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Sample records for abalone haliotis diversicolor

  1. Identification and characterization of Vibrio harveyi associated with diseased abalone Haliotis diversicolor.

    Jiang, Qingru; Shi, Liuyang; Ke, Caihuan; You, Weiwei; Zhao, Jing

    2013-03-26

    Mass mortality of farmed small abalone Haliotis diversicolor occurred in Fujian, China, from 2009 to 2011. Among isolates obtained from moribund abalones, the dominant species AP37 exhibited the strongest virulence. After immersion challenge with 106 CFU ml-1 of AP37, abalone mortalities of 0, 53 and 67% were induced at water temperatures of 20°C, 24°C, and 28°C, respectively. Following intramuscular injection, AP37 showed a low LD50 (median lethal concentration) value of 2.9 × 102 CFU g-1 (colony forming units per gram abalone wet body weight). The LT50 (median lethal time) values were 5.2 h for 1 × 106 CFU abalone-1, 8.4 h for 1 × 105 CFU abalone-1, and 21.5 h for 1 × 104 CFU abalone-1. For further analysis of virulence, AP37 was screened for the production of extracellular factors. The results showed that various factors including presence of flagella and production of extracellular enzymes, such as lipase, phospholipase and haemolysin, could be responsible for pathogenesis. Based on its 16S rRNA gene sequence, strain AP37 showed >98.8% similarity to Vibrio harveyi, V. campbellii, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. natriegens and V. rotiferianus, so it could not be identified by this method. However, multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of concatenated sequences, including the rpoD, rctB, gyrB, toxR and pyrH genes, identified strain AP37 as V. harveyi. Phenotypic characters of AP37 were identified by API 20E. In antibiotic susceptibility tests, strain AP37 exhibited susceptibility to 7 antibiotics and resistance to 13. This is the first report of a V. harveyi-related species being linked with the mass mortality of adult abalone H. diversicolor in southern China. PMID:23548363

  2. Identification and involvement of ferritin in the response to pathogen challenge in the abalone, Haliotis diversicolor.

    He, Jian; Jiang, Jingzhe; Gu, Lu; Zhao, Manman; Wang, Ruixuan; Ye, Lingtong; Yao, Tuo; Wang, Jiangyong

    2016-07-01

    Accumulating data has demonstrated that ferritin plays an important role in host defense responses against infection by pathogens in many organisms. In this study, ultracentrifugation was used to isolate ferritin from abalone, Haliotis diversicolor, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis revealed that this ferritin consisted of two subunits (designated as HdFer1 and HdFer2). There are no disulfide bonds between the HdFer1 and HdFer2 subunits; however, these subunits co-assemble to form heteropolymers. A novel ferritin subunit (HdFer2) was cloned from H. diversicolor by 5' and 3' RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) approach. The full-length HdFer2 cDNA sequence consists of 878 bp with an open reading frame of 513 bp that encodes a protein that is 170 amino acids in length. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that HdFer1 and HdFer2 were transcribed in various tissues, such as the mantle, gill and hepatopancreas, with the highest levels of expression in the hepatopancreas. Following a challenge with the pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, the expression of HdFer1 and HdFer2 were markedly induced at different times. This study has identified a novel ferritin subunit in H. diversicolor which will contribute to further exploration of the role of ferritin in mollusk innate immune defense against invading pathogens. PMID:26875633

  3. Effects of tributyltin (TBT) on enzyme activity and oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and hemolymph of small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Jia Xiwei; Zhang Ziping; Wang Shuhong; Lin Peng; Zou Zhihua; Huang Bangqin; Wang Yilei

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effect of tributyltin (TBT) exposure on the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activity levels of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and acid and alkaline phosphatase (ACP and AKP) enzymes in the small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta. We collected samples of the hepatopancreas and hemolymph 2, 6, 24, 48, 96, and 192 h after exposure to 0.35μg (Sn)/L TBT. In the hepatopancreas, ACP activity was significantly higher in animals exposed to TBT 2, 24, and 96 h post-exposure compared with the control animals. AKP activity was also higher after 2 h, but SOD and CAT activity was unchanged. The concentration of MDA in the hemolymph was significantly higher than the control animals 2 and 6 h post-exposure. In the hemolymph of animals exposed to TBT, ACP activity was significantly lower than in the control animals 192 h post-exposure, whereas AKP activity was significantly lower 2 and 192 h post-exposure. Hemolymph SOD activity and levels of MDA were significantly lower than in the control animals 24 h after exposure but significantly higher after 96 h. Our results demonstrate that exposure to TBT cause rapid changes in ACP and AKP activity as well as altering the concentration of MDA in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph. SOD and CAT do not appear to be involved in the detoxification of TBT in the hepatopancreas of small abalone.

  4. Toxic effects of several phthalate esters on the embryos and larvae of abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    YANG Zhihui; ZHANG Xiangjing; CAI Zhonghua

    2009-01-01

    As the most widely used plasticizers in the world, phthalate esters (PAEs) are potential endocrine disruption compounds (EDCs). In the present study, the toxicity of dimethyl phthalate (DMP),diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on embryogenesis and larvae development of the marine univalve Haliotis diversicolor supertexta was examined in laboratory. The results show that the malformation of embryos appeared during the experiment, such as embryos died or lysed, small transparent flocculent rings studded on the periphery of the embryo, and the larvae could failed to hatch. In embryo toxic test, embryos incubated at the highest concentration of DMP,DEP and DBP solutions showed significantly high abnormal rate compared with the control, while DEHP solutions displayed no significant difference. In larval toxic test, in all concentrations of DMP, DEP and DBP solutions, larval settlement rates were low significantly than that of the control. Similarly, DEHP solutions show nearly no effect on the larval settlement. The order of toxicity on embryos and larvae is DBP>DEP>DMP>DEHP. Being a simple and easy stimulation to indoor spawn, sensitive to environmental factors, and short culture time, the embryos of 1-1. diversicolor supertexta can be used to indicate toxicity of the PAEs.

  5. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 μg/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na+-K+-pump and Ca2+-Mg2+-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17β-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: → PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. → The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. → The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  6. Potential mechanisms of phthalate ester embryotoxicity in the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta

    Zhou Jin [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Cai Zhonghua, E-mail: caizh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [L-304, Life Sciences Division, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen University Town, Xili, Shenzhen City 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xing Kezhi [Key Laboratory of Aquatic-Ecology, Tianjin Agricultural University, Lishui Road 112, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2011-05-15

    The effects and associated toxicological mechanisms of five phthalate esters (PAEs) on abalone embryonic development were investigated by exposing the embryos to a range of PAEs concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 2 and 10 {mu}g/mL). The results showed that PAEs could significantly reduce embryo hatchability, increase developmental malformations, and suppress the metamorphosis of abalone larvae. The possible toxicological mechanisms of PAEs to abalone embryos included, affecting the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-pump and Ca{sup 2+}-Mg{sup 2+}-pump activities, altering the peroxidase (POD) level and the malondialdehyde (MDA) production, damaging the extraembryonic membranes structure, as well as disrupting endocrine-related genes (gpx, cyp3a, and 17{beta}-hsd 12) expression properties. Taken together, this work showed that PAEs adversely affected the embryonic ontogeny of abalone. The abilities of PAEs affecting the osmoregulation, inducing oxidative stress, damaging embryo envelope structure, and causing physiological homeostasis disorder, are likely to be a part of the common mechanisms responsible for their embryonic toxicity. - Highlights: > PAEs affected abalone hatchability, morphogenesis and metamorphosis behavior. > The toxicity of the five PAEs to embryogenesis was ranked as DBP > DEP > DMP > DOP > DEHP. > The osmoregulation disorder and oxidative damage are the potential mechanisms. - Potential mechanisms of PAEs on abalone embryogenesis are osmoregulation disorder, oxidative damage and physiological dysfunction.

  7. Structural Changes and Rheological Properties of Dry Abalone Meat (Haliotis diversicolor) During the Process of Water Restoration

    2007-01-01

    Changes in tissue structure, rheological property and water content of dry abalone meat in the process of water restoration were studied. The weight and volume of dry abalone meat increased with water restoration. When observed under a light microscope, structural change in myofibrils was obvious and a distinct network was found. When water restoration time increased from 24h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and viscosity η1 increased, whereas the rupture strength and relaxation time (τ1) were reduced. There were no significant changes of rheological parameters (E0, η1, τ1, rupture strength) from 72 h to 96 h of water restoration. Therefore, the dry abalone meat was swollen enough at the time of 72 h. The rheological parameters were obviously influenced by the structural changes.

  8. Application of Novel Polymorphic Microsatellite Loci Identified in the Korean Pacific Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta (Haliotidae in the Genetic Characterization of Wild and Released Populations

    Seong Wan Hong

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The small abalone, Haliotis diversicolor supertexta, of the family Haliotidae, is one of the most important species of marine shellfish in eastern Asia. Over the past few decades, this species has drastically declined in Korea. Thus, hatchery-bred seeds have been released into natural coastal areas to compensate for the reduced fishery resources. However, information on the genetic background of the small abalone is scarce. In this study, 20 polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were identified using next-generation sequencing techniques and used to compare allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations in Korea. Using high-throughput genomic sequencing, a total of 1516 (2.26%; average length of 385 bp reads containing simple sequence repeats were obtained from 86,011 raw reads. Among the 99 loci screened, 28 amplified successfully, and 20 were polymorphic. When comparing allelic variation between wild and released abalone populations, a total of 243 different alleles were observed, with 18.7 alleles per locus. High genetic diversity (mean heterozygosity = 0.81; mean allelic number = 15.5 was observed in both populations. A statistical analysis of the fixation index (FST and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated limited genetic differences between the two populations (FST = 0.002, p > 0.05. Although no significant reductions in the genetic diversity were found in the released population compared with the wild population (p > 0.05, the genetic diversity parameters revealed that the seeds released for stock abundance had a different genetic composition. These differences are likely a result of hatchery selection and inbreeding. Additionally, all the primer pair sets were effectively amplified in another congeneric species, H. diversicolor diversicolor, indicating that these primers are useful for both abalone species. These microsatellite loci

  9. Effect of hypoxia on the immune response of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta and its susceptibility to pathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus%低氧胁迫对九孔鲍免疫防御因子的影响

    陈政强; 陈昌生; 战文斌

    2012-01-01

    为了解低氧胁迫条件下九孔鲍免疫防御因子的变化及机体抗病力变化,将九孔鲍置于不同的溶解氧环境中,观测相关免疫因子变化.结果显示,在水温为(22.1±1.3)℃,盐度为30.72±0.54,pH值为8.20±0.14的海水环境中,溶解氧含量由(7.49±0.14) mg/L下调至(2.53±0.16) mg/L后120 h内,平均体质量为(14.25±2.21)g的九孔鲍未见死亡,而每只鲍注射5.0×105 CFU副溶血弧菌后120 h内实验鲍的累计死亡率高达91.11%±7.70%,比对照组(11.11%±3.83%)累计死亡率高出80%,血淋巴抑菌清除率下降至-(3 340.47%±298.57%),显而易见,低氧胁迫使得九孔鲍拮抗副溶血弧菌感染的抵抗力显著下降.低氧(2.53±0.16)mg/L胁迫下,九孔鲍血淋巴细胞数量(THC)下降30.62%±4.87%、血淋巴细胞吞噬率下降62.77%±5.79%、呼吸爆发产生的超氧阴离子数量下降22.21%±5.89%.低氧胁迫下九孔鲍血淋巴细胞内MPO活性上升(9.63%±7.59%)~(22.90%±13.73%)、CAT活性提高(7.68%±6.83%)~(56.28%±13.96%),反映出低氧胁迫下九孔鲍体内应激反应产生的物质氧化加剧,血淋巴细胞内产生大量的活性氧自由基.溶解氧含量由(7.49±0.14) mg/L下调至(4.51±0.12) mg/L后九孔鲍已明显处于低氧胁迫和应激反应状态,120 h内的累计死亡率达到37.78%±3.85%,血淋巴抑菌率下降至883.56%±123.22%; THC、血淋巴细胞吞噬率、呼吸爆发产生的超氧阴离子O2-数量等最大降幅分别达到12.51%±6.59%、21.90%±15.84%、12.93%±5.74%; MPO活性在原有水平的-(10.61%±4.20%)~(7.13%±6.45%)之间波动,CAT活性在-(5.17%±18.08%)~(16.26%±10.85%)之间变化.%The abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta is the most important aquatic species in many marine farms in China. For the purpose of qualitative observation on the variation of immune defense and natural resistance of animals, the abalones were put into

  10. Australian abalone (Haliotis laevigata, H. rubra and H. conicopora) are susceptible to infection by multiple abalone herpesvirus genotypes.

    Corbeil, Serge; Williams, Lynette M; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J

    2016-05-01

    From 2006 to 2012, acute mortalities occurred in farmed and wild abalone (Haliotis spp.) along the coast of Victoria, Australia. The disease (abalone viral ganglioneuritis; AVG) is associated with infection by an abalone herpesvirus (AbHV). The relative pathogenicity of 5 known variants of AbHV was evaluated on abalone stocks from different states in Australia. Results indicated that all virus variants (Vic1, Tas1, Tas2, Tas3 and Tas4) cause disease and mortality in all abalone stocks tested (greenlip, blacklip and brownlip). In order to avoid further AVG outbreaks in Australian wild abalone, strict regulations on the transfer of abalone stocks must be implemented. PMID:27137068

  11. Gut microflora of abalone Haliotis discus hannai in culture changes coincident with a change in diet

    Tanaka, Reiji; Sugimura, Itsuro; SAWABE, Tomoo; Yoshimizu, Mamoru; Ezura, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Development of gut microflora in abalone Haliotis discus hannai cultured at two abalone farms in Japan was similar: (i) gut microflora of juvenile abalones fed on microalgae matched microflora cultured from seawater; and (ii) gut microflora changed coincident with the abalone switching food sources from microalgae to algal pellets. After abalone reached 4 months of age, the gut microflora was replaced by algal polysaccharide-degrading bacteria, which were almost entirely characterized as facu...

  12. Effects of different concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene on antioxidant enzymes in gastropod abalone,Haliotis diversicolor%不同浓度苯并(a)芘对杂色鲍抗氧化酶活性的影响

    刘洁; 林智勇; 王克坚

    2014-01-01

    为阐释不同浓度苯并(a)芘[B(a)P]对杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor)的毒性效应,以0.02、0.04和0.08 mg/dm33个质量浓度的B(a)P对杂色鲍进行水体暴露胁迫,7d后检测肌肉、外套膜、鳃、性腺、肾和肝胰腺的超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)和谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPx)活性及还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)含量.结果显示:0.02 mg/dm3的B(a)P暴露对杂色鲍抗氧化系统的影响不明显,而0.04、0.08 mg/dm3的B(a)P则显著抑制了SOD、CAT和GPx酶活性以及GSH含量,同时对GST酶活性具有显著的诱导作用;实验还发现,不同组织抗氧化酶活性对B(a)P胁迫的敏感性响应存在较大差异,其中鳃、肾脏和肝胰腺的敏感性响应明显高于肌肉和外套膜.上述结果表明,苯并(a)芘暴露对杂色鲍抗氧化酶活性的影响具有明显的剂量-效应关系及组织差异性,杂色鲍的鳃、肾脏或者肝胰腺的抗氧化酶响应多环芳香烃胁迫的更敏感,可作为B(a)P污染的生物标志物.%To reveal the ecotoxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene[B(a)P]on gastropod abalone,Haliotis diversi-color,the effects of different concentrations of B(a)P (0.02,0.04 and 0.08 mg/dm3 )were studied on antioxidant defense system of H.diversicolor.The results showed that the antioxidant enzymes activities showed little difference for the animals exposed to 0.02 mg/dm3 B(a)P compared with the control.In 0.04 mg/dm3 and 0.08 mg/dm3 groups,the activities of SOD,CAT,GPx and the contents of GSH were significant inhibited by B(a)P exposure, while the GST activities were significantly induced.The activities of antioxidant enzymes were also significantly dif-ferent among the tissues,suggesting the exist of remarkable different physiological functions and responses to B(a)P content.In summary,the antioxidant enzymes activities of exposure to

  13. Measuring abalone (Haliotis Spp.) recruitment in California to examine recruitment overfishing and recovery criteria

    Rogers-Bennett, L; Allen, B L; Davis, G E

    2004-01-01

    Abalone populations in southern California have declined dramatically since the 1950s when they supported a multispecies, commercial, and recreational fishery producing more than 3,000 t per year. Today the commercial fishery is closed statewide and the recreational fishery is closed south of San Francisco. In contrast, red abalone, Haliotis rufescens (Swainson, 1822), populations in northern California continue to sustain a 1,100 1 per year free-diving recreational fishery. We used standardi...

  14. Identifikation und Charakterisierung von Perlucin Spleißvarianten der marinen Abalone Haliotis laevigata.

    Dodenhof, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Mother of pearl is a polymer of significance for material sciences due to its fascinating properties. A frequently investigated protein in mother of pearl from the Australian Abalone Haliotis laevigata is the protein Perlucin. Despite its importance relatively little is known about the role of Perlucin in detail in the biomineralisation of mother of pearl. After SDS-PAGE and staining with Coomassie the native protein from H. laevigata shows a heterogenic band pattern (Blank et al., 2001 [1] u...

  15. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  16. DIETARY PHOSPHORUS REQUIREMENT OF YOUNG ABALONE,HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    谭北平; 麦康森; 刘付志国

    2002-01-01

    An experiment was performed to determine the dietary phosphorus requirement of the young abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Five semi-purified diets were formulated to provide a series of graded levels of dietary total phosphorus (0.23%-1.98) from monobasic potassium phosphate (KH2PO4). The brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Similar size abalone were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with six treatments and three replicates each treatment. The abalone were hand-fed to satiation with appropriate diets in excess, once daily at 17:00. The feeding trial was run for 120-d. Survival rate and soft-body to shell ratio (SB/S) were constantly maintained regardless of dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (WGR), daily increment in shell length (DISL), muscle RNA to DNA ratio (RNA/DNA), carcass levels of lipid and protein, soft-body alkaline phosphatase (SBAKP), and phosphorus concentrations of whole body (WB) and soft body (SB) were significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05) affected by the dietary phosphorus level. The dietary phosphorus requirements of the abalone were evaluated from the WGR, DISL, and RNA/DNA ratio respectively, by using second-order polynomial regression analysis. Based on these criteria, about 1.0%-1.2% total dietary phosphorus, i.e. 0.9%-1.1% dietary available phosphorus is recommended for the maximum growth of the abalone.

  17. Effects of Dietary Carbohydrates Sources on Lipids Compositions in Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    WANG Weifang; MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Wenbing; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; YAO Chunfeng; LI Huitao

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary carbohydrates on triglyceride, cholesterol and fatty acid concentrations in abalone, Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Six semi-purified diets with different carbohydrates (dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch, wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch, respectively), all containing a carbohydrate level of 33.5%, were fed to abalone (initial shell length: 29.98 mm±0.09 mm; initial weight. 3.42 g±0.02 g) for 24 weeks in a recirculation system. The results indicate that serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch and wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, and serum cholesterol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05)higher in the abalone fed with dextrin, heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in the foot muscles were significantly (P<0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin than those fed with wheat starch, corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C20:4n-6 in hepatopancreas was significantly (P<0.05) lower in abalone fed with heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with corn starch, tapioca starch and potato starch. Fatty acid C22:6n-3 in the foot muscles were significantly (P< 0.05) lower in the abalone fed with dextrin and heat-treated wheat starch than those fed with wheat starch and potato starch.

  18. Characterization of abalone Haliotis tuberculata-Vibrio harveyi interactions in gill primary cultures.

    Pichon, Delphine; Cudennec, Benoit; Huchette, Sylvain; Djediat, Chakib; Renault, Tristan; Paillard, Christine; Auzoux-Bordenave, Stéphanie

    2013-10-01

    The decline of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata populations has been associated with various pathogens including bacteria of the genus Vibrio. Following the summer mortality outbreaks reported in France between 1998 and 2000, Vibrio harveyi strains were isolated from moribund abalones, allowing in vivo and in vitro studies on the interactions between abalone H. tuberculata and V. harveyi. This work reports the development of primary cell cultures from abalone gill tissue, a target tissue for bacterial colonisation, and their use for in vitro study of host cell-V. harveyi interactions. Gill cells originated from four-day-old explant primary cultures were successfully sub-cultured in multi-well plates and maintained in vitro for up to 24 days. Cytological parameters, cell morphology and viability were monitored over time using flow cytometry analysis and semi-quantitative assay (XTT). Then, gill cell cultures were used to investigate in vitro the interactions with V. harveyi. The effects of two bacterial strains were evaluated on gill cells: a pathogenic bacterial strain ORM4 which is responsible for abalone mortalities and LMG7890 which is a non-pathogenic strain. Cellular responses of gill cells exposed to increasing concentrations of bacteria were evaluated by measuring mitochondrial activity (XTT assay) and phenoloxidase activity, an enzyme which is strongly involved in immune response. The ability of gill cells to phagocyte GFP-tagged V. harveyi was evaluated by flow cytometry and gill cells-V. harveyi interactions were characterized using fluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. During phagocytosis process we evidenced that V. harveyi bacteria induced significant changes in gill cells metabolism and immune response. Together, the results showed that primary cell cultures from abalone gills are suitable for in vitro study of host-pathogen interactions, providing complementary assays to in vivo experiments. PMID:23756730

  19. Transcriptome characterization of the South African abalone Haliotis midae using sequencing-by-synthesis

    Roodt-Wilding Rouvay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide, the genus Haliotis is represented by 56 extant species and several of these are commercially cultured. Among the six abalone species found in South Africa, Haliotis midae is the only aquacultured species. Despite its economic importance, genomic sequence resources for H. midae, and for abalone in general, are still scarce. Next generation sequencing technologies provide a fast and efficient tool to generate large sequence collections that can be used to characterize the transcriptome and identify expressed genes associated with economically important traits like growth and disease resistance. Results More than 25 million short reads generated by the Illumina Genome Analyzer were de novo assembled in 22,761 contigs with an average size of 260 bp. With a stringent E-value threshold of 10-10, 3,841 contigs (16.8% had a BLAST homologous match against the Genbank non-redundant (NR protein database. Most of these sequences were annotated using the gene ontology (GO and eukaryotic orthologous groups of proteins (KOG databases and assigned to various functional categories. According to annotation results, many gene families involved in immune response were identified. Thousands of simple sequence repeats (SSR and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP were detected. Setting stringent parameters to ensure a high probability of amplification, 420 primer pairs in 181 contigs containing SSR loci were designed. Conclusion This data represents the most comprehensive genomic resource for the South African abalone H. midae to date. The amount of assembled sequences demonstrated the utility of the Illumina sequencing technology in the transcriptome characterization of a non-model species. It allowed the development of several markers and the identification of promising candidate genes for future studies on population and functional genomics in H. midae and in other abalone species.

  20. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  1. In vitro culture of mantle tissue of the abalone Haliotis varia Linnaeus.

    Suja, C P; Dharmaraj, S

    2005-02-01

    The study is aimed at developing a technology for the production of in vitro pearl through tissue culture of mantle of the abalone, Haliotis varia Linnaeus, as the production of free and spherical pearls in vivo is rather difficult in abalones. In the basic study, the cell yield was intensified from the explant after 24h incubation. Among the cells liberated, the granulocytes were dominant over hyalinocytes. The size of granulocytes ranged from 3 to 16 microm and of hyalinocytes from 13 to 18 microm. Fibroblast-like cells appeared in cultures after day 2. Both granulocytes and hyalinocytes developed pseudopodial-like extensions in all directions and formed organic matrix. Granulocytes contained granules in the cytoplasm. Specific granules were responsible for nucleation of crystals. Some crystals exhibited green colour resembling mother of pearl of abalone. scanning electron microscope (SEM) study revealed the oolitic amorphous state and rhombohedral state of crystals. Its analysis through energy dispersive X-ray microanalyzer (EDS) indicated the presence of calcium. The rhombohedral crystals under polarized light showed its high birefringence (0.18) and uniaxial optically negative calcite nature with high content of calcium. A mean survival of cells was found to be 102 days in T 25 flasks and 32 days in petri dishes. Growth of cells was studied. Thirty percent of cultures were found to have contaminated during the study. The study provides basic knowledge in the development of a technology for in vitro pearl production. PMID:15695171

  2. AVAILABILITY OF PHOSPHORUS FROM SELECTED INORGANIC PHOSPHATES TO JUVENILE ABALONE,HALIOTIS DISCUS HANNAI INO

    谭北平; 麦康森; 徐玮

    2002-01-01

    The availability of phosphorus to juvenile abalone, Haliotis discus hannai from primary, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphate, primary sodium or potassium phosphate separately or in combination was determined in a 120-day feeding trial. Seven semi-purified diets were formulated to contain relativelyconstant dietary phosphorus, ranging from 0.78%-0.82%. The concentrations of dietary phosphorus were presumed to be slightly below the requirement for abalone.A brown alga, Laminaria japonica, was used as a control diet. Abalone juvenilesof similar size (average weight 1.18 g; average shell length 18.74 mm) were distributed in a single-pass, flow-through system using a completely randomized design with eight treatments and three replicates each treatment. The survival ranged from 71.1% to 81.1%, and was not significantly (P>0.05) related to dietary treatment. However, the weight gain rate (41.72%-65.02%), daily increment in shelllength (36.87-55.07 μm) and muscle RNA-DNA ratio (3.44-4.69) were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary treatment. Soft body alkaline phosphatase activity (10.9-19.8 U/g wet tissue) and carcass levels of lipid (7.71%-9.33%) and protein (46.68%-49.35%) were significantly (P<0.05) responsive to available phosphorus of the diets. Dietary treatment had significant effect (P<0.05) on concentrations of phosphorus in the whole body (WB) and soft body (SB). Apparent digestibility coefficients (45%-97%) of phosphorus were also significantly (P<0.05) different between dietary treatments. The results indicated that among these inorganiccompounds, primary calcium, potassium and sodium phosphates separately or in combination could be utilized effectively by juvenile abalone as dietary phosphorus sources (availability ranging from 87%-97%). However, secondary and tertiary calcium phosphates were found to be low in availability, the values being 45% and77%, respectively. ``

  3. Effects of dietary vitamin A on antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino

    FU Jinghua; ZHANG Wenbing; MAI Kangsen; FENG Xiuni; XU Wei; LIUFU Zhiguo; TAN Beiping

    2006-01-01

    A 240 d growth experiment was conducted in a re-circulated water system to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin A on growth and antioxidant responses of abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino. Triplicate groups of juvenile abalone [initial mass was (0.96 ± 0.02) g, shell length was (17.70 ± 0.06) mm] were fed to satiation one of three semi-purified diets containing 0, 1×103, 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet, respectively. Results showed that the daily increment in shell length (DISL) of abalone in the treatment with 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram diet was significantly higher than that with 0 or 1×106 IU vitamin A per kilogram supplementation (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency (0 IU/kg) significantly elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the viscera of abalone (P < 0.05). In muscle, the effects of vitamin A deficiency on SOD and GPX activities were the same as those in viscera, however, the activity of GR significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Vitamin A deficiency significantly decreased the ratio of CAT to SOD (catalase/superoxide dismutase) in viscera (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, it significantly decreased the ratio of GR to GPX in muscle (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, excessive vitamin A (1×106 IU/kg) had no significant effects on the activities of CAT, SOD and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) (P > 0.05), but significantly elevated GPX and GR activities in viscera (P < 0.05). In muscle, the activities of CAT, SOD, GPX, GST and GR were significantly decreased by the excessive dietary vitamin A supplement (P < 0.05). Compared with the supplement of 1×103 IU vitamin A per kilogram, vitamin A-excessive had no significant effect on the value of ratio of CAT to SOD either in viscera or in muscle (P>0.05). The ratio of GR to GPX was significantly decreased in viscera, but significantly elevated in muscle in the vitamin A

  4. Vibrio harveyi adheres to and penetrates tissues of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata within the first hours of contact.

    Cardinaud, Marion; Barbou, Annaïck; Capitaine, Carole; Bidault, Adeline; Dujon, Antoine Marie; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic epidemics generally associated with massive mortalities in many marine organisms, including the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. The aim of this study was to identify the portal of entry and the dynamics of infection of V. harveyi in the European abalone. The results indicate that the duration of contact between V. harveyi and the European abalone influences the mortality rate and precocity. Immediately after contact, the epithelial and mucosal area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland was colonized by V. harveyi. Real-time PCR analyses and culture quantification of a green fluorescent protein-tagged strain of V. harveyi in abalone tissues revealed a high density of bacteria adhering to and then penetrating the whole gill-hypobranchial gland tissue after 1 h of contact. V. harveyi was also detected in the hemolymph of a significant number of European abalones after 3 h of contact. In conclusion, this article shows that a TaqMan real-time PCR assay is a powerful and useful technique for the detection of a marine pathogen such as V. harveyi in mollusk tissue and for the study of its infection dynamics. Thus, we have revealed that the adhesion and then the penetration of V. harveyi in European abalone organs begin in the first hours of contact. We also hypothesize that the portal of entry of V. harveyi in the European abalone is the area situated between the gills and the hypobranchial gland. PMID:25107972

  5. Purification and characterisation of aquamarine blue pigment from the shells of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).

    Cai, Zhixing; Wu, Jiulin; Chen, Li; Guo, Wei; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Jiabin; Zhang, Qiqing

    2011-09-01

    Aquamarine blue pigment (ABP) from the shells of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) was extracted using a precipitation adsorption method and further purified via semi-preparative HPLC. The ABP with molecular weight of 582.8 was identified as a polyenic compound by NMR. The colour value of ABP was E1cm(1%)612nm=534.3. ABP can dissolve in water, ethanol, methanol, acetic acid and DMSO but was scarcely soluble in chloroform, aether, acetone, petroleum ether and cyclohexane. ABP was relatively stable between 25 and 100°C, from pH 2 to pH 12, under UV-light and indoor natural light. However, it was bleached by H2O2 and Na2SO3 and even unstable under sunlight. The stability of ABP was slightly influenced by metal ions (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Fe(2+) and so on) and food addictives (sodium chloride, sugar, starch and so on). This is the first report on the characterisation of pigment obtained from Haliotis discus hannai Ino. PMID:25214339

  6. Proteomic analysis of the organic matrix of the abalone Haliotis asinina calcified shell

    Degnan Bernard M

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The formation of the molluscan shell is regulated to a large extent by a matrix of extracellular macromolecules that are secreted by the shell forming tissue, the mantle. This so called "calcifying matrix" is a complex mixture of proteins and glycoproteins that is assembled and occluded within the mineral phase during the calcification process. While the importance of the calcifying matrix to shell formation has long been appreciated, most of its protein components remain uncharacterised. Results Recent expressed sequence tag (EST investigations of the mantle tissue from the tropical abalone (Haliotis asinina provide an opportunity to further characterise the proteins in the shell by a proteomic approach. In this study, we have identified a total of 14 proteins from distinct calcified layers of the shell. Only two of these proteins have been previously characterised from abalone shells. Among the novel proteins are several glutamine- and methionine-rich motifs and hydrophobic glycine-, alanine- and acidic aspartate-rich domains. In addition, two of the new proteins contained Kunitz-like and WAP (whey acidic protein protease inhibitor domains. Conclusion This is one of the first comprehensive proteomic study of a molluscan shell, and should provide a platform for further characterization of matrix protein functions and interactions.

  7. An AFLP genetic linkage map of pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai)

    Qi, Li; Yanhong, Xu; Ruihai, Yu; Akihiro, Kijima

    2007-07-01

    A genetic linkage map of Pacific abalone ( Haliotis discus hannai) was constructed using AFLP markers based on a two-way pseudo-testeross strategy in a full-sib family. With 33 primer combinations, a total of 455 markers (225 from the female parent and 230 from the male parent) segregated in a 1:1 ratio, corresponding to DNA polymorphism: heterozygous in one parent and null in the other. The female framework map consisted of 174 markers distributed in 18 linkage groups, equivalent to the H. discus hannai haploid chromosome number, and spanning a total length of 2031.4 cM, with an average interval of 13.0 cM between adjacent markers. The male framework map consisted of 195 markers mapped on 19 linkage groups, spanning a total length of 2273.4 cM, with an average spacing of 12.9 cM between adjacent markers. The estimated coverage for the framework linkage maps was 81.2% for the female and 82.1% for the male, on the basis of two estimates of genome length. Fifty-two markers (11.4%) remained unlinked. The level of segregation distortion observed in this cross was 20.4%. These linkage maps will serve as a starting point for linkage studies in the Pacific abalone with potential application for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs.

  8. Feeding preferences and the nutritional value of tropical algae for the abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Alex R Angell

    Full Text Available Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid content of algae have rarely been simultaneously investigated for abalone, and never for the emerging target species Haliotis asinina. Here we found that the tropical H. asinina had strong and consistent preferences for the red alga Hypnea pannosa and the green alga Ulva flexuosa, but no overarching relationship between protein content (sum of amino acids and preference existed. For example, preferred Hypnea and Ulva had distinctly different protein contents (12.64 vs. 2.99 g 100 g(-1 and the protein-rich Asparagopsis taxiformis (>15 g 100 g(-1 of dry weight was one of the least preferred algae. The limiting amino acid in all algae was methionine, followed by histidine or lysine. Furthermore we demonstrated that preferences can largely be removed using carrageenan as a binder for dried alga, most likely acting as a feeding attractant or stimulant. The apparent decoupling between feeding preference and algal nutritive values may be due to a trade off between nutritive values and grazing deterrence associated with physical and chemical properties.

  9. Antimicrobial peptide, hdMolluscidin, purified from the gill of the abalone, Haliotis discus.

    Seo, Jung-Kil; Go, Hye-Jin; Kim, Chan-Hee; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Nam Gyu

    2016-05-01

    A 4.7 kDa antimicrobial peptide was purified from the acidified gill extract of the Abalone, Haliotis discus, by cation-exchange and C18 reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Comparison of the amino acid sequences and molecular weight of this peptide with those of other known antimicrobial peptides revealed that this antimicrobial peptide have high sequence homology with that of cgMolluscidin and was designated hdMolluscidin. hdMolluscidin is composed of 46 amino acid residues containing several dibasic residue repeats like KK or K-R. hdMolluscidin showed potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive bacteria including Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (minimal effective concentrations [MECs]; 0.8-19.0 μg/mL) and Gram-negative bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, and Vibrio parahemolyticus ([MECs]; 1.0-4.0 μg/mL) without hemolytic activity. However, hdMolluscidin did not show any significant activity against Candida albicans. The secondary structural prediction suggested that hdMolluscidin might not form an ordered or an amphipathic structure. hdMolluscidin did not show membrane permeabilization or leakage ability. The full-length hdMolluscidin cDNA contained 566-bp, including a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 63-bp, a 3'-UTR of 359-bp, and an open reading frame of 144-bp encoding 47 amino acids (containing Met). cDNA study of hdMolluscidin suggests that it is expressed as a mature peptide. Our results indicate that hdMolluscidin could relate to the innate immune defenses in abalone and it may not act directly on bacterial membrane. PMID:27033467

  10. Nanoscale structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shell of abalone Haliotis gigantea.

    Sumitomo, Taro; Kakisawa, Hideki; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2011-04-01

    In the natural world, bottom-up hierarchical construction of complex structures results in materials with remarkable properties. A well known example is the nacre of mollusk shells, commonly called "mother of pearl", whose excellent strength and toughness has been the subject of research for many decades. A significant discovery has been the presence of periodic layers called "growth lines". These are thin distinct layers within the bulk of the shell which form periodically, with their structure affected by environmental changes. Studies of their formation and behavior offer valuable insight into the architecture of seashells. In this work, the structure and mechanical behavior of growth lines in shells of abalone Haliotis gigantea were investigated using electron microscopy and nanoindentation. Growth lines form directly out of nacre into layers of blocks and irregular particles. In comparison to nacre, they have basic structures, form rapidly, and are harder, which suggest that they serve a protective role during lifecycle transitions. This exemplifies how natural structures are able to closely control growth architecture in order to form different structures for different functions, all from the same base materials. PMID:21232604

  11. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Pacific Abalone (Haliotis discus) via EST Database Mining

    ZHAN Aibin; BAO Zhenmin; WANG Mingling; CHANG Dan; YUAN Jian; WANG Xiaolong; HU Xiaoli; LIANG Chengzhu; HU Jingjie

    2008-01-01

    The EST database of the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus) was mined for developing mierosatellite markers. A total of 1476 EST sequences were registered in GenBank when data mining was performed. Fifty sequences (approximately 3.4%) were found to contain one or more mierosatellites. Based on the length and GC content of the flanking regions, duster analysis and BLASTN, 13 microsatellite-containing ESTs were selected for PCR primer design. The results showed that 10 out of 13 primer pairs could amplify seorable PCR products and showed polymorphism. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 13 and the values of Hoand He varied from 0.1222 to 0.8611 and 0.2449 to 0.9311, respectively. No significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) between any pairs of these loci was found, and 6 of 10 loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). These EST-SSRs are therefore potential tools for studies of intraspecies variation and hybrid identification.

  12. Identification of a female spawn-associated Kazal-type inhibitor from the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina.

    Wang, Tianfang; Nuurai, Parinyaporn; McDougall, Carmel; York, Patrick S; Bose, Utpal; Degnan, Bernard M; Cummins, Scott F

    2016-07-01

    Abalone (Haliotis) undergoes a period of reproductive maturation, followed by the synchronous release of gametes, called broadcast spawning. Field and laboratory studies have shown that the tropical species Haliotis asinina undergoes a two-week spawning cycle, thus providing an excellent opportunity to investigate the presence of endogenous spawning-associated peptides. In female H. asinina, we have isolated a peptide (5145 Da) whose relative abundance in hemolymph increases substantially just prior to spawning and is still detected using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography chromatograms up to 1-day post-spawn. We have isolated this peptide from female hemolymph as well as samples prepared from the gravid female gonad, and demonstrated through comparative sequence analysis that it contains features characteristic of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs). Has-KPI is expressed specifically within the gonad of adult females. A recombinant Has-KPI was generated using a yeast expression system. The recombinant Has-KPI does not induce premature spawning of female H. asinina when administered intramuscularly. However it displays homomeric aggregations and interaction with at least one mollusc-type neuropeptide (LRDFVamide), suggesting a role for it in regulating neuropeptide endocrine communication. This research provides new understanding of a peptide that can regulate reproductive processes in female abalone, which has the potential to lead to the development of greater control over abalone spawning. The findings also highlight the need to further explore abalone reproduction to clearly define a role for novel spawning-associated peptide in sexual maturation and spawning. Copyright © 2016 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27352998

  13. 杂色鲍血蓝蛋白HtH1基因第16内含子 SNP密度的分析%SNP density of hemocyanin HtH1 intron 16 in Haliotis diversicolor

    梁翠; 陈军; 游伟伟; 王德祥; 柯才焕

    2011-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are a new generation of genetic marker systems.EPIC was used to analyze the SNP of the hemocyanin HtH1 gene 16 intron (H1 intron 16) from 45 samples of Haliotis diversicolor.These 45 individuals came from three different wild or breeding populations in Japan, Taiwan and the Shantou Sea.There were three alleles in H1 intron 16 of the Japanese abalone (Haliotis diversicolor), which showed length polymorphism.The lengths of the three alleles were 1 900 bp, 780 bp and 440 bp.However, the H1 intron 16 of the breeding populations of Taiwan and Shantou abalone were only 1 900 bp.Sequence analysis indicated that there was a self-heterozygous SNP locus of approximately 96 bp in the Japanese abalone, but that the Taiwan and Shantou abalone contained loci of 133 bp and 153 bp, respectively.The SNP density of 13 Taiwan abalone was 31 bp, while the SNP density of 23 Shantou abalone was 21 bp.These data indicated that the existing cultured population of abalone contained rich SNP loci, and it was feasible to construct a high density genetic map using SNP markers.%单核苷酸多态性(SNPs)是继RFLP和SSR多态性标记之后的新一代遗传标记系统.本文采用EPIC的方法,分析了45个杂色鲍样品的血蓝蛋白HtH1基因第16内含子(H1 intron 16)的SNP数据.这45个个体分别来自日本、台湾和汕头3个不同海域的野生或养殖群体.日本群体的血蓝蛋白HtH1基因第16内含子呈现出长度多态性,共有3种不同长度,分别是1 900、780、440 bp,测序结果表明3个等位基因可以互相比对;而台湾和汕头杂色鲍养殖群体的均为1 900 bp.初步研究结果表明日本杂色鲍个体大约96 bp长的片段含有1个自身杂合SNP位点;台湾杂色鲍个体约133 bp含有1个自身杂合SNP位点;汕头杂色鲍个体约153 bp含有1个自身杂合SNP位点.13个台湾杂色鲍个体包含的SNP密度为约31 bp含有1个SNP;23个汕头杂色鲍个体包含的SNP密度为约 21 bp

  14. Analysis of microbiota on abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) in South Korea for improved product management.

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lee, Jin-Jae; Chung, Han Young; Choi, Sang Ho; Kim, Bong-Soo

    2016-10-01

    Abalone is a popular seafood in South Korea; however, because it contains various microorganisms, its ingestion can cause food poisoning. Therefore, analysis of the microbiota on abalone can improve understanding of outbreaks and causes of food poisoning and help to better manage seafood products. In this study, we collected a total of 40 abalones from four different regions in March and July, which are known as the maximum abalone production areas in Korea. The microbiota were analyzed using high-throughput sequencing, and bacterial loads on abalone were quantified by real-time PCR. Over 2700 species were detected in the samples, and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria were the predominant classes. The differences in microbiota among regions and at each sampling time were also investigated. Although Psychrobacter was the dominant genus detected on abalone in both March and July, the species compositions were different between the two sampling times. Five potential pathogens (Lactococcus garvieae, Yersinia kristensenii, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus warneri, and Staphylococcus epidermidis) were detected among the abalone microbiota. In addition, we analyzed the influence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection on shifts in abalone microbiota during storage at different temperatures. Although the proportion of Vibrio increased over time in infected and non-infected abalone, the shifts of microbiota were more dynamic in infected abalone. These results can be used to better understand the potential of food poisoning caused by abalone consumption and manage abalone products according to the microbiota composition. PMID:27371902

  15. Actibacter haliotis sp. nov., isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, and emended description of the genus Actibacter.

    Hyun, Dong-Wook; Kim, Joon Yong; Kim, Min-Soo; Shin, Na-Ri; Kim, Hyun Sik; Lee, June-Young; Bae, Jin-Woo

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain, designated strain W113(T), was isolated from the gut of an abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, which was collected from the northern coast of Jeju in Korea. The isolate was a Gram-staining-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, rod-shaped bacterium producing yellow-to-orange carotenoid-type pigments. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Actibacter in the family Flavobacteriaceae and it shared the highest sequence similarity with the type strain of Actibacter sediminis (98.8 % similarity). Optimal growth occurred at 25 °C, at pH 7 and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0 and iso-C15:1 G. Menaquinone-6 was the main respiratory quinone. The polar lipids of the isolate were phosphatidylethanolamine, three unidentified amino lipids, and three unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.6 mol% and DNA-DNA hybridization values indicated that the strain shared <18 % genomic relatedness with the most closely related species. The results of the phylogenetic, phenotypic and genotypic analyses indicated that strain W113(T) represents a novel species in the genus Actibacter, for which the name Actibacter haliotis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is W113(T) ( = KACC 17209(T) = JCM 18868(T)). PMID:25269848

  16. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic

    YAYAN SOFYAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarkono, Faturrahman, Sofyan Y. 2010. Isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria from abalone (Haliotis asinina as a potential candidate of probiotic. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 38-42. The purpose of this study was to isolate, select and characterize lactic acid bacteria (LAB from abalone as a potential candidate probiotic in abalone cultivation system. Selective isolation of LAB performed using de Man Rogosa Sharpe medium. LAB isolate that potential as probiotics was screened. Selection was based on its ability to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria, bacterial resistance to acidic conditions and bacterial resistance to bile salts (bile. Further characterization and identification conducted to determine the species. The results showed that two of the ten isolates potential to be developed as probiotic bacteria that have the ability to inhibit several pathogenic bacteria such as Eschericia coli, Bacillus cereus dan Staphylococus aureus, able to grow at acidic condition and bile tolerance during the incubation for 24 hour. Based on the API test kit, the both of isolate identified as members of the species Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei.

  17. Detection and Localisation of the Abalone Probiotic Vibrio midae SY9 and Its Extracellular Protease, VmproA, within the Digestive Tract of the South African Abalone, Haliotis midae

    Huddy, Robert J.; Coyne, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been widely reported to increase the growth rate of commercially important fish and shellfish by enhancing the digestion of ingested feed through the production of extracellular enzymes such as proteases and alginases. In order to investigate this further, the objective of this study was to localise the bacterial probiont Vibrio midae SY9 and one of the extracellular proteases it produces in the digestive tract of the South African abalone Haliotis midae. This was accomplished...

  18. Development of a monoclonal antibody detection assay for species-specific identification of abalone.

    Lopata, Andreas L; Luijx, Thomas; Fenemore, Bartha; Sweijd, Neville A; Cook, Peter A

    2002-10-01

    Species identification based on biochemical and molecular techniques has a broad range of applications. These include compliance enforcement, the management and conservation of marine organisms, and commercial quality control. Abalone poaching worldwide and illegal trade in abalone products have increased mainly because of the attractive prices obtained and caused a sharp decline in stocks. Alleged poachers have been acquitted because of lack of evidence to correctly identify species. Therefore, a robust method is required that would identify tissue of abalone origin to species level. The aim of this study was to develop immunologic techniques, using monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies, to identify 10 different abalone species and subspecies from South Africa, the United States, Australia, and Japan. The combination of 3 developed monoclonal antibodies to South African abalone (Haliotis midae) enabled differentiation between most of the 10 species including the subspecies H. diversicolor supertexta and H. diversicolor diversicolor. In a novel approach, using antibodies of patients with allergy to abalone, the differentiation of additional subspecies, H. discus discus and H. discus hannai, was possible. A field-based immunoassay was developed to identify confiscated tissue of abalone origin. PMID:14961238

  19. Potential Response to Selection of HSP70 as a Component of Innate Immunity in the Abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Brokordt, Katherina B.; González, Roxana C.; Farías, William J.; Winkler, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing components of the immune system may reflect disease resistance. In some invertebrates, heat shock proteins (HSPs) are immune effectors and have been described as potent activators of the innate immune response. Several diseases have become a threat to abalone farming worldwide; therefore, increasing disease resistance is considered to be a long-term goal for breeding programs. A trait will respond to selection only if it is determined partially by additive genetic variation. The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability (h2) and the additive genetic coefficient of variation (CVA) of HSP70 as a component of innate immunity of the abalone Haliotis rufescens, in order to assess its potential response to selection. These genetic components were estimated for the variations in the intracellular (in haemocytes) and extracellular (serum) protein levels of HSP70 in response to an immunostimulant agent in 60 full-sib families of H. rufescens. Levels of HSP70 were measured twice in the same individuals, first when they were young and again when they were pre-harvest adults, to estimate the repeatability (R), the h2 and the potential response to selection of these traits at these life stages. High HSP70 levels were observed in abalones subjected to immunostimulation in both the intracellular and extracellular haemolymph fractions. This is the first time that changes in serum levels of HSP70 have been reported in response to an immune challenge in molluscs. HSP70 levels in both fractions and at both ages showed low h2 and R, with values that were not significantly different from zero. However, HSP70 induced levels had a CVA of 13.3–16.2% in young adults and of 2.7–8.1% in pre-harvest adults. Thus, despite its low h2, HSP70 synthesis in response to an immune challenge in red abalone has the potential to evolve through selection because of its large phenotypic variation and the presence of additive genetic variance, especially in young animals. PMID

  20. Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and transcriptional response upon immune stimulation.

    Wickramaarachchi, W D Niroshana; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Wan, Qiang; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-01

    Proteinases and proteinase inhibitors are involved in several biological and physiological processes in all multicellular organisms. Proteinase inhibitors play a key role in regulating the activity of the respective proteinases. Among serine proteinase inhibitors, kazal-type proteinase inhibitors (KPIs) are widely found in mammals, avians, and a variety of invertebrates. In this study, we describe the identification of a kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor (Ab-KPI) from the disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus, which is presumably involved in innate immunity. The full-length cDNA of Ab-KPI includes 600 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 143 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of Ab-KPI contains a putative 17-amino acid signal peptide and two tandem kazal domains with high similarity to other kazal-type SPIs. Each kazal domain consists of reactive site (P1) residue containing a leucine (L), and a threonine (T) located in the second amino acid position after the second conserved cysteine of each domain. Temporal expression of Ab-KPI was assessed by real time quantitative PCR in hemocytes and mantle tissue following bacterial and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) challenge, and tissue injury. At 6 h post-bacterial and -VHSV challenge, Ab-KPI expression in hemocytes was increased 14-fold and 4-fold, respectively, compared to control samples. The highest up-regulations upon tissue injury were shown at 9 h and 12 h in hemocytes and mantle, respectively. The transcriptional modulation of Ab-KPI following bacterial and viral challenges and tissue injury indicates that it might be involved in immune defense as well as wound healing process in abalone. PMID:23859879

  1. Genetic variation of Chinese and Japanese wild Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) measured by microsatellite DNA markers

    LI Qi; KIJIMA Akihiro

    2006-01-01

    Population differentiation and relationships among three wild populations of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai collected from coastal seas around China and Japan were estimated using microsatellite DNA analysis. The results obtained with six microsatellite loci showed a high genetic diversity for China and Japan populations. The mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 11.7 to 23.0, and the average of observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.656 to 0.721, and from 0.721 to 0.793, respectively. The observed genotype frequencies at each locus were mostly in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg expectations with five exceptions. Significant differences were detected between Chinese and Japanese H. discus hannai populations [Weir and Cocker-ham's fixation index(Fst) range: 0.020~0.023; Slatkin's fixation index (Rst) range: 0.016~0.044], and no obvious difference was detected between the samples of Japanese H. discus hannai populations (Fst=0.002; Rst = 0.007). The level of differentiation among populations is further evidenced by the nNeighbor-joining tree topology on which the Japanese samples were closely clustered, and the Chinese population formed a separate cluster. These results suggest that care should be taken in future management of different populations.

  2. Marine environmental impact assessment of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farm in Wan-do, Republic of Korea

    Oh, Hyun-Taik; Jung, Rae-Hong; Cho, Yoon-Sik; Hwang, Dong-Woon; Yi, Yong-Min

    2015-12-01

    To assess the marine environmental impacts of abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, cage farms in Wan-do, we monitored the benthic environment on top of the sediment underneath cage farm stations and reference stations. We applied two methods for this assessment. One was the A- and B-investigation of the MOM system (Modeling-On fish farm-Monitoring) developed in Norway. The other was a general environmental monitoring method which is widely used. In this study, we found benthic animals in all samples that belonged to condition 1 which were based on group 1(presence of macrofauna) of the B-investigation method. The values of redox potential (group 2-pH, redox potential) in all samples were above +65 mV belonging to condition 1. Based on sensory results (group 3-gas, color, odor, thickness of deposits), five out of seven experiment samples showed condition 1 while stations 2 and 7 showed condition 2, which have been cultured for 10 years in semi-closed waters. As group 2 takes precedence over group 3, the level of the conditions for B-investigation results consequently showed condition 1 in all stations. We found that pollutants and trace metals in the sediment underneath cage farms were lower than the pollution standard. This led us to conclude that the environmental impacts of the cage farms in this study were not significant.

  3. Feeding Preferences and the Nutritional Value of Tropical Algae for the Abalone Haliotis asinina

    Alex R Angell; Igor Pirozzi; Rocky de Nys; Paul, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the feeding preferences of abalone (high-value marine herbivores) is integral to new species development in aquaculture because of the expected link between preference and performance. Performance relates directly to the nutritional value of algae--or any feedstock--which in turn is driven by the amino acid content and profile, and specifically the content of the limiting essential amino acids. However, the relationship between feeding preferences, consumption and amino acid con...

  4. Dietary ascorbic acid modulates the expression profile of stress protein genes in hepatopancreas of adult Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino.

    Wu, Chenglong; Wang, Jia; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary ascorbic acid (AA) on transcriptional expression patterns of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins (HSP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai Ino (initial average length: 84.36 ± 0.24 mm) using real-time quantitative PCR assays. L-ascorbyl-2-molyphosphate (LAMP) was added to the basal diet to formulate four experimental diets containing 0.0, 70.3, 829.8 and 4967.5 mg AA equivalent kg(-1) diets, respectively. Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of adult abalone in acrylic tanks (200 L) in a flow-through seawater system. Each tank was stocked with 15 abalone. Animals were fed once daily (17:00) to apparent satiation for 24 weeks. The results showed that the dietary AA (70.3 mg kg(-1)) could significantly up-regulate the expression levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), feritin (FT) and heat shock protein 26 (HSP26) in the hepatopancreas of abalone in this treatment compared to the controls. However, the expression levels of Mn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), thioredoxin peroxidase (TPx), selenium-binding protein (SEBP), HSP70 and HSP90 were significantly down-regulated. Compared with those in the group with 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA, the expression levels of CAT, GST and HSP26 were decreased in abalone fed with very high dietary AA (4967.5 mg kg(-1)). In addition, significant up-regulations of expression levels of Mn-SOD, GPX, TPx, SEBP, FT, HSP70, HSP90 and NF-κB were observed in abalone fed with apparently excessive dietary AA (829.8 and 4967.5 mg kg(-1)) as compared to those fed 70.3 mg kg(-1) dietary AA. These findings showed that dietary AA influenced the expression levels of antioxidant proteins, heat shock proteins and NF-κB in the hepatopancreas of abalone at transcriptional level. Levels of dietary AA that appeared adequate (70.3 mg kg(-1)) reduced the oxidative stress

  5. Acclimation-dependent expression of heat shock protein 70 in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) and its acute response to thermal exposure

    LI Jiaqi; HE Qingguo; SUN Hui; LIU Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) is one important member of heat shock protein (Hsp) family that is responsible for various stresses,especially thermal stress.Here we examined the response of Hsp70gene to both chronic and acute thermal exposure in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino).For the chronic exposure,abalones were maintained at 8,12,20,and 30℃ for four months and their mRNA levels were measured.The highest mRNA level of Hsp70 gene relative to actin gene was detected in the 30℃-acclimated group,followed by the 8℃-acclimated group and then the 12℃- and 20℃-acclimated groups.After the long-term acclimation,gills from each of the above acclimation groups were dissected and exposed to different temperatures between 8℃ and 38℃ for 30 min.Hsp70 expression in gills acclimated to different temperatures responded differentially to the same temperature exposure.The incubation temperature that induced maximum Hsp70 mRNA expression was higher in the higher temperature acclimation groups than lower temperature groups.Pacific abalones could alter the expression pattern of Hsp70 gene according to environmental thermal conditions,through which they deal with the stress of thermal variations.

  6. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  7. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens. PMID:25463284

  8. Biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses of a GnRH-like peptide in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai (Gastropoda).

    Amano, Masafumi; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Okubo, Kataaki; Amiya, Noriko; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Oka, Yoshitaka

    2010-08-01

    We examined whether gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-like peptides are present in the neural ganglia of the gastropod Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (rpHPLC) combined with time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) analysis and by immunohistochemistry. Cerebral ganglion extracts showed a similar retention time to lamprey GnRH-II (lGnRH-II) in rpHPLC combined with TR-FIA analysis. GnRH-like-immunoreactive (ir) cell bodies (which reacted with a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against the common amino acid sequence of vertebrate GnRH) were detected in the peripheral region of the cerebral ganglion, and they were observed to send fibers into the neuropil. GnRH-like-ir fibers were also detected in the neuropil of the pedal ganglion, the visceral nerve, and the nerve originating from the pedal ganglion. Chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II)-like-ir fibers (which reacted with a rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against cGnRH-II) were also observed in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion. GnRH-like-ir fibers and cGnRH-II-like-ir fibers were distinguishable in the neuropil of the cerebral ganglion by double-staining immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that multiple GnRH-like peptides exist in the neural ganglia of the Pacific abalone. PMID:20695781

  9. Effects of waterborne Cu and Cd on anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and heavy metals accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai ino

    Lei, Yanju; Zhang, Wenbing; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Zhou, Huihui; Mai, Kangsen

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of waterborne copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) on survival, anti-oxidative response, lipid peroxidation and metal accumulation in abalone Haliotis discus hannai. Experimental animals (initial weight: 7.49 g ± 0.01 g) were exposed to graded concentrations of waterborne Cu (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 mg L-1) or Cd (0.025, 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 mg L-1) for 28 days, respectively. Activities of the anti-oxidative enzymes (catalase, CAT; superoxide dismutase, SOD; glutathione peroxidases, GPx; glutathione S-transferase, GST), contents of the reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondiadehyde (MDA) in the hepatopancreas, and metal accumulation in hepatopancreas and muscles were analyzed after 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, 28 days of metal exposure, respectively. Results showed that 0.04 mg L-1, 0.06 mg L--1 and 0.08 mg L-1 Cu caused 100% death of abalone on the 21st, 10th and 6th day, respectively. However, no dead abalone was found during the 28-day waterborne Cd exposure at all experimental concentrations. Generally, activities of SOD and GST in hepatopancreas under all Cu concentrations followed a decrease trend as the exposure time prolonged. However, these activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Activities of CAT in all Cu exposure treatments were higher than those in the control. These activities were firstly increased and then decreased to the control level and increased again during Cd exposure. Contents of MDA in hepatopancreas in all Cu treatments significantly increased first and then decreased to the control level. However, the MDA contents in hepatopancreas were not significantly changed during the 28-day Cd exposure. The metals accumulation in both hepatopancreas and muscles of abalone significantly increased with the increase of waterborne metals concentration and exposure time. These results indicated that H. discus hannai has a positive anti-oxidative defense

  10. Molluscan death effector domain (DED)-containing caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): molecular characterization and expression analysis.

    Lee, Youngdeuk; De Zoysa, Mahanama; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Sukkyoung; Kim, Yucheol; Oh, Chulhong; Choi, Cheol Young; Yeo, Sang-Yeob; Lee, Jehee

    2011-02-01

    The caspase family represents aspartate-specific cysteine proteases that play key roles in apoptosis and immune signaling. In this study, we cloned the first death effector domain (DED)-containing molluscan caspase-8 gene from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus), which is named as hdCaspase-8. The full-length hdCaspase was 2855 bp, with a 1908 bp open reading frame encoding 636 amino acids. The hdCaspase-8 had 72 kDa predicted molecular mass with an estimated isoelectric point (PI) of 6.0. The hdCaspase-8 amino acid sequence contained the characteristic feature of an N-terminal two DED, a C-terminal catalytic domain and the caspase family cysteine active site ⁵¹³KPKLFFLQACQG⁵²⁴. Phylogenetic analysis results showed that hdCaspase-8 is more similar to the invertebrate Tubifex tubifex (sludge worm) caspase-8. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that hdCaspase-8 constitutively and ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissue of unchallenged disk abalone. The basal expression level of hdCaspase-8 in gill tissue was higher than all other tested tissues. The hdCaspase-8 mRNA expression in gill and hemocytes was significantly up-regulated by exposure to bacteria (Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and VHSV (viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus), as compared to control animals. These results suggest that hdCaspase-8 may be involved in immune response reactions in disk abalone. PMID:21130887

  11. The early stages of the immune response of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata to a Vibrio harveyi infection.

    Cardinaud, Marion; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Huchette, Sylvain; Moraga, Dario; Paillard, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio harveyi is a marine bacterial pathogen responsible for episodic abalone mortalities in France, Japan and Australia. In the European abalone, V. harveyi invades the circulatory system in a few hours after exposure and is lethal after 2 days of infection. In this study, we investigated the responses of European abalone immune cells over the first 24 h of infection. Results revealed an initial induction of immune gene expression including Rel/NF-kB, Mpeg and Clathrin. It is rapidly followed by a significant immuno-suppression characterized by reduced cellular hemocyte parameters, immune response gene expressions and enzymatic activities. Interestingly, Ferritin was overexpressed after 24 h of infection suggesting that abalone attempt to counter V. harveyi infection using soluble effectors. Immune function alteration was positively correlated with V. harveyi concentration. This study provides the evidence that V. harveyi has a hemolytic activity and an immuno-suppressive effect in the European abalone. PMID:25766281

  12. Innovative application of classic and newer techniques for the characterization of haemocytes in the New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris).

    Grandiosa, Roffi; Mérien, Fabrice; Pillay, Krish; Alfaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Haemocytes play an important role in innate immune responses within invertebrate organisms. However, identification and quantification of different types of haemocytes can be extremely challenging, and has led to numerous inconsistencies and misinterpretations within the literature. As a step to rectify this issue, we present a comprehensive and detailed approach to characterize haemocytes using a combination of classical (cytochemical and phagocytosis assays with optical microscopy) and novel (flow cytometry with Sysmex XN-1000 and Muse(®) Cell analyser) techniques. The Sysmex XN-1000 is an innovative fluorescent flow cytometric analyser that can effectively detect, identify and count haemocytes, while the Muse(®) Cell analyser provides accurate and rapid haemocyte cell counts and viability. To illustrate this approach, we present the first report on morphological and functional features of New Zealand black-footed abalone (Haliotis iris) haemocyte cells. Two types of haemocytes were identified in this study, including type I (monocyte-like) and type II (lymphocyte-like) cells. Granular cells, which have been reported in other molluscan species, were not detected in H. iris. Cell types were categorized based on shape, size, internal structures and function. The lymphocyte-like haemocytes were the most abundant hemocytes in the haemolymph samples, and they had large nuclei and basic cytoplasms. Monocyte-like cells generally were larger cells compared to lymphocyte-like cells, and had low nucleus-cytoplasm ratios. Monocyte-like cells showed higher phagocytic activity when encountering Zymosan A particles compared to lymphocyte-like cells. The present study provides a comprehensive and accurate new approach to identify and quantify haemocyte cells for future comparative studies on the immune system of abalone and other molluscan species. PMID:26672903

  13. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  14. Structural characterization and expression analysis of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) in disk abalone, Haliotis discus discus.

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Premachandra, H K A; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Lee, Jehee

    2013-09-15

    Repertoires of proteins and small peptides play numerous physiological roles as hormones, antimicrobial peptides, and cellular signaling factors. The beta-thymosins are a group of small acidic peptides involved in processes such as actin sequestration, neuronal development, wound healing, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Recent characterization of the beta thymosins as immunological regulators in invertebrates led to our identification and characterization of a beta-thymosin homologue (Tβ) from Haliotis discus discus. The cDNA possessed an ORF of 132 bp encoding a protein of 44 amino acids with a molecular mass of 4977 Da. The amino acid sequence shows high identity with another molluskan beta-thymosin and has a characteristic actin binding motif (LKKTET) and glutamyl donors. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship with molluskan homologues, as well as its distinct identity and common ancestral origin. Genomic analysis revealed a 3 exon-2 intron structure similar to the other homologues. In silico promoter analysis also revealed significant transcription factor binding sites, providing evidence for the expression of this gene under different cellular conditions, including stress or pathogenic attack. Tissue distribution profiling revealed a ubiquitous presence in all the examined tissues, but with the highest expression in mantle and hemocyte. Immune challenge with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C and Vibrio parahemolyticus induced beta-thymosin expression in gill and hemocytes, affirming an immune-related role in invertebrates. PMID:23680646

  15. Effects of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) gonad polysaccharides on cholecystokinin release in STC-1 cells and its signaling mechanism.

    Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Da-Yong; Yang, Jing-Feng; Song, Shuang; Zhang, Ting; Zhu, Ce; Song, Yan-Qing; Yu, Chen-Xu; Zhu, Bei-Wei

    2016-10-20

    Abalone gonad polysaccharide (AGP) -31, -32 and -33 prepared in this study had the molecular weight (MW) of 37.8, 32.2 and 27.5kDa, respectively. They all contained mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fucose, with very similar monosaccharide profile. All the three polysaccharides could significantly increase the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) in STC-1 cells. Among them, AGP-32 showed the strongest effect. However, the low-MW fragments of AGP-32 showed significantly lower activity than AGP-32 itself. It was also found that the inhibitors on calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), protein kinase A (PKA), Ca(2+)⁄calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II, p38- mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK), and an intracellular calcium chelator all inhibited AGP-induced CCK secretion. To conclude, Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)/CaMK, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/PKA and MAPK pathways are all involved in AGP-induced CCK secretion. PMID:27474567

  16. A combined telephone and creel survey of the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens (Swainson), sport fishery in California from Monterey to the Oregon border, April through November 1988

    Karpov, Konstantin A

    1991-01-01

    Combined creel and random telephone surveys were used to estimate effort, take, and return mortality for the red abalone sport fishery in central and northern California from Monterey to Del Norte counties in 1988. The 1988 telephone survey results showed most red abalone sport fishing trips were in Mendocino county (61.4%) and Sonoma county (18.1%). The 1988 red abalone sport creel was conducted at seven key study areas in Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma counties where 909 divers and 625 ...

  17. Abalone farm discharges the withering syndrome pathogen into the wild

    Kevin eLafferty

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An intracellular bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, also called Withering-Syndrome Rickettsia-Like Organism (WS-RLO, is the cause of mass mortalities that are the chief reason for endangerment of black abalone (Haliotis cracherodii. Using a real-time PCR assay, we found that a shore-based abalone farm in Santa Barbara, California, discharged WS-RLO DNA into the ocean. Several other shore-based abalone farms discharge effluent into critical habitat for black abalone in California and this might affect the recovery of wild black abalone. Existing regulatory frameworks exist that could help protect wild species from pathogens released from shore-based aquaculture.

  18. Non-selective in situ grazing of diatoms by juvenile Green Abalone (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 in the Baja California Peninsula Consumo in situ no selectivo de diatomeas por juveniles de abulón azul (Haliotis fulgens Philippi, 1945 en la Península de Baja California

    Uri Argumedo Hernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available For experimental or rearing purposes, young abalones are fed benthic diatoms successfully during their early life stages without considering if the diatoms provided are found in the abalone habitat, nor if grazing selectivity exists. Our aim in this study was to gather further evidence that would indicate whether young Haliotis fulgens graze diatoms in situ selectively. Thirty-four specimens of young H. fulgens were collected in a fishing site in BCS, México on two dates. We identified the diatoms in their gut contents (144 species and determined their relative abundances. Fourteen diatoms (80% of the total abundance were considered most important and twelve were among the most important in the diet of young abalone in BCS. The diversity values (H' of the diatoms in their guts ranged from 1.05 to 4.47, depending on dominance, which reflected the structure of diatom assemblages in situ. The above observations and the low similarity measured between samples show that species richness and equitability are similar even if the species composition of diatoms ingested by young abalone differs between specimens. The results lead us to conclude that grazing of diatoms by young H. fulgens is non-selective, and that the structure of diatom assemblages is more important than the particular taxa in their diet.Durante sus etapas tempranas de vida los abulones jóvenes son alimentados exitosamente con diatomeas bentónicas sin considerar si las especies suministradas se hallan en su medio natural, o si existe algún tipo de preferencia o selectividad por ciertas diatomeas. El objetivo de este estudio fue recabar evidencias acerca de si los juveniles de Haliotis fulgens Philippi presentan un consumo selectivo de diatomeas cuando se alimentan in situ. Se recolectaron treinta y cuatro juveniles de H. fulgens en un sitio de pesca de BCS, México en dos fechas. Se disecaron y se examinaron contenidos intestinales. Se identificaron 144 taxa de diatomeas y se

  19. Impact of post-rigor high pressure processing on the physicochemical and microbial shelf-life of cultured red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Hughes, Brianna H; Perkins, L Brian; Yang, Tom C; Skonberg, Denise I

    2016-03-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) of post-rigor abalone at 300MPa for 10min extended the refrigerated shelf-life to four times that of unprocessed controls. Shucked abalone meats were processed at 100 or 300MPa for 5 or 10min, and stored at 2°C for 35days. Treatments were analyzed for aerobic plate count (APC), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), K-value, biogenic amines, color, and texture. APC did not exceed 10(6) and TVBN levels remained below 35mg/100g for 35days for the 300MPa treatments. No biogenic amines were detected in the 300MPa treatments, but putrescine and cadaverine were detected in the control and 100MPa treatments. Color and texture were not affected by HPP or storage time. These results indicate that post-rigor processing at 300MPa for 10min can significantly increase refrigerated shelf-life of abalone without affecting chemical or physical quality characteristics important to consumers. PMID:26471583

  20. Advances in genetics and breeding in abalone:a review%鲍遗传育种研究进展

    蔡明夷; 柯才焕; 周时强; 王桂忠

    2004-01-01

    Abalones are important farming species with a high economic value. They have already been farmed for more than 50 years. As problems and new requirements rose continuously in culture industry of abalone, studies on genetic and breeding techniques are needed to improve characteristics and to gain new traits. This review concentrates on advances in genetics and breeding techniques in abalone. As for genetic studies, karyological analyses, allozyme, DNA markers and genetic diversity were reviewed. So far, karyological analyses in abalone have been performed in 12 species that can be divided into three groups according to the chromosome number. In some economically important species, loci of allozymes and. microsatellites have been isolated and applied to investigate the genetic structure of natural and hatchery populations and to identify the result of chromosome set manipulation, but the related reports are only a few yet. The resultsof investigation with DNA markers and allozymes showed that the genetic structure of natural populations presents two characteristics: excessive homozygosity and subdivision. Advances of various breeding techniques, including introduction, selection,hybridization, polyploidy, gynogenesis and gene manipulation, were reviewed in the other part. Although Haliotis discus discus, introduced from Japan, has become one of the most important culture species in China, the economic, social and environmental effects of introduction have been rarely studied. Selection is one of the most important and basic breeding techniques, but the studies on selection are only a few and preliminary, referring to the relations between genetic characteristics and the traits of growth and resistance, genetic diversity and heritability of quantitative traits, and the effect of selection. Interspecific hybridization was the first breeding program carded out in abalone. Experimental hybridization have been carded out for about 20 crosses. Heterosis,such as faster

  1. 鲍鱼内脏中天然牛磺酸的提取与检测%Extraction and determination of taurine from viscera of abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

    章骞; 郑福来; 翁凌; 张凌晶; 曹敏杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:以皱纹盘鲍内脏为原料,优化高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺,并建立用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法。方法经水煮、乙醇抽提、蒸发浓缩、沉淀、活性炭处理、结晶等步骤,获得高纯度天然牛磺酸。用高压液相色谱检测牛磺酸纯度的方法为:色谱柱:Discovery C18;流动相:甲醇-0.05 mol/L乙酸钠缓冲液(pH 5.3)(v/v,50:50);流速:1 mL/min;检测波长:330 nm;柱温:室温。结果该提取工艺能从1 kg 鲍鱼内脏中提取得到天然牛磺酸3.07 g。采用该检测方法,牛磺酸的出峰时间为6.037 min,在1~20μg/mL浓度范围内线性关系良好(R2=0.9999),最低检出限为0.03μg/mL,最低定量限为0.12μg/mL,样品测定的平均回收率为99.44%(RSD=0.25%),方法的精密度和稳定性好(RSD<1%),用该方法检测提取得到的牛磺酸纯度为96.06%。采用红外光谱法(IR)对提取得到的鲍鱼内脏牛磺酸进一步作结构鉴定,发现它与标准品的红外特征吸收峰一致。结论获得了高纯度牛磺酸的提取工艺。本方法精密度和稳定性好,回收率高。%Objective The viscera from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) was used as raw materials to isolate natural taurine and an HPLC method for the determination of the purity of taurine was established. Methods Natural taurine was isolated by combining methods of high temperature stewing, activated carbon treatment, ethanol extraction, concentration, precipitation and crystallization. The HPLC method for determination of the purity of taurine was performed on a Discovery C18 column eluted with a mobile phase of 50% methyl alcohol and 50% sodium acetate (pH 5.3) at flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at room tem-perature and detected by a UV detector at 330 nm. Results Taurine (3.07 g) was isolated from 1 kg ab-alone viscera by the extraction method. The retention time of taurine was at 6.037 min on HPLC and the method showed a good linearity within concentration of

  2. Preparation of hemocyanin polyclonal antibody and the identification of 35 kDa hemocyanin fragment in HaHotis diversicolor Reeve%杂色鲍血蓝蛋白多克隆抗体的制备与血蓝蛋白35kDa片段鉴定

    姜敬哲; 韩焘; 王江勇; 杨慧英; 刘金叶

    2012-01-01

    以杂色鲍(Haliotis diversicolor Reeve)为研究对象,通过密度梯度离心方法纯化得到高纯度血蓝蛋白,以其作为抗原皮下注射免疫新西兰大白兔,从而获得高效价的兔源多克隆抗血清。进一步通过ProteinA抗原亲和纯化的方法对该抗血清纯化,最终获得效价更高、检测特异性更好的血蓝蛋白多克隆抗体。应用该抗体进行Western检测发现,鲍血淋巴中存在着多样的血蓝蛋白衍生产物;进一步结合质谱技术对其中35kDa条带进行鉴定发现,其来源于血蓝蛋白I型亚基的H结构域。%Haliotis diversicolor Reeve, was taken as research material. High purity hemocyanin proteins were puri- fied from the hemolymph of abalone using CsC1 density gradient centrifugation method. By injection of the purified antigen to a rabbit, high titer polyclonal anti-serum was acquired. The anti-serum was further processed with the protein A affinity purification to produce purified antibodies. Finally, the purified polyclonal antibodies with higher titer and specificity were acquired. Further Western blotting with these antibodies, plenty of hemocyanin was found as derivates of various molecular weights in abalone hemolymph.

  3. Studies on the Antibiotic Susceptibility of Pathogens Caused Massive Death of Post Larvae of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta)%南方九孔鲍鲍苗掉板病原菌的药敏测定

    王志; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志; 徐丽

    2005-01-01

    为提高鲍鱼培苗的成活率,对分离自广东汕尾一养殖场鲍苗掉板池中(包括水、藻膜和变白鲍苗)的、经回归感染试验证明为致病菌的菌株进行了鉴定和药物敏感性测定.API鉴定表明,这些致病菌株由Vibrio alginolyticus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio parahaemolyticus等组成,其中弧菌17株,约占总分离菌株的50%,而溶藻弧菌则为弧菌的优势菌株,有11株,约占弧菌总数的70%.药敏结果显示,绝大多数菌株对链霉素、红霉素和庆大霉素敏感;相反,四环素和新生霉素则对它们没有作用或不敏感.

  4. 九孔鲍养殖水体及消化道细菌学的研究%Bacteriological Studies in a Digestive Tract of Abalone (Haliotis diversicolor supertexta) and in the Waters

    蔡创华; 周毅频; 蔡俊鹏; 杨洪志

    2005-01-01

    2002年对汕尾健生鲍鱼养殖场养殖水体和鲍消化道中异养细菌及弧菌的数量和类群组成进行了研究.研究结果表明:养殖水体中异养细菌数量的四季变化从2.4×104~1.3×l05 cfu/ml,平均为7.6×104 cfu/ml;消化道中异养细菌数量四季变化则从1.6×107~5.4×107 cfu/g(湿重),平均为3.3×107 cfu/g.水体中弧菌数量四季变化从1.2×104~5.1×104 cfu/ml,平均为2.5×104 cfu/ml;而消化道中弧菌数量四季变化则从2.8×105~3.8×105 cfu/g,平均为3.2×105cfu/g.水体中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Pasteurella, Moraxella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Klebsiella, Weeksella和Alcall组成,消化道中细菌类群由Sphingomonas, Vibrio, Aeromonas, Flavobacterium, Shewanella, Sphingobacterium, Pseudomonas组成,水体和消化道弧菌种类主要为Vibrio fluvialis,Vibrio parahaemolyticus,Vibrio vulnificus,Vibrio cholerae,Vibrio minicus,Vibrio alginolyticus.并对不同养殖场水源弧菌数量也进行了比较.

  5. 不同密度的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)与仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)混养的研究%Polyculture of Juvenile Abalone(Haliotis discus hannal Ino)with Juvenile Sea Cucumber(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)at Various Stocking Densities

    王吉桥; 杨义; 程鑫; 王年斌; 张剑诚

    2007-01-01

    在水温13.0~23.0℃、容积50L(45cm×31cm×30cm)的塑料水槽中,分别放养5、10和20个重(2.7±0.7)g的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino),多量投喂海带,再分别混养0和5头重(1.8±0.5)g的仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka),不投喂.153 d的饲养表明,在相同密度下,混养鲍的特殊生长率(SGR)和成活率依次比单养高16.6%、5.7%;7.1%、7.1%;1.9%、10.4%;饲料系数降低了11.7%、5.8%、2.4%.与单养池相比,混养池水中氨氮含量低而稳,溶氧量高.文中讨论了鲍与仿刺参混养的适宜比例和方式.

  6. Splice Variants of Perlucin from Haliotis laevigata Modulate the Crystallisation of CaCO3

    Dodenhof, Tanja; Dietz, Frank; Franken, Sebastian; Grunwald, Ingo; Kelm, Sørge

    2014-01-01

    Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl) playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as...

  7. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Vanblaricom, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS). Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI) of Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO) had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv) reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus) coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host–parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  8. Reduced disease in black abalone following mass mortality: Phage therapy and natural selection

    Carolyn S Friedman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii, populations along the NE Pacific ocean have declined due to the rickettsial disease withering syndrome (WS. Natural recovery on San Nicolas Island (SNI off Southern California suggested the development of resistance in island populations. Experimental challenges in one treatment demonstrated that progeny of disease-selected black abalone from SNI survived better than did those from naïve black abalone from Carmel Point (CP in mainland coastal central California. Unexpectedly, the presence of a newly observed bacteriophage infecting the WS rickettsia (WS-RLO had strong effects on the survival of infected abalone. Specifically, presence of phage-infected RLO (RLOv reduced the host response to infection, RLO infection loads, and associated mortality. These data suggest that the black abalone: WS-RLO relationship is evolving through dual host mechanisms of resistance to RLO infection in the digestive gland via tolerance to infection in the primary target tissue (the post-esophagus coupled with reduced pathogenicity of the WS-RLO by phage infection, which effectively reduces the infection load in the primary target tissue by half. Sea surface temperature patterns off southern California, associated with a recent hiatus in global-scale ocean warming, do not appear to be a sufficient explanation for survival patterns in SNI black abalone. These data highlight the potential for natural recovery of abalone populations over time and that further understanding of mechanisms governing host-parasite relationships will better enable us to manage declining populations.

  9. The complete mitochondrial genome of Haliotis laevigata (Gastropoda: Haliotidae) using MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing.

    Robinson, Nick A; Hall, Nathan E; Ross, Elizabeth M; Cooke, Ira R; Shiel, Brett P; Robinson, Andrew J; Strugnell, Jan M

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome of greenlip abalone, Haliotis laevigata, is reported. MiSeq and HiSeq sequencing of one individual was assembled to yield a single 16,545 bp contig. The sequence shares 92% identity to the H. rubra mitochondrial genome (a closely related species that hybridize with H. laevigata in the wild). The sequence will be useful for determining the maternal contribution to hybrid populations, for investigating population structure and stock-enhancement effectiveness. PMID:24660910

  10. Evaluating potential conservation conflicts between two listed species: sea otters and black abalone.

    Raimondi, Peter; Jurgens, Laura J; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-11-01

    Population consequences of endangered species interacting as predators and prey have been considered theoretically and legally, but rarely investigated in the field. We examined relationships between spatially variable populations of a predator, the California sea otter, Enhydra lutris nereis, and a prey species, the black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii. Both species are federally listed under the Endangered Species Act and co-occur along the coast of California. We compared the local abundance and habitat distribution of black abalone at 12 sites with varying densities of sea otters. All of the populations of abalone we examined were in the geographic area currently unaffected by withering disease, which has decimated populations south of the study area. Surprisingly, our findings indicate that sea otter density is positively associated with increased black abalone density. The presence of sea otters also correlated with a shift in black abalone to habitat conferring greater refuge, which could decrease illegal human harvest. These results highlight the need for a multi-species approach to conservation management of the two species, and demonstrate the importance of using field-collected data rather than simple trophic assumptions to understand relationships between jointly vulnerable predator and prey populations. PMID:27070027

  11. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  12. Predicting the ecological carrying capacity of the Lidao artificial reef zone of Shandong Province for the sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, (Selenck) and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, using a linear food web model%基于线性食物网模型估算荣成俚岛人工鱼礁区刺参和皱纹盘鲍的生态容纳量

    吴忠鑫; 张秀梅; 张磊; 佟飞; 刘洪军

    2013-01-01

    The Lidao reef zone is a typical artificial reef ecosystem for rare marine animal stock enhancement in the coastal sea of North China. The sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus (Selenck), and the abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, are the main enhancement species in the system. Based on the data of biological resources obtained from an investigation of the Lidao artificial reef zone in 2009, a balanced trophic model of the area was con-structed using the Ecopath with Ecosim software package. The effects of uncertainty of input parameters and Ecopath analysis sensitivity were explored. Trophic flow and system attributes of the Lidao artificial reef system were analyzed. The ecological carrying capacity for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were also predicted. The model consisted of 19 functional groups, which covered the main trophic flow in the Lidao artificial reef ecosys-tem. The results showed that the pedigree index of the model was 0.51, and the input parameters having the great-est effects on the output parameters were the production/biomass ratios (P/B) of small demersal fish groups. A–50% change in the production/biomass ratios in small demersal fish groups gave a sensitivity of the biomass (B) of the same group from 100% to 136%. The total system throughput was estimated to be 10 786.680 t/(km2·a), 27% of which flowed to detritus and 17% of which is tranferred out of the ecosystem in the forms of fishing and sediment. Total net primary production was 4131.966 t/(km2·a) and the total energy transfer efficiency was 10.5%. The proportion of the total flow originating from detritus was 39%, and that from primary producers was 61%, indicating that the energy flow was dominated by grazing food chain. The ecological carrying capacity was de-fined as the level of enhancement that could be introduced without significantly changing the major trophic fluxes or structure of the food web. The ecological carrying capacities for A. japonicus and H. discus hannai were

  13. Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  14. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    Dodenhof, Tanja; Dietz, Frank; Franken, Sebastian; Grunwald, Ingo; Kelm, Sørge

    2014-01-01

    Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl) playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS) analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation. PMID:24824517

  15. Splice variants of perlucin from Haliotis laevigata modulate the crystallisation of CaCO3.

    Tanja Dodenhof

    Full Text Available Perlucin is one of the proteins of the organic matrix of nacre (mother of pearl playing an important role in biomineralisation. This nacreous layer can be predominately found in the mollusc lineages and is most intensively studied as a compound of the shell of the marine Australian abalone Haliotis laevigata. A more detailed analysis of Perlucin will elucidate some of the still unknown processes in the complex interplay of the organic/inorganic compounds involved in the formation of nacre as a very interesting composite material not only from a life science-based point of view. Within this study we discovered three unknown Perlucin splice variants of the Australian abalone H. laevigata. The amplified cDNAs vary from 562 to 815 base pairs and the resulting translation products differ predominantly in the absence or presence of a varying number of a 10 mer peptide C-terminal repeat. The splice variants could further be confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF MS analysis as endogenous Perlucin, purified from decalcified abalone shell. Interestingly, we observed that the different variants expressed as maltose-binding protein (MBP fusion proteins in E. coli showed strong differences in their influence on precipitating CaCO3 and that these differences might be due to a splice variant-specific formation of large protein aggregates influenced by the number of the 10 mer peptide repeats. Our results are evidence for a more complex situation with respect to Perlucin functional regulation by demonstrating that Perlucin splice variants modulate the crystallisation of calcium carbonate. The identification of differentially behaving Perlucin variants may open a completely new perspective for the field of nacre biomineralisation.

  16. Rheological Properties and Structural Changes in Different Sections of Boiled Abalone Meat

    GAO Xin; TANG Zhixu; ZHANG Zhaohui; Ogawa Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    Changes in tissue structures, rheological properties of cross- and vertical section boiled abalone meat were studied in relation to boiling time. The adductor muscle of abalone Haliotis discus which was removed from the shell, was boiled for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. Then it was cut up and separated into cross- and vertical section meat. When observed by a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope, structural changes in the myofibrils were greatest in the cross section meat compared with the vertical section meat. When boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h, the instantaneous modulus E0 and rupture strength of both section meat decreased gradually with increased boiling time, and no significant differences were observed between these two section meat for the same boiling time. When boiled for 1 h, the relaxation time of cross section meat was much longer than that of vertical section meat. There were no significant changes in the relaxation time of vertical section for different boiling time, but the relaxation time of cross section meat was reduced gradually with increasing boiling time. These results confirmed that the difference in rheological properties between the cross- and vertical section meat was mainly due to the denaturation level of myofibrils when heated for 1 h, as well as due to the changes in the amount of denatured proteins, and the manner in which the inner denatured protein components weve exchanged after boiling time was increased from 1 h to 3 h.

  17. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  18. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithe; Lebel, Jean-Marc [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France); Serpentini, Antoine, E-mail: antoine.serpentini@unicaen.fr [UMR 100 IFREMER ' Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques Marins' - IFR 146 ICORE - IBFA - Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Campus 1, Science C, Esplanade de la Paix, 14032 Caen cedex (France)

    2012-03-15

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 {mu}g L{sup -1} of CdCl{sub 2} for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 {mu}g L{sup -1} as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1}, which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses.

  19. Metabolism of alkylated PAHs by Nereis diversicolor

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar

    ’er, forvitret råolie og en af de mest væsentlige PAH metabolitter (1-pyrenkarboxylsyre), gennem enkeltstof- og blandingsforsøg med sediment eksponeringer af disse til børsteormen Nereis diversicolor. Resultaterne fra ph.d studiet viste at alkylerede PAH’er blev mere effektivt omdannet end deres usubstituerede...

  20. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    Lin, A.Y.M., E-mail: albertlin22@yahoo.com [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Brunner, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Talke, F.E. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Center for Magnetic Recording Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Meyers, M.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Department of Nanoengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter ({approx}200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  1. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter (∼200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  2. Reprint of: Growth of nacre in abalone: Seasonal and feeding effects

    The processes of aggregation of mineral and organic materials to the growing surfaces in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) are analyzed. The flat pearl implantation method is used to observe the transient stages of calcium carbonate deposition, the structure of the organic interlayer, and the steady-state growth of aragonite tiles. The morphology of the organic interlayer is characterized by scanning electron microscopy. These results enable a realistic depiction of the formation of the terraced cones that comprise the principal biomineralization mechanism in this gastropod. In all cases, the growth initiated through spherulites, followed by tile formation. The transient stage with spherulitic formation was shorter at higher temperature; this is indicative of a greater activity of the animal at 21 deg. C. The growth rate in a normally fed gastropod was found to be higher compared with one provided with limited food. The effect of water temperature (seasonal) was also established, with growth proceeding faster in the summer (T ∼ 21 deg. C) than in winter (15 deg. C). The structures of the organic interlayer and of the epithelium are revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

  3. Desarrollo del ensilado del alga Gracilaria chilensis para la alimentación del abalón rojo Haliotis rufescens

    Alfonso Mardones

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el principal insumo usado como alimento para abalones son las algas Gracilaria chilensis y Macrocystis pyrifera. Estas algas experimentan una notable baja de disponibilidad en otoño e invierno, lo cual trae consigo un aumento considerable de los precios, al tener que depender del abastecimiento desde áreas cada vez más alejadas de los centros de cultivo de abalones y, eventualmente, generando impactos ecológicos indirectos en sus poblaciones. El objetivo fue elaborar y evaluar un ensilado del alga G. chilensis para la alimentación de abalón rojo (Haliotis rufescens, determinando la cantidad de lixiviados generados durante el proceso, el cambio en la composición proximal del alga, la preferencia y consumo del abalón rojo de ensilado de G. chilensis. Se logró un producto ensilado de buenas características físicas, químicas y de conservación, así como una buena aceptación por parte del abalón.

  4. Accumulation of Co by abalone, 1

    The appearance of radioactive Co in the liver of abalone from sea water was examined to consider the effect of chemical forms of Co(CoCl2 and cyanocobalamin; vitamin B12) in sea water upon the metabolisms in marine organisms. Organic 57Co(cyanocobalamin) from sea water appeared in the liver of abalone combining with a constituent with a molecular weight of 4 x 104. The constituent had the activity of vitamin B12, while inorganic 60Co(CoCl2) appeared combining with three constituents with molecular weights more than or equal to 1.5 x 106, 7 x 103 and less than or equal to 1.5 x 103 which did not show the activities of vitamin B12. The effect of chemical forms of Co in sea water is significant in its accumulation by some species of marine organisms. (author)

  5. Marine reserves help preserve genetic diversity after impacts derived from climate variability: Lessons from the pink abalone in Baja California

    Adrián Munguía-Vega

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity is crucial for the adaptation of exploited species like the pink abalone (Haliotis corrugata, faced with threats from climate change, overfishing and impacts associated with aquaculture production. While marine reserves are commonly used to mitigate risks to marine populations, the duration, size, location and larval connectivity needed for a reserve to help conserve genetic resources is still poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of fishing, reserves, and restocking on the genetic diversity of 10 populations from central Baja California, Mexico, and Southern California, USA. We demonstrate that each population shows characteristic genetic signatures according to recent management decisions. We found high allelic diversity, particularly rare alleles, a larger effective population size and a lack of a recent genetic bottleneck in pink abalones within a small (0.8 km2, recently established (5 years reserve in Baja California, compared to other fished sites after a climatic bottleneck. Higher diversity may result from the presence of older animals in the reserve. Due to its location, the reserve may also act as an important hub connecting distant populations via larval dispersal. In contrast, a population from California showed genetic isolation, loss of allelic diversity and high relatedness, consistent with the collapse of fisheries in the 1990s and their lack of recovery thereafter. In addition, a fished area in Baja California with a history of restocking for over a decade showed an increase in frequency of related individuals and high genetic differentiation from nearby sites that were consistent with the production of larvae from a few adults in the laboratory. A network of strategically placed small marine reserves that considers ocean circulation patterns could help to maintain genetic diversity and connectivity of exploited populations.

  6. Structure and reaction studies of biological organic and inorganic composite materials: Abalone shells, diatoms, and a unique birch bark

    Zaremba, Charlotte Marie

    Biopolymer/calcium carbonate composites grown on inorganic abiotic substrates implanted between the shell and the shell-secreting epithelium of live red abalones (Haliotis rufescens) results in an unusual highly (104)-oriented aggregate of microcrystalline calcite that precedes nacre deposition. Calcite of this orientation has never before been observed in nature. Also with this method, nacre deposition is found to correct for calcite surface roughness and chemically anomalous surfaces. Pole figure X-ray diffraction studies of these "flat pearls" provide comparisons of preferred orientation of the various mineral components of the abalone shell. Complete conversion of the aragonite in abalone nacre to hydroxyapatite in hydrothermal phosphate solution results in an oriented polycrystalline aggregate with ultrastructure preservation and an unexpected preferred orientation different from that of other biominerals and abiogenic CaCO3 samples subjected to this reaction. The new orientation, which increases with reaction time, may result from the organization of the organic matrix in the nacre, which directs the hydrothermal solution through the material. This orientation suggests strongly that the conversion proceeds via a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism, rather than by topotaxy, which was previously proposed. In addition to cellulose I, a highly oriented cellulose-II-like polymer was found in the bark of Prunus serrula, an exceptionally strong, tough, and extensible composite film. The cellulose II polymorph, which has not previously been found in nature, may be accordion-folded in the plane of the bark thickness and contribute to the strength and unusual behavior with plasticization of this natural film. The silica frustule of the diatom Skeletonema costatum has a surface area of 135 mm2/g and contains 1.5--2 wt % occluded organic. This organic includes a water-insoluble scaffolding. When treated with organic oxidizers, the chitin secreted by the diatom

  7. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANT BACTERIA FROM HALIOTIS TUBERCULATA AND MYTILUS GALLOPROVINCIALIS

    F. Conte; Longo, S.; Malaspina, A.

    2009-01-01

    The antibiotic resistance (AR) of Gram negative bacteria from Haliotis tuberculata (Ht) and Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mg) was assessed. Essential differences between R profiles of Pseudomonas spp and of other strains was not observed. Strains AR from Ht and Mg was similar.

  8. Antioxidant activity of taste components from abalone viscera peptides prepared by Maillard reaction%美拉德反应制备鲍鱼脏器肽呈味基料及其抗氧化活性研究

    乔路; 周大勇; 李秀玲; 王宏海

    2011-01-01

    采用美拉德反应处理皱纹盘鲍脏器肽制备呈味基料,并通过感官评定实验及体外抗氧化实验评价了美拉德反应处理对鲍鱼脏器肽风味及抗氧化活性的影响.结果表明,鲍鱼脏器肽经美拉德反应处理后,鲜味增加,腥、苦等不良口味下降,总体风味得到显著提升.与反应前相比,美拉德反应产物的DPPH自由基清除活性增强百倍,而羟自由基清除活性及还原活性也增强数十倍.%The peptides prepared from abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino) viscera were treated by Maillard reaction to produce taste component. The peptides and their Maillard reaction products were tested by sensory evaluation experiment and antioxidant assay in vitro. Results showed that Maillard reaction could increase umami flavor but decrease fishy and bitter flavor, and then significantly enhance the overall taste of the abalone viscera peptides. After Maillard reaction, the DPPH radical scavenging activity was increased about a hundred fold, and the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and the reducing capacity was increased tens of times.

  9. A national survey of marine biotoxins in wild-caught abalone in Australia.

    Malhi, Navreet; Turnbull, Alison; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas; Nimmagadda, Rama; McLeod, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    The first national survey of Australian wild-caught abalone was conducted between September 2012 and December 2013. The aim of the survey was to determine the presence of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), amnesic shellfish toxins (ASTs), and diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in wild-caught abalone at levels above the current Codex marine biotoxin limits during the 2013 fishing season. Abalone (n = 190) were collected from 68 abalone-fishing blocks for which the combined annual harvest accounts for 80 % of Australian production. Concurrent seawater samples were collected and enumerated for potentially toxic phytoplankton. The foot and viscera tissues of each abalone sample were analyzed separately for PSTs, ASTs, and DSTs. No samples (abalone foot or viscera) contained toxins at levels exceeding the marine biotoxin limits stipulated by Codex. The resulting prevalence estimate suggests that less than 1.6 % of the commercially caught wild abalone population in Australia were contaminated with marine biotoxins at levels above the regulatory limit during the survey period. ASTs were detected at very low (trace) levels in the foot and viscera tissue of four and three abalone samples, respectively. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported detection of domoic acid in Australian abalone. PSTs also were detected at very low levels in 17 samples of abalone foot tissue and 6 samples of abalone viscera. The association between the low levels of ASTs and PSTs detected in abalone and the presence of potential toxin-producing phytoplankton in seawater samples was weak. DSTs were not detected in any abalone despite the detection of very low levels of DST-producing phytoplankton in a small number (9 of 77) of seawater samples. The results of this survey should be useful for public health risk assessments and provide additional evidence that the prevalence of marine biotoxins in Australian wild-caught abalone is very low. PMID:25364931

  10. Contrasting patterns of population connectivity between regions in a commercially important mollusc Haliotis rubra: integrating population genetics, genomics and marine LiDAR data.

    Miller, A D; van Rooyen, A; Rašić, G; Ierodiaconou, D A; Gorfine, H K; Day, R; Wong, C; Hoffmann, A A; Weeks, A R

    2016-08-01

    Estimating contemporary genetic structure and population connectivity in marine species is challenging, often compromised by genetic markers that lack adequate sensitivity, and unstructured sampling regimes. We show how these limitations can be overcome via the integration of modern genotyping methods and sampling designs guided by LiDAR and SONAR data sets. Here we explore patterns of gene flow and local genetic structure in a commercially harvested abalone species (Haliotis rubra) from southeastern Australia, where the viability of fishing stocks is believed to be dictated by recruitment from local sources. Using a panel of microsatellite and genomewide SNP markers, we compare allele frequencies across a replicated hierarchical sampling area guided by bathymetric LiDAR imagery. Results indicate high levels of gene flow and no significant genetic structure within or between benthic reef habitats across 1400 km of coastline. These findings differ to those reported for other regions of the fishery indicating that larval supply is likely to be spatially variable, with implications for management and long-term recovery from stock depletion. The study highlights the utility of suitably designed genetic markers and spatially informed sampling strategies for gaining insights into recruitment patterns in benthic marine species, assisting in conservation planning and sustainable management of fisheries. PMID:27322873

  11. Vibrio jasicida sp. nov., a member of the Harveyi clade, isolated from marine animals (packhorse lobster, abalone and Atlantic salmon).

    Yoshizawa, Susumu; Tsuruya, Yasuhiro; Fukui, Youhei; Sawabe, Tomoo; Yokota, Akira; Kogure, Kazuhiro; Higgins, Melissa; Carson, Jeremy; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2012-08-01

    Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T)  = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455). PMID:21984666

  12. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these a...

  13. Environmental Metabolism of Pyrene and 1-Methylpyrene by Nereis diversicolor

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Christensen, Jan Henning; Selck, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Mineral oils from spills contain magnitudes higher proportions of alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to unsubstituted PAHs. Despite this, assessments of contaminations are often limited to only consider the “16 USEPA priority PAHs”, which are all unsubstituted. We studied the metabolism of 1-methylpyrene by exposure to the benthic invertebrate Nereis diversicolor in laboratory mesocosms. Analyses of worm, water and sediment extracts were performed by use of Gas Chromat...

  14. 多层抽屉式循环水幼鲍养殖系统及养殖效果%Recirculating aquaculture system with multi-layer drawer culture tanks for juvenile abalone and its effects

    吴垠; 孙建明; 柴雨; 徐长雷

    2012-01-01

    为了提高皱纹盘鲍的养殖效果,该文设计了多层抽屉式循环水养殖幼鲍系统,分析了养殖期间系统的水质指标和耗能量,及不同养殖密度下幼鲍的生长率和成活率.结果表明,该系统适宜的幼鲍养殖密度为150个,屉(70cm×40cm×10cm/屉),为流水式养鲍密度的6~9倍.试验过程中水温、溶解氧、pH值、盐度、NH4+-N和NO2--N指标均达到幼鲍生长条件,NH4+-N和NO2--N体积质量基本稳定在0.023~0.065 mg/L和0.014~0.041 mg/L范围内.试验期间总耗电量为688.88 kW·h,其中海水加热占总耗电量19.62%,相当于每天1.287 kW·h耗电量,大约是流水式养殖加热耗能的1/7.该研究表明,多层抽屉式循环水养鲍系统是一种安全、高效、节能减排的养殖模式.该系统可供选择养鲍设施时参考.%In order to improve the culture efficiency of disk abalone, Haliotis discus hannai, the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) with multi-layer drawer abalone culture tanks (70 cm×40 cm× 10 cm per drawer) were designed. The water quality parameters, energy consumption during experiment period, as well as the growth rate and survival of juvenile abalone in different culture densities were monitored. The results showed that the culture density for 150 individuals per drawer in the recirculating systems was appropriate, which was about 6-9 times of the flow-through systems. The temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH value, salinity, NH4VN and NCV-N were all maintained within acceptable ranges for the normal growth of disk abalone. The total NH/-N and NO2-N stabilized around 0.023-0.065 mg/L and 0.014-0.041 mg/L, respectively. The power consumption per day for heating was 1.287 kW-h, where the power consumption for heating sea water accounted for 19.62% of the total power consumption (688.88 kW-h). Compared with conventional flow-through system, it was only one-seventh of energy consumption for heating sea water. The study indicates that it is a kind of

  15. Environmental Metabolism of Pyrene and 1-Methylpyrene by Nereis diversicolor

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Christensen, Jan Henning; Selck, Henriette

    the metabolism of 1-methylpyrene by exposure to the benthic invertebrate Nereis diversicolor in laboratory mesocosms. Analyses of worm, water and sediment extracts were performed by use of Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with UV, Fluorescence......Mineral oils from spills contain magnitudes higher proportions of alkylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) compared to unsubstituted PAHs. Despite this, assessments of contaminations are often limited to only consider the “16 USEPA priority PAHs”, which are all unsubstituted. We studied...

  16. Effects of Nereis diversicolor on the Transformation of 1-Methylpyrene and Pyrene

    Malmquist, Linus Mattias Valdemar; Christensen, Jan Henning; Selck, Henriette

    Transformation of nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the benthic invertebrate Nereis diversicolor was compared in this study. Pyrene and 1-methylpyrene were used as model compounds for nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted PAHs, respectively. Qualitative...

  17. Comparison between the Nereis diversicolor and Nereis virens marine worms in the transformation of ingested hydrocarbons

    Gilbert, Franck; Desrosiers, Gaston; Hulth, Stefan; Stora, Georges

    2001-01-01

    A feeding experiment was conducted on the marine worm Nereis diversicolor to compare the fate of a hydrocarbon mixture during the gut passage in this species with the hydrocarbon breakdown process demonstrated for Nereis virens. Hydrocarbon dissolution/solubilization processes in the gut of N. diversicolor were found to have similar qualitative and quantitative importance in the hydrocarbon transformation as those observed in N. virens.

  18. Status of abalone fishery and experiential mariculture as a resource conservation strategy in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study described the abalone f ishery in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan to develop mariculture and to reseed a part of the harvest as a resource conservation strategy. The abalone fishery of Anda is artisanal or smallscale, typif ied by f ishers gleaning or free-diving on shallow rocky areas which are the typical habitat of abalone. Low densities of 1.67 to 8 individuals per 250 m2 were observed. Local f ishers have knowledge of productive f ishing areas. Hence, cage culture of abalone in these areas could be a viable resource conservation strategy as they serve as reproductive reserves to supply larvae for continued productivity of the f ishing grounds. Abalone mariculture following the Farmer Field School (FFS concept was explored to address both resource management and economic needs. As a resource enhancement activity, mariculture guarantees that cultured abalone are allowed to grow to maturity before harvested, while some are retained to restock a marine sanctuary. Sincemariculture makes possible the aggregation of individuals, the probability that fertilization would take place is increased. As supplemental source of livelihood, abalone is a high value commodity and its culture can help augment the income of f ishers. Small abalone (3-4 cm can be cultured further for 3-4 months to increase their size and weight. Mariculture should be done from November to May to avoid the rainy season and improve survivorship. The experiential activity was successful because it became a means for the f ishers to experienceresource management. Under the FFS, the researcher became a facilitator and mentored the cooperators in learning from their experience. The lessons sharpened the f ishers’ skills in observation, problem-solving, decision-making, and critical thinking. This enabled them to gain an appreciation of their resource.

  19. Using Local Ecological Knowledge and Environmental Education in Resource Management of Abalone in Carot, Anda, Pangasinan

    Emmanuel C. Capinpin, Jr.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to (1 determine the local ecological knowledge (LEK of abalone gatherers through interviews and mentoring, and assess the correspondence between scientific information and LEK, so that areas where local knowledge may be most useful in resource management could be identified, and (2 to empower selected gatherers/farmers with knowledge and technical skills through environmental education to help develop or build their capacity to become sustainable resource managers. The LEK of abalone fishers was determined using three complementary approaches – group interview, individual interview, and mentoring sessions. Local fishers possess a wealth of knowledge about the interactions of species gained through many years of observations, and this knowledge may be useful in guiding biologists in ecological restoration or management regimes. Additionally, the fishers’ LEK, validated by modern scientific ecological findings, could be a source of important and effective ideas in resource management. The knowledge of the abalone gatherers about important abalone fishing grounds should help in pinpointing critical areas that need to be managed. Abalone mariculture in cages should be set up in these areas to routinely create dense breeding populations which can help in enhancing recovery and in providing fishers with a source of additional income. The continued enforcement of marine protected areas and the periodic release or reseeding of abalone in sanctuaries could also be considered viable resource management options. Other recommendations for resource management based on gathered local knowledge and lessons learned from the environmental education (EE seminars are also presented.

  20. Effects of Nereis diversicolor O. F. Muller abundance on the dissolved phosphate exchange between sediment and overlying water in Palmones River estuary (southern Spain)

    Clavero, V.; Niell, F. X.; Fernandez, J. A.

    1991-08-01

    Annual variations in dissolved phosphate gradient, sediment porosity, abundance of Nereis diversicolor and phosphate flux were measured in order to determine the pattern of phosphate exchange between the sediment and overlying water in an estuarine system. N. diversicolor abundance is inversely related to the dissolved phosphate gradient while the ratio, measured flux/calculated diffusion flux, increases as does N. diversicolor abundance.

  1. Grazing effects by Nereis diversicolor on development and growth of green algal mats

    Engelsen, Anna; Pihl, Leif

    2008-08-01

    Nereis diversicolor is generally considered to be a predator and deposit feeder, but have also been found to graze on benthic algae in shallow coastal areas. In this study we investigated the grazing effects on the development and growth of green algae, Ulva spp. Algal growth was studied in an experiment including two levels of sediment thickness; 100 mm sediment including macrofauna and 5 mm sediment without macrofauna, and three treatments of varying algal biomass; sediment with propagules, sediment with low algal biomass (120 g dry weight (dwt) m - 2 ) and sediment with high algal biomass (240 g dwt m - 2 ). In the 100 mm sediment, with a natural population of macrofauna, N. diversicolor was the dominating (60% of total biomass) species. After three weeks of experimentation the result showed that N. diversicolor was able to prevent initial algal growth, affect growth capacity and also partly reduce full-grown algal mats. The weight of N. diversicolor was significantly higher for polychaetes in treatments with algae added compared to non-algal treatments. There were also indications that a rich nutrient supply per algae biomass counteracted the grazing capacity of N. diversicolor.

  2. Metabolism of pyrene by the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Arenicola marina.

    Christensen, Mette; Andersen, Ole; Banta, Gary T

    2002-07-01

    Absorption and elimination of [(14)C-4,5,9,10]pyrene and production of water-insoluble and water-soluble pyrene metabolites by the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Arenicola marina were studied. Both polychaete species were capable of rapidly accumulating and eliminating pyrene. Steady state concentrations of pyrene were established in both polychaete species within 5 days of exposure to contaminated sediments, with A. marina having 5-10 times higher bioaccumulation factors than N. diversicolor. Both water-soluble and water-insoluble metabolites were detected in tissues of N. diversicolor and A. marina. After transferring worms to uncontaminated sediment, about 50% of the body burden of parent pyrene was excreted within 1.5 days, with elimination in A. marina being faster than in N. diversicolor. The only identified water-insoluble metabolite produced by N. diversicolor was 1-hydroxypyrene. Pyrene metabolites were present in A. marina, but could not be identified. Long- and short-term absorption experiments showed an increasing production of water-soluble metabolites over time in the lugworm, which strongly suggests the presence of a PAH metabolising system in A. marina. PMID:12062152

  3. Effect of abalone farming on sediment geochemistry in the Shallow Sea near Wando, South Korea

    Kang, Jeongwon; Lee, Yeon Gyu; Jeong, Da Un; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Yang Ho; Shin, Yun Kyung

    2015-12-01

    Wando County has grown up to 93% of the total abalone produced in South Korea since the late 1990s; however, this production has been decreasing in recent years. The objectives of this study were to understand the potential contamination risks of abalone farming and to examine the influence of intensive abalone farming on sediment quality by analyzing grain-size composition, organic matter (total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total sulfur (TS)) and heavy metal content, pH, and 210Pb geochronology. The results of organic matter analysis from surface and core sediment (length: 64 cm) showed that the area around the abalone farm had oxic marine-to-brackish conditions, but that the area directly below an abalone cage (location 7) had reductive conditions, with a C/S ratio of ~2. The average TN levels in the surface and core sediments were 0.25% and 0.29%, respectively, and this was predominantly due to the use of seaweed for feed. The low sediment pH (surface, 7.23; core, 7.04), indicates that acidification of the bottom sediment has gradually increased since the initiation of abalone farming and is likely due to the continuous accumulation of uneaten feed and feces. Heavy metal pollution was not apparent based on the examination of EF and Igeo, although the excess metal flux of Ni, Pb, Cu, Co, As, and Cd increased toward surface of the sediment core. These sediment changes may be caused by the rapid accumulation (sedimentation rate: 1.45 cm/year) of sludge discharged from the abalone farm and may be controlled by tidal currents, physiography, water depth, and tidal ranges.

  4. Oxidative stress biomarkers of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor exposed to cadmium and petroleum hydrocarbons.

    Sun, Fu-hong; Zhou, Qi-xing

    2008-05-01

    Changes in the activity of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) and in the content of soluble protein (SP) in Nereis diversicolor exposed to cadmium (Cd) and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) were investigated under a laboratory condition. The results indicated that SOD activity in N. diversicolor exposed to Cd and PHCs significantly (Pdiversicolor could also sensitively reflect oxidative stress induced by Cd and PHCs. Concentration combination of Cd and PHCs had significant (Pdiversicolor at single or joint exposure of Cd and PHCs. Exposure time also resulted in significant differences in POD activity (Pdiversicolor which was simultaneously exposed to Cd and PHCs, as called time-dependent effects. Compared with day 0, SOD activity in non-exposed N. diversicolor increased, possibly due to the effects of temperature. Therefore, the effects of pollutants with emphasis on abiotic parameters on the antioxidant defense system should be considered in future studies. PMID:17673290

  5. Abalone water-soluble matrix for self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects.

    Wen, Zhenliang; Chen, Jingdi; Wang, Hailiang; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Zhili; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-10-01

    Enamel cannot heal by itself if damaged. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is main component of human enamel. Formation of enamel-like materials for healing enamel defects remains a challenge. In this paper, we successfully isolated the abalone water-soluble matrix (AWSM) with 1.53wt% the abalone water-soluble protein (AWSPro) and 2.04wt% the abalone water-soluble polysaccharide (AWSPs) from abandoned abalone shell, and self-healing biomineralization of tooth defects was successfully achieved in vitro. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), hot field emission scanning electron microscopy (HFESEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) analysis, the results showed that the AWSM can efficiently induce remineralization of HAP. The enamel-like HAP was successfully achieved onto etched enamel's surface due to the presence of the AWSM. Moreover, the remineralized effect of eroded enamel was growing with the increase of the AWSM. This study provides a solution to the resource waste and environmental pollution caused by abandoned abalone shell, and we provides a new method for self-healing remineralization of enamel defects by AWSM and develops a novel dental material for potential clinical dentistry application. PMID:27287112

  6. Acceleration of calcite kinetics by abalone nacre proteins

    Fu, G; Qiu, S R; Orme, C A; Morse, D E; De Yoreo, J J

    2005-06-09

    The fascinating shapes and hierarchical designs of biomineralized structures have long been an inspiration to materials scientists because of the potential they suggest for biomolecular control over synthesis of crystalline materials. One prevailing view is that mineral-associated macromolecules are responsible for initiating and stabilizing non-equilibrium crystal polymorphs and morphologies through interactions between anionic moieties and cations in solution or at mineral surfaces. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that bio-organic additives can dramatically alter crystal shapes and growth-rates in vitro. However, previous molecular-scale studies revealing mechanisms of growth modification focused on small molecules such as amino acids or peptides and always observed growth inhibition. In contrast, studies using full proteins were non-quantitative and underlying sources of growth modification were ill-defined. Here we investigate interactions between proteins isolated from abalone shell nacre and growing surfaces of calcite. We find that these proteins significantly accelerate the molecular-scale kinetics and, though much larger than atomic steps, alter growth morphology through step-specific interactions that lower their free energies. We propose that these proteins act as surfactants to promote ion attachment at calcite surfaces.

  7. Biochemical alterations induced in Hediste diversicolor under seawater acidification conditions.

    Freitas, Rosa; Pires, Adília; Moreira, Anthony; Wrona, Frederick J; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M

    2016-06-01

    Seawater pH is among the environmental factors controlling the performance of marine organisms, especially in calcifying marine invertebrates. However, changes in non-calcifying organisms (including polychaetes) may also occur due to pH decrease. Polychaetes are often the most abundant group of organisms in estuarine systems, representing an important ecological and economic resource. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the impacts of seawater acidification in the polychaete Hediste diversicolor, a species commonly used as bioindicator. For this, organisms were exposed to different pH levels (7.9, 7.6 and 7.3) during 28 days and several biochemical markers were measured. The results obtained demonstrated that pH decrease negatively affected osmotic regulation and polychaetes metabolism, with individuals under low pH (7.6 and 7.3) presenting higher carbonic anhydrase activity, lower energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) and higher metabolic rate (measured as Electron transport system activity). The increase on CA activity was associated to organisms osmoregulation capacity while the increase on ETS and decrease on energy reserves was associated to the polychaetes capacity to develop defense mechanisms (e.g. antioxidant defenses). In fact, despite having observed higher lipid peroxidation at pH 7.6, in polychaetes at the lowest tested pH (7.3) LPO levels were similar to values recorded in individuals under control pH (7.9). Such findings may result from higher antioxidant enzyme activity at the lowest tested pH, which prevented organisms from higher oxidative stress levels. Overall, our study demonstrated how polychaetes may respond to near-future ocean acidification conditions, exhibiting the capacity to develop biochemical strategies which will prevent organisms from lethal injuries. Such defense strategies will contribute for polychaetes populations maintenance and survival under predicted seawater acidification scenarios. PMID:27088614

  8. Cellular toxicity and bioaccumulationof silver nanoparticles in the marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    In this study, the toxicities of commercial silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20 and 80 nm) were compared with the toxicities of Ag+ ions in the marine sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor, after 10 d of sediment exposure, using lysosomal membrane stability (neutral red assay), DNA damage...

  9. Uptake pathways and subcellular fractionation of Cd in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    Li, Lianzhen; Liu, Xiaoli; You, Liping; Zhang, Linbao; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2012-01-01

    Polychaetes have often been utilized as indicator species to investigate the impacts of pollutants, such as heavy metals. The uptake of Cd by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor was determined at varying Ca concentrations and with pre-exposure to Ca ion channel blockers and metabolic inhibitors in simulated sea water over 1 week period. The supply of Ca in simulated sea water inhibited Cd uptake and increased Ca concentration in N. diversicolor after 10 μM Cd exposure. Pre-exposure to a Ca-channel blocker (Lanthanum) significantly inhibited Cd uptake, suggesting that the uptake of Cd was exerted at a Ca channel. N-ethylmaleimide, which specifically binds to sulfhydryl groups, inhibited Cd uptake at 10 μM, implying that the transport of Cd is carrier-mediated by proteins or other SH-containing compounds. Subcellular Cd distribution analysis showed that more than 60% of the total Cd associated with the cytosolic fraction. The presence of higher concentration of Ca in simulated sea water did not impact the proportional subcellular distribution of Cd in N. diversicolor. Nevertheless, the supply of Ca could significantly lower Cd concentration in cytosol and cellular debris. The present study provides evidence that Cd transport by N. diversicolor was mediated mainly through lanthanum- sensitive Ca ion channels and accumulated by SH-containing compounds. These results help to understand the uptake mechanism and subcellular distribution of Cd in polychaetes. PMID:21858512

  10. [Research advance in characteristics and mechanisms of Nereis diversicolor endurance against environmental pollution].

    Sun, Fuhong; Zhou, Qixing

    2006-03-01

    Nereis diversicolor is an ecologically keystone species of invertebrate that lives in the mud of marine-terrestrial interlaced zone. This species can accumulate a large number of toxic heavy metals such as copper, cadmium and zinc in its body, and thus, shows a high endurance against toxic heavy metals. This paper summarized the latest research advance at home and abroad in the characteristics and mechanisms of N. diversicolor endurance against heavy metals and organic contaminants. N. diversicolor could achieve its heavy metals- endurance through several eco-chemical processes, e.g., mucus secretion and contaminants excretion. The former could form a protective layer or integrate with dissolved ions of pollutants, and thus, decrease the bioavailability of pollutants, while the latter could lessen the pollutants' bio-toxicity. More researches believe that the toxic heavy metals in N. diverdicolor body are stored in non-toxic physicochemical forms, i. e., bound to metal-binding protein, such as metallothionein (MTs), metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) and cytosolic heat-stable thiolic compounds (CHSTC), or incorporated into insoluble deposits or granules. The pivots of future researches on the ecotoxicology of N. diversicolor and its endurance mechanisms against pollutants were proposed. PMID:16724757

  11. The effect of organic pollution on local distribution of Nereis diversicolor and Corophium volutator

    Esselink, P.; van Belkum, J.; Essink, K.

    Distribution patterns of Nereis diversicolor and Corophium volutator in the SE-Dollard, a 92 km 2 tidal flat area in the NE Netherlands are described. Body condition as well as the maximal size of juvenile worms correlated positively with elevation of the mudflat, probably caused by a better food supply on the higher mudflats. No spatial variation in size was found for C. volutator. N. diversicolor disappeared from ˜1 km 2 of the intertidal mudflats in the autumn of 1985 as a consequence of the seasonal waste discharges, whereas C. volutator disappeared from an area of ˜4 km 2. Though the discharges decreased by almost 50% from 1982 to 1985, N. diversicolor disappeared from about the same area in the 2 years. N. diversicolor is the main prey species of the avocet Recurvirostra avosetta, large flocks of which stay in the Dollard during autumn migration. Though the avocets lost ˜30% of their potential feeding area in the Dollard in the 1970s because of the high waste discharges, against only 5 to 10% in 1982 and thereafter (at significant lower discharges), the numbers of the avocets did not respond to the decrease of the discharges.

  12. 杂交鲍苗种“病毒性萎缩症(AbSV)”病理学研究%Studies on Pathology of “Shriveling Syndrome Associated Virus(AbSV)” in Juvenile Hybrid Abalone

    杨小强

    2013-01-01

    从福州地区患病杂交鲍苗种组织中分离到一种球形病毒用以感染健康鲍,通过对感染发病的鲍苗进行光镜和电镜观察,发现:病毒主要在消化腺嗜碱性细胞的细胞核中发生;消化腺消化细胞和嗜碱性细胞细胞核异形、染色质固缩,内质网扩张,线粒体嵴断裂、消失;消化腺小叶基膜肌纤维断裂、消失;消化道肠道具微绒毛的柱状细胞和纤毛柱状细胞发生自溶现象;足部肌细胞核浓缩,染色质固缩、边集,肌纤维断裂出现空泡.据此推测,病毒以鲍消化腺嗜碱性细胞为靶细胞,造成消化腺和胃、肠道等消化系统病变,机体因长期营养不良而萎缩,最后因全身性感染出现死亡.%Pathological analysis was done on juvenile hybrid abalone (Haliotisdiscus discus Haliotis discus hannai)artificially infected by a spherical virus isolated from the diseased ones in Fuzhou.Examination of artificially infected juvenile hybrid abalone by optical and electron microscopy showed that the virion mainly developed in nucleus of basophilic cells in digestive gland,and led to nuclear heteromorphosis,chromatin condensation,endoplasmic reticulum expansion,and mitochondria cristae breakage in digestive gland cell and basophilic cell.Meanwhile,broken digestive gland lobule basal lamina muscle fibers,autolysis and pyknosis of microvillus and cilium columnar cell in digestive gland intestinal tract were observed.In foot muscle cells,muscle fibers were broken and vesicles emerged,together with chromatin condensation and margination.These results suggested that the digestive gland basophilic cells maybe the special target cell of this virus,the infection could cause lesion in digestive gland and digestive organs such as stomach,intestines.Atrophy due to long-term malnutrition and systemic infection would finally led to death.

  13. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    II Kim Jae

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB. Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining. Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  14. Behavioural and biochemical responses of two marine invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor to copper oxide nanoparticles

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Tankoua, Olivia Fossi; Pan, Jin-Fen; Berhanu, Deborah; Herrenknecht, Christine; Poirier, Laurence; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Bérard, Jean-Baptiste; Risso, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Roméo, Michèle; Reip, Paul; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Engineered nano-sized Cu oxide particles are extensively used in diverse applications. Because aquatic environments are the ultimate "sink" for all contaminants, it is expected that nanoparticles (NP) will follow the same fate. In this study, two marine invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Hediste diversicolor were chosen as ecotoxicological models. The aim was to evaluate behavioural (burrowing kinetics, feeding rate) and biochemical (biomarkers) responses of S. plana and H. diversicolor ex...

  15. Microscale distribution of oxygen and nitrate in sediments inhabited by Nereis diversicolor; spatial patterns and estimated reaction rates

    Nielsen, O.I.; Gribsholt, B.; Kristensen, E.; Revsbeck, N.P.

    2004-01-01

    Profiles of oxygen and nitrate were measured with microsensors in sediment surrounding burrow structures of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in a shallow mudflat in Limfjorden, Denmark. Rates and spatial distribution of reactions involving oxygen and nitrate (oxygen consumption, nitrification and nitrate reduction) in the vicinity of burrow structures and surface sediment were calculated and identified from concentration profiles. The burrow walls of the natural N. diversicolor population i...

  16. Smelling Danger – Alarm Cue Responses in the Polychaete Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (Müller, 1776) to Potential Fish Predation

    Schaum, C. Elisa; Batty, Robert; Last, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    The harbour ragworm, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor is a common intertidal marine polychaete that lives in burrows from which it has to partially emerge in order to forage. In doing so, it is exposed to a variety of predators. One way in which predation risk can be minimised is through chemical detection from within the relative safety of the burrows. Using CCTV and motion capture software, we show that H. diversicolor is able to detect chemical cues associated with the presence of juvenile fl...

  17. Influence of bioturbation by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the structure of bacterial communities in oil contaminated coastal sediments

    Cuny, Philippe; Miralles, Gilles; Cornet-Barthaux, Véronique; Acquaviva, Monique; Stora, Georges; Grossi, Vincent; Gilbert, Franck

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of change in the structure of bacterial communities monitored by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) in oil contaminated sediments inhabited or not by the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor were studied during 45 days under laboratory conditions. Results supported by principal component analysis showed a marked response of the bacterial communities to the oil contamination and to the presence of N. diversicolor. Phylogenetic affiliation of specific RISA bands showed that, ...

  18. Más sobre Abalone y algo sobre tuercas: los tetrahexos

    Rupérez, José Antonio; García, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Comentamos los problemas planteados en anterior artículo sobre jugadas del ABALONE, describiéndolo de nuevo y presentamos el puzle de los Polihexos, fácil de construir y entretenido de resolver; útil para plantear ejercicios de combinatoria y simetrías.

  19. 酶解鲍鱼制备增味剂的研究%The flavor enhancer prepared by enzymatic abalone

    任艳艳; 李卫华

    2011-01-01

    采用Alcalase和Flavourzyme两种蛋白酶对鲍鱼蛋白进行酶解,利用鲍鱼酶解物制备得到的增味剂,经感官评定,具有显著的口感增强作用。%Alcalase and Flavourzyme were used to hydrolyze the protein of abalone.The abalone hydrolysate was prepared for flavor enhancer,which proved to have high flavor-enhance effect by sensory evaluation.

  20. Nereis diversicolor and copper contamination effect on the erosion of cohesive sediments: A flume experiment

    Fernandes, S.; Sobral, P.; Alcântara, F.

    2009-04-01

    The effect of bioturbation on the erodability of natural and manipulated copper spiked sediments (3 μmol Cu g -1 dw) was investigated using sediments collected in the Tagus estuary and Nereis diversicolor (900 ind m -2). The input of particulate matter and Cu into the water column as a result of erosion was quantified in an annular flume at 7 shear velocities (1-13 cm s -1). The biogeochemical characteristics of the sediment were analysed in depth down to 8 cm. Cu contamination elicited lower levels of eroded matter and lower shear strength profiles. Eroded matter and sediment shear strength values were higher (up to 1.7 kg m -2) in the presence of N. diversicolor, whose effect was less pronounced under contamination. Sediment erodability was not only related to hydrodynamics but was highly affected by the biogeochemical characteristics and contamination of the sediments.

  1. Uptake of /sup 55/Fe from contaminated sediments by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    Jennings, C.D. (Oregon Coll., Monmouth); Fowler, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    The polychaete Nereis diversicolor O.F. Mueller was exposed to marine sediments which had been contaminated with /sup 55/Fe either through the testing of nuclear devices or by the release of liquid waste effluent from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The amount of /sup 55/Fe taken up reached a concentration in the worms about 6% of the concentration in both types of sediment. Bioavailability of /sup 55/Fe was shown to depend on its concentration in sediment and not on sediment type, stable iron concentration, or the source of contamination. N. diversicolor may not extract from sediment the same fraction of /sup 55/Fe as does 0.1N HCl and caution should be exercised in using such measurements to represent the bioavailable fraction.

  2. Experimental study of the retention of zinc 65 by sediment and polychaete annelids (Nereis diversicolor Muller)

    Baudin, J.P. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France). Dept. de Protection)

    1981-01-01

    Zinc 65 is a radionuclide with an intermediate half-life (245 days). It is an isotope of a biological trace element which can be found in some liquid wastes released by nuclear facilities. The first part of the paper concerns zinc 65 transfer from water to sediment. This process is essentially characterised by its rapidity and intensity. After 48 hours water loses 50% of its activity and transfer reaches 100% beyond the 20th day. Zinc 65 is strongly bound to the sediment and its desorption is almost non-existent. The second part reports the results about zinc 65 contamination of Nereis diversicolor, a species which can be considered as a vehicle of recirculation for the radionuclide fixed in the sediment. This assumption is partly verified although zinc 65 accumulation by Nereis diversicolor from water is 20 times more important than from sediment.

  3. Aquaculture growth and Fatty acid profile of Hediste diversicolor fed with three different diets

    António Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776 or so called common ragworm, is an Annelida polychaeta is typically an inhabitant of shallow marine and brackish waters in different parts of Europe. This species has a high physiological tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as salinity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels, which can be grown and reproduced in different types of sediment. In the field and also under laboratory conditions this worm can utilize different types of food. To improve the aquaculture of H. diversicolor we have determined the growth, survival rates and fatty acid profile of juvenile worms fed with three different diets for 2 months. This experiment was carried out with juvenile worms reared in aquaculture laboratory of Polytechnic Institute of Leiria and were fed with Aquagold (seabream dry food, moist sole (semi wet pellets for cultured sole and mackerel fillet. The temperature was maintained at 20 ± 1°C with 15 of salinity. H. diversicolor juveniles were placed in three replicates for each diet, with 30 worms per replicate. The higher growth rate was observed when the juveniles were fed with Aquagold (0,146 g d-1 for 10 individuals, and 100% survival rate was a result of moist sole diet, probably related to the immunostimulant included in this feed. The major fatty acids found in the juveniles fed with the three diets were palmitc acid (16:0, oleic acid (18:1n9; eicosapentanoic acid (20:5n3 and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n3. Although results shown that mackerel fillet was not the diet with the higher growth rate and final weight achieved, when compared to the other two diets, but it is proved that it can be suitable for H. diversicolor aquaculture.

  4. Inhibition of denitrification by hydrocarbons in marine sediments. Role of Nereis diversicolor

    Gilbert, Franck; François, Frédérique; Stora, Georges; Bertrand, Jean-Claude

    1997-01-01

    An in vitro experiment has been carried out in order to illustrate the influence of the burrowing polychaete Nereis diversicolor on denitrification in hydrocarbon-loaded sediments. After 15 and 45 days, the denitrification activity in the different contaminated or non-contaminated control (without macro-fauna) and experimental (colonized by polychaetes) sediments was compared. In control contaminated sediments, the inhibition of denitrification is solely located in the surface layer (0-2 cm)....

  5. Metal concentrations in sediment and Nereis diversicolor in two Moroccan lagoons: Khnifiss and Oualidia

    Idardare, Zaina; Chiffoleau, Jean-francois; A. Moukrim; Alla, A.; Auger, Dominique; Lefrere, L; Rozuel, Emmanuelle

    2008-01-01

    Metal concentrations were measured monthly during an annual cycle (December 2004 to January 2006) in the tissues of Nereis diversicolor ragworms and sediment from two Moroccan Atlantic coastal lagoons: Oualidia in the north, situated in a highly industrialised urban area and Khnifiss in the south, far from anthropogenic influences. Relatively high levels of Zn, Ag and Cd were found in the sediment of Oualidia lagoon, while Ni concentrations were shown to be high at Khnifiss. The significant m...

  6. Response of Nereis diversicolor population (Polychaeta, Nereididae) to the pollution impact - Authie and Seine estuaries (France)

    Gillet, P.; Mouloud, M.; Durou, C.; Deutsch, B.

    2008-01-01

    A survey within the French National Programme of Ecotoxicology was carried out in 2002, 2003 and 2004 to study the response of Nereis diversicolor populations (Polychaeta, Nereididae) to the impact of pollution in the Authie estuary (non-contaminated site) and in the Seine estuary (contaminated site). In the period studied, the density varied from 672 ind. m -2 to 3584 ind. m -2 in the Authie estuary and from 80 ind. m -2 to 920 ind. m -2 in the Seine estuary. Biomass varied from 3.94 g m -2 (dry weight) in February 2004 to 38.0 g m -2 in August 2003 in the Authie estuary and from 3.4 g m -2 in February 2002 to 0.6 g m -2 in February 2004 in the Seine estuary. Density and biomass of the populations of N. diversicolor were consistently lower in the Seine estuary than in the Authie estuary. Size frequency histograms permit the analysis of the cohorts as well as the elaboration of the growth curves. For the individuals from the Authie estuary, the relation between dry weight (DW) and length L3 (prostomium, peristomium and chaetiger 1) was DW = 4.2205 L3 2.9832. For those from the Seine estuary, the relation between dry weight and L3 was DW = 0.4697e 1.7209L3. The individuals of N. diversicolor should belong to eight cohorts in Authie estuary (two cohorts each year) instead of six cohorts for those from the Seine estuary. These differences can be attributed to the effect of pollution on the population of N. diversicolor.

  7. Bioconcentration de metaux lourds chez une annelide polychete estuarienne: Nereis diversicolor

    Septier, F.; Demuynck, S; Thomas, P; Dhainaut-courtois, N

    1991-01-01

    The concentrations of twelve heavy metals in sediments and in female Nereis diversicolor collected in the estuary of the River Aa and in the little harbour of Boulogne were investigated. Concentration variations which were sometimes considerable were found according to the site, the period of the year, the age of the animals and the cations studied. In addition, numerous intermetal correlations were detected in the nereis. Cytochemical and radioautographic studies revealed that the tegument a...

  8. The influence of Cu contamination on Nereis diversicolor bioturbation

    Fernandes, S.; Meysman, F.J.R.; Sobral, P.

    2006-01-01

    Aquatic sediments feature a two-way interaction between contaminants and benthic macrofauna. The effect of the macrofauna community on the transport of contaminants in sediment has received considerable attention. Yet, few studies have investigated the reverse effect, i.e., the influence of contaminants on bioturbation activity. To this end, we performed laboratory experiments to investigate the effect of copper contamination on sediment reworking activity of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor. ...

  9. Biotransformation of arsenate to the tetramethylarsonium ion in the marine polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Nereis virens.

    Geiszinger, Anita E; Goessler, Walter; Francesconi, Kevin A

    2002-07-01

    Arsenic compounds in aqueous extracts of the marine polychaetes Nereis diversicolor and Nereis virens were determined by HPLC-ICP-MS. Both polychaetes contained most of their water-soluble arsenic as arsenobetaine (approximately 60%), and the tetramethylarsonium ion was also a significant arsenic constituent (approximately 20% in N. diversicolor and approximately 30% in N. virens). Trimethylarsoniopropionate and arsenosugars were present in the Nereis species as minor constituents, and traces of arsenocholine, trimethylarsine oxide, and arsenate were also detected. When N. diversicolor and N. virens were exposed in laboratory experiments to different concentrations of arsenate in seawater (10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000 microg of As L(-1)), both species accumulated arsenic in a dose-dependent manner. Atthe highest exposure level, they achieved mean arsenic concentrations (dry mass) of approximately 70 mg of As kg(-1) (N. virens) and 90 mg of As kg(-1) (N. diversicolor), which represented about a 5-fold increase when compared with the control animals. The arsenic taken up by the polychaetes was readily methylated, and the major metabolite was the tetramethylarsonium ion (up to approximately 85% of the accumulated arsenic). Two other products of arsenic methylation, methylarsonate and trimethylarsine oxide, were also produced to a small extent; however, dimethylarsinate, another likely intermediate in the formation of the tetramethylarsonium ion, could not be detected in these experiments. The remaining accumulated arsenic was present as unchanged arsenate. This is the first report of significant biomethylation of arsenic to the tetramethyl stage and provides a ready explanation for the widespread occurrence of tetramethylarsonium ion in marine animals. PMID:12144266

  10. Preliminary Data on the Bioturbation Activity of Hediste Diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereididae) from the Loire Estuary, France

    Gillet, Patrick; Mouloud, Mohammed; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Simo, Pablo; Gilbert, Franck

    2012-01-01

    The ragworm Hediste diversicolor (O. F. Müller, 1776) plays a key role in the estuarine water-sediment interface. This scientific project comes under the framework of the International network Nereis Park Experiment gathering 27 laboratories from all over the world. The experiments were carried out concurrently in spring 2007 using a common protocol. In the Loire estuary, the samples were collected in the intertidal zone of the Saint-Nazaire Bridge. During the field experiment, we estimated t...

  11. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-β-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC50) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds

  12. Initial characterization of receptors for molecules that induce the settlement and metamorphosis of Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Trapido-Rosenthal, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    Larvae of the marine gastropod mollusc Haliotis refescens are induced to undergo metamorphosis by ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and stereochemically related compounds. The most potent of these inducers is (-)-..beta..-(parachlorophenyl)-GABA (baclofen). The inductive response exhibits positive cooperatively, and is subject to both facilitation (up-regulation) and habituation (down-regulation). Facilitation is brought about by diamino acids such as L-diaminopropionic acid (L-DAPA), and is characterized by decreased Hill coefficients (n/sub H/) and concentration requirements (EC/sub 50/) for inducers. Facilitation does not require the simultaneous presence of facilitating and inducing compounds, and the facilitated state is persistent. Larvae are capable of being up-regulated 2 days before they are capable of undergoing settlement and metamorphosis. Habituation can be brought about by exposure of pre-competent larvae to GABA 4 days prior to the attainment of competence; it is then slowly reversible. Larvae specifically bind tritiated (-)-baclofen in a manner that is saturable with both increasing time of exposure of larvae to, and with increasing concentration of, this compound. Specific binding can be competed for by unlabeled GABA-mimetic inducing molecules; the order of effectiveness of these molecules as competitors for specific binding correlates well with their effectiveness as inducers of metamorphosis. Facilitation of larvae by exposure to diamino acids does not alter their specific binding of tritiated (-)-baclofen. It is concluded from these findings that Haliotis larvae possess receptors for GABA-mimetic compounds.

  13. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400-nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the $(001)$ crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within $\\pm$ 12 degrees from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that this orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous si...

  14. Influence of anthropogenic stress on fitness and behaviour of a key-species of estuarine ecosystems, the ragworm Nereis diversicolor

    Mouneyrac, C., E-mail: catherine.mouneyrac@uco.f [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Perrein-Ettajani, H. [MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquee, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 3 Place Andre Leroy, Angers, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Amiard-Triquet, C. [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, MMS, EA2160, Faculte de pharmacie, 1 rue G. Veil, BP 53508, 44035 Nantes Cedex 1 (France)

    2010-01-15

    Fitness, (biometric measurements, reproduction) and behaviour that are ecologically relevant biomarkers in assessing the quality of estuarine sediments were studied by comparing the responses of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor - a key species in estuaries - along a pollution gradient. Intersite differences were shown for all the measured parameters: size-weight relationships, energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, sexual maturation patterns, total number of oocytes per female, total and relative fecundity, burrowing behaviour. The physiological and behavioural status of N. diversicolor was consistently disturbed in the larger, most contaminated estuaries (Loire and Seine, Fr.) compared to reference sites (Bay of Bourgneuf, Goyen estuary, Fr.). Many classes of potentially toxic chemicals present in these estuaries most likely contribute to these impairments but food availability may act as a confounding factor, interfering with the potential impact of contaminants. - Fitness, and behaviour in Nereis diversicolor are affected by anthropogenic pressure.

  15. Influence of anthropogenic stress on fitness and behaviour of a key-species of estuarine ecosystems, the ragworm Nereis diversicolor

    Fitness, (biometric measurements, reproduction) and behaviour that are ecologically relevant biomarkers in assessing the quality of estuarine sediments were studied by comparing the responses of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor - a key species in estuaries - along a pollution gradient. Intersite differences were shown for all the measured parameters: size-weight relationships, energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, sexual maturation patterns, total number of oocytes per female, total and relative fecundity, burrowing behaviour. The physiological and behavioural status of N. diversicolor was consistently disturbed in the larger, most contaminated estuaries (Loire and Seine, Fr.) compared to reference sites (Bay of Bourgneuf, Goyen estuary, Fr.). Many classes of potentially toxic chemicals present in these estuaries most likely contribute to these impairments but food availability may act as a confounding factor, interfering with the potential impact of contaminants. - Fitness, and behaviour in Nereis diversicolor are affected by anthropogenic pressure.

  16. Feeding, growth and respiration in the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor (facultative filter-feeder) and N. virens (omnivorous) - a comparative study

    M. Nielsen, A.; T. Eriksen, Niels; L. Iversen, Jens Jørgen; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    1995-01-01

    Nielsen, A.M., Eriksen, N.T., Iversen, J.J.L., Riisgård, H.U. (1995). Feeding, growth and respiration in the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor (facultative filter-feeder) and N. virens (omnivorous) - a comparative study. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 125: 149-158.......Nielsen, A.M., Eriksen, N.T., Iversen, J.J.L., Riisgård, H.U. (1995). Feeding, growth and respiration in the polychaetes Nereis diversicolor (facultative filter-feeder) and N. virens (omnivorous) - a comparative study. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 125: 149-158....

  17. Assessment of the influence of confounding factors (weight, salinity) on the response of biomarkers in the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    Kalman, J; Buffet, P E; Amiard, J C; Denis, F; Mouneyrac, C; Amiard-Triquet, C

    2010-08-01

    The influences of salinity and body size on biochemical (activities of glutathione-S-transferase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetylcholinesterase and digestive enzymes amylase and CMCase), physiological (feeding and egestion rates, energy reserves) and behavioural (burrowing speed) biomarkers were examined in the infaunal polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Only a few biomarkers were affected, including increased egestion rate and activities of CMCase and LDH at higher salinity, and higher egestion rate in larger worms. These findings reinforce the status of N. diversicolor as a robust sentinel species for estuaries which are environments that are particularly productive but also particularly at risk. PMID:20642318

  18. Influence of bioturbation by the polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the structure of bacterial communities in oil contaminated coastal sediments.

    Cuny, Philippe; Miralles, Gilles; Cornet-Barthaux, Véronique; Acquaviva, Monique; Stora, Georges; Grossi, Vincent; Gilbert, Franck

    2007-04-01

    Patterns of change in the structure of bacterial communities monitored by ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) in oil contaminated sediments inhabited or not by the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor were studied during 45 days under laboratory conditions. Results supported by principal component analysis showed a marked response of the bacterial communities to the oil contamination and to the presence of N. diversicolor. Phylogenetic affiliation of specific RISA bands showed that, in the contaminated sediments, the presence of the marine polychaetes favoured the development of bacteria which may play an active role in natural bioremediation processes of oil polluted environments. PMID:17254615

  19. Influences of petroleum on accumulation of copper and cadmium in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    SUN Fu-hong; ZHOU Qi-xing; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2006-01-01

    Using the exposure simulation experiment, the action of petroleum affecting the accumulation of the trace metals including copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in littoral polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from the Shuangtaizi Estuary in Liaoning Province,China was examined. The results showed that there was a markedly non-linear relationship between the accumulation of Cu in worms and the experimental concentration of Cu in exposure solutions when the concentration of petroleum remained at 0, 100, and 220 μl/L, respectively. However, significantly non-linear relationship for worms exposed to Cd was observed only when the concentration of added petroleum was 0 and 220 μl/L. The accumulation of Cu in worms did not differ significantly among the three different levels of petroleum concentrations combined with various concentrations of Cu. So was the accumulation of Cd in worms (p>0.05).However, the addition of petroleum in exposure solutions brought about an increase in the accumulation of Cu in Nereis diversicolor,in comparison with single Cu pollution. On the other hand, when the concentration of added petroleum remained at 100 μl/L, the accumulation of Cd in worms was lower than that in worms exposed to various concentrations of only cadmium. However, the worms exposed to Cd and petroleum 220 μl/L did not show obvious and identical increase in the accumulation of Cd, compared with single Cd exposure. The accumulation of both Cu and Cd in worms did not increase significantly with the increases in concentrations of Cu or Cd in exposure solutions combined with petroleum (0, 100, and 220 μl/L) under the experimental conditions. Although Nereis diversicolor is exposed to very high Cu and Cd in exposure solutions, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms are sufficient to cope with the extra metal influx in order to survive.

  20. Influences of petroleum on accumulation of copper and cadmium in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    Sun, Fu-Hong; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Zhang, Qian-Ru

    2006-01-01

    Using the exposure simulation experiment, the action of petroleum affecting the accumulation of the trace metals including copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) in littoral polychaete Nereis diversicolor collected from the Shuangtaizi Estuary in Liaoning Province, China was examined. The results showed that there was a markedly non-linear relationship between the accumulation of Cu in worms and the experimental concentration of Cu in exposure solutions when the concentration of petroleum remained at 0, 100, and 220 microl/L, respectively. However, significantly non-linear relationship for worms exposed to Cd was observed only when the concentration of added petroleum was 0 and 220 microl/L. The accumulation of Cu in worms did not differ significantly among the three different levels of petroleum concentrations combined with various concentrations of Cu. So was the accumulation of Cd in worms (p > 0.05). However, the addition of petroleum in exposure solutions brought about an increase in the accumulation of Cu in Nereis diversicolor, in comparison with single Cu pollution. On the other hand, when the concentration of added petroleum remained at 100 microl/L, the accumulation of Cd in worms was lower than that in worms exposed to various concentrations of only cadmium. However, the worms exposed to Cd and petroleum 220 microl/L did not show obvious and identical increase in the accumulation of Cd, compared with single Cd exposure. The accumulation of both Cu and Cd in worms did not increase significantly with the increases in concentrations of Cu or Cd in exposure solutions combined with petroleum (0, 100, and 220 microl/L) under the experimental conditions. Although Nereis diversicolor is exposed to very high Cu and Cd in exposure solutions, accumulation and detoxification mechanisms are sufficient to cope with the extra metal influx in order to survive. PMID:20050557

  1. Factors in the distribution of intertidal, estuarine polychaetes: a field experiment with Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor and Nephtys hombergi in the Tamar at Plymouth

    Davey, J. T.; George, C. L.

    1986-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted over 10 weeks from July to mid-September, 1984, on a mudflat in the lower reaches of the Tamar Estuary at Plymouth, to test the relative importance of environmental factors and species interactions in controlling the distribution of two polychaete species. Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor from an upper shore site were transplanted into a lower shore site nearby which was characterized by the presence of Nephtys hombergi. 65-71% of N. diversicolor which were transplanted in their own sediments, with no contact with N. hombergi, survived the experimental period. The appearance of some small stages of N. diversicolor in these treatments was attributed in part to recruitment from the overlying water. N. diversicolor transplanted directly into N. hombergi-sediment survived in inverse proportion to their numbers and only the lowest densities (equivalent to 480 m -2) survived as well as those in their own sediment. Given the choice to invade the other species' sediment, more N. hombergi than N. diversicolor finally made the change, and there was some evidence that the smallest N. diversicolor suffered predation in consequence. Otherwise there was little evidence for inter-species interaction. There appeared to be some disruption of oocyte maturation of the N. diversicolor which may have been due to changes in tidal rhythm and salinity at the experimental site.

  2. Use of oil palm kernel meal as a supplement material for abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus O.K. Miller cultivation

    Petcharat, V. and

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the optimum rate of oil palm kernel meal, for an abalone mushroom (Pleurotus cystidiosus cultivation. Different concentrations of oil palm kernel meal (5- 20% were added to pararubber sawdust and used to grow the abalone mushroom in plastic bags. Growth rate of the mycelia, number of days from watering to harvesting and yield were compared to those on 94% sawdust + 5% rice bran + 1% Ca(OH2. The results showed that 10% oil palm kernel meal was the optimum concentration for abalone mushroom cultivation. Yield on 950 g/bag of 89% sawdust + 10% oil palm kernel meal + 1% Ca(OH2 was 202.12 g/bag (B.E. = 60.79% during 120 days of havesting time. Addition of higher concentration of oil palm kernel meal (15-20% did not increase yield of the basidiocarps.

  3. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron-, and ionic-Ag on the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette;

    2011-01-01

    ionic (AgNO3)- Ag on the sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor, were compared after 10 days of sediment exposure, using survival, DNA damage (comet assay) and bioaccumulation as endpoints. The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 g Ag/g dry...

  4. FILTER-NET STRUCTURE AND PUMPING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYCHAETE NEREIS-DIVERSICOLOR - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PUMP-MODELING

    Riisgård, H.U.; Vedel, A.; Boye, H.; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    1992-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the filter-net structure in the facultatively suspension-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor O. F. Muller showed that the net is composed of an irregular mesh-work made up of long, relatively thick filaments (up to 300 nm) interconnected with a variety of shorter and...

  5. A short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay with Hediste diversicolor (Polychaeta) for estuarine sediments based on postexposure feeding.

    Moreira, Susana Maria; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2005-08-01

    This study evaluated a short-term sublethal endpoint for in situ toxicity assays for estuarine sediments, based on postexposure feeding of the polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller. A method for precisely quantifying postexposure feeding rates of H. diversicolor was established under laboratory conditions using Artemia franciscana Kellog nauplii. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response to copper was investigated by comparing postexposure feeding rates to growth and lethality. The 48-h and 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) of copper were 241 and 125 microg/L, respectively, whereas the 48-h median inhibitory concentration (IC50) for postexposure feeding and the 20-d IC50 for growth were 52 and 25 microg/L of copper, respectively. The influence of different exposure conditions (substrate, temperature, salinity, food availability, and light) on H. diversicolor postexposure feeding was assessed; temperature and salinity were found to influence significantly postexposure feeding. The effectiveness of the proposed in situ assay was investigated by deploying it at two reference and six contaminated Portuguese estuaries. A 48-h exposure period was followed by a 1-h postexposure feeding period. High organism recoveries (89-100%) were obtained. Postexposure feeding was depressed significantly (17-90%) at all contaminated sites relatively to reference sites. The proposed in situ assay with H. diversicolor was shown to be a potential useful tool for estuarine sediment toxicity testing. PMID:16152974

  6. Cellular internalization of silver nanoparticles in gut epithelia of the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    García-Alonso, Javier; Khan, Farhan R; Misra, Superb K; Turmaine, Mark; Smith, Brian D; Rainbow, Philip S; Luoma, Samuel N; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2011-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used which may result in environmental impacts, notably within aquatic ecosystems. As estuarine sediments are sinks for numerous pollutants, but also habitat and food for deposit feeders such as Nereis diversicolor, ingested sediments must be investigated as an important route of uptake for NPs. N. diversicolor were fed sediment spiked with either citrate capped AgNPs (30 ± 5 nm) or aqueous Ag for 10 days. Postexposure AgNPs were observed in the lumen of exposed animals, and three lines of evidence indicated direct internalization of AgNPs into the gut epithelium. With TEM, electron-dense particles resembling AgNPs were observed associated with the apical plasma membrane, in endocytotic pits and in endosomes. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed the presence of Ag in these particles, which were absent in controls. Subcellular fractionation revealed that Ag accumulated from AgNPs was predominantly associated with inorganic granules, organelles, and the heat denatured proteins; whereas dissolved Ag was localized to the metallothionein fraction. Collectively, these results indicate separate routes of cellular internalization and differing in vivo fates of Ag delivered in dissolved and NP form. For AgNPs an endocytotic pathway appears to be a key route of cellular uptake. PMID:21517067

  7. Sediment-worm interaction: transfer of 65Zn from marine silt by the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    Marine polychaete worms (Nereis diversicolor) accumulated 65Zn sorbed to silty marine sediment for 5 days and were then transferred to nonradioactive sediment in the laboratory and in the sea. The mean biological half-life (T/sub B//2/) for the laboratory worms did not differ greatly from that for worms in the sea. Worms living in small flowing seawater systems containing 16 cm3 of sediment accumulated 65Zn added to each system in the form of radioactive organic detritus. Higher percentage uptake of 65Zn was from radioactive detritus particles 0.2 to 2 mm in diameter resting on the sediment surface or mixed with sediment than from finely-ground (65Zn coprecipitated from fresh water with Fe(OH)3 was accumulated by N. diversicolor when the precipitate was on the sediment surface than when the precipitate was well mixed with the sediment. These experimental results indicate that benthic organisms may take up limited amounts of heavy metals associated with bottom sediments and recycle them to benthic and pelagic food webs

  8. Distribution and production of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in a shallow coastal lagoon in the Bay of Cádiz (SW Spain)

    Arias, Alberto M.; Drake, Pilar

    1995-01-01

    [EN] The temporal and spatial distribution and production of Nereis diversicolor in a semi-natural lagoon system were studied by taking monthly samples at 4 sites during two years. The numerical abundance and biomass, with mean annual estimates of 1886 ind.m-2 and 4.6 g AFDW. m-2 respectively for the whole studied system, showed considerable interseason and intersite variations. The lowest N. diversicolor density was recorded at the most confined lagoonal area. Seasonal patterns for the numer...

  9. Mechanism of Fluorescence and Conformational Changes of the Sarcoplasmic Calcium Binding Protein of the Sand Worm Nereis diversicolor upon Ca2+ or Mg2+ Binding

    Sillen, Alain; Verheyden, Stefan; Delfosse, Lotte; Braem, Tania; Robben, Johan; Volckaert, Guido; Engelborghs, Yves

    2003-01-01

    The calcium-binding protein isolated from the sarcoplasm of the muscles of the sand worm Nereis diversicolor has four EF-hands and three active binding sites for Ca2+ or Mg2+. Nereis diversicolor sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein contains three tryptophan residues at positions 4, 57, and 170, respectively. The Wt protein shows a very limited fluorescence increase upon binding of Ca2+ or Mg2+. Single-tryptophan-containing mutants were produced and purified. The fluorescence titrations of th...

  10. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  11. A novel methodology for the determination of biomarker baseline levels in the marine polychaete Hediste diversicolor.

    Barrick, A; Châtel, A; Marion, J-M; Perrein-Ettajani, H; Bruneau, M; Mouneyrac, C

    2016-07-15

    Identifying environmental damage due to anthropogenic activities is a focal point for scientists and policy makers like those involved in the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Many of these approaches focus on ecological endpoints for assessing environmental perturbations, which lead to policies emphasizing mitigation rather than prevention. Biomarkers provide early-warning indicators of stress but it is necessary to distinguish their natural variations from those induced by chemical stress. The global aim of this study was to establish a baseline assessment criterion (BAC) using historical data in a reference site to define toxicity thresholds. We have developed a multiple polynomial regression model (MPR) accounting the influence of salinity, temperature and size of individual on energetic reserves (glycogen and lipids) in the marine polychaete Hediste diversicolor. The model identified a complex, orthogonal relationship between confounding factors and glycogen and a linear relationship between lipids and size of individuals. PMID:27184131

  12. Ultrastructural aspects of Ellipsomyxa mugilis (Myxozoa: Ceratomyxidae) spores and developmental stages in Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta: Nereidae).

    Rangel, Luis Filipe; Azevedo, Carlos; Casal, Graça; Santos, Maria João

    2012-06-01

    The ultrastructure of the spores and developmental stages of Ellipsomyxa mugilis in Nereis diversicolor were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The ultrastructure features and the developmental stages show many similarities with the general pattern described for other actinospores. However, several new features are definitely worth noting. For example, tetranucleated cells precede the formation of the initial pansporocyst, which preserves the 2 original enveloping cells until the end of sporogony. In the initial stages of sporogony, the future sporoplasm cell acquires the first secondary cell by an engulfment process. In the final stage of sporogony, spores are formed by a sporoplasm with 2 secondary cells and 1 somatic nucleus, and the polar capsule has a polar filament with a helicoidal arrangement possessing 7-8 coils. PMID:22263603

  13. Bioakkumulering af nanosølv og mikrosølv i Nereis diversicolor

    Knudsen, Birgitte Bendiks; Beyer, Thomas Sonne; Hansen, Louise Pigonska

    2009-01-01

    Abstrakt I dette projekt er forskellen i bioakkumulering af nanosølv og mikrosølv undersøgt hos børsteormen Nereis diversicolor. Eksponeringen foregik med nanosølvpartikler (100 nm) og mikrosølvpartikler (1000 nm) ved en koncentration på 100 µg/L. Der blev udført en vandeksponering samt en sedimenteksponering med både nanosølv såvel som mikrosølv, således at effekten af sedimentet på partiklerne kunne observeres. Forsøget viste via af AAS målinger en svag tendens til at nanosølv ved vande...

  14. The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor increases mercury lability and methylation in intertidal mudflats.

    Sizmur, Tom; Canário, João; Edmonds, Samuel; Godfrey, Adam; O'Driscoll, Nelson J

    2013-08-01

    The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor engineers its environment by creating oxygenated burrows in anoxic intertidal sediments. The authors carried out a laboratory microcosm experiment to test the impact of polychaete burrowing and feeding activity on the lability and methylation of mercury in sediments from the Bay of Fundy, Canada. The concentration of labile inorganic mercury and methylmercury in burrow walls was elevated compared to worm-free sediments. Mucus secretions and organic detritus in worm burrows increased labile mercury concentrations. Worms decreased sulfide concentrations, which increased Hg bioavailability to sulfate-reducing bacteria and increased methylmercury concentrations in burrow linings. Because the walls of polychaete burrows have a greater interaction with organisms, and the overlying water, the concentrations of mercury and methylmercury they contain is more toxicologically relevant to the base of a coastal food web than bulk samples. The authors recommend that researchers examining Hg in marine environments account for sediment dwelling invertebrate activity to more fully assess mercury bioavailability. PMID:23633443

  15. Immunofluorescence analysis of the internal brain anatomy of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Annelida).

    Heuer, C M; Loesel, R

    2008-03-01

    Comparative analyses of neuroanatomical characters can make valuable contributions to the inference of phylogenetic relationships. Whereas investigations in this field are numerous for arthropods, in-depth studies on other protostomes are sparse. Here, we provide a survey of the internal neuroarchitecture of the brain of the aciculate ragworm Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Annelida). Descriptions are based on confocal laser scanning microscope analyses of brain sections labeled with the nuclear marker DAPI and antibodies raised against FMRF-amide, serotonin, and histamine. Autofluorescence of the nervous tissue has been utilized to further elucidate the anatomical structures of the brain. The architecture of two major brain compartments, i.e., the paired mushroom bodies and the central optic neuropil, is described in detail. The findings are compared with existent literature on polychaete neuroanatomy and on arthropod neuroanatomy, and possible phylogenetic implications are outlined. PMID:18071754

  16. From biomarkers to population responses in Nereis diversicolor: assessment of stress in estuarine ecosystems.

    Durou, Cyril; Smith, Brian D; Roméo, Michèle; Rainbow, Philip S; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Mouloud, Mohamed; Gnassia-Barelli, Mauricette; Gillet, Patrick; Deutch, Bruno; Amiard-Triquet, Claude

    2007-03-01

    Suborganismal responses to toxicants can be sensitive tools to assess marine pollution, but their ecological significance is a matter of debate. Among these biomarkers, those linked to reproduction are most probably related to populational effects. To test this hypothesis, Nereis diversicolor were collected in the multipolluted Seine estuary and the comparatively clean Authie estuary (France). Energy reserves were higher in Authie worms, suggesting a better physiological status. The number of oocytes per female was higher for the polychaetes from the Authie, but it was related to the size of animals, which was higher at this site. Densities of worms were depleted in the Seine compared to those in Authie. Demographic structure of the Seine population was also altered. The concomitant changes in energy reserves, egg production, and population structure and density suggest that the effects on biomarkers and at the population level are related. PMID:16620980

  17. The effects of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the distribution and transplanting success of Zostera noltii

    Hughes, R. G.; Lloyd, D.; Ball, L.; Emson, D.

    2000-07-01

    Loss of saltmarsh vegetation in south-east England is a significant problem for conservation and coastal defence. The losses of vegetation began in the 1930s with the loss of intertidal Zostera marina and have continued more recently. Some preliminary trials at re-establishing Zostera in some estuaries of Essex have not been successful. This paper addresses the hypothesis that the infauna, particularly the polychaete Nereis diversicolor, may restrict natural colonisation by Zostera and reduce the success of transplanting trials. In field experiments, Z. noltii were transplanted into areas where Nereis were common, close to an established seagrass bed and into two other estuaries. The transplants protected from the effects of the polychaetes by netting had a higher survival rate, lower index of root damage and greater biomass at the end of the experiments than those that were unprotected. In laboratory experiments, Nereis reduced the survival of Z. noltii. They were observed grasping the leaves and pulling them into their burrows. These results indicate that herbivory and disturbance by N. diversicolor is responsible, at least in part, for the restriction of the distribution of Z. noltii and may have been important in limiting the success of previous transplanting experiments. A hypothesis is proposed which states that there are two stable states on the upper mud-flats. One state is dominated by plants, including Zostera spp., which prevent colonisation by burrowing infauna, and the other is dominated by infauna which prevent colonisation by plants. Managing these two states could be the key to re-establishing the early successional stages of saltmarsh development.

  18. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag in the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor.

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary T; Selck, Henriette; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2011-10-01

    There is increasing concern about the toxicities and potential risks, both still poorly understood, of silver nanoparticles for the aquatic environment after their eventual release via wastewater discharges. In this study, the toxicities of sediment associated nano (Nereis diversicolor, were compared after 10 days of sediment exposure, using survival, DNA damage (comet assay) and bioaccumulation as endpoints. The nominal concentrations used in all exposure scenarios were 0, 1, 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg Ag/g dry weight (dw) sediment. Our results showed that Ag was able to cause DNA damage in Nereis coelomocytes, and that this effect was both concentration- and Ag form-related. There was significantly greater genotoxicity (higher tail moment and tail DNA intensities) at 25 and 50 μg/g dw in nano- and micron-Ag treatments and at 50 μg/g dw in the ionic-Ag treatment compared to the controls (0μg/g dw). The nano-Ag treatment had the greatest genotoxic effect of the three tested Ag forms, and the ionic-Ag treatment was the least genotoxic. N. diversicolor did accumulate sediment-associated Ag from all three forms. Ag body burdens at the highest exposure concentration were 8.56 ± 6.63, 6.92 ± 5.86 and 9.86 ± 4.94 μg/g dw for worms in nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag treatments, respectively, but there was no significant difference in Ag bioaccumulation among the three treatments. PMID:21831346

  19. 杂色鲍碱性磷酸酶在DMSO溶液中的活力与构象变化的研究%Effect of Dimethyl Sulfxide (DMSO) on Activity and Conformation of Alkaline Phosphatase from Haliotis diversicolor

    陈巧; 洪燕飞; 廖金花; 陈清西

    2005-01-01

    以二甲亚砜(DMSO)为效应物,研究其对杂色鲍碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活力的影响.结果表明:该酶的剩余活力随着DMSO浓度增大而迅速下降,当DMSO浓度达40%,酶活力几乎完全丧失.说明DMSO对杂色鲍ALP有明显的失活作用.导致酶活力丧失50%的DMSO浓度为17%.在较低DMSO浓度(<20%)的失活是可逆的反应过程.动力学研究表明.该酶的失活过程属于混合型.进一步测定游离酶(E)和酶底物络合物(ES)与DMSO的结合常数(K1和K1s),结果表明K1<K1s,说明底物存在对酶被DMSO的失活作用有一定的保护作用.应用荧光发射光谱研究杂色鲍ALP经DMSO微扰后的分子构象变化情况.随着DMSO浓度增大,荧光强度逐渐增强,但发射峰未发生明显变化现象,说明酶分子中的生色基团残基的微环境发生了一定的变化.

  20. An experimental study of the retention of zinc 65 by sediment and polychaete annelids (Nereis diversicolor Muller)

    Zinc 65 is a radionuclide with an intermediate half-life (245 days). It is an isotope of a biological trace element which can be found in some liquid wastes released by nuclear facilities. The first part of the paper concerns zinc 65 transfer from water to sediment. This process is essentially characterised by its rapidity and intensity. After 48 hours water loses 50% of its activity and transfer reaches 100% beyond the 20th day. Zinc 65 is strongly bound to the sediment and its desorption is almost non-existent. The second part reports the results about zinc 65 contamination of Nereis diversicolor, a species which can be considered as a vehicle of recirculation for the radionuclide fixed in the sediment. This assumption is partly verified although zinc 65 accumulation by Nereis diversicolor from water is 20 times more important than from sediment

  1. Influence of anthropogenic stress on fitness and behaviour of a key-species of estuarine ecosystems, the ragworm Nereis diversicolor.

    Mouneyrac, C; Perrein-Ettajani, H; Amiard-Triquet, C

    2010-01-01

    Fitness, (biometric measurements, reproduction) and behaviour that are ecologically relevant biomarkers in assessing the quality of estuarine sediments were studied by comparing the responses of the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor--a key species in estuaries--along a pollution gradient. Intersite differences were shown for all the measured parameters: size-weight relationships, energy reserves as glycogen and lipids, sexual maturation patterns, total number of oocytes per female, total and relative fecundity, burrowing behaviour. The physiological and behavioural status of N. diversicolor was consistently disturbed in the larger, most contaminated estuaries (Loire and Seine, Fr.) compared to reference sites (Bay of Bourgneuf, Goyen estuary, Fr.). Many classes of potentially toxic chemicals present in these estuaries most likely contribute to these impairments but food availability may act as a confounding factor, interfering with the potential impact of contaminants. PMID:19665272

  2. The in vitro influence of the burrowing polychaete Nereis diversicolor on the fate of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine sediments

    Gilbert, Franck; Rivet, Lucien; Bertrand, Jean-Claude

    1994-01-01

    International audience The in vitro fate of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction (SF) of Arabian Light crude oil has been studied in PVC cores filled with a coastal marine sediment defaunated by sieving. Experiments were conducted in absence or presence of polychaetes Nereis diversicolor. The luminophore tracer technique was used to quantify the mixing of sediment by worms. Presence of crude oil reduced the building of burrows by polychaetes. This work demonstrates the ability of infaunal or...

  3. Croissance de juvéniles de Nereis diversicolor nourris avec des détritus d'halophytes

    Meziane, T; Retiere, C

    2002-01-01

    The comparative effect of the uptake of fresh and degraded detritus of halophytic plants, harvested from salt marches of the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France), on the growth of a juvenile population of the annelid polychaete N. diversicolor (L.) was studied under experimental conditions in summer 1993. Fresh and degraded detritus of Spartina anglica, Halimione portulacoides and Salicornia europeae, as well as the green algae Enteromorpha sp. were distributed separately to homogenous set of juven...

  4. Characterization of specificity of bacterial community structure within the burrow environment of the marine polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor

    Pischedda, Laura; Militon, Cécile; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Bioturbation is known to stimulate microbial communities, especially in macrofaunal burrows where the abundance and activities of bacteria are increased. Until now, these microbial communities have been poorly characterized and an important ecological question remains: do burrow walls harbor similar or specific communities compared with anoxic and surface sediments? The bacterial community structure of coastal sediments inhabited by the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor was investigated. S...

  5. Biomarkers in Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta: Nereididae) as management tools for environmental assessment on the southwest Iberian coast

    Gomes, Tania; González-Rey, María; Rodríguez-Romero, Araceli; Trombini, Chiara; Riba, Inmaculada; Blasco, Julián; Bebianno, Maria João

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The environmental quality of the southwest Iberian coast was assessed in different areas (Ria Formosa Lagoon, Guadiana Estuary and Cádiz Bay) focusing on metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nereis diversicolor whole tissues. In addition, associated toxicological effects were assessed using a multibiomarker approach combining several conventional biomarkers. The set of biomarkers selected included antioxidant enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase), ...

  6. Assessment of the health status of populations of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor using biomarkers at different levels of biological organisation

    Kalman, Judit; Palais, F.; Amiard, J.C.; Mouneyrac, C; Muntz, A.; Blasco, Julián; Riba, Inmaculada; Amiard-Triquet, C.

    2009-01-01

    We compared behavioural (burrowing speed), biochemical (acetylcholinesterase [AChE] inhibition, activities of digestive enzymes) and physiological (feeding and egestion rates, condition) responses in Nereis diversicolor originating from a multipolluted estuary (Loire estuary) and a relatively clean site (Bay of Bourgneuf) on 3 occasions during spring 2008. Significant inhibition of AChE and digestive enzymes (amylase and carboxymethylcellulase) activities were recorded in individuals from the...

  7. The regulation of copper stress response genes in the Polychaete Nereis diversicolor during prolonged extreme copper contamination

    McQuillan, Jonathan S.; Kille, Peter; Powell, Kate; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Polychaetes are frequented in toxicological studies, one reason being that some members occupy shallow burrows in sediments and are maximally exposed to the contaminants that accumulate within them. We have been studying one population of the polychaete Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor exhibiting inheritable tolerance to extreme copper contamination in estuarine sediment. Using transcriptome sequencing data we have identified a suite of genes with putative roles in metal detoxification and toler...

  8. Smelling danger - alarm cue responses in the polychaete Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (Müller, 1776) to potential fish predation.

    Schaum, C Elisa; Batty, Robert; Last, Kim S

    2013-01-01

    The harbour ragworm, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor is a common intertidal marine polychaete that lives in burrows from which it has to partially emerge in order to forage. In doing so, it is exposed to a variety of predators. One way in which predation risk can be minimised is through chemical detection from within the relative safety of the burrows. Using CCTV and motion capture software, we show that H. diversicolor is able to detect chemical cues associated with the presence of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus). Number of emergences, emergence duration and distance from burrow entrance are all significantly reduced during exposure to flounder conditioned seawater and flounder mucous spiked seawater above a threshold with no evidence of behavioural habituation. Mucous from bottom-dwelling juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and pelagic adult herring (Clupea harengus) elicit similar responses, suggesting that the behavioural reactions are species independent. The data implies that H. diversicolor must have well developed chemosensory mechanisms for predator detection and is consequently able to effectively minimize risk. PMID:24155953

  9. Smelling Danger – Alarm Cue Responses in the Polychaete Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor (Müller, 1776) to Potential Fish Predation

    Schaum, C. Elisa; Batty, Robert; Last, Kim S.

    2013-01-01

    The harbour ragworm, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor is a common intertidal marine polychaete that lives in burrows from which it has to partially emerge in order to forage. In doing so, it is exposed to a variety of predators. One way in which predation risk can be minimised is through chemical detection from within the relative safety of the burrows. Using CCTV and motion capture software, we show that H. diversicolor is able to detect chemical cues associated with the presence of juvenile flounder (Platichthys flesus). Number of emergences, emergence duration and distance from burrow entrance are all significantly reduced during exposure to flounder conditioned seawater and flounder mucous spiked seawater above a threshold with no evidence of behavioural habituation. Mucous from bottom-dwelling juvenile plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and pelagic adult herring (Clupea harengus) elicit similar responses, suggesting that the behavioural reactions are species independent. The data implies that H. diversicolor must have well developed chemosensory mechanisms for predator detection and is consequently able to effectively minimize risk. PMID:24155953

  10. Pollution biomarkers in two estuarine invertebrates, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana, from a Marsh ecosystem in SW Spain.

    Solé, Montserrat; Kopecka-Pilarczyk, Justyna; Blasco, Julián

    2009-04-01

    The polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor and the clam Scrobicularia plana were collected from several sites, affected by different types of contamination, in a littoral enclosure in the SW Spain (Caño Sancti-Petri and Rio San Pedro). N. diversicolor was present in 6 sampling sites whereas S. plana in 4 of them. The aim of our study was to relate several pollution biomarkers to chemical sources (metals and organic pollutants e.g. PCB, PAH) in these species, thereby confirming their adequacy as sentinels for this habitat. The biomarkers surveyed in the two invertebrates were the activities of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT), the phase II detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity marker acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Metallothionein (MT) levels were measured as a biomarker of exposure to metals. The results suggested a different response in the two sediment-dwelling organisms, the sediment-eating polychaete and the water-filtering clam, probably as a consequence of different contamination exposures. The results also suggested that samples from the "Caño Sancti-Petri" were exposed to biologically active compounds that altered some of their biochemical responses. Of all the biomarkers tested, AChE was the most sensitive one and N. diversicolor the potentially most robust sentinel in this ecosystem. In this low to moderately polluted environment, the biochemical approach better reflected temporal trends than site-related differences although it was also able to detect punctual chemical insults. PMID:19010546

  11. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Sawbridge Tim; Wong Frank; Cocks Benjamin G; Savin Keith W; Cogan Noel; Savage David; Warner Simone

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of...

  12. Remedial habitat creation: does Nereis diversicolor play a confounding role in the colonisation and establishment of the pioneering saltmarsh plant, Spartina anglica?

    Emmerson, M.

    2000-07-01

    Increasing concerns over global warming and expected sea level rises have led to the adoption of new coastal management strategies around the south-east coast of England. This paper explores the role played by the estuarine invertebrate Nereis diversicolor in limiting the colonisation and establishment of the invasive pioneering salt marsh plant, Spartina anglica. The biology of N. diversicolor is briefly reviewed and data from field experiments are presented demonstrating significant negative effects of worm abundance on transplanted S. anglica biomass. Laboratory-based experiments demonstrated significant negative effects of N. diversicolor abundance on the survival of S. anglica seeds transplanted to sediment cores. The importance of estuarine invertebrates in engineering the mudflat habitat may confound the foreseen ecosystem services and function provided by saltmarsh management schemes.

  13. Toxic effects and bioaccumulation of nano-, micron- and ionic-Ag in the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    cong, Yi; Banta, Gary Thomas; Selck, Henriette; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E.

    There is increasing concern about the toxicities and potential risks, both still poorly understood, of silver nanoparticles for the aquatic environment after their eventual release. In this study, the toxicities of nano (< 100 nm)-, micron (2-3.5 µm)- and ionic (AgNO3)-Ag on the sediment...... cause DNA damage in Nereis coelomocytes and that this effect is both concentration- and Ag form-related. There were significantly greater genotoxity (higher tail moment and tail DNA intensities) at 25 and 50 µg/g dw in nano- and micron-Ag treated groups and at 50 µg/g dw in ionic-Ag treated group...... compared to the controls (0 µg/g dw). Nano-Ag has the greatest genotoxic effect of the three tested Ag forms and ionic-Ag is the least genotoxic, indicating different mechanisms are possibly involved to cause DNA damage by the different Ag forms. N. diversicolor did accumulate sediment-associated Ag from...

  14. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated silver nanoparticles in the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor.

    Cong, Yi; Banta, Gary T; Selck, Henriette; Berhanu, Deborah; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia; Forbes, Valery E

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the toxicities of sediment-associated silver added to sediment as commercially available silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs, 20 and 80 nm) and aqueous Ag (AgNO3) to the estuarine polychaete, Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor, were investigated for both individual and subcellular endpoints after 10 d of exposure. Both Ag NP types were characterized in parallel to the toxicity studies and found to be polydispersed and overlapping in size. Burrowing activity decreased (marginally) with increasing Ag concentration and depended on the form of Ag added to sediment. All worms accumulated Ag regardless of the form in which it was added to the sediment, and worm size (expressed as dry weight) was found to significantly affect bioaccumulation such that smaller worms accumulated more Ag per body weight than larger worms. Lysosomal membrane permeability (neutral red retention time, NRRT) and DNA damage (comet assay tail moment and tail DNA intensity %) of Nereis coelomocytes increased in a concentration-dependent manner in all three Ag treatments. Ag NP treatments were more toxic than aqueous Ag for all toxicity endpoints, even though bioaccumulation did not differ significantly among Ag forms. No significant difference in toxicity was observed between the two Ag NP treatments which was attributed to their overlap in particle size. PMID:25179147

  15. Stimulation by cadmium of myohemerythrin-like cells in the gut of the annelid Nereis diversicolor.

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Bocquet-Muchembled, Beatrice; Deloffre, Laurence; Grumiaux, Fabien; Leprêtre, Alain

    2004-03-01

    Isolated guts of Nereis diversicolor revealed the existence of a cadmium-binding protein, the MPII, belonging to the group of hemerythrins and myohemerythrins. The presence of MPII in the cells of the intestine was demonstrated by immunocytochemistry, using anti-MPII, a monoclonal antibody. In addition, using in situ hybridization and northern blotting, it was shown that MPII-cells are the site of synthesis of this molecule. Exposure of the worms to cadmium led to the cellular activation process of MPII-cells (i.e. transformation of the nucleolus, development of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus), although MPII mRNA transcript levels were unchanged. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of gut extracts revealed that MPII levels were increased after exposure to Cd, so it appears that this protein is synthesized as a response to Cd exposure without any new synthesis of mRNA. This mechanism of regulation is quite similar to that reported in the case of mammalian ferritin and may be involved in the regulation of Cd levels in this worm. PMID:14978053

  16. 1-Hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of PAH exposure in the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    Tairova, Zhanna M; Giessing, Anders M B; Hansen, Rikke; Andersen, Ole

    2009-02-01

    The possibility of using the pyrene metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure was investigated by exposure of the marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor to several PAHs in the laboratory. Animals were exposed to pyrene alone and to five different PAHs - phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]flouranthene. After five days of exposure the concentrations of parent PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene were identified using three different analytical methods, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/F), synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). The SFS measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene were validated by the more sensitive method HPLC/F. The positive correlation between total PAHs and 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the polychaete tissues observed in experiments, suggests the feasibility of 1-hydroxypyrene as a suitable biomarker for total PAH exposure assessment. Furthermore, the possibility of employment of the simple and rapid SFS method instead of HPLC/F for biomarker analysis has been confirmed by the positive and significant correlation between results achieved by these two analytical methods. PMID:19058843

  17. The metabolic and fitness costs associated with metal resistance in Nereis diversicolor.

    Pook, Chris; Lewis, Ceri; Galloway, Tamara

    2009-07-01

    The population of Nereis diversicolor inhabiting the upper reaches of Restronguet Creek, Cornwall, UK is highly resistant to acute zinc and copper toxicity. Here we employ bioenergetic accounting and fecundity counts to demonstrate the energetic costs associated with this phenomenon in terms of the worms' allocation of metabolic resources and reproductive output [P(r)]. Metal-resistant animals exhibited a scope for growth that was 46-62% less than that of animals from two non-resistant reference populations, corresponding to a mean metabolic cost of 1.31 mJ h(-1)mg DW(-1). The resistant population also contained 13% less lipid than animals from the reference populations and 73-81% less carbohydrates. Consequently, mass-specific fecundity was reduced in resistant animals by 39-45%, although material investment in individual gametes did not appear to vary. This demonstrates fitness costs associated with metal resistance in this ecologically important polychaete and adds to our understanding of phenotypic trade-offs associated with resistance. PMID:19285693

  18. Total mercury and methylmercury in sediments and in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor at Groot Buitenschoor (Scheldt estuary, Belgium)

    Muhaya, B.B.M.; Leermakers, M; Baeyens, W.F.J.

    1997-01-01

    Total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were determined in sediments and in the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor at 13 stations of a brackish water intertidal mudflat of the Scheldt estuary. Hg and MeHg concentrations in sediments ranged from 144 to 1192 ng g(-1) dw and from 0.8 to 6 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. Both Hg and MeHg concentrations increased with an increase of organic matter (OM) content and fine grain fraction. In contrast, Hg accumulation by N. diversicolor ...

  19. FILTER-NET STRUCTURE AND PUMPING ACTIVITY IN THE POLYCHAETE NEREIS-DIVERSICOLOR - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE AND PUMP-MODELING

    Riisgård, H.U.; Vedel, A.; Boye, H.; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    1992-01-01

    Electron micrographs of the filter-net structure in the facultatively suspension-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor O. F. Muller showed that the net is composed of an irregular mesh-work made up of long, relatively thick filaments (up to 300 nm) interconnected with a variety of shorter and thinner filaments. The thinner filaments range in diameter from 5 to >25 nm. The average size of the meshes, measured directly on the micrographs, lies between 0.5 and 1.0-mu-m, but due to shrinkage ...

  20. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    Coppersmith, S N; Gilbert, P U P A; Metzler, R A [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2009-03-27

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within {+-}12 deg. from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate.

  1. Theoretical characterization of a model of aragonite crystal orientation in red abalone nacre

    Nacre, commonly known as mother-of-pearl, is a remarkable biomineral that in red abalone consists of layers of 400 nm thick aragonite crystalline tablets confined by organic matrix sheets, with the [0 0 1] crystal axes of the aragonite tablets oriented to within ±12 deg. from the normal to the layer planes. Recent experiments demonstrate that greater orientational order develops over a distance of tens of layers from the prismatic boundary at which nacre formation begins. Our previous simulations of a model in which the order develops because of differential tablet growth rates (oriented tablets growing faster than misoriented ones) yield patterns of tablets that agree qualitatively and quantitatively with the experimental measurements. This paper presents an analytical treatment of this model, focusing on how the dynamical development and eventual degree of order depend on model parameters. Dynamical equations for the probability distributions governing tablet orientations are introduced whose form can be determined from symmetry considerations and for which substantial analytic progress can be made. Numerical simulations are performed to relate the parameters used in the analytic theory to those in the microscopic growth model. The analytic theory demonstrates that the dynamical mechanism is able to achieve a much higher degree of order than naive estimates would indicate

  2. The Relationships between Rheological Properties and Structural Changes of Chilled Abalone Meat

    GAO Xin; ZHANG Zhaohui; TANG Zhixu; TASHIRO Yuri; OGAWA Hiroo

    2003-01-01

    The quantitative correlation between theological properties and structural characteristic values of chilled abalone meat was studied. Structural changes were observed, and these values were enumerated using image processing and analysis technique. Structural changes in the myofibrils and collagen fibrils were the greatest in chilling for 24 h. After chilling for 48 h, similar structures of vertical and cross sections were observed. For chilling from 0h to 72h, the instantaneous modulus E0 of the both section meat decreases gradually with time, but no significant differences were observed after chilling for 48 h.The relaxation time and viscosity of both sections attained the same values for the same chilling time, but increased gradually with increasing chilling time. Meanwhile, a negative correlation between the structural characteristic values (Dm, Am,Rvm), and rheological properties (E1,τi,η1) clearly exists. Some logarithmic expressions have been obtained for these negative correlations. These results suggest that the difference in rheological properties between the cross and vertical sections was mainly due to the structural changes of myofibrils and collagen fibrils, and rheological properties are influenced quantitatively by the structural characteristic values for chilling from 0 h to 72 h.

  3. Limited microbial degradation of pyrene metabolites from the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    Giessing, Anders M B; Johnsen, Anders R

    2005-12-01

    We compared microbial mineralization of [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene and its eukaryotic [4,5,9,10-14C]pyrene metabolites in estuarine sediments. Metabolites were obtained by exposing the estuarine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor to sediment-associated 14C-pyrene, followed by homogenization of the worms and extraction of the pyrene-metabolites. In sediment from a pristine Danish Fjord only 2.6% of the added metabolite-label and 1.7% of the pyrene-label were mineralized to 14CO2 during 175 days incubation. Pre-exposure of the pristine sediment to unlabelled pyrene for 60 days increased the mineralization potential for 14C-pyrene substantially, as 81.2% was mineralized to 14CO2 during 95 days incubation, whereas 14C-pyrene metabolite label was unaffected by pre-exposure to pyrene. In comparison, naturally aged bunker-oil contaminated sediment did not show elevated potentials for mineralization of neither 14C-pyrene nor 14C-metabolites. Six bacterial strains of known pyrene degraders were tested for growth on crystalline 1-hydroxypyrene. 1-Hydroxypyrene is the only intermediate eucaryotic metabolite of pyrene. The results indicate that 1-hydroxypyrene was not utilized as a sole source of carbon and energy by any of them. In addition, respiration was depressed in all six strains when exposed to crystalline 1-Hydroxypyrene, demonstrating an acute toxic effect of 1-hydroxypyrene. The results presented here suggest that microbial degradation of pyrene is not enhanced by release of aqueous and polar metabolites by marine invertebrates. PMID:15922404

  4. Why do Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus switch from feeding on Baltic tellin Macoma balthica to feeding on the ragworm Nereis diversicolor during the breeding season?

    Bunskoeke, EJ; Ens, BJ; Hulscher, JB; DeVlas, SJ

    1996-01-01

    Oystercatchers Haematopus ostralegus breeding on the isle of Schiermonnikoog in the Dutch Wadden Sea: switched from a diet dominated by the bivalve Macoma balthica in late spring to a diet dominated by the annelid worm Nereis diversicolor in early summer. Although all Oystercatchers switched, the ti

  5. Environmental quality assessment in estuarine ecosystems: use of biometric measurements and fecundity of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereididae).

    Durou, Cyril; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Amiard-Triquet, Claude

    2008-04-01

    The ability to cope with environmental stress may be expensive in terms of energy and this cost of tolerance is suspected to have negative counterparts such as reduced growth and fecundity. To date, condition indices based on biometric measurements are currently used in bivalves or fish but do not exist in endobenthic worms, despite their interest as bioindicators for the sedimentary compartment in which the major part of pollutants is stored in aquatic environments. In the present work, several biometric variables (jaw and total body length, number of segments, the length of the first three segments L3, wet or dry weight) were measured in the ragworm Nereis diversicolor originating from clean (Authie) and polluted (Seine) estuaries (France) to study size-weight relationships. The production of oocytes by females (which represent 80-90% of the population) was quantified in the same specimens. In females from the polluted site, the condition was shown to be altered and, in parallel, the production of oocytes was lower than in females from the comparatively clean site. From an operational point of view, we recommend the use of the length L3 and the wet weight. Because fecundity is mainly dependent on size and weight in N. diversicolor, biometric measurements would be useful tools for assessing the biological quality of estuarine sediments. PMID:18160093

  6. Measurement of the adenylate energy charge in Nereis diversicolor and Nephtys sp. (Polychaeta: Annelida): evaluation of the usefulness of AEC in pollution monitoring

    Verschraegen, K.; Herman, P.M.J.; Van Gansbeke, D.; Braeckman, A.

    1985-01-01

    ATP-content and adenylate energy charge (AEC) ratios were determined in two polychaete species (Nereis diversicolor and Nephtys sp.), sampled in ten stations along the heavily polluted Western Scheldt estuary (N. Belgium, S. Holland). The samples were taken between 27 December 1982 and 6 January 1983. Nereis diversicolor was also sampled in an unpolluted brackish water pond, and subjected to artificial stress by drying the organisms on filter paper. Adenine nucleotide levels were determined u...

  7. Morphology, molecular data, and development of Zschokkella mugilis (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) in a polychaete alternate host, Nereis diversicolor.

    Rangel, Luís F; Santos, Maria J; Cech, Gábor; Székely, Csaba

    2009-06-01

    The morphology of Zschokkella mugilis Sitjà-Bobadilla and Alvarez-Pellitero, 1993 (Myxosporea, Bivalvulida) in Nereis diversicolor O. F. Müller, 1776 is described for the first time. The molecular data show that the actinospore has 100% similarity to the myxospore of Z. mugilis. Fully mature actinospores are tri-radiate, the spore body has a small process, and the sporoplasm has 2 inner daughter cells. In the polychaete, the spores of the parasite develop in groups of 8 inside pansporocysts. The schizogony phase takes place in the intestinal epithelium, while gametogony and sporogony occur in the coelom of the polychaete. Observations indicate that mature spores are released only during the polychaete reproductive season. Infection was detected only in the winter and spring. In the Aveiro estuary (Portugal), the overall prevalence of infection of the polychaete was 0.5%. PMID:18939897

  8. Toxicants accumulation rates and effects in Mytilus trossulus and Nereis diversicolor exposed separately or together to cadmium and PAHs.

    Pempkowiak, Janusz; Pazdro, Ksenia; Kopecka, Justyna; Perez, Erkuden; Sole, Montserrat

    2006-01-01

    Two invertebrates, Mytilus trossulus and Nereis diversicolor, were exposed in aquaria to cadmium (50 microg L(-1)) and a mixture of three- to six-ring PAHs (2 microg L(-1) each) for 2 weeks. Organisms of two species were reared in separate tanks or together in the same one. Concentrations of Cd, PAHs and activities of selected biomarkers: catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured within 2 weeks of exposure. When reared separately, higher accumulation rates for cadmium were measured in mussels (16.4 microg day(-1) g(-1) d.w. lipid-free tissue) than in polychaeta (0.7 microg Cd g(-1) d.w day(-1)). When co-exposed, a difference in bioaccumulation was maintained but the accumulation rate in N. diversicolor increased to 1.0 microg Cd g(-1) d.w. day(-1) and decreased to 9.6 microg Cd g(-1) d.w. day(-1) in M. trossulus. On the contrary, faster bioaccumulation rates of PAHs were seen in polychaeta than in mussels when exposed separately (19.3 vs 4.5 microg PAHs day(-1) g(-1) lipid weight) than together (12.0 vs 3.1 microg PAHs g(-1) l.w. day(-1)). Substantial changes in the bioaccumulation patterns of the different M. trossulus organs were observed when both species were reared together. Biochemical responses indicated no effect of the accumulated contaminants on AChE, enhancement of CAT in both species and depletion of GST in Mytilus. The observed differences are discussed in terms of different bioavailability of contaminants, route of uptake and detoxification mechanism, under the two modes of exposure. PMID:17000547

  9. Esterases as biomarkers in Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor exposed to temephos and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis used for mosquito control in coastal wetlands of Morbihan (Brittany, France).

    Fourcy, D; Jumel, A; Heydorff, M; Lagadic, L

    2002-01-01

    Since 1998, a biomonitoring programme has been implemented to assess the potential impact of chemical mosquito control on macroinvertebrates of the coastal wetlands of Morbihan (Brittany, France). Acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterases were used as biomarkers to assess the effects of Abate 500e (a.i. temephos) and Vectobac 12 AS (a.i. endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Bti) in Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor. Esterase inhibition revealed a marked impact of temephos, suggesting preferential contamination of the worms through the food. In Bti-exposed N. diversicolor, random variations of esterase activities were observed, that could not be attributed to the larvicide. However, esterases only reflected indirect physiological effects of Bti, and further investigations are needed to identify biomarkers more specific of Bti endotoxins. PMID:12408646

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Haliotis tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Considerations on food safety and source investigation.

    Conte, Francesca; Copat, Chiara; Longo, Sabrina; Conti, Gea Oliveri; Grasso, Alfina; Arena, Giovanni; Dimartino, Angela; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Ferrante, Margherita

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed in wild specimens of Haliotis tuberculata from three sites of the Sothern Ionian Sea. The species Ht is commonly found at these sites and has significant commercial value. Main results revealed mean values of benzo(a)pyrene higher than the threshold set by Regulation No. 835/2011/EU in all sampling sites and the sum of selected PAHs, expressed as ΣPAH4 by EC Regulation, were below the limit set by the same Regulation in ME and VSG. We found generally higher concentrations than literature finding, especially for low molecular weight PAHs, and results of diagnostic ratios highlighted both pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. The potential human health risks due consumption of Ht by local inhabitants have been assessed by exposure daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ) and lifetime cancer risk (CR). EDI values were below the intake range reviewed by EFSA for each class of contaminant. BaP daily intake was below the value of 10 ng/Kg/day, suggested by JFCFA, and CRBaP was slightly higher than the acceptable risk level (ARL) of 1×10(-5). Conversely, target hazard quotient (THQ) resulted always below 1, thus the risk to develop chronic systemic effects due naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene was low. PMID:27235950

  11. Effects of population density on the sediment mixing induced by the gallery-diffusor Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor O.F. Müller, 1776

    Duport, Eric; Stora, Georges; Tremblay, Pierre; Gilbert, Franck

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to quantify the intensity of sediment mixing induced by the gallery-diffusor (functional bioturbation group) Hediste diversicolor as a function of density, using particles tracers (luminophores). In order to assess the impact of density on sediment reworking, a 1-D model was used to obtain sediment reworking coefficients such as Db (biodiffusion-like) and r (biotransport). Densities used in this experiment corresponded to population densities observed in the sampling ...

  12. Response of Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) populations to reduced wastewater discharge in the polluted estuary of Oued Souss, Bay of Agadir, Morocco

    Ait Alla, A.; Gillet, P.; Deutsch, B.; Moukrim, A.; Bergayou, H.

    2006-12-01

    Field investigations on the population dynamics of Nereis diversicolor were carried out from January 2002 to December 2003 in the estuary of Oued Souss (southwestern Morocco) to determine the changes caused by setting up of a domestic and industrial wastewater purification plant (M'zar) before and after by the end of wastewater discharges in November 2002 on the structure of the ecosystem. Samples of N. diversicolor were collected monthly in the intertidal zone at low tide before (during 2002) and after (during 2003) the end of wastewater discharges. Separation of cohorts using the Algorithm EM method (McLachlan, G.J., Krishnan, T., 1997. The EM algorithm and extensions. Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics. Wiley, New York, 274 pp.) allowed determination of the growth rate (mm day -1) by cohort and the annual production. The data showed significant differences between populations of Nereis diversicolor before and after the end of wastewater discharges. During the wastewater discharge period (2002), the population had a mean annual density of 1992 ind m -2, a mean annual biomass of 75.52 g DW m -2 and an annual secondary production of 141.3 g DW m -2 with a P/ B ratio of 1.87. After the end of discharges (2003), density, biomass and secondary production decreased significantly. The annual averages for these parameters were 740 ind m -2, 14.16 g DW m -2 and 23.83 g DW m -2, respectively, with a P/ B ratio of 1.68. The important decrease observed in density, biomass and secondary production of Nereis diversicolor may be attributed (a) to the environmental changes observed after the end of wastewater discharges in the estuary of Oued Souss, namely the increase of salinity and the decrease of organic matter content, and (b) to the migration of this species towards other areas.

  13. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776), Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758), and surface sediments of Bafa Lake (Eastern Aegean).

    Aydin-Onen, S; Kucuksezgin, F; Kocak, F; Açik, S

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the bioaccumulation of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) and also in the muscle and liver of Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) collected from seven stations in the Bafa Lake was investigated. Sediment samples were also collected in each site to assess heavy metal levels and to provide additional information on pollution of the lake. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, H. diversicolor, and muscle and liver of the fish were found to be in the magnitude of Cr>Pb>Zn>Cu>Cd>Hg, Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Hg>Cd, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cr >Hg>Cd, and Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Pb>Hg, respectively. Hg, Cu, and Zn in H. diversicolor and Hg and Zn in muscle and also Hg, Cd, Cu, and Zn in liver of fish accumulated in a higher degree than in sediment. There was no clear relationship between metal concentrations in sediments, polychaetes, and fish, except Cr. According to international criteria and Turkish regulations, Pb and Zn values in edible muscle of the fish collected from stations S6 and S5 exceeded the food safety limits, respectively. The results of this study suggest that these sentinel species can be considered as good anthropogenic biological indicators for heavy metal pollution along the Bafa Lake. PMID:25567060

  14. Biodynamic modelling of the accumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn by the deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor: inter-population variability and a generalised predictive model.

    Kalman, J; Smith, B D; Riba, I; Blasco, J; Rainbow, P S

    2010-06-01

    Biodynamic parameters of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor from southern Spain and south England were experimentally derived to assess the inter-population variability of physiological parameters of the bioaccumulation of Ag, Cd and Zn from water and sediment. Although there were some limited variations, these were not consistent with the local metal bioavailability nor with temperature changes. Incorporating the biodynamic parameters into a defined biodynamic model, confirmed that sediment is the predominant source of Cd and Zn accumulated by the worms, accounting in each case for 99% of the overall accumulated metals, whereas the contribution of dissolved Ag to the total accumulated by the worm increased from about 27 to about 53% with increasing dissolved Ag concentration. Standardised values of metal-specific parameters were chosen to generate a generalised model to be extended to N. diversicolor populations across a wide geographical range from western Europe to North Africa. According to the assumptions of this model, predicted steady state concentrations of Cd and Zn in N. diversicolor were overestimated, those of Ag underestimated, but still comparable to independent field measurements. We conclude that species-specific physiological metal bioaccumulation parameters are relatively constant over large geographical distances, and a single generalised biodynamic model does have potential to predict accumulated Ag, Cd and Zn concentrations in this polychaete from a single sediment metal concentration. PMID:20137808

  15. Genotoxic and oxidative responses in coelomocytes of Eisenia fetida and Hediste diversicolor exposed to lipid-coated CdSe/ZnS quantum dots and CdCl2.

    Saez, Gladys; Aye, Mélanie; De Meo, Michel; Aimé, Ahissan; Bestel, Isabelle; Barthélémy, Philippe; Di Giorgio, Carole

    2015-07-01

    The emerging of Quantum Dots utilization in industrial or medicinal fields involved a potentially increase of these nanoparticles in environment. In this work, the genotoxic (comet assay) and oxidative effects (SOD activity, TBARS) of functionalized-QDs and cadmium chloride were investigated on Hediste diversicolor and Eisenia fetida coelomocytes. Results demonstrated that functionalized-QDs (QDNs) and cadmium chloride induced DNA damages through different mechanisms that depended on the nano- or ionic nature of Cd. The minimal genotoxic concentrations for H. diversicolor (<0.001ng/g for QDNs and CdCl2 ) were lower than for E. fetida (between 0.01 and 0.1 ng/g for QDNs, and between 0.001 and 0.01 ng/g for CdCl2 ). These results showed that H. diversicolor was more sensitive than E. fetida. The two contaminants had a low impact on the oxidative stress markers. PMID:24500942

  16. Characterization of specificity of bacterial community structure within the burrow environment of the marine polychaete Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor.

    Pischedda, Laura; Militon, Cécile; Gilbert, Franck; Cuny, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Bioturbation is known to stimulate microbial communities, especially in macrofaunal burrows where the abundance and activities of bacteria are increased. Until now, these microbial communities have been poorly characterized and an important ecological question remains: do burrow walls harbor similar or specific communities compared with anoxic and surface sediments? The bacterial community structure of coastal sediments inhabited by the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor was investigated. Surface, burrow wall and anoxic sediments were collected at the Carteau beach (Gulf of Fos, Mediterranean Sea). Bacterial diversity was determined by analyzing small subunit ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) sequences from three clone libraries (168, 179 and 129 sequences for the surface, burrow wall and anoxic sediments, respectively). Libraries revealed 306 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to at least 15 bacterial phyla. Bioinformatic analyses and comparisons between the three clone libraries showed that the burrow walls harbored a specific bacterial community structure which differed from the surface and anoxic environments. More similarities were nevertheless found with the surface assemblage. Inside the burrow walls, the bacterial community was characterized by high biodiversity, which probably results from the biogeochemical heterogeneity of the burrow system. PMID:21946148

  17. The regulation of copper stress response genes in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor during prolonged extreme copper contamination.

    McQuillan, Jonathan S; Kille, Peter; Powell, Kate; Galloway, Tamara S

    2014-11-18

    Polychaetes are frequented in toxicological studies, one reason being that some members occupy shallow burrows in sediments and are maximally exposed to the contaminants that accumulate within them. We have been studying one population of the polychaete Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor exhibiting inheritable tolerance to extreme copper contamination in estuarine sediment. Using transcriptome sequencing data we have identified a suite of genes with putative roles in metal detoxification and tolerance, and measured their regulation. Copper tolerant individuals display significantly different gene expression profiles compared to animals from a nearby population living without remarkable copper levels. Gene transcripts encoding principle copper homeostasis proteins including membrane copper ion transporters, copper ion chaperones and putative metallothionein-like proteins were significantly more abundant in tolerant animals occupying contaminated sediment. In contrast, those encoding antioxidants and cellular repair pathways were unchanged. Nontolerant animals living in contaminated sediment showed no difference in copper homeostasis-related gene expression but did have significantly elevated levels of mRNAs encoding Glutathione Peroxidase enzymes. This study represents the first use of functional genomics to investigate the copper tolerance trait in this species and provides insight into the mechanism used by these individuals to survive and flourish in conditions which are lethal to their conspecifics. PMID:25337783

  18. Tolerance to metals and assessment of energy reserves in the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in clean and contaminated estuaries.

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C; Amiard-Triquet, C

    2005-02-01

    Estuaries are subject to anthropogenic activities. Because the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor has ecological characteristics and bioindicator abilities, its use was pertinent in investigating the concepts and cost of tolerance to heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn). In this context, two approaches were carried out, performing toxicity tests and estimating energy reserves (glycogen and lipids), in populations originating from a contaminated site (Seine estuary) compared with those from a clean site (Authie estuary). Mean lethal times (LT(50)s) of organisms exposed to zinc from the Seine estuary were higher than those from the Authie estuary, but not of organisms exposed to Cd or Cu. The influence of animal weight and salinity on the sensitivity of worms also was studied. The biggest worms were more tolerant to zinc than the smallest ones, and worms survived longer at a reduced salinity (15 per thousand). Concentrations of glycogen and lipids in each sampling season were higher in specimens from the Authie estuary than in worms from the Seine estuary. No influence of salinity on glycogen and lipid levels was observed. Glycogen concentrations were not influenced by the weight of specimens, whereas lipid concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with weight. In conclusion, worms from the Seine estuary exhibited tolerance to Zn, and the depletion of energy reserves observed in this population could be interpreted as a cost of tolerance. PMID:15712333

  19. Linking steroid hormone levels to sexual maturity index and energy reserves in Nereis diversicolor from clean and polluted estuaries.

    Durou, C; Mouneyrac, C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to compare seasonal variations of reproduction physiology of the ragworm Nereis diversicolor --a key species in estuarine ecosystems--originating from a clean (Authie) and multi-polluted (Seine) estuaries. A particular attention was carried out in female worms, on relationships between sexual maturity stages, energy reserves (glycogen and lipids) and steroid hormone levels (progesterone, 17beta-estradiol, and testosterone). Sexual maturity index (SMI), energy reserves and steroid hormones are clearly influenced by season in worms from both sites. Depleted steroid hormone levels were depicted in specimens exhibiting high sexual maturity stage and energy reserves. Intersite analysis has revealed all over the sampling period:--a sexual precocity in worms from Seine,--glycogen concentrations generally higher in worms from Authie,--no clear tendency for lipids,--no differences in steroid hormone levels. Sexual precocity and lower glycogen levels in Seine could be explained by a specific strategy above all devoted to reproduction in these worms. Chemical stress could be a possible explanation of these observations. PMID:16959253

  20. [Toxic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons and copper on polychaete Nereis diversicolor and on its antioxidant enzyme systems].

    Sun, Fu-hong; Zhou, Qi-xing; Zhang, Qian-ru

    2006-07-01

    Under the condition of the laboratory simulation, the toxic effects of petroleum hydrocarbons and various concentrations of copper (Cu2+) on the polychaete Nereis diversicolor and on its antioxidant enzyme defense systems were examined. The results indicate that both petroleum hydrocarbons and CU2+ have high toxicity to the polychaete. After a 3-day exposure to petroleum hydrocarbons and Cu2+, the value of LD50 was 117.5 microL x L(-1) and 864.0 microg x L(-1), respectively. The activities of peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were influenced significantly through a 5-day exposure to single pollution of Cu2+. The activity of POD was inhibited at first and then enhanced gradually; on the contrary, the activity of SOD showed a tendency of induction firstly and then inhibition. After exposed to petroleum hydrocarbons at the concentration of the value of LD50 for 5 days, POD activity of the polychaete was not significantly induced, and the activity of SOD was lower than that of control. A 5-day exposure to the joint-pollution of petroleum hydrocarbons and Cu2+ could bring out a decrease in the activities of POD and SOD firstly and then an increase. The changes in the activity of SOD can better reflect the toxic effects of pollutants on the polychaete. PMID:16881321

  1. Monitoring pollution in Tunisian coasts using a scale of classification based on biochemical markers in worms Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor.

    Bouraoui, Zied; Banni, Mohamed; Chouba, Lassad; Ghedira, Jihen; Clerandeau, Cristelle; Jebali, Jamel; Narbonne, Jean Francois; Boussetta, Hamadi

    2010-05-01

    This paper aims to assess the marine environment quality along the Tunisian coasts using a statistical approach based on biomarkers response in the polychaete worms Nereis (Hediste) diversicolor. Worms were collected from six sites: Bizerta Lagoon, Gargour, Nakta, Mahres, Skhira and from Teboulba considered as a reference site. The biomarkers selected in this work were (1) the activities of cytochrome P450-dependent NADPH cytochrome c reductase (NADPH red) as phase I enzyme, (2) glutathione S-transferase as phase II enzyme and (3) the acetylcholinesterase activity as neurotoxicity marker. Oxidative stress was evaluated using catalase activity and malondialdehyde accumulation. For each biomarker, a discriminatory factor was calculated and a response index was allocated. For each site, a multi-marker pollution index was calculated as the sum of the response index of each of the five more discriminating biomarkers. The results show differences between sites compared with the reference samples. The multi-marker approach confirms that worms from Bizerta and Mahress have been submitted to highly polluted environment. Mahress shows the highest multi-marker pollution index, indicating a highly contamination status. PMID:19404756

  2. Expression and evolution studies of ets genes in a primitive coelomate, the polychaete annelid, Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor.

    Bocquet-Muchembled, Béatrice; Leroux, Régine; Chotteau-Lelièvre, Anne; Vergoten, Gérard; Fontaine, François

    2002-08-01

    The Ets family includes numerous proteins with a highly conserved DNA-binding domain of 85 amino acids named the ETS domain. Phylogenetic analyses from ETS domains revealed that this family could be divided into 13 groups, among them are ETS and ERG. The ets genes are present in the Metazoan kingdom and we have previously characterized the Nd ets and Nd erg genes in the polychaete annelid Hediste diversicolor. Here, we isolated a fragment encoding the ETS domain from Nd Ets, by genomic library screening. By Northern blot analysis, we showed that this gene was transcribed as one major mRNA of 2.6 kb and one minor mRNA of 3.2 kb. By in situ hybridization, we observed that Nd ets was expressed in the intestine and oocytes and that Nd erg was expressed in cellular clumps present in the coelomic cavity, in an area of proliferating cells situated between the last metamere and the pygidium. Finally, we showed that Nd erg shared the expression pattern of Nd ets in oocytes. Molecular modeling studies have revealed that the spatial structure of ETS domain of Nd Ets and Nd Erg was conserved, in comparison to the murine Ets-1 and human Fli-1 proteins, respectively. PMID:12128055

  3. 鲍鱼养殖饲料选择决策研究%Research on choice of abalone aquaculture feed

    马德好; 王雅琴; 高华; 李道亮

    2013-01-01

    Feed is an important material foundation for the development of aquaculture, but feed cost reaches about 50% of total costs. Therefore, the economic benefits of aquaculture depend largely on whether feed choice is reasonable. The aim of this study is to investigate how to choose the abalone feed to reduce feeding cost. This article uses Excell2007 and develops a feeding selection decision system based on the simplex method algorithm for linear program-ming to make sure that feed cost is the lowest under the premise of meeting the required nutri-tional elements for the growth of abalone. Data shows, these two methods can effectively reduce the cost of feed. And using computer for solving linear programming problem is effective means to find the optimal solution.%饲料是发展水产养殖业的重要物质基础,饲料费用在养殖成本中所占比例达到50%左右。因此,水产养殖经济效益的好坏在很大程度上取决于饲料选择是否合理。研究旨在探讨如何选择鲍鱼饲料才能降低投喂成本。文章利用Excel 2007以及基于单纯形法求解线性规划算法研发的饲料投喂选择决策系统,实现了在满足鲍鱼生长所需的营养元素前提下饲料投入成本的最低。数据证明,两种方式均能有效地降低饲料成本。运用计算机求解线性规划问题是寻求最优解的有效手段。

  4. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses measured in the estuarine ragworm (Nereis diversicolor) exposed to dissolved, nano-and bulk-sized silver

    Cozzari, Margherita; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Pacini, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    The impact of Ag NPs on sediment-dwelling organisms has received relatively little attention, particularly in linking bioaccumulation to oxidative injury. The polychaete Nereis diversicolor was exposed to sediments spiked with dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3), Ag NPs (63 ± 27 nm) and larger bulk Ag...... bulk Ag particles, changes in antioxidant markers (glutathione, SOD, CAT, GPx, SeGPx, GST and GR) occurred without significant Ag accumulation. Differences in biomarker profiles between the three Ag forms suggest that the mechanism of oxidative stress caused by particulate Ag is distinct from that of...

  5. Contrasting effects of the polychaetes Marenzelleria viridis and Nereis diversicolor on benthic metabolism and solute transport in sandy coastal sediment

    Kristensen, Erik; Hansen, Tanja; Delfosse, Matthieu; Banta, Gary Thomas; Quintana, Cintia O.

    2011-01-01

    sediment. Sulfate reduction after 1 mo, on the other hand, was more than twice as high in sediment inhabited by M. viridis alone than in any other treatment, even when combined with N. diversicolor. Denitrification estimated from benthic TCO2 release, porewater reaction stoichiometry and nutrient fluxes...... was largely unaffected by the presence of fauna. Accordingly, the partitioning of reaction pathways after 1 mo revealed that M. viridis stimulated sulfate reduction at the expense of aerobic respiration. Most of the oxygen uptake in M. viridis sediment was apparently due to enhanced oxidation...

  6. Feeding ecology of Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) (Annelida, Polychaeta) on estuarine and lagoon environments in the southwest coast of Portugal

    Pedro Fidalgo e Costa; Oliveira, Rui Filipe; Fonseca, Luís Cancela da

    2006-01-01

    A ecologia alimentar de Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) (Annelida: Polychaeta) foi estudada num período de 14 meses em três sistemas estuarino-lagunares da costa Sudoeste de Portugal (Odeceixe, Aljezur e Carrapateira). A análise do conteúdo digestivo revelou uma variação da dieta de acordo com os locais estudados, época do ano e com o tamanho dos indivíduos. Não houve diferenças nos conteúdos de machos e fêmeas. Foram encontrados em todas as estações amostradas um total...

  7. Uptake of curium (244Cm) by five benthic marine species (Arenicola marina, Cerastoderma edule, Corophium volutator, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana): comparison with americium and plutonium

    Curium (244Cm) uptake from contaminated sea water was studied in five benthic marine species: two bivalve molluscs (Scrobicularia plana and Cerastoderma edule), two polychaete annelids (Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor) and one amphidpod crustacean (Corophium volutator). The concentrations in the whole organisms relative to the concentration in the sea water (concentration factors) were: 700 for the amphipods (after 11 d of accumulation), 140 for the cockles (after 28 d), 80 for the scrobicularia (after 23d) and approx. 30 for the two annelids (after > 20 d). All species except S. plana accumulated americium and curium similarly; S. plana accumulated similar amounts of curium and plutonium. (author)

  8. Phytoplankton reduction in near-bottom water caused by filter-feeding Nereis diversicolor - Implications for worm growth and population grazing impact

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H.U.; Poulsen, L

    1996-01-01

    Studies of vertical profiles of phytoplankton in the field combined with laboratory experiments demonstrated that reduction in phytoplankton concentrations in the near-bottom water layer, 5 to 10 cm in thickness on calm days, may play a significant role for the filter-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor in realizing its grazing capacity (estimated at 13.8 m3 m-2 d-1 in the shallow bay of Kertinge Nor, Denmark, in July 1994). Field-growth experiments were performed with worms transferred to...

  9. Uptake of curium (/sup 244/Cm) by five benthic marine species (Arenicola marina, Cerastoderma edule, Corophium volutator, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana): comparison with americium and plutonium

    Miramand, P.; Germain, P.; Arzur, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Curium (/sup 244/Cm) uptake from contaminated sea water was studied in five benthic marine species: two bivalve molluscs (Scrobicularia plana and Cerastoderma edule), two polychaete annelids (Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor) and one amphidpod crustacean (Corophium volutator). The concentrations in the whole organisms relative to the concentration in the sea water (concentration factors) were: 700 for the amphipods (after 11 d of accumulation), 140 for the cockles (after 28 d), 80 for the scrobicularia (after 23d) and approx. 30 for the two annelids (after > 20 d). All species except S. plana accumulated americium and curium similarly; S. plana accumulated similar amounts of curium and plutonium.

  10. Bio-ecologia e produção do poliqueta Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller - recurso zoológico de ambientes costeiros

    Pedro Fidalgo e Costa

    2001-01-01

    A presente dissertação teve como objectivo investigar alguns aspectos da biologia e ecologia do poliqueta Nereis diversicolor na costa Sudoeste de Portugal, nomeadamente nas ribeiras de Odeceixe, Aljezur e Carrapateira, durante o período de Abril de 1993 até Maio de 1994, bem como a tentativa de produção deste recurso em pequena escala e em condições controladas. Esta espécie de poliqueta muito comum e frequentemente dominante em substratos móveis de ambientes estuarinos, apresentou alguma...

  11. In situ relationship between energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller) from clean and contaminated sites.

    Mouneyrac, C; Pellerin, J; Moukrim, A; Ait Alla, A; Durou, C; Viault, N

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in situ, the temporal effects of urban effluent discharge on energy reserves and steroid hormone levels in the intrasedimentary worm Nereis diversicolor. Results have shown no differences in energy reserves (glycogen, lipids) in organisms originating from a contaminated site (Oued Souss) and a comparatively clean site (Oualidia). Both sites are located on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. In contrast, steroid hormone (progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol) levels were significantly decreased in animals from Oued Souss. The differences in the responses suggest that organisms from the polluted site have been exposed to endocrine disruptors. PMID:16157376

  12. Mechanism of fluorescence and conformational changes of the sarcoplasmic calcium binding protein of the sand worm Nereis diversicolor upon Ca2+ or Mg2+ binding.

    Sillen, Alain; Verheyden, Stefan; Delfosse, Lotte; Braem, Tania; Robben, Johan; Volckaert, Guido; Engelborghs, Yves

    2003-09-01

    The calcium-binding protein isolated from the sarcoplasm of the muscles of the sand worm Nereis diversicolor has four EF-hands and three active binding sites for Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Nereis diversicolor sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein contains three tryptophan residues at positions 4, 57, and 170, respectively. The Wt protein shows a very limited fluorescence increase upon binding of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+). Single-tryptophan-containing mutants were produced and purified. The fluorescence titrations of these mutants show a limited decrease of the affinity for calcium, but no alterations of the cooperativity. Upon adding calcium, Trp170 shows a strong fluorescence increase, Trp57 an extensive fluorescence decrease, and Trp4 shows no fluorescence change. Therefore mutant W4F/W170F is ideally suited to analyze the fluorescence titrations and to study the binding mechanism. Mutations of the calcium ligands at the z-position in the three binding sites show no effect at site I and a total loss of cooperativity at sites III and IV. The quenching of Trp57 upon calcium binding is dependent on the presence of arginine R25, but this residue is not just a simple dynamic quencher. The role of the salt bridge R25-D58 is also investigated. PMID:12944301

  13. Biomonitoring in a clean and a multi-contaminated estuary based on biomarkers and chemical analyses in the endobenthic worm Nereis diversicolor

    Durou, Cyril [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France) and Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquees, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France)]. E-mail: cyril.durou@uco.fr; Poirier, Laurence [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Amiard, Jean-Claude [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Budzinski, Helene [CNRS UMR 5472, LPTC, Universite de Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Gnassia-Barelli, Mauricette [UMR INRA UNSA 1112 ROSE, Faculte des Sciences, BP 71, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Lemenach, Karyn [CNRS UMR 5472, LPTC, Universite de Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Peluhet, Laurent [CNRS UMR 5472, LPTC, Universite de Bordeaux I, 33405 Talence (France); Mouneyrac, Catherine [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France); Institut de Biologie et Ecologie Appliquees, CEREA, Universite Catholique de l' Ouest, 44 rue Rabelais, 49008 Angers Cedex 01 (France); Romeo, Michele [UMR INRA UNSA 1112 ROSE, Faculte des Sciences, BP 71, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Amiard-Triquet, Claude [CNRS, Universite de Nantes, Pole Mer et Littoral, SMAB, 2 rue de la Houssiniere, BP 92208, F-44322 Nantes Cedex 3 (France)

    2007-07-15

    Relationships between biochemical and physiological biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], catalase, and glutathione S-transferase [GST] activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glycogen, lipids and proteins) and accumulated concentrations of contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals) were examined in the keystone species Nereis diversicolor. The chemical analyses of worms and sediments allowed the designation of the Seine estuary and the Authie estuary as a polluted and relatively clean site respectively. Worms from the Seine estuary exhibited higher GST and lower AChE activities. Generally, larger worms had higher concentrations of energy reserves. Principal component analyses clearly highlighted intersite differences: in the first plan, GST activities and chemical concentrations were inversely related to concentrations of energy reserves; in the second one, PCB concentrations and AChE activity were inversely related. Depleted levels of energy reserves could be a consequence of combating toxicants and might predict effects at higher levels of biological organization. The use of GST and AChE activities and energy reserve concentrations as biomarkers is validated in the field in this keystone species. - The use of N. diversicolor as a biomonitor of environmental quality via the measurement of biomarkers and accumulated concentrations of contaminants is validated in the field.

  14. Bioaccumulation, subcellular distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated copper in the ragworm Nereis diversicolor: The relative importance of aqueous copper, copper oxide nanoparticles and microparticles.

    Thit, Amalie; Banta, Gary T; Selck, Henriette

    2015-07-01

    The sediment-dwelling ragworm, Nereis diversicolor was exposed to sediment spiked with aqueous Cu (CuAq, CuCl2), CuO nanoparticles (CuONP) or CuO microparticles (CuOMicro) at 150 μg Cu g(-1) dw sediment for 10d. Exposures to CuAq and CuOMicro caused mortality (62.5 and 37.5%, respectively), whereas mean burrowing time increased during exposure to CuAq and CuONP from 0.12 h (controls) to 19.3 and 12.2 h, respectively. All Cu treatments bioaccumulated, especially CuAq (up to 4 times more than the other treatments). Cu was roughly equally distributed among the five subcellular fractions in controls and worms exposed to CuONP or CuOMicro. In contrast, ≈50% of accumulated Cu in CuAq exposed worms was found in metal rich granules and significantly more Cu was present in heat-denatured proteins and organelles than in worms exposed to CuOMicro or in controls. Our results suggest that Cu form affects its bioaccumulation and subsequent toxicity and detoxification in a polychaete like N. diversicolor. PMID:25800937

  15. Biomonitoring in a clean and a multi-contaminated estuary based on biomarkers and chemical analyses in the endobenthic worm Nereis diversicolor

    Relationships between biochemical and physiological biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], catalase, and glutathione S-transferase [GST] activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glycogen, lipids and proteins) and accumulated concentrations of contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals) were examined in the keystone species Nereis diversicolor. The chemical analyses of worms and sediments allowed the designation of the Seine estuary and the Authie estuary as a polluted and relatively clean site respectively. Worms from the Seine estuary exhibited higher GST and lower AChE activities. Generally, larger worms had higher concentrations of energy reserves. Principal component analyses clearly highlighted intersite differences: in the first plan, GST activities and chemical concentrations were inversely related to concentrations of energy reserves; in the second one, PCB concentrations and AChE activity were inversely related. Depleted levels of energy reserves could be a consequence of combating toxicants and might predict effects at higher levels of biological organization. The use of GST and AChE activities and energy reserve concentrations as biomarkers is validated in the field in this keystone species. - The use of N. diversicolor as a biomonitor of environmental quality via the measurement of biomarkers and accumulated concentrations of contaminants is validated in the field

  16. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  17. Biomarker responses to pollution in two invertebrate species: Scrobicularia plana and Nereis diversicolor from the Cádiz bay (SW Spain).

    Pérez, Erkuden; Blasco, Julian; Solé, Montserrat

    2004-01-01

    The clam Scrobicularia plana and the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor were collected in several sites from a littoral enclosure in SW Spain. The aim of our study was to relate various biomarker responses in these species to a pollution gradient caused by untreated domestic discharges and to verify the adequacy of the selected species as sentinels in this habitat. The biomarkers selected were the antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and DT-diaphorase (DT-D). In addition, the activities of cytochrome P450-dependent ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, the phase II detoxifying enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the neurotoxicity marker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were measured. Metallothionein levels were selected as biomarkers of heavy metals exposure in both species. The results suggest a different response in the water filtering organism (clam) and the sediment eater (polychaete), probably as a consequent of different pollution exposure and that samples from the "Caño Sancti-Petri" were exposed to biologically active compounds that altered some of their biochemical responses. AChE was the most sensitive biomarker in both species and N. diversicolor proved to be a more robust sentinel in this ecosystem. PMID:15178044

  18. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses measured in the estuarine ragworm (Nereis diversicolor) exposed to dissolved, nano- and bulk-sized silver

    The impact of Ag NPs on sediment-dwelling organisms has received relatively little attention, particularly in linking bioaccumulation to oxidative injury. The polychaete Nereis diversicolor was exposed to sediments spiked with dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3), Ag NPs (63 ± 27 nm) and larger bulk Ag particles (202 ± 56 μm), for up to 11 days at sublethal concentrations (nominally 2.5, 5, 10 μg Ag g−1 sediment (dw)). There were concentration- and time-dependent differences in the accumulation of the three Ag forms, but all three forms elicited an oxidative stress response. In the cases of Ag NPs and bulk Ag particles, changes in antioxidant markers (glutathione, SOD, CAT, GPx, SeGPx, GST and GR) occurred without significant Ag accumulation. Differences in biomarker profiles between the three Ag forms suggest that the mechanism of oxidative stress caused by particulate Ag is distinct from that of dissolved Ag. - Highlights: • N. diversicolor exposed to dissolved, nano and bulk Ag via spiked sediments. • Concentration- and time-dependent differences in the accumulation patterns. • All three forms elicited an oxidative stress response. • Antioxidant markers changed without significant accumulation for particulate Ag. • Biomarker profile resulting from particulate Ag exposure different to dissolved Ag. - Exposure to different Ag forms leads to distinct oxidative stress biomarker profiles. Particulate Ag activates the oxidative stress response differently to dissolved Ag

  19. Progress Research on the Molecular Mechanism of Abalone Larvae Metamorphosis%鲍幼虫变态分子机制的研究进展

    王国栋; 张丽莉; 王艺磊

    2012-01-01

    The metamorphosis of molluscs larvae is an important biological question.Abalone is one of an ideal model for mollusc metamorphosis and even marine invertebrates because abalone larvae are lecithotrophic(non-feeding),have more rapid metamorphosis than insect and batrachia.Early studies discovered that some material could induce abalone larvae metamorphosis,by pharmacology and electrophysiology.Furthermore,some signal pathways of metamorphosis were developed.However,there is little knowledge of molecular mechanism regulating abalone larvae metamorphosis.Some different expressive genes were found by different display RT-PCR(DDRT-PCR) and gene microarray.Moreover,the metamorphosis is decided and influenced by numerous genes and signals.The traditional method has low efficiency and gets few differential expression genes.Furthermore,the number of EST(expressed sequence tag)is an important limit to the traditional method.So the molecular network and mechanism of metamorphosis have not been established.There is little knowledge of the cellular process.The transcriptome analysis of metamorphosis can acquire a large number of differential expression genes,contribute to building interaction network of differential expression genes,and is a new orientation of the study on molecular mechanism of metamorphosis.In addition,it is another problem to confirm and annotate these different expressed genes.Gene interference may be a solution.This paper summarizes the advances on metamorphosis of abalone larvae and its molecular mechanism.%综述了鲍幼虫变态及其分子机制的研究进展.鲍因其幼虫营卵黄营养,且同昆虫和蛙类相比,鲍幼虫变态速度快、存在提早发育(‘anticipatory’developmental program)现象,是研究贝类乃至海洋无脊椎动物变态现象的理想模式.早期研究采用药理学和电生理学方法发现了GABA等能够诱导鲍变态的物质,并且提出了变态过程信号通路,但调

  20. Effects of the polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor on microbial pyrene mineralization

    Timmermann, Karen; Banta, Gary T.; Johnsen, Anders R.;

    2008-01-01

    mineralization potential in bulk (reduced and presumably anoxic) sediment was significantly lower than for surface and burrow sediments. However, when the bulk sediments were oxidized, mineralization rates increased rapidly. Collectively, these data indicate that oxygen availability controlled pyrene......The effects of 2 polychaetes, Nereis diversicolor and Arenicola marina, on the microbial mineralization of the organic contaminant pyrene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), were followed over 44 d. We also examined whether the effect of the polychaetes was caused by enhanced oxygen supply......, altered pyrene bioavailability and/or a changed abundance or activity of pyrenedegrading bacteria. The presence of polychaetes enhanced microbial pyrene mineralization by 180 to 200% compared with defaunated sediment. Collectively, the replicates of the different treatments showed that mineralization...

  1. Bioaccumulation and oxidative stress responses measured in the estuarine ragworm (Nereis diversicolor) exposed to dissolved, nano- and bulk-sized silver.

    Cozzari, Margherita; Elia, Antonia Concetta; Pacini, Nicole; Smith, Brian D; Boyle, David; Rainbow, Philip S; Khan, Farhan R

    2015-03-01

    The impact of Ag NPs on sediment-dwelling organisms has received relatively little attention, particularly in linking bioaccumulation to oxidative injury. The polychaete Nereis diversicolor was exposed to sediments spiked with dissolved Ag (added as AgNO3), Ag NPs (63 ± 27 nm) and larger bulk Ag particles (202 ± 56 μm), for up to 11 days at sublethal concentrations (nominally 2.5, 5, 10 μg Ag g(-1) sediment (dw)). There were concentration- and time-dependent differences in the accumulation of the three Ag forms, but all three forms elicited an oxidative stress response. In the cases of Ag NPs and bulk Ag particles, changes in antioxidant markers (glutathione, SOD, CAT, GPx, SeGPx, GST and GR) occurred without significant Ag accumulation. Differences in biomarker profiles between the three Ag forms suggest that the mechanism of oxidative stress caused by particulate Ag is distinct from that of dissolved Ag. PMID:25549865

  2. A statistical study of environmental factors controlling concentrations of heavy metals in the burrowing bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor

    Luoma, Samuel N.; Bryan, G. W.

    1982-07-01

    Multiple regression analyses indicate that the most important factors controlling Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in the estuarine bivalve Scrobicularia plana and the polychaete Nereis diversicolor are the concentrations of these metals in surface sediments and the partitioning of sediment-bound metals between different sediment constituents. Extraction of the sediments with 1-N HCl provides more information about the bioavailability of the metals than do extractions with five other techniques. Biologically available Cd and Co in solution contribute significantly to Cd and Co concentrations in both Scrobicularia and Nereis. Concentrations of Ag in Scrobicularia are reduced where Cu concentrations in sediments are high. An unexplained increase in concentrations of Cu in Scrobicularia at specific stations in six estuaries suggests that under certain very anoxic conditions the availability of copper may be exceptionally high.

  3. The use of enzymatic biomarkers in two marine invertebrates Nereis diversicolor and Patella vulgata for the biomonitoring of Tangier's bay (Morocco).

    Douhri, Hikmat; Sayah, Fouad

    2009-02-01

    The fast increase of anthropogenic activities has led to a continual influx of xenobiotics into the marine ecosystems. Quantifying biochemical parameters in marine invertebrates makes possible the evaluation of pollutants' damaging effect. In fact, to examine the health state of Tangier's bay, we focused on the study of catalase, esterase, acetylcholinesterase and alpha-amylase activities as biomarkers in two species of marine invertebrates Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereidae) and Patella vulgata (Mollusca, Prosobranchia), collected from different sites along the Mediterranean coastline of Tangier. Our results showed that these biochemical parameters are disturbed following the level of decreasing environmental quality, and for this reason they are promising in the biomonitoring studies of the Moroccan marine environment. PMID:18786724

  4. Hedistin: A novel antimicrobial peptide containing bromotryptophan constitutively expressed in the NK cells-like of the marine annelid, Nereis diversicolor.

    Tasiemski, Aurélie; Schikorski, David; Le Marrec-Croq, Françoise; Pontoire-Van Camp, Christelle; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Sautière, Pierre-Eric

    2007-01-01

    A novel antimicrobial peptide, named hedistin was identified from the coelomocytes of Nereis diversicolor. Hedistin shows no obvious similarities with other known peptides and constitutes the first antimicrobial peptide containing bromotryptophans demonstrated in annelids. cDNA and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that, upon bacteria challenge, this peptide is secreted following processing of a precursor containing a signal peptide and prosequences. Hedistin was shown to possess an activity against a large spectrum of bacteria including the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio alginolyticus. The gene was demonstrated to be constitutively and exclusively expressed in circulating NK cells like known to play an important role in the immunity of the sand worm. These data contrast with those observed in another annelid, the leech, in which genes coding for antimicrobial peptides are upregulated in a specific tissue and peptides are rapidly released into the hemolymph after septic injury. PMID:17210178

  5. Bioaccumulation, subcellular distribution and toxicity of sediment-associated copper in the ragworm Nereis diversicolor: The relative importance of aqueous copper, copper oxide nanoparticles and microparticles

    The sediment-dwelling ragworm, Nereis diversicolor was exposed to sediment spiked with aqueous Cu (CuAq, CuCl2), CuO nanoparticles (CuONP) or CuO microparticles (CuOMicro) at 150 μg Cu g−1 dw sediment for 10d. Exposures to CuAq and CuOMicro caused mortality (62.5 and 37.5%, respectively), whereas mean burrowing time increased during exposure to CuAq and CuONP from 0.12 h (controls) to 19.3 and 12.2 h, respectively. All Cu treatments bioaccumulated, especially CuAq (up to 4 times more than the other treatments). Cu was roughly equally distributed among the five subcellular fractions in controls and worms exposed to CuONP or CuOMicro. In contrast, ≈50% of accumulated Cu in CuAq exposed worms was found in metal rich granules and significantly more Cu was present in heat-denatured proteins and organelles than in worms exposed to CuOMicro or in controls. Our results suggest that Cu form affects its bioaccumulation and subsequent toxicity and detoxification in a polychaete like N. diversicolor. - Highlights: • CuAq exposure resulted in Cu body burden up to 4 times higher than CuONP and CuOMicro. • CuAq was the most toxic (62.5% mortality) of the treatments tested. • Subcellular Cu distribution after CuAq exposure differed significantly from control. • Cu in CuAq exposed worms was mainly found in metal rich granules (≈50%). - CuAq was more bioavailable and toxic, and showed a different subcellular distribution compared to the particulate forms tested (CuONP and CuOMicro)

  6. 莆田南日岛鲍鱼养殖区环境变化评价%Environment Change Evaluation in Abalone Cultivation Area at Nanri Island of Putian

    金媛娟

    2012-01-01

    根据2009-2011年13个站位的监测数据,采用富营养化评价法和内梅罗综合污染指数法对鲍鱼养殖区进行了三年的纵向数据对比,得出该区环境正在日趋恶化,通过2011年鲍鱼区、藻类区及码头区监测数据的横向对比,发现藻类养殖的开展,对鲍鱼区的海洋环境有所改善,但由于布局的不科学不合理,未能够完全发挥藻类对环境的修复作用,甚至于可能给鲍鱼造成一定时间段的不良影响。因此提出建议:应合理规划藻类区和鲍鱼区的产业布局。%According to the monitoring data of thirteen stations from2009 to 2011, this paper makes three years longitudinal data contrast for the abalone cultivation area based on the eutrophication evaluation and Nemerow pollution index. The result indicates that the environment of thearea becomes worsen. Moreover, the monitoring data compared among abalone areas, alga areas and wharfareas in 2011 shows that the development of alga cultivation makes some improvement for the marine environment of abalone areas. However, because of the unscientific and unreasonable distribution, the effects of algas on environment are notfully satisfied. Conversely, it may have harm effect onabalones for some time. So it is suggest that the industrial layout of alga areas and abalone areas should be planned reasonably.

  7. Influence of copper oxide nanoparticle shape on bioaccumulation, cellular internalization and effects in the estuarine sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor.

    Thit, Amalie; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Købler, Carsten; Kennaway, Gabrielle; Selck, Henriette

    2015-10-01

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) released into the aquatic environment will likely accumulate in the sediment. Here we synthesized and characterized CuO NPs with different shapes and thus sizes: spheres, rods and spindles. Nereis diversicolor were exposed for 10 days to control sediment or sediment spiked with CuO NPs or aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq, CuCl2) at 7, 70 and 140 μg Cu g(-1) dw sediment. Cu from all Cu treatments accumulated in worms in a concentration-dependent manner. Only Cu-Aq decreased burrowing, suggesting that worms avoid Cu when added to sediment as Cu-Aq, but not CuO NPs. Transmission Electron Microscopy of gut sections indicated limited presence of CuO NP-like objects in the gut lumen, but evidence on whether accumulated Cu from CuO NP exposure was internalized as particles was not conclusive. Overall, bioavailability and avoidance was not influenced by particle shape or size, whereas Cu form (Cu-Aq vs particulate) and exposure concentration had significant impact. PMID:26149327

  8. Influence of copper oxide nanoparticle shape on bioaccumulation, cellular internalization and effects in the estuarine sediment-dwelling polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    Thit, Amalie; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Købler, Carsten;

    2015-01-01

    CuO nanoparticles (NPs) released into the aquatic environment will likely accumulate in the sediment. Here we synthesized and characterized CuO NPs with different shapes and thus sizes: spheres, rods and spindles. Nereis diversicolor were exposed for 10 days to control sediment or sediment spiked...... with CuO NPs or aqueous Cu (Cu-Aq, CuCl2) at 7, 70 and 140 μg Cu g-1 dw sediment. Cu from all Cu treatments accumulated in worms in a concentration-dependent manner. Only Cu-Aq decreased burrowing, suggesting that worms avoid Cu when added to sediment as Cu-Aq, but not CuO NPs. Transmission Electron...... Microscopy of gut sections indicated limited presence of CuO NP-like objects in the gut lumen, but evidence on whether accumulated Cu from CuO NP exposure was internalized as particles was not conclusive. Overall, bioavailability and avoidance was not influenced by particle shape or size, whereas Cu form (Cu...

  9. In vivo measurements of the internal pH of Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor (Annelida, Polychaeta) exposed to ambient sulphidic conditions using pH microelectrodes

    Sommer, Stefan; Jahn, Andreas; Funke, Friederike; Brenke, Nils

    The effect of different ambient sulphide concentrations on the internal pH regime of Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor was studied under in vivo conditions using liquid membrane pH microelectrodes, a method which is new to marine sciences. As a case study, the hypothesis was tested whether organisms exposed to ambient sulphidic conditions are able to lower their internal pH which, in effect, would reduce sulphide influx into the animals and thus could represent an effective detoxification mechanism. It was shown that a significant lowering of the internal pH occurred within only 20min after adding sulphide. This pH lowering appeared to be dependent on the external sulphide concentration of the ambient medium and showed a saturation beyond a threshold level of about 130μM. It is discussed whether this sulphide-induced pH drop is an active regulatory mechanism and acts as an effective protection mechanism against sulphide during short-term exposures.

  10. Effects of Nereis diversicolor on the transformation of 1-methylpyrene and pyrene: transformation efficiency and identification of phase I and II products.

    Malmquist, Linus M V; Christensen, Jan H; Selck, Henriette

    2013-05-21

    Transformation of nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the benthic invertebrate Nereis diversicolor was compared in this study. Pyrene and 1-methylpyrene were used as model compounds for nonsubstituted and alkyl-substituted PAHs, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of metabolites and parent compounds in worm tissue, water, and sediment were performed. Transformation of 1-methylpyrene generated the benzylic hydroxylated phase I product, 1-pyrenecarboxylic acid that comprised 90% of the total metabolites of 1-methylpyrene, and was mainly found in water extracts. We tentatively identified 1-methylpyrene glucuronides and 1-carbonylpyrene glycine as phase II metabolites not previously reported in literature. Pyrene was biotransformed to 1-hydroxypyrene, pyrene-1-sulfate, pyrene-1-glucuronide, and pyrene glucoside sulfate, with pyrene-1-glucuronide as the most prominent metabolite. Transformation of 1-methylpyrene (21% transformed) was more than 3 times as efficient as pyrene transformation (5.6% transformed). Because crude oils contain larger amounts of C₁-C₄-substituted PAHs than nonsubstituted PAHs, the rapid and efficient transformation of sediment-associated 1-methylpyrene may result in a high exposure of water-living organisms to metabolites of alkyl-substituted PAHs, whose toxicities are unknown. This study demonstrates the need to consider fate and effects of substituted PAHs and their metabolites in risk assessments. PMID:23611659

  11. Restriction of Spartina anglica (C.E. Hubbard) marsh development by the infaunal polychaete Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller)

    Paramor, O. A. L.; Hughes, R. G.

    2007-01-01

    Spartina anglica has been planted around the coast of SE England, and throughout the world, to help stabilise sediments and reduce wave erosion of sea defences. Recently the areas of S. anglica have declined on this coast, contributing to the overall loss of saltmarsh area, in contrast to the north and west coasts of the UK where expanding S. anglica marshes have had to be controlled to maintain mudflat feeding areas for birds. Field experiments were established in two old coastal realignment areas in the Blythe Estuary (Suffolk) and on open mudflats in the Blackwater Estuary (Essex), in which surface deposit feeding by Nereis diversicolor was prevented by laying porous mats on the mudflat surface. These mats promoted sediment deposition and quickly became buried. S. anglica colonised these infauna exclusion areas by growth of rhizomes from adjacent plants, to a significantly higher degree than in control areas. In one of the Blythe sites this occurred when the adjacent S. anglica marsh was retreating. These results support the conclusions of Paramor and Hughes (2004, 2005), that the infauna are responsible for much of the loss of saltmarsh in SE England, and that managed coastal realignment will not necessarily lead to saltmarsh creation. The experiments point to an alternative means of managing saltmarsh creation and sediment accretion on existing mudflats, with consequent benefits for coastal defence and conservation.

  12. Sediment-worm interactions: transfer of 65Zn, 109Cd and sup(110m)Ag from marine sediment by Nereis diversicolor

    Radiotracer experiments to understand the role of benthic worms in transferring 65Zn, 109Cd and sup(110m)Ag from marine sediments to marine food webs are described. Sediments were made radioactive by adding 30 to 50μCi of the appropriate high specific activity isotope to 500 ml of sea water and mixing with 100 cm3 of sediment. The 65Zn and 109Cd were added as chlorides and the sup(110m)Ag was added as nitrate. Relative accumulation from radioactive sediments and the loss rates of the metals from N. diversicolor were determined at different time intervals. Radioactive worms were transferred to fresh sediments and were periodically radioanalysed. It was observed that simple ingestion of subsurface radioactive sediments is a less effective route of Zn transfer to the worm than by deposit feeding at the sediment-water interface. Cadmium appears to be much less tightly bound to marine sediment than zinc. Worms which accumulated sup(110m)Ag from sediment during a 20 day exposure lost it at a faster rate than 65Zn accumulated during a 5 day exposure

  13. Ecology of the polychaete Nereis diversicolor in the Canal de Mira (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal): Population dynamics, production and oogenic cycle

    Abrantes, António; Pinto, Fátima; Moreira, Maria Helena

    1999-07-01

    The population of Nereis diversicolor O.F. Müller was studied in 1993 and 1994 at three intertidal areas along the estuarine gradient in the Canal de Mira (Ria de Aveiro). The population dynamics, secondary production and growth were followed for the 2-year period, whereas in the second year, a study on the oogenic cycle was also carried out. For the population dynamics and production studies, core samples were collected monthly at each site, and for the study of the oogenic cycle, medium size and large individuals were sampled from the sediment. Mean annual densities were higher (573-718 ind.m -2) at a station located in the middle zone of the channel, followed by the outer (190-275 ind.m -2) and the innermost (43-94 ind.m -2) stations. A cohort analysis by `Bhatta' software enabled the separation of the cohorts present at each date, and two cohorts were followed from recruitment to extinction. The secondary production ranged from 15.9 to 74.2 g ash free dry weight.m -2.year -1 and the P/ overlineBratio from 4.4 to 7.9. The average body growth rate varied between 0.16 and 0.20 mm.d -1 for worms longer than 2 cm. Two recruitment seasons were detected each year. Two spawning periods were also observed, one in the spring and the other in early autumn.

  14. Intersite variations of a battery of biomarkers at different levels of biological organisation in the estuarine endobenthic worm Nereis diversicolor (Polychaeta, Nereididae).

    Fossi Tankoua, O; Buffet, P E; Amiard, J C; Amiard-Triquet, C; Méléder, V; Gillet, P; Mouneyrac, C; Berthet, B

    2012-06-15

    The ragworm Nereis diversicolor has been proposed as a sentinel species for the assessment of estuarine sediment quality. The aim of this study was to test the responsiveness of the worms using a battery of biomarkers in specimens from a moderately contaminated site (Loire estuary, Fr.) and a comparatively cleaner site (Bay of Bourgneuf, Fr.) as a reference site. Ragworms were collected on 7 occasions from April 2008 to October 2009 for the determination of biochemical (GST, AChE, digestive enzymes), physiological (energy reserves (glycogen, lipids and proteins), relationship between length and weight), and behavioural (feeding and burrowing) biomarkers. The biomarker responses were tentatively interpreted in terms of the concept of cascading events potentially responsible for local depletion/extinction of populations submitted to chemical stress. Impairments of AChE and amylase activities, feeding rate, energy reserve concentrations (glycogen and lipids), and the relationship between length and weight showed up differences between the reference site and the Loire estuary despite the latter being far from the most contaminated estuary in France or internationally. However, no links could be established in the Loire estuary ragworms between effects at infra-individual and individual levels, nor with worm population density, even though a small oil spill had occurred in the Loire estuary only one month before the beginning of sampling. PMID:22417766

  15. 1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide as the major aqueous pyrene metabolite in tissue and gut fluid from the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor.

    Giessing, Anders M B; Mayer, Lawrence M; Forbes, Thomas L

    2003-05-01

    Both 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide are identified as the primary phase I and phase II metabolites of the four-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pyrene in the marine deposit-feeding polychaete Nereis diversicolor. Identification of pyrene and primary metabolites was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection and fluorescence detection (HPLC/DAD/F) and an ion-trap mass spectrometer for positive identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide, the HPLC/F trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed three additional low-intensity peaks that may be related to pyrene metabolism based on similar excitation/emission wavelengths. The peaks were all too low in intensity to be positively identified. Of the total PAH in tissue, 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide, 1-hydroxypyrene, and pyrene constituted 73%, 2%, and 25% respectively. Gut elimination of metabolic products is supported by the identification of 1-hydroxypyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in both gut fluid and defecation water. Being the only phase I metabolite of pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene becomes a useful marker for PAH exposure, and it may serve as a valuable model compound for assessing species-specific PAH metabolic capabilities. PMID:12729221

  16. Biomonitoring in a clean and a multi-contaminated estuary based on biomarkers and chemical analyses in the endobenthic worm Nereis diversicolor.

    Durou, Cyril; Poirier, Laurence; Amiard, Jean-Claude; Budzinski, Hélène; Gnassia-Barelli, Mauricette; Lemenach, Karyn; Peluhet, Laurent; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Roméo, Michèle; Amiard-Triquet, Claude

    2007-07-01

    Relationships between biochemical and physiological biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], catalase, and glutathione S-transferase [GST] activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, glycogen, lipids and proteins) and accumulated concentrations of contaminants (polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and metals) were examined in the keystone species Nereis diversicolor. The chemical analyses of worms and sediments allowed the designation of the Seine estuary and the Authie estuary as a polluted and relatively clean site respectively. Worms from the Seine estuary exhibited higher GST and lower AChE activities. Generally, larger worms had higher concentrations of energy reserves. Principal component analyses clearly highlighted intersite differences: in the first plan, GST activities and chemical concentrations were inversely related to concentrations of energy reserves; in the second one, PCB concentrations and AChE activity were inversely related. Depleted levels of energy reserves could be a consequence of combating toxicants and might predict effects at higher levels of biological organization. The use of GST and AChE activities and energy reserve concentrations as biomarkers is validated in the field in this keystone species. PMID:17289233

  17. Isolation and identification of a novel polysaccharide-peptide complex with antioxidant, anti-proliferative and hypoglycaemic activities from the abalone mushroom.

    Li, Ning; Li, Le; Fang, Jin Cen; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun; Jiang, Yun; Wang, Chang Rong; Zhang, Ni Ye; Wen, Ting Yi; Qu, Li Yuan; Lv, Peng Yun; Zhao, Ruili; Shi, Bin; Wang, Yin Ping; Wang, Xiao Ying; Liu, Fang

    2012-06-01

    A novel antioxidant polysaccharide-peptide complex LB-1b from the fruiting bodies of the edible abalone mushroom (Pleurotus abalonus) was purified and identified. The structural characteristic of LB-1b was identified by FTIR (Fourier-transform IR), 13C NMR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. LB-1b is a polysaccharide-peptide complex that contains glucose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid and galactose in the molar ratio of 22.4:1:1.7:1.6 and the N-terminal sequence of its peptide moiety has also been determined. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of LB-1b, IPKERKEFQQAQHLK, showed some resemblance to antioxidant enzymes. LB-1b exhibited high antioxidant activity in erythrocyte haemolysis in vitro and the anti-proliferative activity towards hepatoma HepG2 cells and breast cancer MCF7 cells with an IC50 of 24 and 14 μM respectively. LB-1b also demonstrated hypoglycaemic activity in drug-induced diabetic mice and anti-HIV-1 RT (reverse transcriptase) with an IC50 value of 12.5 μM. PMID:21810081

  18. Identification of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide in tissue of marine polychaete Nereis diversicolor by liquid chromatography/ion trap multiple mass spectrometry.

    Giessing, Anders M B; Lund, Torben

    2002-01-01

    1-Hydroxypyrene glucuronide is identified as the single major aqueous metabolite of the tetracyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pyrene, in tissue from a deposit-feeding marine polychaete, Nereis diversicolor. Identification was performed using an ion trap mass spectrometer fitted with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) probe and connected to a high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detector (HPLC/DAD) system. Besides 1-hydroxypyrene, the 339-nm UV trace of tissue samples from pyrene-exposed worms showed only one dominant peak that could be related to pyrene metabolism. Negative APCI-MS of this supposed 1- hydroxypyrene conjugate gave a characteristic signal at m/z 429 corresponding to the molecular ion of 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide plus eluent adducts ([M - H + 2H(2)O](-)). Fragmentation pathways were studied by isolating the abundant ion at m/z 429 in the ion trap and performing multiple mass spectrometric experiments (MS(n)). The fragmentations observed were consistent with the proposed identification. Two low intensity LC peaks that could be related to pyrene metabolism by their DAD absorption spectra were also present in the 339-nm UV chromatogram of tissue samples. However, these peaks could not be identified by their mass spectra in negative ion mode due to ion suppression by very abundant co-eluting impurities. The present method shows that LC/MS(n) is a fast and useful analytical tool for identification of aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation products in samples from relatively small marine invertebrates with limited sample preparation. PMID:12203242

  19. A comparison of acute and chronic toxicity tests used to examine the temporal stability of a gradient in copper tolerance of Hediste diversicolor from the Fal estuary, Cornwall, UK.

    Burlinson, F C; Lawrence, A J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use two different toxicity tests to verify the existence of a gradient in tolerance along Rostronguet Creek. Hediste diversicolor was collected from five populations in the Fal estuary previously shown to vary in copper tolerance. Exposure to 4 mgL(-1) of copper in an acute assay demonstrated that Mylor Creek worms were sensitive (LT(50) 86 h) and the tolerance of Rostronguet Creek worms increased moving upstream from the mouth of the creek (LT(50)s 100-258 h). There was no significant difference in tolerance between Mylor worms and worms from the mouth of Rostronguet Creek. This is in agreement with a previous study [Grant, A., Hateley, J.G., Jones, N.V., 1989. Mapping the ecological impact of heavy metals on the estuarine polychaete Nereis diversicolor using inherited metal tolerance. Marine Pollution Bulletin 20, 235-238] and demonstrates temporal stability of the gradient. Copper tolerance was also measured using a chronic toxicity test run for 90 d using step-wise increases in challenge concentration. A significant difference in tolerance was shown between populations from Mylor Creek and those at the mouth of Rostronguet Creek, which has not been reported previously. Experimental protocol was therefore an important factor in detecting population variation in tolerance. PMID:17113608

  20. Fate of isotopically labeled zinc oxide nanoparticles in sediment and effects on two endobenthic species, the clam Scrobicularia plana and the ragworm Hediste diversicolor.

    Buffet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Dybowska, Agnieszka; Risso-de Faverney, Christine; Guibbolini, Marielle; Valsami-Jones, Eugénia; Mouneyrac, Catherine

    2012-10-01

    Although it is reported that metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, which are among the most rapidly commercialized materials, can cause toxicity to organisms, their fate in the environment and toxicity to marine organisms are not well understood. In this study, we used a stable isotope labelling approach to trace the fate of nanoparticles (NPs) in sediments and also investigated bio-uptake in two estuarine intra-sedimentary invertebrates Scrobicularia plana and Nereis diversicolor. We selected exposure to 3 mg kg(-1) sediment ZnO NPs since this level is a realistic prediction of the environmental concentration in sediments. 67ZnO NPs (DLS: 21-34 nm, positively charged: 31.3 mV) suspensions were synthesised in diethylene glycol (DEG). We explored the fate of 67ZnO NPs in sediment, 67Zn bioaccumulation and the biochemical (biomarkers of defence and damage) and behavioural (burrowing kinetics and feeding rates) biomarkers in both species to 67ZnO NPs and DEG on its own during a 16 d laboratory exposure. After exposure, 67Zn concentrations in sediment showed higher levels in the upper section (1cm: 2.59 mg kg(-1)) decreasing progressively (2 cm: 1.63 mg kg(-1), 3 cm: 0.90 mg kg(-1), 4 cm: 0.67 mg kg(-1)) to a minimum value at the bottom (5 cm: 0.31 mg kg(-1)). 67Zn bioaccumulation was observed in both organisms exposed to 67ZnO NPs in DEG but no major inter-species differences were found. At the biochemical level, 67ZnO NPs exposure significantly induced increased glutathione-S-transferase activity in worms and catalase activity in clams whereas superoxide dismutase activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels were not affected in any species. Exposure to DEG on its own leads to a significant increase of metallothionein-like protein levels in clams compared with those exposed to 67ZnO NPs or controls. Burrowing behaviour as well as feeding rate were significantly impaired in both species exposed to 67ZnO NPs. Concerning exposure to DEG on its own

  1. Hierarchical super-structure identified by polarized light microscopy, electron microscopy and nanoindentation: Implications for the limits of biological control over the growth mode of abalone sea shells

    Schneider Andreas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mollusc shells are commonly investigated using high-resolution imaging techniques based on cryo-fixation. Less detailed information is available regarding the light-optical properties. Sea shells of Haliotis pulcherina were embedded for polishing in defined orientations in order to investigate the interface between prismatic calcite and nacreous aragonite by standard materialographic methods. A polished thin section of the interface was prepared with a defined thickness of 60 μm for quantitative birefringence analysis using polarized light and LC-PolScope microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy images were obtained for comparison. In order to study structural-mechanical relationships, nanoindentation experiments were performed. Results Incident light microscopy revealed a super-structure in semi-transparent regions of the polished cross-section under a defined angle. This super-structure is not visible in transmitted birefringence analysis due to the blurred polarization of small nacre platelets and numerous organic interfaces. The relative orientation and homogeneity of calcite prisms was directly identified, some of them with their optical axes exactly normal to the imaging plane. Co-oriented "prism colonies" were identified by polarized light analyses. The nacreous super-structure was also visualized by secondary electron imaging under defined angles. The domains of the super-structure were interpreted to consist of crystallographically aligned platelet stacks. Nanoindentation experiments showed that mechanical properties changed with the same periodicity as the domain size. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated that insights into the growth mechanisms of nacre can be obtained by conventional light-optical methods. For example, we observed super-structures formed by co-oriented nacre platelets as previously identified using X-ray Photo-electron Emission Microscopy (X-PEEM [Gilbert et al., Journal of the

  2. The effect of sewage pollution on the feeding behaviour and diet of Hediste (Nereis diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776)) in three estuaries in south-east England, with implications for saltmarsh erosion.

    Aberson, M J R; Bolam, S G; Hughes, R G

    2016-04-15

    Stable isotope analyses of the abundant infaunal polychaete Hediste diversicolor, recognised as an indicator of sewage pollution, support the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment promotes surface deposit feeding, over suspension feeding and predation. At sewage-polluted sites in three estuaries in SE England Hediste mainly consumed microphytobenthos, sediment organic matter and filamentous macroalgae Ulva spp. At cleaner sites Hediste relied more on suspension feeding and consumption of Spartina anglica. There were no consistent differences in Hediste densities between the polluted and cleaner sites, probably because of increased densities at the cleaner sites too, facilitated by the planting of Spartina and nitrogen enrichment there too, including from agricultural run-off. Increased nutrient enrichment and the artificial availability of Spartina have probably increased densities of, and deposit-feeding by, Hediste in the past half-century and contributed indirectly to saltmarsh losses, since deposit-feeding by Hediste has been implicated in recent saltmarsh erosion in SE England. PMID:26902686

  3. 不同密度的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discus hannai Ino)与仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)混养的研究

    王吉桥; 杨义; 程鑫; 王年斌; 张剑诚

    2007-01-01

    在水温13.0-23.0℃、容积50L(45cm×31cm×30cm)的塑料水槽中,分别放养5、10和20个重(2.7±0.7)g的皱纹盘鲍(Haliotis discushannai Ino),多量投喂海带,再分别混养0和5头重(1.8±0.5)g的仿刺参(Apostichopus japonicus Selenka),不投喂。153d的饲养表明,在相同密度下,混养鲍的特殊生长率(SGR)和成活率依次比单养高16.6%、5.7%;7.1%、7.1%;1.9%、10.4%;饲料系数降低了11.7%、5.8%、2.4%。与单养池相比,混养池水中氨氮含量低而稳,溶氧量高。文中讨论了鲍与仿刺参混养的适宜比例和方式。

  4. Cellular energy allocation in Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFAS) are persistent compounds with many uses, for example impregnation of fabrics and leather and as fire-retardants. Recently, it has focused on these compounds, because of their wide environmental distribution and the lack of knowledge about their behaviour in the environment. Since they have been detected in the Nordic marine environment, two PFAS were chosen as test compounds. Tributyltin (TBT) has been used in anti-fouling paints since th...

  5. Assessment of the local environmental impact of abalone suspended longline culture-Application of the MOM system in Sungo Bay%筏式养鲍对沉积环境压力的评价——MOM-B监测系统模型在桑沟湾的应用

    张继红; 任黎华; 吴桃; 张明亮; 王巍; 方建光

    2011-01-01

    于2010年5月、7月、8月和10月对桑沟湾筏式养鲍区的沉积环境进行现场调查,采用娜威海洋研究所建立的鱼类养殖环境监测系统模型(Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring,MOM system),应用MOM-B着重对鲍养殖区的沉积环境状况进行监测和评价,由生物、化学和感官指标组组成.生物指标组的结果显示,各站位都有大型底栖动物,鲍养殖区处于1,2或者3等级.根据化学指标组(pH值和氧化还原电位Eh)和感官指标组(颜色、气味、气泡、粘稠度等)的监测结果进行了进一步的评价,结果显示,各站位的pH>7.0,为弱碱性,沉积物都无气泡产生,无臭味或硫化氢气味.鲍养殖区的沉积环境状况整体良好,5月和7月为1级,8月和10月为2级.虽然鲍养殖区目前的沉积环境状况较好,但需要注意的是8月和10月Eh<0,沉积环境已经处于还原状态,可能与鲍养殖压力有关.%Sediment environmental parameters were investigated in abalone long-line culture area of Sungo Bay in May, July, August and October, 2010.Impact of abalone long-line culture on the sediment environment was assessed by the method of Norway MOM system ( Modelling-Ongrowing fish farms-Monitoring).Faunal investigation results showed animals larger than 1 mm in the sediment is present, environmental condition was not unacceptable.Chemical investigation and sensory investigation results showed pH of each station was greater than 7.0, no gas bubbles and without H2S smell.Totally, the sediment environment was well, of condition 1 in May and July, condition 2 in August and October.Current situation is good, but it should be pay more attention that, the redox potential values were negative in August and October, the sedimentary environment was in reductive state, which stress may related of abalone long-line culture.

  6. 一株高产琼胶酶菌株MA-B22的分子鉴定与产酶条件优化%Isolation and identification of a bacterium MA-B22 producing agarase and the optimal cultivation of enzyme production

    卢斌; 柯才焕; 杨明; 康康; 赵晶

    2009-01-01

    琼胶酶在多糖降解应用中的作用日益重要,而从海洋微生物中筛选琼胶酶高产菌株成为一个重要途径.本研究从养殖的杂色鲍体内分离到一株高产琼胶酶的菌株MA-B22.该菌为革兰氏阴性菌,经16S rRNA序列鉴定表明,与Tamlana agarivorans sp.nov.具有99%同源性,因此初步定为Tamlana sp..在2216E培养基中该菌株在培养时间60 h,温度25℃,起始pH为6.0条件下产酶活性最高.基于上述培养条件,通过单因素和正交实验确定了培养基的最佳基本组成:氮源为牛肉膏(其最适浓度为6.0‰),碳源为琼脂(其最适浓度为2.5‰),配制培养基的人工海水的最适盐度为25.经培养条件优化后,该菌胞外琼胶酶活力可达1021.79 U/mL,较优化前提高8.82倍.实验首次对Tamlana sp.属的琼胶酶活性进行确定并优化其产酶条件,为构建琼胶酶高产工程菌株提供了基础,并可能为今后鲍养殖提供潜在的益生菌.%Agarase plays a key role in degrading many complex polysaccharides. The screening of agar-degrading bacteria from marine environment and organisms becomes an important means. A gram-negative bacterial strain, MA-B22 with high agarase activity was isolated from small abalone Haliotis diversicolor. By 16S rRNA analysis, this strain has 99% homology to Tamlana agarivorans sp. Nov. , it was named Tamlana sp. In this report. Under 2216E medium, the optimal temperature, pH value and culture time are 25℃, 6.0 and 60h respectively. With one-factor-at-a-time method and orthogonal designed experiment, the optimal compositions of the ferment medium were confirmed. It contained 2.5‰ agar, 6.0‰ beef extract based on the salinity of 25. The highest enzyme activity of agarase was detected by DNS method at 1021.79 U/mL, which is 8.82 times higher than before. MA-B22 demonstrated high-performance characteristics of enzyme production. This is the first report on the agar-degrading Tamlana sp. And optimal cultivation to

  7. The hyperparasite of the rickettsiales-like prokaryote, Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis has morphological characteristics of a Siphoviridae (Caudovirales).

    Cruz-Flores, Roberto; Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy analysis (TEM) of the rickettsiales-like prokaryote, Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis (CXc), pathogen of Haliotis spp. from the West Coast of North America, were found to be infected by a bacteriophage hyperparasite previously described in red abalone from California. The hyperparasite has an icosahedrical-like capsid with a narrow long flexible tail, this morphological characteristic tentatively place this virus in the Family Siphoviridae from the order Caudovirales. TEM images also showed the bacteriophage in different stages of assembly in the cytoplasm of CXc, demonstrating its lytic cycle. PMID:26585301

  8. Effects of offshore oil and gas development activities in southern California on larval settlement

    A series of in situ field experiments were conducted to determine effects of oil and gas drilling activities on the settlement of marine larvae in the deep ocean (180 m). The study sites were a series of three drilling rigs and three reference sites between Pt. Arguello and Pt. Conception in California. Experiments were carried out in both pre-drilling and drilling phases to test the effects of drilling activities (e.g. drilling, drilling mud release, and produced water discharges) on the ability of red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) larvae to settle using an in situ experiment. Their in situ experiment involved reciprocal transplants of settling plates that were ''filmed'' with bacteria from each site. After filming in the field at each of two heights, plates were mounted into chambers, covered with mesh and placed onto recoverable larval arrays for deployment in the field. Before deployment the authors injected approximately 300 competent red abalone larvae into each chamber. One larval array was deployed at each site for three days and each array contained plates filmed at all sites. In addition sterile plates (no surface filming) were included at each site. Upon recovery the number of settled abalone larvae were counted. Therefore, the experiment tested location-related (drilling sites versus reference), waterborne, and height effects on settlement in both the pre-drilling and drilling phases. Their results show that red abalone served as a sensitive indicator for in situ studies of larval settlement. The authors found significantly higher numbers of abalone settling onto plates that were filmed versus those that were not. The authors also found significantly lower settlement rates between the pre-drilling and drilling periods

  9. Cryo-EM structure of isomeric molluscan hemocyanin triggered by viral infection.

    Hongtao Zhu

    Full Text Available Hemocyanins (Hcs of arthropods and mollusks function not only as oxygen transporters, but also as phenoloxidases (POs. In invertebrates, PO is an important component in the innate immune cascade, where it functions as the initiator of melanin synthesis, a pigment involved in encapsulating and killing of pathogenic microbes. Although structures of Hc from several species of invertebrates have been reported, the structural basis for how PO activity is triggered by structural changes of Hc in vivo remains poorly understood. Here, we report a 6.8 Å cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM structure of the isomeric form of hemocyanin, which was isolated from Abalone Shriveling syndrome-associated Virus (AbSV infected abalone (Halitotis diversicolor, and build a pseudoatomic model of isomeric H. diversicolor hemocyanin 1 (HdH1. Our results show that, compared with native form of HdH1, the architecture of isomeric HdH1 turns into a more relaxed form. The interactions between certain functional units (FUs present in the native form of Hc either decreased or were totally abolished in the isomeric form of Hc. As a result of that, native state Hc switches to its isomeric form, enabling it to play its role in innate immune responses against invading pathogens.

  10. Concentration of radioactive cobalt by seaweeds in the food chain

    On the pathway of radioactive substances in marine environments, seaweeds play an important role because of their higher concentration factors for many radionuclides and because they constitute a link of food chain in the sea. In the present work, uptake, distribution and excretion of radioactive cobalt were studied on several kinds of seaweeds by radioisotope tracer experiments under laboratory conditions and concentration factors were calculated. The concentration factors were also estimated from the results of stable cobalt determination by activation analysis or atomic absorption spectrometry on seaweeds and seawater, and compared with the results of tracer expts. The seaweeds showed the species specificity for the concentration of stable and radioactive cobalt with diverse values of concentration factors and biological half-lives. The transfer of radioactive cobalt in the food chain from contaminated seaweeds to mollusca was examined by feeding abalones, Haliotis discus, with four kinds of seaweed labelled with 60Co and observing retention. Absorption rate for radioactive cobalt by abalones calculated at two days after feeding showed diverse values depending upon the species of seaweed, as follows: 47% through Laminaria japonica and Ulva pertusa, 31% through Undaria pinnatifida and 26 through Eisenia bicyclis, respectively. From the results, it was assumed that the accumulation of radioactive cobalt by mollusca is affected by the species of seaweeds as food. A very high concentration of ingested radioactive cobalt in the midgut gland was seen on the autoradiograph of abalone samples. (auth.)