou (known to prefer rainforest habitat) with a modern radiocarbon age, suggesting recent contraction of rainforest. The results of this study further weaken the theory that Aboriginal burning was a major cause of rain forest fragmentation in the monsoon tropics, and possibly elsewhere in Australia.

  15. Life-cycle assessment of a reed canary grass plantation in an abandoned peat extraction area to mitigate GHG emission

    Mander, Ülo

    2013-04-01

    Abandoned peat extraction areas are continuous emitters of greenhouse gases (GHG); hence, abandonment of peat extraction areas should immediately be followed by conversion to an appropriate after-use. Our primary aim was to clarify the atmospheric impact of reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea L.) cultivation on an abandoned peat extraction area and to compare it to other after-treatment alternatives. In addition to measurement of GHGs using the closed chamber and gas-chromatograph method, measuring C and N balance in study plots and aboveground and belowground biomass of RCG for the period April 2009-September 2011, we performed a life-cycle assessment for five different after-use options for a drained organic soil withdrawn from peat extraction: (I) bare peat soil (no management), (II) non-fertilised Phalaris cultivation, (III) fertilized Phalaris cultivation, (IV) afforestation, and (V) rewetting. Our results showed that on average the non-fertilised and fertilised Phalaris alternatives had a cooling effect on the atmosphere, whereas afforestation, rewetting, and no management alternatives contributed to global warming. The main components influencing the global warming potential of different after-use alternatives were site GHG emissions, carbon assimilation by plants, and emissions from combustion, while management-related emissions played a relatively minor role. The results of this study indicate that, from the perspective of atmospheric impact during following 10 years, the most suitable after-use option for an abandoned peat extraction area is cultivation of RCG. For the long term effect, dynamics of Phalaris production and carbon sequestration in soil must be taken into the consideration.

  16. The effect of Landsat ETM/ETM+ image acquisition dates on the detection of agricultural land abandonment in Eastern Europe

    Prishchepov, Alexander; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Radeloff, Volker C.;

    2012-01-01

    seasons for a pre-abandonment-time I (1989) and post-abandonment-time II (1999/2000). Using a factorial experiment, we tested how the classification accuracy and spatial patterns of classified abandonment changed over all possible 49 image-date combinations when mapping both "abandoned arable land...... for the classification, the seasons captured also mattered, and the importance of specific seasonal image dates varied between the pre- and post-abandonment dates. For "abandoned arable land" it was important to have at least one "Spring" or "Summer" image for pre-abandonment and as many images as possible for post...

  17. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY; SEMIANNUAL

    This report represents the sixth Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the White Meadow Mine site, after amended specifications were prepared and continued negotiations took place with the Property Owner, the property ownership was transferred during the reporting period. As a result in the change in property ownership, the remediation project was then to be done by the new Property Owner out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, no additional field work was undertaken during this reporting period subsequent to the previous completion of the geophysical survey. With the termination of the White Meadow

  18. THE REMEDIATION OF ABANDONED IRON ORE MINE SUBSIDENCE IN ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP, NEW JERSEY; SEMIANNUAL

    This report represents the seventh Semi-Annual Technical Progress Report issued in connection with the subsidence remediation projects undertaken by Rockaway Township in Morris County, New Jersey. This report provides a summary of the major project work accomplished during this reporting period and contemplated for the subsequent reporting period. This report is issued as part of the project reporting provisions set forth in the Cooperators Agreement between the United States Government-Department of Energy, and Rockaway Township. The purpose of the Cooperators Agreement is for the Department of Energy to provide technical and financial assistance in a coordinated effort with Rockaway Township to develop and implement a multi-phased plan to remediate ground stability problems associated with abandoned mining activity. Primarily during the 1800's, extensive iron ore mining and prospecting was undertaken in Rockaway Township, part of the Dover District Mining region in Morris County. The abandoned mining activity has resulted in public safety hazards associated with ground collapse and surface subsidence features evolving in both developed and undeveloped areas within Rockaway Township. At the Green Pond Mine site at the Township Compost Storage Facility, research and preliminary design was performed during this reporting period toward development of the engineering plans and Technical Specifications for the remediation work. At the White Meadow Mine site, the remediation project was conducted last reporting period by others, out of the responsibility of Rockaway Township under this Cooperators Agreement. At the Mt. Hope Road subsidence, surface monitoring was conducted at the work area and adjacent areas after the January 2000 construction effort

  19. Radium and heavy metal transport beneath an abandoned uranium tailings dam

    An abandoned uranium tailings dam at Moline in the Northern Territory of Australia was the site of a study to assess the movement of potentially toxic elements from tailings into subsoil. The tailings at Moline were first laid down in 1959 and have since been leached by prevailing rainfall. Sixteen sampling sites were selected to give a good representation of the dam. At each site, a trench was excavated through the tailings and into the subsoil, then samples of subsoil were taken at 10 cm intervals down to a depth of 50 cm. A sample of the tailings overlying the tailings-subsoil interface was also taken. Samples were analysed for radium, uranium, copper, zinc, and lead. At most sites there was only minor accumulation of these elements in the 0-10 cm subsoil layer immediately below the interface, with concentrations typically one or two orders of magnitude less than the concentrations in overlying tailings. Below 10 cm, the concentrations were typically at or close to background concentrations

  20. The soil seed bank in abandoned tropical pastures: source of regeneration or invasion? El banco de semillas en pastizales tropicales abandonados: fuente de regeneración o de invasión?

    Leonel López-Toledo; Miguel Martínez-Ramos

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the availability of both pioneer and non-native species in the soil seed bank of old-growth forest and recently abandoned pasture, to evaluate whether the soil seed bank in these pastures represents a source of regeneration of species from adjacent old-growth forest or of invasion by non-native species. Our study was conducted at Selva Lacandona, Chiapas, Mexico. Soil samples were randomly collected from 6 sites in old-growth forest, and 6 sites in abandoned pastures. Seedlings fr...

  1. Prediction of the long-term perfomance of abandoned lead zinc mine tailings in a Welsh catchment

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Klinck, Ben; Banks, Vanessa; Quigley, Sean

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the sulphidic mine tailings from Frongoch and Grogwynion, two abandoned lead zinc mines in mid-Wales, UK. Despite falling within the same ore field the mine waste characterisation has identified differences in the tailings from the two sites. Bulk concentrations range from 10 to 52 g kg− 1 for Pb, 1.1 to 2.9 g kg− 1 for Zn in Grogwynion and from 1.0 to 130 g kg− 1 for Pb, 11 to 110 g kg− 1 for Zn in Frongoch. An experimental (European standard leaching tests TS 1...

  2. Patterns and drivers of post-socialist farmland abandonment in Western Ukraine

    Baumann, Matthias; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Elbakidze, Marine;

    2011-01-01

    Farmland abandonment restructures rural landscapes in many regions worldwide in response to gradual industrialization and urbanization. In contrast, the political breakdown in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union triggered rapid and widespread farmland abandonment, but the spatial patterns of...... substantial spatial variation in abandonment rates. However, many of our a priori hypotheses about the direction of variable influence were rejected. Most importantly, abandonment rates were higher in the plains and lower in marginal areas. The growing importance of subsistence farming in the transition...... period, as well as off-farm income and remittances likely explain these patterns. The breakdown of socialism appears to have resulted in fundamentally different abandonment patterns in the Western Ukraine, where abandonment was a result of the institutional and economic shock, compared to those in Europe...

  3. Koritnjak: Abandoned rural settlement in the beginning of 2002.

    Martinović Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under non-adequate conditions of social relation to rural area after Second world war, modern development of rural settlements of Serbia has a lot of rural problems. A certain number of rural settlements, after negative general development at the end of XX and in the beginning of XXI century have been in demographical mean disappeared. With this paper, in the example of Koritnjak, is showed the genesis and evolution of settlement which is abandoned in the beginning of 2002, after continuous decrease of total population and non-positive demographical and total development.

  4. Brent Spar abandonment - Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO) assessment

    Possible methods of abandoning or re-using the Brent Spar storage and tanker offloading facility following its decommissioning in 1991 are discussed. The report assesses six of the thirteen possible methods, including horizontal dismantling and onshore disposal, vertical dismantling and onshore disposal, in-field disposal, deep water disposal, refurbishment and re-use, and continued maintenance, in order to determine the Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO). The BPEO covers technical feasibility risks to health and safety of the work force, environmental impacts, public acceptability and costs. (UK)

  5. Measures of Vegetation Restoration in Abandoned Mined Lands

    2008-01-01

    By 2004, the occupied and disturbed land area had reached 3.393 million ha by mining, of which forest land took 532 000 ha; In addition, mining also caused 3.721 million -5.316 million ha of degraded forests and woodlands. The impact of mining on environment is multi-fold and deep. Thus it is necessary and significant to approach effective methods to speed up vegetation restoration in abandoned mined lands. Phytoremediation is a relatively new technology (in the lastest decade) and the numbers of plant spec...

  6. Direct measurements of methane emissions from abandoned oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania

    Kang, Mary; Kanno, Cynthia M.; Reid, Matthew C.; Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L.; Celia, Michael A.; Chen, Yuheng; Onstott, Tullis C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that greenhouse gas emission inventories are likely missing methane emission sources. We conducted the first methane emission measurements from abandoned oil and gas wells and found substantial emissions, particularly from high-emitting abandoned wells. These emissions are not currently considered in any emissions inventory. We scaled methane emissions from our direct measurements of abandoned wells in Pennsylvania and calculate that they represent 4–7% of current tota...

  7. Abandonment Fears in Persons with Alzheimer's at Adult Day Care Centers

    Judkins, Wayne A

    1999-01-01

    In my research, I examined abandonment fears in persons with Alzheimerâ s disease at the Salem Veterans Affairs adult day care center. I observed fifty hours at the center, and conducted open-ended interviews with two of the participants and their respective caregivers. These two participants (Ellen and Opel) at the center expressed abandonment fears much more frequently than any of the other participants. I found that most of the time, these two women would express their abandonment f...

  8. Soil erosion as a consequence of wildfires on recently abandoned citrus orchards in eastern Spain

    A. Cerdà; F. A. González-Peñaloza; Burguet, M.; P. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Fire is a natural factor in the evolution of Earth ecosystems. Due to land abandonment wildfire are widespread in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems, which contribute to increase the soil erosion rates. Fire is also found in recently abandoned citrus orchards due to the quick vegetation recovery and the dry biomass found after 2 years of abandonment. Rainfall simulation experiments (1 hour at 45 mm h-1 in a plot of 0.25 m2) show that although land abandonment on irrigated citrus orchards reduces t...

  9. Fiscal year 1996 well plugging and abandonment program Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This report is a synopsis of the progress of the well plugging and abandonment program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from August 1995 through August 1996. A total of 27 wells, piezometers, and borings were plugged and abandoned during the period of time covered in this report. All wells and borings were plugged and abandoned in accordance with the Monitoring Well Plugging and Abandonment Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy, Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (HSW, Inc. 1991).

  10. Abandoned metal mines and their impact on receiving waters: A case study from Southwest England.

    Beane, Steven J; Comber, Sean D W; Rieuwerts, John; Long, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Historic mine sites are a major source of contamination to terrestrial and river environments. To demonstrate the importance of determining the significance of point and diffuse metal contamination and the related bioavailability of the metals present from abandoned mines a case study has been carried out. The study provides a quantitative assessment of a historic mine site, Wheal Betsy, southwest England, and its contribution to non-compliance with Water Framework Directive (WFD) Environmental Quality Standards (EQS) for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Surface water and sediment samples showed significant negative environmental impacts even taking account of the bioavailability of the metal present, with lead concentration in the stream sediment up to 76 times higher than the Canadian sediment guidelines 'Probable Effect Level'. Benthic invertebrates showed a decline in species richness adjacent to the mine site with lead and cadmium the main cause. The main mine drainage adit was the single most significant source of metal (typically 50% of metal load from the area, but 88% for Ni) but the mine spoil tips north and south of the adit input added together discharged roughly an equivalent loading of metal with the exception of Ni. The bioavailability of metal in the spoil tips exhibited differing spatial patterns owing to varying ambient soil physico-chemistry. The data collected is essential to provide a clear understanding of the contamination present as well as its mobility and bioavailability, in order to direct the decision making process regarding remediation options and their likely effectiveness. PMID:27023117

  11. Fugitive emissions of methane from abandoned, decommissioned oil and gas wells.

    Boothroyd, I M; Almond, S; Qassim, S M; Worrall, F; Davies, R J

    2016-03-15

    This study considered the fugitive emissions of methane (CH4) from former oil and gas exploration and production wells drilled to exploit conventional hydrocarbon reservoirs onshore in the UK. This study selected from the 66% of all onshore wells in the UK which appeared to be properly decommissioned (abandoned) that came from 4 different basins and were between 8 and 79years old. The soil gas above each well was analysed and assessed relative to a nearby control site of similar land use and soil type. The results showed that of the 102 wells considered 30% had soil gas CH4 at the soil surface that was significantly greater than their respective control. Conversely, 39% of well sites had significant lower surface soil gas CH4 concentrations than their respective control. We interpret elevated soil gas CH4 concentrations to be the result of well integrity failure, but do not know the source of the gas nor the route to the surface. Where elevated CH4 was detected it appears to have occurred within a decade of it being drilled. The flux of CH4 from wells was 364±677kg CO2eq/well/year with a 27% chance that the well would have a negative flux to the atmosphere independent of well age. This flux is low relative to the activity commonly used on decommissioned well sites (e.g. sheep grazing), however, fluxes from wells that have not been appropriately decommissioned would be expected to be higher. PMID:26822472

  12. Hydrology of an abandoned uranium mine waste rock dump, Northern Territory

    Field studies were conducted on an abandoned, degraded uranium mine in Kakadu National Park to obtain waste rock dump runoff data to test the ability of a landform evolution model to predict gullying caused by concentrated flow. Runoff data were collected from natural rainfall events on a concentrated flow site and an overland flow erosion site on the waste rock dump at Scinto 6 mine. The data were used to fit parameters to a rainfall/runoff model using a non-linear regression package (NLFIT-DISTFW) which allows a single set of parameters to be fitted to four discharge hydrographs simultaneously. The model generally predicted peak discharge and the rising stage of the observed hydrographs well but there was some lag in the falling stage of the predicted hydrographs. Kinematic wave parameters are dependent on each other and the concentrated flow parameter set was not significantly different from the overland flow set. The infiltration parameter sets were statistically different and difference in cumulative infiltration between sites is controlled by sorptivity

  13. How do soil organic carbon stocks change after cropland abandonment in Mediterranean humid mountain areas?

    Nadal-Romero, E; Cammeraat, E; Pérez-Cardiel, E; Lasanta, T

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions. Afforestation is increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and is considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. Given the large quantity of CO2 that soils release annually, it is important to understand disturbances in vegetation and soil resulting from land use changes. The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, permanent pastureland, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, were analysed. SOC dynamics have been studied in the bulk soil, and in the fractions separated according to two methodologies: (i) aggregate size distribution, and (ii) density fractionation, and rates of carbon mineralization have been determined by measuring CO2 evolution using an automated respirometer. The results showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10cm), (ii) when all the profiles were considered no significant differences were observed between pastureland and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) pastureland should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration experiments did not show evidence of SOC stabilization. SOC mineralization was higher in the top layers and values decreased with depth. These results gain insights into which type of land management is most appropriate after land abandonment for SOC

  14. Post-cultural stand dynamics in an abandoned chestnut coppice at its ecological border

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the be­ginning of the last century, chestnut has played an important role as staple food and primary wood source. In many cases it was cultivated at the border of its ecological limits where it was planted by man in place of the original and more site-adapted tree species. However, with the abandonment of the rural activities, ma­nagement of chestnut forests was progressively left starting from more marginal areas, usually occupied by coppice stands. After the interruption of the traditional coppice management system (usual rotation periods of 10-25 years, natural intra- and interspecific competition dynamics have become the driving force of the stand evolution. This may lead to dramatic changes in both structure and species composition of the stands. The aim of this study is to analyse the post-cultural evolution of an abandoned chestnut coppice in the Pesio Valley (Piedmont, Italy in order to highlight the competition among different "basic silvi­cultural components" of the forest using a dendroecological approach. The "basic silvicultural components" are intended as the elements defined as groups of trees of the stand that have similar features such as silvi­culturally relevant attributes: species (chestnut, beech, fir, origin (seed, sprout and cultural age and function (standard/reserve, maiden, shoot, regeneration, dead tree. The mean growth curves of the compo­nents show the different fitness of each category. From a general point of view, the beech and fir components show a better competitive potential in comparison with chestnut. Among chestnut components, maidens from seeds reveal a better growth trend compared to coppice shoots and standards.

  15. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  16. The Abandonment of an Active Lifestyle Within University Students: Reasons for Abandonment and Expectations of Re-Engagement

    Manuel Gómez-López; Antonio Granero-Gallegos; Antonio Baena-Extremera

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research is to analyse in detail the barriers that make university students abandon the practice of physical activity and adopt a sedentary lifestyle. In order to do so, a questionnaire on the analysis of sports habits and lifestyles was administered to 795 students who stated not having done any physical and/or sports activity for at least one year at the moment of the field-work. A factorial, descriptive and correlation analysis was carried out. The results reveal that...

  17. The U.S. Forest Service abandoned mine land inventory in Colorado: Background, progress, and preliminary findings

    The U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and the Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) are continuing a cooperative agreement to identify sites of environmental degradation associated with abandoned and inactive mines on Colorado's USFS administered lands. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project is a open-quotes discoveryclose quotes process and is a precursor to the Environmental Protection Agency's open-quotes Preliminary Assessmentclose quotes process. Identification of environmentally degraded sites may lead to a formal Preliminary Assessment. The inventory process begins in the office and involves reviewing existing mining and geologic literature, previous mine inventory work, current and historical maps, water quality information, and aerial photographs. During field investigation, each mine feature is given a unique identification number. Field geologists collect data on the physical and geographic characteristics of the mine features along with information on any water emanating from or interacting with the mine features. This information is used to assign a qualitative environmental degradation rating to the individual mine feature. Guidelines for the rating system are given to field personnel to facilitate consistency within the data set. All data collected are entered into a computer database. From a computer perspective, both location and attribute data are being collected. Therefore, the data are well suited for integration into a geographic information system (GIS) creating a geo-referenced data set. The USFS Abandoned Mine Land Inventory Project began in 1991 and is ongoing. To date, field inventories of the Arapaho, Roosevelt, Pike, and Rio Grande National Forests have been completed. Work in the San Isabel, San Juan, White River, Gunnison, Uncompahgre, and Grand Mesa National Forests is in progress. Through the 1994 field season approximately 9,667 mine features (openings, dumps, tailings, highwalls, etc.) have been inventoried

  18. Characterization and effectiveness of remining abandoned coal mines in Pennsylvania

    Under an approved remining program, mine operators can remine abandoned coal mines without assuming legal responsibility for treatment of the previously degraded water, as long as the discharging waters are not further degraded and other regulatory requirements are satisfied. A US Bureau of Mines review of 105 remining permits in Pennsylvania indicates that remining results in substantial reclamation of abandoned mine lands, utilization of significant quantities of coal, and reduction of contaminant loads (acidity and iron) from degraded mine drainage discharges. Normality tests performed on the water quality and flow data indicate generally nonnormal distributions and extreme right-skewness tending toward lower values. The water quality of underground coal mines was observed to be more highly degraded in terms of acidity, iron, and sulfate than that of surface coal mines. The optimum baseline sampling scenario is 12 months in duration at a frequency of one sample per month. Analysis of water quality and flow rates before and after remining indicates that a majority of the mines exhibited either no change or a significant decrease in pollution rate because of remining. The discharge flow rate was the dominant controlling factor when the post-remining contaminant load was significantly better or worse than the baseline (pre-mining) load

  19. The Oedipus complex revisited: Oedipus abandoned, Oedipus adopted.

    Quinodoz, D

    1999-02-01

    The author considers that the Oedipus of Sophocles' drama, who kills his biological father and marries his biological mother, is an illustration of the failure to work through the complex named after him. She draws attention to the contrast between the obscurity that surrounds the hero's adoptive parents and the notoriety of their biological counterparts arguing that the former are equally important in the universal oedipal fantasy. In her view the fact that Oedipus has two sets of parents--abandoning and adopting respectively--is significant in that the resulting dichotomisation of the parental imago enables him seemingly to avoid a conflict of ambivalence in relation to a single object. The author further contends that the plague of Thebes represents the symptomatic return of repressed or disavowed aggression. Three clinical examples reveal the parental imago's division to be an unconscious defence against oedipal anxieties and the sense of solitude vis-à-vis the intimacy of the parental couple. The working through of the Oedipus complex is stated to require the synthesis of love and hate and of the abandoning and adoptive aspects of the parents whereby the formerly sadistic superego becomes protective. The author also argues that a useful distinction can be made between splitting and dichotomisation. PMID:10216814

  20. White Spruce Plantations on Abandoned Agricultural Land: Are They More Effective as C Sinks than Natural Succession?

    Sylvie Tremblay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare organic carbon (C accumulation in plantations (PL and natural succession (NS established on fallow lands along a 50-year chronosequence in the eastern mixed forest subzone of Quebec (Canada. Above- and below-ground woody biomass were estimated from vegetation measurement surveys, and litter and soil (0–50 cm depth C from samplings. At the year of abandonment, total C content of both PL and NS sites averaged 100 ± 13 Mg C ha−1. Over 50 years, total C content doubled on NS sites and tripled on PL sites (217.9 ± 28.7 vs. 285.7 ± 31.0 Mg ha−1 with respect to fallow land. On NS sites, the new C stocks accumulated entirely in the vegetation. On PL sites, C accumulated mostly in the vegetation and to a lesser extent in the litter, whereas it decreased by a third in the soil. As a result, the net C accumulation rate was 1.7 ± 0.7 Mg ha−1 yr−1 greater on PL sites than on NS sites over 50 years. By the 23rd year, PL sites became greater net C sinks than NS sites in the fallow lands of the study area, even with the loss of soil C.

  1. Post-Soviet cropland abandonment and carbon sequestration in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus

    Schierhorn, Florian; Müller, Daniel; Beringer, Tim; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Balmann, Alfons

    2013-12-01

    Widespread cropland abandonment occurred after the collapse of socialism across the former Soviet Union, but the rates and spatial patterns of abandoned lands are not well known. As a result, the potential of this region to contribute to global food production and estimates of the carbon sink developing on currently idle lands are highly uncertain. We developed a spatial allocation model that distributes yearly and subnational sown area statistics to the most agriculturally suitable plots. This approach resulted in new, high-resolution (1 km2) annual time series of cropland and abandoned lands in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus from 1990 to 2009. A quantitative validation of the cropland map confirms the reliability of this data set, especially for the most important agricultural areas of the study region. Overall, we found a total of 87 Mha of cropland and 31 Mha of abandoned cropland in European Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus combined, suggesting that abandonment has been severely underestimated in the past. The abandonment rates were highest in European Russia. Feeding our new map data set into the dynamic vegetation model LPJmL revealed that cropland abandonment resulted in a net carbon sink of 470 TgC for 1990 to 2009. Carbon sequestration was generally slow in the early years after abandonment, but carbon uptake increased significantly after approximately 10 years. Recultivation of older abandoned lands would be associated with high carbon emissions and lead to substantial amounts of carbon not being sequestered in vegetation formations currently developing on idle croplands. Our spatially and temporally explicit cropland abandonment data improve the estimation of trade-offs involved in reclaiming abandoned croplands and thus in increasing agricultural production in this globally important agricultural region.

  2. Bioassessment of an Appalachian headwater stream influenced by an abandoned arsenic mine.

    Valenti, Theodore W; Chaffin, Jake L; Cherry, Donald S; Schreiber, Madeline E; Valett, H Maurice; Charles, Megan

    2005-11-01

    Recent debate concerning the modification of safe drinking water standards for arsenic (As) has led to increased awareness of the risks As poses to both humans and the environment. However, few studies have examined the effects of As on the diversity and composition of aquatic assemblages in streams. Benthic macroinvertebrate surveys, chemical analysis of water column and sediment, and laboratory toxicity tests were conducted to assess effects of an abandoned As mine on a headwater stream, and to determine the primary component of toxicity. The average 48-hr LC50 value for Daphnia magna was 4316 microg As/L, and the average 96-hr LC50 value for Lepidostoma spp. was 2138 microg As/L. Reproduction was significantly reduced for D. magna at concentrations > or =312 microg As/L in water column laboratory bioassays, and for treatments in bioassays with sediments containing elevated As (> or =2630 mg/kg). These results support the findings of the in-stream benthic macroinvertebrate survey as the density and percent Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera, + Trichoptera (EPT) were substantially lower at sites downstream of the mine compared to upstream reference sites. Results of bioassays comparing the toxicity of As-contaminated site water and upstream reference water spiked with As salts suggest that As is the primary component of toxicity impacting the stream. Measured As concentrations at downstream sites were above the recommended Criterion Maximum Concentration of 340 microg As/L and Criterion Continuous Concentration of 150 microg As/L for protection of aquatic life published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. At the study site, elevated As concentrations likely prevent recruitment of benthic macroinvertebrates and recovery of the perturbed headwater stream. PMID:16205987

  3. Major pollutants in soils of abandoned agricultural land contaminated by e-waste activities in Hong Kong.

    Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Man, Yu Bon; Zhao, Yin Ge; Zheng, Jin Shu; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Yao, Jun; Wong, Ming Hung

    2011-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) compounds and five heavy metals (cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and zinc) were determined in soil samples collected from six sites of abandoned agricultural land affected by electronic-waste: e-waste dismantling workshop [EW (DW)], e-waste open burning site [EW (OBS)], e-waste storage [EW (S)], and agricultural (A) in the New Territories, Hong Kong. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and heavy metals were detected in all soil samples. EW (DW) contained the highest concentrations of PAHs, Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas EW (OBS) had the highest concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, Cd, and Pb. PAH at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) and PCB concentrations at EW (OBS) exceeded the target values of the New Dutch list, whereas Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn levels exceeded the Chinese legislation for the protection of agricultural production and safeguarding of human health, by 3-11 times at EW (OBS) and 5-8 times at EW (DW). Lead at EW (OBS) and EW (DW) and Cr at EW (DW) greatly exceeded the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines by 46 and 20 times and 27 times, respectively. Concentrations of POPs and heavy metals at EW (DW) and EW (OBS) were significantly higher than at EW (S) and A. It was concluded that e-waste activities led to increases of toxic chemicals at these abandoned agricultural land, which would hinder the redevelopment of the land. PMID:20811881

  4. Origin and subsurface migration of radionuclides from waste rock at an abandoned uranium mine near Bancroft, Ontario

    Uranium-mine waste rock dump sites may require long-term surveillance because of the potential contamination of radionuclides from waste rock to the subsurface environment. In order to assess the conditions and controls on the migration in groundwater of waste-rock-derived contaminants, an area of old waste rock of a sand aquifer at the abandoned Greyhawk uranium mine near Bancroft, Ontario, was monitored. The waste rock has been abandoned for more than two decades. The results of a four-year hydrological and radiological investigation at the Greyhawk site indicated the presence of contaminant plumes of sup(238)U, sup(234)U, sup(226)Ra, sup(210)Pb, sup(230)Th, sup(232)Th, sulphate, bicarbonate and dissolved inorganic carbon in the sand aquifer originating from the waste rock. Laboratory-determined parameters were applied in two contaminant migration models for simulating the observed frontal positions of the waste-rock-derived radionuclides in the sand aquifer and also for predicting the spread of radionuclide contamination in the future. With the possible exception of sup(238)U, reasonable results were obtained for the simulations of the sup(226)Ra, sup(210)Pb and sup(230)Th mobilities in the sand aquifer

  5. Technical standardization of oil well abandonment: a review of current standards and technologies

    Suzart, J. Walter P.; Pessoa, Laudemar; Paiva, Maria [Halliburton Energy Services (HES), Duncan, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a new methodology for well abandonment. This practice is becoming more and more important because of the increasing number of production fields being abandoned. We strongly recommend a study of cement slurries properties for specific use in temporary and permanent abandonment plugs based on the estimation of the cement slurry hardened when placed in the well. By using specific additives, it is possible to achieve very stable slurries. For example, when permeability is reduced, formation fluid migration can be blocked and chemical reactions between the fluid and the slurry may be inhibited. With this objective, we present a laboratory investigation model and an example of slurry testing recommendation. During the abandonment operation, all records of the well characteristics should be maintained to include the reason for the abandonment, and location of fresh water, brine, and hydrocarbon zones that may exist. This documentation will also allow the analysis of solutions for the problems that originally caused the abandonment of the well. This data could be important for future use by environmental protection commissions to reopen or to drill an adjacent well. Given the high price of oil, it may now be economically feasible to reopen the well, if the reason for abandonment was low productivity. This way, a critical analysis of the current conditions of well and field abandonment in the country is presented. Based on this information, a review of the current standards is suggested. (author)

  6. 19 CFR 19.9 - General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise... Provisions § 19.9 General order, abandoned, and seized merchandise. (a) Acceptance of merchandise. The... Customs-authorized permit to transfer or in-bond entry) is responsible for preparing a Customs Form...

  7. 78 FR 57681 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, Iowa

    2013-09-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, Iowa Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  8. 78 FR 48931 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lucas County, Ohio

    2013-08-12

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Lucas County, Ohio Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  9. 76 FR 36617 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Freeborn County, MN

    2011-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Freeborn County, MN Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will...

  10. 78 FR 11733 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Calhoun County, AL

    2013-02-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Calhoun County, AL Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt... and historic report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment...

  11. 78 FR 79726 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Gaston County, NC

    2013-12-31

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Gaston County, NC Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic...

  12. 78 FR 21494 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Washington County, Idaho

    2013-04-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Washington County, Idaho Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 C.F.R. pt... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  13. 78 FR 44190 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Miami County, KS

    2013-07-23

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Miami County, KS Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by...

  14. Impacts of Land Abandonment on Vegetation: Successional Pathways in European Habitats

    Prévosto, B.; Kuiters, A.T.; Bernhardt-Römermann, M.; Dölle, M.; Schmidt, W.; Hoffmann, M.; Uytvanck, Van J.; Bohner, A.; Kreiner, D.; Stadler, J.; Klotz, S.; Brandl, R.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in traditional agricultural systems in Europe in recent decades have led to widespread abandonment and colonization of various habitats by shrubs and trees. We combined several vegetation databases to test whether patterns of changes in plant diversity after land abandonment in different hab

  15. 40 CFR 144.62 - Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment.

    2010-07-01

    ... Oil and Gas Field Equipment Cost Index. The inflation factor is the result of dividing the latest... abandonment. 144.62 Section 144.62 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER... Waste Injection Wells § 144.62 Cost estimate for plugging and abandonment. (a) The owner or...

  16. 78 FR 5244 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Fulton County, IL

    2013-01-24

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Fulton County, IL BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  17. 78 FR 14622 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cook County, Ill.

    2013-03-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cook County, Ill. BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F-Exempt... the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  18. 75 FR 65049 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pulaski County, AR

    2010-10-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pulaski County, AR Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  19. 78 FR 49603 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marengo County, Ala

    2013-08-14

    ... Surface Transportation Board Norfolk Southern Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Marengo County, Ala Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an...

  20. 77 FR 59451 - Pickens Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Pickens County, SC

    2012-09-27

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pickens Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Pickens County, SC Pickens Railway Company (Pickens) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part 1152 subpart F... the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue...

  1. 76 FR 72241 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Cass County, ND

    2011-11-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Cass County, ND BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart F--Exempt... and historic report that addresses the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment...

  2. An exploratory analysis of land abandonment drivers in areas prone to desertification

    Kosmas, C.; Kairis, O.; Karavitis, C.; Hessel, R.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2015-01-01

    The abandonment of land is a global problemwith environmental and socioeconomic implications. An approach to assess the relationship between land abandonment and a large set of indicators was illustrated in the present study by using data collected in the framework of the European Union DESIRE resea

  3. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    2010-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land... § 902.20 Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Alaska Reclamation Plan,...

  4. Inhomogeneous CTMC Model of a Call Center with Balking and Abandonment

    Burak, Maciej Rafal

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a nonstationary multiserver queuing model with abandonment and balking for inbound call centers. We present a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) model which captures the important characteristics of an inbound call center and obtain a numerical solution for its transient state probabilities using uniformization method with steady-state detection. Keywords: call center, transient, Markov processes, numerical methods, uniformization, abandonment, balking

  5. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: ► Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. ► Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. ► Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. ► Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  6. The impact of abandoned coal gasification plants on groundwater and remediation strategies

    Areas of abandoned coal gasification-, cokeovenplants and town gasworks normally contain hazardous contaminants as there are among others PAHs, cyanides, mono aromatic compounds and phenols. Therefore a strong impact on the groundwater can be expected. In the thousands of sites existing in Germany a complete remediation is almost impossible. Combustion is the only safe way to eliminate the contaminants by mineralization; but is to expensive and not applicable for the large amount of soil to be treated. Soil washing and bio-remediation is limited by the composition of the contaminants on the one side and by the soil structure on the other. Therefore the success of the mentioned remediation techniques is normally weak and only in some selected cases efficient enough. A combination of different methods according the site characteristics might help to increase the efficiency. On the other hand it it obvious, that there are natural barriers integrated between the contaminants and the groundwater as there are e.g solubility adsorbability and biodegradability of the hazardous compounds and the distance to the groundwater. Recently developed methods for downstream groundwater remediation are presented and discussed for the application in gas work contaminations. Those so called 'passive systems' are said to be very economic and might help to prevent further distribution of the contaminants into the environment. (au)

  7. A mine of information: Benthic algal communities as biomonitors of metal contamination from abandoned tailings

    Lavoie, Isabelle; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude, E-mail: fortincl@ete.inrs.ca

    2012-05-15

    Various biomonitoring approaches were tested in the field to assess the response of natural periphythic algal communities to chronic metal contamination downstream from an abandoned mine tailings site. The accumulation of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) as well as the production of phytochelatins, the presence of diatom taxa known to tolerate high metal concentrations, diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies were determined. We observed highly significant relationships between intracellular metal and calculated free metal ion concentrations. Such relationships are often observed in laboratory studies but have been rarely validated in field studies. These results suggest that the concentration of metal inside the field-collected periphyton, regardless of its species composition, is a good indicator of exposure and is an interesting proxy for bioavailable metal concentrations in natural waters. The presence of teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa at our contaminated sites provided a clear indication that diatom communities were responding to this metal stress. A multi-metric approach integrating various bioassessment methods could be used for the field monitoring of metal contamination and the quantification of its effects. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Various approaches for metal contamination biomonitoring were used in the field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal accumulation in periphyton is correlated to free ion concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Teratologies and metal-tolerant taxa provided a clear indication of metal stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stream periphyton shows great potential as a biomonitor of metal contamination.

  8. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  9. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. Litherland, J.C. (2002)

  10. Should fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment be abandoned?

    Litherland, Janet C

    2002-02-01

    Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has been used extensively in the U.K. for the diagnosis of breast lesions over the past 15 years. More recently, large gauge needle biopsy has been used to address many of the problems which have been encountered with fine needle aspiration. This paper reviews the evolution of the use of these procedures and the advantages and disadvantages of each. In considering whether to abandon the use of fine needle aspiration cytology in breast assessment, each individual unit should make a decision based upon their own audited results. However, even if FNAC is retained, it is important to be able to complement cytological diagnosis with core biopsy as there are indisputable advantages, e.g. in the diagnosis of mammographically detected microcalcification. As always, a multi-disciplinary approach is ultimately essential for effective patient management. PMID:11977938

  11. Childhood lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention.

    Needleman, H L

    1998-12-01

    In 1991, the Public Health Service published the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning. This document marked a fundamental shift in federal policy from finding and treating lead-poisoned children to authentic primary prevention. It spelled out a 15-year strategy to achieve this goal and provided a cost-benefit analysis showing that the monetized benefits far exceeded the costs of abatement. A strong national effort to eliminate the disease developed. Now, 7 years after publication of the plan, primary prevention of lead exposure has been abandoned. This article examines the role of some prevailing attitudes and institutions in derailing the effort. Some institutions--the lead industry, real estate interests, and insurance interests--behaved as anticipated. Others, including private pediatricians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, some federal agencies, and a public interest group ostensibly dedicated to eliminating lead poisoning, also played an unexpected part in derailing the plan. PMID:9842392

  12. A Site Rediscovered

    Mailhot, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    This is a site-driven project located in my hometown of Lewiston, Maine, a point along the Androscoggin River.  Driving over the bridge as a child, I was intrigued by the waterfall, but it always seemed unattainable; the mills and abandoned buildings prevented access.  When my dad said that the last mill burned down at Great Falls in 2009, I was saddened but knew this provided a new opportunity for the community. This project is not about placing a building, but rather intervening and creatin...

  13. Radioactive pollution investigation and disposal of abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province

    The environment influence of five abandoned uranium mines in Jiangsu province from 1950s to 1960s is introduced. By monitoring air absorbed dose rate of external exposure γ radiation, it is found that the pollution scope of No.1 abandoned uranium mine is the biggest in five abandoned uranium mines. The No. 2 and No. 3 mine areas has achieved the limit use after they were desposed. The radioactivity and the gamma nuclein in solid samples(slag, soil, silt) and liquid samples (the surface water, the well water)of No. 1 abandoned uranium mine were further analyzed and measured, the measured values are higher. The pollution of abandoned uranium mines still exists and diffuses after 30 years. According to the monitoring results and the analysis of pollution present situation, suggestions and measures are proposed for the pollution control. (authors)

  14. Restoration of abandoned mine lands through cooperative coal resource evaluations

    The public reclamation cost of reclaiming all of Pennsylvania's abandoned mine lands is estimated at $15 billion. Drainage from abandoned mines poses another $5 billion water pollution clean-up problem. Although it is unlikely that public reclamation alone could ever tackle these problems, much can be done to alleviate the nuisances through the remining of previously mined areas to recover remaining reserves, restore the land and improve water quality in the same process. Remining of priority areas is encouraged through a new Pennsylvania policy which provides incentives to mining companies. One incentive, initiated under Pennsylvania's comprehensive mine reclamation strategy, is to identify and geologically map reminable coal resources in selected watersheds, and then to expedite mine permitting in these watersheds. At present, two such priority watersheds, Little Toby Creek in Elk County and Tangascootak Creek in Clinton County, are the focus of geologic map compilation based on recent quadrangle mapping, or new, directed, geologic mapping, including new research core drilling to establish the geologic stratigraphic framework. In order to maximize environmental benefits the comprehensive mine reclamation strategy identifies watersheds which are affected by acid mine drainage (AMD), but that are reasonably capable of restoration, if sufficient coal reserves remain. Pennsylvania's geochemical quality database of rock overburden, in combination with detailed coal resource mapping by the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, and the cooperation of coal companies and leaseholders, is being used by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) to identify and design remining projects which will not only allow the recovery of coal resources, but will also improve the water quality through a variety of innovative mining techniques

  15. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  16. Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings

    Chung, So Keul; Cho, Won Jai; Han, Kong Chang; Choi, Sung Oong [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Utilization of the openings of the abandoned mines could be planned by the principal parameters such as location and geotechnical impact. The local governments have not only to lead the each stage of the utilization project from the very beginning of conceptual design up to the construction stage, but also to promote the project for the development of public purpose. The possible tentative candidates for the utilization of the abandoned mine openings which are supported by the local governments could be summarized as follows. a. The Gahak mine of Kwangmyung, Kyunggi: The mine caverns which have been served as the storage of the pickled fishes, could be reexcavated by taking into consideration the geotechnical parameters for the public use such as: 1) Training center for the youth, 2) Fermentation and storehouse of marine products, 3) Sightseeing resort, 4) Sports and leisure complex, 5) Underground parking lot, 6) Underground shopping mall and chilled room storage, 7) Library, concert hall and museum. b. Hamtae mine of Taebaek, Kangwon: The Hambaek main haulage way and its shaft should be investigated in detail in order to find out a possible use as the underground challenging park of the coal mining operation. c. Mines of Boryung and Hongsung, Chungnam: Lots of mine caverns have been used as the storehouse for the pickled shrimp. However, they have to be promoted to a large scale industries. d. Imgok mine of Kwangju and Palbong mine of Jeongeup, Chunbuk: Mine caverns which have been used as the storehouse of pickles, need a detailed investigation for alternative promotion. e. Yongho mine of Pusan Dalsung mine of Taegu: Both of the mines are located near metropolitan communities. Reconstruction of the old mine caverns of the Yongho mine is highly recommended for a public use. The caverns of the Dalsung mine could be utilized as the storage facilities. Detailed geotechnical survey and sit investigation could be suggested to design the recommended facilities for both

  17. Concentration of heavy metal As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe and radon gas in bottom sediment from abandoned tin mines in the Phuket Province

    Suteerasak, T.

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed at analyzing the heavy metals: As, Pb, Mn, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cr, Fe, and radon gas emission in bottom sediment from six abandoned tin mines in Phuket Province. Fe, Mn, and Sn were found in higher concentrations (but non-polluting than Cr and Ni. As, Pb, and Zn were polluting at lower levels. The concentration ranges for As, Pb, and Zn were 75.3-169, 98.6-547.5, and 120.4-323.3 mg/kg respectively. The activity of radon gas emission from bottom sediment from an abandoned tin mine in Amphur Muang was in the range of 162-212 Bq/kg., in the Amphur Katoo mine the range was 122-266 Bq/kg. and in the Amphur Talang mine the range was 180-263 Bq/kg. All these sites have higher concentrations of radon gas emissions than other similar sites. The heavy metals and radon gas come from geochemical materials such as soil and granite rock, found around the abandoned tin mines.

  18. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  19. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands. PMID:27140199

  20. Abandonment terraced hillside and answer of the fire system: some results from Mediterranean old fields

    The abandonment of agricultural lands promotes temporal changes both in soil characteristics (i.e., increasing organic matter and other quality indicators) and in plant community (i.e., changing its composition and structure, and increasing the fuel load). As a consequence, we can expect differences in the resilience to fire as succession progresses. The aim of this work is to analyse the capacity of an ecosystem to return to pre-fire conditions as a function of the stage of abandonment of old agricultural lands. The study was carried out in the north of Alicante province (E Spain). In long-term abandoned lands, post-fire modulated plant response, which in turn determined soil crusting, runoff and erosion dynamics. In recently-abandoned lands, the plant community seemed less dependent on ratio to recover. Results show a large increase in soil surface crusting in the short term after the fire and it remained high at medium term in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forest. Fire scarcely modified runoff and erosion in recently-abandoned lands whereas in forest lands the post-fire values increased by some orders of magnitude and remained highly dependent on rain characteristics in the short and medium term after the fire. The results obtained show evidence of increased vulnerability to fire in long-abandoned lands colonised by pine forests. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods.

    Huhe

    Full Text Available In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively. The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands.

  2. Proceedings of the NOAMI workshop : a workshop to explore perspectives on risk assessment for orphaned and abandoned mines

    This workshop hosted by the National Orphaned/Abandoned Mines Initiative (NOAMI) discussed risk assessment strategies and perspectives for orphaned and abandoned mines in Canada. Different perspectives related to the risk assessment process were considered by participants from local, provincial, federal, and territorial agencies as well as non-governmental, academic, and mining industry organizations. Strategies for effectively communicating with local communities were discussed. New methods of assessing risk related to bioavailability and bioaccessibility were reviewed along with approaches to risk assessment and risk management in relation to the Environmental Management Act. Case studies of risk assessment and remediation projects were presented. The workshop presentations were divided into the following 6 sessions: (1) keynote, (2) opening panel, (3) human health panel, (4) ecological panel, (5) geotechnical-safety risk assessment panel, and (6) case studies and perspectives. The workshop featured 22 presentations, of which 2 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. A report on detailed ecological risk assessment (DERA) in British Columbia prepared by the Science Advisory Board for Contaminated Sites in British Columbia (BC) was included, as well as a final report that summarized presentations given at the workshop. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Preliminary investigation of the hydrogeology and contamination in the area of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia

    Prior to the introduction of natural gas pipelines in the 1950's, gas for lighting and heating in the US was produced from coal or oil at local manufacturing gas plants. By-products and wastes generated at these plants commonly were disposed of on site. The major wastes, which include tar and oil residues and sludges, spent oxides, and ash materials, can consist of a complex mixture of hundreds of aromatic organic compounds as well as cyanides and metals. An investigation was initiated in January 1989 in the vicinity of an abandoned manufactured gas plant in Albany, Georgia, to evaluate the hydrogeology and contamination of the area, and to test study techniques that may have application in similar situations. Geologic formations of interest to this investigation include, in descending order, unconsolidated sand and clay layers, The Ocala Limestone, and the Lisbon Formation. Surficial fill overlies the sand and clay layers throughout the study area. High concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons and various metals were detected in the unconsolidated sediments in the vicinity of the abandoned gas plant. Maximum concentrations of hydrocarbons detected sediment samples included 560,000 microg/kg naphthalene, 73,000 microg/kg ethylbenzene, 28,000 microg/kg benzene, and 24,000 microg/kg toluene. These higher concentrations of hydrocarbons were present in the vicinity of the former gas holding tanks. In that area, contamination extends at least to the depth of the contact between the unconsolidated sand and clay layers and the Ocala Limestone

  4. Modeling Wood Encroachment in Abandoned Grasslands in the Eifel National Park - Model Description and Testing.

    Silvana Hudjetz

    Full Text Available The degradation of natural and semi-natural landscapes has become a matter of global concern. In Germany, semi-natural grasslands belong to the most species-rich habitat types but have suffered heavily from changes in land use. After abandonment, the course of succession at a specific site is often difficult to predict because many processes interact. In order to support decision making when managing semi-natural grasslands in the Eifel National Park, we built the WoodS-Model (Woodland Succession Model. A multimodeling approach was used to integrate vegetation dynamics in both the herbaceous and shrub/tree layer. The cover of grasses and herbs was simulated in a compartment model, whereas bushes and trees were modelled in an individual-based manner. Both models worked and interacted in a spatially explicit, raster-based landscape. We present here the model description, parameterization and testing. We show highly detailed projections of the succession of a semi-natural grassland including the influence of initial vegetation composition, neighborhood interactions and ungulate browsing. We carefully weighted the single processes against each other and their relevance for landscape development under different scenarios, while explicitly considering specific site conditions. Model evaluation revealed that the model is able to emulate successional patterns as observed in the field as well as plausible results for different population densities of red deer. Important neighborhood interactions such as seed dispersal, the protection of seedlings from browsing ungulates by thorny bushes, and the inhibition of wood encroachment by the herbaceous layer, have been successfully reproduced. Therefore, not only a detailed model but also detailed initialization turned out to be important for spatially explicit projections of a given site. The advantage of the WoodS-Model is that it integrates these many mutually interacting processes of succession.

  5. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    Lee, U.J.; Kim, J.A.; Kim, S.S. [Coal Industry Promotion Board, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, W.K.; Yoon, S.H.; Choi, J.K. [Ssangyong Information and Communication Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  6. Land abandonment, fire recurrence and soil carbon content in the Macizo del Caroig, Eastern Spain

    Cerdá, A.; González Peñaloza, F.; Santín, C.; Doerr, S. H.

    2012-04-01

    During the last 50 years two main forces have driven the fate of Mediterranean landscapes: land abandonment and forest fires (MacDonald et al., 2000; Moreira et al., 2001). Due to the economical changes suffered by the of the Mediterranean countries after the Second World War, the population migrated from the rural to the urban areas, and from South to North Europe. The land abandonment allowed the vegetation to recover and, as a consequence, an increase in forest fire took place. The soils of the abandoned land recovered the vegetation and litter layers, and consequently changes in soil properties have being found. One of these changes is the increase of soil carbon content, which is due both to vegetation recovery and to fire occurrence that increases the ash and pyrogenic carbon content in soils. Twenty plots were selected in the Macizo del Caroig in Eastern Spain on soils developed on limestone. The period of abandonment and the forest fires that had affected each plot were determined by interviews with the owners, farmers and shepherds. In addition, six (three + three) plots were selected as forest (no plough) and cultivated control plots. Each plot was sampled (10 random samples) and the organic carbon content determined. The results show that the cultivated plots have organic matter contents of 1.02 %, and the forest (Quercus ilex sp.) plots reach the highest value: 14.98 %. Within those we found values that range from 2.34 %, in the recently abandoned plots (10 year abandonment), to values of 8.23 % in the 50 year old abandoned fields.The results demonstrate that there is a recovery of the organic carbon in abandoned soils and that the forest fires do no affect this trend. The increase of soil organic matter after abandonment is a result of the recovery of vegetation(Debussche et al., 2001), which is the consequence of the end of the disturbance of forest that have affected the Mediterranean for millennia (Barbero et al., 1990). The colonization of the

  7. Management of mining-related damages in abandoned underground coal mine areas using GIS

    The mining-related damages such as ground subsidence, acid mine drainage (AMD), and deforestation in the abandoned underground coal mine areas become an object of public concern. Therefore, the system to manage the mining-related damages is needed for the effective drive of rehabilitation activities. The management system for Abandoned Underground Coal Mine using GIS includes the database about mining record and information associated with the mining-related damages and application programs to support mine damage prevention business. Also, this system would support decision-making policy for rehabilitation and provide basic geological data for regional construction works in abandoned underground coal mine areas. (authors)

  8. Bioaccumulation of cesium-137 in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned nuclear reactor reservoir

    Bioaccumulation of 137Cs was investigated in yellow bullhead catfish (Ameiurus natalis) inhabiting an abandoned reactor reservoir, Pond B, Savannah River Site, Barnwell Co., South Carolina. The authors collected fish by trap-netting, and determined ages from pectoral spines. Muscle and other tissues were assayed for 137Cs by NaI-scintillation. Music 137Cs was unrelated to sex or mass of fish, but was related to age. Examination of least-squares means suggested that 137Cs in muscle increased up to about age 3, but did not increase with greater age. A modified Richards model showed equilibrium 137Cs concentration in muscle was acquired in approximately 2.4 years. Growth differed between sexes and the time to asymptotic body mass was longer than the time to attain equilibrium 137Cs concentration. Males attained an asymptotic mass of 577 g in approximately 6.3 years; females attained an asymptotic mass of 438 g in approximately 5.9 years. The cumulative 137Cs burden of the population was 4.9 x 106 Bq, representing 137Cs inventory of the reservoir. Concentration of 137Cs varied among tissues with gill and muscle the lowest and highest. Concentration of 137Cs in ovaries declined with increasing ovary mass. Until equilibrium is attained in these fish, 137Cs concentration is directly related to increasing age rather than size

  9. Hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially-flooded, abandoned underground coal mine

    The hydrologic and water quality characteristics of a partially flooded, abandoned underground coal mine near Latrobe, PA, were studied to support the development of techniques for in situ abatement of its acidic discharge. A quantitative understanding of the conditions affecting discharge flow was considered to be very important in this regard. Statistical analysis of hydrologic data collected at the site shows that the flow rate of the main discharge (a borehole that penetrates the mine workings just behind a set of portal seals) is a linear function of the height of the mine pool above the borehole outlet. Seepage through or around the portal seals is collected by a set of french drains whose discharge rate is largely independent of the mine pool elevation. This seepage was enhanced after a breakthrough that occurred during a period of unusually high pool levels. The mine pool recharge rate during winter is about 2.5 times greater than that of any other season; recharge rates during spring, summer, and fall are approximately equal. Mine pool and discharge water quality information, along with bromide tracer tests, suggest that the original main entries discharge primarily to the french drains, while the borehole carries the discharge from an unmonitored set of entries northwest of the mains. The water quality of the east french drain discharge may have been improved substantially after seepage through the alkaline materials used to construct the portal seals

  10. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Water Resources Kettara Abandoned Mine

    Mouhsine Esshaimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Metal mining; together with mineral smelting and processing, have contaminated the environment surrounding mine areas throughout the world exceeding natural background concentration. Approach: These processes introduce metal contaminants into the environment through gaseous and particulate emissions, waste liquids and solid wastes. The principal objective of this study was to investigate soil and water contamination in the vicinity of the kettara abandoned mine located in the South of Morocco. Results: High total concentrations of heavy metals were found in both tailings and soil samples. Furthermore in the tailings the maximum concentrations of the mobile fraction of metals were 76, 80 and 79 mg kg-1 of Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively, for the soil samples the maximum concentrations values were 68, 52 and 26 mg kg-1 of Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. As a result of dispersion of the metals downstream and downslope, soils contained higher metal concentrations than those from nearby control sites (P42. Conclusion/Recommendations: According to this study, the agricultural activity in the vicinity of the kettara mine requires careful consideration. Recultivation of the tailings and the remediation of surface water and soil are recommended.

  11. Atmospheric impact of abandoned boreal organic agricultural soils depends on hydrological conditions

    Maljanen, M.; Martikainen, P.J. [Univ. of Eastern Finland, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Science], E-Mail: marja.maljanen@uef.fi; Hytonen, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland); Makiranta, P.; Minkkinen, K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Forest Sciences; Laine, J. [Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland)

    2013-09-01

    Drained agricultural peat soils are significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) but also small sinks for methane (CH{sub 4}). Leaving these soils without any cultivation practice could be an option to mitigate GHG emissions. To test this hypothesis, we measured, over a three year period, net CO{sub 2} exchange and fluxes of CH{sub 4} for five agricultural peat soils that had been abandoned for 20-30 years. Annually, the sites were either small net sinks or sources of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} (-7,8 to 530 g CO{sub 2}-Cm {sup -2} and -0,41 to 1,8 g CH{sub 4}m{sup -2}). Including N{sub 2}O emissions from our previous study, the net (CH{sub 4}+CO{sub 2}+N{sub 2}O) emissions as CO{sub 2} equivalents were lower than in cultivated peat soils and were lowest in the wet year. Therefore, high GHG emissions from these soils could be avoided if the water table is maintained close to the soil surface when photosynthesis is favoured over respiration. (orig.)

  12. Use of field screening test kits to delineate hydrocarbon contamination of an abandoned fuel distribution system

    Field screening test kits were recently used to delineate hydrocarbon contamination in soils 3,000-ft-long abandoned fuel line and distribution system. The purpose of using the kits was to minimize characterization expenses while providing reliable and cost-effective information. More than 200 tests were run on soils at depths from surface to 10 ft below the land surface. The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) test used immunoassay technology to detect TPH values below 10 ppm. Fixed-base laboratory analyses were performed on 36% of the samples collected for field screening. A review of the screening results and the fixed-based laboratory results show that the field tests were replicated by a problem that was encountered as a result of heat-damage to the test kits, but the end results showed that the information obtained from the immunoassay results could still be used to drive the investigation and help determine the conclusion of the field effort. As a result of this screening effort, future site characterization efforts will be able to focus on specific areas of soil contamination. The test kit selected and used was PETRO RIS reg-sign Soil Test, manufactured by EnSys Environmental Products, Inc. Using this technology eliminated the delay in waiting for laboratory results and the higher costs associated with gas chromatography. Immunoassay kits are an important tool in field screening efforts and save time and monies

  13. Mercury in soils and plants in an abandoned cinnabar mining area (SW Spain).

    García-Sánchez, A; Murciego, A; Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Regina, I Santa; Rodríguez-González, M A

    2009-09-15

    An abandoned cinnabar mining area located in the South-West of Spain has been studied with the aim of assessing its mercury pollution level and enhancing the knowledge about the Hg soil/plant relationship. To do so, soils and plants were sampled near an inactive smelter and around two mining sites present in this area. Critical total Hg concentrations were found in the close environs of pollutant sources. These also show high levels of elemental Hg (up to 8 mg kg(-1)), but quite low exchangeable Hg contents (0.008-0.038 mg kg(-1)). Most plant specimens display in their aboveground tissues Hg concentrations comprised in the range 0.1-10 mg kg(-1), with a great proportion (50%) showing critical levels. Greater Hg contents were found in plant specimens growing in soils with higher elemental Hg concentrations. The plant species displaying the greatest Hg levels are either perennial species of small-medium size and/or showing medium-highly corrugated leaves, or annual plants of small size. Marrubium vulgare L., Bromus madritensis L. and Trifolium angustifolium L. are the plant species with the highest Hg contents (37.6, 12.7 and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively). Leaf specific surface seems an important feature in the atmospheric Hg uptake by plants. PMID:19345007

  14. Characterization of an abandoned pastoral area in the Northern Apennines, Italy

    Argenti G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of an investigation carried out within the research project "Study and improvement of woods and shrubbery derived from abandoned agricultural areas" (RiSelvItalia Project. Changes occurred in the past 50 years in the pastoral area of S. Paolo in Alpe (Appennino Romagnolo, Northern Apennines, Italy were described on the grounds of photo-interpretation of three sets of aerial photos (1955, 1976, 1997. A high reduction of the surface of sowable lands and pastures (from 80% to 33% was pointed out, together with an increase of shrubbery (from 5% to 18% and woods (from 0 to 42%. The characterization of woods, shrubbery and pastures was performed through structural transects and phyto-sociological investigations. Thus it was possible to reconstruct the dynamic series of vegetation, from grasslands belonging to the association Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti (Festuco-Brometea to woods referable to the association Aceri obtusati-quercetum cerridis (Querco-Fagetea. Investigations on meadows revealed also a good quality of pastures, not only in open grasslands (mean pastoral value - VP - of 30, but even in partially shrubby areas (VP 21. Some guidelines for a multi-purpose exploitation of the site are suggested, taking into account not only economic aspects, but also the conservation of environment and landscape.

  15. ENVIRONMENTAL EQUITY IN SUPERFUND: DEMOGRAPHICS OF THE DISCOVERY AND PRIORITIZATION OF ABANDONED TOXIC SITES. (R823185)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. COMPACTED SOIL BARRIERS OF ABANDONED LANDFILL SITES ARE LIKELY TO FAIL IN THE LONG-TERM

    Buried wastes are isolated from the environment by barriers constructed entirely or in part of compacted soil. he chief concern in barrier design has been to isolate the waste in the short term by preventing movement of water into and through the waste. owever, in the long term a...

  17. Abandoned Uranium Mine (AUM) Priority-Tronox Mine Sites, Navajo Nation, 2016, US EPA Region 9

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 9 mines that are Tronox enforcement actions and are classified as priority mines. USEPA and NNEPA prioritized 46 mines based on gamma radiation levels,...

  18. New Strategies for Finding Abandoned Wells at Proposed Geologic Storage Sites for CO2

    Hammack, R.W.; Veloski, G.A.

    2007-09-01

    Prior to the injection of CO2 into geological formations, either for enhanced oil recovery or for CO2 sequestration, it is necessary to locate wells that perforate the target formation and are within the radius of influence for planned injection wells. Locating and plugging wells is necessary because improperly plugged well bores provide the most rapid route for CO2 escape to the surface. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of helicopter and ground-based well detection strategies at a 100+ year old oilfield in Wyoming where a CO2 flood is planned. This project was jointly funded by the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory and Fugro Airborne Surveys.

  19. Abandoned military training sites are an overlooked refuge for at-risk open habitat bird species

    Reif, J.; Marhoul, P.; Čížek, O.; Konvička, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 14 (2011), s. 3645-3662. ISSN 0960-3115 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic(CZ) SP/2D3/153/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : abundance * bird * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.238, year: 2011

  20. Impact of acid mine drainages on surficial waters of an abandoned mining site.

    García-Lorenzo, M L; Marimón, J; Navarro-Hervás, M C; Pérez-Sirvent, C; Martínez-Sánchez, M J; Molina-Ruiz, José

    2016-04-01

    Weathering of sulphide minerals produces a great variety of efflorescences of soluble sulphate salts. These minerals play an important role for environmental pollution, since they can be either a sink or a source for acidity and trace elements. This paper aims to characterise surface waters affected by mining activities in the Sierra Minera of Cartagena-La Union (SE, Spain). Water samples were analysed for trace metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, As and Fe), major ions (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) and anions (F(-), Cl(-), NO3 (-), CO3 (2-), SO4 (2-)) concentrations and were submitted to an "evaporation-precipitation" experiment that consisted in identifying the salts resulting from the evaporation of the water aliquots sampled onsite. Mineralogy of the salts was studied using X-ray diffraction and compared with the results of calculations using VISUAL MINTEQ. The study area is heavily polluted as a result of historical mining and processing activities that has produced large amount of wastes characterised by a high trace elements content, acidic pH and containing minerals resulting from the supergene alteration of the raw materials. The mineralogical study of the efflorescences obtained from waters shows that magnesium, zinc, iron and aluminium sulphates predominate in the acid mine drainage precipitates. Minerals of the hexahydrite group have been quantified together with minerals of the rozenite group, alunogen and other phases such as coquimbite and copiapite. Calcium sulphates correspond exclusively to gypsum. In a semiarid climate, such as that of the study area, these minerals contribute to understand the response of the system to episodic rainfall events. MINTEQ model could be used for the analysis of waters affected by mining activities but simulation of evaporation gives more realistic results considering that MINTEQ does not consider soluble hydrated salts. PMID:26347422

  1. Induction of methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation by Hepatic Microsomes of wild cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from an abandoned oil refinery

    Analysis of methoxyresorufin and ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase MROD and EROD activity was performed on hepatic microsomes from wild caught hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Cotton rats were collected in January and September of 1991 and March and September 1992 from 6 sites on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Three contaminated sites consisted of an oily sludge treatment ares, sludge storage pits, and sludge traps; there were 3 matching reference sites. Fifty to 60 adult male cotton rats were collected at each sampling period. Results comparing pooled activity of contaminated to reference sites revealed a significant increase in both MROD and EROD activity in the September collections. No significant increase in MROD or EROD activity was seen at the same sites for collections carried out in January 1991 and March 1992. A hypothesis to explain these findings will be proposed

  2. Geophysical Investigation of an Abandoned Cemetery: Teachers Discover Evidence of Unmarked Graves in Prairie View, TX

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Baldwin, R.; Kahera, A.; Thoms, A.

    2007-12-01

    In July 2007, a group of nineteen K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface. In a period of two weeks, the group acquired and interpreted 59 GPR profiles in Wyatt Chapel Cemetery and surrounding areas in order to determine the local stratigraphy and try to locate unmarked graves. The sandy soil in this area is ideally suited for GPR investigations and numerous geophysical anomalies were identified. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850's. Participants in a summer course at Rice University conducted a geophysical investigation of the site. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. GPR is an excellent tool for investigating the sandy soil encountered at Wyatt Chapel Cemetery. The stratigraphy in the area consists of 3-6 feet of reddish-brown, medium-grained sand overlying a light gray, highly compacted clay. The sand-clay boundary appears as a strong reflector on the GPR profiles. Participants identified numerous anomalies in the GPR data and two were excavated. One consisted of a pair of bright hyperbolae, suggesting two edges of a metal object. This excavation resulted in the discovery of a metal plank thought to be a burial cover. The second anomaly consisted of a break in the horizon representing the top of the clay layer, and subsequent excavation revealed a grave shaft. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used

  3. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg‑1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  4. Geophysics and Texas History: Teachers Utilize GPS and GPR Technology to Help Restore an Abandoned Cemetery

    Henning, A. T.; Sawyer, D. S.; Wallace, D.; Kahera, A.

    2009-12-01

    In July 2009, a group of twenty-six K-12 teachers investigated an abandoned cemetery in Prairie View, Texas, utilizing ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to image the subsurface and handheld global positioning system (GPS) units and a total station to record surface positions. The teachers were participants in a summer course at Rice University, ESCI 515: Geophysical Field Work for Educators. The course met for 8 full days over a two week period. During this time, the group acquired and interpreted 53 GPR profiles and over 700 GPS positions. The results of the study were presented to the Prairie View community at the end of the two weeks, and our data will be used in their effort to obtain a historical site designation for the cemetery. Wyatt Chapel Cemetery is located adjacent to the campus of Prairie View A&M University in Prairie View, TX, and is thought to have originated as a slave burial ground in the 1850’s. There are very few markers remaining, but a previous ESCI 515 course (in summer 2007) discovered multiple unmarked burials using GPR, which were confirmed by subsequent excavations. This past summer, ESCI 515 participants acquired GPR profiles in previously unexplored areas, used a total station to accurately record the positions of surface features such as headstones, and used handheld GPS units to map the location of a nearby stream bed. Participants were in-service K-12 teachers from urban Houston school districts where the majority of students are members of historically underrepresented minority groups. Recruitment efforts targeted educators who are currently teaching science without a science degree. Participants included elementary, middle and high school teachers. This summer experience is followed by a content-intensive academic year course in Physical Geology. Participants experienced the process of science first-hand and used science for community service (i.e. restoring an abandoned cemetery). Through background research, they derived a rich

  5. Irritations caused by the abandonment of national spent fuel management

    The announcement of the intended expansion of German-French cooperation in the field of reprocessing and the abandonment soon after of the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant caught the German nuclear community completely by surprise. The range of reactions extended between profound disappointment and concern on the one hand and relief on the other hand and caused satisfaction and feelings of victory in the nuclear opposition camp. After the short period of time since that decision it is possible to attempt to assess in a more relaxed spirit both the intentions and the resultant new situation in the field of reprocessing in the Federal Republic of Germany. This reveals that also the European solution offers advantages worth being taken into account in addition to the arguments, which are still valid, in favor of reprocessing in Germany. Attention should also be drawn to a different strategy, that of prolonged intermediate storage, which is being employed in major countries, but not being considered in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  6. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    Bockgaard, Niclas (Golder Associates AB (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  7. Groundwater flow modelling of an abandoned partially open repository

    As a part of the license application, according to the nuclear activities act, for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken a series of groundwater flow modelling studies. These represent time periods with different hydraulic conditions and the simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. The modelling study presented here serves as an input for analyses of so-called future human actions that may affect the repository. The objective of the work was to investigate the hydraulic influence of an abandoned partially open repository. The intention was to illustrate a pessimistic scenario of the effect of open tunnels in comparison to the reference closure of the repository. The effects of open tunnels were studied for two situations with different boundary conditions: A 'temperate' case with present-day boundary conditions and a generic future 'glacial' case with an ice sheet covering the repository. The results were summarized in the form of analyses of flow in and out from open tunnels, the effect on hydraulic head and flow in the surrounding rock volume, and transport performance measures of flow paths from the repository to surface

  8. Water pollution - control of pollution regulations: water pollution from abandoned mines; pre-notification of mine abandonment consultation paper and draft regulations

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The paper contains proposals to specify the content of the pre-abandonment notices which UK mine operators will be required to give in the future. The proposals are designed to enhance the Environment Agency`s ability to tackle water pollution from abandoned mines. They set out the precise contents of the notification, which mine operators will have to send to the Agency at least six months in advance of any intended abandonment. The regulations will cover coal and non-coal mines. Estimated compliance costs to business have been drawn up following consultation with the Department of Trade and Industry, the Health and Safety Executive, the Coal Authority and the Environment Agency. The regulations are due in late spring 1998.

  9. Fiscal Year 1998 Well Installation, Plugging and Abandonment, and Redevelopment summary report Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    None

    1998-12-01

    This report summarizes the well installation, plugging and abandonment, and redevelopment activities conducted during the federal fiscal year (FY) 1998 at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Five new groundwater monitoring wells were installed at the Y-12 Plant under the FY 1998 drilling program. Two of the wells are located in west Bear Creek Valley, one is in the eastern Y-12 Plant area near Lake Reality, and two are located near the Oil Landfarm Waste Management Area, which were installed by Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (Bechtel Jacobs) as part of a site characterization activity for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Disposal Cell. Also, two existing wells were upgraded and nine temporary piezometers were installed to characterize hydrogeologic conditions at the Disposal Cell site. In addition, 40 temporary piezometers were installed in the Boneyard/Bumyard area of Bear Creek Valley by Bechtel Jacobs as part of the accelerated remedial actions conducted by the Environmental Restoration Program. Ten monitoring wells at the Y-12 Plant were decommissioned in FY 1998. Two existing monitoring wells were redeveloped during FY 1998 (of these, GW-732 was redeveloped tsvice). All well installation and development (including redevelopment) was conducted following industry-standard methods and approved procedures from the Environmental Surveillance Procedures Quality Control Program (Energy Systems 1988); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Groundwater Monitoring Technical Enforcement Guidance Document (EPA 1992); and the Monitoring Well Installation Plan for the Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Energy Systems 1997a). Well installation and development of the non-Y-12 Plant GWPP oversight installation projects were conducted using procedures/guidance defined in the following documents: Work Plan for Support to Upper East Fork Poplar Creek East End Volatile Organic Compound Plumes Well Installation Project, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge

  10. Morphological alterations in cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) from an abandoned petrochemical refinery with emphasis on dental lesions

    Hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected in January and September of 1991 and March and September 1992 from six sites on or near an abandoned oil refinery in Oklahoma. Three contaminated sites consisted of an oil sludge treatment area, sludge storage pits, and sludge traps. There were 3 matched reference sites. The most prominent morphological alterations were in teeth. The normal color of cotton rat incisors is deep yellow-orange, which is imparted by a pigment produced by ameloblasts. Sixty-one of 107 animals from the contaminated site and one of 102 animals from the reference sites had grossly abnormal teeth. The abnormal incisors were pale and mottled. Microscopic examination of the undecalcified normal and abnormal incisors revealed that the enamel of the abnormal teeth was irregular, and lacked pigment, focally or diffusely unlike the regular, smooth, normally pigmented enamel in the teeth that were grossly normal. This lack of pigmentation is attributed to the degenerative and necrotic changes in the ameloblasts of abnormal incisors. Possible causes of these lesions will be discussed. Other pathological alternations including urinary bladder calcification will be briefly discussed

  11. Numerical Simulation of Abandoned Gob Methane Drainage through Surface Vertical Wells.

    Wei Qin

    Full Text Available The influence of the ventilation system on the abandoned gob weakens, so the gas seepage characteristics in the abandoned gob are significantly different from those in a normal mining gob. In connection with this, this study physically simulated the movement of overlying rock strata. A spatial distribution function for gob permeability was derived. A numerical model using FLUENT for abandoned gob methane drainage through surface wells was established, and the derived spatial distribution function for gob permeability was imported into the numerical model. The control range of surface wells, flow patterns and distribution rules for static pressure in the abandoned gob under different well locations were determined using the calculated results from the numerical model.

  12. Abandoned Vessels and Barges, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1996) [barge_LOSCO_1996

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset with two accompanying 'sample tables' [vabfldsmpap96] and [vablabsmpap96] that summarize the results of the study to inventory abandoned...

  13. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Biagioni, K. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs.

  14. The public health effects of abandoned coal mine workings on residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo

    Abandoned coal mine groundwater frequently contains depressed pH levels and elevated levels of hydrogen sulphide, iron, aluminium and nitrates. Abandoned coal mine groundwater is also usually high in copper, zinc, mercury, and lead. Groundwater from abandoned mines can seriously affect public health through the discharge of non-point source pollution. This paper presents information on a research project regarding the possible impacts of abandoned coal mines and its effects on groundwater as it relates to the health of residents in South Wellington, Nanaimo, British Columbia. The purpose of the project is to determine which illnesses are more common in South Wellington, Nanaimo and in the control area. The paper provides a discussion of the Nanaimo coal field and three major seams; the Wellington, Newcastle and Douglas which are most likely to have a significant impact on groundwater in South Wellington. 27 refs

  15. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: VESSELS (Grounded, Abandoned, and Derelict Vessel Points)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for grounded, abandoned, and derelict vessels in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector points in this data...

  16. Contaminants in bats roosting in abandoned mines at Imperial National Wildlife Refuge, Arizona, 1998-1999

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report documents levels and potential effects of trace element and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in four bats species collected from four abandoned...

  17. The impact of land abandonment on species richness and abundance in the Mediterranean Basin

    Plieninger, Tobias; Hui, Cang; Gaertner, Mirijam;

    2014-01-01

    species richness and abundance in agroforestry, arable land, pastures, and permanent crops of the Mediterranean Basin. In particular, we investigated (1) which taxonomic groups (arthropods, birds, lichen, vascular plants) are more affected by land abandonment; (2) at which spatial and temporal scales...... the effect of land abandonment on species richness and abundance is pronounced; (3) whether previous land use and current protected area status affect the magnitude of changes in the number and abundance of species; and (4) how prevailing landforms and climate modify the impacts of land abandonment. After...... identifying 1240 potential studies, 154 cases from 51 studies that offered comparisons of species richness and abundance and had results relevant to our four areas of investigation were selected for meta-analysis. Results are that land abandonment showed slightly increased (effect size = 0.2109, P,0...

  18. Application of X-ray NDE in treating with chemical weapons abandoned by Japan

    According as need of treating with CW abandoned by Japan, this paper designs a X-ray NDE system for chemical weapons. It consist of X-ray shooting unit, control and identification unit and some assistant equipment. (authors)

  19. The application of X-ray NDE in treating with chemical weapons abandoned by Japan

    According as need of treating with CW abandoned by Japan, this paper designs a X-ray NDE system for chemical weapons, it consist of X-ray shooting unit, control and identification unit and some assistant equipments

  20. Dispersion of Metals from Abandoned Mines and their Effects on Biota in the Methow River, Okanogan County, Washington : Annual Report 3/15/00-3/14/01.

    Peplow, Dan; Edmonds, Robert

    2001-06-01

    The University of Washington, College of Forest Resources and the Center for Streamside Studies in Seattle, Washington, is being funded by the Bonneville Power Administration to conduct a three-year research project to measure the watershed scale response of stream habitat to abandoned mine waste, the dispersion of metals, and their effects on biota in the Methow River basin. The purpose of this project is to determine if there are processes and pathways that result in the dispersion of metals from their source at abandoned mines to biological receptors in the Methow River. The objectives of this study are the following: (1) Assess ecological risk due to metal contamination from mines near the Methow; (2) Measure impact of metals from mines on groundwater and sediments in Methow River; (3) Measure response of organisms in the Methow River to excess metals in the sediments of the Methow River; (4) Recommend restoration guidelines and biological goals that target identified pathways and processes of metal pollution affecting salmon habitat in the Methow basin; and (5) Submit peer review journal publications. When concluded, this study will contribute to the advancement of current best management practices by describing the processes responsible for the release of metals from small abandoned mine sites in an arid environment, their dispersal pathways, and their chemical and biological impacts on the Methow River. Based on these processes and pathways, specific remediation recommendations will be proposed.

  1. Long-term persistence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in air, soil and sediment around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory in China

    Air, soils and sediments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory were sampled to determine the levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), unintentionally formed during PCP production. The mean concentration of PCDD/Fs in ambient air was one order of magnitude higher than that of the reference site. A trend of decreasing concentrations with increasing distance from the factory was observed, suggesting this site has a significant influence on the regional ambient air. As for soil samples collected within 3 km from the factory and sediment samples from the adjacent rivers, high levels of contamination were found with WHO-TEQ concentrations of 193 ± 211 pg/g and 667 ± 978 pg/g, respectively. The PCDD/F homologue profiles of all samples were consistent with those found in the technical product of PCP, with OCDD as the dominant congener. These results indicate PCDD/Fs in the historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - Highlights: ► PCDD/Fs were investigated in various environmental compartments surrounding an abandoned pentachlorophenol (PCP) factory. ► High levels of PCDD/F contamination were found in ambient air, soils and the sediments around this factory. ► PCDD/F homologue profiles were consistent with PCDD/Fs in technical product of PCP. ► PCDD/Fs in this historical contaminated site pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment. - PCDD/Fs around an abandoned pentachlorophenol factory pose a long-term impact on surrounding environment.

  2. Abandon jako instytucja morskiego prawa ubezpieczeniowego. Wybrane aspekty prawnoporównawcze

    Ziemiak, Michał P.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the issue of abandonment (referred in Poland as “abandon”) in Polish Maritime Code and also in Russian, French and UK legislation. First part opens with overall remarks on marine insurance law as well as abandonment and its functions. Next the author focuses on problems of actual total loss (ATL) and constructive total loss (CTL). Redundant legislative approaches towards defi nitions and purposes of ATL and CTL are presented. This part additionally in...

  3. When Organizations Deinstitutionalize Control Practices: A Multiple-Case Study of Budget Abandonment

    Becker , Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a framework of deinstitutionalization, this study explores the abandonment of budgeting through a multiple-case study of four companies. The findings illustrate how a number of antecedents to deinstitutionalization acted in each setting and show that abandonment was only achieved through skillful agency by dominant insiders to construct the need and manage for change. In addition, an interesting finding of the study is that two of the four companies reversed the deinstitutionalizat...

  4. The Dynamics of Social Change: Towards the abandonment of FGM/C in five African countries

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2010-01-01

    This Innocenti Insight examines the social dynamics of the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) in five countries - Egypt, Ethiopia, Kenya, Senegal and the Sudan - and seeks to inform policies and programmes aimed at ending the practice. The experiences from the five countries documented in this Innocenti Insight provide evidence that the abandonment of FGM/C is possible when programmes and policies address the complex social dynamics associated with the practice and chall...

  5. Analysis and Application of Coal Seam Seismic Waves for detection of Abandoned Mines

    Yancey, Daniel Jackson

    2006-01-01

    It is not uncommon for underground coal mining to be conducted in the proximity of abandoned underground mines that are prone to accumulate water, methane or other toxic gases, and are often either poorly mapped or without good surface survey control. Mining into such abandoned voids poses a great safety risk to personnel, equipment, and production from inundation or toxic/explosive gas release. Often, surface or underground drilling is employed to detect the mine void and e...

  6. Geochemistry and environmental threats of soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mine

    Bori Dols, Jaume; Valles Malet, Bettina; Navarro Flores, Andrés Francisco; Riva Juan, Mª del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The closure of mercury mining areas is generally associated with a release of Hg and other metals into the environment due to the abandonment of mining wastes. Because of their potential toxic properties, the mobilization of particulate and soluble metal species is of major concern. In the present study, the environmental risks posed by soils surrounding an abandoned mercury mining area in Valle del Azogue (Almeria, Spain) are assessed through the determination of physical-chemical parameters...

  7. Learning to let go: Social influence, learning, and the abandonment of corporate venture capital practices

    Gaba, V.; Dokko, G

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Research summary: This study examines the abandonment of organizational practices. We argue that firm choices in implementing practices affect how firms experience a practice and their subsequent likelihood of abandonment. We focus on utilization of the practice and staffing (i.e. career backgrounds of managers), as two important implementation choices that firms make. The findings demonstrate that practice utilization and staffing choices not only affect abando...

  8. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez; María B. Díaz-Aguado

    2014-01-01

    Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as we...

  9. Influence of heavy metals pollution in borehole water collected within abandoned battery industry, Essien Udim, Nigeria

    Uffia, I. Dan; Etim D. E

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical and heavy metals analyses of water samples from three boreholes located within abandoned battery company in Essien Udim LGA, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria was carried out to ascertain the impact of pollution from battery industry on groundwater quality. Borehole locations were at different distances of 0km, 2km, and 5km (X1, X11 and X111) respectively away from the abandoned battery vicinity. The parameters determined included; turbidity, temperature, pH, Dissolved oxygen (DO), ...

  10. Towards a New Psychoanalytic Theory of Abandonment: A Feminist Intervention Via Myth

    Gamboa Solis, Flor De Maria

    2008-01-01

    Summary of early research which led to the current study of the myths Clinical background to the current research on myths My work as an academic and my private clinical practice offered me the opportunity to attend female students and patients who in some way had experienced abandonment due to migration. While listening to them I was often forced to question the clinical strategies I was employing and to interrogate the psychoanalytic approaches that established abandonment as a paradigm of ...

  11. COLONIZATION OF MANGROVE FOREST AT ABANDONED SHRIMP-POND OF SEGARA ANAKAN-CILACAP

    Tjut Sugandawaty Djohan

    2015-01-01

    During the 1996 to 1997, large areas of mangrove forest in the Segara Anakan were cleared and converted into intensive shrimp-ponds. After one to two years, these shrimp-ponds failed and were abandoned. These abandoned ponds created large gap areas and canopy gaps, which were colonized by mangrove shrub and liana. The Segara Anakan mangrove also experienced heavy siltation, and there were tree cuttings from the remnant of the mangrove trees. This research aimed to study the colonization of ma...

  12. Response surfaces for CO2 leakage from geologic storage along abandoned wellbores

    Jordan, A.; Carey, J. W.; Pawar, R. J.; Stauffer, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    The storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic reservoirs that have previously been drilled for oil and gas exploration is under investigation worldwide as an option for reducing the amount of anthropogenic carbon introduced to the atmosphere. Reservoirs that have already been tapped for hydrocarbon production have several benefits over development of new sites: they tend to be geologically well-understood, with existing wellbore data to help further characterize the local geologic framework; are known to be conducive to trapping buoyant or pressurized fluids; may have infrastructure in place; and are likely to be already impacted ecologically as compared to pristine sites. One downside to using depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs is the potential for CO2 leakage along pre-existing wellbores that were either not designed for CO2 sequestration or have been improperly plugged and abandoned. The primary goal of this study is to develop estimates of possible wellbore leakage rates of CO2 from storage reservoirs to the surface and/or into overlaying aquifers, as a function of wellbore properties and the surrounding geologic framework. The Finite Element Heat and Mass transfer code (FEHM) was used to perform Monte Carlo simulations of multiphase flow along wellbores across a wide range of geologic and wellbore parameters. Several wellbore scenarios were studied, including a simple wellbore between the CO2 storage reservoir and the surface; a wellbore intersecting a saline aquifer ("thief zone"); and a wellbore intersecting both a thief zone and a freshwater aquifer. The Problem Solving environment for Uncertainty Analysis and Design Exploration (PSUADE) software was used to analyze results and produce response surfaces for the estimation of wellbore flow rate as a function of the primary factors that influence leakage. These results will be used to develop abstractions for leakage rates to be incorporated in performance assessments of geologic CO2 storage, which will help

  13. Field inoculation rates of mycorrhizal fungi in revegetation of abandoned coal mine lands

    Noyd, R.K.; Pfleger, F.L. [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Abandoned coal mine land (AML) sites in southern Illinois and western North Dakota contain areas that are difficult to revegetate due to low fertility (1-3 mg kg-1 N and P), little organic matter, and acidic (3-4, Illinois) or alkaline ({approximately}8, North Dakota) pH. Areas such as these may benefit from inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi to assist in the establishment of vegetative cover. Potential sources of adapted mycorrhizal inoculum were found in reclaimed overburden sites with large AM fungal spore densities (100 and 33 spores g{sup -1} Illinois and North Dakota, respectively). Soils from these locations were used to determine an infective inoculation rate by a mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP) bioassy. Inoculum, consisting of rhizosphere soil and dried roots, was mixed into overburden in proportions of 0, 1, 2.5, 25, 50 and 100% (w/w), placed into containers, and sown with a single 12-day old seedling of Andropogon gerardii Vitm. (big bluestem), a native prairie species known to respond favorably to AM fungi. After 14 days, shoots were dried and weighed and the root system was collected, cleared, stained, and assessed for percent root length colonized by AM fungi. An inoculum proportion of 1% in Illinois and 2.5% in North Dakota overburden produced moderate (16%) root colonization. These inoculum proportions were selected for rates of field inoculation because they were the lowest proportions that were both infective and effective in increasing shoot biomass of A. gerardii. In both soils, this level of root colonization was about one-third of the maximum colonization (50%) obtained with 25, 50, and 100% proportions of inoculum. Using adapted AM fungi and A. gerardii, MIP bioassays can be used to determine a field inoculation rate that has the potential to establish populations of beneficial mycorrhizal fungi and enhance chances of successful revegetation.

  14. NEWBORNS ABANDONMENT: THE DYNAMICS OF THE PROBLEM AND ITS RELEVANCE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Baleeva K. I.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of newborns abandonment in modern Russia is relevant but understudied. This article discusses the nature and dynamics of the problem. Newborns abandonment is considered in the framework of social and demographic modernization. The problem of newborns abandonment is studied in the context of social orphanhood in Russia. The author focuses on the history of the problem of newborns abandonment, its features in pre-revolutionary Russia, the Soviet Union and modern Russia. For a deeper understanding of the problem the author held a series of expert interviews and highlighted the main factors that influenced newborns abandonment in Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. The main challenges in the development of prevention in modern Russia are identified. The author concludes on the need to reform the system for preventing newborns abandonment as part of the ideology of the family-centered approach and constructing a unified federal structure. The paper uses qualitative methods: literature review, expert interviews. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of social work, sociology, demography, politics, and economics

  15. Monitoring abandoned dreg fields of high-speed railway construction with UAV remote sensing technology

    Lin, Jiayuan; Wang, Zhiliang; Wang, Yangchun; Lin, Yi; Du, Xiaolin

    2015-12-01

    High-speed railway construction will produce a large amount of abandoned dregs, so it is necessary to build enough dreg deposition fields along the railway. The task of the department of soil and water conservation is to monitor the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields according to the design in the whole process of railway construction. As long linear construction projects, many high-speed railways go through regions of complex terrain, which poses great difficulties to monitoring current status of abandoned dreg fields. With the advantages of low cost, flexible launch and landing, safety, under-cloud-flying, hyperspatial image resolution, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are very suitable for obtaining remote sensing imagery along the railway. One segment of the high-speed railway from Chongqing to Wanzhou and its neighborhood was chosen as the study area to demonstrate key technologies and specific procedures of monitoring abandoned dreg fields using the UAV system. The UAV system and its components are introduced along with the flight trajectories, acquired UAV imagery, and attitude data. Image preprocessing and generation of DEM and DOM are described in detail followed by image-based measurement accuracy assessment and abandoned dreg field status investigation on the resulting DOM and DEM. Results prove the feasibility and effectiveness of applying the fixed wing UAV system to rapidly monitoring the construction and usage of abandoned dreg fields

  16. Abandonment, Ecological Assembly and Public Health Risks in Counter-Urbanizing Cities

    Alexandra Gulachenski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes can be transformed by widespread abandonment from population and economic decline. Ecological assembly, sometimes referred to as “greening”, following abandonment can yield valuable ecosystem services, but also can pose a risk to public health. Abandonment can elevate zoonotic vector-borne disease risk by favoring the hyperabundance of commensal pests and pathogen vectors. Though greater biodiversity in abandoned areas can potentially dilute vector-borne pathogen transmission, “greening” can elevate transmission risk by increasing movement of pathogen vectors between fragmented areas and by giving rise to novel human-wildlife interfaces. Idled and derelict infrastructure can further elevate disease risk from vector-borne and water-borne pathogens, which can build up in stagnant and unprotected water that maintenance and routine use of delivery or sanitation systems would otherwise eliminate. Thus, framing “greening” as inherently positive could result in policies and actions that unintentionally exacerbate inequalities by elevating risks rather than delivering benefits. As counter-urbanism is neither a minor pattern of urban development, nor a short-term departure from urban growth, homeowner and municipal management of abandoned areas should account for potential hazards to reduce health risks. Further socioecological assessments of public health risks following abandonment could better ensure the resilience and well-being of communities in shrinking cities.

  17. Island abandonment and sea-level rise: an historical analog from the Chesapeake Bay, USA

    Gibbons, S.J.A. [Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo (Canada). Dept. of Geography and Enivronmental Studies; Nicholls, R.J. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Small islands are widely agreed to be vulnerable to human-induced sea-level rise during the 21st century and beyond, with forced abandonment of some low-lying oceanic islands being a real possibility. A regional abandonment of islands in the Chesapeake Bay, USA provides an historical analog of such vulnerability as this has been linked to a mid 19th Century acceleration in relative sea-level rise. Using a case study approach for Holland Island, Maryland, this hypothesis was tested using a range of physical and human historical data. While sea-level rise was the underlying driver, this analysis shows that the abandonment was more complex than a direct response to sea-level rise. Between 1850 and 1900, Holland Island was a booming community and population increased from 37 to 253, with immigration causing the majority of the increase. At the same time, the upland area where people made their homes was steadily diminishing, losing about 15 ha or 38% of the total. After 1900, the island experienced a decrease in population to 169 in 1916, with final abandonment in 1918, with the exception of one family who left by 1920. Final abandonment was triggered by this depopulation as the population fell below a level that could support critical community services, and the community lost faith in their future on Holland Island. It is likely that similar social processes determined the abandonment of the other Chesapeake Bay islands. Looking to the future, it shows that many small low-lying islands could be abandoned due to sea-level rise long before they become physically uninhabitable. (author)

  18. Radon exposure in abandoned metalliferous mines of South America

    Since the days of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors, South America has been closely associated with the metalliferous ore mining. Gold, silver, tin, lead, tungsten, nickel, copper, and palladium ores have been explored over the last centuries. In addition, there has also been the development and promotion of other economic activities related to mining, as the underground mine tourism. A few works have been published on radon levels in the South American mining. In this study, we investigated the radon transport process and its health hazard in two exhausted and abandoned mines in San Luis Province, Argentina. These mines were chosen because they have different physical configurations in their cavities, features which can affect the air flow patterns and radon concentrations. La Carolina gold mine (32 deg 48' 0'' S, 66 deg 60' 0'' W) is currently a blind end system, corresponding to a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, with only a main adit. Los Condores wolfram mine (32 deg 33' 25'' S, 65 deg 15' 20'' W) is also a horizontal excavation into the side of a mountain, but has a vertical output (a shaft) at the end of the main gallery. Three different experimental methodologies were used. Radon concentration measurements were performed by CR-39 nuclear track detectors. The distribution of natural radionuclide activities (40K, 232Th and 238U) was determined from rock samples collected along their main adits, using in laboratory gamma-ray spectrometry. The external gamma dose rate was evaluated using thermoluminescent dosimeters and a portable survey meter. The values for the 222Rn concentration ranged from 0.43 ± 0.04 to 1.48 ± 0.12 kBq/m3 in the Los Condores wolfram mine and from 1.8 ± 0.1 to 6.0±0.5 kBq/m3 in the La Carolina gold mine, indicating that, in this mine, the radon levels exceed up to four times the action level of 1.5 kBq/m3 recommended by the ICRP. The patterns of the radon transport process revealed that the La Carolina gold mine

  19. The characteristics of soft rocks and their effect on the long term stability of abandoned room and pillar lignite mines

    It is well known that some caving, collapses and subsidence take place from time to time in the areas where abandoned room and pillar type mines exist. The authors have been involved with the stability of abandoned mines beneath urbanized residential areas in Tokai region and there is a great concern about the stability of these abandoned mines during large earthquakes as well as in long term. The 2003 Miyagi Hokubu earthquake caused great damage to abandoned mines and resulted in many collapses. The authors present the experimental results on the characteristics of soft rocks from abandoned lignite mines in Tokai Region as well as the results of some analyses of their effects on the long-term stability of abandoned lignite mines. (authors)

  20. ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF WASTE ROCKS ON GROUNDWATER QUALITY IN THE ABANDONED COAL MINE OF JERADA CITY (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    BENDRA B.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The exponential growth of urban dwellers calls for an increased awareness of urban ecosystems and appropriate,long-term management practices. Especially the water supply needs to be secured, both in terms of quantity and quality. In Morocco, numerous urban mine sites were abandoned regardless rehabilitation strategy.Consequently, mining activity contributes massively to deteriorate air, soil and water quality, to degrade natural ecosystems and to menace public health. The abandoned coalmine of Jerada is located in north east of Morocco,in horst zone, in the productive geological formation of Westphalian C. The mining activity has generated along 65 years (1936-2001, 15 to 20 millions tons of washery waste rocks, cumulated principally in urban center. The groundwater (n=30 and waste rock (n=7 sampling was led in the middle of May 2008, which presents in local climatic context the end of rainy season and the beginning of sec season. Waste rocks are exhaustively black schist, with a paucity in pyrite (anthracite debris contain between 2 to 5% of synergic pyrite and predominance of calcareous minerals essentially as dolomite. Consequently, the majority of waste rock samples are not acid generators. The pyrite oxidation produces sulphuric acid, which will be quickly neutralized by carbonates. The alkaline tendency of pH classifies Jerada abandoned coal mine in circum neutral mining drainage type (NMD. The leaching through unsaturated and saturated zone will be facilitated due to a big pore size and a breakingtectonic having fractured Jerada coal basin. The deformed black schist alternative to sandstone permits a good water circulation. The massive product of mining drainage and the major pollutant of groundwater is undoubtedly S-SO4 (27/30 exceed WHO guideline. The spatial correlation between S-total and salinity illustrates the deterioration of groundwater quality due to pyrite oxidation. The alteration of schist and halite dissolution contribute to

  1. A natural attenuation of arsenic in drainage from an abandoned arsenic mine dump

    At the abandoned As mine in Nishinomaki, Japan, discharged water from the mining and waste dump area is acidic and rich in As. However, the As concentration in the drainage has been decreased to below the maximum contaminant level (0.01 mg/l for drinking water, Japan) without any artificial treatments before mixing with a tributary to populated areas. This implies that the As concentration in water from the waste dump area has been naturally attenuated. To elucidate the reaction mechanisms of the natural attenuation, analysis of water quality and characterization of the precipitates from the stream floor were performed by measuring pH, ORP and electric conductivity on-site, as well as X-ray diffraction, ICP-mass spectrometry and ion-chromatography. Selective extractions and mineral alteration experiments were also conducted to estimate the distribution of As in constituent phases of the precipitates and to understand the stability of As-bearing phases, respectively. The water contamination resulted from oxidation of sulfide minerals in the waste rocks, i.e., the oxidation of pyrite and realgar and subsequent release of Fe, SO4, As(V) and proton. The released Fe(II) transformed to Fe(III) by bacterial oxidation; schwertmannite then formed immediately. While the As concentrations in the stream were lowered nearly to background level downstream, those in the ochreous precipitates were up to several tens of mg/g. The As(V) was effectively removed by the formed schwertmannite and had been naturally attenuated. Although schwertmannite is metastable with respect to goethite, the experiments show that the transformation of schwertmannite to goethite may be retarded by the presence of absorbed As(V) in the structure. Therefore, the attenuation of As in the drainage and the retention of As by schwertmannite are expected to be maintained for the long term

  2. Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity using Abandoned Works (open pits and deep mines)

    Pujades, E.; Willems, T.; Bodeux, S.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is a good alternative to increase the efficiency of power plants, which cannot regulate the amount of electricity generated according to the demand (wind, solar or even nuclear power plants). PSH plants, which consist in two reservoirs located at different heights (upper and lower), can store energy during low demand periods (pumping water from the lower to the upper reservoir) and generate electricity during the high demand peaks (falling water from the upper to the lower reservoir). Given that the two reservoirs must be located at different heights, PSH plants cannot be constructed in flat regions. Nevertheless, in these regions, an alternative could be to use abandoned underground works (open pits or deep mines) as lower reservoirs to construct Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. To select the best place to construct a plant, two considerations must be taken into account regarding the interaction between UPSH plants and groundwater: 1) the alteration of the natural conditions of aquifers and 2), the efficiency of the plant since the electricity generated depends on the hydraulic head inside the underground reservoir. Obviously, a detailed numerical model must be necessary before to select a location. However, a screening methodology to reject the most disadvantageous sites in a short period of time would be useful. Groundwater flow impacts caused by UPSH plants are analyzed numerically and the main variables involved in the groundwater evolution are identified. The most noticeable effect consists in an oscillation of the groundwater. The hydraulic head around which groundwater oscillates, the magnitude of the oscillations and the time to achieve a "dynamic steady state" depend on the boundaries, the parameters of the aquifer and the characteristics of the underground reservoir. A screening methodology is proposed to assess the main impacts caused in aquifers by UPSH plants. Finally, the efficiency

  3. Mangrove community in an abandoned brick kiln: A structural and association analysis

    Sumit Manna

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of brick kiln along the Hoogly rever sites of lower Bengal is very usual and this phenomenon is not only restricted to India alone but also to the other south Asian countries. The abandoned brick Kiln are important habitat for the formation of mangrove community due to tidal action, loose silty substratum and less anthropogenic interference. In this context, the aim of the present study is to visualize how the structural and association pattern regulate the community dynamics of a mangrove ecosystem. Materials and Methods: The entire study area was divided into 37 units (Quadrats of 27.31 sq m. Structural parameters like density, relative density, abundance, relative abundance, frequency, relative basal area were measured based on vegetation map, prepared through satellite image and ground truthing. Association indices (Ochiai, Dice and Jaccard were measured based on 2X2 contingency/species association table. Results: Out of 10 species under 10 genera and 9 families found in the present habitat, Sonneratia caseolaris is the only mangrove tree species with 155 individuals along with other mangrove associates like Cryptocoryne ciliata, Crinum viviparum, Acanthus ilicifolius and Derris scandens. The high importance value index of Sonneratia caseolaris, Cryptocoryne ciliata, and Crinum viviparum indicated their significant role in community formation. The strong positive association of these 3 species also suggests to help in developing community in stressed environment. Conclusion: Identification of such potential mangrove habitat and study of their community dynamics would be helpful to find out the nature of mangrove establishment for future afforestation programme of threatened mangrove species.

  4. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  5. Disappointed Love and Suicide: A Randomized Controlled Trial of "Abandonment Psychotherapy" Among Borderline Patients.

    Andreoli, A; Burnand, Y; Cochennec, M-F; Ohlendorf, P; Frambati, L; Gaudry-Maire, D; Di Clemente, Th; Hourton, G; Lorillard, S; Canuto, A; Frances, A

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether ambulatory psychotherapy targeted to abandonment experiences and fears can reduce suicidality and improve outcome in borderline patients referred to the emergency room with major depressive disorder and self-destructive behavior severe enough to require medical/surgical treatment and a brief psychiatric hospitalization. A total of 170 subjects were randomized at hospital discharge into three treatment groups: treatment as usual (TAU), abandonment psychotherapy delivered by certified psychotherapists, and abandonment psychotherapy delivered by nurses. Assessments were performed before randomization and at 3-month follow-up. Continued suicidality and other outcome measures were significantly worse in the treatment-as-usual as compared to both abandonment psychotherapy groups, but there were no differences between the two psychotherapy groups. These results suggest the efficacy of manualized psychotherapy that specifically targets the abandonment fears and experiences that are so common as precipitants to suicidal and self-destructive acts in borderline patients. It does not appear that formal psychotherapy training is associated with better outcomes. PMID:26111250

  6. Young restored forests increase seedling recruitment in abandoned pastures in the Southern Atlantic rainforest.

    Leitão, Flora H M; Marques, Marcia C M; Ceccon, Eliane

    2010-12-01

    Planting seedlings is a common technique for abandoned pastures restoration in the tropics, supposedly by increasing the seedling recruitment and accelerating succession. In this study we evaluated the role of a young restored forest (one year old) in enhancing seedling establishment from two sources (seed rain and seed bank), in the Atlantic Rainforest region in Southern Brazil. We compared abandoned pasture, young restored forest and old-growth forest with respect to the seedlings recruited from different sources, by monitoring 40 permanent plots (0.5 m x 0.5 m) over 20 months. From the three studied areas a total of 392 seedlings of 53 species were recruited. Species were mainly herbaceous (85%), pioneers (88%), zoochorous (51%) and small-seeded species (60%). Seedling recruitment from the seed bank (density and species richness) was higher and dominated by herbaceous species in the abandoned pasture and in the young restored forest; on the other hand, the recruitment of woody species from seed rain was more pronounced in the old-growth forest. The young restored forest increased the species richness of woody seedlings recruitment from the seed bank (two-fold) and from seed rain (three-fold) compared to the abandoned pasture. Also, the seedling density in young restored forest was still higher than abandoned pastures (seed bank: four times; seed rain: ten times). Our results show that even young restored areas enhance the establishment of woody species and should be considered an important step for pasture restoration. PMID:21246991

  7. Factoid forensics: have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Chapman, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms) were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10) or periodically (n = 2) leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise. PMID:25033786

  8. Chemical, Biochemical, and Microbiological Properties of Soils from Abandoned and Extensively Cultivated Olive Orchards

    A. M. Palese

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The abandonment of olive orchards is a phenomenon of great importance triggered mainly by economic and social causes. The aim of this study was to investigate some chemical, biochemical, and microbiological properties in a soil of a southern olive grove abandoned for 25 years. In order to define the effect of the long-term land abandonment on soil properties, an adjacent olive grove managed according to extensive practices was taken as reference (essentially minimum tillage and no fertilization. Soil organic matter, total nitrogen, and pH were significantly higher in the abandoned olive grove due to the absence of tillage and the natural inputs of organic matter at high C/N ratio which, inter alia, increased the number of cellulolytic bacteria and stimulated the activity of β-glucosidase, an indicator of a more advanced stage of soil evolution. The soil of the abandoned olive orchard showed a lower number of total bacteria and fungi and a lower microbial diversity, measured by means of the Biolog method, as a result of a sort of specialization trend towards low quality organic substrates. From this point of view, the extensive cultivation management seemed to not induce a disturbance to microbiological communities.

  9. Factoid forensics: Have "more than 40" Australian families abandoned their homes because of wind farm noise?

    Simon Chapman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-wind farm activists repeatedly claim that families said to be adversely affected by noise from wind turbines "abandon" their homes. In Australia, a claim of "more than 40 families" has been made by a prominent anti-wind farm activist. Six sources (parliamentary submissions, media reports, an anti-wind farm website, wind industry sources, correspondence with known anti-wind farm activists and with three politicians opposed to wind farms were used to find evidence of home "abandonments." Claims about 12 Australian households permanently (n = 10 or periodically (n = 2 leaving their homes were found. However, no house appears to have been permanently "abandoned" without sale, as the expression implies. These 12 cases need contextualizing against considerations that several of those involved were either dedicated activists against wind farms from times sometimes pre-dating their construction, were engaged in protracted negotiations for home purchase with wind companies, had pre-existing health problems, grievances with the wind company over employment or had left the area for unrelated reasons of employment elsewhere. The statement that "more than 40" houses have been "abandoned" because of wind turbines in Australia is a factoid promoted by wind farm opponents for dramatic, rhetorical impact. Other considerations are often involved in abandonment unrelated to the claims made about wind farm noise.

  10. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy

    C. Ricotta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Europe. As agricultural land abandonment typically promotes an increase in plant biomass (fuel load, a number of authors argue that vegetation succession in abandoned fields and pastures is expected to increase fire hazard. In this short paper, based on 28 493 fires in Sardinia (Italy in the period 2001–2010, we show that there is no evidence of increased probability of fire ignition in abandoned rural areas. To the contrary, in Sardinia the decreased human impact associated with agricultural land abandonment leads to a statistically significant decrease of fire ignition probability.

  11. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Abandoned Mine Lands as Signifcant Contamination Problem in Romania

    Horvath, E.; Jordan, G.; Fugedi, U.; Bartha, A.; Kuti, L.; Heltai, G.; Kalmar, J.; Waldmann, I.; Napradean, I.; Damian, G.

    2009-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Wide-spread environmental contamination associated with historic mining in Europe has triggered social responses to improve related environmental legislation, the environmental assessment and management methods for the mining industry. Pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD) from ore and coal mining is the outstanding and most important source of mining-induced environmental pollution. Younger et al. (2002) estimates that watercourses polluted by coal mine drainage could be in the order of 2,000 to 3,000 km, and 1,000 to 1,500 km polluted by metal mine discharges for the EU 15 Member States (Younger et al. 2002). Significance of contamination risk posed by mining is also highlighted by mine accidents such as those in Baia Mare, Romania in 2002 and in Aznalcollar, Spain in 1999 (Jordan and D'Alessandro 2004). The new EU Mine Waste Directive (Directive 2006/21/EC) requires the risk-based inventory of abandoned mines in the EU. The cost-effective implementation of the inventory is especially demanding in countries with extensive historic mining and great number of abandoned mine sites, like Romania. The problem is further complicated in areas with trans-boundary effects. The objective of this investigation to carry out the risk-based contamination assessment of a mine site with possible trans-boundary effects in Romania. Assessment follows the source-pathway-receptor chain with a special attention to heavy metal leaching from waste dumps as sources and to transport modelling along surface water pathways. STUDY AREA In this paper the Baiut mine catchment located in the Gutai Mts., Romania, close to the Hungarian border is studied. The polymetallic deposites in the Tertiary Inner-Carpathian Volcanic Arc are exposed by a series of abandoned Zn and Pb mines first operated in the 14th century. Elevation in the high relief catchment ranges from 449m to 1044m. Geology is characterised by andesites hosting the ore deposits and paleogene sediments dominating at the

  12. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  13. Environmental geochemistry of a Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit at the abandoned Valzinco mine, Virginia, USA

    The abandoned Valzinco mine, which worked a steeply dipping Kuroko-type massive sulfide deposit in the Virginia Au-pyrite belt, contributed significant metal-laden acid-mine drainage to the Knight's Branch watershed. The host rocks were dominated by metamorphosed felsic volcanic rocks, which offered limited acid-neutralizing potential. The ores were dominated by pyrite, sphalerite, galena, and chalcopyrite, which represented significant acid-generating potential. Acid-base accounting and leaching studies of flotation tailings - the dominant mine waste at the site - indicated that they were acid generating and therefore, should have liberated significant quantities of metals to solution. Field studies of mine drainage from the site confirmed that mine drainage and the impacted stream waters had pH values from 1.1 to 6.4 and exceeded aquatic ecosystem toxicity limits for Fe, Al, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Stable isotope studies of water, dissolved SO42-, and primary and secondary sulfate and sulfide minerals indicated that two distinct sulfide oxidation pathways were operative at the site: one dominated by Fe(III) as the oxidant, and another by molecular O2 as the oxidant. Reaction-path modeling suggested that geochemical interactions between tailings and waters approached a steady state within about a year. Both leaching studies and geochemical reaction-path modeling provided reasonable predictions of the mine-drainage chemistry

  14. Abandoning of mining activities - impact on ground water and surface water systems

    At present a decrease in mining activities occurs in practically all mining areas (both coal and ore) in the Czech Republic. Huge capacities of mine workings in various depths and geological conditions are abandoned and liquidated. Special methods of liquidation of abandoned mine workings by filling, using selected waste as secondary raw materials, are used only exceptionally. In such cases the liquidation proceeds without problems with serious or long-term contamination of the environment, including monitoring of anomalous geomechanical events, ascent of methane to the surface etc. This systematic approach has only one negative feature - prolongation of liquidation works in comparison to simple abandoning and flooding of the mine. This contribution deals with the general aspects of groundwater protection in connection with liquidation of mines by filling of mine workings with secondary raw materials (including legislative problems in Czech Republic). 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. The Potential for Abandoned Paddy Fields to Reduce Pollution Loads from Households in Suburban Tokyo

    Makoto Yokohari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other Asian nations, suburban areas in Japan are characterized by dense intermixtures of residential areas and farmlands. These hybrid rural/urban areas are evaluated negatively in modern planning frameworks. However, mixed rural/urban landscapes may prove advantageous when attempting to reconstruct sustainable wastewater treatment systems. This research examines the potential for abandoned paddy fields to reduce nitrogen (T-N and phosphorous (T-P loads, an increasingly problematic source of eutrophication in many closed water areas, from households in suburban areas. Our results indicate that abandoned paddy fields remaining in mixed urban/rural areas have significant potential to reduce both nitrogen and phosphorous loads. Accordingly, we suggest that abandoned paddy fields can play an important role in reducing pollution loads in mixed urban/rural areas.

  16. Medico-legal autopsy of abandoned foetuses and newborns in India.

    Behera, C; Sikary, Asit Kumar; Krishna, Karthik; Garg, Aayushi; Chopra, Saurav; Gupta, S K

    2016-06-01

    Foeticide and the abandonment of newborns are important, albeit frequently neglected, issues. Concealment of childbirth is often seen in the setting of unwanted pregnancy which has been recognised as one of the most important factors in both cases. This study highlights the medico-legal autopsy findings of 238 abandoned foetuses and newborns over a period of 17 years (1996-2012) from the region of South Delhi, India. There was no sex predilection. The majority of the cases were full term. Nearly 35% of the foetuses were still born, about 29% were live born and the remainder were non-viable. Among the live born, death by homicide was more common than a natural death and most were left by the roadside. The abandoning and killing of newborns needs urgent attention, and strict measures are needed to save thousands of innocent lives. PMID:26857075

  17. Drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated with recultivating abandoned cropland in Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan

    Meyfroidt, Patrick; Schierhorn, Florian; Prishchepov, Alexander V.; Müller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    Further cropland expansion might be unavoidable to satisfy the growing demand for land-based products and ecosystem services. A crucial issue is thus to assess the trade-offs between social and ecological impacts and the benefits of converting additional land to cropland. In the former Soviet Union...... countries, where the transition from state-command to market-driven economies resulted in widespread agricultural land abandonment, cropland expansion may incur relatively low costs, especially compared with tropical regions. Our objectives were to quantify the drivers, constraints and trade-offs associated......-economic determinants of cropland abandonment and recultivation. We then used recent maps of changes in cropland to (i) spatially characterize the socio-economic, accessibility and soil constraints associated with the recultivation of abandoned croplands and (ii) investigate the environmental trade-offs regarding...

  18. The "Terme Del Corallo" in Livorno, Italy, a Contribution to Try Going Beyond the Abandon

    Verdiani, G.; Fantini, V.

    2012-01-01

    In Livorno, along the Mediterranean sea, in Italy, there is a terrific case of abandon, a historical monument made of fine art elements left to complete decay. The name of the place is "Terme del Corallo" and at its beginning it was a bath area exploiting the salt waters. After its first abandon, no serious efforts were done in years to come behind this situation, the poor and slow moves towards the restoration were stopped and slowed down by inefficiencies and infinite political consideratio...

  19. Application of GIS and RS in Abandoned Land Surveying: A Case Study in Shandong, China

    Li, Jing; Liu, Zishang; Li, Wenyu

    2014-01-01

    For the acute contradiction between land and people, cherishing and reasonable using per inch land is a persistent national policy in China, whereas land damage is unavoidable in mining, construction and other activity. There is still a lot of abandoned land unused and with no obligator in China, which will have to be the government’s responsibility to survey, plan how to use them and to complete recovering them. For the abandoned land damage always occurred minimally 25 years ago, it is hard...

  20. Virginia big-eared bats (Corynorhinus townsendii virginianus) roosting in abandoned coal mines in West Virginia

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Wood, P.B. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (US). Wildlife & Fisheries Resources Programme

    2005-07-01

    We surveyed bats at 36 abandoned coal mines during summer 2002 and 47 mines during fall 2002 at New River Gorge National River and Gauley River National Recreation Area, WV. During summer, we captured three federally endangered Virginia big-eared bats at two mine entrances, and 25 were captured at 12 mine entrances during fall. These represent the first documented captures of this species at coal mines in West Virginia. Future survey efforts conducted throughout the range of the Virginia big-eared bat should include abandoned coal mines.

  1. Framing land abandonment and its consequences on soil and vegetation changes

    José Marqués Pérez, María; Sanz, Verónica; Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Kukuls, Imants; Sultana, Daniel; Zdruli, Pandi; Fiori, Valeria; Zucca, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    A significant increase in forest areas has been observed in the last decades in Europe due to the abandonment of agricultural activities but also thanks to the implementation of reforestation/afforestation projects. These changes in land use have consequences in soil processes (e.g. erosion rates, accumulation of organic matter, humification, leaching, podzolisation), water and nutrient cycle, or productivity, amongst others. This new situation deserves an analysis of the causes and consequences in different scenarios, as the advantages and disadvantages of land abandonment can be different according to particular circumstances. In ordinary local soil surveys, some of the most widely used indicators to evaluate soil changes are organic carbon, nutrients and pH. Variations of these key soil properties can also be used to evaluate the consequences of land abandonment. On the landscape scale, changes in vegetation cover provide valuable information to analyse and evaluate the extent of land abandonment and its impacts on ecosystem functions and services. The re-establishment of natural vegetation can be seen as an invasive process by shrubs or trees, but it also can be considered as a process of natural restoration of these abandoned lands. This study will cover different soils from different study areas in Soria (Spain; 500 mm annual rainfall and 11ºC of average temperature); in Pula, Sardinia (Italy, 500 mm and 17ºC); in Acquaviva delle Fonti in Bari (Italy, 560 mm and 15.3ºC); in Malta (600 mm and 18ºC) and in the Vidzeme upland, central part of Latvia (Latvia, 703 mm and 5.8 ºC). The variations of the abovementioned indicators will be considered in these different scenarios after several decades of abandonment of the agricultural activities. The analysis will also address the diversity of driving forces related to land productivity, population structure, socio economic conditions and/or policy measures which are leading to land abandonment with different

  2. Child abandonment as an indicator of Christianization in the Nordic countries

    Juha Pentikäinen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Nordic countries, child abandonment seems to have been a commonly accepted social tradition until the acceptance of Christianity. When Christian influences reached the Far North, this old practice was gradually criminalized. When the old practice was criminalized by Christian sanctions and norms, the abandoned, murdered or aborted unbaptized children were experienced supernaturally. Their supranormal manifestations are described in Nordic folk beliefs and narratives concerning dead children; in Old Norse sagas, Swedish and Norwegian provincial and ecclesiastical laws and in Finnish runic poetry, all stemming from the Middle Ages.

  3. Hydroclimatic signal and LBK cultural activity in the Upper and Lower Rhine, inferred from abandoned channel fill deposits

    Berger, J. F.; Salvador, P. G.; Erkens, G.; Toonen, W. H. J.; Purdue, L.; Barra, A.; Houben, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Linear Band Ceramic (LBK) culture represents a major event in the spread of agriculture in Europe. Occupation particularly occurred in river valleys, with largest densities found along the rivers Danube, Elbe and Rhine. The interaction between the emergence of this culture and the dominant climatic and hydrological conditions is not yet fully established. As part of the ANR OBRESOC project, in which LBK activity is investigated in a transect from France (Marne river) to the catchment of the Danube river (Tisza), we studied palaeo-environmental changes in the Rhine valley between 7600-6600 cal. yrs. BP. Focus is on the Upper Rhine Graben and the Lower Rhine valley near the Rhine Delta apex, which is thought to be a peripheral region of LBK-activity. In these regions, a total of five cores from abandoned channels were analysed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental dynamics in vegetation and fluvial activity during the period of LBK development. Abandoned channel fills are excellent sites to perform detailed studies of palaeo-environmental dynamics, as they (i) form proximal locations to occupation sites of the LBK culture, (ii) act as efficient traps of sediments in which different environmental proxies are well preserved, (iii) contain well-datable material for the construction of detailed age-depth models, and (iv) provide a long proxy record, potentially over more than a millennium at a single site. On all cores, high resolution analysis of channel fill deposits (grain size and geophysical properties) and biotic proxies (micro-charcoal fluxes and pollen assemblages) were preformed to reconstruct palaeo-environmental signals, such as changes in fluvial activity, forest fires, and vegetation evolution, which may be related to agricultural activity, and climatic and hydrogeomorphic changes in the region. In this contribution we compare the results of the high-resolution core analyses (1,5 to 5m sequences for the studied timeframe) derived from the more densely

  4. APPLICATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION MAGNETIC METHOD AND GRADIENT METHOD TO LOCATE ABANDONED BRINE-WELLS IN HUTCHINSON, KANSAS, U.S.A.

    CHEN Chao; XIA Jianghai; XIA Sihao; David Laflen; Stephen L. Williams

    2004-01-01

    After successfully locating one abandoned brine well by an electromagnetic method during testing in 2001 and five abandoned brine wells by a high-resolution magnetic method during 2002, a high-resolution magnetic method was again proposed to search for wells in 2003 when a second sensor was employed to acquire data for calculating the pseudo-vertical gradient of magnetic fields. Total area surveyed in 2003 was 1,024,000 ft2, which was divided into grids with an average size of 10,000 ft2 and distributed across eight different sites. Magnetic anomalies and their vertical gradients from known brine wells were first recorded as signatures to identify anomalies caused by possible buried brine wells. Of fifty-one verified anomalies, thirtyone anomalies were due to wells buried at depths from 0 to 8.5 ft: twenty-one 6- to 9-inch abandoned brine wells, seven 1.5- to 3-inch probable water wells, one 16-inch dewatering well for a construction site at a depth of 3 ft, and two 4-inch wells on the ground surface. Approximate monopole shaped anomalies were observed from all these wells after data corrections. However, the range of amplitudes of magnetic anomalies from 7,000 to 28,000 nT from these abandoned brine wells was measured. This range of anomalies is mainly due to the thickness and depth of buried wells. Anomaly amplitudes from 1.5- to 3-inch wells are 4,000 to 8,000 nT and linearly correlate with the buried depth. One 3-inch well that caused an anomaly of 13,000 nT could be the inner pipe of a brine well. Gradient anomalies are roughly in a range of 100 to 200 nT/inch for 1.5-to 3-inch wells and 200 to 300 nT/inch for brine wells.As indicated by the potential-field theory, gradient data possess higher horizontal resolution than the magnetic field itself. Gradient data provide valuable assistance in determining horizontal locations of anomaly sources for excavation. In practice, however, improvement in the horizontal resolution is limited by surveyline spacing. If only

  5. Mapping the extent of abandoned farmland in Central and Eastern Europe using MODIS time series satellite data

    The demand for agricultural products continues to grow rapidly, but further agricultural expansion entails substantial environmental costs, making recultivating currently unused farmland an interesting alternative. The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 led to widespread abandonment of agricultural lands, but the extent and spatial patterns of abandonment are unclear. We quantified the extent of abandoned farmland, both croplands and pastures, across the region using MODIS NDVI satellite image time series from 2004 to 2006 and support vector machine classifications. Abandoned farmland was widespread, totaling 52.5 Mha, particularly in temperate European Russia (32 Mha), northern and western Ukraine, and Belarus. Differences in abandonment rates among countries were striking, suggesting that institutional and socio-economic factors were more important in determining the amount of abandonment than biophysical conditions. Indeed, much abandoned farmland occurred in areas without major constraints for agriculture. Our map provides a basis for assessing the potential of Central and Eastern Europe’s abandoned agricultural lands to contribute to food or bioenergy production, or carbon storage, as well as the environmental trade-offs and social constraints of recultivation. (letter)

  6. Evaluation of fire as a management tool for controlling Schinus terebinthifolius as secondary successional growth on abandoned agricultural land

    Doren, Robert F.; Whiteaker, Louis D.; Larosa, Anne Marie

    1991-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius, native to South America, has become an aggressive woody weed in southern Florida, displacing native vegetation as well as rapidly invading disturbed sites. Studies to evaluate the effectiveness of fire as a management option for controlling Schinus on abandoned farmland in Everglades National Park, known as the “Hole-in-the-Donut,” began in 1979. Study plots were established to monitor any change(s) in herbaceous cover and in numbers and size of Schinus stems. Except in the control plot (which was not burned), each site was burned as often as fuel conditions permitted (usually once every one or two years), through 1985. Results indicated that both the number and density of Schinus stems increased over the course of the study. While plots that burned showed a reduction in the rate of Schinus invasion, invasion still progressed rapidly with or without the occurrence of fire. The increase in Schinus stem density from 1980 to 1985 was highly significant in all transects except one. Herbaceous cover showed no clear trends relative to burning.

  7. Community-level effects in edaphic fauna from an abandoned mining area: integration with chemical and toxicological lines of evidence.

    Antunes, Sara C; Castro, Bruno B; Moreira, Cláudia; Gonçalves, Fernando; Pereira, Ruth

    2013-02-01

    As a part of the Ecological Risk Assessment of a deactivated uranium mining area (Cunha Baixa), the aim of this study was to assess the drivers of litter arthropod community (ecological line of evidence) inhabiting soils with different degrees of contamination. Litter arthropods were collected in the mining area using a total of 70 pitfall traps, in the spring and autumn of 2004. Unlike information previously collected in the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we found no clear evidence of impacts of soil contamination on the edaphic arthropod assemblage. Multivariate analyses were unable to extract relevant environmental gradients related to contamination, as most of the sites shared the same taxa overall. Given the consistency of the chemical and ecotoxicological lines of evidence, we must conclude that the litter arthropod assemblage underestimated the impacts of contamination in this abandoned mining area. In part, this could be due to the uncertainty caused by confounding factors that affect the litter arthropod community in the area. Nevertheless, despite the overall lack of responsiveness of the epigeic arthropod community data, a few taxa were negatively correlated with metal concentrations (Clubionidae and Staphylinidae), while Pseudoscorpionida were associated with the toxicological profile of the sites. These evidences suggest that community-level approaches with other animal and plant assemblages are necessary to reduce uncertainty relatively to the assessment of risks in higher evaluation tiers in the Cunha Baixa mine area. PMID:23174268

  8. Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city.

    Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). 95th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI values exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04). PMID:20552725

  9. Site clearance working group

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  10. 76 FR 55161 - Boston and Maine Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-Middlesex County, Mass.; Springfield Terminal...

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Boston and Maine Corporation--Abandonment Exemption--Middlesex County, Mass... Middlesex County, Mass. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 02471 and...

  11. Female genital mutilation/cutting--towards abandonment of a harmful cultural practice.

    Varol, Nesrin; Fraser, Ian S; Ng, Cecilia H M; Jaldesa, Guyo; Hall, John

    2014-10-01

    Globally, the prevalence of, and support for, female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is declining. However, the entrenched sense of social obligation that propagates the continuation of this practice and the lack of open communication between men and women on this sensitive issue are two important barriers to abandonment. There is limited evidence on the role of men and their experiences in FGM/C. Marriageability of girls is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the continuation of this practice. In some countries, more men than women are advocating to end FGM/C. Moreover, men, as partners to women with FGM/C, also report physical and psychosexual problems. The abandonment process involves expanding a range of successful programs, addressing the human rights priorities of communities and providing power over their own development processes. Anecdotal evidence exists that FGM/C is practised amongst African migrant populations in Australia. The Australian Government supports a taskforce to improve community awareness and education, workforce training and evidence building. Internationally, an African Coordinating Centre for abandonment of FGM/C has been established in Kenya with a major global support group to share research, promote solidarity, advocacy and implement a coordinated and integrated response to abandon FGM/C. PMID:24801568

  12. 75 FR 35513 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash.

    2010-06-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Yakima County, Wash... milepost 58.75 near Grandview, in Yakima County, Wash.\\1\\ The line traverses United States Postal Service... to the Central Washington Railroad Company (CWRR). See Central Wash. R.R.-- Lease and...

  13. Changes in biomass allocation in species rich meadow after abandonment: Ecological strategy or allometry?

    Bartušková, Alena; Doležal, Jiří; Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, V.; Klimešová, Jitka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 5 (2015), s. 379-387. ISSN 1433-8319 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Biomass allocation * species-rich meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.606, year: 2014

  14. Centipede assemblages in abandoned arable field with different plant diversity manipulation

    Tajovský, Karel; Wytwer, J.

    České Budějovice : Institute of Soil Biology ASCR, 2005. s. 69. [Central European Workshop on Soil Zoology /8./. 20.04.2005-22.04.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : centipedes * abandoned arable field * plant diversity manipulation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. 78 FR 43273 - Central of Georgia Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Newton County, Ga.

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Central of Georgia Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Newton County... the intersection of Washington Street SW., and Turner Lake Road SW., in Covington), in Newton...

  16. Mapping farmland abandonment and recultivation across Europe using MODIS NDVI time series

    Estel, Stephan; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Alcántara, Camilo;

    2015-01-01

    abandoned from 2001 to 2012, mainly in Eastern Europe, Southern Scandinavia, and Europe's mountain regions. Yet, recultivation is widespread too (up to 11.2. Mha) and occurred predominantly in Eastern Europe (e.g., European Russia, Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, and Lithuania) and in the Balkans. We also tested...

  17. Effect of abandonment and plant classification on carbohydrate reserves of meadow plants

    Janeček, Štěpán; Lanta, Vojtěch; Klimešová, Jitka; Doležal, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2010), s. 243-251. ISSN 1435-8603 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/09/0963; GA ČR(CZ) GA526/06/0723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : carbohydrates * meadow * abandonment Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.409, year: 2010

  18. 78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...

    2013-02-06

    ... environmental problems associated with abandoned mine lands include surface and ground water pollution... February 6, 2013 Part IV Department of the Interior Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30... / Wednesday, February 6, 2013 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface...

  19. 75 FR 7302 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2010-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA... Polk County, IA. The line traverses United States Postal Service Zip Codes 50317, 50032, 50021,...

  20. 75 FR 7303 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2010-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA... milepost 10.50 in Ankeny to milepost 10.70 in Ankeny, in Polk County, IA. The line traverses United...

  1. 77 FR 51614 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Polk County, IA

    2012-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Polk County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR part...

  2. 76 FR 1211 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-In Wright County, IA

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--In Wright County, IA Union Pacific Railroad Company (UP) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1152 subpart...

  3. 76 FR 73776 - Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC-Abandonment Exemption-in Coffee County, AL

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wiregrass Central Railway, LLC--Abandonment Exemption--in Coffee County, AL....2 in Enterprise, in Coffee County, Ala. (the line).\\1\\ The line traverses United States...

  4. 30 CFR 904.25 - Approval of Arkansas abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    2010-07-01

    ... eligible lands and water; Ranking and selection procedures; Coordination of reclamation work; Acquisition management and disposition of land and water; Reclamation on private land; Rights of entry; Public...; Management accounting; and Abandoned mine land problem description. September 22, 1999 January 14,...

  5. 75 FR 20874 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Orange County, CA

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Orange County, CA... to milepost 508.65 near the City of Brea, in Orange County, CA. The line traverses United...

  6. Assessment of abandoned agricultural land resource for bio-energy production in Estonia

    Kukk, Liia; Astover, Alar; Roostalu, Hugo; Suuster, Elsa; Noormets, Merrit; Sepp, Kalev (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tartu (Estonia)); Muiste, Peeter (Estonian Univ. of Life Sciences, Inst. of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Tartu (Estonia))

    2010-03-15

    The current study locates and quantifies abandoned agricultural areas using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and evaluates the suitability of abandoned fields for bio-energy production in Tartumaa (Tartu County) in Estonia. Soils of abandoned areas are generally of low quality and thereby limited suitability for crop production; as a result soil-crop suitability analyses could form the basis of knowledge-based bio-energy planning. The study estimated suitable areas for bio-energy production using willow (Salix sp), grey alder [Alnus incana (L.) Moench], hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.Populus tremula L.), reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea L.), and Caucasian goat's rue (Galega orientalis Lam.) in separate plantations. A combined land-use strategy is also presented as these crops are partially suitable to the same areas. Reed canary grass and grey alder have the highest energy potentials and each would re-use more than 80% of the available abandoned agricultural land. Energy grasses and short-rotation forestry in combined land-use strategy represents the opportunity of covering approximately a quarter of county's annual energy demand. The study estimates only agronomic potential, so further bio-energy analysis should take into account technical and economic limitations. Developed framework supports knowledge-based decision-making processes from field to regional scale to achieve sustainable bio-energy production

  7. 77 FR 35751 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Manitowoc County, WI

    2012-06-14

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by June 19, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100,...

  8. 78 FR 77791 - Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corporation-Abandonment Exemption-in Scott County, Iowa

    2013-12-24

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by December 27, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room...

  9. 78 FR 17468 - Alabama Railroad Co.-Abandonment Exemption-in Monroe County, AL

    2013-03-21

    ... by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation... any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by March 26, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA...

  10. 78 FR 17282 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Kaukauna, Outagamie County, WI

    2013-03-20

    ... (whether raised by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent..., if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by March 25, 2013. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA...

  11. 76 FR 51470 - CSX Transportation, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In Oswego County, NY

    2011-08-18

    ... (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the exemption's effective date. See..., which address the effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA... the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington, DC 20423- 0001) or...

  12. 76 FR 64992 - Carrollton Railroad-Abandonment Exemption-in Carroll County, KY CSX Transportation, Inc...

    2011-10-19

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment and discontinuance on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by October 24, 2011. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA...

  13. 78 FR 67216 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Lake County, Ind.

    2013-11-08

    ... Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) at (202) 245-0305. [Assistance for the hearing impaired is... assessment (EA) (or environmental impact statement (EIS), if necessary) prepared by OEA will be served upon... interested persons may contact OEA to obtain a copy of the EA (or EIS). EAs in these abandonment...

  14. 77 FR 38712 - Elgin, Joliet & Eastern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Grundy County, Ill.

    2012-06-28

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by July 3, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100,...

  15. 76 FR 43374 - CSX Transportation, Inc.; Abandonment Exemption; in Hardin County, OH

    2011-07-20

    ... (whether raised by a party or by the Board's Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent... effects, if any, of the abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an... OEA (Room 1100, Surface Transportation Board, Washington, DC 20423-0001) or by calling OEA at...

  16. 76 FR 82348 - Norfolk Southern Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Marietta, Lancaster County, PA

    2011-12-30

    ...'s Office of Environmental Analysis (OEA) in its independent investigation) cannot be made before the... abandonment on the environment and historic resources. OEA will issue an environmental assessment (EA) by January 6, 2012. Interested persons may obtain a copy of the EA by writing to OEA (Room 1100,...

  17. Timber tree regeneration along abandoned logging roads in a tropical Bolivian forest

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Severiche, W.; Fredericksen, T.; Nabe-Nielsen, L. I.

    2007-01-01

    -eastern Bolivia. Some species benefited from increased light intensities on abandoned logging roads. Others benefited from low densities of competing vegetation on roads with compacted soils. This was the case for the small-seeded species Ficus boliviana C.C. Berg and Terminalia oblonga (Ruiz & Pav.) Steud. Some...

  18. 75 FR 73161 - Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.-Abandonment Exemption-In East Carroll Parish, LA

    2010-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Delta Southern Railroad, Inc.--Abandonment Exemption--In East Carroll Parish, LA Delta Southern Railroad, Inc. (DSR) filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt....

  19. 76 FR 2445 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Rolette and Towner Counties, ND

    2011-01-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Rolette and Towner Counties, ND BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 C.F.R. pt. 1152...

  20. 77 FR 43656 - BNSF Railway Company-Abandonment Exemption-in Los Angeles County, CA

    2012-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Abandonment Exemption--in Los Angeles County, CA BNSF Railway Company (BNSF) has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR pt. 1152 subpart...

  1. 75 FR 69152 - Wisconsin Central Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Brown County, WI

    2010-11-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Brown County, WI Wisconsin...., and ending at milepost 5.8, on the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Reservation, in Brown County...: Michael J. Barron, Jr., Fletcher & Sippel LLC, 29 N. Wacker Drive, Suite 920, Chicago, IL 60606-2832....

  2. 75 FR 34626 - Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans

    2010-06-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2578 Rules and Regulations for Abandoned Individual Account Plans CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 1927 to End, revised as...

  3. Environmental impacts of abandoned dredged soils and sediments; available options for their handling, restoration and rehabilitation

    Ohimain, E.I.; Andriesse, W.; Mensvoort, van M.E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Aim and Background. In the process of creating safe navigable waterways for oil exploitation, the companies operating in the Niger Delta generate tons of sulfidic spoils. These are often deposited over bank, mostly upon fringing mangroves, and abandoned. This leads to a myriad of environmental probl

  4. CO2CARE - Site Closure Assessment Research - Recent Results

    Wipki, Mario; Liebscher, Axel; Kühn, Michael; Lüth, Stefan; Durucan, Sevket; Deflandre, Jean-Pierre; Wollenweber, Jens; Chadwick, Andy; Böhm, Gualtiero

    2013-04-01

    The EU project CO2CARE, which started in January 2011, supports the large scale demonstration of CCS technology by addressing requirements of operators and regulators face in terms of CO2 storage site abandonment. The CO2CARE consortium, consisting of 24 project partners from universities, research institutes, and the industry, investigate technologies and procedures for abandonment and post-closure safety, satisfying the regulatory requirements for the transfer of responsibility. Nine key injections sites in Europe, USA, Japan, and Australia, each with a specific (hydro) geological and environmental character, were selected for investigations. These sites can be divided into the CO2 storage types on-shore, off-shore, natural CO2 reservoir, depleted gas reservoirs, and saline aquifers. The project mainly focuses on three key areas: - well abandonment and long-term integrity; - reservoir management and prediction from closure to the long-term; - risk management methodologies for long-term safety. These key areas are in turn closely linked to the three high-level requirements of the EU Directive 2009/31/EC, Article 18 for CO2 storage which are: (i) absence of any detectable leakage, (ii) conformity of actual behaviour of the injected CO2 with the modeled behaviour, and (iii) the storage site is evolving towards a situation of long-term stability. The identification of criteria and the development of site abandonment procedures and technologies, which guarantee the fulfillment of the high-level requirements, are the major objectives in CO2CARE. These criteria have to be fulfilled prior to subsequent transfer of responsibility to the competent authorities, typically 20 or 30 years after site closure. Finally, the essential results of the different working groups in CO2CARE will feed into overall guidelines for regulatory compliance and "Best Practice" for site abandonment. Dissemination of the results will show policy makers and the general public how site abandonment

  5. Carbon pool and biomass dynamics associated with deforestation, land use, and agricultural abandonment in the neotropics.

    Kauffman, J Boone; Hughes, R Flint; Heider, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Current rates of deforestation and the resulting C emissions in the tropics exceed those of secondary forest regrowth and C sequestration. Changing land-use strategies that would maintain standing forests may be among the least expensive of climate change mitigation options. Further, secondary tropical forests have been suggested to have great value for their potential to sequester atmospheric C. These options require an understanding of and capability to quantify C dynamics at landscape scales. Because of the diversity of physical and biotic features of tropical forests as well as approaches and intensities of land uses within the neotropics, there are tremendous differences in the capacity of different landscapes to store and sequester C. Major gaps in our current knowledge include quantification of C pools, rates and patterns of biomass loss following land-cover change, and quantification of the C storage potential of secondary forests following abandonment. In this paper we present a synthesis and further analyses from recent studies that describe C pools, patterns of C decline associated with land use, and rates of C accumulation following secondary-forest establishment--all information necessary for climate-change mitigation options. Ecosystem C pools of Neotropical primary forests minimally range from approximately 141 to 571 Mg/ha, demonstrating tremendous differences in the capacity of different forests to store C. Most of the losses in C and nutrient pools associated with conversion occur when fires are set to remove the slashed forest to prepare sites for crop or pasture establishment. Fires burning slashed primary forests have been found to result in C losses of 62-80% of prefire aboveground pools in dry (deciduous) forest landscapes and 29-57% in wet (evergreen) forest landscapes. Carbon emissions equivalent to the aboveground primary-forest pool arise from repeated fires occurring in the first 4 to 10 years following conversion. Feedbacks of climate

  6. Wismut sites regeneration: Flooding of the former leaching mine 'Koenigstein'

    Flooding of abandoned mines was part of the regeneration programme for the Wismut sites. In January 2001, flooding was started at the Koenigstein mine, the easternmost site of the Wismut in Sachsen. The operations are scheduled for 5 - 6 years. Since 1984, this mine was operated in a leaching process involving sulphuric acid, so that a number of measures had to be taken to ensure that polluted flooding water will not contaminate the groundwater in this area

  7. 对某废弃铀矿山辐射环境的调查分析%Investigation of the Radiation Environment in an Abandoned Uranium Mine

    刘中平; 李雯; 吴振宇; 牛君宇

    2012-01-01

    Through measurement of surface radiation dose rate, and exhalation rate of 222Rn,concentrations of radon and its daughters in the air and natural radionuclides contents in the soil and waterbody aimed at an abandoned uranium mine in our country,this paper investigated and analyzed the current situation of the radiation environment of the mine. The results showed that the abandoned uranium mine has been exposed to radioactive contamination. Among these mine, high-level radioactive 1# mine sites and tailing piles have been the main radioactive pollution sources of mining area and we should take remediation measures. Other regional radioactivity was lower and did not exceed the national limits.%通过对我国某废弃铀矿山地表贯穿辐射剂量率、222Rn析出率、空气中氡及其子体浓度、土壤和水体中天然放射性核素含量的监测,调查和分析了矿山辐射环境现状.结果表明,该废弃铀矿山已受到放射性污染.其中,1#矿点和尾矿堆放射性水平较高,是矿区主要放射性污染源项,应采取整治措施.其他区域放射性较低,未超过国家基本限值.

  8. Abandoned polluted areas symposium 2005. Proceedings; Altlastensymposium 2005. Tagungsband

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The reduction of the demand on space for settlement and traffic as well as the improvement of cities and rural settlement structures are the most important key questions and challenges of current environmental policy. An intelligent utilisation of the limited resource space is not only related with positive effects of soil protection (Protection of the ''Green Field''). Measures for estate development on industrial, business and settlement fallow grounds contribute to support a long-lasting city development as well to an economic development. In order to improve the re-integration of pre-used land holdings into the real estate business appropriate legal, planning, financial, tax and incentive instruments are required as well as supplemental measures and activity fields like tradable space certification rights, model projects, research incentives, an optimised space management and improved public work. In the frame of this symposium experts report on their experience in the field of space reactivation of large industrial sites and allow for a discussion of their risks, chances and the resulting challenges. A main focus of the conference programme will be the affects of the present European legal guidelines on water and soil protection. (orig.)

  9. Feasibility analysis of using abandoned salt caverns for large-scale underground energy storage in China

    Highlights: • A method is proposed for the evaluation of using an abandoned salt cavern for energy (natural gas) storage. • A feasibility analysis is given of China’s first UGS (Underground Gas Storage) facility using an abandoned salt cavern. • Numerical modeling has been used to investigate mechanical safety of a gas pressurized cavern. • Chinese abandoned salt caverns show good feasibility of being converted to UGSs. • China’s bedded rock salt can meet the requirements for UGS. - Abstract: Rock salt in China is primarily bedded salt, usually composed of many thin salt layers and interlayers (e.g. anhydrite, mudstone, and glauberite). Thus, the feasibility analysis of abandoned salt caverns located in salt beds to be used as Underground Gas Storage (UGS) facilities is full of challenges. In this paper, we introduce the feasibility analysis of China’s first salt cavern gas storage facility using an abandoned salt cavern. The cavern is located in Jintan city, Jiangsu province, China. The mechanical properties and permeability of the bedded salts are obtained by experiments. Based on the results of the analyses, it appears to be quite feasible to convert the abandoned salt caverns of Jintan city to UGS facilities. The stability of the cavern is evaluated by the 3D geomechanical numerical simulations, and the operating parameters are proposed accordingly. Results indicate that the maximum volume shrinkage of the cavern is less than 25% and the maximum deformations are less than 2% of the caverns’ maximum diameters after operating for 20 years. It is recommended that the weighted average internal gas pressure be maintained as 11 MPa to control the extent of the plastic zones to a safe level. Safety factors decrease with operating time, especially those of the interface between rock salt and mudstone layers decrease significantly. Effective strain is generally greater than 2%, and locally is greater than 3% after operating 20 years. The maximum

  10. EDRXF measurements of heavy elements in soil samples from some potentially polluted sites in zambia

    A survey of heavy element levels in top soils collected around four industrial plants and along four highway stretches demonstrated that there was significant pollution only around an abandoned Pb/Zn mine. Sample collection in a rectangular grid encompassing each source sought to depict the spatial extent of pollution. Ascertaining levels of heavy elements in potentially polluted soils in urban areas of Zambia and along major highways was deemed desirable because it is common practice to grow maize and vegetables in lots adjacent to accessible industrial sites and highways. Pb is a heavy element of interest for all sampled sites whose distribution at the abandoned mine ranged from 13 to 2028 ppm

  11. Well plugging and abandonment plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Site environmental characterization and remediation require data obtained from the installation and sampling of wells. When these wells are no longer needed or not producing reliable information, or are damaged and can act as conduits for contaminant migration, they should be identified and properly decommissioned. This is most important for wells of sufficient depth to create the potential for exchange of fluids between different hydrologic units. This plan presents the strategy and detailed approach for well plugging and abandonment (P ampersand A) at Waste Area Grouping 6 (WAG 6). An inventory of 768 wells, the total number known to have been installed in WAG 6 based on a combined review of data and direct field inventory, is provided in Appendix A. All wells that are no required for closure or postclosure surveillance of WAG 6 will be decommissioned. A listing of 69 existing WAG 6 wells that will be maintained for postclosure surveillance is provided in Appendix B, and their locations are shown in Fig. 1. Appendix C contains a list of all WAG 6 wells that will be decommissioned, although some may no longer exist. Their locations are shown in Fig. 2. It is likely that some new wells will be drilled as part of postclosure monitoring of Solid Waste Area 6 (SWSA), but they are beyond the scope of this report. It is intended that this plan provide a basis for developing contracts for cost and schedule determinations for the P ampersand A process

  12. Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines

    Kruse, N.A., E-mail: natalie.kruse@ncl.ac.uk [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Younger, P.L. [Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    Accurate modeling of changing geochemistry in mine water can be an important tool in post-mining site management. The Pollutant Sources and Sinks in Underground Mines (POSSUM) model and Pollutant Loadings Above Average Pyrite Influenced Geochemistry POSSUM (PLAYING POSSUM) model were developed using object-oriented programming techniques to simulate changing geochemistry in abandoned underground mines over time. The conceptual model was created to avoid significant simplifying assumptions that decrease the accuracy and defensibility of model solutions. POSSUM and PLAYING POSSUM solve for changes in flow rate and depth of flow using a finite difference hydrodynamics model then, subsequently, solve for geochemical changes at distinct points along the flow path. Geochemical changes are modeled based on a suite of 28 kinetically controlled mineral weathering reactions. Additional geochemical transformations due to reversible sorption, dissolution and precipitation of acid generating salts and mineral precipitation are also simulated using simplified expressions. Contaminant transport is simulated using a novel application of the Random-Walk method. By simulating hydrogeochemical changes with a physically and thermodynamically controlled model, the 'state of the art' in post-mining management can be advanced.

  13. Distribution of trace elements in soils at the abandoned Sb deposits of Dúbrava and Poproč

    Michal Jankulár

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of the increased concentration of potential toxic elements (As, Sb, Pb, Zn in soils is of a great environmental concern in the vicinity of the abandoned Sb deposits (Dúbrava and Poproč. We have shown that the soils are strongly impacted by the point sources of contamination (old mine drainages, tailing impoundments, and waste-rock dumps. Oxidation of sulphide minerals in the mine tailings may induce the other geochemical processes such as acidification and subsequent mobilization of trace elements into the surrounding environment. High Sb and As concentrations were observed in the soils collected at the Dúbrava and Poproč mine sites, reaching up to 9619 mg.kg-1 (Dúbrava and 2484 mg.kg-1 (Poproč, respectively, but relatively high concentrations of Pb and Zn were also detected. Abundant secondary minerals consisting mainly of Fe, Sb(Fe and Fe(Sb oxyhydroxides with variable and high Sb, Fe and As contents in their structure were identified in the soil samples. Furthermore, these oxyhydroxides appear to be relatively stable, and thus they might reduce the mobility of trace elements through the soils horizons.

  14. SSH gene expression profile of Eisenia andrei exposed in situ to a naturally contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine.

    Lourenço, Joana; Pereira, Ruth; Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the exposure of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) to contaminated soil from an abandoned uranium mine, were assessed through gene expression profile evaluation by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH). Organisms were exposed in situ for 56 days, in containers placed both in a contaminated and in a non-contaminated site (reference). Organisms were sampled after 14 and 56 days of exposure. Results showed that the main physiological functions affected by the exposure to metals and radionuclides were: metabolism, oxireductase activity, redox homeostasis and response to chemical stimulus and stress. The relative expression of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 and elongation factor 1 alpha was also affected, since the genes encoding these enzymes were significantly up and down-regulated, after 14 and 56 days of exposure, respectively. Also, an EST with homology for SET oncogene was found to be up-regulated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that this gene was identified in earthworms and thus, further studies are required, to clarify its involvement in the toxicity of metals and radionuclides. Considering the results herein presented, gene expression profiling proved to be a very useful tool to detect earthworms underlying responses to metals and radionuclides exposure, pointing out for the detection and development of potential new biomarkers. PMID:23164450

  15. Development of thermodynamically-based models for simulation of hydrogeochemical processes coupled to channel flow processes in abandoned underground mines

    Accurate modeling of changing geochemistry in mine water can be an important tool in post-mining site management. The Pollutant Sources and Sinks in Underground Mines (POSSUM) model and Pollutant Loadings Above Average Pyrite Influenced Geochemistry POSSUM (PLAYING POSSUM) model were developed using object-oriented programming techniques to simulate changing geochemistry in abandoned underground mines over time. The conceptual model was created to avoid significant simplifying assumptions that decrease the accuracy and defensibility of model solutions. POSSUM and PLAYING POSSUM solve for changes in flow rate and depth of flow using a finite difference hydrodynamics model then, subsequently, solve for geochemical changes at distinct points along the flow path. Geochemical changes are modeled based on a suite of 28 kinetically controlled mineral weathering reactions. Additional geochemical transformations due to reversible sorption, dissolution and precipitation of acid generating salts and mineral precipitation are also simulated using simplified expressions. Contaminant transport is simulated using a novel application of the Random-Walk method. By simulating hydrogeochemical changes with a physically and thermodynamically controlled model, the 'state of the art' in post-mining management can be advanced.

  16. Short-term abandonment of human disturbances in Zagros Oak forest ecosystems: Effects on secondary succession of soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation

    MEHDI HEYDARI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Heydari M, Pothier D, Faramarzi M, Merzaei J. 2014. Short-term abandonment of human disturbances in Zagros Oak forest ecosystems: Effects on secondary succession of soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation. Biodiversitas 15: 147-161. Zagros Oak forests in the west of Iran have been degraded by anthropogenic activities during many years and to fight against this degradation, several management strategies have been implemented. The principal objectives this study were to identify the characteristics of the soil seed bank and the aboveground vegetation that were affected by degradation and short-term abandonment of human disturbances and evaluate the potential of the soil seed bank to restore the degraded types after short-term conservation management. For that, we compared three types of Zagros forest ecosystem with different management regimes: (1 Long term disturbed type as LDT (also used and disturbed at the present, (2 Short-term abandonment of human disturbances as SAD (5 years without human disturbances and an undisturbed control or C (3. We selected three replicates or stands per type. In the aboveground vegetation (ABV, 115, 72 and 51 species were recorded in C, SAD and LDT types, respectively, whereas in the soil seed bank (SSB flora, 33, 19 and 12 plant taxa were observed in C, SAD and LDT types, respectively. The percentage of annuals increased in ABV and decreased in SSB with increasing site degradation with human activities such as animal husbandry in the forest edges. The percentage of perennial and biennial herbs decreased in ABV and increased in SSB with increasing site degradation. The Shannon index of the SSB decreased with increasing site degradation. The average seed density in the SAD type was significantly larger than that of the LDT type. DCA analysis showed that the seed bank flora of SAD and LDT types were relatively similar and differed from that of the C type. This indicates that a full recovery of degraded type in the

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated and abandoned organic croplands in Finland

    Human activities have enhanced the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from organic soils. Drained peat soils may turn into a source of CO2 and N2O, whereas CH4 emission may generally decrease after drainage. Agricultural use, including ploughing, fertilization and irrigation, further enhances the decomposition of peat, and CO2 and N2O emissions. Cultivated organic soils are therefore significant sources of CO2 and N2O. In this paper we report greenhouse gas emissions from cultivated organic soils, and from abandoned organic agricultural soils, i.e. from organic soils where cultivation practices have ceased. We found that CO2 and N2O emissions from abandoned organic cropland soils do not generally decrease with time after agricultural practices have ceased, whereas CH4 fluxes from the atmosphere into the soil may gradually increase after leaving cultivation. (orig.)

  18. The functionality of the abandonment of teaching work in Physical Education within the school culture dynamics

    Santiago Pich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research related to the school culture studies. The school culture is an important theoretical key for the internal comprehension of the day-to-day of the school, by focusing on the interaction of the school´s actors. Our goal was to comprehend the functionalism of the abandonment of teaching in Physical Education (PE for the school culture. It was an ethnomethodological research and carried out in a school situated in Curitiba – PR, using field diary and biographical interview as instruments for data collection. We observed two classes of PE, one of the 4th and another of the 5th school year. We concluded that the abandonment of teaching in PE is functional to the school culture, being supported by other actors of the school day living.

  19. Comparison of numerical models for predicting ground water rebound in abandoned deep mine systems

    Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Kim, D.

    2012-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering usually results in ground water rebound after closing a deep underground mine because the mind voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several numerical models have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from ground water rebound. We compared the numerical models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW codes at different spatial and time scales. Based on the comparisons, a new strategy is established to develop a program for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems. This presentation describes the new strategy and its application to an abandoned underground mine in Korea.

  20. Prediction of groundwater rebound at an abandoned coal mine in Korea using GRAM model

    Park, S.; Choi, Y.; Baek, H.; Shin, S.

    2013-12-01

    Cessation of dewatering generally results in groundwater rebound after closing an abandoned underground coal mine since the mine voids and surrounding strata flood up to the levels of decant points such as shafts and drifts. Several models such as VSS-NET, GRAM and MODFLOW have been developed to predict the timing, magnitude and location of discharges resulting from groundwater rebound. This study developed a GRAM model-based program was developed for ground water rebound modeling in abandoned deep mine systems after mine closure. An application of the program to the Dongwon coal mine in Korea showed that the groundwater level modeled at the shaft of Dongwon coal mine is similar to the observed one in the field. The GRAM model-based program is transferable to other mining areas in both industrialized and less-developed countries. Therefore, the program could reduce the time and effort for predicting mine groundwater rebound and to support mine reclamation planning.

  1. [ABANDONED EMBRYOS OR SURPLUS FERTILIZED OOCYTES--SEEKING THE SOLUTION FOR A FROZEN BURNING PROBLEM].

    Fruchter, Ronit Beck; Shalev, Eliezer

    2015-10-01

    Israel is a world leader in the utilization rate of in vitro fertilization (IVF). During many IVF cycles, spare fertilized oocytes are cryopreserved. Today, thousands of fertilized oocytes, cryopreserved long ago, are stored in Israeli IVF units. The effort to contact the individuals who own the fertilized oocytes, so that they will approve thawing or finance continued storage, have mostly fAed. In this article we discuss the moral status of the fertilized oocyte and the ethical principles which should govern the way in which we deal with abandoned embryos. We present the different accounts for moral status and the diverse opinions regarding the status of the fertilized oocyte. At the end of the discussion we state our position regarding the ethical way to deal with the abandoned fertilized oocytes. PMID:26742227

  2. Wild forest fire regime following land abandonment in the Mediterranean region

    Ursino, Nadia; Romano, Nunzio

    2014-12-01

    Land use, climate, and fire have markedly shaped Mediterranean ecosystems. While climate and land use are external forcing, wildfire is an integral component of ecosystem functioning which inevitably poses a threat to humans. With a view to gaining an insight into the mechanisms underlying fire dynamics, fire control, and prevention, we formulated a model that predicts the wildfire regime in fire-prone Mediterranean ecoregions. The model is based on the positive feedback between forest expansion following cropland abandonment, fuel abundance, and fire. Our results demonstrate that progressive land abandonment leads to different fire dynamics in the Mediterranean forest ecosystem. Starting at a no-fire regime when the land is almost completely cultivated, the ecosystem reaches a chaotic fire regime, passing through intermediate land development stages characterized by limit cycle fire dynamics. Wildfires are more devastating, albeit more predictable, in these intermediate stages when fire frequency is higher.

  3. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  4. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  5. An outline of soil nematode succession on abandoned fields in South Bohemia

    Háněl, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2010), s. 355-371. ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/97/0631 Grant ostatní: MŠMT(CZ) 2004-13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : secondary succession * abandoned field * fallow Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.399, year: 2010

  6. Adoption, Adaptation, and Abandonment: Appropriation of Science Education Professional Development Learning

    Longhurst, Max L.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that impact teacher utilization of learning from professional development is critical in order maximize the educational and financial investment in teacher professional learning. This study used a multicase mixed quantitative and qualitative methodology to investigate the factors that influence teacher adoption, adaption, or abandonment of learning from science teacher professional development. The theoretical framework of activity theory was identified as a useful way t...

  7. The Accumulation of Organic Carbon in Mineral Soils by Afforestation of Abandoned Farmland

    Wei, Xiaorong; Qiu, Liping; Shao, Mingan; Zhang, Xingchang; Gale, William J.

    2012-01-01

    The afforestation of abandoned farmland significantly influences soil organic carbon (OC). However, the dynamics between OC inputs after afforestation and the original OC are not well understood. To learn more about soil OC dynamics after afforestation of farmland, we measured the soil OC content in paired forest and farmland plots in Shaanxi Province, China. The forest plots had been established on farmland 18, 24, 48, 100, and 200 yr previously. The natural 13C abundance of soil organic mat...

  8. Concealed pregnancy and newborn abandonment: a contemporary 21st century issue. Part 1.

    Tighe, Sylvia Murphy; Lalor, Joan

    2016-06-01

    This two-part series explores the phenomenon of concealed pregnancy and the association with newborn abandonment, with reference to recent cases of public interest. In Part 1 we focus on defining concealed pregnancy as a complex process which involves hiding a pregnancy, that can lead to tragic consequences such as maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016; Chen et al 2007).The psychosocial issues involved will also be presented (Murphy Tighe and Lalor 2016). PMID:27451485

  9. Feasibility Study of Establishing Business with Charcoal Briquetting Made from Water Hyacinth and Abandoned Biomass

    Jake M. Laguador; April B. Tarcelo; Michael Angelo Marasigan; Kuster Kar C. Colina; Nemy H. Chavez

    2013-01-01

    Offering environment-friendly products would not only lessen the pollution but it also suggests greater benefits to the economic productivity since it is offered with lower price due to its raw materials from abandoned biomass. The purpose of the proposed project is to establish a manufacturing plant of charcoal briquette that is made up of combustible materials and water hyacinth. This study used a descriptive type of research method with survey questionnaire administered to the target respo...

  10. Ecological indicators for abandoned mines, Phase 1: Review of the literature

    Tipping, E.; Jarvis, A. P.; Kelly, M. G.; Lofts, S.; Merrix, F. L.; Ormerod, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Mine waters have been identified as a significant issue in the majority of Environment Agency draft River Basin Management Plans. They are one of the largest drivers for chemical pollution in the draft Impact Assessment for the Water Framework Directive (WFD), with significant failures of environmental quality standards (EQS) for metals (particularly Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Fe) in many rivers linked to abandoned mines. Existing EQS may be overprotective of aquatic life which may have adapted over ce...

  11. Adaptation of bird communities to farmland abandonment in a mountain landscape.

    João Lopes Guilherme

    Full Text Available Widespread farmland abandonment has led to significant landscape transformations of many European mountain areas. These semi-natural multi-habitat landscapes are important reservoirs of biodiversity and their abandonment has important conservation implications. In multi-habitat landscapes the adaptation of communities depends on the differential affinity of the species to the available habitats. We use nested species-area relationships (SAR to model species richness patterns of bird communities across scales in a mountain landscape, in NW Portugal. We compare the performance of the classic-SAR and the countryside-SAR (i.e. multi-habitat models at the landscape scale, and compare species similarity decay (SSD at the regional scale. We find a considerable overlap of bird communities in the different land-uses (farmland, shrubland and oak forest at the landscape scale. Analysis of the classic and countryside SAR show that specialist species are strongly related to their favourite habitat. Farmland and shrubland have higher regional SSD compared to oak forests. However, this is due to the opportunistic use of farmlands by generalist birds. Forest specialists display significant regional turnover in oak forest. Overall, the countryside-SAR model had a better fit to the data showing that habitat composition determines species richness across scales. Finally, we use the countryside-SAR model to forecast bird diversity under four scenarios of land-use change. Farmland abandonment scenarios show little impact on bird diversity as the model predicts that the complete loss of farmland is less dramatic, in terms of species diversity loss, than the disappearance of native Galicio-Portuguese oak forest. The affinities of species to non-preferred habitats suggest that bird communities can adapt to land-use changes derived from farmland abandonment. Based on model predictions we argue that rewilding may be a suitable management option for many European mountain

  12. Child work and labour among orphaned and abandoned children in five low and middle income countries

    Pence Brian; Whetten Kathryn; Ostermann Jan; Messer Lynne; Whetten Rachel; Buckner Megan; Thielman Nathan; O'Donnell Karen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The care and protection of the estimated 143,000,000 orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) worldwide is of great importance to global policy makers and child service providers in low and middle income countries (LMICs), yet little is known about rates of child labour among OAC, what child and caregiver characteristics predict child engagement in work and labour, or when such work infers with schooling. This study examines rates and correlates of child labour among OAC and ...

  13. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about the waiting time and patience distribution in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent and identically distributed observations by allowing correlated successive waiting times. Assuming a regenerative structure of the sequence of offered waiting times, we establish asymptotic properties of...

  14. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Esmail Fatehifar; Sakineh Jadidi; Bahram Vosugh; Fazel Khaleghi; Mohammad Mosaferi; Behzad Hajalilou

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water sa...

  15. Abandoning Silos for Integration: Implementing Enterprise Risk Management and Risk Governance

    Lundqvist, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Firms began to abandon the “silo” approach to risk management for more integration in the risk management system. Enterprise risk management (ERM) emerged as a framework for the management of integrated risks in a strategy setting supported by risk governance. Practically and empirically there has been no real consensus about what an ERM firm looks like. ERM frameworks provide a variety of conceptualizations of ERM, and empirically there are numerous ways of measuring and identifying ERM. The...

  16. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    Herndon, J.; Smith, D.K.

    1976-09-01

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging. (JSR)

  17. Plugging wells for abandonment: a state-of-the-art study and recommended procedures

    The state-of-the-art of borehole plugging of abandoned oil wells and the tools and materials used are discussed. Special problems encountered are considered and several case studies are outlined. The special procedures which must be followed if the plugged borehole is to be considered as a repository for radioactive wastes are discussed and special recommendations are made. A state-by-state summary is given of the regulatory requirements for borehole plugging

  18. Mobility of ChNPP release radionuclides in soils of abandoned areas

    Some results on long-term dynamics of migration movability of ChNPP release radionuclides in soils of abandoned areas have been analyzed and summarized. Role of physical-chemical forms of fallout as well as landscape geochemical characteristics of the territory has been estimated. Dynamics of 90Sr migration in soils of fuel tracks of ChNPP fallout is in the main difference in comparison with 137Cs.

  19. No evidence of increased fire risk due to agricultural land abandonment in Sardinia (Italy)

    Ricotta, C.; D. Guglietta; Migliozzi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Different land cover types are related to different levels of fire hazard through their vegetation structure and fuel load composition. Therefore, understanding the relationships between landscape changes and fire behavior is of crucial importance for developing adequate fire fighting and fire prevention strategies for a changing world. In the last decades the abandonment of agricultural lands and pastoral activities has been the major driver of landscape transformations in Mediterranean Euro...

  20. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L.; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M.; Windhorst, David

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of ...

  1. The prevention of mine accident and utilization of abandoned mine openings.

    Cho, Won-Jai; Lee, Sang-Kwon; Chung, So-Keul [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. (1) Research on the prevention of mine accident (V): This research has been conducted to investigate 11 major operating coal mines in respect to mine safety. The safety inspection on 9 coal mines has already been done until 1998. In this year, two coal mines, Sangduck and Maro, were inspected and desirable counter measures were recommended. (2) Alternative utilization of underground spaces with abandoned mine openings: The final goal of this study is to establish the model of utilization of abandoned mine openings, to design the utilization model, and to develop the utilization techniques. For these research targets, literature surveys, determination of major factors, and field surveys for candidate mines were performed during first research year. Now in this second year, the candidate mines were deeply surveyed, and finally conceptual design was made for one of these abandoned mines. The Gahak mine which is located in Kwangmyung city, Kyunggido, can be utilized as a bio-park and a cave land. (author). 33 refs., 104 tabs., 21 figs.

  2. Declining diversity in abandoned grasslands of the carpathian mountains: do dominant species matter?

    Anna Mária Csergő

    Full Text Available Traditional haymaking has created exceptionally high levels of plant species diversity in semi-natural grasslands of the Carpathian Mountains (Romania, the maintenance of which is jeopardized by recent abandonment and subsequent vegetation succession. We tested the hypothesis that the different life history strategies of dominant grasses cause different patterns of diversity loss after abandonment of traditional haymaking in two types of meadow. Although diversity loss rate was not significantly different, the mechanism of loss depended on the life history of dominant species. In meadows co-dominated by competitive stress-tolerant ruderals, diversity loss occurred following the suppression of dominant grasses by tall forbs, whereas in meadows dominated by a stress-tolerant competitor, diversity loss resulted from increased abundance and biomass of the dominant grass. We conclude that management for species conservation in abandoned grasslands should manipulate the functional turnover in communities where the dominant species is a weaker competitor, and abundance and biomass of dominant species in communities where the dominant species is the stronger competitor.

  3. Landscape Pattern Changes in Response to Transhumance Abandonment on Mountain Vermio (North Greece

    Anna Sidiropoulou

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Transhumance, the seasonal movement of herds between highlands and lowlands following precise, repeated routes, is a common practice in many Mediterranean regions. This livestock movement exploits natural vegetation in both winter and summer pastures. In Greece transhumant herders, drawn by relatively abundant vegetation, usually relocate to mountainous areas between April and October. Mount Vermio was an ideal summer pasture for the nomadic, ethnic group Sarakatsanoi of Thessaly, who used to own big herds. Socio-economic conditions of the 20th century led to the gradual decline of transhumance, resulting in reduction in grazing pressure and changes in vegetation dynamics. The purpose of this study was to monitor changes in landscape patterns in response to transhumance abandonment. Landscape metrics were employed to estimate land use/cover in two altitudinal zones. Results reveal that due to the abandonment of transhumance in the highlands landscape fragmentation increased. Meanwhile, in the lowlands, due to the uninterrupted presence of animals, landscape structure is more stable and diversified. Grasslands and agroforestry systems became smaller and more isolated. In conclusion, the abandonment of transhumance led to the overall deterioration of the rural landscape in the highlands.

  4. The option to abandon: stimulating innovative groundwater remediation technologies characterized by technological uncertainty.

    Compernolle, T; Van Passel, S; Huisman, K; Kort, P

    2014-10-15

    Many studies on technology adoption demonstrate that uncertainty leads to a postponement of investments by integrating a wait option in the economic analysis. The aim of this study however is to demonstrate how the investment in new technologies can be stimulated by integrating an option to abandon. Furthermore, this real option analysis not only considers the ex ante decision analysis of the investment in a new technology under uncertainty, but also allows for an ex post evaluation of the investment. Based on a case study regarding the adoption of an innovative groundwater remediation strategy, it is demonstrated that when the option to abandon the innovative technology is taken into account, the decision maker decides to invest in this technology, while at the same time it determines an optimal timing to abandon the technology if its operation proves to be inefficient. To reduce uncertainty about the effectiveness of groundwater remediation technologies, samples are taken. Our analysis shows that when the initial belief in an effective innovative technology is low, it is important that these samples provide correct information in order to justify the adoption of the innovative technology. PMID:25063916

  5. The effect of plant diversity manipulation on the succession of soil fauna in an abandoned arable field

    Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Balík, Vladimír

    Rouen : Université de Rouen, 2004. s. 13. [International Colloquium on Soil Zoology and Ecology /14./. 30.08.2004-03.09.2004, Rouen] Keywords : plant diversity manipulation * soil fauna * abandoned arable field Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  6. Some examples of the cavity filling along transportation routes above abandoned room and pillar lignite Mines in Tokai Region

    The authors describe the applications of the integrated cavity filling technique to abandoned lignite mines in Tokai region. These abandoned lignite mines were in operation until 1960's and the routes of Tokai By-Pass Expressway and the linear motor car railway line for Aichi Exposition pass over these abandoned mines. Since the size of abandoned mines were much larger than the route of the expressway and the elevated monorail, limited areas relevant to their stability had to be only filled. This article describe the details of cavity filling operations in these two projects, which may be some valuable examples for assessing the methods how to deal problems associated with mine closures in long term. (authors)

  7. Extent of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines and Surface Mines in the Boulder-Weld Coal Field (friminedu)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file is a digital polygon representation of the areal extent of abandoned underground coal mines and surface mines in the Boulder-Weld coal field, Denver...

  8. Variation in concentrations of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants among eggs in abandoned clutches of a terrestrial raptor.

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bangjord, Georg; Yoccoz, Nigel G

    2015-01-01

    Bird eggs are often used to measure various pollutants in monitoring programs. In protected species, however, it might only be possible to collect eggs abandoned by the parent birds. In order to assess the appropriateness of abandoned eggs for contaminant monitoring we examined intra-clutch variation in concentrations of 24 halogenated organic pollutants (16 organochlorines [OCs] and 8 brominated flame retardants) in six abandoned tawny owl (Strix aluco) clutches from central Norway. The variation among eggs within a clutch was low for nearly all compounds (intra-class correlation >0.9 both for lipid- and wet weight). This study suggests that abandoned eggs provide a relatively reliable measurement of lipophilic pollutants in clutches of terrestrial raptors such as the tawny owl. PMID:25463262

  9. Changes in soil microbial community structure following the abandonment of agricultural terraces in mountainous areas of Eastern Spain

    Zornoza, R.; Guerrero, C.; J. Mataix-Solera; Scow, K M; V. Arcenegui; J. Mataix-Beneyto

    2009-01-01

    In Eastern Spain, almond trees have been cultivated in terraced orchards for centuries, forming an integral part of the Mediterranean forest scene. In the last decades, orchards have been abandoned due to changes in society. This study investigates effects of changes in land use from forest to agricultural land and the posterior land abandonment on soil microbial community, and the influence of soil physico-chemical properties on the microbial community composition (assessed as abundances of ...

  10. Does land abandonment decrease species richness and abundance of plants and animals in Mediterranean pastures, arable lands and permanent croplands?

    Plieninger, Tobias; Gaertner, Mirijam; Hui, Cang; Huntsinger, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Obscured by the more prevalent discussion of intensification and expansion of agricultural land, the impacts of the abandonment of many grasslands and croplands of the world in recent decades have received limited attention in the literature. Land abandonment is a common phenomenon in the Mediterranean Basin, a global biodiversity hotspot, but little is known about the impacts of this process on biodiversity. To upscale existing ca...

  11. Motivation for Technology Adoption and Its Impact on Abandonment: A Case Study of U.S. Cotton Farmers

    Uematsu, Hiroki; Mishra, Ashok K.; Roberts, Roland K.; Lambert, Dayton M.; English, Burton C.

    2011-01-01

    We estimate a bivariate probit model with sample selection to identify factors affecting adoption and abandonment of precision farming technologies for cotton farmers, using the 2009 Southern Cotton Precision Farming Survey conducted in 12 Southern states in the United States. Farmers for whom being at the forefront of agricultural technology is not an important reason for adoption are more likely to abandon precision farming technologies. This study identified various factors associated with...

  12. Correlates of Poor Health among Orphans and Abandoned Children in Less Wealthy Countries: The Importance of Caregiver Health

    Nathan Thielman; Jan Ostermann; Kathryn Whetten; Rachel Whetten; Karen O'Donnell

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: More than 153 million children worldwide have been orphaned by the loss of one or both parents, and millions more have been abandoned. We investigated relationships between the health of orphaned and abandoned children (OAC) and child, caregiver, and household characteristics among randomly selected OAC in five countries. METHODOLOGY: Using a two-stage random sampling strategy in 6 study areas in Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania, the Positive Outcomes for Orphans (PO...

  13. Using Landscape metrics to analyze the landscape evolution under land abandonment

    Pelorosso, Raffaele; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Gobattoni, Federica; Leone, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The human actions and the human-linked land use changes are the main responsible of the present landscapes and vegetation patterns (Antrop, 2005; Pelorosso et al., 2009). Hence, revised concept of potential natural vegetation has been developed in landscape ecology. In fact, it cannot more be considered as the optimum for a certain landscape, but only as a general indication never widely reached. In particular Ingegnoli and Pignatti (2007) introduced the concept of fittest vegetation as "the most suitable or suited vegetation for the specific climate and geomorphic conditions, in a limited period of time and in a certain defined place with a particular range of incorporable disturbances (including man's) under natural or not natural conditions". Anthropic exploitation of land and its resources to obtain goods and services (Willemen et al, 2008) can be considered therefore the main cause of landscape change as an integrant part of nature, not external. The abandon of the land by farmers or other users it is one of the more felt problems for the marginal territories of Mediterranean basin. It is therefore caused by socio-economic changes of last decades and cause several impact on biodiversity (Geri et al. 2010) and hydro-geological assessment. A mountain landscape has however the capacity to provide goods like timber and services like aesthetic pleasure or regulation of water system. The necessity of a conservation strategy and the development of sustainable socio-economic management plan play a very important role in governing land and quality of life for people and ecosystems also for marginal territory. After a land abandonment, soil conditions and several climatic and orographic characteristic plus human disturbance affect the length of time required by secondary succession, throwing the establishment of vegetation with different association, structure and composition until a (stable or meta-stable) equilibrium is reached (Ingegnoli and Pignatti, 2007). In this

  14. Exploring the Dynamic Mechanisms of Farmland Abandonment Based on a Spatially Explicit Economic Model for Environmental Sustainability: A Case Study in Jiangxi Province, China

    Hualin Xie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmland abandonment has important impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem recovery, as well as food security and rural sustainable development. Due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, farmland abandonment has become an increasingly important problem in many countries, particularly in China. To promote sustainable land-use management and environmental sustainability, it is important to understand the socioeconomic causes and spatial patterns of farmland abandonment. In this study, we explored the dynamic mechanisms of farmland abandonment in Jiangxi province of China using a spatially explicit economical model. The results show that the variables associated with the agricultural products yield are significantly correlated with farmland abandonment. The increasing opportunity cost of farming labor is the main factor in farmland abandonment in conjunction with a rural labor shortage due to rural-to-urban population migration and regional industrialization. Farmlands are more likely to be abandoned in areas located far from the villages and towns due to higher transportation costs. Additionally, farmers with more land but lower net income are more likely to abandon poor-quality farmland. Our results support the hypothesis that farmland abandonment takes place in locations in which the costs of cultivation are high and the potential crop yield is low. In addition, our study also demonstrates that a spatially explicit economic model is necessary to distinguish between the main driving forces of farmland abandonment. Policy implications are also provided for potential future policy decisions.

  15. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Nathália Mota de Faria Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65 and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96. In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76. The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85, coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56, illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75, the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38, and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75. Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality.

  16. Spatial explicit assessment of rural land abandonment in the Mediterranean area

    Weissteiner, Christof J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Böttcher, Kristin; Carrara, Paola; Bordogna, Gloria; Brivio, Pietro Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    This study adopts the "syndrome approach", originally defined by the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK), ( Downing et al., 2002) to assess and map rural land abandonment (RLA), that occurred during the period 1990-2005 within the wider Mediterranean area. The basic idea behind the syndrome approach is to describe change processes by archetypical, dynamic, and co-evolutionary patterns of civilization-nature interactions. In the frame of the Rural Exodus Syndrome the RLA can be interpreted as the occurrence of environmental degradation through the abandonment of traditional agricultural practices. Multi-source spatial data, including biophysical-related variables mainly derived from Earth Observation as well as socio-economical GIS-based data, were used to define proxies for expected underlying processes and drivers of the mentioned syndrome. The analysis of data is rooted in the fuzzy set theory and approximate reasoning techniques which allows for the handling of uncertain and imprecise knowledge of environmental systems. Generalized Conjunction/Disjunction operators (GCD) were applied to compute intermediate indicator score maps representing the conditions that may affect the RLA, and a bipolar operator was used to combine mandatory and favouring conditions with the aim of generating a RLA indicator. The indicator expresses the detailed location and severity, or degree, of the syndrome. The Northern Mediterranean was generally found to suffer from RLA to a distinctly higher degree than the Southern Mediterranean. Reported abandonment studies from the existing literature, the European CORINE land cover map, and the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) map all supported the findings by confirming plausibility through convergence of evidence from comparisons with different types of independent information. This spatially highly-detailed results obtained may be of particular interest to policy and decision makers involved in rural development planning in the

  17. Differences between Risk Factors Associated with Tuberculosis Treatment Abandonment and Mortality

    Gomes, Nathália Mota de Faria; Bastos, Meire Cardoso da Mota; Marins, Renata Magliano; Barbosa, Aline Alves; Soares, Luiz Clóvis Parente; de Abreu, Annelise Maria de Oliveira Wilken; Souto Filho, João Tadeu Damian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To identify the risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment and mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients. Methods. This study was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2002 and 2008 in a TB reference center. Results. A total of 1,257 patients were evaluated, with 69.1% men, 54.4% under 40 years of age, 18.9% with extrapulmonary disease, and 9.3% coinfected with HIV. The risk factors that were associated with abandonment of treatment included male gender (OR = 2.05; 95% CI = 1.15–3.65) and nonadherence to previous treatment (OR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.96–5.96). In addition, the presence of extrapulmonary TB was a protective factor (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.14–0.76). The following risk factors were associated with mortality: age over 40 years (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = 1.76–3.85), coinfection with HIV (OR = 6.01, 95% CI = 3.78–9.56), illiteracy (OR = 1.88, 95% CI = 1.27–2.75), the presence of severe extrapulmonary TB (OR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.24–4.38), and retreatment after relapse (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.01–3.75). Conclusions. Male gender and retreatment after abandonment were independent risk factors for nonadherence to TB treatment. Furthermore, age over 40 years, coinfection with HIV, illiteracy, severe extrapulmonary TB, and retreatment after relapse were associated with higher TB mortality. Therefore, we suggest the implementation of direct measures that will control the identified risk factors to reduce the rates of treatment failure and TB-associated mortality. PMID:26600948

  18. The Savannah River Site's Groundwater Monitoring Program 1991 well installation report

    This report is a summary of the well and environmental soil boring information compiled for the groundwater monitoring program of the Environmental Protection Department/Environmental Monitoring Section (EPD/EMS) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during 1991. It includes discussion of environmental soil borings, surveying, well installations, abandonments, maintenance, and stabilization

  19. Study on Net Nitrogen Mineralization at Forest, Shrubland and Abandoned Agricultural Lands under Standard Laboratory Conditions

    Tecimen, Hüseyin Barış

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current study is based on the data collected in January 2010 from field under authorization of Çatalca-Karacaköy the Chief Forest Enterprise located in the northern Istanbul. Net nitrogen mineralization rates were estimated at soils taken from mixed and thicket age (1.30 m Ø ≈ 20 cm) Oak sp. (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. cerris L., Q. robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein)) forest (OFL), shrub land (dominated with Cistus spp.) (SL), recently abandoned agricultural land (RAAL...

  20. Sudan: An in-depth analysis of the social dynamics of abandonment of FGM/C

    S. Al Hebshi; B. V. Nylund; Samira Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices This paper examines the experience of Sudan by analysing the factors that promote and support the abandonment of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) and other harmful social practices. FGM/C is still widely practiced in all regions of northern Sudan but today actors are mobilizing across the country to end the practice. This paper analyses programmes that support ending FGM/C in Sudan and highlights the key factors that promote collec...

  1. Asymptotic inference for waiting times and patiences in queues with abandonment

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2009-01-01

    Motivated by applications in call center management, we propose a framework based on empirical process techniques for inference about waiting time and patience distributions in multiserver queues with abandonment. The framework rigorises heuristics based on survival analysis of independent and...... identically distributed observations by allowing correlated waiting times. Assuming a regenerative structure of offered waiting times, we establish asymptotic properties of estimators of limiting distribution functions and derived functionals. We discuss construction of bootstrap confidence intervals and...... statistical tests, including a simple bootstrap two-sample test for comparing patience distributions. A small simulation study and a real data example are presented....

  2. Leadership's impact in turnover and career abandonment intention: the Azorean Hospital Nurses Case.

    Furtado, Luís Carlos do Rego; Batista, Maria da Graça Câmara; Silva, Francisco José Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The authors aimed to identify nurse managers' leadership behaviors and determine if they had a direct impact on turnover or career abandonment intention among nurses. This descriptive and inferential study was conducted in two public hospitals in Azores (Portugal). The sample consisted of 266 individuals (22 head nurses and 244 staff nurses). Data were collected during May 2010. The most expressive leadership styles were S(2) (persuading) and S(3) (sharing). Nurse retention seems easier when dealing with profile S(2)-S(3) or effective adaptability. This study brings light to a severe problem of nurse retention in Portugal. PMID:21864056

  3. Production rate of Morus Alba pollen grains in an abandoned M. Alba plantation

    Kiyonaga, Jota

    2016-01-01

    As a basic study for pollen analysis, the production rate of Morus alba (white mulberry) pollen grains in an abandoned M. alba plantation was determined over a three-year period from 1997 to 1999. The number of pollen grains per male catkin was assessed and the fall rate of male catkins was measured using five litter traps. The mean production rate was 2.6 × 10^ grains ha^yr^ (range = 2.2-3.4 × 10^ grains ha^yr^). This is near the lower end of the range of pollen production rates that have be...

  4. Ten Year Evaluation of Carbon Stock in Mangrove Plantation Reforested from an Abandoned Shrimp Pond

    Jirasak Chukwamdee; Wijarn Meepol; Keiyo Morimune; Naohiro Matsui

    2012-01-01

    Forest carbon stocks—both in terms of the standing biomass and the soil organic carbon (OC)—were monitored in the mangrove plantation reforested from an abandoned shrimp pond for the 10 years following land excavation. Excavation to a level of 25 cm below the existing ground level increased the inundation time of tidal water from 463 to 7,597 hours per year, resulting in a significant increase of survival/growth rates for planted mangrove species, Rhizophora mucronata (RM...

  5. Mobile-based distributed system for managing abandoned or lost pets

    GARROTE HILDEBRAND, DANIEL; Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó Ten, José Enrique

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-00551-5_24 This paper presents the work in progress of a mobile-based distributed system which aims to minimize the social impact of abandoned or lost animals. System is based on the use of smart mobile devices to provide message warnings of animals localized. Messages are stored in a database to be processed. In order to enter data such as photography, audio and artificial images, system uses different ...

  6. Effects of irrigation and plastic mulch on soil properties on semi-arid abandoned fields

    Meulen, van der, A.; Nol, L.; Cammeraat, L.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Guadalentín Basin in Spain is one of the driest areas of Europe and has problems with high evaporation rates, and high risks of desertification exist including soil quality loss and soil erosion. Farmers in this semi-arid region use polyethylene covers on their irrigated croplands to reduce evaporation in order to enhance crop yield. When farmers abandon the acres, they leave the plastic covers on the fields. Up to now research has been concentrating on the effects of plastic covers on cr...

  7. Pharma TARP: A Troubled Asset Relief Program for Novel, Abandoned Projects in the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Tamas Bartfai; Graham Vaughan Lees

    2011-01-01

    Within days of each other, Pfizer, Merck, and GlaxoSmithKline announced that they will focus on a few therapeutic areas only and abandon others entirely. Pfizer alone will close well over a hundred drug development projects that have reached two-thirds of the way to launch. The programs are deemed to be too risky and not lucrative enough for Big Pharma in the current climate. Society has a real need for the drugs that are no longer going to be developed for, among others, drug-resistant epile...

  8. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    Hyung-Seok Kim; Ji-Whan Ahn; Gi-Chun Han; Mihee Lim; Kwang-Suk You

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching c...

  9. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Lourenço, Joana, E-mail: joanalourenco@ua.pt [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gonçalves, Fernando; Mendo, Sónia [Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM, Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2013-01-15

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas.

  10. Metal bioaccumulation, genotoxicity and gene expression in the European wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) inhabiting an abandoned uranium mining area

    Genotoxic effects caused by the exposure to wastes containing metals and radionuclides were investigated in the European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus). The animals were captured in the surroundings of an abandoned uranium mining site. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay; gene expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed, respectively, by Real-Time PCR and melt curve analysis. The bioaccumulation of metals in the liver, kidney and bones was also determined to help clarify cause–effect relationships. Results confirmed the bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium in organisms exposed to uranium mining wastes. P53 gene was found to be significantly up-regulated in the liver of those organisms and SNPs in the Rb gene were also detected in the kidney. Our results showed that uranium mining wastes caused serious DNA damage resulting in genomic instability, disclosed by the significant increase in DNA strand breaks and P53 gene expression disturbance. These effects can have severe consequences, since they may contribute for the emergence of serious genetic diseases. The fact that mice are often used as bioindicator species for the evaluation of risks of environmental exposure to humans, raises concerns on the risks for human populations living near uranium mining areas. - Highlights: ► Long term effects of chronic pollution in natural population of rodents. ► Bioaccumulation of cadmium and uranium by organisms exposed to uranium wastes. ► P53 upregulation in the liver and SNPs in the Rb gene detected in the kidney. ► Significant DNA damages detected by the comet assay. ► Concerns on the risks of human populations living nearby uranium mining areas

  11. Mobilization of Toxic Elements from an Abandoned Manganese Mine in the Arid Metropolitan Las Vegas (NV, USA Area

    Ji Hye Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Active and abandoned mines may present health risks, especially to children, from environmental exposure to airborne chemical elements, such as Pb, As, and Mn. X-ray fluorescence analysis of tailings at the Three Kids Mine show they contain high levels of: Pb (15,300 mg/kg, As (3690 mg/kg, and Mn (153,000 mg/kg. Soil was sampled along eight transects, radiating from the dried tailings ponds. Concentrations of Mn and Pb to the NE are at background concentrations at 4.8 km, and, As and Sr at 3.2 km from the mine. Going SW to the City of Henderson, all elements are at background at 1.6 cm, with the closest houses at 1.8 km. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Regional Screening Levels (RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn at 0.8 km on all transects except one. The RSLs are exceeded for Pb, As and Mn on the NE transects at 1.6 km. Future home sites are on a NE transect between 0.4 km and 2.3 km downwind from the tailings ponds, in an area highly impacted by tailings which exceed the USEPA RSLs. This research demonstrates that there has been the farthest transport of tailings offsite by the prevailing winds to the NE; the closest currently-built homes have not received measurable tailings dust because they are upwind; and that precautions must be taken during the proposed remediation of the mine to restrict dust-transport of Pb, As, and Mn to avoid human exposure and ecological damage.

  12. Transfer of sediment-associated metals downstream of abandoned and active mining sites in the Quesnel River catchment, British Columbia

    Perk, M. van der; Lipzig, M.L.H.M. van; Karimlou, G.; Owens, P.N.; Petticrew, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    Metal mining may have considerable impact on downstream water and sediment composition. The rate and extent that metals move downstream determine the magnitude and time scale of downstream sediment contamination. Conversely, the downstream metal content of sediments provide important clues of sedime

  13. Mercury fractionation in sediments downstream of the abandoned mine site of La Soterraña (Asturias, Spain)

    Silva V.; Fernández-Martínez R.; Loredo J.; Ordoñez A.; Rucandio I.

    2013-01-01

    Asturias (Northern Spain) has been an important mercury mining area during the twentieth century. The mining and smelting of ore has been the responsible for the large release of mercury to the aquatic and terrestrial environments in the area. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of mercury in stream sediments from the Caudal River basin in central Asturias by using sequential extraction. A novel five-step sequential extraction procedure was used to assess Hg partitioning. To...

  14. Mercury fractionation in sediments downstream of the abandoned mine site of La Soterraña (Asturias, Spain

    Silva V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Asturias (Northern Spain has been an important mercury mining area during the twentieth century. The mining and smelting of ore has been the responsible for the large release of mercury to the aquatic and terrestrial environments in the area. The present work sought to evaluate the fractionation of mercury in stream sediments from the Caudal River basin in central Asturias by using sequential extraction. A novel five-step sequential extraction procedure was used to assess Hg partitioning. Total mercury concentrations varied between 12 and 443 mg.Kg−1. Sequential extractions revealed that both Elemental Hg and bound to sulfide Hg constituted the major forms of mercury in the samples.

  15. Abandonment of Treatment for Latent Tuberculosis Infection and Socioeconomic Factors in Children and Adolescents: Rio De Janeiro, Brazil

    Mendonça, Angela Marcia Cabral; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Sant’Anna, Clemax Couto

    2016-01-01

    Background Routine data on the use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) in children and adolescents are scarce in high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries. Objective To describe the factors related to abandonment of IPT in children and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) receiving routine care. Methods Retrospective (2005–2009) descriptive study of 286 LTBI cases with indication of IPT and serviced at a pediatric hospital in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Survival analysis of the risk of abandonment of IPT over six months was performed, including multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Out of the 245 cases of LTBI included, 62 abandoned IPT (25.3%; 95% CI: 20%-31%). On multivariate analysis, the variables related to the IPT abandonment hazard ratio were the Human Development Index (HDI) (hazard ratio—HR: 0.004; 0.000–0.569) of the place of residence and the contact with adults that were not undergoing anti-TB treatment (HR: 7.30; 1.00–53.3). Conclusion This study reveals the relevance of the relation of abandonment of IPT to the socioeconomic conditions at the place of residence and poor adherence to the active TB treatment. Educational measures to stimulate preventive treatment of child contacts and curative treatment of index cases should target the full familial setting. PMID:27149514

  16. Chemical Data for Rock, Sediment, Biological, Precipitate, and Water Samples from Abandoned Copper Mines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Koski, Randolph A.; Munk, LeeAnn

    2007-01-01

    Introduction In the early 20th century, approximately 6 million metric tons of copper ore were mined from numerous deposits located along the shorelines of fjords and islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. At the Beatson, Ellamar, and Threeman mine sites (fig. 1), rocks containing Fe, Cu, Zn, and Pb sulfide minerals are exposed to chemical weathering in abandoned mine workings and remnant waste piles that extend into the littoral zone. Field investigations in 2003 and 2005 as well as analytical data for rock, sediment, precipitate, water, and biological samples reveal that the oxidation of sulfides at these sites is resulting in the generation of acid mine drainage and the transport of metals into the marine environment (Koski and others, 2008; Stillings and others, 2008). At the Ellamar and Threeman sites, plumes of acidic and metal-enriched water are flowing through beach gravels into the shallow offshore environment. Interstitial water samples collected from beach sediment at Ellamar have low pH levels (to ~3) and high concentrations of metals including iron, copper, zinc, cobalt, lead, and mercury. The abundant precipitation of the iron sulfate mineral jarosite in the Ellamar gravels also signifies a low-pH environment. At the Beatson mine site (the largest copper mine in the region) seeps containing iron-rich microbial precipitates drain into the intertidal zone below mine dumps (Foster and others, 2008). A stream flowing down to the shoreline from underground mine workings at Beatson has near-neutral pH, but elevated levels of zinc, copper, and lead (Stillings and others, 2008). Offshore sediment samples at Beatson are enriched in these metals. Preliminary chemical data for tissue from marine mussels collected near the Ellamar, Threeman, and Beatson sites reveal elevated levels of copper, zinc, and lead compared to tissue in mussels from other locations in Prince William Sound (Koski and others, 2008). Three papers presenting results of this ongoing

  17. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Esmail Fatehifar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of miningarea were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according tostandard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence(XRF and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP were used. Information about possiblehealth effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villagesand health center of Herris City.Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000μg/L in Valiloo mine opening water. With increasing distance from the mine, concentrationwas decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no healtheffects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic.Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around environmentof the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater andalso downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  18. Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine

    Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H. [Federal Institute for Geoscience and Natural Resources BGR, Hannover (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

  19. Practice on medical support in dealing with abandoned chemical weapons by Japanese army in China

    Liu LIU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Japanese abandoned chemical weapons (JACWs are a momentous and eventful historical issue for both China and Japan. Large quantities of chemical weapons abandoned by the Japanese invaders still remain on Chinese soil after 1945 when Japanese invaders were defeated and surrendered. Up to date, JACWs have been found in 19 provinces (cities or districts of mainland China. The types of JACWs include chemical bombs, chemical aerial bombs, gas cylinders and loose packed barrels. The types of toxic agents include mustard gas, irritant agents, choking agents, systemic poisoning agents and etc. In order to eliminate JACWs to reduce injuries produced by toxic agents, Chinese government, in cooperation with Japanese government, organized a special troop to search, excavate, retrieve, and destroy JACWs. Up to date, about 50,000 pieces of poisonous chemical had retrieved and destroyed. The first operation was officially begun in Nanjing in October 2010. The main points of medical support on the operation of destroying JACWs include proper treatment of the newly discovered patients caused by JACWs, preparedness for handling the emergency medical rescue, and to actively provide routine medical support for JACWs operation field.

  20. Environmental risks of abandoning a mining project already started: Romaltyn Mining Baia Mare

    Bud, I.; Duma, S.; Gusat, D.; Pasca, I.; Bud, A.

    2016-08-01

    The history of mining activity, which has been the economy engine in the region and has contributed to the formation of many localities, has been deleted too quickly. During all this time, in the world countries which have invested in mining sector have made considerable progress. The paper brings in question, within the framework of the theme, the implications arising from the abandonment of the Romaltyn project which mainly affects two objectives: Central Tailing Pond and Aurul Tailing Pond. The Central tailing pond constitutes an unfortunate source of pollution for groundwater, surface water, soil and air on a large area around it, because its location upstream of Baia Mare city and in the vicinity of a agricultural production zone. The consequences of the tailing pond maintenance in the current situation are: presence of sclerozing dust with sulphurs content scattered over large agricultural area; soil pollution by acidification; heavy metals release which enter in food chain and will be found in food. The final disposal of the pollution source is the only solution really safe in long term. Abandoning Aurul tailing pond in the current phase of construction involves high environmental risks. Taking in consideration the potential and the huge soil volume which are necessary for rehabilitation, isolation and rehabilitation of this area involve extremely high costs and the realization is, technically, almost impossible in the current context.