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Sample records for abacates persia americana

  1. Preliminary In Vitro Antisickilng Properties of Crude Juice Extracts of Persia Americana, Citrus Sinensis, Carica Papaya and Ciklavit®

    Iweala, EE J; Uhegbu, FO; Ogu, GN

    2009-01-01

    The antisickling properties of crude juice extracts of the edible portions of three commonly consumed tropical fruits namely Persia americana, Citrus sinensis, and Carica papaya were investigated in vitro alongside a new drug preparation called Ciklavit® that has antisickling activity. Four different solvent extracts of the crude juice of each fruit including aqueous, acidic, alkaline and alcoholic extracts were prepared and their antisickling effects on sickle cell trait (HbAS) and sickle ce...

  2. Experimental study of convective coefficient of mass transfer of avocado (Persia americana Mill.)

    Alves, Suerda Bezerra; Luiz, Marcia Ramos; Amorim, Joselma Araujo de; Gusmao, Rennam Pereira de; Gurgel, Jose Mauricio [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (LES/UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Energia Solar

    2010-07-01

    Most of all energy consumed worldwide comes from fossil fuels derived from petroleum. With the petroleum crisis in the 70 were sought new energy sources, among them renewable. One such source is biodiesel energy, organic matter originated from animal and/or vegetable. Among the various plant species is the avocado (Persia americana Mill.) showing great potential in the production of petroleum extracted from the pulp and the alcohol removed from the seed. The main obstacle for obtaining the petroleum is the high humidity found in the pulp, being necessary to the drying process, which involves the transfer of heat and mass. The aim of this study was to use the mathematical model represented by Newton's Law of Cooling to simulate the mass transfer on the surface of the avocado pulp during the drying process. The equation of the mathematical model was solved numerically and the method of least squares was identified convective coefficient of Mass Transfer. The dryer used in the experimental process was operated with air flow in the vertical, air flow average fixed 3m/s and temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 deg C. The scheme of the dryer used in the research is composed of the following equipment: centrifugal fan, which drives the air-drying; valve, which allows control of airflow; electrical resistance, used for heating air; the drying chamber, where enables measurement of temperature and relative humidity; support for smaller trays; trays smaller, where the samples of the pulp of the avocado are placed; exit of the air of drying for the environment. The result presented shows the ratio of moisture content as a function of temperature over time, where it is possible to also observe that how much bigger the temperature of drying, greater will be the convective coefficient of mass transfer of the avocado. (author)

  3. Quality of fresh-cut avocado (Persea americana Mill. stored under different temperatures Qualidade de abacates (Persea americana Mill. minimally processados armazenados sob diferentes temperaturas

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of different storage temperatures on the quality maintenance of fresh-cut 'Fortuna' avocado (Persea americana Mill.. The fruit was selected, washed and sanitized with sodium hypochlorite solution (190 ppm total residual chlorinee for 15 minutes. After that, the tip was cut and the fruit was also cut in halves, peeled and the pit removed, manually. Then the halves were immersed in 0.5% calcium chlorite + 0.5% cysteine solution for 2 minutes, to avoid darkening and packed in rigid plastic covered with 20 micrometer thick plastic wrap (PVC film with a permeability to O2, CO2 and water vapor of 15,000, 80,000 and 390 cm³/m²/day, respectively. The product was stored under 3 different temperatures 0, 5, 10ºC and evaluated at 5 different storege periods of 0, 2, 3, 5 and 6 days, in a randomized design in a 3x5 factorial. The storage of fresh-cut avocado at 5ºC is the best alternative because it determines better maintenance of quality of the avocado. These presented lower darkening of pulp, better scores for appearance and acceptability, lower softening and polyphenoloxidase activity, in comparison to those stored at 0 and 10ºC. The fresh-cut avocados stored at 5ºC presented a shelf life of 5 days, based, mainly on, appearance, score 7.3, sited between the concepts "like moderately" and "like very much" on a hedonic scale of 9 points and 86% of acceptability, at the end of 5 days of storage.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas de armazenamento na manutenção da qualidade de abacates 'Fortuna' (Persea americana Mill. minimally processados. Os frutos foram lavados e sanificados em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (190 ppm de cloro residual total por 15 minutos. Posteriormente, efetuou-se a retirada da extremidade onde se insere o pedúnculo, o corte em metades, retirada do caroço e casca, manualmente. Em seguida, as metades foram imersas em solução com cloreto de cálcio 0

  4. Tolerância a baixas temperaturas de cultivares de abacate (Persea americana Mill.

    Soares Nilberto Bernardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento realizado no Núcleo de Agronomia do Sudoeste/IAC, em Capão Bonito (SP, observou-se o comportamento de 13 cultivares de abacate com seis anos de idade: Geada, Pollock e Simmonds (raça antilhana; Antoniolli, Breda, Campinas, Ermor, Jumbo, Margarida, Ouro verde, Reis e Solano (híbridos de antilhana x guatemalense e Fuerte (híbrido de mexicana x guatemalense em relação às baixas temperaturas. As temperaturas do ar registradas no posto meteorológico do local foram: -2,8degreesC; -0,4degreesC; -0,2degreesC e -1,8degreesC, respectivamente, nos dias 17; 18; 20 e 21 de julho de 2000. A cultivar Fuerte mostrou-se mais tolerante às baixas temperaturas, não apresentando injúrias nas plantas nem queda de frutos; as cultivares híbridas de antilhana x guatemalense apresentaram diferenças de tolerância ao frio; enquanto as antilhanas foram severamente injuriadas.

  5. Cinética de inativação da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase de abacate (Persea americana Mill.) Kinetic of inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase of avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

    Rúbia Caroline Luíz; Talita Akemi Medeiros Hirata; Edmar Clemente

    2007-01-01

    Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill.) dos cultivares Quintal, Fortuna e Choquete, em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro). A polpa de abacate (150,00g) foi homogeneizada em liquidificador, com 300 mL de solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM em pH 7,4 para polifenoloxidase (PPO) e pH 6,0 para peroxidase (POD). A peroxidase ionicamente ligada foi extraída usando solução de NaCl 1,0M, em tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM pH 6,0. Para o est...

  6. Quality of fresh-cut avocado (Persea americana Mill.) stored under different temperatures Qualidade de abacates (Persea americana Mill.) minimally processados armazenados sob diferentes temperaturas

    Ana Carla Marques Pinheiro; Eduardo Valério de Barros Vilas Boas; Lucas Carvalho e Silva; Alessandra de Paiva Alves; Marcelo La Selva; Adimilson Bosco Chitarra

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of different storage temperatures on the quality maintenance of fresh-cut 'Fortuna' avocado (Persea americana Mill.). The fruit was selected, washed and sanitized with sodium hypochlorite solution (190 ppm total residual chlorinee) for 15 minutes. After that, the tip was cut and the fruit was also cut in halves, peeled and the pit removed, manually. Then the halves were immersed in 0.5% calcium chlorite + 0.5% cysteine solution for 2 minutes, t...

  7. Cinética de inativação da polifenoloxidase e peroxidase de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Kinetic of inactivation of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase of avocado (Persea americana Mill.

    Rúbia Caroline Luíz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Extratos enzimáticos foram preparados a partir da polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill. dos cultivares Quintal, Fortuna e Choquete, em dois estádios de maturação (verde e maduro. A polpa de abacate (150,00g foi homogeneizada em liquidificador, com 300 mL de solução tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM em pH 7,4 para polifenoloxidase (PPO e pH 6,0 para peroxidase (POD. A peroxidase ionicamente ligada foi extraída usando solução de NaCl 1,0M, em tampão fosfato de sódio 100mM pH 6,0. Para o estudo da estabilidade térmica, os extratos foram submetidos a temperaturas de 60, 65, 70, 75 e 80ºC e por períodos que variaram de 1 à 10 minutos e a atividade enzimática foi determinada por espectrofotometria (lambda= 395nm para PPO e lambda= 460nm para POD. Pode-se observar que o declínio rápido da atividade das enzimas era maior nos primeiros quatro minutos e após esse período, com o aumento da temperatura e do tempo, a atividade continuou diminuindo, porém de forma mais lenta. A energia de ativação na faixa de temperatura estudada para as porções termolábil e termorresistente, apresentou valores dentro da faixa 12-100 kcal/mol.Enzymatic extracts were prepared from the avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill., using the cultivars Quintal, Fortuna and Choquete, in two different maturation stages (green and mature avocados. The avocado pulp (150,00g was homogenized in blender with 300 mL of sodium phosphate buffer 100mM at pH 7.4 for polyphenoloxidase (PPO and pH 6.0 for peroxidase (POD. The peroxidase ionically bound was extracted using NaCl solution 1.0M in sodium phosphate buffer 100mM pH 6.0. For the study of the thermal stability the extracts were submitted at temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80ºC for periods that had a variation from 1 to 10 minutes and the enzymatic activity was determined using a spectrophotometer (lambda= 395nm for PPO and lambda= 460nm for POD. It was possible to observe a fast decline of the enzyme activity in

  8. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill.) Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill)

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza; Simone Rodrigues da Silva; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de Toledo

    2002-01-01

    O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae) em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.). Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA). Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP); descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP). Observou-se que a atrat...

  9. COMPOSIÇÃO DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DO ÓLEO DO MESOCARPO E DA SEMENTE DE CULTIVARES DE ABACATE (PERSEA AMERICANA, MILL.) DA REGIÃO DE RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP

    Gisele Lucia MASSAFERA; José Eduardo DUTRA DE OLIVEIRA; Telma Maria BRAGA COSTA

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e determinar os ácidos graxos dos óleos do mesocarpo e da semente de abacates da região de Ribeirão Preto – SP. Para realização do trabalho foram utilizados frutos de abacateiros (Persea americana, Mill.) cultivares Fortuna, Ouro Verde e Princesa. O óleo foi obtido através de extração com solvente a quente (Soxhlet) e após a esterificação, as amostras foram injetadas em cromatógrafo a gás. No óleo do mesocarpo o ácido graxo qu...

  10. Métodos para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera L. em cultura de abacate (Persea americana Mill. Methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. to avocado tree (Persea americana Mill

    Darclet Terezinha Malerbo Souza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente experimento teve como objetivo avaliar métodos de atração da abelha Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae em duas variedades de abacate (Persea americana Mill.. Os atrativos utilizados foram extratos de Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, folha de Citrus sp, folha de Eucaliptus sp. e o eugenol e o linalol (SIGMA. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: coberto; descoberto pulverizado (DP; descoberto com tubos e descoberto não pulverizado (DNP. Observou-se que a atratividade das substâncias testadas desapareceu minutos após a sua aplicação, utilizando ou não a glicerina, em ambas as variedades. A pulverização dos extratos de falsa melissa, folhas de eucalipto e folhas de laranja apresentaram um aumento no número de abelhas Apis mellifera, na variedade Quintal. Os dados mostraram que a freqüência das abelhas A. mellifera foi maior na variedade Quintal comparada à variedade Fortuna. Isto pode ter ocorrido devido à maior concentração de açúcares do néctar de suas flores. Observou-se que as abelhas A. mellifera preferiram visitar as flores do abacateiro da variedade Quintal, tanto para néctar quanto para coleta de pólen, comparada à variedade Fortuna. Com relação aos frutos, nenhuma das características apresentou diferença significativa entre os tratamentos, em ambas as variedades. Entretanto, observou-se que na variedade Quintal os frutos decorrentes dos tratamentos DP e DNP foram mais pesados, mais compridos e com maior espessura da polpa, comparados ao único fruto obtido do tratamento coberto. Os produtos testados em tubos não foram eficientes para atrair a abelha Apis mellifera, em ambas as variedades.The present experiment was carried out to evaluate some methods to attract honeybee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera, Apidae to two avocado varieties (Persea americana Mill.. Extracts of Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum basilicum, Lippia alba, Citrus sp leaf, Eucalyptus sp leaf, the eugenol and linalol

  11. Efeito do abacate (Persea americana Mill variedade hass na lipidemia de ratos hipercolesterolêmicos Effect of the hass avocado (American Persea Mill on hipercolesterolemic rats

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os fitonutrientes podem ser encontrados em muitas frutas, sendo o abacate o mais rico em beta-sitosterol (fitoesterol e glutationa. O fitoesterol é uma substância de origem vegetal cuja estrutura é muito similar a do colesterol e seu mecanismo de ação envolve a inibição intestinal de absorção do colesterol e diminuição da síntese de colesterol hepático. O efeito é exercido sobre os valores de colesterol plasmático total e LDL, sem afetar os níveis de HDL e triglicérides sanguíneos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo analisar a influência do consumo de farinha de abacate variedade Hass nos níveis séricos de colesterol total, HDL, LDL, triglicérides, colesterol hepático e excretado. Estes parâmetros foram investigados em ratos Wistar hipercolesterolêmicos durante 30 e 60 dias de experimento. Ao final de 30 dias, a dieta com 15% de abacate mostrou ser mais efetiva para reduzir os níveis de colesterol total e LDL e aumentar o HDL em comparação ao controle. Foi observado que para o teor de colesterol excretado a melhor dieta foi a de 25% de abacate, pois quanto maior a concentração de abacate, maior a excreção de colesterol. A dieta com 15% e 25% de abacate, foram as que mais influenciaram nos níveis de colesterol hepático.Phytonutrients can be found in fruits, and the avocado contains four times more beta-sitosterol (phytosterol and it is one of the best glutathione sources. The phytosterol is a vegetable substance whose structure is very similar to the cholesterol one and its action mechanism involves the intestinal inhibition of cholesterol absorption and the synthesis of hepatic cholesterol. The effect has an influence on the values of total plasmatic cholesterol and LDL without affecting the levels of HDL and triglycerides. The present work had the objective to analyze the influence of the consumption of the Hass avocado on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, and hepatic and excreted

  12. O óleo de abacate (Persea americana Mill) como matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia The avocado oil (Persea americana Mill) as a raw material for the food industry

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado; Flávia Danieli; Marisa Aparecisa Bismara Regitano-D'arce; Andrea Frias; Débora Niero Mansi

    2008-01-01

    Hábitos de vida saudáveis e uma dieta balanceada aliados ao alto consumo de frutas e vegetais estão associados à redução do risco de doenças e à manutenção da saúde. O óleo de abacate possui em sua composição substâncias bioativas capazes de prevenir e controlar as dislipidemias. Como existem poucas pesquisas científicas avaliando o potencial deste óleo para o consumo humano, o presente trabalho estudou os processos de extração e refino do óleo de abacate. Para tanto, procedeu-se à separação ...

  13. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado seed extracts Composição química, toxicidade, atividade larvicida e antifúngica de extratos de semente de Persea americana (abacate

    João Jaime Giffoni Leite

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2.37 and 24.13mg mL-1 respectively. Against Aedes aegypti larvae, the LC50 results obtained were 16.7mg mL-1 for hexane extract and 8.87mg mL-1 for methanol extract from avocado seeds. The extracts tested were also active against all the yeast strains tested in vitro, with differing results such that the minimum inhibitory concentration of the hexane extract ranged from 0.625 to 1.25mg L-¹, from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1 and from 0.031 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration for the methanol extract ranged from 0.125 to 0.625mg mL-1, from 0.08 to 0.156mg mL-1 and from 0.312 to 0.625mg mL-1, for the strains of Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis, respectively.O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes do abacate, a fim de determinar sua toxicidade em Artemia salina, avaliar a atividade larvicida frente ao Aedes aegypti, bem como verificar o potencial antifúngico in vitro contra cepas de Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans e Malassezia pachydermatis, através da técnica de microdiluição. Os extratos hexânico e metanólico das sementes de abacate apresentaram no teste de toxicidade frente à Artemia salina, valores de LC50 2,37 e 24,13mg L-1, respectivamente; contra as larvas do Aedes aegypti os resultados obtidos foram LC50 16,7mg L-1 para o extrato hexânico e 8,87mg

  14. O óleo de abacate (Persea americana Mill como matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia The avocado oil (Persea americana Mill as a raw material for the food industry

    Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hábitos de vida saudáveis e uma dieta balanceada aliados ao alto consumo de frutas e vegetais estão associados à redução do risco de doenças e à manutenção da saúde. O óleo de abacate possui em sua composição substâncias bioativas capazes de prevenir e controlar as dislipidemias. Como existem poucas pesquisas científicas avaliando o potencial deste óleo para o consumo humano, o presente trabalho estudou os processos de extração e refino do óleo de abacate. Para tanto, procedeu-se à separação da polpa das outras partes da fruta. A polpa fresca foi seca em estufa, e posteriormente moída para a obtenção de um farelo. O óleo obtido do farelo foi extraído e caracterizado. Os resultados mostraram que os processos de extração e refino do óleo a partir da variedade Margarida são tecnicamente viáveis, o que o torna excelente matéria-prima para a indústria alimentícia. Além disso, possui um perfil de ácidos graxos e esteróis muito semelhante ao perfil do azeite de oliva, podendo desta forma, substituir o óleo de soja e ser utilizado juntamente com o azeite de oliva nos óleos mistos, oferecendo ao consumidor brasileiro um produto de qualidade superior e com menor custo.Healthy life habits and an adequate diet, together with a high intake of fruits and vegetables, are associated with reducing the risk of diseases and maintaining health. The avocado oil has bioactive substances that can prevent and control the hyperlipidemia. Since there is little scientific research evaluating the oil potential for human consumption, the present work studied the extraction and refining process of the avocado oil. Firstly, the pulp was extracted from the fruit. The fresh pulp was dried in a stove and then grounded for obtaining the bran. The oil obtained from de bran was extracted and characterized. The results showed that the extraction and refining process of the Margarida avocado variety is technically feasible, and it is an

  15. COMPOSIÇÃO DE ÁCIDOS GRAXOS DO ÓLEO DO MESOCARPO E DA SEMENTE DE CULTIVARES DE ABACATE (PERSEA AMERICANA, MILL. DA REGIÃO DE RIBEIRÃO PRETO, SP

    Gisele Lucia MASSAFERA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e determinar os ácidos graxos dos óleos do mesocarpo e da semente de abacates da região de Ribeirão Preto – SP. Para realização do trabalho foram utilizados frutos de abacateiros (Persea americana, Mill. cultivares Fortuna, Ouro Verde e Princesa. O óleo foi obtido através de extração com solvente a quente (Soxhlet e após a esterificação, as amostras foram injetadas em cromatógrafo a gás. No óleo do mesocarpo o ácido graxo que apresentou maior concentração foi o ácido oléico, com teores entre 31,77 e 50,30%, seguido pelo ácido palmítico, com teores entre 20,73 e 32,54%. Os teores de ácidos graxos do óleo do mesocarpo mostraram-se diferentes da semente e variaram entre os cultivares. No óleo do mesocarpo o ácido graxo que apresentou maior concentração foi o ácido oléico, com teores entre 31,77 e 50,30%, seguido pelo ácido palmítico, com teores entre 20,73 e 32,54%. No óleo da semente, o ácido graxo que apresentou maior concentração foi o ácido oléico com teores entre 11,69 e 35,83%, seguido pelo ácido linoléico cujos teores variaram entre 23,28 e 29,98%. No presente estudo pudemos concluir que há uma variabilidade nas concentrações de ácidos graxos entre os diferentes cultivares e também entre a semente e o mesocarpo de cada cultivar.

  16. Determinação enzimática de dopamina em formulações farmacêuticas utilizando sistema de análise por injeção em fluxo com extrato bruto de abacate (Persea americana) Enzimatic determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulations using a flow injection analysis system with avocado (Persea americana) crude extract

    Karina Omuro Lupetti; Luiz Antônio Ramos; Orlando Fatibello-Filho

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system using a crude extract of avocado (Persea americana) as a source of polyphenol oxidase to dopamine determination was developed. The substrates and enzyme concentrations from 2.4x10-7 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 and 28 to 332 units mL-1 were evaluated, respectively. In addition, the FIA parameters such as sample loop (50 to 500 µL), flow rate (1.4 to 4.3 mL min-1) and reactor length (100 to 500 cm) were also evaluated in a 0.1 mol ...

  17. Armazenamento refrigerado de abacates 'Hass'

    Juliana Rodrigues Donadon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar a ocorrência de injúria pelo frio em abacates 'Hass'. Na primeira Etapa, os abacates foram armazenados a 5ºC (77% UR, 10ºC (79% UR e 15ºC (79% UR por até 21 dias. Aos 7; 14 e 21dias de armazenamento, um lote com 36 frutos foi levado ao ambiente (22°C e 77% UR para amadurecimento. Testou-se também o armazenamento a 2°C (74% UR e 4°C (77% UR por até 45 dias, sendo que aos 15; 30 e 45 dias, um lote com a mesma quantidade de frutos foi levado ao ambiente, mantido a 22°C e 77% UR. Frutos armazenados ao ambiente, desde o início, foram considerados testemunha. Avalaram-se a aparência e a luminosidade da polpa. Os frutos armazenados a 10°C e 15°C não apresentaram sintomas de injúrias pelo frio, que foram observados nos frutos armazenados a 2°C, por períodos superiores a 15 dias, e nos mantidos a 4°C, por 30 dias. Quando levados ao ambiente, os frutos armazenados a 2°C conservaram aparência aceitável para o consumo (nota = 3 por até10 dias, e os armazenados a 4°C, por até 12 dias. Na segunda Etapa, analisaram-se a intensidade respiratória e a atividade das enzimas peroxidase (POD, polifenoloxidase (PPO, poligalacturonase (PG e pectinametilesterase (PME nos frutos armazenados a 2ºC, por 45 dias, em comparação com os testemunha. A atividade das enzimas associadas ao escurecimento, POD e PPO, assim como das associadas ao amaciamento da polpa, PME e PG, foi inibida pelo armazenamento a 2ºC, mas readquiriram atividade mais elevada que nos frutos-testemunha, quando foram transferidos ao ambiente, indicando estímulo devido aos danos pelo frio.

  18. The use of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60 to control avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit of Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae).; Uso da radiacao gama do Cobalto-60, para controlar a broca-do-abacate Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) e seus efeitos na qualidade do fruto de Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae)

    Silva, Lilian Karla Figueira da

    2004-07-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of Gamma radiation of Cobalt-60, in the avocado moth Stenoma catenifer Walsingham, 1912 (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and its effects on the quality of the fruit Persea americana (Miller) (Lauraceae). For this research, insects were irradiated in ali phases of their life cycle with doses varying from O to 600 Gy and they were maintained at the temperature of 25 +- 2 deg C, humidity of 70 +- 10% and photo phase of 14 h. The species was raised on natural diet, avocado seeds. The cultivar fruits Geada were irradiated with doses that varied from 0 to 150 Gy, maintained for 15 days at room temperature (20 a 35 deg C and humidity of 70 - 80 %) and 30 days at a temperature of 10 deg C, humidity of 40 - 60 %. The chemical-physics and sensorial analyses were carried out. According to the obtained results, it was verified that the lethal dose of gamma radiation to S. catenifer eggs, was of 75 Gy; for caterpillars and pupas was of 300 Gy. The sterile-dose for upcoming adults from irradiated S. catenifer eggs was of 25 Gy; for upcoming adults from irradiated caterpillars, it was of 100 Gy; for adults coming from irradiated pupas was of 150 Gy and for irradiated adults was of 200 Gy. The irradiation in the avocado fruit, maintained at room temperature for 7 days of storage, caused change in the coloration of the fruit (dark spots and yellowish coloration) and more firmness. The sensorial characteristics were kept and the irradiated fruit was the chosen one as favorite for tasting. The irradiated fruits that were kept at 10 deg C, obtained an increase in the storage period, without changing their chemical physics characteristics. The coloration of the fruits was kept, more firmness and a subtle acidity taste increase, being effective in the conservation of the fruits and in the maintenance of their sensorial characteristics. The use of the gamma radiation as treatment quarantine of S. catenifer it was efficient, should be treated them with

  19. From Cyrus to Abbas: staging Persia in Early Modern England

    Masood, Hafiz Abid

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers the different ways Persia was perceived in early modern England. Persia, understudied in recent scholarship, played an important role in the early modern English imagination, both as a classical civilization and as a counterweight to the Ottoman threat to Christendom. This classical heritage and anti-Ottomanism, when intersected with a Persian Muslim identity, resulted in a complex phenomenon. This thesis is an attempt to understand the various cross currents that constr...

  20. Caracterização farmacognóstica da droga e do extrato fluido de Persea americana Miller

    Marcia Aparecida Gutierrez; Fernando de Oliveira

    1989-01-01

    As folhas de Persea americana Miller, conhecidas vulgarmente como folhas-de-abacate, foram caracterizadas morfológica e cromatograficamente. A presenga de anetol, estragol e cariofileno foram pesquisadas na droga brasileira. O extrato fluido foi caracterizado através de sua fração flavonóidica.

  1. Inibição do amadurecimento de abacate com 1-metilciclopropeno

    Kluge Ricardo Alfredo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O abacate (Persea americana é um fruto climatérico que apresenta alta taxa respiratória e alta produção de etileno após a colheita, o que o torna altamente perecível. Por isso, o controle do amadurecimento desse fruto é fundamental para o aumento da vida útil de prateleira. Abacates 'Quintal' foram tratados com o bloqueador da ação do etileno 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP nas concentrações de 0, 30, 90 e 270 nL L-1 durante 12 horas a 24masculineC e armazenados sob condições ambientais (24masculineC por nove dias. Diariamente foram analisadas as variáveis coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza de polpa, porcentagem de frutos maduros (firmeza <= 8 Newtons, porcentagem de podridões, taxa respiratória e produção de etileno. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 4 x 10, com quatro repetições de quatro frutos. O 1-MCP reteve o desenvolvimento da coloração da casca e polpa e proporcionou maior firmeza de polpa e menor incidência de podridão nos frutos. Frutos não tratados apresentaram início de amadurecimento após quatro dias a 24masculineC, enquanto nos frutos tratados com 270 nL L-1 de 1-MCP o amadurecimento iniciou após sete dias. Frutos tratados com 1-MCP (270 nL L-1 apresentaram menor taxa respiratória e menor produção de etileno. Os resultados revelam que a aplicação de 1-MCP em abacates é satisfatória para retardar o amadurecimento dos frutos e aumentar a vida de prateleira.

  2. Determinação enzimática de dopamina em formulações farmacêuticas utilizando sistema de análise por injeção em fluxo com extrato bruto de abacate (Persea americana)

    Lupetti Karina Omuro; Ramos Luiz Antônio; Fatibello-Filho Orlando

    2003-01-01

    In this work, a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system using a crude extract of avocado (Persea americana) as a source of polyphenol oxidase to dopamine determination was developed. The substrates and enzyme concentrations from 2.4x10-7 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 and 28 to 332 units mL-1 were evaluated, respectively. In addition, the FIA parameters such as sample loop (50 to 500 mL), flow rate (1.4 to 4.3 mL min-1) and reactor length (100 to 500 cm) were also evaluated in a 0.1 mol L-1 ph...

  3. Determinação enzimática de dopamina em formulações farmacêuticas utilizando sistema de análise por injeção em fluxo com extrato bruto de abacate (Persea americana

    Lupetti Karina Omuro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system using a crude extract of avocado (Persea americana as a source of polyphenol oxidase to dopamine determination was developed. The substrates and enzyme concentrations from 2.4x10-7 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 and 28 to 332 units mL-1 were evaluated, respectively. In addition, the FIA parameters such as sample loop (50 to 500 mL, flow rate (1.4 to 4.3 mL min-1 and reactor length (100 to 500 cm were also evaluated in a 0.1 mol L-1 phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0. Dopamine solution concentrations were determined using 277 units mL-1 enzyme solution, 400 mL enzyme loop, 375 mL sample loop, 2.2 mL min-1 flow rate and a reactor of 350 cm. The analytical curve showed a linearity from 5.3x10-5 to 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 dopamine with a detection limit of 1.3x10-5 mol L-1. The analytical frequency was 46 h-1 and the RSD lower than 0.5% for 5.3x10-4 mol L-1 dopamine solution (n=10. A paired t-test showed that all results obtained for dopamine in commercial formulations using the proposed flow injection procedure and a spectrophotometric procedure agree at the 95% confidence level.

  4. I fiumi e le acque: i paesaggi fluenti della Persia

    Homa Behbahani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The both grandiose chains of mountains of Persia, the Alborz Mountains, which form a circle round the south shore of Caspian Sea, and the Zagres chain, along the NW-S E direction, look onto the vast Dasht-è-Kavir. Desert. A lot of impressive landscapes, civilizations and human settlements (extraordinary villages and towns were originated along the fluvial valleys, where the snows and the waters sloped down from the mountains flow into the rivers before disappearing in the desert. The ancient Persia is still present and manifest itself in the contemporary landscapes of these remote regions where the populations are still well rooted into such a dynamical and flowing life environment. Here waters, plants and fruits provide the fundamental resources and support sedentary and semi nomad people who live together in this ‘steady and flowing realm’: the first in traditional villages, the second along the valleys. Semi nomad tribes and their animals follow their rhythmic seasonal itineraries and meet every season the sedentary people in their village sharing in peace their common steady and flowing realm. Their history is continuously becoming, weaved by the hands of each woman and by the wisdom of the whole nomad group as a complex marvellous carpet, and it is enriched by the seasonal meetings with the sedentary populations in the villages. At the present this intact wonderful condition is menaced of destruction. A big dam could be built at the end of this valley. 

  5. The Not-Forgotten Empire: Images of Persia in English Renaissance Writing

    Grogan, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This essay argues that the image of Persia is a familiar, largely positive and particularly compelling one for English Renaissance readers and writers. It surveys the range of sources of information available, and the kinds of uses to which they were put. Challenging the weight of recent scholarship on the Ottomans which presents them writ large as the representatives of the 'East' for English audiences and readers, I hope to show that the distinctiveness of Persia in the English imagination ...

  6. Polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulp (Persea americana Mill.) Polifenoloxidase e peroxidase na polpa de abacate (Persea americana Mill.)

    Lucimara Salvat Vanini; Angela Kwiatkowski; Edmar Clemente

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase in avocado pulps, from the Northwest area of Paraná-Brazil, in order to compare the varieties on their enzymatic activity for both, minimum and industrial processing. Enzymatic extracts were prepared from avocado pulp of Choquete, Fortuna and Quintal varieties, in green and ripe maturation stage. Thermal treatment was applied with temperatures 60, 65, 70, 75 and 80 °C. The enzymatic...

  7. A Note on the 'Hellenic League against Persia' and the Sanctuary of Zeus at Nemea

    Nielsen, Thomas Heine

    2007-01-01

      The present note discusses why 'The Hellenic League against Persia' made no thank-offering to Zeus at Nemea after its defeat of Xerxes' invasion, even though it did make monumental thank-offerings at the three other great Panhellenic sanctuaries at Delphi, Isthmia and Olympia. It has been argued...

  8. Caracterización de algunos rasgos vegetativos y reproductivos en variedades de aguacate, persea americana mill.

    Escandón Gil Gonzalo; Muñoz F. Jaime Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    En Palmira (Colombia) entre 1984 y 1988 se caracterizó la colección de aguacate, Persia americana Mili. Se halló la ecuación de regresión AF = 89.25 + 0.60 (La -144), R2= 98.58 %, que permite estimar el área foliar (AF) con el producto largo por ancho de las hojas (A). Las variedades Mayapan, Oriente 1, Oriente 3, Simonds y los materiales 2, 3, 4, 5 y 6 presentaron épocas de floración definidas, Trinidad y Material 2 presentaron floraciones bajas pero continuas. El porcentaje de flores que ll...

  9. Non-Classical Order in Sphere Forming ABAC Tetrablock Copolymers

    Zhang, Jingwen; Sides, Scott; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    AB diblock and ABC triblock copolymers have been studied thoroughly. ABAC tetrablock copolymers, representing the simplest variation from ABC triblock by breaking the molecular symmetry via inserting some of the A block in between B and C blocks, have been studied systematically in this research. The model system is poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (SISO) tetrablock terpolymers and the resulting morphologies were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. Two novel phases are first discovered in a single component block copolymers: hexagonally ordered spherical phase and tentatively identified dodecagonal quasicrystalline (QC) phase. In particular, the discovery of QC phase bridges the world of soft matters to that of metals. These unusual sets of morphologies will be discussed in the context of segregation under the constraints associated with the tetrablock molecular architecture. Theoretical calculations based on the assumption of Gaussian chain statistics provide valuable insights into the molecular configurations associated with these morphologies. the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under contract number DEAC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle LLC at Oak Ridge National Lab.

  10. Food and Migration: the Abacería Central Market of Gràcia (Barcelona)

    Medina, F. Xavier; Provansal, Danielle; Montero, Cecilia

    2010-01-01

    Local food markets are, aside from being places for provisioning, spaces for meeting and social interaction. This article engages in an analysis of the social and commercial relations exhibited in the geographical area of the Abacería Central Market, in the neighborhood of Gràcia (Barcelona): a neighborhood that, over the last two decades, has seen a significant rise in the number of residents arriving from other countries (primarily Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe). The Abacería Cen...

  11. ESTABILIDADE DO GUACAMOLE REFRIGERADO ELABORADO COM ABACATE ‘HASS’ E DIFERENTES FORMULAÇÕES

    Érica Regina DAIUTO; VIEITES Rogério Lopes; Danielle Fernandes VILEIGAS; Lídia Raquel de CARVALHO

    2012-01-01

    O abacate é um fruto nutritivo com qualidades que viabilizam o aumento de seu consumo. O abacate processado é uma alternativa, mas, um desafio, não somente pelas dificuldades tecnológicas em se manter a qualidade do produto como também agradar o paladar do consumidor ainda não habituado a esta forma de consumo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a estabilidade do guacamole elaborado com diferentes formulações sendo conservado sob refrigeração, para obter um produto ...

  12. Qualidade do abacate 'HASS' frigoarmazenado submetido a atmosferas modificadas ativas

    Rogério Lopes Vieites

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a conservação do abacate 'Hass'frigoarmazenado submetido a atmosferas modificadas ativas. Os frutos foram acondicionados em embalagem de náilon+polietileno e submetidos à injeção de mistura de gases, constituindo os tratamentos: I - mistura gasosa do ambiente (21,0 kPa de O2+0,03 kPa de CO2; II - 4,0 kPa de O2+5,0kPa de CO2 ; III - 4,0 kPa de O2+6,0 kPa de CO2 ; IV - 4,0 kPa de O2+7,0 kPa de CO2, e V- 4,0 kPa de O2+8,0 kPa de CO2. As embalagens contendo os frutos foram armazenadas em câmara frigorífica, a uma temperatura de 10±1ºC e umidade relativa de 90±5%, durante 25 dias, sendo as análises realizadas a cada 5 dias. As análises realizadas foram perda de massa, atividade respiratória, potencial hidrogeniônico (pH, firmeza, acidez titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS e atividade das enzimas pectinametilesterase (PME e poligalacturonase (PG. O tratamento em que os frutos foram submetidos à pressão parcial de 4,0 kPa de O2+7,0 kPa de CO2 foi o mais efetivo na conservação dos frutos, principalmente pela menor perda de massa e baixa produção de CO2.

  13. Characterisation of five candidate genes within the ETEC F4ab/ac candidate region in pigs

    Jacobsen, Mette Juul; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Joller, David;

    2011-01-01

    dominant Mendelian trait. Indentifying the genetics behind this trait will greatly benefit pig welfare as well as the pig breeding industry by providing an opportunity to select against genetically susceptible animals, thereby reducing the number of diarrhoea outbreaks. The trait has recently been mapped...... between ETEC F4ab/ac resistant and ETEC F4ab/ac susceptible animals in any of the tested tissues. CONCLUSIONS: None of the identified polymorphisms are obvious causative mutations for ETEC F4ab/ac susceptibility, as they have no impact on the level of the overall mRNA expression nor predicted to influence...

  14. Sleep paralysis in medieval Persia – the Hidayat of Akhawayni (? –983 AD

    Golzari SE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Samad EJ Golzari,1 Kazem Khodadoust,5 Farid Alakbarli,6 Kamyar Ghabili,2 Ziba Islambulchilar,3 Mohammadali M Shoja,1 Majid Khalili,1 Feridoon Abbasnejad,1 Niloufar Sheikholeslamzadeh,7 Nasrollah Moghaddam Shahabi,4 Seyed Fazel Hosseini,2 Khalil Ansarin11Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 3Department of Pharmaceutics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences; 4Students' Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences; 6Institute of Manuscripts of the Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, Azerbaijan; 7Faculty of Law, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IranAbstract: Among the first three manuscripts written in Persian, Akhawayni's Hidayat al-muta`allemin fi al-tibb was the most significant work compiled in the 10th century. Along with the hundreds of chapters on hygiene, anatomy, physiology, symptoms and treatments of the diseases of various organs, there is a chapter on sleep paralysis (night-mare prior to description and treatment of epilepsy. The present article is a review of the Akhawayni's teachings on sleep paralysis and of descriptions and treatments of sleep paralysis by the Greek, medieval, and Renaissance scholars. Akhawayni's descriptions along with other early writings provide insight into sleep paralysis during the Middle Ages in general and in Persia in particular.Keywords: sleep paralysis, night-mare, Akhawayni, Persia

  15. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  16. Armazenamento refrigerado de abacates 'Hass' Cold storage of 'Hass' avocado

    Juliana Rodrigues Donadon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou determinar a ocorrência de injúria pelo frio em abacates 'Hass'. Na primeira Etapa, os abacates foram armazenados a 5ºC (77% UR, 10ºC (79% UR e 15ºC (79% UR por até 21 dias. Aos 7; 14 e 21dias de armazenamento, um lote com 36 frutos foi levado ao ambiente (22°C e 77% UR para amadurecimento. Testou-se também o armazenamento a 2°C (74% UR e 4°C (77% UR por até 45 dias, sendo que aos 15; 30 e 45 dias, um lote com a mesma quantidade de frutos foi levado ao ambiente, mantido a 22°C e 77% UR. Frutos armazenados ao ambiente, desde o início, foram considerados testemunha. Avalaram-se a aparência e a luminosidade da polpa. Os frutos armazenados a 10°C e 15°C não apresentaram sintomas de injúrias pelo frio, que foram observados nos frutos armazenados a 2°C, por períodos superiores a 15 dias, e nos mantidos a 4°C, por 30 dias. Quando levados ao ambiente, os frutos armazenados a 2°C conservaram aparência aceitável para o consumo (nota = 3 por até10 dias, e os armazenados a 4°C, por até 12 dias. Na segunda Etapa, analisaram-se a intensidade respiratória e a atividade das enzimas peroxidase (POD, polifenoloxidase (PPO, poligalacturonase (PG e pectinametilesterase (PME nos frutos armazenados a 2ºC, por 45 dias, em comparação com os testemunha. A atividade das enzimas associadas ao escurecimento, POD e PPO, assim como das associadas ao amaciamento da polpa, PME e PG, foi inibida pelo armazenamento a 2ºC, mas readquiriram atividade mais elevada que nos frutos-testemunha, quando foram transferidos ao ambiente, indicando estímulo devido aos danos pelo frio.This study aimed to determine the occurrence of chilling injury in 'Hass' avocado. In the first step, the avocados were stored at 5ºC (77% RH, 10°C (79% RH, and 15ºC (79% RH for up to 21 days. At 7, 14, and 21 days of storage, one lot with 36 fruits was taken to the environment (22°C and 77% RH for maturation. Storage of fruit at 2°C (74% RH and 4

  17. ESTABILIDADE DO GUACAMOLE REFRIGERADO ELABORADO COM ABACATE ‘HASS’ E DIFERENTES FORMULAÇÕES

    Érica Regina DAIUTO

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O abacate é um fruto nutritivo com qualidades que viabilizam o aumento de seu consumo. O abacate processado é uma alternativa, mas, um desafio, não somente pelas dificuldades tecnológicas em se manter a qualidade do produto como também agradar o paladar do consumidor ainda não habituado a esta forma de consumo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a estabilidade do guacamole elaborado com diferentes formulações sendo conservado sob refrigeração, para obter um produto com características e qualidade de fresco. O guacamole foi elaborado com abacate ‘Hass’, sendo realizados três tratamentos que diferiram pela adição de limão, ácido ascórbico e ácido cítrico. O produto foi acondicionado em embalagens de nylon+polietileno com e sem aplicação de vácuo e armazenado sob refrigeração (4o C±1. Avaliação dos parâmetros sensoriais, cor, pH e acidez foi realizada aos 0, 3, 7 e 10 dias de armazenamento. A formulação que continha apenas limão foi a mais instável quanto aos parâmetros avaliados durante o armazenamento refrigerado e as amostras permaneceram aceitáveis ao consumo até o sétimo dia. O produto de abacate pode preservar seu aspecto natural e fresco elaborado com ácido cítrico e ascórbico, sendo armazenado sob refrigeração em embalagens de nylon+polietileno.

  18. Marker-assisted selection on E. coli F4ab/ac resistance and the effect on neonatal survival in piglets

    Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher; Anderson, Susan I.; Cirera, Susanna; Archibald, Alan; Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu; Edfors-Lilja, Inger; Andersson, Leif; Nielsen, Bjarne; Johannsen, Maria N.; Fredholm, Merete

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) that express the F4ab or F4ac fimbriae (formerly known as K88ab/ac) are major causes of diarrhea and death in neonatal and young pigs. A locus controlling susceptibility towards ETEC F4ab/ac has previously been mapped to pig chromosome 13q41. A number of st...

  19. Ewingella Americana: An Emerging True Pathogen

    Syed Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections caused by Ewingella americana have been rarely reported in the literature. Most of the cases that have been reported were among the immunocompromised patients. We report a case of E. americana causing osteomyelitis and septic arthritis of the shoulder joint in a previous intravenous drug abuser. The causative pathogen was identified by synovial fluid analysis and culture.

  20. EL AGUACATERO ( Persea americana MIill)

    Sandra Pérez Álvarez; Graciela Ávila Quezada; Orlando Coto Arbelo

    2015-01-01

    El aguacatero (Persea americana Mill) es el único representante de importancia económica entre las frutas comestibles de la familia Lauraceae y es originario de México y Centro América. Presenta un creciente valor en el mercado internacional no solo por su calidad nutritiva sino también por sus usos medicinales y en la industria cosmética. Este trabajo resume informaciones relacionadas con las investigaciones sobre esta especie y se discuten algunos aspectos relevantes sobre sus vías de conse...

  1. Multi-drug resistant Ewingella Americana

    We report a case of pneumonia due to multi-drug resistant Ewingella Americana in a young patient admitted in the Intensive Care Unit of Hera General Hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia with severe head injury in a road traffic accident. He was an Indonesian pilgrim who had traveled to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform Hajj in December 2007. Ewingella Americana was identified to be the pathogen of pneumonia with clinical signs and symptoms along with positive radiological findings. (author)

  2. Capacidade antioxidante e qualidade pós-colheita de abacate 'Fuerte'

    Rogério Lopes Vieites

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A capacidade antioxidante e a qualidade pós-colheita do abacate 'Fuerte' foram avaliadas. Os frutos foram mantidos sob temperatura ambiente (24 ± 1 ºC e sob refrigeração em 10 ± 1 ºC e 90±5% UR e avaliados durante 15 dias. Determinaram-se a perda de massa e a taxa respiratória. As características físico-químicas avaliadas foram acidez total titulável (AT, sólidos solúveis (SS, ratio, pH, firmeza, atividade da enzima polifenoloxidase (PPO, cor (L, a* e b*, fenólicos totais e atividade antioxidante (AA por DPPH·. Nas duas condições de armazenamento, o pico respiratório ocorreu no 9º dia.Os frutos mantidos sob temperatura refrigerada apresentaram menor perda de massa e maior firmeza em relação àqueles em temperatura ambiente. O comportamento respiratório refletiu na redução dos valores de AT e no conteúdo de SS que diminuíram a partir do pico de respiração. Os valores de pH aumentaram como consequência da diminuição da AT. Os valores de luminosidade mantiveram-se elevados, observando-se diminuição do componente de cor verde na polpa com o armazenamento. A atividade da PPO diminuiu com o armazenamento. Os valores de AA variaram de 17,6 a 68,7%. O conteúdo de fenólicos totais diminuiu após o pico respiratório, e valores crescentes de AA foram observados mesmo após o 9º dia.

  3. Polymorphisms of three gene-derived STS on Pig chromosome 13q41 are associated with susceptibility to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli F4ab/ac in pigs

    HUANG Xiang; REN Jun; YAN XueMing; PENG QiuLing; TANG Huan; ZHANG Bo; JI HuaYuan; YANG ShuJin; HUANG LuSheng

    2008-01-01

    Neonatal diarrhea caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) F4 is a common and serious disease, resulting in significant economical loss in the pig industry. The locus encoding ETEC F4 re-ceptor has been mapped to pig chromosome (SSC) 13q41, and one of the most significantly linked markers is S0075. In this study, we selected three genes including SLC12A8, MYLKand KPNA1 from a chromosomal region flanking S0075 on SSC13 to develop pig specific sequence tagged sites (STS). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the three pig STS using DNA of four full-sib susceptible and resistant animals in a White Duroc × Erhualian intercross. All grandparents, parents and 755 offspring in the intercross were genotyped for three polymorphisms, including SLC12A8 g.159AG, MYLK g.1673AG and KPNA1g.306AG. Family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) revealed that.all polymorphisms and the corresponding haplotypes are significantly associated with ETEC F4ab/ac (especially F4ac) brush border adhesion phenotypes, indicating that these polymor-phism are in linkage disequlibrium with causal mutation(s) of the gene encoding ETEC F4ab/ac receptor. Our results strengthen the evidence for the involvement of SSC13q41 in high acquiring risk of ETEC F4ab/ac infection, and provide novel .polymorphic markers for fine mapping of the ETEC F4ab/ac re-ceptor locus.

  4. Yazdegard I y Bahram Gur : ¿dos reyes judíos de la Persia sasánida del siglo v d.c.?

    Rahimi Jafari, Narges

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo destacaremos la alta posición que adquirieron los representantes de la fe estatal dentro de los apartados del poder sasánida y el peligro que sentían de parte de otras religiones presentes en Persia, como el caso concreto del judaísmo. Religión que se encontraba dentro de las más rechazadas en los textos religiosos persas. Mencionamos algunas de las razones que podrían explicar esta visión negativa hacia el judaísmo. Después partiendo del relato ...

  5. Chemical composition, toxicity and larvicidal and antifungal activities of Persea americana (avocado) seed extracts Composição química, toxicidade, atividade larvicida e antifúngica de extratos de semente de Persea americana (abacate)

    João Jaime Giffoni Leite; Érika Helena Salles Brito; Rossana Aguiar Cordeiro; Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante; José Júlio Costa Sidrim; Luciana Medeiros Bertini; Selene Maia de Morais; Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha

    2009-01-01

    The present study had the aim of testing the hexane and methanol extracts of avocado seeds, in order to determine their toxicity towards Artemia salina, evaluate their larvicidal activity towards Aedes aegypti and investigate their in vitro antifungal potential against strains of Candida spp, Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia pachydermatis through the microdilution technique. In toxicity tests on Artemia salina, the hexane and methanol extracts from avocado seeds showed LC50 values of 2....

  6. ABAC策略语义表示和决策方法%Semantic representation and enforcement methods of ABAC policies

    周加根; 叶春晓; 罗娟

    2013-01-01

    To solve the semantic presentation and enforcement problems of ABAC policies in the open system environment, a method using ontology to define policies is proposed. This method is defined on the basis of a map from ABAC policy model to description logic definitions. Also, it uses SWRL rules to define relations in the system. Based on the policy ontology, a frame-work utilizing close world reasoning and individual realization reasoning service to generate decisions of access request is pro-posed. The correctness of policy enforcement method is proved through its soundness and completeness, and an experiment is showed to verify the feasibility of these methods in a real application.%为解决开放式系统环境中基于属性的访问控制(Attribute-Based Access Control,ABAC)策略语义层次上的表示和决策问题,提出了ABAC策略的本体表示方法。该方法基于ABAC策略模型到描述逻辑定义的映射,使用语义Web规则语言(SWRL)处理系统内部关系定义。在此基础上,提出了基于封闭世界和实例实现推理的策略决策框架。最后从可靠性和完备性两方面说明了决策方法的正确性,验证实验表明了方法在实际应用中的适用性。

  7. Ulmus americana is a polyploid complex

    The elms (the genus Ulmus) are one of the most important tree crops for the $4.7-billion per year nursery industry. The commercial importance of the genus centers on the American elm, Ulmus americana. Once decimated by Dutch Elm Disease, the recent introduction of cultivars resistant to the diseas...

  8. ELABORAÇÃO, COMPOSIÇÃO QUÍMICA E AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE SOBREMESAS LÁCTEAS ACHOCOLATADAS COM ABACATE

    Nathalia SOLER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento de frutas tropicais na elaboração de produtos lácteos tem sido estudado no intuito da valorização destes e na tentativa de agregar maior valor nutricional a tais preparações. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver sobremesas lácteas achocolatadas (SLA com diferentes proporções de abacate e determinar a sua composição centesimal e de compostos antioxidantes, além de veri- fi car a aceitação e atributos destas formulações. Elaboraramse três formulações contendo 28,8% de abacate (FA, 36,3% (FB, e 41,7% (FC. Para o preparo das formulações utilizouse como ingredientes: abacate, açúcar, achocolatado, creme de leite e leite. As análises químicas realizadas foram: composição centesimal, determinação de fenólicos, fl avonoides e antocianinas totais. Os testes sensoriais compreenderam: teste de aceitação com escala hedônica de 9 pontos; teste de preferência por ordenação, e análise de atributos sensoriais. Na composição nutricional a FC apresentou os maiores teores de lipídios, fl avonoides e antocianinas em relação às demais (p<0,05. FA e FB obtiveram as maiores notas no teste de aceitação (7,26 e 6,57 respectivamente e a FA recebeu as maiores médias de preferência (p<0,05. A formulação FA recebeu as maiores notas nos atributos: cor, brilho, aparência, cheiro/aroma e textura. A inclusão de abacate nas SLA promoveu o aumento dos componentes químicos avaliados, principalmente de lipídios e substâncias antioxidantes. Além disso, as SLA podem ser elaboradas com até 36,3% de abacate, pois possuem boa aceitação, e atributos sensoriais favoráveis ao seu consumo.

  9. Caracterización de algunos rasgos vegetativos y reproductivos en variedades de aguacate, Persea americana Mill.

    Escandón Gil Gonzalo

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available En Palmira (Colombia entre 1984 y 1988 se caracterizó la colección de aguacate, Persia americana Mili. Se halló la ecuación de regresión AF = 89.25 + 0.60 (La -144, R2= 98.58 %, que permite estimar el área foliar (AF con el producto largo por ancho de las hojas (A. Las variedades Mayapan, Oriente 1, Oriente 3, Simonds y los materiales 2, 3, 4, 5 y 6 presentaron épocas de floración definidas, Trinidad y Material 2 presentaron floraciones bajas pero continuas. El porcentaje de flores que llegó a frutos osciló entre 0.03 % para Oriente 3 y 0.57 % para Trinidad. La mayor pérdida de estructuras reproductivas ocurrió en los primeros días de floración. El modelo logístico no describió correctamente el desarrollo de los frutos, por esto se utilizó el modelo de línea recta por fases. Los materiales 2 y 5 presentaron 105mayores pesos de frutos (621 y 626 g; el de menor peso fue Booth 8. La pérdida de peso del fruto durante la maduración fluctuó entre 3.5 Y 12.8 % para el material 2 y Oriente 3 respectivamente. Los materiales de mayor aceptación por la presentación del fruto y sabor fueron los materiales 1, 2 y 5.A collection of avocado, Persea americana Mill, was characterized in Palmira (Colombia between1984 and 1988. It was found that regretion equation AF = 89.25 + 0.60 (LA-144, R2 = 98.58 %, allows to estimate the foliar area with the product length x width of the leaves. The Mayapan, Oriente 1, Oriente 3, Simmonds and Materia.1 2,3,4,5,6, varieties showed defined blooming time, Trinidad and Material 2 showed low and continue blooming times. The percentajes of flowers that matured in fruit fluctuated between 0.03 % of Oriente 3 and 0.57 % for Trinidad. The greater loss proportion of reproductive structures occurred during the first days of flowering. The logistic model did not describe the right developments of fruits, that is why a straight line model by stages was used. Material 2 and 5 showed the greatest fruit weights during

  10. Food and Migration: the Abacería Central Market of Gràcia (Barcelona) Le Marché Central de l’Abaceria à Gracia (Barcelone): mixages et métissages des goûts

    F.Xavier Medina; Danielle Provansal; Cecilia Montero

    2010-01-01

    Local food markets are, aside from being places for provisioning, spaces for meeting and social interaction. This article engages in an analysis of the social and commercial relations exhibited in the geographical area of the Abacería Central Market, in the neighborhood of Gràcia (Barcelona): a neighborhood that, over the last two decades, has seen a significant rise in the number of residents arriving from other countries (primarily Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe). The Abacería Cen...

  11. Algunas orquidáceas americanas

    Williams, Louis O.

    2012-01-01

    La presente contribución al conocimiento de las Orquidáceas americanas trata de algunas especies de México, América Central, Sur América y las Antillas. Estas notas son el resultado de determinaciones de varios ejemplares colectados en tales regiones, y que se hallan depositados en el Ames Herbarium, Cambridge, Mass., el United States National Museum, Washington, D. C., el New York Botanical Garden Herbarium, Nueva York, o en el Herbarium of the Missouri Botanical Garden, St.Louis, Missouri....

  12. O novo na sociologia latino-americana

    Costilla Lucio Oliver

    2005-01-01

    O artigo analisa varias caraterísticas atuais das ciências sociais latino-americanas em paralelo ao desenvolvimento da América Latina nos últimos anos. O ponto de partida é o sinal de que a combinação contraditória no continente latino-americano entre uma intelectualidade que tem um elevado nível cultural e a existência de movimentos sociais e políticos numa situação social explosiva, gera amplas possibilidades para o desenvolvimento da sociologia. A crise das ciências sociais acompanha estas...

  13. Métodos de proteção de mudas de abacate contra geada em diferentes cultivares Frost protection covers methods for avocado in different cultivars

    Ubirajara Ribeiro Mindêllo Neto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na EMBRAPA Transferência de Tecnologia/SNT, localizado em Canoinhas-SC, Planalto Norte Catarinense. O objetivo foi avaliar a tolerância ao frio de oito cultivares de abacate (Choquette, Vitória, Herculano, Quintal, Linda, Tonnage, Fuerte e Ryan plantadas em maio de 2003, utilizando dois métodos de proteção da muda contra geadas (galhos de eucalipto e galhos de eucalipto + sombrite. Em setembro do mesmo ano, estes materiais que protegiam as mudas, foram retirados e foram atribuídas notas para avaliar o grau de dano nas plantas. Não houve diferença entre as cultivares de abacate em relação à tolerância ao frio, independentemente do tipo de proteção. Entretanto, comparados os dois métodos avaliados, a utilização de galhos de eucalipto associado ao uso de sombrite foi mais eficiente na proteção de plantas jovens de abacate quando comparado ao uso de galhos de eucalipto.The experiment was carried out at EMBRAPA Technology Transfer Office at Canoinhas, Santa Catarina State, Northern Highland area. The aim was to evaluate the tolerance for low temperature in eight varieties of avocado (Choquette, Vitória, Herculano, Quintal, Linda, Tonnage, Fuerte and Ryan planted in May of 2003 using two methods of covers for avocado maiden trees (eucalyptus branches and eucalyptus branches plus sombrite. In September, in the same year, the covers were removed and ranked by scores to evaluate the degree of frost injury on plants. There were no difference between avocado varieties in relation of covers methods. However, comparing the two covers methods, the use of eucalyptus branches plus sombrite was better than the use of eucalyptus branches, in young plants of avocado.

  14. Infrared thermography applied to rhea (Rhea americana

    Jânio Lopes Torquato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infrared thermography is an innovative tool that has been used in several studies involving animal. This tool used to study heat stress, thermoregulation, behavior, disease diagnosis, mainly in the animal production and animal welfare. Wild birds are animals that get tense with the presence of man in his environment, causing changes in its thermal physiology and behavior. In the Brazilian semiarid, high temperatures cause further stress the birds, in studies involving animal welfare and animal production is important to use procedures and tools that do not cause stress to the animal, hence the implementation of infrared thermography. The Rhea americana is a wild bird, native to Brazil, which is gaining market share because of its meat is healthy and other products that are extracted from it. Little is known about the thermal physiology and behavior of this ratita, it is essential to improve poultry facilities in order to provide a pleasant environment and increase production. Birds and other ratites as the ostrich, emu, kiwi and cassowary use some body areas to dissipate body heat, the areas are: legs, beak and neck. All these body areas used by birds to dissipate heat were found using infrared thermography. Being a ratita, Rhea Americana can use the same body regions to reduce heat stress. So, infrared thermography is critical to the thermoregulatory studies of rheas in hot environments.

  15. Final Critical Habitat for the Whooping crane (Grus americana)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where the final critical habitat for Whooping crane (Grus americana) occur based on the description provided in the...

  16. International Recovery Plan : Whooping Crane (Grus americana) : Third Revision

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the United States, the whooping crane (Grus americana) was listed as threatened with extinction in 1967 and endangered in 1970 – both listings were...

  17. A New Pregnane Glycoside from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    2002-01-01

    A new minor pregnane glycoside was isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Its structure was elucidated as (20S)-5α-pregnane-3β, 20-diol 20-O-β-D-glucopyrano- side (1) by spectral methods.

  18. Antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activities of Persea americana seeds

    Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Luna-Herrera, Julieta; Ruiz-Nicolás, Ricardo; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Tapia, Amparo; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián

    2013-01-01

    Background Persea americana seeds are widely used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat rheumatism, asthma, infectious processes as well as diarrhea and dysentery caused by intestinal parasites. Methods The chloroformic and ethanolic extracts of P. americana seeds were prepared by maceration and their amoebicidal, giardicidal and trichomonicidal activity was evaluated. These extracts were also tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, four mono-resistant and two multidrug resistant ...

  19. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana no Distrito Federal

    Sampaio Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos aqui 11 casos de leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA em pacientes que residem no DF e que não saíram da sua área durante um tempo que variou de seis meses a dois anos antes do início da doença. Seis dos 11 pacientes, residem na cidade satélite de Planaltina. Todos têm a intradermorreação de Montenegro positiva. Dez deles têm presença de leishmânia nas lesões. Nas lesões de dois pacientes foram identificadas, pelo método de anticorpos monoclonais, Leishmania (V braziliensis. Nove deles, foram tratados com antimonial pentavalente e dois com pentamidina. Houve duas ocorrências de recidiva, ambas, após o uso do antimonial. Constatada a presença de vetores e de pacientes infectados no Distrito Federal, acredita-se que possa estar ocorrendo infecção por leishmânia em Brasília e em suas áreas periurbanas.

  20. Assimilate partitioning in avocado, Persea americana

    Finazzo, S.; Davenport, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Assimilate partitioning is being studied in avocado, Persea americana cv. Millborrow in relation to fruit set. Single leaves on girdled branches of 10 year old trees were radiolabeled for 1 hr with 13..mu..Ci of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. The source leaves were sampled during the experiment to measure translocation rates. At harvest the sink tissues were dissected and the incorporated radioactivity was measured. The translocation of /sup 14/C-labelled compounds to other leaves was minimal. Incorporation of label into fruitlets varied with the tissue and the stage of development. Sink (fruitlets) nearest to the labelled leaf and sharing the same phyllotaxy incorporated the most /sup 14/C. Source leaves for single non-abscising fruitlets retained 3X more /sup 14/C-labelled compounds than did source leaves for 2 or more fruitlets at 31 hrs. post-labelling. Export of label decreased appreciably when fruitlets abscised. If fruitlets abscised within 4 days of labeling then the translocation pattern was similar to the pattern for single fruitlets. If the fruitlet abscised later, the translocation pattern was intermediate between the single and double fruitlet pattern.

  1. Assimilate partitioning in avocado, Persea americana

    Assimilate partitioning is being studied in avocado, Persea americana cv. Millborrow in relation to fruit set. Single leaves on girdled branches of 10 year old trees were radiolabeled for 1 hr with 13μCi of 14CO2. The source leaves were sampled during the experiment to measure translocation rates. At harvest the sink tissues were dissected and the incorporated radioactivity was measured. The translocation of 14C-labelled compounds to other leaves was minimal. Incorporation of label into fruitlets varied with the tissue and the stage of development. Sink (fruitlets) nearest to the labelled leaf and sharing the same phyllotaxy incorporated the most 14C. Source leaves for single non-abscising fruitlets retained 3X more 14C-labelled compounds than did source leaves for 2 or more fruitlets at 31 hrs. post-labelling. Export of label decreased appreciably when fruitlets abscised. If fruitlets abscised within 4 days of labeling then the translocation pattern was similar to the pattern for single fruitlets. If the fruitlet abscised later, the translocation pattern was intermediate between the single and double fruitlet pattern

  2. Seventy microsatellite markers from Persea americana Miller (avocado) expressed sequence tags

    Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) for Persea americana Mill. were investigated to expand upon the number of informative microsatellite markers available for avocado. Seventy informative loci were discovered using twenty-four P. americana var. americana Mill. accessions. The number of alleles detected r...

  3. Food and Migration: the Abacería Central Market of Gràcia (Barcelona Le Marché Central de l’Abaceria à Gracia (Barcelone: mixages et métissages des goûts

    F.Xavier Medina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Local food markets are, aside from being places for provisioning, spaces for meeting and social interaction. This article engages in an analysis of the social and commercial relations exhibited in the geographical area of the Abacería Central Market, in the neighborhood of Gràcia (Barcelona: a neighborhood that, over the last two decades, has seen a significant rise in the number of residents arriving from other countries (primarily Latin America, Africa and Eastern Europe. The Abacería Central Market and the synergy created among the different market stalls and businesses in the market’s immediate vicinity (whether these are ethnic or not define a material and social space in the neighborhood that is key for understanding the social relations that are established at the local level.Les marchés locaux d'alimentation sont des espaces de rencontre et d'interaction sociale, outre leur fonction d'approvisionnement. Cet article propose une analyse des liens sociaux et commerciaux qui se déploient dans l'enceinte du marché de l'Abacería, dans le quartier barcelonais de Gracia; c'est un quartier qui, durant les deux dernières décennies, a connu une augmentation significative du nombre de résidents en provenance principalement d'Amérique latine, d' Afrique et d'Europe de l'Est. Le marché central de l'Abacería établit des synergies entre les différent étals, ainsi qu'avec les commerces avoisinants (de caractère ethnique ou non qui définissent le quartier comme espace matériel et social et s'avèrent être fondamentaux pour comprendre comment s'agencent les rapports sociaux, à l'échelon local.

  4. ALKALOIDS FROM SEVERAL SUBCULTURES OF Erythrina americana Miller CALLUSES

    M. R. García-Mateos; R. M. Soto-Hernández; R. J. M. Gutiérrez; A. Villegas-Monter

    2005-01-01

    Se detectaron alcaloides del tipo isoquinolínico en callos y semillas de la especie Erythrina Americana Miller, los cuales fueron identificados por la técnica de cromatografía de líquidos acoplada a espectrometría de masas. Se estudió el efecto de los subcultivos en la producción de alcaloides de E. americana Miller, realizando siete subcultivos dse callos. La comparación del extracto metanólico obtenido a partir de semillas y de cotiledones con los de los siete subcultivos de callos de E. am...

  5. Aspectos quimiotaxonómicos en Myristicaceae Americanas Aspectos quimiotaxonómicos en Myristicaceae Americanas

    Aguirre Gálviz Luis Enrique

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Se hace un análisis del patrón de distribución de agliconas de flavonoides y ácidos hidroxiaromáticos en 187 muestras de 33 especies de Myristicaceae americanas y, junto con la información morfo1ógica disponible, se presenta un enfoque biosistemático para el conocimiento taxonómico de la familia.

    A survey of the distribution of flavonoid aglycones and related bydroxy-aromatic acids in 187 samples of 33 species of American Myristicaceae is carried out. This survey, together with the available morfological information, provides a biosynthetic approach to the taxonomy of the family.

  6. Nota Científica: Caracterização físico-química do óleo de abacate extraído por centrifugação e dos subprodutos do processamento

    Roseli Aparecida FERRARI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O abacate é originário da América e considerado uma das plantas mais produtivas por unidade de área cultivada. Frutas com altos níveis de lipídios podem ser matéria-prima importante para a extração de óleo com substâncias bioativas que podem reduzir o risco de doenças. Este trabalho teve como objetivo a extração de óleo de abacate utilizando processo mecânico, semelhante ao empregado no azeite de oliva. À polpa triturada foi adicionada água numa proporção de 1:1, e a mistura foi mantida durante 40-60 minutos a 45-50 °C. Óleo, água e sólidos foram separados por centrifuga de três fases e o óleo filtrado. A composição físico-química do abacate e dos subprodutos do processamento foi determinada utilizando a metodologia oficial da AOCS e constou da determinação dos teores de proteínas, umidade, cinzas e lipídios (óleo. A caracterização de ácidos graxos do óleo de abacate foi determinada por cromatografia em fase gasosa. Os índices de saponificação e de iodo do óleo de abacate foram calculados com base na composição em ácidos graxos. O óleo apresentou entre 0,5 e 0,6% de ácidos graxos livres; 5,95 a 11,89 meq kg–1 de peróxidos; 0,09-0,16% de umidade; 0,96-1,94% de matéria insaponificável e 74,69-88,16 mg kg–1 de clorofila.

  7. Tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana pelo niridazol

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi empregue o niridazol um derivado do nitrotiazol, em doze pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em todos êles, o diagnóstico clínico da doença foi confirmado pela biópsia das lesões e em oito dêles também pela positividade da intradetermorreação de Montenegro. Oito pacientes tinham lesões mucosas metastáticas em atividade e lesões cutâneas iniciais cicatrizadas há tempo mais ou menos longo. Dois apresentavam concomitância de lesões cutâneas e mucosas em atividade, e dois tinham lesões cutâneas exclusivas. A duração da doença variou de 2 meses a 32 anos. A posologia diária do niridazol foi uniformememente de 25 mg/kg de pêso corpóreo. O medicamento foi administrado por via oral, em duas tomadas diárias, sempre com o doente internado em hospital. Quando a tolerância o permitia, o paciente recebia cinco séries de tratamento de 10 dias de duração cada, intercaladas por períodos áe suspensão da droga de 10 dias entre uma série e outra. Isso foi possível em 10 dos 12 pacientes. O tratamento foi bem tolerado em 5 doentes e de tolerância regular em 4. Mal tolerado em um paciente pela ocorrência de alucinações e excitação mental e interrompido pela péssima tolerância em dois doentes devido ao aparecimento de convulsões generalizadas com perda da consciência. O tratamento acompanhou-se de grande incidência, de efeitos colaterais. A ocorrência de para-efeitos mais intensos não foi devida às más condições hepáticas. Provas de função hepática. hemogramas, estudos bioquímicos do sangue e exames de urina, realizados antes, durante e após o tratamento, não revelaram alterações significativas. Biópsias hepáticas por punção com agulha em dez doentes, prévias e posteriores ao tratamento, não detectaram lesões hepáticas que pudessem ser atribuídas à medicação. O seguimento dos doentes prolongou-se pelo prazo de dois a 36 meses apos o tratamento. Alterações eletrocardiogr

  8. The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill

    Mohammad Yasir; Sattwik Das; M D Kharya

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decades, herbal medicine has become a thing of global significance with medicinal and economic implications. Wide spread use of herbs throughout the globe has raised serious concerns over its quality, safety, and efficacy. Thus, exact scientific assessment has become a precondition for acceptance of herbal health claims. Persea americana Mill. (avocado) is a tree, native to central America, cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates around the world, belonging to the family...

  9. Eleutherine americana: a candidate for the control of Campylobacter species.

    Sirirak, T; Voravuthikunchai, S P

    2011-04-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of selected Thai medicinal plants (Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk., Quercus infectoria G. Olivier, and Eleutherine americana Merr.) against Campylobacter spp. was investigated. Sixty-five Campylobacter, including 39 isolates from humans and 26 isolates from chicken samples, were tested. Reference Campylobacter spp. that are commonly encountered in gastroenteritis were included. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated good antibacterial activity against all the tested isolates. Inhibition zones ranged from 10 to 37 mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Campylobacter isolates from humans and chicken samples ranged from 31.25 to 500 μg/mL and 62.50 to 1,000 μg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 31.25 to 1,000 μg/mL for isolates from humans and 125 to 1,000 μg/mL from chicken isolates. The bactericidal activity of the ethanolic extracts of E. americana against important Campylobacter spp., including Campylobacter coli MUMT 18630, Campylobacter fetus ATCC 27374, Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 81176, Campylobacter lari ATCC 43675, and Campylobacter upsaliensis DMST 19055, were assessed at MIC, 2 MIC, and 4 MIC by counting viable cells after various time intervals. At 4 MIC, the level of the tested isolates decreased by 2 to 5 log-fold within 8 h. The ethanolic extract of E. americana demonstrated antibacterial activity against all Campylobacter spp. from both human and chicken isolates. Further investigation of this plant species may provide an alternative medicine for Campylobacter infection and an effective food additive to prevent the infection. PMID:21406364

  10. Identificação de espécies de Fusicoccum causadoras de podridão em frutos de abacate

    Ana Carolina Firmino; Ivan Herman Fischer; Tozze Hugo José Júnior; Daniel Dias Rosa; Edson Luiz Furtado

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Fusicoccum genus of fungi are known to cause stem-end rot in various fruit plants, such as mango, guava, peach and avocado. Several species of this fungus are reported attacking avocado (Persea americana) in several countries. Based on this information, the present study aimed to identify species of Fusicoccum associated with rot in avocado fruits in the State of São Paulo. Samples were collected (fruits with rot symptoms) from regions of Bauru, Bernadino de Campos and Piraju. Al...

  11. Desempenho da tangerineira 'Span Americana' em diferentes porta-enxertos

    Simone Rodrigues da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o crescimento vegetativo, a produção e a qualidade de frutos da tangerina 'Span Americana' em diferentes porta-enxertos, nas condições edafoclimáticas de Bebedouro-SP. O plantio foi realizado em junho de 2003, em espaçamento de 6,0 m x 3,0 m, sendo utilizada irrigação por gotejamento a partir de 2006. Os porta-enxertos avaliados foram: citranges [Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata L. Raf] 'Carrizo' e 'Troyer', tetraploides; trifoliatas (P. trifoliata 'Davis A' e 'Flying Dragon'; limão Volkameriano Catania 2 (C. volkameriana Tenn. et Pasq., HRS 849 [(C. aurantium L. cv. 'Smooth Flat Seville' x P. trifoliata cv. 'Argentina'], tangelo 'Orlando' (C. reticulata Blanco × C. paradisi Macf. e limão 'Cravo' (C. limonia Osbeck. Foram avaliadas a produção acumulada, a eficiência produtiva e a precocidade de entrada em produção, no período de 2007 a 2009. Avaliaram-se, também, as dimensões das plantas e a taxa média de crescimento das plantas no período de 2005 a 2008, além da qualidade dos frutos em 2006 e 2007. Em pomares irrigados de tangerineira 'Span Americana', os porta-enxertos trifoliata 'Davis A' e HRS 849 apresentam desempenho horticultural satisfatório. Para plantio em alta densidade, a melhor performance da tangerineira 'Span Americana' é obtida com a utilização dos porta-enxertos trifoliata 'Flying Dragon' e citranges 'Troyer' e 'Carrizo'.

  12. Distribution and characterization of Heterobilharzia americana in dogs in Texas.

    Rodriguez, J Y; Lewis, B C; Snowden, K F

    2014-06-16

    Heterobilharzia americana is a trematode parasite (family Schistosomatidae) that infects a wide range of wild mammalian hosts. Canine cases have been reported in the Gulf coast and south Atlantic states, Kansas, and Oklahoma. A total of 238 canine H. americana cases in Texas were retrospectively collected for a period of approximately 22 years from case records at the Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory and the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital pathology service, diagnostic parasitology service, and Gastrointestinal Laboratory at Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine. Of these cases, 26 patients had 1-2 repeat positive tests for a total of 268 positive tests (26 biopsies, 39 necropsies, 160 fecal examinations, and 43 PCR). Multiple dogs were infected in 12 households. Cases were distributed primarily in the eastern region of Texas in 42 of 254 counties. Cases were seen as far west as Kerr county and in counties bordering Oklahoma, Louisiana, Mexico, and the Gulf of Mexico. The median dog age was 5.6 years (2.7 months to 17.2 years) and the median weight was 20.5 kg (1-61.6 kg). All American Kennel Club (AKC) breed groups were represented (n=186): crossbred (20%), herding (17.8%), sporting (16.1%), toy (10.8%), hounds (10.8%), working (10.1%), terrier (8.5%), non-sporting (4.9%), and miscellaneous (1%). No seasonal pattern of diagnosis was apparent. Clinical signs reported (n=90) were diarrhea (67%), weight loss (38%), anorexia/hyporexia (27%), vomiting (22%), hematochezia (20%), lethargy (17%), polyuria/polydipsia (6%), and collapse (3%). In 39 necropsy cases, trematode eggs were identified by histopathology in the small intestine (84%), liver (84%), large intestine (39%), pancreas (35%), lung (9%), lymph node (8%), spleen (4%), and stomach (3%). Adult parasites were identified histologically in four cases. Granulomatous inflammation associated with the eggs was the most commonly reported histopathologic change. Other changes reported

  13. The phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Persea americana Mill

    Mohammad Yasir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, herbal medicine has become a thing of global significance with medicinal and economic implications. Wide spread use of herbs throughout the globe has raised serious concerns over its quality, safety, and efficacy. Thus, exact scientific assessment has become a precondition for acceptance of herbal health claims. Persea americana Mill. (avocado is a tree, native to central America, cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates around the world, belonging to the family Lauraceae, is widely used in Ayurveda and evidence-based phototherapy. There are 3 principal races or groups of avocado: Mexican, Guatemalan, and West Indian named for the areas where they were originally cultivated. The plant is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments, such as monorrhagia, hypertension, stomach ache, bronchitis, diarrhea, and diabetes. Peptone, b-galactoside, glycosylated abscisic acid, alkaloids, cellulose, polygalacto urease, polyuronoids, cytochrome P-450, and volatile oils are reported to be present in this plant. Biotechnologic approaches show that modified MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg benzyladenine/L, 0-1mg Indole Butyric Acid/L, 0.1 mg Gibberalic Acid 3/L was optimum for adventitious shoot development. In the present review, an effort has been made to study the different aspects of P. americana Mill.

  14. Heterobilharzia americana infection and congestive heart failure in a llama (Lama glama).

    Corapi, W V; Eden, K B; Edwards, J F; Snowden, K F

    2015-05-01

    The schistosome Heterobilharzia americana infects several mammalian species in the southeastern United States, including horses, but infections have not been reported in camelids. This is a report of H. americana infection in a 6-year-old llama with extensive cardiac pathology and congestive heart failure. Parasite-induced granulomas were widely disseminated and included overwhelming involvement of the lungs and liver. Microscopic lesions in the heart included myofiber degeneration and necrosis, with extensive replacement fibrosis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing confirmed the presence of H. americana in the lungs. PMID:24964922

  15. Componentes volátiles de mamey (mammea americana L.

    Alicia Lucía Morales

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Los componentes volátiles del aroma de mamey (Mammea americana L, fueron extraídos utilizando el método de destilación por arrastre con vapor-extracción simultánea con solvente orgánico. El extracto fue prefraccionado por cromatografía en columna en silica gel con gradiente discontinuo Pentano: Éter etílico para obtener tres fracciones que fueron analizadas por CGAR y CGAR-EM. Se detectaron 34 compuestos, de los cuales fueron identificados 22, siendo los componentes mayoritarios: Furfural (7281 ^ig/kg y E-Famesol (2145 ng/kg

  16. Establishing paternity in whooping cranes (Grus Americana) by DNA analysis

    Longmire, J.L.; Gee, G.F.; Hardekopf, C.L.; Mark, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    DNA fingerprinting was used to study paternity and genetic variability within a captive flock of Whooping Cranes (Grus americana). Fingerprint patterns for 42 individuals were obtained by digesting genomic crane DNAs with HaeIII followed by electrophoresis, blotting, and hybridization to the M13 minisatellite probe. Despite finding reduced levels of genetic variation in the Whooping Crane due to a population 'bottleneck,' these polymorphisms were successfully used to determine paternity in six of seven cases of captive propagation where the maternal-offspring relationship was known, but where the sire was unknown. These determinations of paternity are required for effective genetic management of. the crane flock. These results also revealed a number of heterozygous minisatellite loci that will be valuable in future assessments of genetic variability in this endangered species.

  17. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    JianMingJIN; XiKuiLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, ere isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S,25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(1) and (25R)-5α-spiro-stan-3β,6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyra-nosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  18. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, were isolated from the fcrmcnted leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S, 25R)-5α-spirostan-3β, 6α, 23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)- β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-( 1 →3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-( l →4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and (25R)-5α-spiro stan-3β, 6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[ β-D-xylopyranosyl-(l→3)]- β-D-glucopyra nosyl-(1→4)- β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  19. Identificação de espécies de Fusicoccum causadoras de podridão em frutos de abacate

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Fusicoccum genus of fungi are known to cause stem-end rot in various fruit plants, such as mango, guava, peach and avocado. Several species of this fungus are reported attacking avocado (Persea americana in several countries. Based on this information, the present study aimed to identify species of Fusicoccum associated with rot in avocado fruits in the State of São Paulo. Samples were collected (fruits with rot symptoms from regions of Bauru, Bernadino de Campos and Piraju. All isolates obtained had its pathogenicity confirmed by inoculation of healthy avocado fruits. After confirming its pathogenicity, these isolates had their DNA extracted and the ITS-5.8S rDNA region was amplified. After editing, these sequences were used to search for similar sequences in the NCBI. Eleven samples were identified as Neofusicoccum parvumand others were identified as Botryosphaeria dothidea(F. aesculi. Both species were found in all regions of collection.

  20. Relationships of Bradyrhizobia from the Legumes Apios americana and Desmodium glutinosum

    Parker, Matthew A.

    1999-01-01

    Multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, partial 23S rRNA sequences, and nearly full-length 16S rRNA sequences all indicated high genetic similarity among root-nodule bacteria associated with Apios americana, Desmodium glutinosum, and Amphicarpaea bracteata, three common herbaceous legumes whose native geographic ranges in eastern North America overlap extensively. A total of 19 distinct multilocus genotypes (electrophoretic types [ETs]) were found among the 35 A. americana and 33 D. glutinosum iso...

  1. A Case of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia Caused by Ewingella americana : First Report from Turkey

    Kenan Ecemiş

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ewingella americana is a very rare cause of serious infections, especially in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP in an intensive care unit patient, who was treated successfully with ceftriaxone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of VAP due to Ewingella americana in the English literature.J Microbiol Infect Dis 2014; 4(3: 118-120

  2. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos; Moisés Martínez-Velázquez; José Miguel Flores-Fernández; Socorro Villanueva-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals t...

  3. Aktivitas Antimikroba Ekstrak Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill). Terhadap Beberapa Mikroba Patogen Secara In Vitro

    Riadi, Selamat

    2015-01-01

    A antimicrobial of activity of avocado seed extracts (Persea americana Miill.) to several microbial pathogens in vitro had been conducted. This study aims to determine the antimicrobial potential of avocado seed extract towards several microbial pathogens in vitro. The results of antimicrobial activity of various solven extracts test showed that avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed extract inhibit growth of Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella thypii. Inh...

  4. Morfoanatomia de folha e caule de Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae Leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae

    Marianna Erbano; Márcia R. Duarte

    2010-01-01

    Genipa americana L., conhecida como jenipapo, é uma Rubiaceae nativa do Brasil e as suas folhas são utilizadas pela população como antidiarreico e febrífugo, e o caule como anti-hemorrágico, contra luxações e contusões. Com o objetivo de caracterizar macro e microscopicamente folhas adultas e caules jovens para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico, essa planta medicinal foi analisada segundo a metodologia clássica de morfoanatomia vegetal. Genipa americana apresenta folhas simples, opostas...

  5. Reproductive parameters of the southern stingray Dasyatis americana in southern gulf of Mexico Parámetros reproductivos de la raya látigo americana Dasyatis americana en el sur del golfo de México

    Edith Ramírez-Mosqueda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The southern stingray Dasyatis americana (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928 is the most landed elasmobranch by small-scale fleets in southern gulf of Mexico. However, little is known of its life history parameters in this region. In this study, a total of 900 specimens were collected from February 2006 to December 2008 to determine the reproductive parameters needed for population assessments by means of ecological risk assessments or demographic analysis. Results suggested that females of D. americana reproduce annually, with a gestation of 7-8 months. The reproductive cycle of females is asynchronous, with ovulation and parturition occurring throughout the year. Females and males matured at 764 and 517 mm disc width (DW50 respectively. D. americana has one of the highest fecundity among dasyatids, from 2 to 7 embryos, with a sex ratio of embryos of 1:1. A linear relationship between maternal DW and fecundity was estimated, the larger females contain more embryos. The status of the population of D. americana is a cause of concern in the southern gulf of Mexico due to its high frequency of capture in artisanal fisheries and its apparently low biological productivity.La raya látigo americana Dasyatis americana (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928, conocida como balá en México, es el elasmobranquio más capturado y desembarcado por flotas artesanales en el sur del golfo de México. Sin embargo, se conoce poco de sus parámetros de historia de vida en esta región. En este estudio, fueron analizados 900 ejemplares entre febrero 2006 y diciembre 2008 para determinar los parámetros reproductivos necesarios para evaluaciones poblacionales por medio de análisis demográficos o evaluaciones de riesgo ecológico. Los resultados sugieren que las hembras de D. americana se reproducen anualmente, con una gestación de 7-8 meses aproximadamente. El ciclo reproductivo de las hembras es asincrónico, con la ovulación y alumbramiento ocurriendo a lo largo de todo el

  6. Why are there few seedlings beneath the myrmecophyte Triplaris americana?

    Larrea-Alcázar, Daniel M.; Simonetti, Javier A.

    2007-07-01

    We compared the relative importance of chemical alellopathy, pruning behaviour of resident ants and other non-related agents to ant-plant mutualism for seedling establishment beneath Triplaris americana L. (Polygonaceae), a myrmecophyte plant. We also included a preliminary analysis of effects of fragmentation on these ecological processes. Seeds and seedlings of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae) were used as the target species in all experiments. Leaf-tissue extracts of the myrmecophyte plant did not inhibit germination of cacao seeds. Resident Pseudomyrmex triplarinus Weddell (Pseudomyrmecinae) ants did not remove seeds under the canopy of their host plants. The main seed consumer was the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens L. (Myrmicinae). Leaves of cacao seedlings were partially or totally pruned by Pseudomyrmex ants mainly in forest fragments studied. We offer evidence pointing to the possibility that the absence of seedlings beneath Triplaris may result from effects of both ant species. We discuss the benefits of pruning behaviour for the resident ant colony and the effects of ant-ant interactions on seedling establishment beneath this ant-plant system.

  7. Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals.

    Dabas, Deepti; Shegog, Rachel M; Ziegler, Gregory R; Lambert, Joshua D

    2013-01-01

    The pulp of avocado (Persea americana, Lauraceae) has been reported to have beneficial cardiovascular health effects. Avocado oil is used for dermatological applications and its unsaponifiable portion is reported to have beneficial effects against osteoarthritis. Although the seed represents a considerable percentage of the total fruit, scientific research on the phytochemistry and biological effects of avocado seeds is in the nascent stages,. Currently, the seed represents an under-utilized resource and a waste issue for avocado processors. There is ethno-pharmacological information on the use of seeds for the treatment of health-related conditions, especially in South American countries where avocados are endemic and currently grown on a large scale. Current research has shown that avocado seeds may improve hypercholesterolemia, and be useful in the treatment of hypertension, inflammatory conditions and diabetes. Seeds have also been found to possess insecticidal, fungicidal, and anti-microbial activities. The avocado seeds and rich in phenolic compounds, and these may play a role in the putative health effects. Historically, extracts of avocado seeds were also used as ink for writing and research in our laboratory has explored the potential colorant properties of a polyphenol oxidase-produced colored avocado seed extract. Here, we review the currently-available data on the bioactivity and other functional properties of avocado seeds. We discuss the strength of the available data, the putative active compounds, and potential directions for future studies. PMID:23448442

  8. Susceptibility of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans to Antibacterial Effect from Mammea americana

    Alejandra Herrera Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of periodontal disease and dental caries is influenced by several factors, such as microorganisms of bacterial biofilm or commensal bacteria in the mouth. These microorganisms trigger inflammatory and immune responses in the host. Currently, medicinal plants are treatment options for these oral diseases. Mammea americana extracts have reported antimicrobial effects against several microorganisms. Nevertheless, this effect is unknown against oral bacteria. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of M. americana extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus mutans. For this, an experimental study was conducted. Ethanolic extract was obtained from seeds of M. americana (one oil phase and one ethanolic phase. The strains of Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 and Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 were exposed to this extract to evaluate its antibacterial effect. Antibacterial activity was observed with the two phases of M. americana extract on P. gingivalis and S. mutans with lower MICs (minimum inhibitory concentration. Also, bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity was detected against S. mutans, depending on the concentration of the extract, while on M. americana extract presented only bacteriostatic activity against P. gingivalis. These findings provide important and promising information allowing for further exploration in the future.

  9. Preparation of Eleutherine americana-alginate complex microcapsules and application in Bifidobacterium longum.

    Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation using extrusion and emulsion techniques was prepared for Bifidobacterium longum protection against sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, refrigeration storage and heat treatment. Eleutherine americana was used as the co-encapsulating agent. Hydrolysis of E. americana by gastric and intestinal juices was also determined. E. americana and its oligosaccharide extract demonstrated their resistance to low pH and partial tolerance to human α-amylase. Microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana and oligosaccharide extract prepared by the extrusion technique survived better than that by the emulsion technique under adverse conditions. Survival of microencapsulated cells after exposure to the juices and refrigeration storage was higher than free cells at Weeks 2 and 4. In addition, the viability of microencapsulated cells was better than free cells at 65 °C for 15 min. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana offers the effective delivery of probiotics to colon and maintains their survival in food products. PMID:25629556

  10. Study on Flowering, Cultivation, and Reproduction of Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae)%Study on Flowering, Cultivation, and Reproduction of Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae)

    Fangnong LIU; Shicheng PENG; Lianren LIU

    2012-01-01

    Agave americana Var. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae) is a perennial herb. This paper summarized its classification, distribution, morphological characteristics, habit, flowering and fruiting, cultivation and reproduction, as well as multiple uses in daily life, which provided references for the exploitation and utilization of Agave americana Vat. Marginata Hort. (Agavaceae).

  11. Reproductive parameters of the southern stingray Dasyatis americana in southern gulf of Mexico Parámetros reproductivos de la raya látigo americana Dasyatis americana en el sur del golfo de México

    Edith Ramírez-Mosqueda; Juan Carlos Pérez-Jiménez; Manuel Mendoza-Carranza

    2012-01-01

    The southern stingray Dasyatis americana (Hildebrand & Schroeder, 1928) is the most landed elasmobranch by small-scale fleets in southern gulf of Mexico. However, little is known of its life history parameters in this region. In this study, a total of 900 specimens were collected from February 2006 to December 2008 to determine the reproductive parameters needed for population assessments by means of ecological risk assessments or demographic analysis. Results suggested that females of D. ame...

  12. Acute toxicity and genotoxic activity of avocado seed extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass).

    Padilla-Camberos, Eduardo; Martínez-Velázquez, Moisés; Flores-Fernández, José Miguel; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2013-01-01

    The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle); therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test. PMID:24298206

  13. PHARMACOGNOSTIC EVALUATION AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ON THE LEAVES OF XIMENIA AMERICANA LINN.

    Shantha T R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Present communication deals with the various pharmacognostic evaluation on the leaves of Ximenia americana include morphological, microscopical characters, powder microscopy and physicochemical characters like ash values and loss on drying, TLC studies etc.The preliminary phytochemical screening is also carried out and it is revealed that, the presence of Alkaloids, Sterpoids, Sugars, Saponins,Tannins, and Terpenoides in methanol extract. Steroids in traces and absence of Terpenoides in ethanol and aqueous extract of the leaves of X.americana which may be responsible for its antinociceptive activity.

  14. Acute Toxicity and Genotoxic Activity of Avocado Seed Extract (Persea americana Mill., c.v. Hass

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetal extracts requires toxicological and genotoxic evaluations to establish and verify safety before being added to human cosmetic, pharmaceutical medicine, or alimentary products. Persea americana seeds have been used in traditional medicine as treatment for several diseases. In this work, the ethanolic seed extract of Persea americana was evaluated with respect to its genotoxic potential through micronucleus assay in rodents. The frequency of micronuclei in groups of animals treated with avocado seed extract showed no differences compared to the negative control (vehicle; therefore, it is considered that the avocado seed extract showed no genotoxic activity in the micronucleus test.

  15. El Admirarse como forma de enfrentar la nueva realidad americana

    Álvarez Moreno, Raúl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a study of the use of admiratio to display the new American reality at the end of the fourteenth and into the fifteenth century. After exploring the semantic wealth of the term and defining it, we will present it as the first stage of the cognitive process of the human being, whose object will be Nature, understood as a whole entity in which men are included. The depiction of the admirable thing as a part of the cognitive process will also have its place in this study. But it is under the renovation that proposed the Renaissance, when admiratio turned into a poetic function related to that of movere, solving America as inventio the problem of verisimilitude inherited from the Middle Ages. Then, this concept will be used by our authors, not only to reflect a stage of knowledge, but with a clearly rhetorical function: to create a specific state of mind in the reader in order to obtain something from him.

    El artículo analiza el uso de la admiratio para presentar la nueva realidad americana a finales del siglo XV y durante el XVI. Tras explorar la riqueza semántica del término y definirlo, se parte del mismo, como el primer estadio del proceso cognitivo del ser humano, cuyo objeto será una naturaleza, entendida como totalidad que incluye al hombre. La plasmación de lo admirable como parte del proceso cognitivo tiene también su lugar en el estudio. Pero será la transformación que supone el Renacimiento, la que convertirá a la admiratio en una función poética relacionada con el movere, y a la que América como inventio solucionaba el problema de la verosimilitud heredado de la Edad Media. El concepto será usado por nuestros autores, no ya para reflejar una fase del conocimiento, sino con una función claramente retórica: provocar un estado de ánimo en el lector para conseguir algo de él.

  16. Interbreeding among deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages in the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana)

    von Beeren, Christoph; Stoeckle, Mark Y.; Xia, Joyce; Burke, Griffin; Kronauer, Daniel J. C.

    2015-02-01

    DNA barcoding promises to be a useful tool to identify pest species assuming adequate representation of genetic variants in a reference library. Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our sampling effort generated 284 cockroach specimens, most from New York City, plus 15 additional U.S. states and six other countries, enabling the first large-scale survey of P. americana barcode variation. Periplaneta americana barcode sequences (n = 247, including 24 GenBank records) formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with relatively small differences within (<=0.6%) and larger differences among groups (2.4%-4.7%). This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed extensive gene flow among mitochondrial haplogroups, confirming a single species. This unusual genetic pattern likely reflects multiple introductions from genetically divergent source populations, followed by interbreeding in the invasive range. Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations.

  17. SPECIES PROFILE: WOOD STORK (MYCTERIA AMERICANA) ON MILITARY INSTALLATIONS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    The wood stork (Mycteria americana) is a large colonial wading bird that breeds in a variety of wetland habitats. Its current range extends from southern South Carolina through Florida and from Mexico to northern Argentina, but populations in the United States are disjunct from t...

  18. Cloning and characterization of the adipokinetic hormone receptor from the cockroach Periplaneta americana

    Hansen, Karina K; Hauser, Frank; Cazzamali, Giuseppe;

    2006-01-01

    americana. This receptor is only activated by various insect AKHs (we tested eight) and not by a library of 29 other insect or invertebrate neuropeptides and nine biogenic amines. Periplaneta has two intrinsic AKHs, Pea-AKH-1, and Pea-AKH-2. The Periplaneta AKH receptor is activated by low concentrations of...

  19. Two New Spirostanol Steroidal Sapogenins from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    2003-01-01

    Two new spirostanol sapogenins named agavegenin A and B were isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana L.Their structures were elucidated as (23S, 25R)-5α- spirostan-3β, 6α, 11α, 23-tetraol (1) and (23S, 25S)-5α-spirostan-3β, 23, 27-triol (2) by spectral methods.

  20. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  1. An estimation of outcrossing in Florida avocado (Persea americana Mill.) using microsatellite markers

    Persea americana Mill. exhibits a unique flowering mechanism, synchronous dichogamy, in which the male and female parts of the perfect flower are functional at different times. Cultivars are classified based upon their flowering type. Type A cultivars open in the morning as functionally female flowe...

  2. Molecular Characterization and Genetic Structure in Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Using Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is an economically important tropical fruit native to Mesoamerica. It belongs to the Lauraceae family and is subdivided in three horticultural races (Guatemalan, Mexican, and West Indian) based primarily on ecological adaptation, botanical and physiological traits. T...

  3. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae) on avocado (Persea americana Mill.) from Colombia, South America

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-01-01

    A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  4. APPLICATION OF PROPICONAZOLE IN MANAGEMENT OF LAUREL WILT DISEASE IN AVOCADO (Persea americana Mill.) TREES

    Laurel wilt is a vascular disease of Lauraceous plants caused by a fungus (Raffaelea spp.) that is carried by a recently introduced, nonnative ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). The disease is devastating to Persea species including redbay (Persea borbonia) and avocado (Persea americana) trees i...

  5. Evaluation of phenotypic variation in a collection of Apios americana: an edible tuberous legume

    Apios americana, sometimes called “potato bean,” is native to the central and eastern parts of the United States and southeastern Canada. Apios is a nitrogen-fixing legume with a vining habit that produces protein rich tubers at nodes along below-ground stolons originating from a “mother tuber.” A b...

  6. Race, Interracial Admixture and Genetic Differentiation of Avocado (Persea americana Mill)

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is a major tropical fruit crop native to Mesoamerica and domesticated around 8000 to 7000 BC. It is a member of the Laureace family and currently classified into three subspecies or races: Guatemalan (G), Mexican (M) and West Indian (WI) according to their ecological...

  7. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    De La Torre-Ruiz, Neyser; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Rincón-Molina, Clara Ivette; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Palomeque-Dominguez, Héctor; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sh...

  8. Survival and weight change among adult individuals of Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus, 1758) (Blattaria, Blattidae) subject to various stress conditions

    Jucelio Peter Duarte; Francielly Felchicher; Paulo Bretanha Ribeiro; Marcial Corrêa Cárcamo

    2015-01-01

    Periplaneta americana is a species of great importance to public health, since it can act as a vector of many pathogens and it reaches large populations in urban environments. This is probably due to its ability to resist starvation and desiccation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of absence of water and food on survival and weight change among adult P. americana individuals and check whether the initial weight of individuals influences on their survival. Four groups having twenty P....

  9. The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: egg and damage distribution and parasitism A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (wals. (Lepidoptera: elachistidae: distribuição de ovos e de danos e parasitismo

    Celso Luiz Hohmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The avocado fruit borer, Stenoma catenifer (Wals. has been a limiting factor in growing avocados over the last years in many Brazilian states. This is a result of the lack of safe and feasible management practices to minimize the fruit borer damage. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the pest biology and ecology as well as on the role of natural enemies to define strategies to control the pest. Samples were taken biweekly and consisted of 20 fruits collected randomly (10 from the upper half and 10 from the lower half of the plant in ten plants, cv. Margarida, in a commercial avocado grove in Arapongas and Cambé regions, PR, from October/2001 to September/2002. Laboratory determinations of the percentage of damaged fruit per plant region, location and number of bored fruit sites, and the number and location of the fruit borer eggs, including parasitized ones, were performed. The results showed that S. catenifer preferred to oviposit and attack fruits located on the upper half of the trees. The majority of the eggs were laid on the fruit pedicel whereas the damage was mainly located on the lower half of the fruits. Trichogrammatids were the most constant and abundant parasitoids found in both localities throughout the study period.A broca-do-abacate, Stenoma catenifer (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae, continua sendo fator limitante para o cultivo do abacate em vários estados do Brasil, nos últimos anos. Isso se deve a falta de métodos seguros e viáveis para reduzir os prejuízos causados pela praga. Com o intuito de obter informações sobre a sua bioecologia e ação de inimigos naturais, para auxiliar na elaboração de estratégias de controle, realizaram-se coletas quinzenais de 20 frutos ao acaso (10 da metade superior e 10 da metade inferior em 10 plantas, em pomar comercial, cv. Margarida, nos municípios de Arapongas e Cambé, PR, durante os meses de outubro/2001 a setembro/2002. Em laboratório determinaram-se a porcentagem

  10. Aplicação de danos mecânicos em abacates e seus efeitos na qualidade dos frutos Application of mechanical damages in avocados and their effects to the quality of the fruits

    Juliana Sanches

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de danos mecânicos por impacto, compressão e corte em abacates 'Geada'. O trabalho consistiu em duas etapas: na primeira, o impacto foi aplicado deixando-se os frutos caírem, em queda livre, de 1,5 m a 3,0 m, com intervalo de 0,5 m; na compressão, os frutos sofreram a ação dos pesos: 6 kg por 12 horas e 12 kg por 6 horas. Para os cortes, foram realizados quatro cortes com 80 mm de comprimento e 4 mm de profundidade. Na segunda etapa, para a compressão, utilizou-se peso de 12 kg por tempo maior (24 h. No impacto, foi aplicada queda de 2,0 m, e os cortes, realizados da mesma maneira que na primeira etapa. Os efeitos de cada dano foram avaliados nos frutos armazenados sob condição ambiente quanto à coloração, perda de massa fresca e teores de sólidos solúveis e de acidez titulável. Queda de alturas maiores que 2,0 m levaram os frutos a rachaduras. Até 2,0 m de altura, formaram-se fissuras ao redor do caroço, que foram preenchidas por filamentos de aspecto duro e não se tornou visível externamente. O abacate não se mostrou suscetível à aplicação das compressões 6 kg/12 h e 12 kg/6 h, mas o tratamento 12 kg/24 h fez com que a casca apresentasse coloração verde mais escura durante três dias. Os cortes provocaram cicatrizes na casca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of mechanical damages application in 'Geada' avocado fruit by impact, compression, and cut. This work was carried out in two stages: first, the impact test was applied by free fall of the fruits, from 1.5 m to 3.0 m, with steps of 0.5 m. For the compression tests, fruits were loaded using blocks of two different weights: 6 kg for 12 h and 12 kg for 6 h. Four cuts of 80 mm, in length and 4 mm, in depth were performed for the cut tests; second, for the compression tests was used blocks of 12 kg for longer time than the first one (24 h. In the impact test it was applied a 2.0 m free

  11. Pathogenicity of Aspergillus westerdijkiae to females and oothecae of Periplaneta Americana

    Mariah Valente Baggio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cockroach control is performed by the application of chemical insecticides which exert high selective pressure on populations and introduces synthetic substances in the environment, motivating the search for other methods of control such as entomopathogenic fungi. The objectives of this study were to investigate the pathogenicity of the JAB 42 Aspergillus westerdijkiae to females and oothecae of Periplaneta americana and to demonstrate its mechanism of action on oothecae. Suspensions containing 106 to 108 conidia/ml were used to infect females and oothecae. Mortality and other variables such as scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate the mechanism of action of the fungus. The isolated JAB 42 A. westerdijkiae is pathogenic to oothecae of P. americana, with low capacity to kill females. Adhesion, germination, penetration and extrusion of the fungus on the cockroach oothecae were observed.

  12. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.

    2015-01-01

    Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832

  13. Mechanical Behavior of Agave Americana L. Fibres: Correlation Between Fine Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Msahli, S.; Chaabouni, Y.; Sakli, F.; Drean, J. Y.

    In this study, results of a mechanical behavior study of fibres extracted from the agave Americana L. plant, the most abundant variety in Tunisia, are presented. These results deal with the principal and mechanical characteristics of these fibres which are the elongation at break, the elasticity modulus and the rupture facture. These results permitted to situate these fibres, compared to the other textile fibres, as materials that can be used in technical applications such as reinforcing composites or geotextile. In order to understand the mechanical properties of these fibres, a correlation study between the properties already cited and the fine structure was done. The obtained results showed that the mechanical properties of agave Americana L. fibres are closely related to the individual fibers deformations and to the natural matrix (lignin and gums) that links these elementary fibres.

  14. Secondary metabolites from the unripe pulp of Persea americana and their antimycobacterial activities.

    Lu, Ying-Chen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Peng, Chien-Fang; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2012-12-15

    The fruits of Persea americana (Avocado) are nowadays used as healthy fruits in the world. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the active ethyl acetate soluble fraction has led to the isolation of five new fatty alcohol derivatives, avocadenols A-D (1-4) and avocadoin (5) from the unripe pulp of P. americana, along with 12 known compounds (6-17). These structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolates, avocadenol A (1), avocadenol B (2), (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxynonadecane (6), and (2R,4R)-1,2,4-trihydroxyheptadec-16-ene (7) showed antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)R(V)in vitro, with MIC values of 24.0, 33.8, 24.9, and 35.7 μg/ml, respectively. PMID:22980888

  15. Applications of Microencapsulated Bifidobacterium Longum with Eleutherine Americana in Fresh Milk Tofu and Pineapple Juice

    Atchara N. Phoem

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.

  16. Characterization and chromosome location of satellite DNA in the leaf beetle Chrysolina americana (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    Lorite, P; Palomeque, T; Garnería, I; Petitpierre, E

    2000-01-01

    This paper is the first record of the satellite DNA of the specialized phytophagous genus Chrysolina. The satellite DNA of Chrysolina americana is organized in a tandem repeat of monomers 189 bp long, has a A + T content of 59.6% and presents direct and inverted internal repeats. Restriction analysis of the total DNA with methylation sensitive enzymes suggests that this repetitive DNA is undermethylated. In siti hybridization with a biotinylated probe of the satellite DNA showed the pericentromeric localization of these sequences in all meiotic bivalents. The presence of this repetitive DNA in other species of the genus was also tested by Southern analysis. The results showed that this satellite DNA sequence is specific to the C. americana genome and has not been found in three other species of Chrysolina with a different choice of host plants than in the former. PMID:11678504

  17. Helminth parasites of the American avocet Recurvirostra americana (Aves), from the Salt Lake basin, Utah.

    Hinojos, J G; Campbell, B K; Canaris, A G

    1993-02-01

    Five species of cestodes and 1 species of trematode, for a total of 4,770 (chi- =79.5) helminths, were obtained from 60 American avocets, Recurvirostra americana, collected from July to September 1985 and 1986 in the Salt Lake basin, Utah. The most prevalent parasite was the cestode Diplophallus coili (95%). It occurred in mature pairs 90% of the time. All species of helminths showed a contagious distribution except for mature D. coili, which had a uniform distribution. This uniform distribution, which is unusual for species of helminths, has been observed for at least 4 species of large tapeworms in the recurvirostrids. The helminth community consisted of 3 specialists, 1 generalist, and 2 of uncertain status. The same specialists have been reported also in R. americana from Texas, Colorado, and Manitoba, Canada. PMID:8437049

  18. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator--Phytolacca Americana L.

    Peng, Kejian; Luo, Chunling; You, Wuxin; Lian, Chunlan; Li, Xiangdong; Shen, Zhenguo

    2008-06-15

    In the present study, the accumulation of Mn and other metals by Phytolacca Americana L. from contaminated soils in Hunan Province, South China, was investigated. Results showed that the average concentrations of Mn in the leaves and roots reached 2198 and 80.4 mg kg(-1) (dry weight), respectively, with a maximum 13,400 mg kg(-1) in the leaves. A significant correlation was found between Mn concentrations in the plant leaves and those in the corresponding soils. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to study the Cd uptake ability and interactions between Mn and Cd in the plant. It was found that P. americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant. PMID:18068296

  19. Manganese uptake and interactions with cadmium in the hyperaccumulator-Phytolacca Americana L

    Peng Kejian [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hunan Research Academy of Environmental Sciences Changsha 410004 (China); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); You Wuxin [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Lian Chunlan [Asian Natural Environmental Science Center, University of Tokyo, 1-1-8 Midori-cho, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Shen Zhenguo [College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)], E-mail: zgshen@njau.edu.cn

    2008-06-15

    In the present study, the accumulation of Mn and other metals by Phytolacca Americana L. from contaminated soils in Hunan Province, South China, was investigated. Results showed that the average concentrations of Mn in the leaves and roots reached 2198 and 80.4 mg kg{sup -1} (dry weight), respectively, with a maximum 13,400 mg kg{sup -1} in the leaves. A significant correlation was found between Mn concentrations in the plant leaves and those in the corresponding soils. Hydroponic experiments were also conducted to study the Cd uptake ability and interactions between Mn and Cd in the plant. It was found that P. americana hyperaccumulated not only Mn, but also Cd in the leaves. In the presence of Cd, adding Mn to the solution significantly improved the plant growth and reduced the concentrations of Cd in all organs of the plant.

  20. Macropropagation of Erythrina americana in a greenhouse: a potential tool for seasonally dry tropical forest restoration

    Tara C. Fehling-Fraser; Eliane Ceccon

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in Mexico has made restoration an urgent requirement. Erythrina americana is a multipurpose tree, useful for seasonally dry tropical forest restoration; however, it is poorly studied. Macropropagation of this species is advantageous when compared with sexual reproduction, since it requires scarification to germinate. In this study, the effects of the exogenous application of the phytohormone (indole-3-butyric acid) in the cuttings and/or a slow-release phosphate fertilizer (SRPF...

  1. Efektifitas Serbuk Daun Spearmint (Mentha spicata) Sebagai Repellent Terhadap Kecoa Rumah (Periplaneta americana)

    Br Ginting, Mandasari

    2015-01-01

    American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is mechanical vector which can bring agent of diseases. In Cockroach had ever been found about 40 microorganism so that can contaminate human food and cause some intestinal diseases even the allergic for human.Usually, People control the American cockroach by using chemical substances which persistent in environment if we use it continuously. The aim of this research was to analyze the effectivity of spearmint (Mentha spicata) leaves powde...

  2. Optimization of Insoluble and Soluble Fibres Extraction from Agave americana L. Using Response Surface Methodology

    Amine Bouaziz; Manel Masmoudi; Amel Kamoun; Souhail Besbes

    2014-01-01

    Experimental design methodology was used to determine significant factors affecting the extraction yield of soluble and insoluble fibres from Agave americana L. and in second time to find optimum conditions leading to the highest yield. Results clearly indicated that the temperature, the powder to water (P/W) ratio, and the agitation speed were the most important factors influencing fibres extraction yield which increased with temperature, P/W ratio, and agitation speed. Ionic strength affect...

  3. Neuroprotective evaluation of Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia in the neuronal damage induced by intestinal ischemia.

    Angeles-López, Guadalupe E; González-Trujano, María Eva; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Tilia americana and Annona diversifolia are plants widely distributed in Mexico and sold in markets for their medicinal properties on the central nervous system (CNS) including possible neuroprotection. Pharmacological studies have corroborated CNS activities due to flavonoid constituents, but evidence of their neuroprotector effects are lacking. This study was conducted to test aqueous and organic extracts of these two plants for neuroprotective effects in a novel experimental model of intestinal ischemia in situ. T. americana and A. diversifolia aqueous and organic extracts were administrated to guinea pigs at an oral dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg for 15 days. Twenty four hours after the last administration, the animals were anesthetized and intestinal ischemia in situ was induced by clamping for 80 min selected branches of the superior mesenteric artery. Ischemic segments placed in an in vitro organ bath were stimulated electrically (0.3 Hz frequency, 3.0 ms duration, 14 V intensity) and chemically (ACh; 1 × 10(-9) to 1×10(-5) M). Neuroprotection was considered present when the depressed contractile response of the ischemic tissue to electrical stimulation was normalized in the treated animals. Results showed that pretreatment with the T. americana hexane and aqueous extracts, but not with those from A. diversifolia, significantly improved responses of the ischemic tissue. These results suggest that T. americana possesses neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage induced by ischemia, and that flavonoids as well as non-polar constituents are involved. Our study supports the use of this plant in folk medicine and suggests its possible effectiveness for stroke prevention. PMID:23739919

  4. Identification and Density Estimation of American Martens (Martes americana) Using a Novel Camera-Trap Method

    Alexej P. K. Sirén; Peter J. Pekins; Peter L. Abdu; Mark J. Ducey

    2016-01-01

    Camera-traps are increasingly used to estimate wildlife abundance, yet few studies exist for small-sized carnivores or comparing efficacy against traditional methods. We developed a camera-trap to identify the unique ventral patches of American martens (Martes americana). Our method was designed to: (1) determine the optimal trap configuration to photograph ventral patches; (2) evaluate the use of temporally clustered photographs to determine independence and improve identification; and (3) d...

  5. Preliminar toxicological assesement of Ruta graveolens, Origanum vulgare and Persea americana on the preimplantational mouse embryos

    Benavides, V; Trujillo, G; G. D'Arrigo; U. Paredes; J. Pino

    2014-01-01

    The growing interest in natural medicine makes it necessary to study plant properties as well as their possible secondary effects. In recent years the toxic effects of many medicinal plants on the preimplantational mouse embryo development have been studied. Many of them produce malformations and alterations in the embryonic development. Ruta graveolens "ruda", Origanum vulgare "oregano" and Persea americana "palta" are used in rural areas to menstrual colic and to provoke abortion (estrella,...

  6. Terpenoid Variations within and among Half-Sibling Avocado Trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae)

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D.; Schnell, Raymond J; Boza, Edward J.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemical...

  7. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria del R.; Socorro Villanueva; Gerold Jerz; Peter Winterhalter; Deters, Alexandra M.

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly...

  8. Pistil Starch Reserves at Anthesis Correlate with Final Flower Fate in Avocado (Persea americana)

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio; Rodrigo García, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of...

  9. Methanol Leaf Extract of Persea americana Protects Rats against Cholesterol-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Kolawole, O. T.; Kolawole, S. O.; Ayankunle, A. A.; Olaniran, I. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate anti-hyperlipidemic activity of methanol leaf extract of Persea americana (MEPA) in cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Methodology: The animals were randomly divided into five groups of 5 rats each. Group1 served as the normal control (NC) and received distilled water. Group 2, the cholesterol-induced hyperlipidemic control (CHOL) was given cholesterol diet (20% groundnut oil, 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid mixed with rat pellet) orally. Groups 3 and 4 received ...

  10. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.)

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J.; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete ...

  11. Identification of Heterobilharzia americana infection in a dog residing in Indiana with no history of travel.

    Rodriguez, Jessica Y; Camp, Joseph W; Lenz, Stephen D; Kazacos, Kevin R; Snowden, Karen F

    2016-04-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 1-year-old castrated male dog residing in Indiana was examined because of intermittent vomiting of 4 months' duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS The dog's condition did not resolve with medication. Diagnostic imaging revealed a possible partial obstruction at the ileocecal junction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed. The jejunum contained diffusely distributed, nodular, intramural lesions; 2 biopsy specimens were collected from representative lesions. The pancreas was grossly swollen, and pancreatitis was presumed present. No other abnormalities were observed in the abdomen. Histologic examination of the submitted biopsy specimens revealed infection with Heterobilharzia americana. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME After diagnosis, the dog was treated with fenbendazole suspension (48 mg/kg [21.8 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h) for 10 days. This treatment was subsequently repeated 11 and 80 days later. One week after the end of the last fenbendazole treatment, several H americana eggs were detected in a fecal sample via saline sedimentation, and the dog was given praziquantel (25 mg/kg [11.4 mg/lb], PO, q 8 h) for 2 days. No gastrointestinal signs were evident 4 months after that treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The dog described in this report was the first autochthonous canine case of H americana infection in Indiana, to the authors' knowledge; this case has confirmed that the distribution of this parasite in the Midwestern United States is broader than previously known. Increased awareness of the distribution of H americana should aid veterinarians in early, noninvasive diagnosis and appropriate treatment of affected animals. Repeated treatments and recheck fecal examinations may be necessary when managing these cases. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2016;248:827-830). PMID:27003025

  12. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    IETJE WIENTARSIH; RINI MADYASTUTI; BAYU FEBRAM PRASETYO; ANGGARA ALDOBRATA

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill) extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and e...

  13. Karakterisasi Serta Uji Tlc Ekstrak Etanol Nano Partikel Dan Serbuk Simplisia Daun Alpukat (Persea Americana Mill.)

    Sofyan, Yandi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nano technology is one of the high and new technology, and it’s now growing in the world. This technology greatly promote the development of biologic drugs and increased the availability of biological herbal medicine. Avocado Plant (Persea americana Mill.) Is one of the plants that has benefits and virtually all parts of this plant has a property, especially the leaves are used for medicinal herb kidney disease, hypertension, has antioxidant activity in helping to prevent or slow ...

  14. Karakteristik Ekstraksi Minyak dari Biji Alpukat (Persea Americana Mill) Menggunakan Pelarut N-heptana

    Permadani, Resi Levi

    2016-01-01

    Avocado seed (Persea americana mill) can be used as source of vegetable oil because the content of protein and oil are high enough. Avocado seed oil is obtained by extraction using n-heptane. Heptane can be used as alternative solvent because the use does not cause environmental and health problems. The aim of this research is to examine characteristic of oil extraction process from avocado seed. The research design using Response Surface Methodology-Central Composite Design...

  15. The Scirtothrips perseae species-group (Thysanoptera), with one new species from avocado, Persea americana.

    Mound, Laurence A; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Following recent molecular studies on avocado thrips, a new species is described from Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Colombia from the young leaves of avocado, Persea americana. Scirtothrips hansoni sp.n. is closely related to the Californian pest, S. perseae, and also to S. astrictus from Costa Rica that remains known from a single female. An illustrated key to these three species is provided. PMID:27396014

  16. Oil biosynthesis in a basal angiosperm: transcriptome analysis of Persea Americana mesocarp

    Kilaru, Aruna; Cao, Xia; Dabbs, Parker B.; Sung, Ha-Jung; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Thrower, Nicholas; Zynda, Greg; Podicheti, Ram; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Ohlrogge, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mechanism by which plants synthesize and store high amounts of triacylglycerols (TAG) in tissues other than seeds is not well understood. The comprehension of controls for carbon partitioning and oil accumulation in nonseed tissues is essential to generate oil-rich biomass in perennial bioenergy crops. Persea americana (avocado), a basal angiosperm with unique features that are ancestral to most flowering plants, stores ~ 70 % TAG per dry weight in its mesocarp, a nonseed tissu...

  17. Pro-apoptotic effect of Persea americana var. Hass (avocado) on Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Bonilla-Porras, Angelica R; Salazar-Ospina, Andrea; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Pereañez-Jimenez, Andres; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Context: Therapy for leukemia has a limited efficacy. There is a need to search for alternative anti-leukemia therapies. Persea americana Mill var. Hass (Lauraceae) is a tropical fruit (avocado) that might be used against cancer. Objective: To investigate whether P. americana induces death in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cells. Materials and methods: Four ethanol extracts (0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 and 5 mg/mL) from avocado fruit (endocarp, whole seed, seed and leaves) were analyzed against Jurkat cells. Hydrogen peroxide generation by oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent compound 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein assay, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining, flow cytometry analysis of annexin-V/7-amino-actinomycin, mitochondrial membrane potential and immunocytochemistry detection of transcription factor p53, caspase-3 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were evaluated. Results: Endocarp, seed, whole seed, and leaf (0.1 mg/mL) extracts induced significant apoptosis in Jurkat cells (p americana extracts function as a pro-apoptotic compound. Leukemic cells are eliminated through an oxidative stress mechanism. This study contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanism of the avocado and its therapeutic action on leukemia. PMID:24188375

  18. Herança e ligação em locos de isoenzimas em Genipa americana L. Inheritance and linkage in isozymes loci of Genipa americana L.

    Alexandre Magno SEBBENN

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A herança e a ligação foram estudadasem quatro locos polimórficos (6pghd-1, Pgi-2,Mdh-1 e Mdh-2 de três sistemas isoenzimáticos deGenipa americana, analisados por eletroforesehorizontal em gel de amido, usando tecidoscoletados de quinze progênies de polinização aberta,procedentes de Moji-Guaçu, Estado de São Paulo.Esses locos segregaram de dois a três alelos.A segregação nesses locos foi homogênea entreárvores. Contudo, existem desvios significativos dasegregação esperada 1:1 para algumas árvores emalguns locos. Desvios significativos da razão desegregação esperada 1:1 foram detectados noslocos Mdh-2 e 6pgdh-1. Não foram detectadasevidências de ligação entre nenhum dos pares delocos avaliados em G. americana e esses podemser utilizados sem restrição para estudos do sistemade reprodução, diversidade e estrutura genética depopulações da espécie.Inheritance and linkage for fourpolymorphic loci (6pghd-1, Pgi-2, Mdh-1 andMdh-2 from three enzyme systems in Genipaamericana were analyzed by horizontal starch gelelectrophoresis using tissues collected from fiftyopen-pollinated families in Moji-Guaçu, São PauloState. These allozyme loci have segregated fromtwo to four alleles per polymorphic locus. Genesegregation on those loci was homogeneous amongtrees. However, there were significant deviationsfrom the expected segregation ratios on some lociand some individual trees. In addition, Mdh-2 and6pgdh-1 loci have shown significant deviationsfrom the 1:1 expected segregation ratio. Linkagedisequilibrium evidences were not detected betweenany two pairs of loci from G. americana and thosecan be used with no restriction to study the matingsystem, genetic diversity, and genetic structure onthe species.

  19. Morfoanatomia de folha e caule de Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae Leaf and stem morpho-anatomy of Genipa americana L., Rubiaceae

    Marianna Erbano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Genipa americana L., conhecida como jenipapo, é uma Rubiaceae nativa do Brasil e as suas folhas são utilizadas pela população como antidiarreico e febrífugo, e o caule como anti-hemorrágico, contra luxações e contusões. Com o objetivo de caracterizar macro e microscopicamente folhas adultas e caules jovens para o controle de qualidade farmacognóstico, essa planta medicinal foi analisada segundo a metodologia clássica de morfoanatomia vegetal. Genipa americana apresenta folhas simples, opostas, de formato obovado a oblanceolado e pecíolos curtos. A epiderme foliar é uniestratificada e revestida por cutícula delgada e levemente estriada. Os estômatos são paracíticos e restritos à superfície abaxial. Há tricomas tectores uni e pluricelulares predominantemente na superfície abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. Em secção transversal, a nervura central é plano-convexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando um feixe vascular colateral em disposição cilíndrica e outros menores. O caule possui felogênio localizado nas camadas subepidérmicas, colênquima anelar e um cilindro floemático externo ao de xilema, sendo ambos percorridos por raios parenquimáticos estreitos. Ocorrem idioblastos contendo compostos fenólicos, areia cristalina e drusas de oxalato de cálcio na folha e no caule.Genipa americana L., known as jenipapo, is a Rubiaceae species native to Brazil. Its leaves are used by the population as anti-diarrheic and febrifuge, and its stem as anti-hemorrhagic and for trauma injuries. Aiming to identify macro and microscopically mature leaves and young stems for the pharmacognostic quality control, this medicinal plant was investigated according to standard morpho-anatomical techniques. The leaves are simple, opposite, obovate-oblanceolate, presenting short petiole. The epidermis is uniseriate and coated with thin and slightly striate cuticle. The stomata are paracytic and restricted to the abaxial surface. It

  20. Fruit characterization of Venezuelan avocado varieties of medium oil content Caracterização de variedades venezuelanas de abacate com teor médio de óleo

    Vicente Manuel Gómez-López

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper was to characterize some avocado fruit varieties to increase the information pool for this fruit. Twelve avocado varieties of medium oil content (8.09-11.12% from a Venezuelan orchard: Wilson Popenoe, Figueroa 1, Waldin, Puebla, Schaff, Celia, Araira FM, Adolfo, Esencia de la Vega, Lawhon, Winslowson, and Lujo were characterized for pulp oil and moisture; weight (whole fruit, seed, pulp, and peel; length, width, and fruit shape; peel characteristics (roughness, color and hand peeling; and ripeness time. Differences in oil content, moisture content and fruit weight were found when compared with results reported by other authors. The variety Puebla was the lightest (107 g and the smallest (7.90 x 4.62 cm, while Wilson Popenoe presented the highest pulp proportion (82%. Most of the varieties were ovate, with rough green peel and easy to hand peel. Peak ripeness of some varieties was at 3-12 days. Potential yields of two varieties were higher that the Venezuelan average.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar algumas variedades de abacate para aumentar o banco de informações desta fruta. Doze variedades de teor médio de óleo (8,09 - 11,12% de um pomar da Venezuela: Wilson Popenoe, Figueroa 1, Waldin, Puebla, Schaff, Celia, Araira FM, Adolfo, Esencia de la Veja, Lawhon, Winslowson e Lujo, foram caracterizadas em relação à umidade e teor de óleo da polpa; pesos (fruta inteira, semente, polpa, casca; comprimento, largura e forma da fruta; carcterísticas da casca (rugosidade, cor, descascamento manual; tempo de maturação. Diferenças de umidade, teor de óleo e peso foram encontradas em relação a resultados de outros autores. A variedade Puebla foi a mais leve (107 g e a menor (7,90 x 4,632 cm, enquanto a Wilson Popenoe apresentou a maior proporção de polpa (82%. A maioria das variedades é oval, com pele verde e rugosa, de descascamento manual fácil. Produtividades potenciais de duas

  1. Polifenoles en Myristicaceae americanas II. Distribución en especies colombianas Polifenoles en Myristicaceae americanas II. Distribución en especies colombianas

    Aguirre Gálviz Luis Enrique

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The distribution of phenolic acids and flavonoid aglycones in 65 samples of 11 species of Colombian Myristicaceae was studied in order to complete the data obtained from other samples of American Myristicaceae. The occurrence and distribution of these compounds could be used for chemotaxonomic discusions of the family.

    Se estudió la distribución de polifenoles en 65 muestras de material de herbario de II especies de Myristicaceae coleccionadas en Colombia, con el objeto de complementar los datos obtenidos en otras muestras de Myristicaceae americanas. El patrón de distribución de estos compuestos podría servir para una discusión quimiotaxonómica de la familia.

  2. Cloning of a chitinase gene from Ewingella americana, a pathogen of the cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

    P.W. Inglis

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available We have isolated a gene encoding a chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 from Ewingella americana, a recently described pathogen of the mushroom Agaricus bisporus. This gene, designated chiA (EMBL/Genbank/DDBJ accession number X90562, was cloned by expression screening of a plasmid-based E. americana HindIII genomic library in Escherichia coli using remazol brilliant violet-stained carboxymethylated chitin incorporated into selective medium. The chiA gene has a 918-bp ORF, terminated by a TAA codon, with a calculated polypeptide size of 33.2 kDa, likely corresponding to a previously purified and characterised 33-kDa endochitinase from E. americana. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 33% identity with chitinase II from Aeromonas sp. No. 10S-24 and 7.8% identity with a chitinase from Saccharopolyspora erythraeus. Homology to other chitinase sequences was otherwise low. The peptide sequence deduced from chiA lacks a typical N-terminal signal sequence and also lacks the chitin binding and type III fibronectin homology units common to many bacterial chitinases. The possibility that this chitinase is not primarily adapted for the environmental mineralisation of pre-formed chitin, but rather for the breakdown of nascent chitin, is discussed in the context of mushroom disease.O gene que codifica uma quitinase (EC 3.2.1.14 foi isolado de Ewingella americana, recentemente descrita como patógeno do cogumelo Agaricus bisporus. Este gene, denominado chiA (EMBL/Genebank/DDBJ número de acesso X9061, foi clonado e selecionado a partir de livraria genômica construída por digestão do DNA de E. americana com HindIII e ligação em plasmídio de expressão em E. coli, utilizando meio seletivo contendo quitina carboximetilada, corada com "remazol brilliant violet'' para seleção de clones. O gene chiA apresenta uma ORF de 918 bp, código terminador TAA, tendo o tamanho do polipeptídeo sido calculado como 33,2 kDa, o qual corresponde ao tamanho de 33 kDa da endoquitinase

  3. Cd-induced changes in leaf proteome of the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca americana.

    Zhao, Le; Sun, Yong-Le; Cui, Su-Xia; Chen, Mei; Yang, Hao-Meng; Liu, Hui-Min; Chai, Tuan-Yao; Huang, Fang

    2011-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic to all organisms. Soil contamination by Cd has become an increasing problem worldwide due to the intensive use of Cd-containing phosphate fertilizers and industrial zinc mining. Phytolacca americana L. is a Cd hyperaccumulator plant that can grow in Cd-polluted areas. However, the molecular basis for its remarkable Cd resistance is not known. In this study, the effects of Cd exposure on protein expression patterns in P.americana was investigated by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). 2-DE profiles of leaf proteins from both control and Cd-treated (400μM, 48h) seedlings were compared quantitatively using ImageMaster software. In total, 32 differentially expressed protein spots were identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry coupled to protein database search, corresponding to 25 unique gene products. Of those 14 were enhanced/induced while 11 reduced under Cd treatment. The alteration pattern of protein expression was verified for several key proteins involved in distinct metabolic pathways by immuno-blot analysis. Major changes were found for the proteins involved in photosynthetic pathways as well as in the sulfur- and GSH-related metabolisms. One-third of the up-regulated proteins were attributed to transcription, translation and molecular chaperones including a protein belonging to the calreticulin family. Other proteins include antioxidative enzymes such as 2-cys-peroxidase and oxidoreductases. The results of this proteomic analysis provide the first and primary information regarding the molecular basis of Cd hypertolerance in P. americana. PMID:21723586

  4. Midgut Transcriptome of the Cockroach Periplaneta americana and Its Microbiota: Digestion, Detoxification and Oxidative Stress Response

    Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Yixi; Li, Jingjing; Liu, Meiling; Liu, Zewen

    2016-01-01

    The cockroach, Periplaneta americana, is an obnoxious and notorious pest of the world, with a strong ability to adapt to a variety of complex environments. However, the molecular mechanism of this adaptability is mostly unknown. In this study, the genes and microbiota composition associated with the adaptation mechanism were studied by analyzing the transcriptome and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing of the P. americana midgut, respectively. Midgut transcriptome analysis identified 82,905 unigenes, among which 64 genes putatively involved in digestion (11 genes), detoxification (37 genes) and oxidative stress response (16 genes) were found. Evaluation of gene expression following treatment with cycloxaprid further revealed that the selected genes (CYP6J1, CYP4C1, CYP6K1, Delta GST, alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and aminopeptidase) were upregulated at least 2.0-fold at the transcriptional level, and four genes were upregulated more than 10.0-fold. An interesting finding was that three digestive enzymes positively responded to cycloxaprid application. Tissue expression profiles further showed that most of the selected genes were midgut-biased, with the exception of CYP6K1. The midgut microbiota composition was obtained via 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and was found to be mainly dominated by organisms from the Firmicutes phylum, among which Clostridiales, Lactobacillales and Burkholderiales were the main orders which might assist the host in the food digestion or detoxification of noxious compounds. The preponderant species, Clostridium cellulovorans, was previously reported to degrade lignocellulose efficiently in insects. The abundance of genes involved in digestion, detoxification and response to oxidative stress, and the diversity of microbiota in the midgut might provide P. americana high capacity to adapt to complex environments. PMID:27153200

  5. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition properties of Amorpha fruticosa L. and Phytolacca americana L.

    Dimitrina Zh Zheleva-Dimitrova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Amorpha fruticosa L. and Phytolacca americana L. are native plants for North America, but invasive for Central Europe and the Mediterranean areas. Previous investigation reported DPPH radical scavenging activity of A. fruticosa seeds from Mississippi river basin and P. americana berries from Iran. The aim of the present study was to investigate methanol extracts from leaves and fruits of these invasive species growing in Bulgaria for radical scavenging and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity was investigated using DPPH and ABTS free radicals; FRAP assay and inhibition of lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid system by FTC. Modified Ellman′s colorimetric method was carried out to quantify acetylcholinesterase inhibition potential. In addition, the quantities of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic derivatives were determinated using Folin-Chiocalteu reagent, AlCl 3 , and Na 2 MoO 4 , respectively. Results: The highest concentrations of total polyphenols and flavonoids were found in A. fruticosa leaves (786.70±1.78 mg/g dry extract and 32.19±0.29 mg/g dry extract, respectively. A. fruticosa fruit was found to be the most enriched in total hydroxycinnamic derivatives (153.55±1.11 mg/g dry extract and demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity: DPPH, IC 50 9.83 μg/mL; ABTS, IC 50 2.90 μg/mL; FRAP , 642.95±3.95 μg TE/mg de, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, 48.86±0.55% (2 mg/mL. Conclusions: Phytolacca americana leaves and Amorpha fruticosa could be useful in therapy of free radical pathologies and neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Visual pigments, oil droplets, lens, and cornea characterization in the whooping crane (Grus americana)

    Porter, Megan L.; Kingston, Alexandra C. N.; McCready, Robert; Cameron, Evan G.; Hofmann, Christopher M.; Suarez, Lauren; Olsen, Glenn H.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Robinson, Phyllis R.

    2014-01-01

    Vision has been investigated in many species of birds, but few studies have considered the visual systems of large birds and the particular implications of large eyes and long-life spans on visual system capabilities. To address these issues we investigated the visual system of the whooping crane, Grus americana (Gruiformes: Gruidae). G. americana (an endangered species) is one of only two North American crane species and represents a large, long-lived bird where ultraviolet sensitivity may be degraded by chromatic aberrations and entrance of ultraviolet light into the eye could be detrimental to retinal tissues. To investigate the whooping crane visual system we used microspectrophotometry to determine the absorbance spectra of retinal oil droplets and to investigate if the ocular media (i.e., the lens and cornea) absorbs UV light. In vitro expression and reconstitution was used to determine the absorbance spectra of rod and cone visual pigments. The rod visual pigments had wavelengths of peak absorbance (λmax) at 500 nm, while the cone visual pigments λmax values were determined to be 404 nm (SWS1), 450 nm (SWS2), 499 nm (RH2), and 561 nm (LWS), similar to other characterized bird visual pigment absorbance values. The oil droplet cutoff wavelength (λcut) values similarly fell within ranges recorded from other avian species: 576 nm (R-type), 522 nm (Y-type), 506 nm (P-type), and 448 nm (C-type). We confirm that G. americana has a violet-sensitive visual system, although based on the λmax of the SWS1 visual pigment (404 nm) may also have some ability for UV sensitivity.

  7. THE PAINT FORMULATION IN LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN USAGE AS P. americana COCKROACH CONTROL MEASURES

    Lulus Susanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKecoa adalah salah satu jenis serangga yang dianggap kotor dan merupakan seranggavektor. Scbagian besar kecoa yang ditemukan di sekitar pemukiman adalah Periplanetaamericana, Periplaneta brunea, Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supellalongipalpa, Neostylopiga rhombifoUa dan Nauphaeta cinerea. Beberapa kecoa juga dapatmenularkan virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit dan jamur.Pengcndalian kecoa secara fogging dengan menggunakan insektisida masih kurangefektif dan praktis, sehingga dibutuhkan alternatif pengcndali. Dalam rangka untuk mencarimetode alternatif pengcndalian kecoa, maka akan dilakukan percobaan menggunakan cat kayuyang ditambahkan dengan insektisida.Dalam penelitian ini, insektisida cat kayu menggunakan bahan aktif Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. Pertama-tama dibuat beberapa solusi dari cat insektisida dalam dosis banyak. Kemudiancat papan kayu lapis. Setelah kcring sekitar satu hari, kemudian melakukan pengujian bioassayterhadap kecoa {Periplaneta americana . Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa kayuinsektisida cat dengan dosis minimal 1,591% efektif untuk membunuh kecoa hingga 95%.Kata kunci: kecoa, cat berinsektisida, lambdacyhalothrinABSTRATCCockroaches are still considered to be disgusting insects and vector. Mostlycockroaches that are found around the resident, such as Periplaneta americana, Periplanetabrunea,Periplaneta australisea, Blatella germanica, Supella longipalpa, NeostylopigarhombifoUa and Nauphaeta cinerea. There are can transmit virus, bakteria, worm, protozoit andfungi.The methods for cocroaches control by using the fogging with insecticide is still lesseffective and practical, so it will need a controlling alternative. In order to find the alternativemethods for control the cockroach, it will conduct an experiments using impregnated paint woodby insecticide.In this research, insecticide paint wood using an active materials Lambdacyhalothrin10WP. For the first, it make some solution from insecticide paint in

  8. Thermal effects on growth and respiration rates of the mayfly, Dolania americana (ephemeroptera)

    The mayfly Dolania Americana, common in the sand of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, was studied to determine the effects of seasonal changes in temperature on population growth rates and to determine the effects of slight elevations in water temperature on respiration rates of this benthic species. Growth of the population increased with stream temperature until peak emergence of adults in June and July. There was a strong inverse correlation between body weight and respiration rates of immature nymphs. Respiration rates at 2.5, 5, and 100C above ambient creekwater temperatures were not significantly higher than those measured at ambient creekwater temperatures. (auth)

  9. Characterization of an Invertebrate-Type Dopamine Receptor of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Britta Troppmann; Sabine Balfanz; Christian Krach; Arnd Baumann; Wolfgang Blenau

    2014-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for a putative invertebrate-type dopamine receptor (Peadop2) from P. americana brain by using a PCR-based strategy. The mRNA is present in samples from brain and salivary glands. We analyzed the distribution of the PeaDOP2 receptor protein with specific affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies. On Western blots, PeaDOP2 was detected in protein samples from brain, subesophageal ganglion, thoracic ganglia, and salivary glands. In immunocytochemical experiments, w...

  10. Loque americana : Ensayos de campo para evaluar la efectividad de algunos aceites esenciales

    Albo, Graciela N.; Cerimele, Elsa; De Giusti, Marisa Raquel; Alippi, Adriana Mónica; Ré, María Susana

    2001-01-01

    Se realizaron diferentes ensayos de campo y de laboratorio para valorar la efectividad de los aceites esenciales procedentes de lemongrass (pasto limón), tomillo, orégano y ajedrea, en la prevención y control de las infecciones de loque americana (AFB) en colmenas pobladas con Apis mellifera ligustica. Los valores de DL50 para las pruebas de toxicidad aguda oral en abejas adultas se calcularon comprobando que los aceites esenciales no fueran tóxicos. Se diseñaron dos experimentos de campo, du...

  11. Effects of simulated acid rain on leaf anatomy and micromorphology of Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae

    Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in order to characterize the injuries on leaf structure and micromorphology of G. americana and evaluate the degree of susceptibility of this species to simulated acid rain. Plants were exposed to acid rain (pH 3.0 for ten consecutive days. Control plants were submitted only to distilled water (pH 6.0. Leaf tissue was sampled and fixed for light and scanning electron microscopy. Necrotic interveinal spots on the leaf blade occurred. Epidermis and mesophyll cells collapse, hypertrophy of spongy parenchyma cells, accumulation of phenolic compounds and starch grains were observed in leaves exposed to acid rain. The micromorphological analysis showed, in necrotic areas, plasmolized guard cells and cuticle rupture. Epidermal and mesophyll cells alterations occurred before symptoms were visualized in the leaves. These results showed the importance of anatomical data for precocious diagnosis injury and to determine the sensitivity of G. americana to acid rain.Experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar o grau de susceptibilidade e determinar as injúrias causadas pela chuva ácida simulada na anatomia e micromorfologia foliar de Genipa americana. Plantas foram expostas à chuva com pH 3,0 durante 10 dias consecutivos. No tratamento controle utilizou-se apenas água destilada (pH 6,0. Amostras foliares foram coletadas e fixadas para microscopia de luz e eletrônica de varredura. Foram observados nas folhas expostas à chuva ácida: necroses pontuais intervenais, colapso das células do mesofilo e da epiderme; hipertrofia do parênquima lacunoso e acúmulo de compostos fenólicos e grãos de amido. A análise micromorfológica evidenciou, nas áreas necrosadas, plasmólise das células-guarda e ruptura da cutícula e da crista estomática. Alterações anatômicas ocorreram antes que sintomas visuais fossem observados nas folhas. Estes resultados comprovam a importância de dados anatômicos na diagnose precoce da injúria e na

  12. O novo na sociologia latino-americana Novelty in Latin American sociology

    Lucio Oliver Costilla

    2005-01-01

    O artigo analisa varias caraterísticas atuais das ciências sociais latino-americanas em paralelo ao desenvolvimento da América Latina nos últimos anos. O ponto de partida é o sinal de que a combinação contraditória no continente latino-americano entre uma intelectualidade que tem um elevado nível cultural e a existência de movimentos sociais e políticos numa situação social explosiva, gera amplas possibilidades para o desenvolvimento da sociologia. A crise das ciências sociais acompanha estas...

  13. Efek Antihiperurisemia Ekstrak Etanol Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) pada Mencit Putih Jantan

    Puspita, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Hyperuricemic is a condition where there is an increase of uric acid level in blood above normal ( >7 mg/dL ). The high level of uric acid in our body over time will form crystal and may cause accumulation in joint movement that creates excessive soreness. One of many herbal plant that can be use to treat hyperuricemic is avocado seed (Persea americana Mill.) which has antihyperuricemic activity. This study aimed to find out the group of secondary metabolite compound in simplex and ethanol ex...

  14. Antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea Americana, an invitro study

    Ionizing radiation produce deleterious effects in the living organisms. Rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Several plants have been screened for their radio protective ability and the hunt for identifying many more safe, nontoxic and effective ones is in progress. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity in hydro alcoholic leaf extract of Psidium guajava (guava) and Persea americana (avocado). The antioxidant assay such as 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, chelation of iron by plant extract, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), and total antioxidant activity of extract was analyzed using spectrophotometer. Phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis of leaf extracts were also performed. The results indicated that the IC50 value of hydro alcoholic leaf extract of P.guajava and P. americana were 14 μg/ml and 15 μg/ml in ABTS free radical scavenging assay, 4 μg/ml and 2.5 μg/ml in DPPH free radical scavenging assay, 7.2 μg/ml and 8.4 μg/ml in chelation of iron by plant extract, 2 μg/ml and, 4.3 μg/ml in hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and effective concentration(EC50) was 57.80 μg/ml and 87.56 μg/ml in FRAP assay respectively. The results for total antioxidant activity indicated that 242.3 μg/ml of P.guajava and 432.7 μg/ml of P.americana extract was equivalent to 100 μg/ml of standard qurecetin respectively. Qualitative analysis of hydroalcoholic leaf extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, saponions, terpenoids, and glycosides. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of flavonoids qurecetin and rutin in leaf extracts on comparison with standard compounds. Our study showed that hydro alcoholic leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Persea americana act as strong antioxidant and free

  15. Effects of ripening on rheological properties of avocado pulp (Persea americana mill. Cv. Hass)

    Osorio, F.; Roman, A.; Ortiz, J.

    2015-04-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill) Hass variety is the most planted in Chile with a greater trade prospect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of maturity on rheological properties of Chilean Avocado Hass pulp. Fresh unripe avocados were washed and peeled, cut and stored at 3 different times; a portion was treated at 5°C and the other was treated at 20°C until it reached 2 lb puncture pressure. During maturation changes would develop due to temperature and time, with internal cellular structure changes. Preliminary results of the rheological characteristics of avocado puree show a Bingham plastic behavior.

  16. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili FC, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu PC, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for th...

  17. Postharvest of ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Hass’ avocados: physical and chemical characteristics, damages and control of diseases/ Pós-colheita de abacates ‘Fuerte’ e ‘Hass’: características físicas e químicas, danos e controle de doenças

    Maria Cecília Arruda

    Full Text Available Postharvest disease is considered an important cause of avocado depreciation during its commercialization. This work aimed to evaluate the postharvest damages and the physical chemical characteristics of avocados ‘Fuerte’ and ‘Hass’, processed at the packinghouse, and to evaluate the effect of products for postharvest disease control. The characteristics skin color, firmness, titratable acidity and soluble solids content and the incidence of the postharvest damages were evaluated periodically in avocados sampled in three different stages in a packinghouse (arrival, pallet and processed fruits after storage for 30 days at 5ºC. For diseases control, ‘Hass’ avocado were treated by immersion with the following products: azoxystrobin, benzalkonium chloride, chlorine dioxide, Ecolife®, sodium hypochlorite, imazalil, prochloraz and thiabendazole. In general, the highest physical chemical changes were observed in fruits collected at their arrival to the packinghouse and in processed fruits after stored for 30 days at 15 days of storage at 25°C. The rots incidence was 56,7% in ‘Fuerte’ and 75,7% in ‘Hass’. Lower incidence of rots was observed in fruits sampled at the pallet and a higher incidence in the processed fruits, after refrigerated storage. Anthracnose was the most important disease in both cultivars. The mechanical injuries increased with the processing stages; however, they did not influence the incidence of the rots. Procloraz and imazalil were the most efficient fungicides in reducing the incidence of rots. Doença pós-colheita é considerada uma importante causa de desvalorização do abacate por ocasião da comercialização. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os danos pós-colheita e as características físicas e químicas de abacates ‘Fuerte’ e ‘Hass’, beneficiados em packinghouse, e o efeito de produtos no controle pós-colheita das podridões. As características cor da casca, firmeza, acidez titulável e s

  18. ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GENIPA AMERICANA L. SEEDS IN AN INDUCED SOIL SEED BANK

    Francesca Salla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the behavior of G. americana L. (Rubiaceae seeds in an induced soil seed bank. This study was conducted in Lavras-MG in a seasonal semideciduous forest of the Federal University of Lavras. Seeds collected in the area were cleaned and analyzed (water content, viability and desiccation tolerance. Soil banks were installed in two distinct areas (top of hill and riparian forest located in the understory of the forest. Seeds were placed in nylon nets and covered with a thin litter layer that was previously removed for this purpose. Monthly assessment of germination, seedling emergence, seed and soil water content, and the characterization of the initial seedling growth was performed. It was observed that G. americana seeds forms a transitory seed bank, with maintenance of its viability until the fourth month after disposal in natural environment. In general, the seed bank located in the riparian forest area showed the best potential for seedling establishment in a natural environment, which supports the ecological behavior of this species.

  19. One pot phytosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using Genipa americana fruit extract and its biological applications.

    Kumar, Brajesh; Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Camacho, Javier; Hernández-Gallegos, Elisabeth; de Guadalupe Chávez-López, María; Grijalva, Marcelo; Andrade, Kleber

    2016-05-01

    In this article, rapid one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using an eco-friendly extract of Genipa americana L. fruit is described. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic studies demonstrated that small molecules such as genipin, genipaol, geniposide and ranolazine can act as reducer as well as stabilizers. The monodispersed, spherical GNPs were further characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy at λmax=535nm, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. This synthetic approach offers a greener and alternate route to the preparation of GNPs free from toxic chemical components and stable for 6-7months under room temperature. The green synthesized GNPs showed weak antioxidant efficacy against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and no cytotoxicity against A-549 and HeLa human cancer cell lines, from lung and cervix. This study opens a new industrial scope of G. americana fruit in nanoscience and as surface modified GNPs can be developed into a successful drug carrier for future pharmaceutical products. PMID:26952478

  20. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus).

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Joon Ha; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  1. Effect of Agave americana and Agave salmiana Ripeness on Saponin Content from Aguamiel (Agave Sap).

    Leal-Díaz, Ana María; Santos-Zea, Liliana; Martínez-Escobedo, Hilda Cecilia; Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Serna-Saldivar, Sergio Othón

    2015-04-22

    Steroidal saponins have shown beneficial health effects. Agave spp. leaves and rhizomes are sources of these compounds, but their presence has not been reported in the aguamiel. Aguamiel is the sweet edible sap from mature agave, and its quality is influenced by the plant ripening stage. The purpose of this research was to identify and quantitate saponins in aguamiel from Agave americana and Agave salmiana at two ripening stages. Saponins and sapogenins were identified with HPLC/ESI-MS/TOF and quantitated with HPLC/ELSD. Results proved the presence of saponins derived from kammogenin, manogenin, gentrogenin, and hecogenin. The saponin content in aguamiel from immature A. salmiana was 2-fold higher (478.3 protodioscin equivalents (PE) μg/g aguamiel (DM)) compared with A. americana (179.0 PE μg/g aguamiel (DM)). In both species, saponin content decreased when plants reached sexual maturity. This should be considered before evaluating the effects of Agave spp. as a source of bioactive saponins. PMID:25811101

  2. Effect of certain entomopathogenic fungi on oxidative stress and mortality of Periplaneta americana.

    Chaurasia, Abhilasha; Lone, Yaqoob; Wani, Owais; Gupta, U S

    2016-02-01

    The present paper reports the effects of Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria fumosoroseus and Hirsutella thompsonaii on Periplaneta americana. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii were cultured at 28±1°C on potato carrot agar and M. anisopliae was cultured at 28±1°C on potato dextrose agar for 14days. Conidial suspensions of fungi were given to cockroaches through different routes. M. anisopliae shows high virulence against adult cockroaches and mortality ranges from 38.65% to 78.36% after 48h. I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonii show less virulence compared to M. anisopliae. We also investigated the effect of these three fungi on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, lipid peroxidation and catalase in different tissues of the insect to gain an understanding of the different target site. The result suggested that the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, catalase and level of malondialdehyde varies in different organs and through different routes of exposure. Based on mortality percentages, all tested fungi had high potentials for biocontrol agents against P. americana. Our study reveals for the first time that I. fumosoroseus and H. thompsonaii fungal infections initiate oxidative stress in the midgut, fat body, whole body and hemolymph of cockroach thereby suggesting them to be the target organs for oxidative damage. PMID:26821655

  3. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus.

    In-Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST, Gene Ontology (GO, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species.

  4. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis and Detection of Antimicrobial Peptides of the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus)

    Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Iksoo; Park, Junhyung; Hwang, Jae Sam

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches are surrogate hosts for microbes that cause many human diseases. In spite of their generally destructive nature, cockroaches have recently been found to harbor potentially beneficial and medically useful substances such as drugs and allergens. However, genomic information for the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is currently unavailable; therefore, transcriptome and gene expression profiling is needed as an important resource to better understand the fundamental biological mechanisms of this species, which would be particularly useful for the selection of novel antimicrobial peptides. Thus, we performed de novo transcriptome analysis of P. americana that were or were not immunized with Escherichia coli. Using an Illumina HiSeq sequencer, we generated a total of 9.5 Gb of sequences, which were assembled into 85,984 contigs and functionally annotated using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), Gene Ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database terms. Finally, using an in silico antimicrobial peptide prediction method, 86 antimicrobial peptide candidates were predicted from the transcriptome, and 21 of these peptides were experimentally validated for their antimicrobial activity against yeast and gram positive and -negative bacteria by a radial diffusion assay. Notably, 11 peptides showed strong antimicrobial activities against these organisms and displayed little or no cytotoxic effects in the hemolysis and cell viability assay. This work provides prerequisite baseline data for the identification and development of novel antimicrobial peptides, which is expected to provide a better understanding of the phenomenon of innate immunity in similar species. PMID:27167617

  5. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  6. Seed rescue from photoperiod sensitive American Joint Vetch (Aeschynomene americana L.) accessions using hydroponic cloning and aeroponics

    American joint vetch, Aeschynomene Americana L. is a self-pollinated tropical pasture legume and the USDA, ARS, PGRCU curates 137 accessions from the United States, S. America, Mexico, Central America, and Zambia. Many accessions in this collection are photoperiod sensitive due to their typical flow...

  7. The Complex of Scolytinae Inhabiting Persea borbonia and Persea americana in Florida: Possible Interactions with Other Species

    A diverse number of Scolytinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been found inhabiting Persea borbonia and P. americana in Florida during 2009 and 2010. They include the exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, vector of Raffaelea lauricola, X. volvulus, X. ferrugineus, Xylosandrus crassiu...

  8. Pengaruh Kadar Protein, Lemak Dan Serat Dari Sari Buah Alpukat (Persea Americana Mill) Pada Pembuatan Nata De Coco Dengan Menggunakan Acetobacter Xylinum

    Wahyuni, Sri

    2011-01-01

    One of the utilization of coconut water is to make nata de coco. With the addition of fruit juice modification Avocado (Persea Americana Mill) will be obtained nata de coco that have better nutritional value in terms of protein, fiber and fat. This is due to high nutrient content is owned by the fruit of avocado (Persea Americana Mill) Research carried out by using 100 grams of coconut water, 10 grams sucrose, 0.5 grams of urea and added the juice Avocado (Persea Americana Mill) and then ...

  9. Restrição hídrica em sementes de Jenipapo (Genipa americana L.)

    Allívia Rouse Ferreira dos Santos; Renata Silva-Mann; Robério Anastácio Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    O jenipapo, originário da América Latina, pertence à família Rubiaceae e apresenta valor madeireiro e alimentício, sendo explorado sem estratégias de conservação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da restrição hídrica, por meio de duas metodologias, na germinação de sementes de Genipa americana L. A primeira foi realizada com sementes imersas em soluções de polietilenoglicol (PEG 6000) por 18 dias a 0,0; -0,1; -0,3 e -0,4 MPa à 20ºC, simulando condições de alagamento, e após este...

  10. Ovular development and perisperm formation in Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae) and their systematic significance in Caryophyllales

    Hong-Chun ZHENG; Sheng-Wen MA; Tuan-Yao CHAI

    2010-01-01

    Phytolacca is the biggest and most original genus in Phytolaccaceae and an important genus in plant systematic studies. Light microscopy results show that the Phytolacca americana L. ovule arises from the caulis (floral receptacle). The perisperm and hypostase are simultaneously initiated from the top several layers of cells of chalaza after fertilization, and the perisperm is located between the nucellus and hypostase. In the early stages of development, the hypostase cells are thin-walled with dense cytoplasm, clear nuclei, and some reserve granules.Later, at the heart-shaped embryo stage, the hypostase cells are dead and thick-walled. The main functions of the hypostase may be to maintain cellular division and perisperm growth without delivering nutrient materials to the perisperm. An evolutionary picture of placentation in Caryophyllales is also presented.

  11. Structural analysis of fructans from Agave americana grown in South Africa for spirit production.

    Ravenscroft, Neil; Cescutti, Paola; Hearshaw, Meredith A; Ramsout, Ronica; Rizzo, Roberto; Timme, Elizabeth M

    2009-05-27

    Fructans isolated from Agave americana grown in South Africa are currently used for spirit production. Structural studies on water-soluble fructans were performed to facilitate the development of other applications including its use as a prebiotic. Acid hydrolysis followed by HPAEC-PAD analysis confirmed that the fructan was composed of glucose and fructose, and size analysis by HPAEC-PAD and size exclusion chromatography indicated that the saccharides have a DP range from 6 to 50. An average DP of 14 was estimated by (1)H NMR analysis. Linkage analysis and ESI-MS studies suggest that A. americana has a neofructan structure consisting of a central sucrose to which (2 → 1)- and (2 → 6)-linked β-D-Fruf chains are attached. The (2 → 1)-linked units extend from C-1 of Fru and C-6 of glucose, whereas the (2 → 6)-linked β-D-Fruf units are attached to C-6 of the central Fru. This structure accounts for the presence of equimolar amounts of 1,6-linked Glu and 1,2,6-linked Fru found in linkage analysis and the multiplicity of the NMR signals observed. Detailed ESI-MS studies were performed on fructan fractions: native, periodate oxidized/reduced, and permethylated oligomers. These derivatizations introduced mass differences between Glc and Fru following oxidation and between 1,2-, 1,6-, 2,6-, and 1,2,6-linked units after methylation. Thus, ESI-MS showed the presence of a single Glc per fructan chain and that it is predominantly internal, rather than terminal as found in inulin. These structural features were confirmed by the use of 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:19348427

  12. Distinct localization of FMRFamide- and bovine pancreatic polypeptide-like material in the brain, retrocerebral complex and suboesophageal ganglion of the cockroach Periplaneta americana L

    Verhaert, P; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; De Loof, A

    1985-01-01

    One bovine pancreatic polypeptide (BPP) antiserum and two FMRFamide antisera were applied in the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) immunohistochemical technique on a complete series of sections of brains, suboesophageal ganglia (SOG), corpora cardiaca (CC) and corpora allata of Periplaneta americana...

  13. Remnant B-Cell-Stimulative and Anti-Oxidative Effects of Persea Americana Fruit Extract Studied in Rats Introduced into Streptozotocin - Induced Hyperglycaemic State

    Rao, U S Mahadeva; Adinew, Bizuneh

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-stimulative and anti-oxidative effects of Persea americana fruit extract were evaluated using streptozotocin (STZ). Ethanol extract of P. americana in the concentration of 300 mg/kg body weight/rat /day was orally administered to rats introduced into STZ-induced hyperglycaemic state for a period of 30 days. After the treatment with avocado fruit extract, the elevated levels of blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood urea and serum creatinine seen in the hyperglycaemic rats, rev...

  14. Swimming black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) Kleptoparasitize American coots (Fulica americana)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid.......I observed black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) swimming and kleptoparasitizing American coots (Fulica americana) at an artificial lake in Pinal County, Arizona. This appears to be the first record of interspecific kleptoparasitism by a swimming ardeid....

  15. Desidratação osmótica do jenipapo (Genipa americana L. Osmotic dehydration of jenipapo (Genipa americana L.

    Samara Alvachian Cardoso Andrade

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O processo de desidratação osmótica foi aplicado ao Jenipapo (Genipa americana L., para reduzir as perdas pós-colheita, diversificar o seu aproveitamento industrial e obter um produto com boas características organolépticas e boa estabilidade microbiológica. Os frutos foram adquiridos na feira livre de Afogados, na região metropolitana do Recife, nas condições em que são comercializados, subdivididos em cubos e submetidos a diversas condições de processamento, segundo planejamento fatorial 2³ de modo a determinar a influência das variáveis independentes: temperatura, tipo de açúcar e concentração do agente osmótico sobre a perda de umidade, ganho de açúcar e redução de peso. O processo foi complementado por secagem em estufa, com ventilação forçada a 60ºC±5ºC, por 3h±10', seguida do acondicionamento do produto em embalagem de polietileno e armazenamento à temperatura ambiente (28ºC±3ºC, por 90 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que: os produtos obtidos apresentaram significativa incorporação de sólidos; nenhuma das respostas foi influenciada pelo tipo de açúcar empregado, diferentemente da concentração do agente osmótico que além de refletir sobre todas elas, interagiu com a temperatura influindo sobre a perda de umidade; durante o armazenamento, os produtos apresentaram-se microbiologicamente estáveis, sem diferenças significativas, no que concerne às características organolépticas, embora os escores demonstrem uma preferência pelo produto obtido a partir de 60ºBrix, 60ºC e mistura de açúcar demerara e cristal. A elevada incorporação de sólidos ocorrida aponta para necessidade de proceder à otimização do produto com vista a sua redução.The process of osmotic dehydration was applied in order to reduce the losses post-harvest, to diversify the industrial utilization of the jenipapo (Genipa americana L., and to obtain a product with good organoleptic characteristic and good

  16. Rendimentos do abate e composição da carne de ema (Rhea americana Slaughtering yield and composition of great rhea meat (Rhea americana

    Amanda Vieira Pereira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho zootécnico da ema (Rhea americana, rendimentos do abate, composição química e análise sensorial da carne. Onze animais foram submetidos a um sistema de confinamento, recebendo ração balanceada à vontade e com acesso a um piquete. Antes do abate as emas permaneceram em jejum hídrico por 12 h, foram pesadas e submetidas ao processamento: insensibilização, sangria, depenagem manual, esfola e evisceração. As emas apresentaram peso vivo médio, no momento do abate, de 19,393 kg, desempenho médio de 529,82 de consumo de ração/dia, 53,20 g de ganho de peso/dia e 9,44 de conversão alimentar. Em relação ao peso de carcaça, mostraram rendimento médio de 63,33% de carne, 5,09% de gordura e 22% de ossos. A composição centesimal média da carne de ema foi de 22,81% de proteína, 1,59% de lipídios, 1,62% de cinzas e de 74,72% de umidade. O conteúdo de colágeno variou de 0,94% a 1,12% e o teor de colesterol foi de 65,44 mg por 100 g de carne. Pela análise sensorial, verificou-se que a carne de ema processada foi bem aceita pelos provadores. Assim, admite-se que a carne de ema pode ser consumida como fonte de proteína animal com baixo teor de lipídios.The aim of this project is to study the zootechnical performance of rhea (Rhea americana, including slaughtering yields, chemical composition and sensorial analysis of its meat. Eleven birds were kept under confinement and each had a balanced ration on demand and access to run. Before slaughtering, the rhea were not allowed to drink water for 12 h, they were weighed and underwent the following: stunning, bleeding, manual feather plucking, skinning, and evisceration. The average rhea weight at the time of slaughtering was 19.393 kg, their average performance for food intake 529.82 g ration/day, weight gain of 53.20 g/day, and 9.44 food conversion. Relative to the carcass weight, the average meat yield was 63.33%, whereby 5.09% was fat

  17. Effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria on the growth and fructan production of Agave americana L.

    De La Torre-Ruiz, Neyser; Ruiz-Valdiviezo, Víctor Manuel; Rincón-Molina, Clara Ivette; Rodríguez-Mendiola, Martha; Arias-Castro, Carlos; Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico Antonio; Palomeque-Dominguez, Héctor; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    The effect of plant growth-promoting bacteria inoculation on plant growth and the sugar content in Agave americana was assessed. The bacterial strains ACO-34A, ACO-40, and ACO-140, isolated from the A. americana rhizosphere, were selected for this study to evaluate their phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. The three bacterial strains were evaluated via plant inoculation assays, and Azospirillum brasilense Cd served as a control strain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene showed that strains ACO-34A, ACO-40 and ACO-140 were Rhizobium daejeonense, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Pseudomonas mosselii, respectively. All of the strains were able to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), solubilize phosphate, and had nitrogenase activity. Inoculation using the plant growth-promoting bacteria strains had a significant effect (pagave plants with proper biological characteristics for agroindustrial and biotechnological use and to increase the sugar content in this agave species. PMID:27268113

  18. Physical and chemical characterization of the pulp of different varieties of avocado targeting oil extraction potential Caracterização física e química da polpa de diferentes variedades de abacate visando o potencial para extração de óleo

    Edinéia Dotti Mooz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical properties of avocado pulp of four different varieties (Avocado, Guatemala, Dickinson, and Butter pear and to identify which has the greatest potential for oil extraction. Fresh avocado pulp was characterized by moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and energy contents were determined. The carotenoids and chlorophyll contents were determined by the organic solvent extraction method. The results showed significant differences in the composition of the fruit when varieties are compared. However, the striking feature in all varieties is high lipid content; Avocado and Dickinson are the most suitable varieties for oil extraction, taking into account moisture content and the levels of lipids in the pulp. Moreover, it could be said that the variety Dickinson is the most affected by the parameters evaluated in terms of overall quality. Chlorophyll and carotenoids, fat-soluble pigments, showed a negative correlation with respect to lipids since it could be related to its function in the fruit. The varieties Avocado and Dickinson are an alternative to oil extraction having great commercial potential to be exploited thus avoiding waste and increasing farmers’ income.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as características físico-químicas da polpa de abacate de quatro diferentes variedades (Avocado, Guatemala, Dicson e Manteiga, visando identificar qual possui maior potencial para extração de óleo. A polpa de abacate fresca foi caracterizada através da determinação dos teores de umidade, proteína, lipídios, cinzas, carboidratos e valor energético. Os teores de carotenoides e clorofila foram determinados através do método de extração com solvente orgânico. Os resultados mostram diferenças significativas na composição dos frutos, quando se confrontam as variedades. No entanto, a característica marcante em todas as variedades é o alto teor de lipídios, sendo as variedades

  19. Primary insect cell culture from total embryo and embryonic brain tissue of Periplaneta americana: A preliminary study

    Soya Seçkin; Can Hüseyin; Yıkılmaz Mehmet Salih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to establish a primary insect cell culture from total embryos and embryonic brain tissues of Periplaneta americana, collected from Izmir, Turkey. Cells were cultured at 29ºC in Grace’s insect medium for one month. In the embryonic brain tissue culture, single cells and cell clumps containing spherical and ovoid as well as dividing cells were observed. Single bipolar neurons were detected after 4 days in culture. Network...

  20. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUXVOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE

    Anajwala, Chetan C.; Patel, Rajesh M.; Dakhara, Sanjay L.; Jariwala, Jitesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water...

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave Americana, strychnos Nuxvomica and Areca catechu extracts using MCF-7 cell line

    Chetan C Anajwala; Patel, Rajesh M.; Dakhara, Sanjay L.; Jitesh K Jariwala

    2010-01-01

    Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water...

  2. TEORIA PARA QUEM, TEORIA PARA QUÊ? A CONTRIBUIÇÃO DO LIVRO TEORIA (LITERÁRIA) AMERICANA

    Antônio Barros de Brito Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Este texto é uma resenha do livro Teoria (literária)americana: uma introdução crítica, de Fabio Akcelrud Durão. Aqui, discutem-se os argumentos do autor em torno do fenômeno da proliferação das abordagens teóricas e suas consequências para os estudos literários norte-americano e brasileiro. 

  3. EST sequencing and gene expression profiling of defence-related genes from Persea americana infected with Phytophthora cinnamomi

    Mahomed Waheed; van den Berg Noëlani

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Avocado (Persea americana) belongs to the Lauraceae family and is an important commercial fruit crop in over 50 countries. The most serious pathogen affecting avocado production is Phytophthora cinnamomi which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR). Root pathogens such as P. cinnamomi and their interactions with hosts are poorly understood and despite the importance of both the avocado crop and the effect Phytophthora has on its cultivation, there is a lack of molecular knowle...

  4. Supplemental Feeding for Ecotourism Reverses Diel Activity and Alters Movement Patterns and Spatial Distribution of the Southern Stingray, Dasyatis americana

    Corcoran, Mark J.; Wetherbee, Bradley M.; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D.; Chapman, Demian D.; Harvey, Guy M.

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world’s most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture...

  5. The Effect of Bio-Fertilizers on Plant Growth and Growth Rate of Grafted Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

    Lazarus Agus Sukamto; Reni Lestari; Winda Utami Putri

    2014-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) is considered the most nutritious of all fruits. Avocado fruit contain high unsaturated fat, protein, and energy. It could be eaten fresh for food, drinks, cooking, and cosmetics. Recently, it has become a significant commodity in international trade. Indonesia is the 2nd avocado producing country, but only little quantity of avocado fruits could be exported. The farmers usually grow avocado plants from the seeds, without proper fertilizers in their backyards ...

  6. In vitro pollen germination in avocado (Persea americana Mill.): optimization of the method and effect of temperature

    Alcaraz Arco, María Librada; Montserrat, M; Hormaza Urroz, José Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    An improved in vitro pollen germination method was developed for avocado (Persea americana Mill.). The effect of different concentrations of sucrose, polyethylene glycol (PEG), Mg and Ca on pollen germination was evaluated in order to determine the optimal pollen germination medium, i.e. that maximizing the percentage of pollen germination and minimizing the percentage of bursted pollen grains. Once the germination medium was optimized we used it to study the effect of temperature on in vitro...

  7. Formulasi Sediaan Gel Ekstrak Buah Alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) dan Uji Aktivitasnya terhadap Pertumbuhan Rambut Tikus Putih

    Matondang, Winda Hanley

    2016-01-01

    Background: Avocado contains protein, essential fatty acids, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C, vitamin E and minerals such as phosphorus, iron and magnesium. Those contents are the nutrients needed for hair growth. Objective:The purpose of this research was to make gel preparations of avocado extract (Persea americana Mill.) which was useful as growing hair and its activity test on hair growth. Methods: Avocado was extracted by maceration using ethanol 96% and then concentrated by rotary...

  8. Caracterización química foliar de los árboles de aguacate criollo (Persea americana var. drymifolia) en los bancos de germoplasma de Michoacán, México Foliar chemical caracterization of the creole avocado trees (Persea americana var. drymifolia) in the germplasm banks from Michoacán, Mexico

    Cintia A. Rincón-Hernández; José De La Luz Sánchez Pérez; Espinosa-García, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Persea americana var. drymifolia (aguacate criollo mexicano) se emplea como portainjerto en huertos de aguacate Hass y es fuente de genes de resistencia a plagas y patógenos para éste y otros cultivares. El aguacate criollo mexicano se está sustituyendo por cultivares comerciales o perdiendo por la destrucción de ecosistemas. Por eso, se estudiaron 250 árboles (52 accesiones de 14 estados de México); 247 de criollo mexicano y 3 híbridos de éste con P.shiedeana, P. americana var. americana y P...

  9. In vitro cytotoxicity study of agave Americana, strychnos Nuxvomica and Areca catechu extracts using MCF-7 cell line

    Chetan C Anajwala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC 50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Afeca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 μg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461pg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  10. Identification and tissue expression profile of genes from three chemoreceptor families in an urban pest, Periplaneta americana

    Chen, Yan; He, Ming; Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Ya-Nan; He, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Periplaneta americana is a notorious urban pest prevalent in human habitats; very little is known about its chemosensory mechanism. Employing the advanced next-generation sequencing technique, in the present study, we conducted transcriptome sequencing and analysis of the antennae of the adult males and females as well as their mouthparts using an Illumina platform. This resulted in the discovery of a huge number of the members of all major known chemosensory receptor families in P. americana, including 96 odorant receptors (ORs), 53 ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 33 gustatory receptors (GRs). Tissue expression profiles showed most of them mainly expressed in antennae and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the expansion in the clade distinguishing them from other functionally well-known Lepidoptera species. A high percentage of chemosensory receptor genes (ORs in particular) showing female antenna bias in mRNA expression was observed. Our results provide a basis for further investigations on how P. americana coordinates its chemosensory receptor genes in chemical communication with environments, and for development of novel pest management approaches. PMID:27279336

  11. IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF AGAVE AMERICANA, STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA AND ARECA CATECHU EXTRACTS USING MCF-7 CELL LINE

    Anajwala Chetan C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agent that is plant based medicines which are proving to be excellent sources of new compounds. In present research study, an attempt was made to prove cytotoxicity activity of various parts of medicinal plants such as Agave americana, Strychnos nux-vomica and Areca catechu using MCF-7 and Vero cell line. Various parts of the medicinal plants were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using solvents likes methanol and water. By trypan blue dye exclusion method, Viability of MCF-7 and Vero cell lines were 85.50 and 81.13%, respectively. IC50 value of methanol extract of Agave americana leaves and aqueous extract of Areca catechu fruits were found to be 545.9 & 826.1 µg/ml by SRB assay and 775.1 & 1461µg/ml by MTT assay, respectively, against MCF-7 cell line. From cytotoxicity study data by SRB and MTT assay, it revealed that methanol extract of Agave americana and aqueous extract of Areca catechu are potent cytotoxic.

  12. Antimicrobial activity of crude epicarp and seed extracts from mature avocado fruit (Persea americana) of three cultivars.

    Raymond Chia, Teck Wah; Dykes, Gary A

    2010-07-01

    The epicarp and seed of Persea Americana Mill. var. Hass (Lauraceae), Persea Americana Mill. var. Shepard, and Persea americana Mill. var Fuerte cultivars of mature avocados (n = 3) were ground separately and extracted with both absolute ethanol and distilled water. Extracts were analyzed for antimicrobial activity using the microtiter broth microdilution assay against four Gram-positive bacteria, six Gram-negative bacteria, and one yeast. Antimicrobial activity against two molds was determined by the hole plate method. The ethanol extracts showed antimicrobial activity (104.2-416.7 microg/mL) toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (except Escherichia coli), while inhibition of the water extracts was only observed for Listeria monocytogenes (93.8-375.0 microg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (354.2 microg/mL). The minimum concentration required to inhibit Zygosaccharomyces bailii was 500 microg/mL for the ethanol extracts, while no inhibition was observed for the water extracts. No inhibition by either ethanol or water extracts was observed against Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus flavus. PMID:20645772

  13. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana.

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili Fc, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu Pc, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for their anti-diarrhoeal effects in terms of the reductions in the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea. To understand the mechanism of their anti-diarrhoeal effects, their actions were further evaluated on castor oil-induced enteropooling (intestinal fluid accumulation). The median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol fraction was found to be less than 5000 mg/Kg b.w. At the two doses, the chloroform and the methanol fractions showed dose-dependent significant (p americana possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal effect and may be a potent source of anti-diarrhoeal drug(s) in future. PMID:25237361

  14. Utilização da microscopia eletrônica de varredura como ferramenta de avaliação da estrutura do tecido de abacate 'quintal' após danos mecânicos Use of scanning electronic microscopy as tool of the tissue structure evaluation of quintal ' avocado tissue structure after mechanical injuries

    Juliana Sanches

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de injúrias mecânicas, por impacto, compressão e corte nas estruturas celulares de abacates 'Quintal'. Na injúria por impacto, eles foram deixados cair, em queda livre, de uma altura de 2,00 m, sobre os lados opostos, de sua região equatorial; na compressão, foram colocados sob um peso de 117,6 N, por 24 horas, o que provocou duas lesões opostas, no sentido longitudinal; e os cortes foram aplicados em número de quatro, longitudinalmente, com 40 mm de comprimento e 4 mm de profundidade, nos lados opostos dos frutos. Após 5 dias de armazenamento, sob condições de ambiente (25ºC e 60% UR, procedeu-se à verificação das estruturas celulares através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A microscopia eletrônica de varredura indicou que os abacates injuriados por compressão e impacto, embora sem lesões aparentemente visíveis, apresentavam desordem celular em suas estruturas.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of mechanical injuries, by impact, compression and cut in the cellular structures of 'Quintal' avocados. In the injury by impact, they were submitted, by free fall, to a height of 2.00 m, in opposed sides of their equatorial area; in the compression, they were submitted by a weight of 117.6 N for 24 hours, and it provoked two opposite lesions in the longitudinal area; and the cuts were longitudinally applied at number of four, with 40 mm of length and 4 mm of depth in the opposed sides of the fruits. After 5 days of storage, under the laboratory conditions (25ºC and 60% RH, the verification of the cellular structures was proceeded through scanning electron microscopy, which indicated that the injuried avocados by compression and impact, although without apparently visible lesions, presented cellular disorder in their structures.

  15. Tuberculosis en Rhea Americana y Gallus Sp. en cautiverio Tuberculosis in ratites and ornamental birds

    M.C Jorge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La tuberculosis aviar tiene, distribución mundial y afecta a las aves domésticas y silvestres. El agente etiológico es Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. El potencial zoonótico de esta enfermedad ha adquirido relevancia con la pandemia de HIV por ello todas las maniobras que involucren la manipulación de microorganismos viables, deben ser llevadas a cabo con adecuadas medidas de bioseguridad. La fuente primaria de infección es el ambiente contaminado con este agente. La presentación clínica es variable y el método definitivo para confirmar la infección es el aislamiento. El objetivo fue identificar mediante histopatología, bacteriología y biología molecular la etiología de lesiones compatibles con tuberculosis en una raza ornamental de Gallus sp. (sedosa del Japón y Rhea americana (ñandú. En la necropsia se observaron granulomas que presentaron centro caseonecrótico no mineralizado con bacilos ácido-alcohol resistentes en la histopatología. Se confirmó la presencia de M. avium subsp. avium por bacteriología y por PCR en las cepas aisladas. Esto permitió arribar al diagnóstico etiológico combinando técnicas y describir por primera vez en la Argentina un caso de tuberculosis en ñandú.Avian tuberculosis is worldwide distributed and affects domestic and wild birds. Aetiological agent is Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Its zoonotic potential has acquired importance since HIV pandemia, that is why the manipulation of viable microorganism should be done with careful biosecurity measures. Primary source of infection is the environment contaminated with these microbes. Clinical signs are not uniform and the confirmation of the disease is by bacteriologycal isolation. The purpose was to identify by histopathologycal, bacteriologycal and molecular biology methods the aetiology from tuberculosis like lesions found in an ornamental race of Gallus sp. (Japanese Silkie and Rhea americana. At post-mortem examination granulomas were

  16. Nucleolar organizer regions and a new chromosome number for Rhea americana (Aves: Rheiformes

    Ricardo José Gunski

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequential banding analysis (Giemsa-C-banding-Ag NOR of chromosomes of the common rhea (Rhea americana was performed. Metaphases were obtained by peripheral blood lymphocyte culture and monolayer embryo cell culture. The diploid chromosome number was 80, different from the 2n = 82 in previous reports. Macrochromosome pairs 1, 2 and 5 were submetacentric and pair 3, subacrocentric. The 4th pair was acrocentric and all of the microchromosomes appeared to be acrocentric, with the exception of a clearly metacentric pair which was fully heterochromatic. The Z was slightly larger than the W, both being acrocentric and C-band negative. Nucleolar organizer regions were observed in the secondary constriction of a microchromosome pair. Correct identification of the NOR-bearing pair was possible only by sequential analyses, Giemsa staining followed by the Ag-NOR technique.Foram efetuadas análises seqüenciais de bandeamento cromossômico (Giemsa-banda-C-AgNOR em material da espécie Rhea americana (ema com o objetivo de identificar os cromossomos portadores de regiões organizadoras de nucléolos e confirmar o cariótipo desta espécie. As metáfases foram obtidas de culturas de leucócitos e de células de embrião. O número diplóide de cromossomos, determinado pela análise de metáfases oriundas de 19 espécimes, foi de 80 (2n = 80, NF = 95, o que difere da literatura. Os pares de macrocromossomos números 1, 2 e 5 eram submetacêntricos e o par 3 era sub-acrocêntrico, confirmado pelo bandeamento C. O par 4 era acrocêntrico, bem como todos os microcromossomos, com exceção de um metacêntrico inteiramente heterocromático. O cromossomo Z era ligeiramente maior que o W, sendo ambos acrocêntricos e banda-C negativos. A região organizadora de nucléolos foi observada na constrição secundária de um par de microcromossomos. A correta identificação do par portador da NOR só foi possível com a utilização da análise seqüencial de colora

  17. “Ser devorado no duele”. Th. W. Adorno y la experiencia americana

    Maiso, Jordi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to fathom Theodor W. Adorno’s american experience as a deciding learning process in the development of his Critical Theory. As a consequence of his New York exile years and his participance on the Princeton Radio Research Project, Adorno not only gets in touch with the proceeding of the culture industry and sets down a resolute theoretical approach to radio music, but also realizes a shift has taken place on the social function of theory which enables him a poignant self-reflection on the situation of the emigrated intellectual.El presente texto pretende desentrañar la experiencia americana de Theodor W. Adorno como un proceso de aprendizaje decisivo en la formulación de su Teoría Crítica. A partir de su exilio en Nueva York y de su participación en el Princeton Radio Research Project, Adorno no sólo adquiere un conocimiento directo del funcionamiento de la industria de la cultura y formula una decisiva aproximación teórica a la música radiofónica, sino que también toma conciencia de un cambio en la función social de la teoría que le permite llevar a cabo una aguda autorreflexión sobre la situación del intelectual emigrado.

  18. Direct visualization of hemolymph flow in the heart of a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana

    Socha John J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemolymph flow patterns in opaque insects have never been directly visualized due to the lack of an appropriate imaging technique. The required spatial and temporal resolutions, together with the lack of contrast between the hemolymph and the surrounding soft tissue, are major challenges. Previously, indirect techniques have been used to infer insect heart motion and hemolymph flow, but such methods fail to reveal fine-scale kinematics of heartbeat and details of intra-heart flow patterns. Results With the use of microbubbles as high contrast tracer particles, we directly visualized hemolymph flow in a grasshopper (Schistocerca americana using synchrotron x-ray phase-contrast imaging. In-vivo intra-heart flow patterns and the relationship between respiratory (tracheae and air sacs and circulatory (heart systems were directly observed for the first time. Conclusion Synchrotron x-ray phase contrast imaging is the only generally applicable technique that has the necessary spatial, temporal resolutions and sensitivity to directly visualize heart dynamics and flow patterns inside opaque animals. This technique has the potential to illuminate many long-standing questions regarding small animal circulation, encompassing topics such as retrograde heart flow in some insects and the development of flow in embryonic vertebrates.

  19. Distribution, occupancy, and habitat correlates of American martens (Martes americana) in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    Baldwin, R.A.; Bender, L.C.

    2008-01-01

    A clear understanding of habitat associations of martens (Martes americana) is necessary to effectively manage and monitor populations. However, this information was lacking for martens in most of their southern range, particularly during the summer season. We studied the distribution and habitat correlates of martens from 2004 to 2006 in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP) across 3 spatial scales: site-specific, home-range, and landscape. We used remote-sensored cameras from early August through late October to inventory occurrence of martens and modeled occurrence as a function of habitat and landscape variables using binary response (BR) and binomial count (BC) logistic regression, and occupancy modeling (OM). We also assessed which was the most appropriate modeling technique for martens in RMNP. Of the 3 modeling techniques, OM appeared to be most appropriate given the explanatory power of derived models and its incorporation of detection probabilities, although the results from BR and BC provided corroborating evidence of important habitat correlates. Location of sites in the western portion of the park, riparian mixed-conifer stands, and mixed-conifer with aspen patches were most frequently positively correlated with occurrence of martens, whereas more xeric and open sites were avoided. Additionally, OM yielded unbiased occupancy values ranging from 91% to 100% and 20% to 30% for the western and eastern portions of RMNP, respectively. ?? 2008 American Society of Mammalogists.

  20. Purification and catalytic properties of polygalacturonase isoforms from ripe avocado (Persea americana) fruit mesocarp.

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Huber, Donald J.

    2001-10-01

    Endo-polygalacturonase (PG; EC 3.2.1.15) was recovered from the cell walls of avocado mesocarp (Persea americana Mill cv. Lula) tissue and purified by sequential ion exchange and gel permeation chromatography. Two isoforms (S-I and S-II) were recovered, exhibiting molecular masses of about 41 kD on size exclusion media and about 48 (S-I) and 46 (S-II) kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Both isoforms exhibited maximum activity at pH 6.0 against polygalacturonic acid (PGA) and hydrolyzed PGA of about 180 kDa to polymers of about 4 kDa. The catalytic activity of the 48-kDa isoform against PGA was slightly higher than that of the 46-kDa isoform. The purified PGs catalyzed significant molecular mass downshifts in the polyuronides of pre-ripe avocados; however, the capacity of the enzymes to solubilize polyuronides from cell walls of pre-ripe fruit was limited. PMID:12060298

  1. Complexidade narrativa na televisão americana contemporânea

    Jason Mittell

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova forma de entretenimento tem surgido nas últimas duas décadas conseguindo sucesso de público e crítica na televisão americana. Tal modelo se diferencia por usar a complexidade narrativa como uma alternativa às formas episódicas e seriadas. O objetivo deste artigo é remontar as características formais deste modelo de narração, o storytelling, explorar as particularidades de seu modo de fruição e de compreensão, além de apontar justificativas para sua emergência nos anos 1990. Para entender este fenômeno, precisamos utilizar a narratologia formal de modo a traçar sua estrutura e suas fronteiras, e ao mesmo tempo incorporar outros métodos para investigar como este modelo narrativo se cruza com os campos das indústrias criativas, das inovações tecnológicas, das práticas participatórias e da compreensão dos espectadores.

  2. The contribution of the melanin pathway to overall body pigmentation during ontogenesis of Periplaneta americana.

    Lemonds, Thomas R; Liu, Jin; Popadić, Aleksandar

    2016-08-01

    The most prominent colors observed in insects are black or brown, whose production is attributed to the melanin pathway. At present, though, the contribution of this pathway to overall body pigmentation throughout ontogenesis is still lacking. To address this question we examined the roles of 2 key melanin genes (TH and DDC), in embryonic and postembryonic development of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Our results show that the melanin pathway does not contribute to the light brown coloration observed in the first nymphs. However, the dark brown coloration in mid nymphs and adults is produced solely from the melanin pathway. In addition, the DDC RNAi results reveal that it is dopamine melanin, not DOPA melanin, acts as the main contributor in this process. Overall, present study provides a new insight into insect pigmentation suggesting that genetic mechanisms of coloration can change during ontogenesis. Future studies of additional basal insect lineages will be required to assess in more details the generality of this phenomenon. PMID:27158782

  3. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of cadmium in Phytolacca americana L

    Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed) is a promising species for Cd phytoextraction with large biomass and fast growth rate. To further understand the mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance and detoxification, the present study investigated subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Cd in pokeweed. Subcellular fractionation of Cd-containing tissues indicated that both in root and leaves, the majority of the element was located in soluble fraction and cell walls. Meanwhile, Cd taken up by pokeweed existed in different chemical forms. Results showed that the greatest amount of Cd was found in the extraction of 80% ethanol in roots, followed by 1 M NaCl, d-H2O and 2% HAc, while in leaves and stems, most of the Cd was extracted by 1 M NaCl, and the subdominant amount of Cd was extracted by 80% ethanol. It could be suggested that Cd compartmentation with organo-ligands in vacuole or integrated with pectates and proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the adaptation of pokeweed to Cd stress.

  4. Potential risk to wood storks (Mycteria americana) from mercury in Carolina Bay fish

    Fish mercury levels from some Carolina bays pose risk to wood stork. - Carolina bays are freshwater wetlands that serve as important feeding habitats for the endangered wood stork (Mycteria americana). Water levels in these bays fluctuate greatly and tend to be acidic and rich in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), factors that favor mercury (Hg) methylation and bioaccumulation in fish. To assess potential risks to wood storks consuming mercury contaminated fish in bays, we sampled fish from 10 bays on the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, an area with documented use by wood storks. Whole body mercury concentrations in 258 fishes of three species (Erimyzon sucetta, Acantharchus pomotis and Esox americanus) commonly consumed by wood storks were determined. Risk factors for nestlings and free-ranging adults were calculated using published no and lowest observable adverse effect concentration (NOAEC and LOAEC) values for birds. Fish from higher trophic levels and those from wetlands with relatively shallow maximum depths and fluctuating water levels were more likely to exceed NOAEC and LOAEC values. Calculation of exposure rates of nestling wood storks indicated they are at highest risk during the first 10 days of the nestling period. These calculations suggest that there is potential concern for wood storks foraging in relatively shallow bays with fluctuating water levels, even though there is no obvious local source of mercury to these wetlands

  5. Description of a new surface morphology for chitin extracted from wings of cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    Kaya, Murat; Baran, Talat

    2015-04-01

    In this study a new morphology of chitin, which could find wide applications in the fields of medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, food and textiles, has been described. The chitin was isolated from the wings of Periplaneta americana employing a conventional method. Considering chitin isolation studies conducted previously, chitin has three surface morphologies, which are (1) hard and rough surface without pores or nanofibers, (2) surface solely composed of nanofibers and (3) surfaces with both pores and nanofibers. In this study, the surface of the chitin, examined with environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), only has oval nanopores (230-510 nm) without nanofibers, and this is different from the above mentioned surface morphologies. The nanopores are not distributed on the chitin surface randomly. Typically, there is a pore in the center that is surrounded by six or seven other pores in an ordered manner. Structures similar to cell walls exist between the pores. Chitin with the new surface morphology was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and elemental analysis. PMID:25597430

  6. GIBBERELLINS, FUNGICIDES AND STORAGE EFFECTS ON THE GERMINATION OF Genipa americana L. (RUBIACEAE SEEDS

    Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to verify the effect of different doses of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg.L-1, of fungicides of the groups chemical benzimidazol (0, 25, 50 and 100 g.L-1 and ditiocarbamato (0, 1,25, 2,50 and 5,00 g.L-1 on seed germination. Viability of those seeds was evaluated through germination tests at 0, 15, 30 and 60 days. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse. The experimental design was fully randomized one, with five replicates per treatment. The traits evaluated were emergence and index of emergence speed. The treatment with GA3 didn't provide significant so much differences among the germination rates as well as for the emergence speed. It was verified that the use of the fungicides in smaller concentrations (25 g.L-1 of benzimidazol and 1,25 g.L-1 of ditiocarbamato promoted a better germination speed. The seeds of G. americana possess viability period relatively short, with germination absence 60 days period of storage, and it could be associated to the humidity tenors presented by the seeds in this period.

  7. Estudios sobre Trypanosomiasis americana en el Perú. Observaciones en el departamento de Ica

    Víctor M Ayulo Robles

    1946-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos comprobado la presencia de Triatomas en las ciudades de Ica y Nazca. Los Triatomas encontrados en esas localidades son de la especie del Triatoma Infestans. Las observaciones del contenido intestinal de los Triatomas capturados en ambas ciudades reveló que ellos no se encuentran infestados; lo que hace sospechar que estos insectos procedan de la Ciudad de Arequipa. Los exámenes de sangre en fresco, gota gruesa y frotis coloreados por el método de Giemsa en 174 personas y 32 animales, así como las pruebas de Desviación del Complemento (Reacción de GUERREIRO Y MACHADO e intradermo-reacción en las 174 personas, fueron negativas; lo que demuestra que actualmente no existe la Enfermedad de Chagas en el Departamento de Ica. Dada la presencia de Triatomas en Ica y Nazca y la existencia de la Enfermedad de Chagas en Vitor, Sihuas y Quishuarani del Departamento de Arequipa no se excluye la posibilidad de que posteriormente se haga presente la Trypanosomiasis americana, también, en esas zonas.

  8. De la independencia a la natural barbarie americana. Una lectura del Facundo de Domingo F. Sarmiento

    Maura Brighenti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lectura del "Facundo" de Domingo F. Sarmiento y, en particular, de su más general visión de la historia y de la realidad argentina y latinoamericana a partir del esquema dicotómico de civilización y barbarie que tendrá mucha suerte en las narraciones de los procesos del modernización latinoamericanos por lo menos hasta la segunda mitad del siglo XX. A través del análisis de algunos entre los múltiples niveles narrativos del "Facundo" se quiere mostrar como tal imagen dicotómica se va cristalizando en el texto. Partiendo del espacio infinito y vacío de la pampa y pasando por una antropología del gaucho - de su manera de vivir y de conducir la guerra - Sarmiento conduce el lector hasta la forma típicamente americana de despotismo, el caudillismo, llegado en Argentina a su epopeya final con el régimen de Juan M. de Rosas. En la última parte se intenta injertar el esquema dicotómico del Facundo al interior de la más general reflexión del Occidente sobre la modernidad y sus alteridades, a través por un lado del prisma orientalista y por el otro de las mismas fuentes del pensamiento moderno europeo y en particular de Locke y Hobbes.

  9. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  10. Persea americana (avocado): bringing ancient flowers to fruit in the genomics era.

    Chanderbali, André S; Albert, Victor A; Ashworth, Vanessa E T M; Clegg, Michael T; Litz, Richard E; Soltis, Douglas E; Soltis, Pamela S

    2008-04-01

    The avocado (Persea americana) is a major crop commodity worldwide. Moreover, avocado, a paleopolyploid, is an evolutionary "outpost" among flowering plants, representing a basal lineage (the magnoliid clade) near the origin of the flowering plants themselves. Following centuries of selective breeding, avocado germplasm has been characterized at the level of microsatellite and RFLP markers. Nonetheless, little is known beyond these general diversity estimates, and much work remains to be done to develop avocado as a major subtropical-zone crop. Among the goals of avocado improvement are to develop varieties with fruit that will "store" better on the tree, show uniform ripening and have better post-harvest storage. Avocado transcriptome sequencing, genome mapping and partial genomic sequencing will represent a major step toward the goal of sequencing the entire avocado genome, which is expected to aid in improving avocado varieties and production, as well as understanding the evolution of flowers from non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms). Additionally, continued evolutionary and other comparative studies of flower and fruit development in different avocado strains can be accomplished at the gene expression level, including in comparison with avocado relatives, and these should provide important insights into the genetic regulation of fruit development in basal angiosperms. PMID:18348249

  11. Persea americana Mill. Seed: Fractionation, Characterization, and Effects on Human Keratinocytes and Fibroblasts.

    Ramos-Jerz, Maria Del R; Villanueva, Socorro; Jerz, Gerold; Winterhalter, Peter; Deters, Alexandra M

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic avocado (Persea americana Mill., Lauraceae) seed extracts were separated by preparative HSCCC. Partition and HSCCC fractions were principally characterized by LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Their in vitro influence was investigated on proliferation, differentiation, cell viability, and gene expression on HaCaT and normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The methanol-water partition (M) from avocado seeds and HSCCC fraction 3 (M.3) were mostly composed of chlorogenic acid and its isomers. Both reduced NHDF but enhanced HaCaT keratinocytes proliferation. HSCCC fraction M.2 composed of quinic acid among chlorogenic acid and its isomers inhibited proliferation and directly induced differentiation of keratinocytes as observed on gene and protein level. Furthermore, M.2 increased NHDF proliferation via upregulation of growth factor receptors. Salidrosides and ABA derivatives present in HSCCC fraction M.6 increased NHDF and keratinocyte proliferation that resulted in differentiation. The residual solvent fraction M.7 contained among low concentrations of ABA derivatives high amounts of proanthocyanidins B1 and B2 as well as an A-type trimer and stimulated proliferation of normal cells and inhibited the proliferation of immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. PMID:24371457

  12. Anti Lithiasis Activity of Avocado (Persea americana Mill Leaves Extract in White Male Rats

    IETJE WIENTARSIH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, avocado leaves have been used as traditional medicines for diureticum to cure urolithiasis. This research was to determine anti lithiasis activity of avocado leaves (Persea americana Mill extract on white male rats nefrolithiasis model induced by ethylene glycol. Ethanol extraction method was used to get extract of avogadro leaves. Twenty adult male white rats were divided into 4 different induction treatments i.e. aquadest, ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2%, and extract of avocado leaves with different levels of 100 and 300 mg/kg bw respectively. Their body weight was measured daily to determine their growth ratio. And at the end of the trial, the kidney was analyzed its calcium level and inhibitory activity to formation of calcium oxalate crystals. The results showed that the amount of calcium level in the kidney of rats treated with extract of avogadro leaves was significantly decreased than that of rats treated with ethylene glycol 0.75% and ammonium chloride 2% (P < 0.05. The extract avocado leaves as a herbal remedy can be recommended as a phytotherapeutic agent especially for preventive action for urolithiasis diseases.

  13. Potencial alelopático de plantas de acapu (Vouacapoua americana: efeitos sobre plantas daninhas de pastagens Allelopathic potential of "acapu" (Vouacapoua americana plants: effects on pasture weed

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Extratos aquosos de folhas e cascas de plantas de acapu (Vouacapoua americana foram preparados nas concentrações de 0, 1, 2, 3 e 5% (v/v, visando identificar e caracterizar a atividade potencialmente alelopática dessa espécie. Analisaram-se os efeitos dos extratos sobre a germinação de sementes e o alongamento da raiz primária das plantas daninhas malícia (Mimosa pudica e malva (Urena lobata. Os bioensaios de germinação foram desenvolvidos em condições de 25 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Para os bioensaios de alongamento da raiz primária, as condições estabelecidas foram de 25 ºC e fotoperíodo de 24 horas. Os resultados obtidos indicaram variações de respostas em função da fonte do extrato aquoso, do parâmetro analisado e da concentração do extrato. As reduções observadas tanto na germinação como no alongamento da raiz primária foram crescentes com o aumento da concentração do extrato, sendo os efeitos mais intensos observados na concentração de 5%. Independentemente da espécie receptora e do parâmetro analisado, o extrato preparado a partir das cascas do acapu evidenciou maior atividade alelopática inibitória. O alongamento da raiz primária foi o parâmetro mais sensível aos efeitos potencialmente alelopáticos do que a germinação das sementes. Comparativamente, cascas e folhas apresentaram diferenças em relação às classes de substâncias químicas. Nas cascas foram encontradas cumarinas que não estavam presentes nas folhas, as quais, por sua vez, apresentaram esteróides e triterpenóides, que não foram identificados nas cascas do acapu.Aqueous extracts from leaves and bark of "Acapu" plants were prepared in concentration levels of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 5% to identify and characterize potential allelopathic activity of such plants. The extract effects on seed germination and primary root elongation of pasture weeds, such as Mimosa pudica and Urena lobata, were analyzed. The germination bioassays were

  14. La inscripción de la identidad en la obra literaria: Análisis comparativo de “Lejana” de Julio Cortázar y La muerte salió cabalgado de Persia de Péter Hajnóczy

    Zsuzsanna Szalai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Le nom de Julio Cortázar est incontestablement lié à l’idée de la rénovation du roman espagnol. L’auteur hongrois Péter Hajnóczy (1942-1981 est peut-être moins mondialement connu, mais sa technique narrative inspirée du style de Faulkner mérite l’attention. Dans la perspective de notre interprétation, un procédé technique très caractéristique des deux écrivains est envisagé : la multiplication, un instrument de réflexions et de projections. Nous analyserons parallèlement « Lejana » de Cortázar et A halál kilovagolt Perzsiából (1979 de Hajnóczy afin d’étudier la multiplication de l’identité, des espaces, du temps, des niveaux textuels, etc. Notre fil conducteur sera l’étude de la métalittérature : au cours de la lecture, nous étudierons la naissance du texte littéraire à travers l’analyse de la position des deux auteurs implicites, de leurs doutes et de leurs difficultés. Enfin, nous examinerons la relation interne entre le dénouement et la structure de chacune des œuvres. Comme il s’agit, en un certain sens, de deux histoires autobiographiques, leur dénouement promet d’être problématique.The name of Julio Cortázar undoubtedly imposes the idea of the Hispanic novel’s renovation. The Hungarian author Péter Hajnóczy (1942-1981 is perhaps less known worldwide, but his Faulkner style narrative technique deserves more attention. In the focus of the present interpretation, a very characteristic technical process of the two writers is featured: the multiplication, an instrument of reflections and projections. We analyse abreast “Far” (“Lejana” of Cortázar and Death Rode Out of Persia (1979 of Hajnóczy to discover the multiplication of identity, spaces, time and text levels, etc. Our principal line will be the study of the metaliterature: during the reading we will continue the birth of the literary text, observe doubts and difficulties of the two represented implicit authors

  15. Mito e sociedade na literatura latino-americana: Neruda, Carpentier, Bolaño

    Pedro Dolabela Chagas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: Discussão sobre a problemática identitária na literatura latino-americana: a sua associação oitocentista à representação da natureza e da paisagem social; a sua longa duração entre os séculos XIX e XX; a sua politização pela dicotomia entre a América Latina e o Centro representado pela Europa e pelos EUA. A construção da identidade como produção de mitos: como construção de passados úteis, valoração positiva ou negativa do presente, projeção de futuros possíveis. A presença do mito em Canto geral, de Pablo Neruda; a sua recusa em 2666, de Roberto Bolaño; discussão sobre as razões desta recusa: a concentração no presente em detrimento da projeção do futuro. Localização de um tensionamento embrionário do mito identitário em Os passos perdidos, de Alejo Carpentier: discussão sobre os termos de orientação deste tensionamento e a diferença que ele produzia em relação à história anterior do romance latino-americano. Sugestão do fechamento recente da época histórica dominada pela problemática identitária na narrativa latino-americana.Palavras-chave: Pablo Neruda; Alejo Carpentier; Roberto Bolaño; romance latino-americano; mito e identidade. Abstract: The problematic of identity representation in Latin- American literature: its 19th Century association to the representation of nature and the social landscape; its long duration in the 19th and 20th Centuries; its politicization through the dichotomy between Latin America and a Center represented by Europe and the USA. Identity construction as a production of myths: as a construction of usable pasts, as a positive or negative evaluation of the present, as a projection of possible futures. The presence of myth in Pablo Neruda’s Canto general; its rejection in Roberto Bolaño’s 2666; the possible reasons of this rejection: a concentration in the present in detriment of the future. Location of an embrionary tensioning of the identity myths

  16. Curiously composite structures of a retrotransposon and a complex repeat associated with chromosome ends of Rhynchosciara americana (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Madalena, Christiane Rodriguez Gutierrez; Fernandes, Thiago; Villasante, Alfredo; Gorab, Eduardo

    2010-07-01

    In Drosophila, telomere retrotransposons counterbalance the loss of telomeric DNA. The exceptional mechanism of telomere recovery characterized in Drosophila has not been found in lower dipterans (Nematocera). However, a retroelement resembling a telomere transposon and termed "RaTART" has been described in the nematoceran Rhynchosciara americana. In this work, DNA and protein sequence analyses, DNA cloning, and chromosomal localization of probes obtained either by PCR or by screening a genomic library were carried out in order to examine additional features of this retroelement. The analyses performed raise the possibility that RaTART represents a genomic clone composed of distinct repetitive elements, one of which is likely to be responsible for its apparent enrichment at chromosome ends. RaTART sequence in addition allowed to assess a novel subtelomeric region of R. americana chromosomes that was analyzed in this work after subcloning a DNA fragment from a phage insert. It contains a complex repeat that is located in the vicinity of simple and complex tandem repeats characterized previously. Quantification data suggest that the copy number of the repeat is significantly lower than that observed for the ribosomal DNA in the salivary gland of R. americana. A short insertion of the RaTART was identified in the cloned segment, which hybridized preferentially to subtelomeres. Like RaTART, it displays truncated sequences related to distinct retrotransposons, one of which has a conceptual translation product with significant identity with an endonuclease from a lepidopteran retrotransposon. The composite structure of this DNA stretch probably reflects mobile element activity in the subtelomeric region analyzed in this work. PMID:20607598

  17. Susceptibilidad a insectos en selecciones y variedades de annona muricata l. y persea americana m. en Puerto Rico

    Irma Cabrera

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En Puerto Rico se han reportado varios insectos en las guanábanas (Annona muricata L. y los aguacates (Persea americana M, sin embargo los de mayor importancia son el barrenador de la semilla Bephratelloides cubensis (A. y Apate monacha (F. en A. muricata y Pseudacysta persea (F. en P. americana. El objetivo principal de esta investigación fue determinar la incidencia de B. cubensis y A. monacha en seis selecciones de guanábana y en siete variedades de aguacate. De las evaluaciones realizadas en A. muricata, se observó que las selecciones IV-10, VII-14 y VI-1 mostraron la mayor incidencia y la IV-16 mostró la menor incidencia de B. cubensis en relación al número de barrenos por fruta. En cuanto a la incidencia de A. monacha en A. muricata las selecciones IV-16, IV-2, IV-3, VII-14 presentaron la mayor incidencia de barrenos por árbol. En las evaluaciones realizadas en Persea americana se seleccionaron las variedades Ávila, Semil 34, Wilson Popenoe, Pollock, Candelaria, Semil 43 y Butler como las variedades comerciales más sembradas en Puerto Rico. Se observó que la variedad Avila obtuvo el mayor número de huevos, ninfas, hembras y machos de P. persea por hojas comparadas con las demás variedades. Respecto al número de hojas infestadas por árbol se encontró valores significativos (P≤0,01 en la variedad Avila. Resultando tener un 90% de las hojas dañadas. No se observó que las variedades evaluadas tuviese baja o ninguna preferencia a P. Persea

  18. The effects of copper, manganese and zinc on plant growth and elemental accumulation in the manganese-hyperaccumulator Phytolacca americana.

    Zhao, Huijun; Wu, Liangqi; Chai, Tuanyao; Zhang, Yuxiu; Tan, Jinjuan; Ma, Shengwen

    2012-09-01

    Synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SRXRF) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used to estimate major, minor and trace elements in Cu-, Zn- and Mn-treated Phytolacca americana. The effects of the addition of Cu, Zn and Mn on morphological parameters, such as root length, shoot height, and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots, were also examined. In addition, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidases (GPX) and catalase (CAT) and the expression of Fe-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, metallothionein-2 and glutathione S-transferase (GST) exposed to the highest amounts of Cu, Zn or Mn were detected. Our results confirmed the following: (1) Zn supplementation leads to chlorosis, disturbed elemental homeostasis and decreased concentrations of micro- and macroelements such as Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca and K. Cu competed with Fe, Mn and Zn uptake in plants supplemented with 25 μM Cu. However, no antagonistic interactions took place between Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe uptake in plants supplemented with 100 μM Cu. Mn supplementation at various concentrations had no negative effects on elemental deficits. Mn was co-located with high concentrations of Fe and Zn in mature leaves and the concentrations of macro elements were unchanged. (2) P. americana supplemented with increased concentrations of Zn and Cu exhibited lower biomass production and reduced plant growth. (3) When plants were supplemented with the highest Zn and Cu concentrations, symptoms of toxicity corresponded to decreased SOD or CAT activities and increased APX and GPX activities. However, Mn tolerance corresponded to increased SOD and CAT activities and decreased POD and APX activities. Our study revealed that heavy metals partially exert toxicity by disturbing the nutrient balance and modifying enzyme activities that induce damage in plants. However, P. americana has evolved hyper accumulating mechanisms to maintain elemental balance and redox homeostasis under

  19. Antidiabetic principles ofLoranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic onPersea americana

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Sylvester Chukwuemeka Nworu; Charles Okechukwu Esimone; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest kenechukwu David; John Uchechukwu Uzoma

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antidiabetic principles of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Persea Americana.Methods:The weakly acidic fraction of the aqueous methanol extract of the leaves ofLoranthus micranthus (Linn.) was isolated and tested for its antidiabetic activities. The isolation of the weakly acidic fraction was carried out following established physico-chemical based procedures. Furthermore, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with250 mg/kg and400 mg/kg of the weakly acidic fraction, glibenclamide10mg/kg (positive control) and 2 mg/kg of3 % v/v tween20 (negative control). The sugar levels of the treated and untreated animals were determined by withdrawing the blood at regular intervals and testing them with an automated glucometer. The phytochemical analysis of the acidic fraction was carried out using standard procedures. Chromatographic techniques were employed in the subsequent isolation and purification of the constituents of the weakly acidic fraction.Results:It was shown that the maximum effect of the weakly acidic fraction was obtained at24 hours after administration and was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, saponins, and acidic compounds in the crude extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenoids and oil in the weakly acidic fraction. Further purification of the weakly acidic fraction of the methanol extract using thin layer chromatography shows that toluene : methanol : diethyl amine (3:1:1) and chloroform: methanol: diethyl amine (9:1:1) are the best solvent system for the isolation of the various components of the weakly acidic fraction of the crude methanol extract ofLoranthus micranthus.Conclusions:The present study has led to the conclusion that the weakly acidic fraction of the plant under study has the potent

  20. Physiology of digestion and the molecular characterization of the major digestive enzymes from Periplaneta americana.

    Tamaki, Fábio K; Pimentel, André C; Dias, Alcides B; Cardoso, Christiane; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Ferreira, Clélia; Terra, Walter R

    2014-11-01

    Cockroaches are among the first insects to appear in the fossil record. This work is part of ongoing research on insects at critical points in the evolutionary tree to disclose evolutionary trends in the digestive characteristics of insects. A transcriptome (454 Roche platform) of the midgut of Periplanetaamericana was searched for sequences of digestive enzymes. The selected sequences were manually curated. The complete or nearly complete sequences showing all characteristic motifs and highly expressed (reads counting) had their predicted sequences checked by cloning and Sanger sequencing. There are two chitinases (lacking mucin and chitin-binding domains), one amylase, two α- and three β-glucosidases, one β-galactosidase, two aminopeptidases (none of the N-group), one chymotrypsin, 5 trypsins, and none β-glucanase. Electrophoretic and enzymological data agreed with transcriptome data in showing that there is a single β-galactosidase, two α-glucosidases, one preferring as substrate maltase and the other aryl α-glucoside, and two β-glucosidases. Chromatographic and enzymological data identified 4 trypsins, one chymotrypsin (also found in the transcriptome), and one non-identified proteinase. The major digestive trypsin is identifiable to a major P. americana allergen (Per a 10). The lack of β-glucanase expression in midguts was confirmed, thus lending support to claims that those enzymes are salivary. A salivary amylase was molecularly cloned and shown to be different from the one from the midgut. Enzyme distribution showed that most digestion occurs under the action of salivary and midgut enzymes in the foregut and anterior midgut, except the posterior terminal digestion of proteins. A counter-flux of fluid may be functional in the midgut of the cockroach to explain the low excretory rate of digestive enzymes. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical localization data showed that amylase and trypsin are released by both merocrine and apocrine secretion

  1. Leishmaniasis tegumentaria americana: encuesta epidemiológica en una comunidad indígena

    Martha Wolff

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio epidemiológico sobre Leishmaniasis tegumentarla americana (LTA en 809 personas del Resguardo Indígena de San Andrés de Sotavento, Departamento de Córdoba, foco endémico tanto de Leishmaniasis cutánea como de Leishmaniasis visceral. La distribución por sexo de la población encuestada fue de 355 (43,9% hombres y 454 (56, 1% mujeres; sus índices alérgicos fueron de 36,9% y 40,5% respectivamente. La positividad de la Intradermorreacción de Montenegro ascendió en personas de ambos sexos, a medida que aumentó la edad. El índice parasitario fue de 0.37%. La especie de Lutzomyia más frecuente en el intra y peridomicilio fue la Lu. evansi que mostró comportamiento antropofílico. Se encontró una alta exposición de la población general al vector dada la facilidad de penetración de los flebotomineos alintradomicilio, por el tipo de construcción de las viviendas; además, al no existir servicios sanitarios, acueductos ni alcantarillados Intradomiciliarios, todo el núcleo familiar debe desplazarse al peridomicilio para la disposición de excretas y en busca del agua. Otros hallazgos fueron el gran desconocimiento sobre la etiología y tratamiento de la Leishmaniasis y las pésimas condiciones sociales y económicas de la región.

  2. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine’s actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of “dopaminergic” neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory

  3. Isolation and partial characterization of a protease from Agave americana variegata.

    Du Toit, P J

    1976-05-13

    A new protease was isolated from an extract of leaves of Agave americana variegata. The protease (EC 3.4.-) was purified 565-fold with a yield of 39.5%. The 43.8 mg enzyme had a specific activity of 0.44 units/mg. According to electrophoretic, ultracentrifugal and other physical characterizations the enzyme was homogeneous. The enzyme had a MR of 57000, a S20,W-value of 4.37 S, a D20, W-value of 6.8-7.0 - 10(-7) cm2sec-1, a Stokes radius of 3.18 nm, a partial specific volume of 0.735 cm3g-1, a frictional ration of 1.25, a molecular absorbancy index at 280 nm of 5.773-10(4), an isoelectric point of 5.25 and contained 8-10% carbohydrate. The enzyme contained no cysteine. Agave protease could hydrolyze a variety of protein substrates although it did have a restricted specificity. It is not a sulphhydryl protease but seems to be an alkaline "serine" protease with an optimum pH of 7.8-8.0 Agave protease had marked esterolytic activity and with Cbz-Tyr-ONp had an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.0345 -10(-3) M and a V of 1.24 mol substrate/mol enzyme per sec. The enzyme did not need metal ions for optimal activity, monovalent cations did not influence its kinetic parameters, but it was inhibited by cobalt, pC1HgBzO- and TosPheCH2C1. With respect to its primary specificity, as well as its pH-dependence there was a resemblance with chymotrypsin, although the rate of hydrolysis of Agave protease is much lower. PMID:5146

  4. Intermolt development reduces oxygen delivery capacity and jumping performance in the American locust (Schistocerca americana).

    Kirkton, Scott D; Hennessey, Lauren E; Duffy, Bridget; Bennett, Meghan M; Lee, Wah-Keat; Greenlee, Kendra J

    2012-02-01

    Among animals, insects have the highest mass-specific metabolic rates; yet, during intermolt development the tracheal respiratory system cannot meet the increased oxygen demand of older stage insects. Using locomotory performance indices, whole body respirometry, and X-ray imaging to visualize the respiratory system, we tested the hypothesis that due to the rigid exoskeleton, an increase in body mass during the intermolt period compresses the air-filled tracheal system, thereby, reducing oxygen delivery capacity in late stage insects. Specifically, we measured air sac ventilation frequency, size, and compressibility in both the abdomen and femur of early, middle, and late stage sixth instar Schistocerca americana grasshoppers. Our results show that late stage grasshoppers have a reduced air sac ventilation frequency in the femur and decreased convective capacities in the abdomen and femur. We also used X-ray images of the abdomen and femur to calculate the total proportion of tissue dedicated to respiratory structure during the intermolt period. We found that late stage grasshoppers had a lower proportion of their body dedicated to respiratory structures, especially air sacs, which convectively ventilate the tracheal system. These intermolt changes make oxygen delivery more challenging to the tissues, especially critical ones such as the jumping muscle. Indeed, late stage grasshoppers showed reduced jump frequencies compared to early stage grasshoppers, as well as decreased mass-specific CO(2) emission rates at 3 kPa PO(2). Our findings provide a mechanism to explain how body mass changes during the intermolt period reduce oxygen delivery capacity and alter an insect's life history. PMID:21965137

  5. Coccidian Parasites and Conservation Implications for the Endangered Whooping Crane (Grus americana.

    Miranda R Bertram

    Full Text Available While the population of endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana has grown from 15 individuals in 1941 to an estimated 304 birds today, the population growth is not sufficient to support a down-listing of the species to threatened status. The degree to which disease may be limiting the population growth of whooping cranes is unknown. One disease of potential concern is caused by two crane-associated Eimeria species: Eimeria gruis and E. reichenowi. Unlike most species of Eimeria, which are localized to the intestinal tract, these crane-associated species may multiply systemically and cause a potentially fatal disease. Using a non-invasive sampling approach, we assessed the prevalence and phenology of Eimeria oocysts in whooping crane fecal samples collected across two winter seasons (November 2012-April 2014 at the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge along the Texas Gulf coast. We also compared the ability of microscopy and PCR to detect Eimeria in fecal samples. Across both years, 26.5% (n = 328 of fecal samples were positive for Eimeria based on microscopy. Although the sensitivity of PCR for detecting Eimeria infections seemed to be less than that of microscopy in the first year of the study (8.9% vs. 29.3%, respectively, an improved DNA extraction protocol resulted in increased sensitivity of PCR relative to microscopy in the second year of the study (27.6% and 20.8%, respectively. The proportion of positive samples did not vary significantly between years or among sampling sites. The proportion of Eimeria positive fecal samples varied with date of collection, but there was no consistent pattern of parasite shedding between the two years. We demonstrate that non-invasive fecal collections combined with PCR and DNA sequencing techniques provides a useful tool for monitoring Eimeria infection in cranes. Understanding the epidemiology of coccidiosis is important for management efforts to increase population growth of the endangered whooping

  6. Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana: terapêutica com Fluconazol American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis: Fluconazole therapy

    Vicente Lopes Monte Neto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento da Leishmaniose Tegumentar Americana (LTA se constitui em um desafio à saúde pública, devido a diversos fatores, dentre eles: a dificuldade de acesso às regiões florestais, a via de administração da droga de primeira escolha ser exclusivamente parenteral e a necessidade de monitoramento de seus efeitos adversos. Este estudo relata três casos de LTA tratados com Fluconazol. Utilizou-se esse medicamento pelos seguintes motivos: existência de alguma contra-indicação, efeitos adversos e resposta parcial ou inexistente ao uso do Antimoniato. Verificou-se a completa reepitelização da lesão nos três casos. Sabe-se, no entanto, da necessidade de estudos clínicos posteriores mais abrangentes, tendo um grupo controle, para confirmação dos resultados aqui obtidos.The treatment of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL constitutes a challenge for public health. This is due to a series of factors, amongst them: difficult access to the forest regions, the exclusively parenteral route of administration of the first-choice drug and the need of monitoring adverse effects. This study describes three cases of ATL treated with Fluconazole. This drug was used for the following reasons: existence of some contraindication, adverse effects and only partial or inexistent response to Antimony treatment. Complete reepitheliazation of skin wounds was verified in all three cases. However, further and more extensive clinical studies including control groups will be necessary for confirming the results obtained in the present study.

  7. The new 2005 AISC specification A nova norma americana do AISC 2005

    Roberto T. Leon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In late 2005, the American Institute of Steel Construction issued its most recent Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05. This specification includes updated design provisions in both allowable strength design (ASD and load and resistance factor design methods (LRFD, and incorporates the design provisions for hollow structural sections and single angles. Amongst the major changes are a complete revamping of the methodologies for assessing stability of framed structures, new provisions for composite columns and updated material requirements. This paper will describe the changes and highlight those of practical significance.No final de 2005, o American Institute of Steel Construction editou a versão mais recente da norma norte-americana para estruturas de edifícios em aço, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings (ANSI/AISC 360-05. Essa norma inclui prescrições para projetos com base nos métodos das tensões admissíveis (ASD e dos estados-limites (LRFD e incorpora, ainda, prescrições para seções tubulares e cantoneiras. Entre as mais importantes modificações destacamos a completa renovação das metodologias para a verificação da estabilidade de estruturas aporticadas, novas prescrições para pilares mistos e atualização das especificações dos materiais. O presente artigo descreve essas alterações e destaca aquelas com interesse prático.

  8. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae).

    Niogret, Jerome; Epsky, Nancy D; Schnell, Raymond J; Boza, Edward J; Kendra, Paul E; Heath, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae). The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's) determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees. PMID:24039994

  9. Phylogenetic and expression analysis of the NPR1-like gene family from Persea americana (Mill.).

    Backer, Robert; Mahomed, Waheed; Reeksting, Bianca J; Engelbrecht, Juanita; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; van den Berg, Noëlani

    2015-01-01

    The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) forms an integral part of the salicylic acid (SA) pathway in plants and is involved in cross-talk between the SA and jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) pathways. Therefore, NPR1 is essential to the effective response of plants to pathogens. Avocado (Persea americana) is a commercially important crop worldwide. Significant losses in production result from Phytophthora root rot, caused by the hemibiotroph, Phytophthora cinnamomi. This oomycete infects the feeder roots of avocado trees leading to an overall decline in health and eventual death. The interaction between avocado and P. cinnamomi is poorly understood and as such limited control strategies exist. Thus uncovering the role of NPR1 in avocado could provide novel insights into the avocado - P. cinnamomi interaction. A total of five NPR1-like sequences were identified. These sequences were annotated using FGENESH and a maximum-likelihood tree was constructed using 34 NPR1-like protein sequences from other plant species. The conserved protein domains and functional motifs of these sequences were predicted. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of the five NPR1-like sequences in the roots of avocado after treatment with salicylic and jasmonic acid, P. cinnamomi infection, across different tissues and in P. cinnamomi infected tolerant and susceptible rootstocks. Of the five NPR1-like sequences three have strong support for a defensive role while two are most likely involved in development. Significant differences in the expression profiles of these five NPR1-like genes were observed, assisting in functional classification. Understanding the interaction of avocado and P. cinnamomi is essential to developing new control strategies. This work enables further classification of these genes by means of functional annotation and is a crucial step in understanding the role of NPR1 during P. cinnamomi infection. PMID:25972890

  10. Phenolic compound profiles and antioxidant capacity of Persea americana Mill. peels and seeds of two varieties.

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Karamać, Magdalena; Estrella, Isabel; Hernández, Teresa; Bartolomé, Begoña; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-05-01

    Avocado processing by the food and cosmetic industries yields a considerable amount of phenolic-rich byproduct such as peels and seeds. Utilization of these byproducts would be favorable from an economic point of view. Methanolic (80%) extracts obtained from lyophilized ground peels and seeds of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) of the Hass and Shepard varieties were characterized for their phenolic compound profiles using the HPLC-PAD technique. The structures of the identified compounds were subsequently unambiguously confirmed by ESI-MS. Compositional analysis revealed that the extracts contained four polyphenolic classes: flavanol monomers, proanthocyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonol glycosides. The presence of 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3-O-p-coumaroylquinic acid, and procyanidin A trimers was identified in seeds of both varieties. Intervarietal differences were apparent in the phenolic compound profiles of peels. Peels of the Shepard variety were devoid of (+)-catechin and procyanidin dimers, which were present in the peels of the Hass variety. Peels of both varieties contained 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin derivatives. The differences in the phenolic profiles between varietals were also apparent in the different antioxidant activity of the extracts. The peel extracts had a higher total phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity when compared to the seed extracts. The highest TEAC and ORAC values were apparent in peels of the Haas variety in which they amounted to 0.16 and 0.47 mmol Trolox/g DW, respectively. No significant (p > 0.05) differences were apparent between the TEAC values of seeds of the two varieties but the ORAC values differed significantly (p < 0.05). Overall these findings indicate that both the seeds and peel of avocado can be utilized as a functional food ingredient or as an antioxidant additive. PMID:22494370

  11. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana).

    Alcaraz, María Librada; Hormaza, José Ignacio; Rodrigo, Javier

    2013-01-01

    A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana) is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree) was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit. PMID:24167627

  12. Valenzuela y Zea: Científicos Criollos en la Independencia Americana

    Diana Elvira Soto Arango

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 15 Rev. hist.educ.latinoam - Vol. 16 No. 23, julio - diciembre 2014 - ISSN 0122-7238 – pp. 15 - 40 El objeto de esta investigación se centró en los criollos Zea y Valenzuela en la faceta de los cambios y participación que presentaron en el período de la Independencia americana. A estos dos criollos neogranadinos les unió José Celestino Mutis, en su formación científica y ubicación profesional, y llegaron a ocupar la Subdirección de la Real Expedición Botánica de Nueva Granada. El método se centró en la historia social de la ciencia y la metodología utilizada se sustentó en la historia comparada en indicadores de análisis como: formación, trayectoria profesional, participación política y análisis de los discursos relevantes que pronunciaron en el proceso de la independencia. Las fuentes se localizaron en archivos de España, Colombia y Venezuela. En conclusión, la vida política de estos dos botánicos se une en un discurso político mediado por el pensamiento ilustrado de impulsar cambios en la educación y el desarrollo de la industria y el comercio, donde las ciencias útiles con el estudio de los recursos naturales de su patria marcaban el derrotero de la nueva concepción para el imaginario de nación de la élite criolla neogranadina.

  13. Pistil starch reserves at anthesis correlate with final flower fate in avocado (Persea americana.

    María Librada Alcaraz

    Full Text Available A common observation in different plant species is a massive abscission of flowers and fruitlets even after adequate pollination, but little is known as to the reason for this drop. Previous research has shown the importance of nutritive reserves accumulated in the flower on fertilization success and initial fruit development but direct evidence has been elusive. Avocado (Persea americana is an extreme case of a species with a very low fruit to flower ratio. In this work, the implications of starch content in the avocado flower on the subsequent fruit set are explored. Firstly, starch content in individual ovaries was analysed from two populations of flowers with a different fruit set capacity showing that the flowers from the population that resulted in a higher percentage of fruit set contained significantly more starch. Secondly, in a different set of flowers, the style of each flower was excised one day after pollination, once the pollen tubes had reached the base of the style, and individually fixed for starch content analysis under the microscope once the fate of its corresponding ovary (that remained in the tree was known. A high variability in starch content in the style was found among flowers, with some flowers having starch content up to 1,000 times higher than others, and the flowers that successfully developed into fruits presented significantly higher starch content in the style at anthesis than those that abscised. The relationship between starch content in the ovary and the capacity of set of the flower together with the correlation found between the starch content in the style and the fate of the ovary support the hypothesis that the carbohydrate reserves accumulated in the flower at anthesis are related to subsequent abscission or retention of the developing fruit.

  14. Terpenoid variations within and among half-sibling avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae.

    Jerome Niogret

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses were conducted to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences in monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in plant material from avocado trees, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae. The initial study analyzed plant material sampled from the trunk to the leaves through different branch diameters to quantify proximo-distal spatial differences within a tree. All trees were seedlings initiated from a single maternal tree. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted on 34 chemicals that comprised at least 3% of the total chemical content of at least one tree and/or location within a tree. There were significant interactions between genotype and location sampled for most chemicals. Parentage analysis using microsatellite molecular markers (SSR's determined that the four trees had three fathers and that they represented two full-siblings and two half-sibling trees. Descriptive discriminant analysis found that both genotype and location within a tree could be separated based on chemical content, and that the chemical content from full-siblings tended to be more similar than chemical content from half-siblings. To further explore the relationship between genetic background and chemical content, samples were analyzed from leaf material from 20 trees that included two sets of full-sibling seedling trees, the maternal tree and the surviving paternal tree. Descriptive discriminant analysis found good separation between the two full-sibling groups, and that the separation was associated with chemistry of the parental trees. Six groups of chemicals were identified that explained the variation among the trees. We discuss the results in relation to the discrimination process used by wood-boring insects for site-selection on host trees, for tree selection among potential host trees, and the potential use of terpenoid chemical content in chemotaxonomy of avocado trees.

  15. Symbiotic essential amino acids provisioning in the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus) under various dietary conditions

    Larsen, Thomas; Sabree, Zakee

    2016-01-01

    Insect gut microbes have been shown to provide nutrients such as essential amino acids (EAAs) to their hosts. How this symbiotic nutrient provisioning tracks with the host’s demand is not well understood. In this study, we investigated microbial essential amino acid (EAA) provisioning in omnivorous American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana), fed low-quality (LQD) and comparatively higher-quality dog food (DF) diets using carbon stable isotope ratios of EAAs (δ13CEAA). We assessed non-dietary EAA input, quantified as isotopic offsets (Δ13C) between cockroach (δ13CCockroach EAA) and dietary (δ13CDietary EAA) EAAs, and subsequently determined biosynthetic origins of non-dietary EAAs in cockroaches using 13C-fingerprinting with dietary and representative bacterial and fungal δ13CEAA. Investigation of biosynthetic origins of de novo non-dietary EAAs indicated bacterial origins of EAA in cockroach appendage samples, and a mixture of fungal and bacterial EAA origins in gut filtrate samples for both LQD and DF-fed groups. We attribute the bacteria-derived EAAs in cockroach appendages to provisioning by the fat body residing obligate endosymbiont, Blattabacterium and gut-residing bacteria. The mixed signatures of gut filtrate samples are attributed to the presence of unassimilated dietary, as well as gut microbial (bacterial and fungal) EAAs. This study highlights the potential impacts of dietary quality on symbiotic EAA provisioning and the need for further studies investigating the interplay between host EAA demands, host dietary quality and symbiotic EAA provisioning in response to dietary sufficiency or deficiency. PMID:27231663

  16. O novo na sociologia latino-americana Novelty in Latin American sociology

    Lucio Oliver Costilla

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa varias caraterísticas atuais das ciências sociais latino-americanas em paralelo ao desenvolvimento da América Latina nos últimos anos. O ponto de partida é o sinal de que a combinação contraditória no continente latino-americano entre uma intelectualidade que tem um elevado nível cultural e a existência de movimentos sociais e políticos numa situação social explosiva, gera amplas possibilidades para o desenvolvimento da sociologia. A crise das ciências sociais acompanha estas mudanças significativas, na busca de novas perspectivas analíticas capazes de explicar o ritmo de mudanças contemporâneas. A rigor, no artigo, tenta-se demonstrar que o que a sociologia latino-americana tem como novo é um regresso ao pensamento crítico que a caracterizou no passado. Uma das mais importantes heranças da história sociológica latino-americana é o estudo e a classificação, desde uma perspectiva de totalidade, das estruturas sociais e dos processos sociopolíticos como fundamento para analisar o posicionamento dos atores e a dinâmica das instituições sociais. Assim, abre-se espaço para uma saudável tendência nas ciências sociais: superar o empirismo, reencontrando-se com a teoria. Uma necessidade fundante, hoje, para a América Latina é atualizar a sua procura de desenvolvimento: como estar à altura do mundo, como universalizar-se para viver o momento histórico atual com todas as potencialidades sociais possíveis, superando formas de produção e de vida atrasadas e caducas. E mais: como co-participar na crítica das novas formas modernas e pós-modernas, vislumbrando novos modelos de civilização, fazendo a crítica da democracia liberal e dos Estados nacionais de concorrência de latino-americanos, e impulsionando a recuperacão do público democrático perante a tendência ao autoritarismo estatal. Os aportes que a América Latina pode dar à crítica e à renovação da democracia política, à reforma

  17. Nervous System of Periplaneta americana Cockroach as a Model in Toxinological Studies: A Short Historical and Actual View.

    Stankiewicz, Maria; Dąbrowski, Marcin; de Lima, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    Nervous system of Periplaneta americana cockroach is used in a wide range of pharmacological studies, including electrophysiological techniques. This paper presents its role as a preparation in the development of toxinological studies in the following electrophysiological methods: double-oil-gap technique on isolated giant axon, patch-clamp on DUM (dorsal unpaired median) neurons, microelectrode technique in situ conditions on axon in connective and DUM neurons in ganglion, and single-fiber oil-gap technique on last abdominal ganglion synapse. At the end the application of cockroach synaptosomal preparation is mentioned. PMID:22666245

  18. Nervous System of Periplaneta americana Cockroach as a Model in Toxinological Studies: A Short Historical and Actual View

    Maria Stankiewicz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system of Periplaneta americana cockroach is used in a wide range of pharmacological studies, including electrophysiological techniques. This paper presents its role as a preparation in the development of toxinological studies in the following electrophysiological methods: double-oil-gap technique on isolated giant axon, patch-clamp on DUM (dorsal unpaired median neurons, microelectrode technique in situ conditions on axon in connective and DUM neurons in ganglion, and single-fiber oil-gap technique on last abdominal ganglion synapse. At the end the application of cockroach synaptosomal preparation is mentioned.

  19. Chemical Composition, Functional Properties, and Effect of Inulin from Tunisian Agave americana L. Leaves on Textural Qualities of Pectin Gel

    Mohamed Ali Bouaziz; Rabaa Rassaoui; Souhail Besbes

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the chemical composition and functional properties of Agave americana L. (AA) leaves were determined. The Agave leaves powder had a high amount of total dietary fiber (38.40%), total sugars (45.83%), and protein (35.33%), with a relatively low content in ash (5.94%) and lipid (2.03%). The Agave leaves were exhibited with potential food application. The Agave inulin showed a significant difference compared with the commercial inulin as for aw (0.275 against 0.282), pH (5.53 agai...

  20. Pemanfaatan Karbon Aktif dari Biji Alpukat (Persea americana Mill.) sebagai Adsorben Logam Besi dan Tembaga dalam Limbah Cair Sawit

    Maulidayanti, Nanda

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbon is an amorphous carbon produced from high-carbon material. One of them is avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seed which still less utilization. Activated carbon can be utilized as an adsorbent to heavy metals in the palm liquid waste. The purpose of this research is to utilizing activated carbon from avocado seed as an adsorbent to heavy metals and to know the influence of the concentration of activated carbon to sorption of iron (Fe) and copper (Cu) metals from palm liquid was...

  1. Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicological Assessment of the Aqueous Seed Extract of Persea Americana Mill (Lauraceae) in Rats

    Ozolua, Raymond I.; Anaka, Ogochukwu N; Okpo, Stephen O; Idogun, Sylvester E

    2009-01-01

    The aqueous seed extract of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae) is used by herbalists in Nigeria for the management of hypertension. As part of our on-going scientific evaluation of the extract, we designed the present study to assess its acute and sub-acute toxicity profiles in rats. Experiments were conducted to determine the oral median lethal dose (LD50) and other gross toxicological manifestations on acute basis. In the sub-acute experiments, the animals were administered 2.5 g/kg (p.o) pe...

  2. Comparative Growth Inhibitory Assay Of The Methanol Extract Of The Leaf And Seed Of Persea americana Mill (Lauraceae)

    Ayinde B.A; Ikpefan E.O

    2013-01-01

    Persea americana is one of the recipes used by traditional healers in parts of Edo State of Nigeria for the treatment of cancer. This claim was investigated using predictive bench-top assay method of germinating seeds radicle of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor). The powdered leaves and seeds were extracted by Soxhlet using methanol. The growth inhibitory effect was examined using radicle lengths of germinating seeds of Sorghum bicolor at 1-30 mg/ml. The methanol extract of the leaf of Persea ame...

  3. Comportamiento fisiológico del aguacate (Persea americana mill.) Variedad Lorena en la zona de Mariquita, Tolima

    Romero Sánchez, Miguel Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El aguacate (Persea americana Mill.) es nativo de América central y hoy en día es un cultivo de importancia económica en más de 70 países. En Colombia la demanda de la fruta para consumo nacional permanece insatisfecha todo el año; de tal manera que, este sector productivo tiene el reto de aumentar la producción y el rendimiento. En el país, es mínimo el número de investigaciones orientadas a estudiar la dinámica de los ciclos reproductivos que involucren los factores que deter...

  4. Persea americana Glycolic Extract: In Vitro Study of Antimicrobial Activity against Candida albicans Biofilm and Cytotoxicity Evaluation

    Jesus, D.; Oliveira, J. R.; Oliveira, F. E.; K. C. Higa; Junqueira, J. C.; A. O. C. Jorge; G. N. Back-Brito; L. D. Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the antifungal activity of Persea americana extract on Candida albicans biofilm and its cytotoxicity in macrophage culture (RAW 264.7). To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), microdilution in broth (CLSI M27-S4 protocol) was performed. Thereafter, the concentrations of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL (n = 10) with 5 min exposure were analyzed on mature biofilm in microplate wells for 48 h. Saline was used as control (n = 10). After treatment, biofilm ce...

  5. Compared nymphal development of Tingis americana (Hemiptera, Tingidae) in two Handroanthus species (Bignoniaceae) and reproductive parameters in seedlings of Handroanthus heptaphyllus

    Daiane C. Moreira; Luiza R. Redaelli; Marcus Guidoti; Aline Barcellos

    2013-01-01

    Nymphs and adults of Tingis americana Drake, 1922 were found feeding on leaves of Handroanthus heptaphyllus (Vell.) Mattos and Handroanthus chrysotrichus (Mart. ex A. DC.) Mattos in the Botanic Garden, Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This is the first record of T. americana on these host plants and in the southern Brazil. We aimed to compare the nymphal development on both hosts and to analyze the reproductive parameters on H. heptaphyllus (25 ± 1ºC; 60 ± 10% RH; 16 h photop...

  6. Structural development and bioactive content of red bulb plant (Eleutherine americana; a traditional medicines for local Kalimantan people

    LAURENTIUS HARTANTO NUGROHO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kuntorini EM, Nugroho LH (2010 Structural development and bioactive content of red bulb plant (Eleutherine americana; a traditional medicines for local Kalimantan people. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 102-106. Red bulb plant or “bawang dayak” (Eleutherine americana Merr. is commonly used as a traditional medicine especially for anti breast cancer of Kalimantan people, because it contains bioactive naphtoquinone-derivatives. Naphtoquinones is usually used as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic agents. This study was aimed to complete the investigation of Red bulb plant as a traditional medicine from anatomical and phytochemical point of view, especially the anatomical structure of bulb and leaf of red bulb plants during their development and their naphtoquinone derivative contents. The anatomical structures of bulb and leaf were analyzed by paraffin embedding method and naphtoquinone derivative contents were analyzed using HPLC. During plant development, the diameter and the length of bulbs as well as the thickness of mesophyll and epidermis layers of the leaves increased significantly. The size of vascular bundles increased and so did phloem and xylem components. The content of bioactive compounds in bulbs increased significantly as the size of parenchymal cells increased. There was no significant difference in the content of bioactive compounds of leaves during development, despite the rise in the thickness of mesophyll and the constituting cells as the location of synthesis.

  7. Cardiotoxicity of acetogenins from Persea americana occurs through the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and caspase-dependent apoptosis pathways.

    Silva-Platas, Christian; García, Noemí; Fernández-Sada, Evaristo; Dávila, Daniel; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Rodríguez, Dariana; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2012-08-01

    Acetogenins are cell-membrane permeable, naturally occurring secondary metabolites of plants such as Annonaceae, Lauraceae and other related phylogenic families. They belong to the chemical derivatives of polyketides, which are synthesized from fatty acid precursors. Although acetogenins have displayed diverse biological activities, the anti-proliferative effect on human cancer cells has been widely reported. Acetogenins are inhibitors of complex I in the electron transport chain therefore they interrupt ATP synthesis in mitochondria. We tested a new acetogenins-enriched extract from the seed of Persea americana in order to investigate if any toxicity was induced on cardiac tissue and determine the involved mechanism. In isolated perfused heart we found that contractility was completely inhibited at an accumulative dose of 77 μg/ml. In isolated cardiomyocytes, the acetogenins-enriched extract induced apoptosis through the activation of the intrinsic pathway at 43 μg/ml. In isolated mitochondria, it inhibited complex I activity on NADH-linked respiration, as would be expected, but also induced permeability transition on succinate-linked respiration. Cyclosporine A, a known blocker of permeability transition, significantly prevented the permeability transition triggered by the acetogenins-enriched extract. In addition, our acetogenins-enriched extract inhibited ADP/ATP exchange, suggesting that an important element in phosphate or adenylate transport was affected. In this manner we suggest that acetogenins-enriched extract from Persea americana could directly modulate permeability transition, an entity not yet associated with the acetogenins' direct effects, resulting in cardiotoxicity. PMID:22733015

  8. The rhizome of Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Pediculus humanus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria

    Raoult Didier

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondria are thought to have evolved from eubacteria-like endosymbionts; however, the origin of the mitochondrion remains a subject of debate. In this study, we investigated the phenomenon of chimerism in mitochondria to shed light on the origin of these organelles by determining which species played a role in their formation. We used the mitochondria of four distinct organisms, Reclinomonas americana, Homo sapiens, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and multichromosome Pediculus humanus, and attempted to identify the origin of each mitochondrial gene. Results Our results suggest that the origin of mitochondrial genes is not limited to the Rickettsiales and that the creation of these genes did not occur in a single event, but through multiple successive events. Some of these events are very old and were followed by events that are more recent and occurred through the addition of elements originating from current species. The points in time that the elements were added and the parental species of each gene in the mitochondrial genome are different to the individual species. These data constitute strong evidence that mitochondria do not have a single common ancestor but likely have numerous ancestors, including proto-Rickettsiales, proto-Rhizobiales and proto-Alphaproteobacteria, as well as current alphaproteobacterial species. The analysis of the multichromosome P. humanus mitochondrion supports this mechanism. Conclusions The most plausible scenario of the origin of the mitochondrion is that ancestors of Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales merged in a proto-eukaryotic cell approximately one billion years ago. The fusion of the Rickettsiales and Rhizobiales cells was followed by gene loss, genomic rearrangements and the addition of alphaproteobacterial elements through ancient and more recent recombination events. Each gene of each of the four studied mitochondria has a different origin, while in some cases, multichromosomes may allow for

  9. Aprisionamento e libertação: duas Antígonas latino-americanas

    Eduardo Guerreiro Brito Losso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise estrutural comparativa de duas peças teatrais latino-americanas que reatualizam a Antígona de Sófocles: Antígona Vélez (1951, de Leopoldo Marechal (Argentina, e La pasión según Antígona Pérez (1968, de Luis Rafael Sánchez (Porto Rico. A partir de dados formais, o artigo reflete sobre as condições do confronto do indivíduo com os novos tipos de tiranias modernas. Antígona não é só um mártir ficcional: é um exemplo de como encontrar espaço para o desenvolvimento da autonomia individual.Abstract: The paper presents a comparative structural analysis of two Latin American plays that update Sophocles’ Antigone: Antígona Vélez (1951: Leopoldo Marechal (Argentina and La pasión según Antígona Pérez (1968, Luis Rafael Sánchez (Puerto Rico. From formal data, the paper reflects on the conditions of confrontation of the individual with new types of modern tyrannies. Antigone is not only a fictional martyr: is an example of how to find space for the development of individual autonomy.Keywords: Antigone; myth and modernity; autonomy; structural analysis; Latin American theatre Eduardo Guerreiro Brito Losso é professor adjunto de Teoria Literária do departamento de Ciência da Literatura da UFRJ desde 2014, tendo ocupado o mesmo cargo na UFRuralRJ de 2009 a 2014. Seus temas de pesquisa são: a elaboração de modos de viver na poesia e na filosofia, a secularização da mística na literatura moderna e a questão do valor estético no mercado da música pop. Trabalha a partir da Teoria Crítica a crítica da indústria cultural e relações entre estética e religião. Fez parte da organização dos livros “Diferencia minoritaria en Latinoamérica”, pela Georg Olms, 2008, e “O carnaval carioca de Mario de Andrade”, Azougue, de 2011.

  10. Identification and Density Estimation of American Martens (Martes americana Using a Novel Camera-Trap Method

    Alexej P. K. Sirén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Camera-traps are increasingly used to estimate wildlife abundance, yet few studies exist for small-sized carnivores or comparing efficacy against traditional methods. We developed a camera-trap to identify the unique ventral patches of American martens (Martes americana. Our method was designed to: (1 determine the optimal trap configuration to photograph ventral patches; (2 evaluate the use of temporally clustered photographs to determine independence and improve identification; and (3 determine factors that influence identification probability. We tested our method by comparing camera- and live-trap density estimates using spatial capture–recapture (SCR models. The ventral patches of radio-collared martens were most visible when traps were placed 15–20 cm above a feeding platform. Radio-collared martens (n = 14 visited camera-traps for long periods (median = 7 min with long intervals between visits (median = 419 min, and visits by different martens at the same trap <15 min apart was infrequent (n = 3 during both years. Similarly, there was complete agreement among observers that clustered photos of un-collared martens were always of the same individual. Pairwise agreement was high between observers; eight un-collared martens were identifiable by consensus on 90% (54 of 60 of recorded visits. Factors influencing identification probability were directly related to the time martens spent feeding at traps (β = 0.143, P = 0.01 and inversely proportional to the time that elapsed since traps were baited (β = −0.344, P = 0.006. Density estimates were higher and more precise for camera-trapping (0.60, 0.35–1.01 martens/km2 than live-trapping (0.45, 0.16–1.22 martens/km2, providing evidence that SCR density estimates may be biased when capture heterogeneity is present, yet cannot be accounted for due to small sample size. Our camera-trap method provides a minimally invasive and accurate tool for monitoring marten populations.