Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feller, D.F.
1993-07-01
This collection of benchmark timings represents a snapshot of the hardware and software capabilities available for ab initio quantum chemical calculations at Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s Molecular Science Research Center in late 1992 and early 1993. The ``snapshot`` nature of these results should not be underestimated, because of the speed with which both hardware and software are changing. Even during the brief period of this study, we were presented with newer, faster versions of several of the codes. However, the deadline for completing this edition of the benchmarks precluded updating all the relevant entries in the tables. As will be discussed below, a similar situation occurred with the hardware. The timing data included in this report are subject to all the normal failures, omissions, and errors that accompany any human activity. In an attempt to mimic the manner in which calculations are typically performed, we have run the calculations with the maximum number of defaults provided by each program and a near minimum amount of memory. This approach may not produce the fastest performance that a particular code can deliver. It is not known to what extent improved timings could be obtained for each code by varying the run parameters. If sufficient interest exists, it might be possible to compile a second list of timing data corresponding to the fastest observed performance from each application, using an unrestricted set of input parameters. Improvements in I/O might have been possible by fine tuning the Unix kernel, but we resisted the temptation to make changes to the operating system. Due to the large number of possible variations in levels of operating system, compilers, speed of disks and memory, versions of applications, etc., readers of this report may not be able to exactly reproduce the times indicated. Copies of the output files from individual runs are available if questions arise about a particular set of timings.
AB INITIO AND CALPHAD THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turchi, P A
2004-04-14
Ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement CALPHAD in two major ways for subsequent applications to stability in complex alloys. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics {acute a} la CALPHAD. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys.
Ab initio potential for solids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chetty, N.; Stokbro, Kurt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet
1992-01-01
A total-energy theory for a solid is presented. It is based on density-functional theory and consists of a succession of approximations. At the most accurate level, the theory consists of a systematic derivation of an ansatz for the electron density which is best suited for the Harris functional. At the most approximate level, the theory is equivalent to the usual effective-medium theory. At all levels of approximation, every term in the total-energy expression is calculated ab initio, that is, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Formation energies of defects were estimated from an ab initio calculation for uranium dioxide with different valences of the fission products. The VASP (Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package) was used in this study, which is based on a density function theory (DFT) to express the total energy with the density of electrons. One uranium element was replaced with an element of the fission products to calculate the oxygen and uranium defection energy. Additionally, the formation energy of the Schottky defects (two oxygen vacancies and one uranium vacancy) was obtained. This data will be very useful to estimate a diffusion mechanism of fission gases in a nuclear fuel
Kühne, Thomas D
2012-01-01
Computer simulations and molecular dynamics in particular, is a very powerful method to provide detailed and essentially exact informations of classical many-body problems. With the advent of \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics, where the forces are computed on-the-fly by accurate electronic structure calculations, the scope of either method has been greatly extended. This new approach, which unifies Newton's and Schr\\"odinger's equations, allows for complex simulations without relying on any adjustable parameter. This review is intended to outline the basic principles as well as a survey of the field. Beginning with the derivation of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, the Car-Parrinello method as well as novel hybrid scheme that unifies best of either approach are discussed. The predictive power is demonstrated by a series of applications ranging from insulators to semiconductors and even metals in condensed phases.
Collective rotation from ab initio theory
Caprio, M A; Vary, J P; Smith, R
2015-01-01
Through ab initio approaches in nuclear theory, we may now seek to quantitatively understand the wealth of nuclear collective phenomena starting from the underlying internucleon interactions. No-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for p-shell nuclei give rise to rotational bands, as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments, and electromagnetic transitions. In this review, NCCI calculations of 7-9Be are used to illustrate and explore ab initio rotational structure, and the resulting predictions for rotational band properties are compared with experiment. We highlight the robustness of ab initio rotational predictions across different choices for the internucleon interaction.
Diatomic molecules: results of ab initio calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A survey and analysis are given of computational studies of the electronic structure of ground and excited states of diatomic molecules. Ab initio methods in current use are discussed, and many detailed examples and results are provided. 100 references
Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer ?-doped phosphorus in silicon.
Drumm, Daniel W; Budi, Akin; Per, Manolo C; Russo, Salvy P; L Hollenberg, Lloyd C
2013-01-01
: The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunnelling microscope lithography. Using vasp, we develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of systems which is size limited due to computational tractability. Nonetheless, we provide valuable data for the benchmarking of empirical modelling techniques more capable of extending this discussion to confined disordered systems or actual devices. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localised basis functions in siesta, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated ?-layers. In obtaining an agreement between plane-wave and localised methods, we show that valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%. PMID:23445785
Ab initio valence calculations in chemistry
Cook, D B
1974-01-01
Ab Initio Valence Calculations in Chemistry describes the theory and practice of ab initio valence calculations in chemistry and applies the ideas to a specific example, linear BeH2. Topics covered include the Schrödinger equation and the orbital approximation to atomic orbitals; molecular orbital and valence bond methods; practical molecular wave functions; and molecular integrals. Open shell systems, molecular symmetry, and localized descriptions of electronic structure are also discussed. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the use of the Schrödinge
Accelerating Ab Initio Nuclear Physics Calculations with GPUs
Potter, Hugh; Maris, Pieter; Sosonkina, Masha; Vary, James; Binder, Sven; Calci, Angelo; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert; Çatalyürek, Ümit; Saule, Erik
2014-01-01
This paper describes some applications of GPU acceleration in ab initio nuclear structure calculations. Specifically, we discuss GPU acceleration of the software package MFDn, a parallel nuclear structure eigensolver. We modify the matrix construction stage to run partly on the GPU. On the Titan supercomputer at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility, this produces a speedup of approximately 2.2x - 2.7x for the matrix construction stage and 1.2x - 1.4x for the entire run.
Towards hydrogen metallization: an Ab initio approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The quest for metallic hydrogen is a major goal for both theoretical and experimental condensed matter physics. Hydrogen and deuterium have been compressed up to 200 GPa in diamond anvil cells, without any clear evidence for a metallic behaviour. Loubeyere has recently suggested that hydrogen could metallize, at pressures within experimental range, in a new Van der Waals compound: Ar(H2)2 which is characterized at ambient pressure by an open and anisotropic sublattice of hydrogen molecules, stabilized by an argon skeleton. This thesis deals with a detailed ab initio investigation, by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics methods, of the evolution under pressure of this compound. In a last chapter, we go to much higher pressures and temperatures, in order to compare orbital and orbital free ab initio methods for the dense hydrogen plasma. (author)
Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.
Jedes initium wird durch experimenta crucis zum eventus. Jedes theoretisch interpretierbare ex-eventu-Resultat führt auf ein neues Initium. Gerade dies ist die gemeinsame Aussage von Atomistik, Quantenmechanik und Relativitätstheorie.Translated AbstractAb initio vel ex eventu. IIEvery initium becomes an eventus by experimenta crucis. Every theoretically interpretable ex-eventu result leads to a new initium. Right this is the joint assertion of atomism, quantum mechanics, and relativity.
Reciprocity Theorems for Ab Initio Force Calculations
Wei, C; Mele, E J; Rappe, A M; Lewis, Steven P.; Rappe, Andrew M.
1996-01-01
We present a method for calculating ab initio interatomic forces which scales quadratically with the size of the system and provides a physically transparent representation of the force in terms of the spatial variation of the electronic charge density. The method is based on a reciprocity theorem for evaluating an effective potential acting on a charged ion in the core of each atom. We illustrate the method with calculations for diatomic molecules.
AB INITIO FORCE CONSTANTS OF GERMANIUM
Kunc, K.; de Martin, R
1981-01-01
Using the local density-functional formalism, phonon frequencies can be predicted ab initio by comparing the energy of the equilibrium configuration with the one having the atoms displaced in a pattern corresponding to a "frozen" phonon. Here we show that by using less symmetric displacement patterns and by applying the Hellman-Feynman theorem to the self-consistent electronic charge densities, one can obtain al1 force constants determining the entire branches of phonon spectra corresponding ...
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; PANDE, VIJAY S.; Martínez, Todd J
2014-01-01
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerat...
Highly scalable Ab initio genomic motif identification
Marchand, Benoît
2011-01-01
We present results of scaling an ab initio motif family identification system, Dragon Motif Finder (DMF), to 65,536 processor cores of IBM Blue Gene/P. DMF seeks groups of mutually similar polynucleotide patterns within a set of genomic sequences and builds various motif families from them. Such information is of relevance to many problems in life sciences. Prior attempts to scale such ab initio motif-finding algorithms achieved limited success. We solve the scalability issues using a combination of mixed-mode MPI-OpenMP parallel programming, master-slave work assignment, multi-level workload distribution, multi-level MPI collectives, and serial optimizations. While the scalability of our algorithm was excellent (94% parallel efficiency on 65,536 cores relative to 256 cores on a modest-size problem), the final speedup with respect to the original serial code exceeded 250,000 when serial optimizations are included. This enabled us to carry out many large-scale ab initio motiffinding simulations in a few hours while the original serial code would have needed decades of execution time. Copyright 2011 ACM.
Ab-initio atomic level stress and role of d-orbitals in CuZr, CuZn and CuY
Ojha, Madhusudan; Nicholson, Don M.; Egami, Takeshi
2015-03-01
Atomic level stress offers a new tool to characterize materials within the local approximation to density functional theory (DFT). Ab-initio atomic level stresses in B2 structures of CuZr, CuZn and CuY are calculated and results are explained on the basis of d-orbital contributions to Density of States (DOS). The overlap of d-orbital DOS plays an important role in the relative magnitude of atomic level stresses in these structures. The trends in atomic level stresses that we observed in these simple B2 structures are also seen in complex structures such as liquids, glasses and solid solutions. The stresses are however modified by the different coordination and relaxed separation distances in these complex structures. We used the Locally Self-Consistent Multiple Scattering (LSMS) code and Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) for ab-initio calculations.
Ab initio calculations of thermochemical properties of methanol clusters.
Umer, Muhammad; Leonhard, Kai
2013-02-21
Highly accurate ab initio calculations of binding enthalpies and entropies of gas phase clusters of methanol have been performed, yielding uncertainties smaller than 1 kJ/mol per hydrogen bond in the Gibbs free energy of reaction. This requires quantum chemical RIMP2 and CCSD(T) post-Hartree-Fock methods with basis sets up to aug-cc-pV5Z for energy calculations. An analysis of topological symmetry and hindered rotor effects proves necessary for reliable entropies. This approach goes beyond the rigid rotor plus harmonic oscillator method implemented in standard quantum mechanics software tools. The results demonstrate that (1) thermochemical methanol cluster properties can nowadays be obtained by ab initio methods with an accuracy comparable to or even better than that of the experimental data available, especially for larger species that cannot be studied directly by experiments and (2) cooperativity effects and state-dependent cluster distributions cause a strongly varying average enthalpy and entropy per bond as a function of temperature and density for methanol. PMID:23330733
Ab initio no core full configuration approach for light nuclei
Kim, Youngman; Shin, Ik Jae; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Forssén, Christian; Rotureau, Jimmy
2015-10-01
Comprehensive understanding of the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses theoretical and computational challenges. Still, a number of ab initio approaches have been developed to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei using fundamental interactions among nucleons. Among them, we work with the ab initio no core full configuration (NCFC) method and ab initio no core Gamow Shell Model (GSM). We first review these approaches and present some recent results.
Ab initio energetics of nonsubstituted monocyclic pyrones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morais, Victor M.F., E-mail: vmmorais@icbas.up.p [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas Abel Salazar, ICBAS, Universidade do Porto, P-4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2011-01-15
The monocyclic nonsubstituted pyrones were studied computationally using state-of-the-art ab initio composite computational techniques. Combination of the accurate energies so obtained with conveniently chosen isodesmic or homodesmotic chemical reactions lead to very confident predictions of their corresponding standard enthalpy of formation. The internal consistency of the results obtained from a vast number of independent chemical schemes serves as a further support of the quality of our results, which are thus proposed to establish the energetics of {alpha}-pyrone and {gamma}-pyrone.
Ab initio calculations of material strength.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šob, Mojmír; Friák, Martin; Vitek, V.
Tokyo : The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003, s. 467-475. [International Symposium on Micro-Mechanical Engineering - Heat Transfer, Fluid Dynamics, Reliability and Mechanotronics.. Tsuchiura and Tsukuba (JP), 01.12.2003-03.12.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA1041302; GA ?R GA202/03/1351; GA MŠk OC 523.90 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electronic structure * theoretical tensile strength Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li3 molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain
Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics
Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Frisch, Michael J.; Li, Xiaosong
2014-12-01
Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li3 molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.
Gross, A; Gross, Axel; Scheffler, Matthias
1997-01-01
The dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on Pd(100) has been studied by ab initio quantum dynamics and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. Treating all hydrogen degrees of freedom as dynamical coordinates implies a high dimensionality and requires statistical averages over thousands of trajectories. An efficient and accurate treatment of such extensive statistics is achieved in two steps: In a first step we evaluate the ab initio potential energy surface (PES) and determine an analytical representation. Then, in an independent second step dynamical calculations are performed on the analytical representation of the PES. Thus the dissociation dynamics is investigated without any crucial assumption except for the Born-Oppenheimer approximation which is anyhow employed when density-functional theory calculations are performed. The ab initio molecular dynamics is compared to detailed quantum dynamical calculations on exactly the same ab initio PES. The occurence of quantum oscillations in the sticking probab...
Why ferroelectricity? synchrotron radiation and ab initio answers
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
R, Olivera; M.E, Fuentes; F, Espinosa; M, García; E, Macías; A, Durán; J, Siqueiros; L, Fuentes.
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Una pregunta histórica de la física del estado sólido está encontrando respuesta en nuestros tiempos: la explicación a nivel atómico del origen de la ferroelectricidad. Las ideas tradicionales sobre fenómenos ferroeléctricos se relacionan con el "ablandamiento" de los fonones en el origen de la zona [...] de Brillouin y con funciones en forma de "W" para la energía libre de Landau. Las contribuciones experimentales (radiación sincrotrónica, neutrones) y teóricas (Cohen, Resta, Spaldin) de la última década han esclarecido aspectos del comportamiento atómico que conducen a la polarización espontánea en estructuras perovskitas y asociadas. Se presenta el trabajo desarrollado por nuestro grupo interdisciplinario. Se obtienen fases ferroeléctricas perovskitas y Aurivillius por diferentes métodos. Se investigan detalles finos de las estructuras cristalinas mediante radiación sincrotrónica en el Laboratorio de Radiación Sincrotrónica de Stanford. Las estructuras electronicas de las fases consideradas se caracterizan por métodos ab initio. Los experimentos de difraccion en alta resolución demuestran ruptura de simetría en un número de sistemas perovskita y Aurivillius. Se discute la relación estructura-simetría- polarización. Se presenta una explicación ab initio de la polarizacion ferroeléctrica en perovskitas. La energía del sistema se calcula mediante el codigo CASTEP bajo un funcional GGA. La optimización de la energía conduce a la ruptura de simetría cubica, con desplazamiento del catión Ti fuera del centro, vía una transformación Jahn-Teller de segundo orden. La estructura electrónica se investiga mediante el software BandLab, bajo un funcional LDA, con el método LMTO. La causa de la deformación de la perovskita es la degeneración de los orbitales Ti 3d z² y Ti 3d (x²+y²). Abstract in english An old question of solid state physics is being answered nowadays: the atomic-level understanding of ferroelectricity. Traditional ideas about ferroelectric phenomena relate with softening of optical phonons at the Brillouin zone origin and with "W-shaped" Landau free energy functions. Last decade e [...] xperimental (synchrotron radiation, neutrons) and quantum-theoretical (Cohen, Resta, Spaldin) contributions have clarified detailed descriptions and explanations for atomic behavior leading to spontaneous polarization in perovskite and perovskite-related crystal structures. Work being performed by our interdisciplinary group on ferroelectricity is presented. Perovskite and Aurivillius ferroelectric phases are obtained by different methods. Fine details on crystal structures are investigated by means of synchrotron radiation at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Electronic structures of considered phases are theoretically characterized by ab initio methods. High-resolution diffraction experiments demonstrate several symmetry break-downs in perovskite and Aurivillius phases. The structure-symmetry-polarization relationship is discussed for a number of representative cases. Ab initio explanation of ferroelectric polarization in perovskite structures is given. Energy calculation is performed by means of CASTEP code under GGA functional. Energy optimization leads to cubic-tetragonal symmetry break-down with off-centering cation displacements via second-order Jahn-Teller effect. Electronic structure is investigated with BandLab code, under LDA functional with LMTO method. Degeneracy of Ti 3d z² and Ti 3d (x²+y²) orbitals is the cause of cubic-perovskite deformation.
Time-reversible ab initio molecular dynamics
Niklasson, Anders M. N.; Tymczak, C. J.; Challacombe, Matt
2007-04-01
Time-reversible ab initio molecular dynamics based on a lossless multichannel decomposition for the integration of the electronic degrees of freedom [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 123001 (2006)] is explored. The authors present a lossless time-reversible density matrix molecular dynamics scheme. This approach often allows for stable Hartree-Fock simulations using only one single self-consistent field cycle per time step. They also present a generalization, introducing an additional "forcing" term, that in a special case includes a hybrid Lagrangian, i.e., Car-Parrinello-type, method, which can systematically be constrained to the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface by using an increasing number of self-consistency cycles in the nuclear force calculations. Furthermore, in analog to the reversible and symplectic leapfrog or velocity Verlet schemes, where not only the position but also the velocity is propagated, the authors propose a Verlet-type density velocity formalism for time-reversible Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering
Elhatisari, Serdar; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-01-01
Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.
Operator evolution for ab initio nuclear theory
Schuster, Micah D; Johnson, Calvin W; Jurgenson, Eric D; Navratil, Petr
2014-01-01
The past two decades have seen a revolution in ab initio calculations of nuclear properties. One key element has been the development of a rigorous effective interaction theory, applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence as a function of the model space size. For consistency, however, one ought to apply the same transformation to other operators when calculating transitions and mean values from the eigenstates of the renormalized Hamiltonian. Working in a translationally-invariant harmonic oscillator basis for the two- and three-nucleon systems, we evolve the Hamiltonian, square-radius and total dipole strength operators by the similarity renormalization group (SRG). The inclusion of up to three-body matrix elements in the 4He nucleus all but completely restores the invariance of the expectation values under the transformation. We also consider a Gaussian operator with adjustable range and find at short ranges an increased contribution from such ind...
Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor
Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.
2014-12-01
Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provide detailed physical insight. Although theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor—a highly accelerated first-principles molecular dynamics simulation of chemical reactions that discovers new molecules and mechanisms without preordained reaction coordinates or elementary steps. Using the nanoreactor, we show new pathways for glycine synthesis from primitive compounds proposed to exist on the early Earth, which provide new insight into the classic Urey-Miller experiment. These results highlight the emergence of theoretical and computational chemistry as a tool for discovery, in addition to its traditional role of interpreting experimental findings.
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-12-01
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons. PMID:26632590
Ab Initio Derivation of Model Energy Density Functionals
Dobaczewski, J
2015-01-01
I propose a simple and manageable method that allows for deriving coupling constants of model energy density functionals (EDFs) directly from ab initio calculations performed for finite fermion systems. A proof-of-principle application allows for linking properties of finite nuclei, determined by using the nuclear nonlocal Gogny functional, to the coupling constants of the quasilocal Skyrme functional. The method does not rely on properties of infinite fermion systems but on the ab initio calculations in finite systems. It also allows for quantifying merits of different model EDFs in describing the ab initio results.
Reconstructions of Ir (110) and (100) an ab initio study
Filippetti, A; Filippetti, Alessio; Fiorentini, Vincenzo
1996-01-01
Prediction criteria for surface reconstructions are discussed, with reference to ab initio calculations of the (110)-$1\\times 2$ missing-row and (100)-$5\\times 1$ quasi-hexagonal reconstructions of Ir and Rh.
Cálculos ab initio con correlación electrónica
Merchán Bonete, M.
Estamos entrando en una era donde la ortogonalidad entre las investigaciones de carácter experimental y de naturaleza teórica se irá difuminando progresivamente y la problemática a resolver quedará en escena como el único actor principal de la obra. Como premisa para una cooperación teórico-experimental de igual a igual, la metodología químico-cuántica utilizada debe ser capaz de ofrecer resultados de carácter predictivo. Sin duda, esta madurez en la metodología químico-cuántica ya la hemos alcanzado hace algunos años, tal y como muestra entre otras muchas, la labor que nuestro grupo ha realizado en el transcurso de la última década, dentro del campo de la Espectroscopía Teórica. Los estudios realizados comprenden una amplia gama de sistemas, variando tanto en tamaño como en complejidad, abordando problemáticas espectroscópicas consideradas tradicionalmente como especialmente controvertidas. Nuestra contribución científica más relevante reside en el carácter cuantitativo de las asignaciones espectroscópicas que hemos propuesto en base a resultados ab initio. Recordemos que en los años noventa los resultados ab initio solían presentar para las energías de excitación de sistemas de tamaño molecular moderado, como el benceno, errores de más de 1 eV. En comparación con el éxito relativo de los métodos semiempíricos, la frustración de la metodología ab initio quedaba todavía más patente. Los estudios que hemos presentado representan una comprensión profunda de los espectros electrónicos en sistemas orgánicos claves, mostrando el camino a seguir para obtener asignaciones espectroscópicas precisas (entre 0.1-0.2 eV). La naturaleza del método CASPT2 junto al diseño de estrategias computacionales nos ha permitido alcanzar el carácter cuantitativo con el que se caracterizan nuestras contribuciones[1,2]. Por todo ello, algunos de los trabajos publicados se consideran clásicos dentro del campo, pues en cierto modo definen el campo, y se reflejan en libros publicados recientemente. En la conferencia se analizarán ciertos pormenores de las investigaciones realizadas. El tipo de aplicaciones llevadas a cabo hasta la fecha se ilustrará mediante el estudio teórico del espectro electrónico de ciclooctatetraeno. Dando un paso más en la evolución de nuestra investigación, pretendemos en la actualidad describir, desde un formalismo teórico y al mismo nivel de exigencia, los mecanismos subyacentes que tienen lugar en las reacciones biológicas fototoinducidas, es decir, reacciones que se inician mediante la absorción de luz[3]. Como muestra de la caracterización de los procesos fotofísicos y fotoquímicos en fotobiología teórica, hemos elegido la descripción de la conversión interna ultrarrápida que tiene lugar en los cromóforos del ADN. Los estados excitados de las moléculas de los ácidos nucleicos presentan tiempos de vida media que se encuentran en el rango de sub-picosegundos, sugiriendo la presencia de un canal ultrarrápido de conversión interna, lo que normalmente se asocia en la fotoquímica contemporánea a una intersección cónica entre el estado excitado y el fundamental[4]. De esta forma nuestro ADN previene de forma eficaz posibles reacciones en el estado excitado y se revela como un excelente protector solar.
Ab-initio Raman spectra of anharmonic and disordered systems
Putrino, Anna
2000-01-01
In this thesis work, a new method for computing Raman spectra of anharmonic and disordered systems through an ab-initio density functional perturbation theory approach is presented. The method combines ab-initio molecular dynamics with the generalization of density functional perturbation theory to non-hamiltonian perturbations. The formalism uses the description of the position operator in periodic systems in terms of Berry phase. The method is implemented in the context of a density functio...
Ab initio thermodynamic study of defective strontium titanate
Blokhin, Evgeny
2013-01-01
In the presented thesis the perfect and defective SrTiO3 bulk crystals and their (001) surfaces are considered on ab initio level. Since the experimental study of the complex defective systems is comparatively expensive and difficult, and the computer performance has been greatly increased in the last years, the ab initio modeling became very efficient tool to be applied in this field. Additionally, there is a significant industrial demand for the investigation and improvements of the perform...
Ab initio atomistic simulation of metals and multicomponent alloys
Tian, Fuyang
2013-01-01
Ab initio theory provides a powerful tool to understand and predict the behavior of materials. This thesis contains both of these aspects. First we use ab initio alloy theory to investigate a new kind of complex alloy (high-entropy alloy). Second we introduce a novel potential (interlayer potential), which can be extracted from ab inito total energy calculations using the Chen-Möbius inversion method. High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are composed of four or more metallic elements with nearly equimo...
Ab initio calculation of the Hoyle state
Epelbaum, Evgeny; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G
2011-01-01
The Hoyle state plays a crucial role in the hydrogen burning of stars heavier than our sun and in the production of carbon and other elements necessary for life. This excited state of the carbon-12 nucleus was postulated by Hoyle^{1} as a necessary ingredient for the fusion of three alpha particles to produce carbon at stellar temperatures. Although the Hoyle state was seen experimentally more than a half century ago^{2,3}, nuclear theorists have not yet uncovered the nature of this state from first principles. In this letter we report the first ab initio calculation of the low-lying states of carbon-12 using supercomputer lattice simulations and a theoretical framework known as effective field theory. In addition to the ground state and excited spin-2 state, we find a resonance at -85(3) MeV with all of properties of the Hoyle state and in agreement with the experimentally observed energy. These lattice simulations provide insight into the structure of this unique state and new clues as to the amount of fine...
Ab initio calculations of nitramine dimers
Koh-Fallet, Sharon; Schweigert, Igor
2015-06-01
Elevated temperatures and pressures are typically thought to have opposing effects on the reaction channels of nitramine decomposition. These high temperatures promote reactions with loose transition structures (positive activation entropies and volumes), such as N-N bond homolysis. Elevated pressures promote reactions with tight transition structures (negative activation entropies and volumes), such as intramolecular and intermolecular H transfer. However, no quantitative data exists regarding the range of temperatures and pressures at which these effects become pronounced. We are pursuing ab initio calculations of the corresponding unimolecular and bimolecular transition structures with the objective of estimating the relevant thermochemical parameters and quantifying the effects of elevated temperature and pressures on the corresponding rate constants. Here, we present density functional theory and complete active space calculations of gas-phase molecular dimers of nitramines as an intermediate step toward modeling transition structures directly in the condensed phase. This work was supported by the Naval Research Laboratory via the American Society for Engineering and Education and by the Office of Naval Research, both directly and through the Naval Research Laboratory.
Why ferroelectricity? synchrotron radiation and ab initio answers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Olivera
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Una pregunta hist´orica de la f´?sica del estado s´olido est´a encontrando respuesta en nuestros tiempos: la explicaci´on a nivel at´omico del origen de la ferroelectricidad. Las ideas tradicionales sobre fen´omenos ferroel´ectricos se relacionan con el ?ablandamiento? de los fonones en el origen de la zona de Brillouin y con funciones en forma de ?W? para la energ´?a libre de Landau. Las contribuciones experimentales (radiaci´on sincrotr´onica, neutrones y te´oricas (Cohen, Resta, Spaldin de la ´ultima d´ecada han esclarecido aspectos del comportamiento at´omico que conducen a la polarizaci´on espont´anea en estructuras perovskitas y asociadas. Se presenta el trabajo desarrollado por nuestro grupo interdisciplinario. Se obtienen fases ferroel´ectricas perovskitas y Aurivillius por diferentes m´etodos. Se investigan detalles finos de las estructuras cristalinas mediante radiaci´on sincrotr´onica en el Laboratorio de Radiaci´on Sincrotr´onica de Stanford. Las estructuras electr´onicas de las fases consideradas se caracterizan por m´etodos ab initio. Los experimentos de difracci´on en alta resoluci´on demuestran ruptura de simetr´?a en un n´umero de sistemas perovskita y Aurivillius. Se discute la relaci ´on estructura-simetr´?a- polarizaci´on. Se presenta una explicaci´on ab initio de la polarizaci´on ferroel´ectrica en perovskitas. La energ´?a del sistema se calcula mediante el c´odigo CASTEP bajo un funcional GGA. La optimizaci´on de la energ´?a conduce a la ruptura de simetr´?a c´ubica, con desplazamiento del cati´on Ti fuera del centro, v´?a una transformaci´on Jahn-Teller de segundo orden. La estructura electr´onica se investiga mediante el software BandLab, bajo un funcional LDA, con el m´etodo LMTO. La causa de la deformaci´on de la perovskita es la degeneraci´on de los orbitales Ti 3d z2 y Ti 3d (x2+y2.
Ab initio molecular crystal structures, spectra, and phase diagrams.
Hirata, So; Gilliard, Kandis; He, Xiao; Li, Jinjin; Sode, Olaseni
2014-09-16
Conspectus Molecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century. In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling illustrations of their unprecedented power in addressing some of the outstanding problems of solid-state chemistry, high-pressure chemistry, or geochemistry. They are the structure and spectra of ice Ih, in particular, the origin of two peaks in the hydrogen-bond-stretching region of its inelastic neutron scattering spectra, a solid-solid phase transition from CO2-I to elusive, metastable CO2-III, pressure tuning of Fermi resonance in solid CO2, and the structure and spectra of solid formic acid, all at the level of second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory or higher. PMID:24754304
Skutterudites under pressure: An ab initio study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ram, Swetarekha; Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Andhra Pradesh (India); Valsakumar, M. C. [School of Engineering Sciences and Technology (SEST), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Andhra Pradesh (India)
2014-03-07
Ab initio results on the band structure, density of states, and Fermi surface (FS) properties of LaRu{sub 4}X{sub 12} (X?=?P, As, Sb) are presented at ambient pressure as well as under compression. The analysis of density of states reveals the major contribution at the Fermi level to be mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. We have a complicated Fermi surface with both electron and hole characters for all the three compounds which is derived mainly from the Ru-d and X-p states. There is also a simpler FS with hole character derived from the P-p{sub z} orbital for LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12} and Ru-d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital in the case of As and Sb containing compounds. More interestingly, Fermi surface nesting feature is observed only in the case of the LaRu{sub 4}P{sub 12}. Under compression, we observe the topology of the complicated FS sheet of LaRu{sub 4}As{sub 12} to change around V/V{sub 0}?=?0.85, leading to a behaviour similar to that of a multiband superconductor, and in addition, we have two more hole pockets centered around ? at V/V{sub 0}?=?0.8 for the same compound. Apart from this, we find the hole pocket to vanish at V/V{sub 0}?=?0.8 in the case of LaRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} and the opening of the complicated FS sheet gets reduced. The de Haas van Alphen calculation shows the number of extremal orbits in the complicated sheet to change in As and Sb containing compounds under compression, where we also observe the FS topology to change.
THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS: FROM AB INITIO TO PHENOMENOLOGY
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turchi, P A
2004-09-24
Quantum mechanical-based (or ab initio) methods are used to predict the stability properties of materials although their application is limited to relatively simple systems in terms of structures and number of alloy components. However thermodynamics of complex multi-component alloys requires a more versatile approach afforded within the CALPHAD formalism. Despite its success, the lack of experimental data very often prevents the design of robust thermodynamic databases. After a brief survey of ab initio methodologies and CALPHAD, it will be shown how ab initio electronic structure methods can supplement in two ways CALPHAD for subsequent applications. The first one is rather immediate and concerns the direct input of ab initio energetics in CALPHAD databases. The other way, more involved, is the assessment of ab initio thermodynamics '{acute a} la CALPHAD'. It will be shown how these results can be used within CALPHAD to predict the equilibrium properties of multi-component alloys. Finally, comments will be made on challenges and future prospects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barrett, B R; Navratil, P; Vary, J P
2011-04-11
A long-standing goal of nuclear theory is to determine the properties of atomic nuclei based on the fundamental interactions among the protons and neutrons (i.e., nucleons). By adopting nucleon-nucleon (NN), three-nucleon (NNN) and higher-nucleon interactions determined from either meson-exchange theory or QCD, with couplings fixed by few-body systems, we preserve the predictive power of nuclear theory. This foundation enables tests of nature's fundamental symmetries and offers new vistas for the full range of complex nuclear phenomena. Basic questions that drive our quest for a microscopic predictive theory of nuclear phenomena include: (1) What controls nuclear saturation; (2) How the nuclear shell model emerges from the underlying theory; (3) What are the properties of nuclei with extreme neutron/proton ratios; (4) Can we predict useful cross sections that cannot be measured; (5) Can nuclei provide precision tests of the fundamental laws of nature; and (6) Under what conditions do we need QCD to describe nuclear structure, among others. Along with other ab initio nuclear theory groups, we have pursued these questions with meson-theoretical NN interactions, such as CD-Bonn and Argonne V18, that were tuned to provide high-quality descriptions of the NN scattering phase shifts and deuteron properties. We then add meson-theoretic NNN interactions such as the Tucson-Melbourne or Urbana IX interactions. More recently, we have adopted realistic NN and NNN interactions with ties to QCD. Chiral perturbation theory within effective field theory ({chi}EFT) provides us with a promising bridge between QCD and hadronic systems. In this approach one works consistently with systems of increasing nucleon number and makes use of the explicit and spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry to expand the strong interaction in terms of a dimensionless constant, the ratio of a generic small momentum divided by the chiral symmetry breaking scale taken to be about 1 GeV/c. The resulting NN and NNN interactions, characterized by the order of the expansion retained (e.g. 'next-to-next-to leading order' is NNLO), provide a high-quality fit to the NN data and the A = 3 ground-state (g.s.) properties. The derivations of NN, NNN, etc. interactions within meson-exchange and {chi}EFT are well-established but are not subjects of this review. Our focus is solution of the non-relativistic quantum many-body Hamiltonian that includes these interactions using our no core shell model (NCSM) formalism. In the next section we will briefly outline the NCSM formalism and then present applications, results and extensions in later sections.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benrekia, A.R., E-mail: benrekia.ahmed@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Medea (Algeria); Benkhettou, N. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Magnetiques, Faculte des Sciences, Universite Djillali Liabes de Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Nassour, A. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Resonance Magnetique et Modelisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036) Institut Jean Barriol, Nancy Universite BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Driz, M. [Applied Material Laboratory (AML), Electronics Department, University of Sidi bel Abbes (DZ 22000) (Algeria); Sahnoun, M. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique de la Matiere et Modelisations Mathematique (LPQ3M), Faculty of Science and Technology,University of Mascara (Algeria); Lebegue, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Resonance Magnetique et Modelisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036) Institut Jean Barriol, Nancy Universite BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)
2012-07-01
We present first-principles VASP calculations of the structural, electronic, vibrational, and optical properties of paraelectric SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3}. The ab initio calculations are performed in the framework of density functional theory with different exchange-correlation potentials. Our calculated lattice parameters, elastic constants, and vibrational frequencies are found to be in good agreement with the available experimental values. Then, the bandstructures are calculated with the GW approximation, and the corresponding band gap is used to obtain the optical properties of SrTiO{sub 3} and KTaO{sub 3}.
Use of ab initio quantum chemical methods in battery technology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deiss, E. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-06-01
Ab initio quantum chemistry can nowadays predict physical and chemical properties of molecules and solids. An attempt should be made to use this tool more widely for predicting technologically favourable materials. To demonstrate the use of ab initio quantum chemistry in battery technology, the theoretical energy density (energy per volume of active electrode material) and specific energy (energy per mass of active electrode material) of a rechargeable lithium-ion battery consisting of a graphite electrode and a nickel oxide electrode has been calculated with this method. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 7 refs.
P-V Relation for Mercuric Calcogenides: Ab Initio Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Misra
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Mercuric Calcogenides found many applications in electronic and optical devices as semiconducting materials. An equation of state provides useful information about the relationship between pressure (P, volume (V and temperature (T that helps to understand the behaviour of materials under the effect of high pressure and high temperature. The present paper sheds light on the electronic structure of Mercuric Calcogenides by simulating its electronic properties through ab initio method. This ab initio method is extended to derive the equation of state for Mercuric Calcogenides. The present equation of state has also been tested for the prediction of End Point. The computed results compare well with Quantum statistical data.
Cyanogen Azide. Ionization Potentials and Ab Initio SCF MO Calculation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bak, Börge; Jansen, Peter; Stafast, Herbert
1975-01-01
The Ne(I) and He(I) photoelectron(PE) spectra of cyanogen azide, NCN3, have been recorded at high resolution. Their interpretation is achieved by comparison with the PE spectrum of HN3 and an ab initio LCGO SCF MO calculation. Deviations from Koopmans' theorem of quite different magnitudes are found dependent on the type of ionisation process.
Transport phenomena in metallic nanostructures: an ab initio approach
Zahn, Peter
2005-01-01
Im Rahmen der vorliegenden Arbeit werden ab initio Berechnungen des Restwiderstandes von metallischen Nanostrukturen vorgestellt. Die elektronische Struktur der idealen Systeme wird mit Hilfe einer Screened KKR Greenschen Funktionsmethode im Rahmen der Vielfachstreutheorie auf der Grundlage der Dichtefunktionaltheorie berechnet. Die Potentiale von Punktdefekten werden selbstkonsistent mit Hilfe einer Dyson-Gleichung für die Greensche Funktion des gestörten Systems berechnet. Unter Nutzung der...
Motif based Hessian matrixfor ab initio geometry optimization ofnanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Zhengji; Wang, Lin-Wang; Meza, Juan
2006-04-05
A simple method to estimate the atomic degree Hessian matrixof a nanosystem is presented. The estimated Hessian matrix, based on themotif decomposition of the nanosystem, can be used to accelerate abinitio atomic relaxations with speedups of 2 to 4 depending on the sizeof the system. In addition, the programing implementation for using thismethod in a standard ab initio package is trivial.
Relating Ab Initio Mechanical Behavior of Intergranular Glassy Films in ?-Si3N4 to Continuum Scales
Ouyang, L.; Chen, J.; Ching, W.; Misra, A.
2006-05-01
Nanometer thin intergranular glassy films (IGFs) form in polycrystalline ceramics during sintering at high temperatures. The structure and properties of these IGFs are significantly changed by doping with rare earth elements. We have performed highly accurate large-scale ab initio calculations of the mechanical properties of both undoped and Yittria doped (Y-IGF) model by theoretical uniaxial tensile experiments. Uniaxial strain was applied by incrementally stretching the super cell in one direction, while the other two dimensions were kept constant. At each strain, all atoms in the model were fully relaxed using Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package VASP. The relaxed model at a given strain serves as the starting position for the next increment of strain. This process is carried on until the total energy (TE) and stress data show that the "sample" is fully fractured. Interesting differences are seen between the stress-strain response of undoped and Y-doped models. For the undoped model, the stress-strain behavior indicates that the initial atomic structure of the IGF is such that there is negligible coupling between the x- and the y-z directions. However, once the behavior becomes non- linear the lateral stresses increase, indicating that the atomic structure evolves with loading [1]. To relate the ab initio calculations to the continuum scales we analyze the atomic-scale deformation field under this uniaxial loading [1]. The applied strain in the x-direction is mostly accommodated by the IGF part of the model and the crystalline part experiences almost negligible strain. As the overall strain on the sample is incrementally increased, the local strain field evolves such that locations proximal to the softer spots attract higher strains. As the load progresses, the strain concentration spots coalesce and eventually form persistent strain localization zone across the IGF. The deformation pattern obtained through ab initio calculations indicates that it is possible to construct discrete grain-scale models that may be used to bridge these calculations to the continuum scale for finite element analysis. Reference: 1. J. Chen, L. Ouyang, P. Rulis, A. Misra, W. Y. Ching, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 256103 (2005)
Serine Proteases an Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study
De Santis, L
1999-01-01
In serine proteases (SP's), the H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, and that between Gly-193 and the transition state intermediate play a crucial role for enzymatic function. To shed light on the nature of these interactions, we have carried out ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on complexes representing adducts between the reaction intermediate and elastase (one protein belonging to the SP family). Our calculations indicate the presence of a low--barrier H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, in complete agreement with NMR experiments on enzyme--transition state analog complexes. Comparison with an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on a model of the substrate--enzyme adduct indicates that the Gly-193--induced strong stabilization of the intermediate is accomplished by charge/dipole interactions and not by H-bonding as previously suggested. Inclusion of the protein electric field in the calculations does not affect significantly the charge distribution.
Four-body forces in ab initio nuclear structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucleon-nucleon (NN) and three-nucleon (3N) interactions derived from chiral effective field theory, transformed using the similarity renormalization group (SRG), have been successful in the ab initio description of nuclear-structure. Previous investigations have shown strong indications for sizable effects originating by SRG-induced four-nucleon (4N) contributions. To obtain reliable results, the 4N contributions can either be suppressed or included in nuclear-structure calculations. We present an efficient scheme to take induced as well as initial 4N forces into account by performing the SRG transformation in four-body space and extending the importance-truncated no-core shell model (IT-NCSM) for their explicit inclusion. We investigate the effect of induced forces beyond the three-body level in ab initio nuclear-structure calculations and present results for p-shell nuclei up to 16O.
Multiple Time Step Integrators in Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics
Luehr, Nathan; Martinez, Todd J
2013-01-01
Multiple time-scale algorithms exploit the natural separation of time-scales in chemical systems to greatly accelerate the efficiency of molecular dynamics simulations. Although the utility of these methods in systems where the interactions are described by empirical potentials is now well established, their application to ab initio molecular dynamics calculations has been limited by difficulties associated with splitting the ab initio potential into fast and slowly varying components. Here we show that such a timescale separation is possible using two different schemes: one based on fragment decomposition and the other on range separation of the Coulomb operator in the electronic Hamiltonian. We demonstrate for both water clusters and a solvated hydroxide ion that multiple time-scale molecular dynamics allows for outer time steps of 2.5 fs, which are as large as those obtained when such schemes are applied to empirical potentials, while still allowing for bonds to be broken and reformed throughout the dynami...
Spin-orbit decomposition of ab initio wavefunctions
Johnson, Calvin W
2014-01-01
Although the modern shell-model picture of atomic nuclei is built from single-particle orbits with good total angular momentum $j$, leading to $j$-$j$ coupling, phenomenological models suggested decades ago that for $0p$-shell nuclides a simpler picture can be realized via coupling of total spin $S$ and total orbital angular momentum $L$. I revisit this idea with large-basis, no-core shell model (NCSM) calculations using modern \\textit{ab initio} two-body interactions, and dissect the resulting wavefunctions into their component $L$- and $S$-components. Remarkably, there is broad agreement with calculations using the phenomenological Cohen-Kurath forces, despite a gap of nearly fifty years and six orders of magnitude in basis dimensions. I suggest $L$-$S$ may be a useful tool for analyzing \\textit{ab initio} wavefunctions of light nuclei, for example in the case of rotational bands.
Spin caloritronics in magnetic tunnel junctions: Ab initio studies
Czerner, Michael; Bachmann, Michael; Heiliger, Christian
2011-01-01
This Letter presents ab initio calculations of the magneto-thermoelectric power (MTEP) and of the spin-Seebeck coefficient in MgO based tunnel junctions with Fe and Co leads. In addition, the normal thermopower is calculated and gives for pure Fe and Co an quantitative agreement with experiments. Consequently, the calculated values in tunnel junctions are a good estimation of upper limits. In particular, spin-Seebeck coefficients of more than 100 \\mu V/K are possible. The MT...
The study of molecular spectroscopy by ab initio methods
Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.
1991-01-01
This review illustrates the potential of theory for solving spectroscopic problems. The accuracy of approximate techniques for including electron correlation have been calibrated by comparison with full configuration-interaction calculations. Examples of the application of ab initio calculations to vibrational, rotational, and electronic spectroscopy are given. It is shown that the state-averaged, complete active space self-consistent field, multireference configuration-interaction procedure provides a good approach for treating several electronic states accurately in a common molecular orbital basis.
Ab initio electronic properties of dual phosphorus monolayers in silicon
Drumm, Daniel W.; Per, Manolo C.; Budi, Akin; Hollenberg, Lloyd CL; Russo, Salvy P.
2014-01-01
In the midst of the epitaxial circuitry revolution in silicon technology, we look ahead to the next paradigm shift: effective use of the third dimension - in particular, its combination with epitaxial technology. We perform ab initio calculations of atomically thin epitaxial bilayers in silicon, investigating the fundamental electronic properties of monolayer pairs. Quantitative band splittings and the electronic density are presented, along with effects of the layers’ relative alignment and ...
Clustering in nuclei from ab initio nuclear lattice simulations
Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-01-01
Nuclear Lattice Effective Field Theory is a new many-body approach that is firmly rooted in the symmetries of QCD. In particular, it allows for truly ab initio calculations of nuclear structure and reactions. In this talk, I focus on the emergence of alpha-clustering in nuclei based on this approach. I also discuss various recent achievements, the deficiencies of the chiral forces used at present and the prospects to improve upon these and the calculations of nuclear properties and dynamics.
Ab initio calculations of mechanical properties: Methods and applications.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pokluda, J.; ?erný, Miroslav; Šob, Mojmír; Umeno, Y.
2015-01-01
Ro?. 73, AUG (2015), s. 127-158. ISSN 0079-6425 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068; GA ?R GAP108/12/0144; GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/12/0311 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Ab initio methods * Elastic moduli * Intrinsic hardness * Stability analysis * Theoretical strength * Intrinsic brittleness/ductility Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 27.417, year: 2014
Ab-initio calculations for dilute magnetic semiconductors
Belhadji, Brahim
2009-01-01
Der Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit sind ab-initio Rechnungen zu der elektronischen Struktur und den magnetischen Eigenschaften von verdünnten magnetischen Halbleitern (DMS). Ein besonderes Ziel ist es, die komplexen Austausch-Wechselwirkungen, die in diesen Systemen auftreten, zu verstehen. Unsere Rechnungen basieren auf der Dichte-Funktional-Theorie, die sehr gut für die Beschreibung der material-spezifischen Eigenschaften von DMS geeignet ist. Wir verwenden die Koringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green...
TiC lattice dynamics from ab initio calculations
Jochym, Pawe? T; Sternik, Ma?gorzata; Parlinski, Krzysztof
2013-01-01
Ab initio calculations and a direct method have been applied to derive the phonon dispersion curves and phonon density of states for the TiC crystal. The results are compared and found to be in a good agreement with the experimental neutron scattering data. The force constants have been determined from the Hellmann-Feynman forces induced by atomic displacements in the 2x2x2 supercell. The calculated phonon density of states suggests that vibrations of Ti atoms form acoustic ...
DNA base trimers: empirical and quantum chemical ab initio calculations.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kabelá?, Martin; Sherer, E. C.; Cramer, Ch. J.; Hobza, Pavel
2007-01-01
Ro?. 13, ?. 7 (2007), s. 2067-2077. ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ?R GA203/05/0009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ab initio calculations * nucleic acid bases trimer * empirical force field * Amber * potential energy surface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.330, year: 2007
Ab initio and kinetic modeling studies of formic acid oxidation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marshall, Paul; Glarborg, Peter
2015-01-01
A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of formic acid (HOCHO) in flames has been developed, based on theoretical work and data from literature. Ab initio calculations were used to obtain rate coefficients for reactions of HOCHO with H, O, and HO2. Modeling predictions with the mechanism have been compared to the experimental results of de Wilde and van Tiggelen (1968) who measured the laminar burning velocities for HOCHO flames over a range of stoichiometries and dilution ratios. The mo...
Quantifying transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions: Ab initio calculations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jingzhe; Markussen, Troels; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2010-01-01
Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) has recently been introduced as a spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions where it offers the possibility to probe molecular level energies at relatively low bias voltages. In this work we perform extensive ab initio calculations of the nonlinear current-voltage relations for a broad class of single-molecule transport junctions in order to assess the applicability and limitations of TVS. We find, that in order to fully utilize TVS as a quantitative spectr...
Ab initio calculations and modelling of atomic cluster structure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Solov'yov, Ilia; Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter
2004-01-01
The optimized structure and electronic properties of small sodium and magnesium clusters have been investigated using it ab initio theoretical methods based on density-functional theory and post-Hartree-Fock many-body perturbation theory accounting for all electrons in the system. A new theoretical framework for modelling the fusion process of noble gas clusters is presented. We report the striking correspondence of the peaks in the experimentally measured abundance mass spectra with the peaks i...
Ab initio study of alanine polypeptide chain twisting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter
2006-01-01
We have investigated the potential energy surfaces for alanine chains consisting of three and six amino acids. For these molecules we have calculated potential energy surfaces as a function of the Ramachandran angles ph$ and psi, which are widely used for the characterization of the polypeptide chains. These particular degrees of freedom are essential for the characterization of the proteins folding process. Calculations have been carried out within the ab initio theoretical framework based on t...
Ab Initio study of neutron drops with chiral Hamiltonians
Potter, H. D.; Fischer, S.; Maris, P.; vary, J. P.; Binder, S.; Calci, A.; Langhammer, J.; Roth, R.
2014-01-01
We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd-even energy differences for neutron numbers N = 2 - 18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N = 8, 16, 20, 28, 40, 50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Comparison...
Ab initio theory of temperature dependent magneto-resistivities
Buruzs, Adam; Szunyogh, László; Weinberger, Peter
2008-01-01
Abstract We present the first ab initio type descriptions of the temperature dependence of the magnetic part of the electrical conductivity. We implemented the disordered local moment (DLM) scheme into Kubo's linear response formalism using the screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) approach. In order to test the proposed scheme, we calculated the magnetic resistivity of bulk Fe and Co. The results seem to give a qualitatively correct temperature dependence of the ...
Ab initio approach for atomic relaxations in supported magnetic clusters
Stepanyuk, V.S.; Klavsyuk, A. L.; Niebergall, L.; Saletsky, A. M.; Hergert, W.; Bruno, P.
2004-01-01
We present a newly developed scheme for atomic relaxations of magnetic supported clusters. Our approach is based on the full potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method and the second moment tight-binding approximation for many-body potentials. We demonstrate that only a few iterations in ab initio calculations are necessary to find an equilibrium structure of supported clusters. As an example, we present our results for small Co clusters on Cu(001). Changes in ...
Ab initio investigation of RKKY interactions on metallic surfaces
Simon, Eszter; Lazarovits, Bence; Szunyogh, László; Ujfalussy, Balazs
2008-01-01
Abstract We present ab initio results concerning the RKKY interaction between two Co atoms placed on Cu, Au and Ag surfaces putting the main emphases on its dependence on the supporting material. Calculations based on the screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) framework combined with the embedding technique are presented for FCC (100) and (110) surfaces. A test for the convergence properties with respect to the Brillouin zone integration is also shown in a selec...
Local Structure Analysis in $Ab$ $Initio$ Liquid Water
Santra, Biswajit; Robert A DiStasio Jr; Martelli, Fausto; Car, Roberto
2015-01-01
Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyze the local structure in such highly accurate $ab$ $initio$ liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P($I$...
Ab initio studies of electromechanical effects in carbon nanotubes
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
M. Verissimo, Alves; R.B., Capaz; Belita, Koiller; Emilio, Artacho; H., Chacham.
2002-06-01
Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes have recently attracted interest for their possible applications as nanoactuators and nanoswitches, as well as possible building blocks for nanoelectronics. We present ab initio calculations for uniformly charged graphene and (11,0),(9,0) and (5,5) carbon nanotubes. We also consider [...] the effects of polaron formation in these systems. The strain-charge coeÆcient is calculated and compared for both graphene and the nanotubes under study.
Ab initio calculations of reactions with light nuclei
Quaglioni, S; Calci, A; Navratil, P; Roth, R
2015-01-01
An {\\em ab initio} (i.e., from first principles) theoretical framework capable of providing a unified description of the structure and low-energy reaction properties of light nuclei is desirable to further our understanding of the fundamental interactions among nucleons, and provide accurate predictions of crucial reaction rates for nuclear astrophysics, fusion-energy research, and other applications. In this contribution we review {\\em ab initio} calculations for nucleon and deuterium scattering on light nuclei starting from chiral two- and three-body Hamiltonians, obtained within the framework of the {\\em ab initio} no-core shell model with continuum. This is a unified approach to nuclear bound and scattering states, in which square-integrable energy eigenstates of the $A$-nucleon system are coupled to $(A-a)+a$ target-plus-projectile wave functions in the spirit of the resonating group method to obtain an efficient description of the many-body nuclear dynamics both at short and medium distances and at long...
Ab initio nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several ab initio methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The ab initio no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds 1010 and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving this large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem. We also outline the challenges that lie ahead for achieving further breakthroughs in fundamental nuclear theory using these ab initio approaches.
Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Draayer, Jerry P. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)
2014-09-28
We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).
Ab Initio Nuclear Structure and Reaction Calculations for Rare Isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have developed a novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which has opened the intermediate-mass region for ab initio investigations, thereby providing an opportunity for first-principle symmetry-guided applications to nuclear structure and reactions for nuclear isotopes from the lightest p-shell systems to intermediate-mass nuclei. This includes short-lived proton-rich nuclei on the path of X-ray burst nucleosynthesis and rare neutron-rich isotopes to be produced by the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). We have provided ab initio descriptions of high accuracy for low-lying (including collectivity-driven) states of isotopes of Li, He, Be, C, O, Ne, Mg, Al, and Si, and studied related strong- and weak-interaction driven reactions that are important, in astrophysics, for further understanding stellar evolution, X-ray bursts and triggering of s, p, and rp processes, and in applied physics, for electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering experiments as well as for fusion ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics.
Makhov, Dmitry V; Glover, William J; Martinez, Todd J; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V
2014-08-01
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions. PMID:25106573
Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions
Accelerating VASP electronic structure calculations using graphic processing units.
Hacene, Mohamed; Anciaux-Sedrakian, Ani; Rozanska, Xavier; Klahr, Diego; Guignon, Thomas; Fleurat-Lessard, Paul
2012-12-15
We present a way to improve the performance of the electronic structure Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP) program. We show that high-performance computers equipped with graphics processing units (GPUs) as accelerators may reduce drastically the computation time when offloading these sections to the graphic chips. The procedure consists of (i) profiling the performance of the code to isolate the time-consuming parts, (ii) rewriting these so that the algorithms become better-suited for the chosen graphic accelerator, and (iii) optimizing memory traffic between the host computer and the GPU accelerator. We chose to accelerate VASP with NVIDIA GPU using CUDA. We compare the GPU and original versions of VASP by evaluating the Davidson and RMM-DIIS algorithms on chemical systems of up to 1100 atoms. In these tests, the total time is reduced by a factor between 3 and 8 when running on n (CPU core + GPU) compared to n CPU cores only, without any accuracy loss. PMID:22903247
Ab-initio modelling of transport in atomic scale devices
Taylor, Jeremy P.
In this thesis, we develop a novel ab-initio technique to study transport in atomic scale devices based on a self-consistent solution of the Kohn-Sham equations for open systems in and out of equilibrium. Starting from the central motivating theorems of density functional theory, we introduce the basis of the ab-initio technique as currently practiced in condensed matter physics. The Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is solved numerically by employing a Fireball atomic orbital basis set to transform the problem into matrix form. In order to study open systems, a natural screening approximation is introduced and it is demonstrated that, for the systems studied in this work, the Kohn-Sham potential is effectively screened and the screening approximation is appropriate for the study of atomic scale devices. The method developed in this thesis is contrasted with previous studies of transport in atomic scale devices and it is argued that it presents a significant advance and makes it possible to solve problems which could not previously be studied. A few representative studies were undertaken in order to illustrate the advantage of using a self-consistent ab-initio method to study quantum transport in open systems. Several short carbon chains were coupled to Al electrodes and it was found that charge transfer plays a role in aligning the Fermi level with standing wave resonance peaks inside the atomic chain. Our study of a C60 molecular junction predicts a substantial equilibrium conductance due to charge transfer doping of three extra electrons inside the C60. Furthermore, these extra electrons may be depleted by an external gate voltage, reducing the conductance and thus producing a field-effect molecular switch. Transport and charge transfer were studied in a number of nanotube devices. Preliminary results are in agreement with recent experimental and theoretical results.
Ab initio prediction of the mechanical properties of alloys
Wang, Guisheng
2015-01-01
At the time of the 50th anniversary of the Kohn-Sham method, ab initio calculations based on density functional theory have formed an accurate, efficient, and reliable method to work on the properties of engineering materials. In this thesis, we use the exact muffin-tin orbitals method combined with the coherent-potential approximation to study the mechanical properties of high-technology materials. The thesis includes two parts: a study of long-range chemical order effects and a study of all...
Ab initio electronic properties of dual phosphorus monolayers in silicon.
Drumm, Daniel W; Per, Manolo C; Budi, Akin; Hollenberg, Lloyd Cl; Russo, Salvy P
2014-01-01
IN THE MIDST OF THE EPITAXIAL CIRCUITRY REVOLUTION IN SILICON TECHNOLOGY, WE LOOK AHEAD TO THE NEXT PARADIGM SHIFT: effective use of the third dimension - in particular, its combination with epitaxial technology. We perform ab initio calculations of atomically thin epitaxial bilayers in silicon, investigating the fundamental electronic properties of monolayer pairs. Quantitative band splittings and the electronic density are presented, along with effects of the layers' relative alignment and comments on disordered systems, and for the first time, the effective electronic widths of such device components are calculated. PMID:25246862
Hydrogen Desorption from Mg Hydride: An Ab Initio Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simone Giusepponi
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen desorption from hydride matrix is still an open field of research. By means of accurate first-principle molecular dynamics (MD simulations an Mg–MgH2 interface is selected, studied and characterized. Electronic structure calculations are used to determine the equilibrium properties and the behavior of the surfaces in terms of structural deformations and total energy considerations. Furthermore, extensive ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed at several temperatures to characterize the desorption process at the interface. The numerical model successfully reproduces the experimental desorption temperature for the hydride.
Ozone adsorption on graphene: ab initio study and experimental validation
Lee, Geunsik; Lee, Bongki; Kim, Jiyoung; Cho, Kyeongjae
2009-01-01
We have investigated ozone adsorption on graphene using the ab initio density functional theory method. Ozone molecules adsorb on graphene basal plane with binding energy of 0.25 eV, and the physisorbed molecule can chemically react with graphene to form an epoxide group and an oxygen molecule. The activation energy barrier from physisorption to chemisorption is 0.72 eV, and the chemisorbed state has the binding energy of 0.33 eV. These binding energies and energy barrier in...
Ab Initio Interactive Molecular Dynamics on Graphical Processing Units (GPUs).
Luehr, Nathan; Jin, Alex G B; Martínez, Todd J
2015-10-13
A virtual molecular modeling kit is developed based on GPU-enabled interactive ab initio molecular dynamics (MD). The code uses the TeraChem and VMD programs with a modified IMD interface. Optimization of the GPU accelerated TeraChem program specifically for small molecular systems is discussed, and a robust multiple time step integrator is employed to accurately integrate strong user-supplied pulling forces. Smooth and responsive visualization techniques are developed to allow interactive manipulation at minimum simulation rates below five MD steps per second. Representative calculations at the Hartree-Fock level of theory are demonstrated for molecular systems containing up to a few dozen atoms. PMID:26574246
Ab initio study of neutron drops with chiral Hamiltonians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.D. Potter
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon–nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd–even energy differences for neutron numbers N=2–18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N=8,16,20,28,40,50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Comparisons with quantum Monte Carlo results, where available, using Argonne v8? with three-nucleon interactions reveal important dependences on the chosen Hamiltonian.
Ab initio study of phase equilibria in TiCx
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korzhavyi, P.A.; Pourovskii, L.V.; Hugosson, H.W.; Ruban, Andrei; Johansson, B.
2002-01-01
The phase diagram for the vacancy-ordered structures in the substoichiometric TiCx (x = 0.5-1.0) has been established from Monte Carlo simulations with the long-range pair and multisite effective interactions obtained from ab initio calculations. Three ordered superstructures of vacancies (Ti2C, Ti3C2, and Ti6C5) are found to be ground state configurations. Their stability has been verified by full-potential total energy calculations of the fully relaxed structures.
Ab Initio study of neutron drops with chiral Hamiltonians
Potter, H D; Maris, P; Vary, J P; Binder, S; Calci, A; Langhammer, J; Roth, R
2014-01-01
We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd-even energy differences for neutron numbers N = 2 - 18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N = 8, 16, 20, 28, 40, 50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Comparisons with Green's Function Monte Carlo results, where available, using Argonne v8' with three-nucleon interactions reveal important dependences on the chosen Hamiltonian.
Symmetry-Adapted Ab Initio Open Core Shell Model Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By using only a fraction of the model space, we gain further insight – within a symmetry-guided no-core shell model framework – into the many-body nuclear dynamics that gives rise to important single-particle configurations together with correlated highly-deformed and alpha-cluster structures. We show results of the novel ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model for large-scale nuclear structure computations. In addition, we use the symmetry patterns unveiled in these results to explore ultra-large model spaces.
Ab initio approach for atomic relaxations in supported magnetic clusters
Stepanyuk, V S; Niebergall, L; Saletsky, A M; Saletsky, A M; Bruno, P
2004-01-01
We present a newly developed scheme for atomic relaxations of magnetic supported clusters. Our approach is based on the full potential Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method and the second moment tight-binding approximation for many-body potentials. We demonstrate that only a few iterations in ab initio calculations are necessary to find an equilibrium structure of supported clusters. As an example, we present our results for small Co clusters on Cu(001). Changes in electronic and magnetic states of clusters due to atomic relaxations are revealed.
Ab-initio study of transition metal hydrides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Ramesh [Dept. of Physics, Feroze Gandhi Insititute of Engineering and Technology, Raebareli-229001 (India); Shukla, Seema, E-mail: sharma.yamini62@gmail.com; Dwivedi, Shalini, E-mail: sharma.yamini62@gmail.com; Sharma, Yamini, E-mail: sharma.yamini62@gmail.com [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics Laboratory, Dept. of Physics Feroze Gandhi College, Raebareli-229001 (India)
2014-04-24
We have performed ab initio self consistent calculations based on Full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method to investigate the optical and thermal properties of yttrium hydrides. From the band structure and density of states, the optical absorption spectra and specific heats have been calculated. The band structure of Yttrium metal changes dramatically due to hybridization of Y sp orbitals with H s orbitals and there is a net charge transfer from metal to hydrogen site. The electrical resistivity and specific heats of yttrium hydrides are lowered but the thermal conductivity is slightly enhanced due to increase in scattering from hydrogen sites.
Ab initio structure determination via powder X-ray diffraction
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Digamber G Porob; T N Guru Row
2001-10-01
Structure determination by powder X-ray diffraction data has gone through a recent surge since it has become important to get to the structural information of materials which do not yield good quality single crystals. Although the method of structure completion when once the starting model is provided is facile through the Rietveld refinement technique, the structure solution $ab$ initio os still not push-button technology. In this article a survey of the recent development in this area is provided with an illustration of the structure determination of -NaBi3V2O10.
Thermochemical study of uranium by Ab initio quantum chemical calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio Hartree Fock (HF) theory and Density Functional theory (DFT) have been used to predict the Gibbs free energy of formation (?Gf0) for uranium (VI) hydrolysis complexes. The calculations were performed in the presence of solvent (water) by using the continuum dielectric solvation modeling PCM method as well as the revised Born model. The pressure parameter p=1354 atm was used to reproduce the entropy of ions in solution. The calculated energy shows that PCM model is better than Born model in calculating the hydration energy. The primary hydration shell has been included in the calculation and it has improved the calculated energy
TiAl doping by vanadium: ab initio study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tetragonality degree in TiAl and vanadium doping effect on it were studied using the methods of calculation based on approximation of coherent potential and ab initio pseudopotentials. It is shown that vanadium substitution for Ti sublattice atoms entails increase in tetragonality degree but with substitution of the atoms in aluminium sublattice the tetragonality of the TiAl:V alloy decreases and at the content of vanadium about 8 at. % the lattice becomes actually cubical. In its turn, it may result in increase in TiAl ductility, the alloy being brittle at low temperatures
Ab Initio NMR Chemical Shift Calculations Using Fragment Molecular Orbitals
Yokojima, Satoshi; Gao, Qi; Nakamura, Shinichiro
2009-03-01
The recently proposed method to calculate NMR chemical shift of large biomolecular systems using fragment molecular orbitals (FMO) is evaluated in comparison with the conventional ab initio results using a ?-sheet (32 residues). The errors in isotropic shielding constants are slightly larger than the previous errors. [Q. Gao, S. Yokojima, T. Kohno, T. Ishida, D. G. Fedorov, K. Kitaura, M. Fujihira, and S. Nakamura, Chem. Phys. Lett. 445, 331-339 (2007).] The increase of the errors in anisotropic shielding constants of 15N is attributed to the neglect of the shielding of the neighboring hydrogen bonded residue, which suggests the crucial importance of hydrogen bonds in biomolecular systems.
Ab initio study of hydrogen on beryllium surfaces
Bachurin, D. V.; Vladimirov, P. V.
2015-11-01
Static ab initio calculations were performed for five principal hexagonal close-packed beryllium surfaces: basal, prismatic (type I and II) and pyramidal (type I and II). The basal plane was found to be the most energetically favorable, while the energies of the prismatic (type I) and pyramidal (type I) planes were slightly higher followed by the type II planes. Beryllium is known to show extreme interlayer distance relaxation near the surface. Up to five outermost atomic layers were involved in surface relaxation. The presence of hydrogen on the beryllium surfaces led to a noticeable reduction of the surface energy.
Ab initio dynamics of the cytochrome P450 hydroxylation reaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elenewski, Justin E.; Hackett, John C, E-mail: jchackett@vcu.edu [Department of Physiology and Biophysics and The Massey Cancer Center, School of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, 401 College Street, Richmond, Virginia 23219-1540 (United States)
2015-02-14
The iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin ?-cation radical known as Compound I is the primary oxidant within the cytochromes P450, allowing these enzymes to affect the substrate hydroxylation. In the course of this reaction, a hydrogen atom is abstracted from the substrate to generate hydroxyiron(IV) porphyrin and a substrate-centered radical. The hydroxy radical then rebounds from the iron to the substrate, yielding the hydroxylated product. While Compound I has succumbed to theoretical and spectroscopic characterization, the associated hydroxyiron species is elusive as a consequence of its very short lifetime, for which there are no quantitative estimates. To ascertain the physical mechanism underlying substrate hydroxylation and probe this timescale, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations are performed for a model of Compound I catalysis. Semiclassical estimates based on these calculations reveal the hydrogen atom abstraction step to be extremely fast, kinetically comparable to enzymes such as carbonic anhydrase. Using an ensemble of ab initio simulations, the resultant hydroxyiron species is found to have a similarly short lifetime, ranging between 300 fs and 3600 fs, putatively depending on the enzyme active site architecture. The addition of tunneling corrections to these rates suggests a strong contribution from nuclear quantum effects, which should accelerate every step of substrate hydroxylation by an order of magnitude. These observations have strong implications for the detection of individual hydroxylation intermediates during P450 catalysis.
Ab initio description of p-shell hypernuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tremendous progress is being made on the experimental study of hypernuclei, especially on the spectroscopy of p-shell hypernuclei. Their theoretical description, however, is limited to phenomenological models or to very light (i.e. s-shell) systems. We present ab initio calculations of p-shell hypernuclei using chiral Hamiltonians including leading-order (LO) hyperon-nucleon as well as two- and three-nucleon interactions at N3LO and N2LO, respectively. To improve convergence with respect to model space size, the Hamiltonians are evolved using a Similarity Renormalization Group (SRG) transformation. The many-body calculations are carried out in the framework of the importance-truncated no-core shell model. We present the first ab initio results for the spectroscopy of ?7Li, ?9Be and ?13C obtained using chiral and phenomenological hyperon-nucleon interactions. We also discuss the role of SRG-induced hyperon-nucleon-nucleon (YNN) terms which hint at the impact of chiral YNN interactions.
Quantum Fragment Based ab Initio Molecular Dynamics for Proteins.
Liu, Jinfeng; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Xianwei; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H
2015-12-01
Developing ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods for practical application in protein dynamics is of significant interest. Due to the large size of biomolecules, applying standard quantum chemical methods to compute energies for dynamic simulation is computationally prohibitive. In this work, a fragment based ab initio molecular dynamics approach is presented for practical application in protein dynamics study. In this approach, the energy and forces of the protein are calculated by a recently developed electrostatically embedded generalized molecular fractionation with conjugate caps (EE-GMFCC) method. For simulation in explicit solvent, mechanical embedding is introduced to treat protein interaction with explicit water molecules. This AIMD approach has been applied to MD simulations of a small benchmark protein Trpcage (with 20 residues and 304 atoms) in both the gas phase and in solution. Comparison to the simulation result using the AMBER force field shows that the AIMD gives a more stable protein structure in the simulation, indicating that quantum chemical energy is more reliable. Importantly, the present fragment-based AIMD simulation captures quantum effects including electrostatic polarization and charge transfer that are missing in standard classical MD simulations. The current approach is linear-scaling, trivially parallel, and applicable to performing the AIMD simulation of proteins with a large size. PMID:26642993
Ab Initio Thermodynamic Model for Magnesium Carbonates and Hydrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaka, Anne M.; Felmy, Andrew R.
2014-03-28
An ab initio thermodynamic framework for predicting properties of hydrated magnesium carbonate minerals has been developed using density-functional theory linked to macroscopic thermodynamics through the experimental chemical potentials for MgO, water, and CO2. Including semiempirical dispersion via the Grimme method and small corrections to the generalized gradient approximation of Perdew, Burke, and Ernzerhof for the heat of formation yields a model with quantitative agreement for the benchmark minerals brucite, magnesite, nesquehonite, and hydromagnesite. The model shows how small differences in experimental conditions determine whether nesquehonite, hydromagnesite, or magnesite is the result of laboratory synthesis from carbonation of brucite, and what transformations are expected to occur on geological time scales. Because of the reliance on parameter-free first principles methods, the model is reliably extensible to experimental conditions not readily accessible to experiment and to any mineral composition for which the structure is known or can be hypothesized, including structures containing defects, substitutions, or transitional structures during solid state transformations induced by temperature changes or processes such as water, CO2, or O2 diffusion. Demonstrated applications of the ab initio thermodynamic framework include an independent means to evaluate differences in thermodynamic data for lansfordite, predicting the properties of Mg analogs of Ca-based hydrated carbonates monohydrocalcite and ikaite which have not been observed in nature, and an estimation of the thermodynamics of barringtonite from the stoichiometry and a single experimental observation.
NestedMICA as an ab initio protein motif discovery tool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Down Thomas A
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovering overrepresented patterns in amino acid sequences is an important step in protein functional element identification. We adapted and extended NestedMICA, an ab initio motif finder originally developed for finding transcription binding site motifs, to find short protein signals, and compared its performance with another popular protein motif finder, MEME. NestedMICA, an open source protein motif discovery tool written in Java, is driven by a Monte Carlo technique called Nested Sampling. It uses multi-class sequence background models to represent different "uninteresting" parts of sequences that do not contain motifs of interest. In order to assess NestedMICA as a protein motif finder, we have tested it on synthetic datasets produced by spiking instances of known motifs into a randomly selected set of protein sequences. NestedMICA was also tested using a biologically-authentic test set, where we evaluated its performance with respect to varying sequence length. Results Generally NestedMICA recovered most of the short (3–9 amino acid long test protein motifs spiked into a test set of sequences at different frequencies. We showed that it can be used to find multiple motifs at the same time, too. In all the assessment experiments we carried out, its overall motif discovery performance was better than that of MEME. Conclusion NestedMICA proved itself to be a robust and sensitive ab initio protein motif finder, even for relatively short motifs that exist in only a small fraction of sequences. Availability NestedMICA is available under the Lesser GPL open-source license from: http://www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/analysis/nmica/
Ab initio and semiempirical studies of molecules adsorbed on surfaces
Yang, Shizhong
By the use of semiempirical method SAM1 and ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) with gaussian basis sets, the following systems: HCOO-/Cu(110), H3CCOO-/Cu(110), CO/Cu(110) and O/diamond(100) have been studied. Ab initio DFT method with plane wave basis set has been used in studying the following systems: CH4/graphite(0001), commensurate Ag(111) - ( 7x7 )R19.1° - 4Ar monolayer and CO/Au/TiO3/Mo(112). The preferred adsorption sites, molecular structure, infrared spectra, and energies relative to stable gas phase molecules for carbon monoxide, the formate ion, and the a cetate ion when adsorbed on the (110) face of copper were calculated. The semiempirical calculations compare well with those from ab initio, density functional theory, and with experiments. A method of estimating the adsorption energy is offered. Quantum chemical SAM I calculations for coupled oscillations examining CO adsorbed on Cu(110) and atomic oxygen on the (100) diamond face have been performed. For CO, the calculations show coupling consistent with a dynamic dipole-dipole interaction. In the case of the adsorbed oxygen atoms, the dominant coupling seems to be mechanical. In CH4/graphite(0001), the CH4 molecules favored atop sites on the graphite surface with the hydrogen tripod down. The methane carbon was found 3.21 A above the graphite carbon and the adsorption energy to be 118 meV for the lower coverage. The independent harmonic oscillator vibrational frequency perpendicular to the surface for the CH4 molecule was computed to be 87 cm-1. The commensurate Ag(111) - ( 7x7 )R19.1° - 4Ar monolayer results show that both the hcp and fcc hollow sites are possible sites and slightly more stable than an atop site, with the total energy 1.5 meV and 4.5 meV lower than atop site per four Ar atoms respectively. The surface structure of (1x3) Au/TiO3/Mo(112) forms a zigzag surface profile. Three kinds of Au charge states were found in the (1x3) structure: Au0, Audelta+ and Au delta-. A red shifted CO vibrational frequency was proposed for experimental verification. The DOS of CO/(Audelta+/Au 0 bridge) shows a continuous 2 pi* band extension to 1 pi band.
Structural phase transformations via ab initio molecular dynamics
Focher, P; Bernasconi, M; Tosatti, E; Parrinello, M
1993-01-01
Available simulation methods, suitable to describe solid-solid phase transitions occurring upon increasing of presssure and/or temperature, are based on empirical interatomic potentials: this restriction reduces the predictive power, and thus the general usefulness of numeric simulations in this very relevant field. We present a new simulation scheme which allows, for the first time, the simulation of these phenomena with the correct quantum-mechanical description of interatomic forces and internal stress, along with the correct statistical mechanics of ionic degrees of freedom. The method is obtained by efficiently combining the Car-Parrinello method for ab- initio molecular dynamics with the Parrinello Rahman method to account for a variable cell shape. Within this scheme phase transformations may spontaneously take place during the simulation with variation of external pressure and/or temperature. The validity of the method is demonstrated by simulating the metal-insulator transition in Silicon (from diamo...
Ab-initio study of diluted magnetic semiconductors.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Máca, František; Turek, Ilja; Bouzerar, G.; Bruno, P.
New York : Springer Science+ Business Media , Inc, 2005 - (Turchi, P.; Gonis, A.; Rajan, K.; Meike, A.), s. 277-293 ISBN 0-387-24811-0. [Third International Alloy Conference. Estoril Sol (PT), 30.06.2002-05.07.2002] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA202/00/0122; GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA1010203; GA AV ?R IAA1010214; GA MŠk(CZ) OC P5.30 Grant ostatní: RTN(XE) HPRN-CT-2000-00143 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : ab-initio * diluted magnetic semiconductors * Curie temperatures * III-V semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Ab Initio electronic properties of monolayer phosphorus nanowires in silicon.
Drumm, D W; Smith, J S; Per, M C; Budi, A; Hollenberg, L C L; Russo, S P
2013-03-22
Epitaxial circuitry offers a revolution in silicon technology, with components that can be fabricated on atomic scales. We perform the first ab initio calculation of atomically thin epitaxial nanowires in silicon, investigating the fundamental electronic properties of wires two P atoms thick, similar to those produced this year by Weber et al. For the first time, we catch a glimpse of disorder-related effects in the wires--a prerequisite for understanding real fabricated systems. Interwire interactions are made negligible by including 40 ML of silicon in the vertical direction (and the equivalent horizontally). Accurate pictures of band splittings and the electronic density are presented, and for the first time the effective masses of electrons in such device components are calculated. PMID:25166832
Ab initio structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes
Sánchez-Portál, D; Soler, J M; Rubio, A; Ordejón, P
1999-01-01
A study based on ab initio calculations is presented on the estructural, elastic, and vibrational properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes with different radii and chiralities. We use SIESTA, an implementation of pseudopotential-density-functional theory which allows calculations on systems with a large number of atoms per cell. Different quantities like bond distances, Young moduli, Poisson ratio and the frequencies of different phonon branches are monitored versus tube radius. The validity of expectations based on graphite is explored down to small radii, where some deviations appear related to the curvature effects. For the phonon spectra, the results are compared with the predictions of the simple zone-folding approximation. Except for the known defficiencies of this approximation in the low-frequency vibrational regions, it offers quite accurate results, even for relatively small radii.
Ab initio relativistic calculations on heavy elements and their molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Methods of ab initio electronic structure theory have been used in conjunction with effective core potentials, derived from all-electron numerical solutions of the atomic Dirac-Fock equations, in calculations of a wide variety of properties of atomic and molecular systems containing heavy elements. The presentation includes discussions of such phenomena as intermediate angular momentum coupling, relativistic effects on orbital sizes, the subtle interplay between electron correlation and spin-orbit coupling, and changes in molecular geometries attributable to relativity. This first-principles approach is used for obtaining both qualitative and quantitative information as shown in a number of specific studies. Included are calculations of electronic spectra and properties of U, Np, Pu and selected transplutoniuum elements, bonding and spectra of molecules containing the elements Pt-Rn, and halogen group spin-orbit splitting
Ab initio study of alanine polypeptide chains twisting
Solovyov, I A; Solovyov, A V; Yakubovitch, A V; Greiner, Walter; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Yakubovitch, Alexander V.
2005-01-01
We have investigated the potential energy surfaces for alanine chains consisting of three and six amino acids. For these molecules we have calculated potential energy surfaces as a function of the Ramachandran angles Phi and Psi, which are widely used for the characterization of the polypeptide chains. These particular degrees of freedom are essential for the characterization of proteins folding process. Calculations have been carried out within ab initio theoretical framework based on the density functional theory and accounting for all the electrons in the system. We have determined stable conformations and calculated the energy barriers for transitions between them. Using a thermodynamic approach, we have estimated the times of characteristic transitions between these conformations. The results of our calculations have been compared with those obtained by other theoretical methods and with the available experimental data extracted from the Protein Data Base. This comparison demonstrates a reasonable corres...
Isofulminic acid, HONC: Ab initio theory and microwave spectroscopy.
Mladenovi?, Mirjana; Lewerenz, Marius; McCarthy, Michael C; Thaddeus, Patrick
2009-11-01
Isofulminic acid, HONC, the most energetic stable isomer of isocyanic acid HNCO, higher in energy by 84 kcal/mol, has been detected spectroscopically by rotational spectroscopy supported by coupled cluster electronic structure calculations. The fundamental rotational transitions of the normal, carbon-13, oxygen-18, and deuterium isotopic species have been detected in the centimeter band in a molecular beam by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, and rotational constants and nitrogen and deuterium quadrupole coupling constants have been derived. The measured constants agree well with those predicted by ab initio calculations. A number of other electronic and spectroscopic parameters of isofulminic acid, including the dipole moment, vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, and centrifugal distortion constants have been calculated at a high level of theory. Isofulminic acid is a good candidate for astronomical detection with radio telescopes because it is highly polar and its more stable isomers (HNCO, HOCN, and HCNO) have all been identified in space. PMID:19895013
Local Structure Analysis in $Ab$ $Initio$ Liquid Water
Santra, Biswajit; Martelli, Fausto; Car, Roberto
2015-01-01
Within the framework of density functional theory, the inclusion of exact exchange and non-local van der Waals/dispersion (vdW) interactions is crucial for predicting a microscopic structure of ambient liquid water that quantitatively agrees with experiment. In this work, we have used the local structure index (LSI) order parameter to analyze the local structure in such highly accurate $ab$ $initio$ liquid water. At ambient conditions, the LSI probability distribution, P($I$), was unimodal with most water molecules characterized by more disordered high-density-like local environments. With thermal excitations removed, the resultant bimodal P($I$) in the inherent potential energy surface (IPES) exhibited a 3:1 ratio between high- and low-density-like molecules, with the latter forming small connected clusters amid the predominant population. By considering the spatial correlations and hydrogen bond network topologies $among$ water molecules with the same LSI identities, we demonstrate that the signatures of th...
Ab Initio Study of KCl and NaCl Clusters
Brownrigg, Clifton; Hira, Ajit; Pacheco, Jose; Salazar, Justin
2013-03-01
We continue our interest in the theoretical study of molecular clusters to examine the chemical properties of small KnCln and NanCln clusters (n = 2 - 15). The potentially important role of these molecular species in biochemical and medicinal processes is well known. This work applies the hybrid ab initio methods of quantum chemistry to derive the different alkali-halide (MnHn) geometries. Of particular interest is the competition between hexagonal ring geometries and rock salt structures. Electronic energies, rotational constants, dipole moments, and vibrational frequencies for these geometries are calculated. Magic numbers for cluster stability are identified and are related to the property of cluster compactness. Mapping of the singlet, triplet, and quintet, potential energy surfaces is performed. Calculations have been performed to examine the interactions of these clusters with some atoms and molecules of biological interest, including O, O2, and Fe. The potential for design of new medicinal drugs is explored.
Ab initio methods for electron-molecule collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, L.A.; Schneider, B.I.
1987-01-01
This review concentrates on the recent advances in treating the electronic aspect of the electron-molecule interaction and leaves to other articles the description of the rotational and vibrational motions. Those methods which give the most complete treatment of the direct, exchange, and correlation effects are focused on. Such full treatments are generally necessary at energies below a few Rydbergs (approx. = 60 eV). This choice unfortunately necessitates omission of those active and vital areas devoted to the development of model potentials and approximate scattering formulations. The ab initio and model approaches complement each other and are both extremely important to the full explication of the electron-scattering process. Due to the rapid developments of recent years, the approaches that provide the fullest treatment are concentrated on. 81 refs.
Symplectic ab initio no-core shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The present study confirms the significance of the symplectic Sp(3,R) symmetry in nuclear dynamics as unveiled, for the first time, by examinations of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions as well as of eigenstates calculated in the framework of the ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM). The results reveal that the NCSM wave functions for light nuclei highly overlap (at the ? 90% level) with only a few of the most deformed Sp(3,R)-symmetric basis states. This points to the possibility of achieving convergence of higher-lying collective modes and reaching heavier nuclei by expanding the NCSM basis space beyond its current limits through Sp(3,R) basis states. Furthermore the symplectic symmetry is found to be favored by the JISP 16 and CD-Bonn realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, which points to a more fundamental origin of the symplectic symmetry. (Author)
Symplectic ab initio no-core shell model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Draayer, J. P.; Dytrych, T.; Sviratcheva, K. D.; Bahri, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lousiana State University, Baton Rouge, 70803 Lousiana (United States); Vary, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, 50011 Iowa (United States)
2008-12-15
The present study confirms the significance of the symplectic Sp(3,R) symmetry in nuclear dynamics as unveiled, for the first time, by examinations of realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions as well as of eigenstates calculated in the framework of the ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM). The results reveal that the NCSM wave functions for light nuclei highly overlap (at the {approx} 90% level) with only a few of the most deformed Sp(3,R)-symmetric basis states. This points to the possibility of achieving convergence of higher-lying collective modes and reaching heavier nuclei by expanding the NCSM basis space beyond its current limits through Sp(3,R) basis states. Furthermore the symplectic symmetry is found to be favored by the JISP 16 and CD-Bonn realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, which points to a more fundamental origin of the symplectic symmetry. (Author)
Ab initio methods for electron-molecule collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This review concentrates on the recent advances in treating the electronic aspect of the electron-molecule interaction and leaves to other articles the description of the rotational and vibrational motions. Those methods which give the most complete treatment of the direct, exchange, and correlation effects are focused on. Such full treatments are generally necessary at energies below a few Rydbergs (? 60 eV). This choice unfortunately necessitates omission of those active and vital areas devoted to the development of model potentials and approximate scattering formulations. The ab initio and model approaches complement each other and are both extremely important to the full explication of the electron-scattering process. Due to the rapid developments of recent years, the approaches that provide the fullest treatment are concentrated on. 81 refs
Simple calculation of ab initio melting curves: Application to aluminum
Robert, Grégory; Legrand, Philippe; Arnault, Philippe; Desbiens, Nicolas; Clérouin, Jean
2015-03-01
We present a simple, fast, and promising method to compute the melting curves of materials with ab initio molecular dynamics. It is based on the two-phase thermodynamic model of Lin et al [J. Chem. Phys. 119, 11792 (2003), 10.1063/1.1624057] and its improved version given by Desjarlais [Phys. Rev. E 88, 062145 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevE.88.062145]. In this model, the velocity autocorrelation function is utilized to calculate the contribution of the nuclei motion to the entropy of the solid and liquid phases. It is then possible to find the thermodynamic conditions of equal Gibbs free energy between these phases, defining the melting curve. The first benchmark on the face-centered cubic melting curve of aluminum from 0 to 300 GPa demonstrates how to obtain an accuracy of 5%-10%, comparable to the most sophisticated methods, for a much lower computational cost.
Large-scale ab initio calculations for C3
Mladenovi?, M.; Schmatz, S.; Botschwina, P.
1994-10-01
Large-scale calculations by the single, double, and perturbative triple excitation coupled cluster [CCSD(T)] method have been carried out for C3. A linear equilibrium geometry with Re=1.2945 Å was obtained. The use of large basis sets and the inclusion of connected triple substitutions is crucial for an accurate representation of the extremely shallow bending potential. Rovibrational term energies were calculated from a three-dimensional CCSD(T) potential (basis: 177 contracted Gaussian-type orbitals) by the discrete variable representation (DVR). Compared with the best previous ab initio calculations [P. Jensen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 97, 3399 (1992)] agreement with experiment is improved by almost an order of magnitude. The errors in the wave numbers of the fundamentals are -7.7 (?1), 0.9 (?2), and 0.6 (?3) cm-1, respectively.
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group in practice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ab-initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) is a tool that can be applied to a wide variety of interesting problems in quantum chemistry. Here, we examine the density matrix renormalization group from the vantage point of the quantum chemistry user. What kinds of problems is the DMRG well-suited to? What are the largest systems that can be treated at practical cost? What sort of accuracies can be obtained, and how do we reason about the computational difficulty in different molecules? By examining a diverse benchmark set of molecules: ?-electron systems, benchmark main-group and transition metal dimers, and the Mn-oxo-salen and Fe-porphine organometallic compounds, we provide some answers to these questions, and show how the density matrix renormalization group is used in practice
Ab initio MCDHF calculations of electron-nucleus interactions
Biero?, Jacek; Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Fritzsche, Stephan; Gaigalas, Gediminas; Grant, Ian P.; Indelicato, Paul; Jönsson, Per; Pyykkö, Pekka
2015-05-01
We present recent advances in the development of atomic ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory, implemented in the GRASP relativistic atomic structure code. For neutral atoms, the deviations of properties calculated within the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method (based on independent particle model of an atomic cloud) are usually dominated by electron correlation effects, i.e. the non-central interactions of individual electrons. We present the recent advances in accurate calculations of electron correlation effects in small, medium, and heavy neutral atoms. We describe methods of systematic development of multiconfiguration expansions leading to systematic, controlled improvement of the accuracy of the ab initio calculations. These methods originate from the concept of the complete active space (CAS) model within the DHF theory, which, at least in principle, permits fully relativistic calculations with full account of electron correlation effects. The calculations within the CAS model on currently available computer systems are feasible only for very light systems. For heavier atoms or ions with more than a few electrons, restrictions have to be imposed on the multiconfiguration expansions. We present methods and tools, which are designed to extend the numerical calculations in a controlled manner, where multiconfiguration expansions account for all leading electron correlation effects. We show examples of applications of the GRASP code to calculations of hyperfine structure constants, but the code may be used for calculations of arbitrary bound-state atomic properties. In recent years it has been applied to calculations of atomic and ionic spectra (transition energies and rates), to determinations of nuclear electromagnetic moments, as well as to calculations related to interactions of bound electrons with nuclear electromagnetic moments leading to violations of discrete symmetries.
Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set
Kresse, G.; Furthmüller, J.
1996-10-01
We present an efficient scheme for calculating the Kohn-Sham ground state of metallic systems using pseudopotentials and a plane-wave basis set. In the first part the application of Pulay's DIIS method (direct inversion in the iterative subspace) to the iterative diagonalization of large matrices will be discussed. Our approach is stable, reliable, and minimizes the number of order N3atoms operations. In the second part, we will discuss an efficient mixing scheme also based on Pulay's scheme. A special ``metric'' and a special ``preconditioning'' optimized for a plane-wave basis set will be introduced. Scaling of the method will be discussed in detail for non-self-consistent and self-consistent calculations. It will be shown that the number of iterations required to obtain a specific precision is almost independent of the system size. Altogether an order N2atoms scaling is found for systems containing up to 1000 electrons. If we take into account that the number of k points can be decreased linearly with the system size, the overall scaling can approach Natoms. We have implemented these algorithms within a powerful package called VASP (Vienna ab initio simulation package). The program and the techniques have been used successfully for a large number of different systems (liquid and amorphous semiconductors, liquid simple and transition metals, metallic and semiconducting surfaces, phonons in simple metals, transition metals, and semiconductors) and turned out to be very reliable.
Emergence of rotational bands in ab initio no-core configuration interaction calculations
Caprio, M A; Vary, J P; Smith, R
2015-01-01
Rotational bands have been observed to emerge in ab initio no-core configuration interaction (NCCI) calculations for p-shell nuclei, as evidenced by rotational patterns for excitation energies, electromagnetic moments, and electromagnetic transitions. We investigate the ab initio emergence of nuclear rotation in the Be isotopes, focusing on 9Be for illustration, and make use of basis extrapolation methods to obtain ab initio predictions of rotational band parameters for comparison with experiment. We find robust signatures for rotational motion, which reproduce both qualitative and quantitative features of the experimentally observed bands.
Hayes, J. M.; Greer, J. C.
2002-09-01
The program PAROPT has been written to extract forcefield parameters from ab initio calculations of potential energy surfaces (PES) and ab initio analytical forces. The ability to use either energies or forces, or a combination of the two to determine forcefield parameters is a novel feature of the program. Simulated annealing is used within the program to minimise the difference between a set of forces and energies calculated using ab initio techniques and the same quantities calculated using an empirical forcefield. Details of the program and methods used to extract forcefield parametrizations are presented.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Meliá, C.; Ferrer, S.; ?ezá?, Jan; Parisel, O.; Reinaud, O.; Moliner, V.; de la Lande, A.
2013-01-01
Ro?. 19, ?. 51 (2013), s. 17328-17337. ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ab initio calculations * copper * electron transfer * enzymes * molecular dynamics * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent progress in the ab initio quantum chemistry study of cathode oxygen reduction on fuel cell catalysts is reviewed with emphasis on density functional theory and ab initio molecular dynamics methods. The capabilities of these methods are illustrated using examples of oxygen adsorption on transition metals and alloys, and the reduction mechanism. Ab initio studies can calculate adsorption geometry, energy, the dissociation energy barrier, reversible potential, activation energy, and potential dependant properties for elementary electron transfer steps. Even though ab initio study in this field is still at an early stage, it has already demonstrated its predictive ability in the trend of adsorption energy on transition metals and alloys, and illustrated its potential in identifying better electrocatalysts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wolf, T. J. A.; Kuhlman, Thomas Scheby
2014-01-01
Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio multiple spawning were applied to the ultrafast non-adiabatic dynamics of hexamethylcyclopentadiene. The high level of agreement between experiment and theory associates wavepacket motion with a distinct degree of freedom.
Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Acceleration Scheme with an Adaptive Machine Learning Framework
Botu, Venkatesh; Ramprasad, Rampi
2014-01-01
Quantum mechanics based ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulation schemes offer an accurate and direct means to monitor the time-evolution of materials. Nevertheless, the expensive and repetitive energy and force computations required in such simulations lead to significant bottlenecks. Here, we lay the foundations for such an accelerated ab-initio MD approach integrated with a machine learning framework. The proposed algorithm learns from previously visited configuration...
{\\it Ab initio} nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem
Vary, James P.; Maris, Pieter; Ng, Esmond; Chao YANG; Sosonkina, Masha
2009-01-01
The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several {\\it ab initio} methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The {\\it ab initio} no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluate...
Ab Initio Calculations and Raman and SERS Spectral Analyses of Amphetamine Species
Berg, Rolf W.; Nørbygaard, Thomas; White, Peter C.; Abdali, Salim
2011-01-01
For the first time, the differences between the spectra of amphetamine and amphetamine-H+ and between different conformers are thoroughly studied by ab initio model calculations, and Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra are measured for different species of amphetamine. The spectra of amphetamine and amphetamine-H+ sampleswere obtained and assigned according to a comparison of the experimental spectra and the ab initio MO calculations, performed using the Gaussia...
Development of Linear Scaling ab initio Methods based on Electron Density Matrices
Kußmann, Jörg
2006-01-01
In the last decades ab initio methods have become a standard tool in chemistry, biochemistry, and physics. Nevertheless, the size of treatable systems was limited to the hundred atoms region, even for the less demanding Hartree-Fock (HF) and Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT), because of their at least cubic scaling behavior with system size. Ab initio methods of course profit by the fast evolution of computer technology, but their application to larger systems is primarily hampe...
Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane; Kleis, Jesper; Rossmeisl, Jan
2009-01-01
Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas, and correlated electron effects. This paper discusses an approach to performing ab initio studies on these materials for SOFC applications and applies the approach to calculate vacancy formation energies i...
Ab initio simulations of iron-nickel alloys at Earth's core conditions
Cote, A. S.; Vocadlo, L.; Brodholt, J. P.
2012-01-01
We report ab initio density functional theory calculations on iron–nickel (Fe?Ni) alloys at conditions representative of the Earth's inner core. We test different concentrations of Ni, up to ?39 wt% using ab initio lattice dynamics, and investigate the thermodynamic and vibrational stability of the three candidate crystal structures (bcc, hcp and fcc). First of all, at inner core pressures, we find that pure Fe transforms from the hcp to the fcc phase at around 6000 K. Secondly, in agreement ...
Ab Initio Calculations and Raman and SERS Spectral Analyses of Amphetamine Species
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Rolf W.; Nørbygaard, Thomas; White, Peter C.; Abdali, Salim
2011-01-01
For the first time, the differences between the spectra of amphetamine and amphetamine-H+ and between different conformers are thoroughly studied by ab initio model calculations, and Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra are measured for different species of amphetamine. The spectra of amphetamine and amphetamine-H+ sampleswere obtained and assigned according to a comparison of the experimental spectra and the ab initio MO calculations, performed using the Gaussian 03W pro...
Predicting lattice thermal conductivity with help from ab initio methods
Broido, David
2015-03-01
The lattice thermal conductivity is a fundamental transport parameter that determines the utility a material for specific thermal management applications. Materials with low thermal conductivity find applicability in thermoelectric cooling and energy harvesting. High thermal conductivity materials are urgently needed to help address the ever-growing heat dissipation problem in microelectronic devices. Predictive computational approaches can provide critical guidance in the search and development of new materials for such applications. Ab initio methods for calculating lattice thermal conductivity have demonstrated predictive capability, but while they are becoming increasingly efficient, they are still computationally expensive particularly for complex crystals with large unit cells . In this talk, I will review our work on first principles phonon transport for which the intrinsic lattice thermal conductivity is limited only by phonon-phonon scattering arising from anharmonicity. I will examine use of the phase space for anharmonic phonon scattering and the Grüneisen parameters as measures of the thermal conductivities for a range of materials and compare these to the widely used guidelines stemming from the theory of Liebfried and Schölmann. This research was supported primarily by the NSF under Grant CBET-1402949, and by the S3TEC, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, office of Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. DE-SC0001299.
Ab-initio calculations for dilute magnetic semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belhadji, Brahim
2008-03-03
This thesis focusses on ab-initio calculations for the electronic structure and the magnetic properties of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). In particular we aim at the understanding of the complex exchange interactions in these systems. Our calculations are based on density functional theory, being ideally suited for a description of the material specific properties of the considered DMS. Moreover we use the KKR Green function method in connection with the coherent potential approximation (CPA), which allows to include the random substitutional disorder in a mean field-like approximation for the electronic structure. Finally we calculate the exchange coupling constants J{sub ij} between two impurities in a CPA medium by using the Lichtenstein formula and from this calculate the Curie temperature by a numerically exact Monte Carlo method. Based on this analysis we found and investigated four different exchange mechanisms being of importance in DMS systems: Double exchange, p-d exchange, antiferromagnetic superexchanges, and ferromagnetic superexchange. A second topic we have investigated in this thesis is the pressure dependence of the exchange interactions and the Curie temperatures in (Ga,Mn)As and (In,Mn)As, using the LDA and the LDA+U approximations. Exact calculations of T{sub C} by Monte Carlo simulations show a somehow different behavior. (orig.)
Ab initio study of edge sites reactivity on pyrophyllite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Churakov, S.V. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Lab. for Waste Management, Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2005-07-01
The crystal chemistry and surface site reactivity of the phyllosilicate minerals is a key issue for modelling the ion mobility and retardation in clay sediments. Various cation substitutions in the TOT layer of the 2:1 phyllosilicates result in a permanent structural charge near basal plane which is responsible for swelling and the sorption of ions by a cation exchange mechanism. In contrast, the pH-dependent uptake of cations is controlled by protonation/de-protonation reactions on the edge sites of the TOT layer. Various models have been proposed to explain the reactivity of the edge sites based on macroscopic experiments. A detailed understanding of this process on an atomistic level is still missing. We are using electronic structure calculations and ab initio MD simulations in order to understand the mechanism of pH dependent sorption of cations on edge sites of pyrophyllite and the transport properties of aqueous solutions in compacted pyrophyllite. The calculations provide important constrains for the macroscopic surface complexation models of clay minerals. (authors)
Ab Initio Description of p-Shell Hypernuclei
Wirth, Roland; Navratil, Petr; Calci, Angelo; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert
2014-01-01
We present the first ab initio calculations for p-shell single-Lambda hypernuclei. For the solution of the many-baryon problem, we develop two variants of the no-core shell model with explicit Lambda and Sigma+, Sigma0, Sigma- hyperons including Lambda-Sigma conversion, optionally supplemented by a similarity renormalization group transformation to accelerate model-space convergence. In addition to state-of-the-art chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions, we use leading-order chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions and a recent meson-exchange hyperon-nucleon interaction. We validate the approach for s-shell hypernuclei and apply it to p-shell hypernuclei, in particular to Lambda-Li-7, Lambda-Be-9 and Lambda-C-13. We show that the chiral hyperon-nucleon interactions provide ground-state and excitation energies that agree with experiment within the cutoff dependence. At the same time we demonstrate that hypernuclear spectroscopy provides tight constraints on the hyperon-nucleon interactions and we discuss the im...
Nonempirical ab initio calculations on DNA base pairs
Šponer, Ji?í; Hobza, Pavel
1996-04-01
28 H-bonded DNA base pairs formed by guanine, adenine, thymine and cytosine were optimized by the gradient method at the ab initio HF/MINI-1 level. 10 pairs were found to be nonplanar with propeller structure. Harmonic vibration analysis indicates that all the stationary points found correspond to energy minima. The calculated interaction enthalpies (sum of the SCF interaction energy, the dispersion energy and the zero-point energy) are larger than the respective experimental data due to overestimation of the MINI-1 SCF interaction energy. Buckling and propeller vibrations were found to be the lowest for all the pairs; it is therefore possible to expect that all the pairs are flexible toward buckle and propeller vibrations. The H-bonded structure of the cytosine dimer was found to be considerably more stable than the stacked structures; both structures were studied at the higher MP2/6-31G ? level. The reliability of the procedure used (MP2/6-31G ?) was tested for model clusters (formamide … formamidine, benzene … Ar) at higher levels (MP4, CCSD(T)).
Ab initio effective interactions for sd-shell valence nucleons
Dikmen, E; Barrett, B R; Maris, P; Shirokov, A M; Vary, J P
2015-01-01
We perform \\textit{ab initio} no core shell model calculations for $A=18$ and $19$ nuclei in a $4\\hbar\\Omega$, or $N_{\\rm max}=4$, model space using the effective JISP16 and chiral N3LO nucleon-nucleon potentials and transform the many-body effective Hamiltonians into the $0\\hbar\\Omega$ model space to construct the $A$-body effective Hamiltonians in the $sd$-shell. We separate the $A$-body effective Hamiltonians with $A=18$ and $A=19$ into inert core, one- and two-body components. Then, we use these core, one- and two-body components to perform standard shell model calculations for the $A=18$ and $A=19$ systems with valence nucleons restricted to the $sd$-shell. Finally, we compare the standard shell model results in the $0\\hbar\\Omega$ model space with the exact no core shell model results in the $4\\hbar\\Omega$ model space for the $A=18$ and $A=19$ systems and find good agreement.
Local Environment Distribution in Ab Initio Liquid Water
Santra, Biswajit; Distasio, Robert A., Jr.; Car, Roberto
2013-03-01
We have analyzed the distribution of local environments in liquid water at ambient conditions and its inherent potential energy surface (IPES) based on state-of-the-art ab initio molecular dynamics simulations performed on 128 molecules implementing hybrid PBE0 exchange [PRB 79, 085102 (2009)] and van der Waals (vdW) interactions [PRL 102, 073005 (2009)]. The local environments of molecules are characterized in terms of the local structure index (LSI) [JCP 104, 7671 (1996)] which is able to distinguish high- and low-density molecular environments. In agreement with simulations based on model potentials, we find that the distribution of LSI is unimodal at ambient conditions and bimodal in the IPES, consistent with the existence of polymorphism in amorphous phases of water. At ambient conditions spatial LSI fluctuations extend up to ~7 Å and their dynamical correlation decays on a time scale of ~3 ps, as found for density fluctuations in a recent study [PRL 106, 037801 (2011)]. DOE: DE-SC0008626, DOE: DE-SC0005180, NSF: CHE-0956500
Ab initio liquid water from PBE0 hybrid functional simulations
Li, Zhaofeng; Wu, Xifan; Car, Roberto
2010-03-01
For reasons of computational efficiency, so far most ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water have been based on semi-local density functional approximations, such as PBE and BLYP. These approaches yield a liquid structure that, albeit qualitatively correct, is overstructured compared to experiment, even after nuclear quantum effects have been taken into account.footnotetextJ. A. Morrone and R. Car, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 017801(2008) A major cause of this inaccuracy is the delocalization error associated to semi-local density functional approximations, which, as a consequence, overestimate slightly the hydrogen bond strength in the liquid. In this work we adopt the PBE0 hybrid functional approximation, which, by mixing a fraction of exact (Hartree-Fock) exchange, reduces significantly the delocalization error of semi-local functionals. Our approach is based on a numerically efficient order-N implementation of exact exchange.footnotetextX. Wu, A. Selloni, and R. Car, Phys. Rev. B 79, 085102(2009) We find that PBE0 systematically improves the agreement of the simulated liquid with experiment. Our conclusion is substantiated by the calculated radial distribution functions, H-bond statistics, and molecular dipole distribution.
Ab initio study of phase transformations in boron nitride
Yu, W. J.; Lau, W. M.; Chan, S. P.; Liu, Z. F.; Zheng, Q. Q.
2003-01-01
The structural properties and phase stability of the four common polytypes of boron nitride, cubic zinc blende (c-BN), hexagonal (h-BN), wurtzite (w-BN) and rhombohedral (r-BN), are studied by ab initio calculations. Electronic energies are calculated using an ultra soft pseudopotential method under the density-functional theory, and phonon dispersions are calculated using the first-principles force-constant method. The p-T phase diagrams of these four boron nitride phases are constructed with the quasiharmonic approximation. Direct compression simulations are then performed to find probable phase transformation paths among these polytypes, with additional energy calculations of plausible transition structures. The c-BN phase is the most thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions among these four polytypes, and the transformation between r-BN and c-BN has the smallest energy barrier. Direct transformation between h-BN and c-BN is far less favorable than indirect transformation, with w-BN or r-BN as an intermediate. The presence of structural defects is a key attribute in reducing the energy barrier of phase transformation. The results in this work offer theoretical clues to experimental data on c-BN film growth, particularly the absence of w-BN.
Ab initio and kinetic modeling studies of formic acid oxidation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marshall, Paul; Glarborg, Peter
2015-01-01
A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of formic acid (HOCHO) in flames has been developed, based on theoretical work and data from literature. Ab initio calculations were used to obtain rate coefficients for reactions of HOCHO with H, O, and HO2. Modeling predictions with the mechanism have been compared to the experimental results of de Wilde and van Tiggelen (1968) who measured the laminar burning velocities for HOCHO flames over a range of stoichiometries and dilution ratios. The modeling predictions are generally satisfactory. The governing reaction mechanisms are outlined based on calculations with the kinetic model. Formic acid is consumed mainly by reaction with OH, yielding OCHO, which dissociates rapidly to CO2 + H, and HOCO, which may dissociate to CO + OH or CO2 + H, or react with H, OH, or O2 to form more stable products. The branching fraction of the HOCHO + OH reaction, as well as the fate of HOCO, determines the oxidation rate of formic acid. At lower temperatures HO2, formed from HOCO + O2, is an important chain carrier and modeling predictions become sensitive to the HOCHO + HO2 reaction. © 2014 The Combustion Institute.
Ab initio correlation functionals from second-order perturbation theory.
Schweigert, Igor V; Lotrich, Victor F; Bartlett, Rodney J
2006-09-14
Orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals are not limited by the explicit dependence on the density and present an attractive alternative to conventional functionals. With the successful implementation of the exact orbital-dependent exchange functional, the challenge lies in developing orbital-dependent approximations for the correlation functional. Ab initio many-body methods can provide such approximations. In particular, perturbation theory with the Kohn-Sham model as the reference [Görling and Levy, Phys. Rev. A 50, 196 (1994)] defines the exact correlation functional via an infinite perturbation series. The second-order term of these series gives the lowest-order approximation to the correlation functional. However, it has been suggested [Bartlett et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 034104 (2005)] that the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian is not the optimal choice for the perturbation expansion and a different reference Hamiltonian may lead to an improved perturbation series and more accurate second-order approximation. Here, we demonstrate explicitly that the modified series can be used to define superior functional and potential. We present results of atomic and molecular calculations with both second-order functionals. Our results demonstrate that the modified functional offers a significantly improved description of the correlation effects as it does not suffer from convergence problems and results in energies and densities that are more accurate than those obtained with second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory or generalized-gradient approximation functionals. PMID:16999516
Nature of magnetism in iron pnictides: an ab initio study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Opahle, Ingo; Jeschke, Harald; Valenti, Roser [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2010-07-01
While it is commonly believed that magnetic-mediate pairing is the source of superconductivity in the iron-based superconductors, the nature of magnetism is still under debate. We apply ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate physical properties of LaOFePn, BaFe{sub 2}Pn{sub 2} and LiFePn (Pn=As,Sb), so-called 1111, 122 and 111 compounds, respectively. We find that, with substitution of As by Sb, the stripe-type antiferromagnetic orderings are always enhanced. By calculating Pauli susceptibility, we attribute the enhancement of magnetization to the increase of instability at ({pi},{pi}) when As is substituted by Sb. Furthermore, we study the magnetic and lattice properties of LaOFePn (Pn=P,As,Sb,Bi) as well as ScOFeP, ScOFeAs and YOFeP and argue that LaOFeSb would be a candidate for a superconductor with highest transition temperature among the investigated compounds. We further suggest that the absence of antiferromagnetic phase in LaOFeP and the presence in LaOFeAs are due to the competition of instability in Pauli susceptibility between ({pi},{pi}) and (0,0) and therefore argue that superconductivity can only occur through doping in LaOFeSb.
Ab initio study of alanine polypeptide chain twisting
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander V.
2006-01-01
We have investigated the potential energy surfaces for alanine chains consisting of three and six amino acids. For these molecules we have calculated potential energy surfaces as a function of the Ramachandran angles ph$ and psi, which are widely used for the characterization of the polypeptide chains. These particular degrees of freedom are essential for the characterization of the proteins folding process. Calculations have been carried out within the ab initio theoretical framework based on the density functional theory and accounting for all the electrons in the system. We have determined stable conformations and calculated the energy barriers for transitions between them. Using a thermodynamic approach, we have estimated the times of characteristic transitions between these conformations. The results of our calculations have been compared with those obtained by other theoretical methods and with the available experimental data extracted from the Protein Data Base. This comparison demonstrates a reasonable correspondence of the most prominent minima on the calculated potential energy surfaces to the experimentally measured angles phi and psi for alanine chains appearing in native proteins. We have also investigated the influence of the secondary structure of polypeptide chains on the formation of the potential energy landscape. This analysis has been performed for the sheet and the helix conformations of chains of six amino acids.
Ab initio examination of ductility features of fcc metals
Kamran, Sami; Chen, Kuiying; Chen, Liang
2009-01-01
Through systematic density-functional theory-based ab initio calculations, various performance indicators such as G/B , the ratio of shear modulus G over bulk modulus B , ?s/?t , the ratio of ideal shear strength ?s over tensile strength ?t , and the Cauchy pressure defined as C12-C44 were evaluated for a selection of fcc metals and assessed in relation to the characteristics of their electronic distributions obtained from the electron localization function. The analysis reveals that the ratio ?s/?t is possibly a better indicator of malleability as it discriminates directionally bonded metals in addition to discerning ductile crystals from brittle ones. Furthermore, Al is found to sustain the largest shear deformation among the scrutinized solids due to its directional bonds. Similarly, the surprisingly long range of distortion of Pd is rationalized as a result of the geometric constraints caused by small electron pockets of comparatively high localization in the interionic region. However, the examination of the peculiar case of Ir suggests that, in general, the extent of shear distortion should be the consequence of at least two factors, namely, the angular characteristics of bonding and the bond strength.
Challenges for large scale ab initio Quantum Monte Carlo
Kent, Paul
2015-03-01
Ab initio Quantum Monte Carlo is an electronic structure method that is highly accurate, well suited to large scale computation, and potentially systematically improvable in accuracy. Due to increases in computer power, the method has been applied to systems where established electronic structure methods have difficulty reaching the accuracies desired to inform experiment without empiricism, a necessary step in the design of materials and a helpful step in the improvement of cheaper and less accurate methods. Recent applications include accurate phase diagrams of simple materials through to phenomena in transition metal oxides. Nevertheless there remain significant challenges to achieving a methodology that is robust and systematically improvable in practice, as well as capable of exploiting the latest generation of high-performance computers. In this talk I will describe the current state of the art, recent applications, and several significant challenges for continued improvement. Supported through the Predictive Theory and Modeling for Materials and Chemical Science program by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Department of Energy (DOE).
Ab Initio Simulation of the Photoelectron Spectrum for Methoxy Radical
Cheng, Lan; Weichman, Marissa L.; Kim, Jongjin B.; Ichino, Takatoshi; Neumark, Daniel; Stanton, John F.
2015-06-01
A theoretical simulation of the photoelectron spectrum for the ground state of methoxy radical is reported based on the quasidiabatic model Hamiltonian originally proposed by Köppel, Domcke, and Cederbaum. The parameters in the model Hamiltonian have been obtained from ab initio coupled-cluster calculations. The linear and quadratic force constants have been calculated using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster ionization potential method with the singles, doubles, and triples (EOMIP-CCSDT) truncation scheme together with atomic natural orbital basis sets of triple-zeta quality (ANO1). The cubic and quartic force constants have been obtained from EOMIP-CCSD calculations with ANO basis sets of double-zeta quality (ANO0), and the spin-orbit coupling constant has been computed at the EOMIP-CCSD/pCVTZ level. The nuclear Schroedinger equation has been solved using the Lanzcos algorithm to obtain vibronic energy levels as well as the corresponding intensities. The simulated spectrum compares favorably with the recent high-resolution slow electron velocity-map imaging experiment for vibronic levels up to 2000 cm-1.
Ab initio molecular orbital calculations on alpha-quartz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The calculation of properties of solids using SCF MO theory has been generally recognized as being difficult, because of the large numbers of atoms which are required to produce a credible representation of the system. Using the extremely powerful lCAP1 and lCAP2 parallel systems at IBM Kingston, it was possible to perform a large number of ab initio calculations, using a 3-21G basis, on an Si5016 12- model 'molecule' surrounded by 956 point ions to simulate the alpha-quartz lattice. Calculations were carried out to investigate the effect of altering the charge on the point ions - which were positioned at the lattice sites determined using X-ray diffraction, and accurately reproduced the electrostatic fields of alpha-quartz in the SCF MO treated region. The effect of truncating the Si5016 'molecule' with hydrogen atoms was also investigated. Once an optimum cluster had been determined, a series of calculations to investigate the geometry and defect binding energies of radiation induced defects in quartz were carried out. The results of these calculations show general agreement with experimental results and previous theoretical investigation of radiation damage in alpha-quartz
Ab initio study of edge sites reactivity on pyrophyllite
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The crystal chemistry and surface site reactivity of the phyllosilicate minerals is a key issue for modelling the ion mobility and retardation in clay sediments. Various cation substitutions in the TOT layer of the 2:1 phyllosilicates result in a permanent structural charge near basal plane which is responsible for swelling and the sorption of ions by a cation exchange mechanism. In contrast, the pH-dependent uptake of cations is controlled by protonation/de-protonation reactions on the edge sites of the TOT layer. Various models have been proposed to explain the reactivity of the edge sites based on macroscopic experiments. A detailed understanding of this process on an atomistic level is still missing. We are using electronic structure calculations and ab initio MD simulations in order to understand the mechanism of pH dependent sorption of cations on edge sites of pyrophyllite and the transport properties of aqueous solutions in compacted pyrophyllite. The calculations provide important constrains for the macroscopic surface complexation models of clay minerals. (authors)
Ab-initio calculations of the Optical band-gap of TiO2 thin films
Wunderlich, W; Tanemura, M; Tanemura, S; Jin, P; Kaneko, K; Terai, A; Nabatova-Gabin, N; Belkada, R; Wunderlich, Wilfried; Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Masaki; Tanemura, Sakae; Jin, Ping; Kaneko, Kenji; Terai, Asuka; Nabatova-Gabin, Nataliya; Belkada, Rachid
2004-01-01
Titanium dioxide has been extensively studied in recent decades for its important photocatalytic application in environmental purification. The search for a method to narrow the optical band-gap of TiO2 plays a key role for enhancing its photocatalytic application. The optical band gap of epitaxial rutile and anatase TiO2 thin films deposited by helicon magnetron sputtering on sapphire and on SrTiO3 substrates was correlated to the lattice constants estimated from HRTEM images and SAED. The optical band-gap of 3.03 eV for bulk-rutile increased for the thin films to 3.37 on sapphire. The band gap of 3.20 eV for bulk-anatase increases to 3.51 on SrTiO3. In order to interpret the optical band gap expansion for both phases, ab-initio calculations were performed using the Vienna ab-initio software. The calculations for rutile as well anatase show an almost linear increase of the band gap width with decreasing volume or increasing lattice constant a. The calculated band gap fits well with the experimental values. T...
An ab initio study of plutonium oxides surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By means of first-principles calculations, we have studied the atomic structure as well as the thermodynamic stability of various plutonium dioxide surfaces in function of their environment (in terms of oxygen partial pressure and temperature). All these simulations have been performed with the ABINIT code. It is well known that DFT fails to describe correctly plutonium-based materials since 5f electrons in such systems are strongly correlated. In order to go beyond DFT, we have treated PuO2 and ?-Pu2O3 in a DFT+U framework. We show that the couple of parameters (U,J) that works well for pure Pu is also well designed for describing ground state (GS) properties of these two oxides. The major improvement with respect with DFT is that we are able to predict an insulating GS in agreement with experiments. The presence of a gap in the DOS (Density of States) of plutonium oxides should play a significant role in the predicted surface reactivity. However, performing DFT+U calculations on surfaces of plutonium oxide from scratch was too ambitious. That is why we decided, as a first step, to study the stability of the (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of PuO2 in a DFT-GGA framework. For each of these orientations, we considered various terminations. These ab initio results have been introduced in a thermodynamic model which allows us to predict the relative stability of the different terminations as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2). We conclude that at room temperature and for pO2?10 atm., the polar O2-(100) termination is favoured. The stabilization of such a polar stoichiometric surface is surprising and should be confirmed by DFT+U calculations before any final conclusion. (authors)
Ab initio investigations of zinc chalcogenides semiconductor alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El Haj Hassan, F. [Universite Libanaise, Faculte des sciences (I), Laboratoire de Physique de Materiaux, Elhadath, Beirut (Lebanon)]. E-mail: hassan.f@ul.edu.lb; Amrani, B. [Departement de Physique, Universite de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria); Bahsoun, F. [Universite Libanaise, Faculte des sciences (I), Laboratoire de Physique de Materiaux, Elhadath, Beirut (Lebanon)
2007-04-01
The present work performs self-consistent ab initio full potential-linearized augmented plane wave method to study the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}, ZnS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} and ZnSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} semiconductor alloys. The ground-state properties were determined for the bulk materials (ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe) and for their alloys in cubic phase at various concentrations (x=0.25, 0.5 and 0.75). A marginal deviation of the lattice parameter from Vegard's law was observed for ZnS{sub x}Se{sub 1-x} and ZnSe{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloys, while the lattice bowing of ZnS{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloy was found to be significant. This is mainly because of the large mismatch of the lattice parameters of the binary compounds ZnS and ZnTe. A large deviation of the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence was observed for all the three alloys. We have also investigated the effect of composition on bonding properties and correlated it to the charge-exchange effect in the optical bowing. Using the approach of Zunger et al. [21], the microscopic origins of the gap bowing were explained. The disorder parameter (gap bowing) for the alloys of interest was found to be mainly caused by the structural relaxation contributions. The charge-exchange contributions for all the three alloys were also found to be significant. The calculated phase diagram showed a broad miscibility gap for all the alloys of interest with a high critical temperature.
Symplectic ab initio no-core shell model
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
J.P., Draayer; T., Dytrych; K.D., Sviratcheva; C, Bahri; J.P., Vary.
2008-12-01
Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se confirma la importancia de la simetría simpléctica Sp(3,R) en la dinámica nuclear a través de estudios de interacciones nucleón-nucleón realistas así como de eigenestados calculados en el marco del modelo de capas sin carozo (NCSM, por sus siglas en inglés). Los resultados [...] demuestran para núcleos ligeros un gran traslapo entre la funciones de onda NCSM usando nada más los estados base con simetría Sp(3,R) con mayor deformación, lo cual abre la posibilidad para obtener convergencia de modos colectivos con energías altas y poder describir nucleos más pesados con una extensión del espacio de los estados base NCSM usando estados con simetría Sp(3,R). Además, las interacciones nucleón-nucleón realistas JISP16 y CD-Bonn favorecen la simetría simpléctica lo cual apunta a una explicación a nivel mas fundamental de la simetría simpléctica. Abstract in english The present study confirm the significanc of the symplectic Sp(3,R) symmetry in nuclear dynamics as unveiled, for the firs time, by examinations of realistic nucleon-nucleon (N N) interactions as well as of eigenstates calculated in the framework of the ab initio No-Core Shell Model (NCSM). The resu [...] lts reveal that the NCSM wave functions for light nuclei highly overlap (at the 90% level) with only a few of the most deformed Sp(3,R)-symmetric basis states. This points to the possibility of achieving convergence of higher-lying collective modes and reaching heavier nuclei by expanding the NCSM basis space beyond its current limits through Sp(3,R) basis states. Furthermore, the symplectic symmetry is found to be favored by the JISP16 and CD-Bonn realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions, which points to a more fundamental origin of the symplectic symmetry.
Ab initio quantum transport calculations using plane waves
Garcia-Lekue, A.; Vergniory, M. G.; Jiang, X. W.; Wang, L. W.
2015-08-01
We present an ab initio method to calculate elastic quantum transport at the nanoscale. The method is based on a combination of density functional theory using plane wave nonlocal pseudopotentials and the use of auxiliary periodic boundary conditions to obtain the scattering states. The method can be applied to any applied bias voltage and the charge density and potential profile can either be calculated self-consistently, or using an approximated self-consistent field (SCF) approach. Based on the scattering states one can straightforwardly calculate the transmission coefficients and the corresponding electronic current. The overall scheme allows us to obtain accurate and numerically stable solutions for the elastic transport, with a computational time similar to that of a ground state calculation. This method is particularly suitable for calculations of tunneling currents through vacuum, that some of the nonequilibrium Greens function (NEGF) approaches based on atomic basis sets might have difficulty to deal with. Several examples are provided using this method from electron tunneling, to molecular electronics, to electronic devices: (i) On a Au nanojunction, the tunneling current dependence on the electrode-electrode distance is investigated. (ii) The tunneling through field emission resonances (FERs) is studied via an accurate description of the surface vacuum states. (iii) Based on quantum transport calculations, we have designed a molecular conformational switch, which can turn on and off a molecular junction by applying a perpendicular electric field. (iv) Finally, we have used the method to simulate tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs) based on two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), where we have studied the performance and scaling limits of such nanodevices and proposed atomic doping to enhance the transistor performance.
A Deep Learning Network Approach to ab initio Protein Secondary Structure Prediction.
Spencer, Matt; Eickholt, Jesse; Jianlin Cheng
2015-01-01
Ab initio protein secondary structure (SS) predictions are utilized to generate tertiary structure predictions, which are increasingly demanded due to the rapid discovery of proteins. Although recent developments have slightly exceeded previous methods of SS prediction, accuracy has stagnated around 80 percent and many wonder if prediction cannot be advanced beyond this ceiling. Disciplines that have traditionally employed neural networks are experimenting with novel deep learning techniques in attempts to stimulate progress. Since neural networks have historically played an important role in SS prediction, we wanted to determine whether deep learning could contribute to the advancement of this field as well. We developed an SS predictor that makes use of the position-specific scoring matrix generated by PSI-BLAST and deep learning network architectures, which we call DNSS. Graphical processing units and CUDA software optimize the deep network architecture and efficiently train the deep networks. Optimal parameters for the training process were determined, and a workflow comprising three separately trained deep networks was constructed in order to make refined predictions. This deep learning network approach was used to predict SS for a fully independent test dataset of 198 proteins, achieving a Q3 accuracy of 80.7 percent and a Sov accuracy of 74.2 percent. PMID:25750595
An ab initio study of plutonium oxides surfaces; Etude ab initio des surfaces d'oxydes de Pu
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jomard, G.; Bottin, F.; Amadon, B
2007-07-01
By means of first-principles calculations, we have studied the atomic structure as well as the thermodynamic stability of various plutonium dioxide surfaces in function of their environment (in terms of oxygen partial pressure and temperature). All these simulations have been performed with the ABINIT code. It is well known that DFT fails to describe correctly plutonium-based materials since 5f electrons in such systems are strongly correlated. In order to go beyond DFT, we have treated PuO{sub 2} and {beta}-Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} in a DFT+U framework. We show that the couple of parameters (U,J) that works well for pure Pu is also well designed for describing ground state (GS) properties of these two oxides. The major improvement with respect with DFT is that we are able to predict an insulating GS in agreement with experiments. The presence of a gap in the DOS (Density of States) of plutonium oxides should play a significant role in the predicted surface reactivity. However, performing DFT+U calculations on surfaces of plutonium oxide from scratch was too ambitious. That is why we decided, as a first step, to study the stability of the (100), (110) and (111) surfaces of PuO{sub 2} in a DFT-GGA framework. For each of these orientations, we considered various terminations. These ab initio results have been introduced in a thermodynamic model which allows us to predict the relative stability of the different terminations as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure (p{sub O{sub 2}}). We conclude that at room temperature and for p{sub O{sub 2}}{approx}10 atm., the polar O{sub 2}-(100) termination is favoured. The stabilization of such a polar stoichiometric surface is surprising and should be confirmed by DFT+U calculations before any final conclusion. (authors)
An ab initio-based Er-He interatomic potential in hcp Er
Yang, L.; Ye, Y. T.; Fan, K. M.; Shen, H. H.; Peng, S. M.; Long, X. G.; Zhou, X. S.; Zu, X. T.; Gao, F.
2014-09-01
We have developed an empirical erbium-helium (Er-He) potential by fitting to the results calculated from the ab initio method. Based on the electronic hybridization between Er and He atoms, an s-band model, along with a repulsive pair potential, has been derived to describe the Er-He interaction. The atomic configurations and the formation energies of single He defects, small He interstitial clusters (Hen) and He-vacancy (HenV) clusters obtained by ab initio calculations are used as the fitting database. The binding energies and relative stabilities of the HnVm clusters are studied by the present potential and compared with the ab initio calculations. The Er-He potential is also applied to study the migration of He in hcp Er at different temperatures, and He clustering is found to occur at 600 K in hcp Er crystal, which may be due to the anisotropic migration behavior of He interstitials.
Density-matrix based determination of low-energy model Hamiltonians from ab initio wavefunctions
Changlani, Hitesh J.; Zheng, Huihuo; Wagner, Lucas K.
2015-09-01
We propose a way of obtaining effective low energy Hubbard-like model Hamiltonians from ab initio quantum Monte Carlo calculations for molecular and extended systems. The Hamiltonian parameters are fit to best match the ab initio two-body density matrices and energies of the ground and excited states, and thus we refer to the method as ab initio density matrix based downfolding. For benzene (a finite system), we find good agreement with experimentally available energy gaps without using any experimental inputs. For graphene, a two dimensional solid (extended system) with periodic boundary conditions, we find the effective on-site Hubbard U?/t to be 1.3 ± 0.2, comparable to a recent estimate based on the constrained random phase approximation. For molecules, such parameterizations enable calculation of excited states that are usually not accessible within ground state approaches. For solids, the effective Hamiltonian enables large-scale calculations using techniques designed for lattice models.
Ab initio calculations of 3H(d,n)4He fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We build a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the ab initio no-core shell model. In this way, we complement a microscopic-cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. We will present the first results of the d-3H and d-3He fusion calculation obtained within our ab initio approach. We will also discuss our d-4He, 3H-4He and 3H-3H scattering calculations and the outline of the extension of the formalism to include three-cluster final states with the goal to calculate the 3H(3H,2n)4He cross section
Computer modeling of natural silicate melts: what can we learn from ab initio simulations
Vuilleumier, R; Guillot, B
2009-01-01
The structural and dynamical properties of four silicate liquids (silica, rhyolite, a model basalt and enstatite) are evaluated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation using the density functional theory and are compared with classical simulations using a simple empirical force field. For a given composition, the structural parameters of the simulated melt vary little between the two calculations (ab initio versus empirical) and are in satisfactory agreement with structure data available in the literature. In contrast, ionic diffusivities and atomic vibration motions are found to be more sensitive to the details of the interactions. Furthermore, it is pointed out that the electronic polarization, as evaluated by the ab initio calculation, contributes significantly to the intensity of the infrared absorption spectra of molten silicates, a spectral feature which cannot be reproduced using nonpolarizable force field. However the vibration modes of TO4 species and some structural details are not accurately rep...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keegan, Ronan M. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Bibby, Jaclyn; Thomas, Jens [University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Xu, Dong [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhang, Yang [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Mayans, Olga [University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Winn, Martyn D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rigden, Daniel J., E-mail: drigden@liv.ac.uk [University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)
2015-02-01
Two ab initio modelling programs solve complementary sets of targets, enhancing the success of AMPLE with small proteins. AMPLE clusters and truncates ab initio protein structure predictions, producing search models for molecular replacement. Here, an interesting degree of complementarity is shown between targets solved using the different ab initio modelling programs QUARK and ROSETTA. Search models derived from either program collectively solve almost all of the all-helical targets in the test set. Initial solutions produced by Phaser after only 5 min perform surprisingly well, improving the prospects for in situ structure solution by AMPLE during synchrotron visits. Taken together, the results show the potential for AMPLE to run more quickly and successfully solve more targets than previously suspected.
Electrical resistivity of NaPb compound-forming liquid alloy using ab initio pseudopotentials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Anil Thakur; N S Negi; P K Ahluwalla
2005-08-01
The study of electrical resistivity of compound-forming liquid alloy, NaPb, is presented as a function of concentration. Hard sphere diameters of Na and Pb are obtained through the interionic pair potentials evaluated using Troullier and Martins ab initio pseudopotential, which have been used to calculate the partial structure factors $S(q)$. Considering the liquid alloy to be a ternary mixture, Ziman formula, modified for complex formation has been used for calculating resistivity of binary liquid alloys. Form factors are calculated using ab initio pseudopotentials. The results suggest that Ziman formalism, when used with ab initio pseudopotentials, are quite successful in explaining the electrical resistivity data of compound-forming binary liquid alloys.
Estudo da geometria da uréia por métodos ab initio e simulação computacional de líquidos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cirino José Jair Vianna
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A study was carried out on the urea geometries using ab initio calculation and Monte Carlo computational simulation of liquids. The ab initio calculated results showed that urea has a non-planar conformation in the gas phase in which the hydrogen atoms are out of the plane formed by the heavy atoms. Free energies associated to the rotation of the amino groups of urea in water were obtained using the Monte Carlo method in which the thermodynamic perturbation theory is implemented. The magnitude of the free energy obtained from this simulation did not permit us to conclude that urea is non-planar in water.
Sakane, Shinichi; Yezdimer, Eric M.; Liu, Wenbin; Barriocanal, Jose A.; Doren, Douglas J.; Wood, Robert H.
2000-08-01
The ab initio/classical free energy perturbation (ABC-FEP) method proposed previously by Wood et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1329 (1999)] uses classical simulations to calculate solvation free energies within an empirical potential model, then applies free energy perturbation theory to determine the effect of changing the empirical solute-solvent interactions to corresponding interactions calculated from ab initio methods. This approach allows accurate calculation of solvation free energies using an atomistic description of the solvent and solute, with interactions calculated from first principles. Results can be obtained at a feasible computational cost without making use of approximations such as a continuum solvent or an empirical cavity formation energy. As such, the method can be used far from ambient conditions, where the empirical parameters needed for approximate theories of solvation may not be available. The sources of error in the ABC-FEP method are the approximations in the ab initio method, the finite sample of configurations, and the classical solvent model. This article explores the accuracy of various approximations used in the ABC-FEP method by comparing to the experimentally well-known free energy of hydration of water at two state points (ambient conditions, and 973.15 K and 600 kg/m3). The TIP4P-FQ model [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6141 (1994)] is found to be a reliable solvent model for use with this method, even at supercritical conditions. Results depend strongly on the ab initio method used: a gradient-corrected density functional theory is not adequate, but a localized MP2 method yields excellent agreement with experiment. Computational costs are reduced by using a cluster approximation, in which ab initio pair interaction energies are calculated between the solute and up to 60 solvent molecules, while multi-body interactions are calculated with only a small cluster (5 to 12 solvent molecules). Sampling errors for the ab initio contribution to solvation free energies are ±2 kJ/mol or less when 50-200 configurations are used. Using the largest clusters and most accurate ab initio methods, ABC-FEP predicts hydration free energies of water at both state points that agree with equations of state, within the sampling error. These results are the first calculation of a free energy of solvation at extreme conditions from a fully atomistic model with ab initio methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ab initio/classical free energy perturbation (ABC-FEP) method proposed previously by Wood et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 110, 1329 (1999)] uses classical simulations to calculate solvation free energies within an empirical potential model, then applies free energy perturbation theory to determine the effect of changing the empirical solute-solvent interactions to corresponding interactions calculated from ab initio methods. This approach allows accurate calculation of solvation free energies using an atomistic description of the solvent and solute, with interactions calculated from first principles. Results can be obtained at a feasible computational cost without making use of approximations such as a continuum solvent or an empirical cavity formation energy. As such, the method can be used far from ambient conditions, where the empirical parameters needed for approximate theories of solvation may not be available. The sources of error in the ABC-FEP method are the approximations in the ab initio method, the finite sample of configurations, and the classical solvent model. This article explores the accuracy of various approximations used in the ABC-FEP method by comparing to the experimentally well-known free energy of hydration of water at two state points (ambient conditions, and 973.15 K and 600 kg/m3). The TIP4P-FQ model [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 6141 (1994)] is found to be a reliable solvent model for use with this method, even at supercritical conditions. Results depend strongly on the ab initio method used: a gradient-corrected density functional theory is not adequate, but a localized MP2 method yields excellent agreement with experiment. Computational costs are reduced by using a cluster approximation, in which ab initio pair interaction energies are calculated between the solute and up to 60 solvent molecules, while multi-body interactions are calculated with only a small cluster (5 to 12 solvent molecules). Sampling errors for the ab initio contribution to solvation free energies are ±2 kJ/mol or less when 50-200 configurations are used. Using the largest clusters and most accurate ab initio methods, ABC-FEP predicts hydration free energies of water at both state points that agree with equations of state, within the sampling error. These results are the first calculation of a free energy of solvation at extreme conditions from a fully atomistic model with ab initio methods. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Ab initio Defect Energetics in LaBO3 Perovskite Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Yueh-Lin; Morgan, Dane
2009-01-01
Perovskite materials of the form ABO3 are a promising family of compounds for use in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes. Study of the physics of these compounds under SOFC conditions with ab initio methods is particularly challenging due to high temperatures, exchange of oxygen with O2 gas, and correlated electron effects. This paper discusses an approach to performing ab initio studies on these materials for SOFC applications and applies the approach to calculate vacancy formation energies in LaBO3 (B = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) compounds.
Ab initio determination of an extended Heisenberg Hamiltonian in CuO2 layers
Calzado, Carmen J.; Malrieu, Jean-Paul
2000-01-01
Accurate ab initio calculations on embedded Cu_4O_{12} square clusters, fragments of the La_2CuO_4 lattice, confirm a value of the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling (J=124 meV) previously obtained from ab initio calculations on bicentric clusters and in good agreement with experiment. These calculations predict non negligible antiferromagnetic second-neighbor interaction (J'=6.5 meV) and four-spin cyclic exchange (K=14 meV), which may affect the thermodynamic and s...
Ab initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Water Under Static and Shock Compressed Conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report herein a series of ab initio simulations of water under both static and shocked conditions. We have calculated the coherent x-ray scattering intensity of several phases of water under high pressure, using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT). We provide new atomic scattering form factors for water at extreme conditions, which take into account frequently neglected changes in ionic charge and electron delocalization. We have also simulated liquid water undergoing shock loading of velocities from 5-11 km/s using the Multi-Scale Shock Technique (MSST). We show that Density Functional Theory (DFT) molecular dynamics results compare extremely well to experiments on the water shock Hugoniot
Koyano, Kazuo; Nakano, Tatsuya
2008-01-01
Molecular dynamics and the ab initio fragment molecular orbital method were applied to investigate the interaction of HIV-1 aspartic protease with its inhibitor. The interaction energy of the inhibitor at the active sites of aspartic acid obtained by the ab initio fragment molecular orbital method was as great as 50?kcal?mol?1, coinciding with a tetrahedral transition state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A computer program has been developed in our laboratories for the parameter determination using energy, gradient and hessian values obtained by ab initio calculations. The empirical potential is fitted to the ab initio PES. (AIP) copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganster, P
2004-10-15
A calcium aluminosilicate glass of molar composition 67 % SiO{sub 2} - 12 % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 21 % CaO was modelled by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. The size effect study in classical MD shows that the systems of 100 atoms are more ordered than the larger ones. These effects are mainly due to the 3-body terms in the empirical potentials. Nevertheless, these effects are small and the structures generated are in agreement with experimental data. In such kind of glass, we denote an aluminium avoidance and an excess of non bridging oxygens which can be compensated by tri coordinated oxygens. When the dynamics of systems of 100 and 200 atoms is followed by ab initio MD, some local arrangements occurs (bond length, angular distributions). Thus, more realistic vibrational properties are obtained in ab initio MD. The modelling of thin films shows that aluminium atoms extend to the most external part of the surface and they are all tri-coordinated. Calcium atoms are set in the sub layer part of the surface and they produce a depolymerization of the network. In classical MD, tri-coordinated aluminium atoms produce an important electric field above the surface. With non bridging oxygens, they constitute attractive sites for single water molecules. (author)
Oxidation pathways in Phosphorene: an ab-initio investigation
Paes Lima, Matheus Paes; Fazzio, Adalberto; da Silva, Antonio Jose Roque
2015-03-01
Phosphorene is a recently isolated single layer of Black Phosphorus. In this 2D material, the combination of a direct band gap with a high charge carrier mobility opens up the possibility of its use in nano devices. However, the exposure of Black Phosphorus to air leads to its fast degradation, which indicates the relevance to understand its oxidation processes. In the present work we investigate the initial steps of the oxidation process, focusing on the interaction of a single O2 molecule with the phosphorene layer. We show the existence of oxidation pathways having only a single barrier of 0.13eV occurring between the free O2 (triplet) and the triplet-singlet potential energy surface (PES) crossing point. We estimate a room temperature triplet-singlet transition probability of Pt --> s = 0 . 015 , using the Landau-Zener model. Once the O2 switches to the singlet PES, there is an oxygen incorporation with an energy gain of 4.2eV with respect to the PES crossing point, with the O2 molecule spontaneously dissociating without any barrier. In this process, the final geometry has one O bonded to a P lone pair, and the other located between two P atoms. Our investigations were performed with DFT calculations at the GGA level as implemented in the VASP code.
Ab initio study of the lattice dynamics of CsNiF3.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Legut, Dominik; Wdowik, U. D.
2010-01-01
Ro?. 22, ?. 43 (2010), Art. no. 435402. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) MEB051015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : CsNiF3 * 1D ferromagnet * phonon * ab initio Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.332, year: 2010
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ma, D.; Friák, Martin; von Pezold, J.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.
2015-01-01
Ro?. 85, FEB (2015), s. 53-66. ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Solid-solution strengthening * DFT * Peierls–Nabarro model * Ab initio * Al alloys Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.465, year: 2014
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hemzalová, P.; Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír; Ma, D.; Udyansky, A.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.
2013-01-01
Ro?. 88, ?. 17 (2013), Art . no. 174103. ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP108/12/0311; GA ?R GD106/09/H035; GA AV ?R IAA100100920 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : nitrides * ab initio * thermodynamics * elasticity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.664, year: 2013
The onset of ion solvation by ab initio calculations: Comparison of water and methanol.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pluha?ová, Eva; Jungwirth, Pavel
2008-01-01
Ro?. 73, 6/7 (2008), s. 733-744. ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ?R GA203/07/1006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ions * water cluster * methanol * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.784, year: 2008
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Dra?ínský, Martin; Möller, H. M.; Exner, T. E.
2013-01-01
Ro?. 9, ?. 8 (2013), s. 3806-3815. ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ab initio molecular dynamics * NMR spectroscopy * DFT calculations * hydration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2013
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maršálek, Ond?ej; Uhlig, F.; Jungwirth, Pavel
2010-01-01
Ro?. 114, ?. 48 (2010), s. 20489-20495. ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/08/0114; GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : solvated electron * water clusters * ab initio molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.520, year: 2010
Ab-initio modeling of an anion $C_{60}^-$ pseudopotential for fullerene-based compounds
Vrubel, I I; Ivanov, V K
2015-01-01
A pseudopotential of $C_{60}^-$ has been constructed from ab-initio quantum-mechanical calculations. Since the obtained pseudopotential can be easily fitted by rather simple analytical approximation it can be effectively used both in classical and quantum molecular dynamics of fullerene-based compounds.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sandlöbes, S.; Pei, Z.; Friák, Martin; Zhu, L.-F.; Wang, F.; Zaefferer, S.; Raabe, D.; Neugebauer, J.
2014-01-01
Ro?. 70, MAY (2014), s. 92-104. ISSN 1359-6454 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Magnesium * Rare-earth elements * Ductility * Modeling * Ab initio Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.465, year: 2014
Magnetoelastic coupling in epitaxial magnetic films: An ab-initio study
Komelj, Matej; Faehnle, Manfred
2000-01-01
A method is developed which allows to determine the first-order and the second-order magnetoelastic coefficients of a magnetic bulk material from the ab-initio calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy as function of a prestrain. Excplicit results are given for bcc Fe, and they agree well with experimental data obtained from the magnetostrictive stress measurements for epitaxial Fe films.
Ab initio study of electronic structure and crystalline phases of tellurium.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hemzalová, P.; Legut, Dominik; Šob, Mojmír
Bratislava : Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, 2007, s. 29-31. [Študentská vedecká konferencia. Bratislava (SK), 18.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA1041302; GA MŠk OC 147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : electronic structure * tellurium * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio MO calculations were applied to the evaluation of repulsion energies in highly charged HBr ions. Net charges of H and Br atoms were obtained from the Mulliken atomic population, and repulsion energies were estimated by a simplified model based on the Coulomb repulsion. The repulsion energy of HBr8+ was calculated to be 71.5 eV. (Auth.)
Ab initio SCF polarisabilities and electron-molecule adiabatic polarisation potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio calculations of the static electric-dipole polarisability and the adiabatic polarisation potential including all multipole terms for electron scattering are reported for H2. The dependence of the polarisation potential on distance to the electron, orientation of the molecule, and internuclear distance is examined. (author)
UGLIENGO, Piero; Corno, Marta
2008-01-01
How does glycine adsorb at hydroxyapatite surfaces? Ab initio simulations based on periodic B3LYP GTO calculations reveal the detailed mechanism of binding to the (001) and (010) surfaces by shedding light on how acid and basic amino acid residues of proteins interact with hydroxyapatite based biomaterials.
The small index property of automorphism groups of ab-initio generic structures
Ghadernezhad, Zaniar
2015-01-01
Suppose $M$ is a countable ab-initio (uncollapsed) generic structure which is obtained from a pre-dimension function with rational coefficients. We show that if $H$ is a subgroup of $\\mbox{Aut}\\left(M\\right)$ with $\\left[\\mbox{Aut}\\left(M\\right):H\\right
AB initio investigation of infrared optic phonon modes splitting in TiSe crystal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The calculation technique of a splitting of infrared optical optical phonon frequencies on longitudinal and transverse modes is described. The analysis of splitting at the Brillouin zone center and influence of these splitting on phonon spectrum is carried out on the base of TiSe phonon spectrum derived from ab initio calculations, performed earlier in other papers
Stabilization of Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations at Large Time Steps
Tsuchida, Eiji
2014-01-01
The Verlet method is still widely used to integrate the equations of motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the stability limit of the Verlet method may be significantly increased by setting an upper limit on the kinetic energy of each atom with only a small loss in accuracy. The validity of this approach is demonstrated for molten lithium fluoride.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The phonon dispersion relations of bulk hexagonal boron nitride have been determined from inelastic x-ray scattering measurements and analyzed by ab initio calculations. Experimental data and calculations show an outstanding agreement and reconcile the controversies raised by recent experimental data obtained by electron-energy loss spectroscopy and second-order Raman scattering
Ab initio Nuclear structure Theory with chiral two- plus three-nucleon interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low-energy nuclear theory has entered an era of ab initio nuclear structure and reaction calculations based on input from QCD. One of the most promising paths from QCD to nuclear observables employs Hamiltonians constructed within chiral effective field theory as consistent starting point for precise ab initio nuclear structure and reaction studies. However, the full inclusion of chiral two- plus three-nucleon (NN+3N) interactions in exact and approximate many-body calculations still poses a formidable challenge. We discuss recent developments towards this goal, ranging from consistent Similarity Renormalization Group evolutions of NN+3N Hamiltonians to large-scale ab initio calculations for ground states and spectra in the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model with full 3N interactions. We highlight recent achievements and discuss open issues and future perspectives for nuclear structure theory with QCD-based interactions. Moreover, we discuss successful steps towards merging ab initio structure and reaction theory and show applications to low-energy reactions in the p-shell relevant for astrophysics.
Ab initio prediction of vacancy properties in concentrated alloys: The case of fcc Cu-Ni
Zhang, Xi; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.
2015-05-01
Vacancy properties in concentrated alloys continue to be of great interest because nowadays ab initio supercell simulations reach a scale where even defect properties in disordered alloys appear to be within reach. We show that vacancy properties cannot generally be extracted from supercell total energies in a consistent manner without a statistical model. Essential features of such a model are knowledge of the chemical potential and imposition of invariants. In the present work, we derive the simplest model that satisfies these requirements and we compare it with models in the literature. As illustration we compute ab initio vacancy properties of fcc Cu-Ni alloys as a function of composition and temperature. Ab initio density functional calculations were performed for SQS supercells at various compositions with and without vacancies. Various methods of extracting alloy vacancy properties were examined. A ternary cluster expansion yielded effective cluster interactions (ECIs) for the Cu-Ni-Vac system. Composition and temperature dependent alloy vacancy concentrations were obtained using statistical thermodynamic models with the ab initio ECIs. An Arrhenius analysis showed that the heat of vacancy formation was well represented by a linear function of temperature. The positive slope of the temperature dependence implies a negative configurational entropy contribution to the vacancy formation free energy in the alloy. These findings can be understood by considering local coordination effects.
Molina-Sánchez, A.; García-Cristóbal, A.; Bester, G.
2012-11-01
We present a semiempirical pseudopotential method based on screened atomic pseudopotentials and derived from ab initio calculations. This approach is motivated by the demand for pseudopotentials able to address nanostructures, where ab initio methods are both too costly and insufficiently accurate at the level of the local density approximation, while mesoscopic effective-mass approaches are inapplicable due to the small size of the structures along, at least, one dimension. In this work, we improve the traditional pseudopotential method by a two-step process: First, we invert a set of self-consistently determined screened ab initio potentials in wurtzite GaN for a range of unit-cell volumes, thus determining spherically symmetric and structurally averaged atomic potentials. Second, we adjust the potentials to reproduce observed excitation energies. We find that the adjustment represents a reasonably small perturbation over the potential, so that the ensuing potential still reproduces the original wave functions, while the excitation energies are significantly improved. We furthermore deal with the passivation of the dangling bonds of free surfaces which is relevant for the study of nanowires and colloidal nanoparticles. We present a methodology to derive passivant pseudopotentials from ab initio calculations. We apply our pseudopotential approach to the exploration of the confinement effects on the electronic structure of GaN nanowires.
Ab initio molecular quantum defect theory: II. Rydberg and continuum states of NO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The artificial well potential (AWP) formalism presented in the preceding paper which combines ab initio quantum chemistry with multichannel quantum defect theory is illustrated here with calculations of the Rydberg and continuum states of NO. Total energies, effective quantum numbers and transition intensities have been evaluated
High accuracy ab initio calculations on reactions of OH with 1-alkenes. The case of propene.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Izsák, R.; Szöri, Milan; Knowles, P. J.; Viskolcz, B.
2009-01-01
Ro?. 5, ?. 9 (2009), s. 2313-2321. ISSN 1549-9618 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : multireference ab initio calculations * OH-addition * H- abstraction by OH Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.804, year: 2009
Optical Spectroscopy of the Bulk and Interfacial Hydrated Electron from Ab Initio Calculations.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Uhlig, Frank; Herbert, J. M.; Coons, M. P.; Jungwirth, Pavel
2014-01-01
Ro?. 118, ?. 35 (2014), s. 7507-7515. ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrated electron * optical spectrum * ab initio molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2014
Ab initio molecular dynamics approach to a quantitative description of ion pairing in water.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pluha?ová, Eva; Maršálek, Ond?ej; Schmidt, B.; Jungwirth, Pavel
2013-01-01
Ro?. 4, ?. 23 (2013), s. 4177-4181. ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ?R GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ion pairing * charge transfer * water * ab initio molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.687, year: 2013
Ab initio study of one-dimensional disorder on III-V semiconductor surfaces.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Romanyuk, Olexandr; Grosse, F.; Braun, W.
2010-01-01
Ro?. 7, ?. 2 (2010), s. 330-333. ISSN 1862-6351 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R KAN300100802 Grant ostatní: German Resarch Fondation(DE) GZ:436 TSE 113/62/0-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : atomic disorder * ab initio * semiconductor * reconstruction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Magnetism and interface roughness in Fe/GaAs and Fe{sub 3}Si/GaAs systems: An ab initio study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herper, Heike C.; Entel, Peter [Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2009-07-01
The combination of Fe or the quasi Heusler Fe{sub 3}Si with GaAs has attracted quite some interest due to the high spin-polarization of the ferromagnets and the tiny lattice mismatch. However, the actual size of the magnetic moments in hybrid structures depends on the growth conditions, direction, and surface termination. We studied the magnetic properties of Fe and Fe-Si films grown on GaAs with respect to interdiffusion and surface orientation. In case of GaAs(001) surface reconstruction is also included. From our calculations it turns out that nearly no diffusion occurs if Fe{sub 3}Si is grown on GaAs(110), which seems to be related to the absence of surface reconstruction. The Vienna Ab-initio Simulation Package (VASP) using the Projector Augmented Wave (PAW) method has been employed to study the structural and magnetic properties of the systems. In order to investigate interdiffusion effects additional calculations are performed by using a Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) method within the coherent potential approximation (CPA).
Single-ion 4f element magnetism: an ab-initio look at Ln(COT)2(.).
Gendron, Frédéric; Pritchard, Benjamin; Bolvin, Hélène; Autschbach, Jochen
2015-11-18
The electron densities associated with the Ln 4f shell, and spin and orbital magnetizations ('magnetic moment densities'), are investigated for the Ln(COT)2(-) series. The densities are obtained from ab-initio calculations including spin-orbit coupling. For Ln = Ce, Pr the magnetizations are also derived from crystal field models and shown to agree with the ab-initio results. Analysis of magnetizations from ab-initio calculations may be useful in assisting research on single molecule magnets. PMID:26510902
Aryal, Sita Ram
The alumino-silicate solid solution series (Al 4+2xSi2-2 xO10-x) is an important class of ceramics. Except for the end member (x=0), Al2 SiO5 the crystal structures of the other phases, called mullite, have partially occupied sites. Stoichiometric supercell models for the four mullite phases 3Al2O 3 · 2SiO2 · 2Al 2O3 · SiO2, 4 Al2O3· SiO 2, 9Al2O3 · SiO2, and iota-Al2 O3 (iota-alumina) are constructed starting from experimentally reported crystal structures. A large number of models were built for each phase and relaxed using the Vienna ab initio simulation package (VASP) program. The model with the lowest total energy for a given x was chosen as the representative structure for that phase. Electronic structure and mechanical properties of mullite phases were studied via first-principles calculations. Of the various phases of transition alumina, iota-Al 2O3 is the least well known. In addition structural details have not, until now, been available. It is the end member of the aluminosilicate solid solution series with x=1. Based on a high alumina content mullite phase, a structural model for iota- Al2O3 is constructed. The simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this model agrees well with a measured XRD pattern. The iota-Al2 O3 is a highly disordered ultra-low-density phase of alumina with a theoretical density of 2854kg/m3. Using this theoretically constructed model, elastic, thermodynamic, electronic, and spectroscopic properties of iota-Al2 O3 have been calculated and compared it with those of alpha- Al2O3 and gamma- Al2O3. Boron carbide (B4C) undergoes an amorphization under high velocity impacts. The mechanism of amorphization is not clear. Ab initio methods are used to carry out large-scale uniaxial compression simulations on two polytypes of stoichiometric boron carbide (B4C), B 11C-CBC, and B12- CCC where B11C or B12 is the 12-atom icosahedron and CBC or CCC is the three-atom chain. The simulations were performed on large supercells of 180 atoms. Simulated results indicate bending of the three-atom chain leads to the amorphization of the B 11C-CBC (B12-CCC ) at a uniaxial strain s=0.23 (0.22) and with a maximum stress of 168 (151) GPa. The mechanism of amorphization is analyzed with radial pair distribution function (RPDF), total density of states (TDOS), and the distribution of effective charges on atoms.
Marsalek, Ondrej
2015-01-01
Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ab initio ring polymer contraction (AI-RPC) scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive pro...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsushita, Y., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Murakawa, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Shimamura, K., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Oishi, M., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Ohyama, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Kurita, N., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan)
2015-02-27
The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.
Ab initio ro-vibrational structure of the C2? isotopes of H2O+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The ro-vibrational structures of the C2? isotopes of H2O+ have been calculated from variational solution of the normal coordinate Eckart-Watson Hamiltonian. The calculations use the discrete ab initio potential energy surface of Weis et al. (1989). Where comparisons can be made, the assignment of the vibrational states is in excellent agreement with experiment and with the ab initio variational calculation of Weis et al., who utilised a different force field and an internal coordinate nuclear Hamiltonian (instead of the Eckart-Watson Hamiltonian). Furthermore, the calculated rotational levels of the ground and the first excited vibrational states of H2O+ are in excellent agreement with experiment. 26 refs., 6 tabs., 1 fig
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo
Zen, Andrea; Luo, Ye; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Guidoni, Leonardo; Sorella, Sandro
2015-04-01
Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems.
Ab Initio Calculations of Even Oxygen Isotopes with Chiral Two- Plus Three-Nucleon Interactions
Hergert, H; Calci, A; Langhammer, J; Roth, R
2013-01-01
We formulate the In-Medium Similarity Renormalization Group (IM-SRG) for open-shell nuclei using a multi-reference formalism based on a generalized Wick theorem introduced in quantum chemistry. The resulting multi-reference IM-SRG (MR-IM-SRG) is used to perform the first ab initio study of even oxygen isotopes with chiral NN and 3N Hamiltonians, from the proton to the neutron drip lines. We obtain an excellent reproduction of experimental ground-state energies with quantified uncertainties, which is validated by results from the Importance-Truncated No-Core Shell Model and the Coupled Cluster method. The agreement between conceptually different many-body approaches and experiment highlights the predictive power of current chiral two- and three-nucleon interactions, and establishes the MR-IM-SRG as a promising new tool for ab initio calculations of medium-mass nuclei far from shell closures.
Ab initio calculation of valley splitting in monolayer \\delta-doped phosphorus in silicon
Drumm, Daniel W; Per, Manolo C; Russo, Salvy P; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L
2012-01-01
The differences in energy between electronic bands due to valley splitting are of paramount importance in interpreting transport spectroscopy experiments on state-of-the-art quantum devices defined by scanning tunneling microscope lithography. We develop a plane-wave density functional theory description of these systems which is size-limited due to computational tractability. We then develop a less resource-intensive alternative via localized basis functions, retaining the physics of the plane-wave description, and extend this model beyond the capability of plane-wave methods to determine the ab initio valley splitting of well-isolated \\delta-layers. In obtaining agreement between plane-wave and delocalized methods, we show that the valley splitting has been overestimated in previous ab initio calculations by more than 50%.
Implicit infinite lattice summations for real space ab initio correlation methods
Albrecht, M
2005-01-01
We suggest a local wave function based ab initio correlation method for infinite periodic systems, which can describe both the near range as well as the long range correlation effects coherently in the same scheme. Specifically, this work introduces a formalism which allows to describe the long range polarization cloud around a quasi particle in a solid explicitly in the formalism of local wave function based ab initio descriptions. To this end we reformulate the infinite lattice summation underlying the quantum chemistry formula to second order in a closed analytic form employing the elliptic theta function of the third kind. All formulas and manipulations are developed explicitely in full detail and a first numeric example demonstrates the principle idea. Good results for the long range polarization effects in LiH and LiF are found in agreement with earlier estimates.
Nuclear quantum effects in ab initio dynamics: theory and experiments for lithium imide
Ceriotti, Michele; Pietropaolo, Antonino; Colognesi, Daniele; Nale, Angeloclaudio; Catti, Michele; Bernasconi, Marco; Parrinello, Michele
2010-01-01
Owing to their small mass, hydrogen atoms exhibit strong quantum behavior even at room temperature. Including these effects in first principles calculations is challenging, because of the huge computational effort required by conventional techniques. Here we present the first ab-initio application of a recently-developed stochastic scheme, which allows to approximate nuclear quantum effects inexpensively. The proton momentum distribution of lithium imide, a material of interest for hydrogen storage, was experimentally measured by inelastic neutron scattering experiments and compared with the outcome of quantum thermostatted ab initio dynamics. We obtain favorable agreement between theory and experiments for this purely quantum mechanical property, thereby demonstrating that it is possible to improve the modelling of complex hydrogen-containing materials without additional computational effort.
{\\it Ab initio} nuclear structure - the large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem
Vary, James P; Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao; Sosonkina, Masha
2009-01-01
The structure and reactions of light nuclei represent fundamental and formidable challenges for microscopic theory based on realistic strong interaction potentials. Several {\\it ab initio} methods have now emerged that provide nearly exact solutions for some nuclear properties. The {\\it ab initio} no core shell model (NCSM) and the no core full configuration (NCFC) method, frame this quantum many-particle problem as a large sparse matrix eigenvalue problem where one evaluates the Hamiltonian matrix in a basis space consisting of many-fermion Slater determinants and then solves for a set of the lowest eigenvalues and their associated eigenvectors. The resulting eigenvectors are employed to evaluate a set of experimental quantities to test the underlying potential. For fundamental problems of interest, the matrix dimension often exceeds $10^{10}$ and the number of nonzero matrix elements may saturate available storage on present-day leadership class facilities. We survey recent results and advances in solving t...
Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla(HP)-171005 (India); Thakur, Anil [Department of Physics, Govt. P. G. College Solan (HP)-173212 (India)
2015-05-15
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.
Operator evolution for ab initio electric dipole transitions of 4He
Schuster, Micah D.; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin W.; Jurgenson, Eric D.; Navrátil, Petr
2015-07-01
A goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative predictions of low-energy nuclear observables starting from accurate microscopic internucleon forces. A major element of such an effort is applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence of ab initio calculations as a function of the model space size. The consistent simultaneous transformation of external operators, however, has been overlooked in applications of the theory, particularly for nonscalar transitions. We study the evolution of the electric dipole operator in the framework of the similarity renormalization group method and apply the renormalized matrix elements to the calculation of the 4He total photoabsorption cross section and electric dipole polarizability. All observables are calculated within the ab initio no-core shell model. We find that, although seemingly small, the effects of evolved operators on the photoabsorption cross section are comparable in magnitude to the correction produced by including the chiral three-nucleon force and cannot be neglected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The procedure of deriving ab initio effective core potentials (ECP) to incorporate the Coulomb and exchange effects as well as orthogonality constraints from the inner core electrons is extended to include the dominant relativistic effects on the valence orbitals. An ab initio approach is then described which enables the valence electrons in heavy atoms to be treated in a standard nonrelativistic manner by including the effect of the relativistic core-valence interactions directly into the ECP. The starting point for this procedure is the Pauli Hartree-Fock relativistic treatment of Cowan and Griffin. The pseudo-orbital transformation and derivation of the l-dependent effective core potentials are analogous to the nonrelativistic case with certain modifications. Analytic forms for the pseudo-orbitals and ECP's are derived for the U atom, and results of valence electron calculations are presented
An efficient time-stepping scheme for ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
Tsuchida, Eiji
2015-01-01
In ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of real-world problems, the simple Verlet method is still widely used for integrating the equations of motion, while more efficient algorithms are routinely used in classical molecular dynamics. We show that if the Verlet method is used in conjunction with pre- and postprocessing, the accuracy of the time integration is significantly improved with only a small computational overhead. The validity of the processed Verlet method is demonstrated in several examples including ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water. The structural properties obtained from the processed Verlet method are found to be sufficiently accurate even for large time steps close to the stability limit. This approach results in a 2x performance gain over the standard Verlet method for a given accuracy.
Large-scale ab initio configuration interaction calculations for light nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In ab-initio Configuration Interaction calculations, the nuclear wavefunction is expanded in Slater determinants of single-nucleon wavefunctions and the many-body Schrodinger equation becomes a large sparse matrix problem. The challenge is to reach numerical convergence to within quantified numerical uncertainties for physical observables using finite truncations of the infinite-dimensional basis space. We discuss strategies for constructing and solving the resulting large sparse matrix eigenvalue problems on current multicore computer architectures. Several of these strategies have been implemented in the code MFDn, a hybrid MPI/OpenMP Fortran code for ab-initio nuclear structure calculations that can scale to 100,000 cores and more. Finally, we will conclude with some recent results for 12C including emerging collective phenomena such as rotational band structures using SRG evolved chiral N3LO interactions.
Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by Quantum Monte Carlo
Zen, Andrea; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Guidoni, Leonardo; Sorella, Sandro
2014-01-01
Despite liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in excellent agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous Density Functional Theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab-initio simulations of complex chemical systems.
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems
Ab initio determination of an extended Heisenberg Hamiltonian in CuO2 layers
Calzado, C J; Calzado, Carmen J.; Malrieu, Jean-Paul
2000-01-01
Accurate ab initio calculations on embedded Cu_4O_{12} square clusters, fragments of the La_2CuO_4 lattice, confirm a value of the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling (J=124 meV) previously obtained from ab initio calculations on bicentric clusters and in good agreement with experiment. These calculations predict non negligible antiferromagnetic second-neighbor interaction (J'=6.5 meV) and four-spin cyclic exchange (K=14 meV), which may affect the thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of these materials. The dependence of the magnetic coupling on local lattice distortions has also been investigated. Among them the best candidate to induce a spin-phonon effect seems to be the movement of the Cu atoms, changing the Cu-Cu distance, for which the variation of the nearest neighbor magnetic coupling with the Cu-O distance is {\\Delta J}/{\\Delta d_{Cu-O}}\\sim 1700 cm^{-1} A^{-1}.
Ab initio determination of an extended Heisenberg Hamiltonian in CuO2 layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accurate ab initio calculations on embedded Cu4O12 square clusters, fragments of the La2CuO4 lattice, confirm a value of the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling (J = 124 meV) previously obtained from ab initio calculations on bicentric clusters and in good agreement with experiment. These calculations predict non negligible antiferromagnetic second-neighbor interaction (J' = 6.5 meV) and four-spin cyclic exchange (K = 14 meV), which may affect the thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of these materials. The dependence of the magnetic coupling on local lattice distortions has also been investigated. Among them the best candidate to induce a spin-phonon effect seems to be the movement of the Cu atoms, changing the Cu-Cu distance, for which the variation of the nearest neighbor magnetic coupling with the Cu-O distance is ?J/?dCu-O ? 1700 cm -1 A -1. (orig.)
Constant pressure ab initio molecular dynamics with discrete variable representation basis sets
Ma, Zhonghua; Tuckerman, Mark
2010-11-01
The use of discrete variable representation (DVR) basis sets within ab initio molecular dynamics calculations allows the latter to be performed with converged energies and, more importantly, converged forces. In this paper, we show how to carry out ab initio molecular dynamics calculations in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble with fully flexible simulation boxes within the DVR basis set framework. In particular, we derive the appropriate DVR based expression for the pressure tensor when the electronic structure is represented using Kohn-Sham density functional theory, and we examine the convergence of this expression as a function of the basis set size. An illustrative example using 64 silicon atoms in a fully flexible box using a combination of the Martyna-Tobias-Klein [Martyna et al., J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4177 (1994)] and Car-Parrinello [Car and Parinello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2471 (1985)] algorithms is presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the approach.
B28: the smallest all-boron cage from an ab initio global search
Zhao, Jijun; Huang, Xiaoming; Shi, Ruili; Liu, Hongsheng; Su, Yan; King, R. Bruce
2015-09-01
Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures.Our ab initio global searches reveal the lowest-energy cage for B28, which is built from two B12 units and prevails over the competing structural isomers such as planar, bowl, and tube. This smallest boron cage extends the scope of all-boron fullerene and provides a new structural motif of boron clusters and nanostructures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Planar isomer structures of B28 and spatial distributions of front molecular orbitals. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04034e
Heuvel, Willem Van den; Calvello, Simone; Soncini, Alessandro
2015-01-01
We present an ab initio methodology dedicated to the determination of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of ground and low-lying excited states, i.e., the crystal field levels, in lanthanide(III) complexes. Currently, the most popular and successful ab initio approach is the CASSCF/RASSI-SO method, consisting of the optimization of multiple complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) spin eigenfunctions, followed by full diagonalization of the spin--or...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The deuterium quadrupole coupling constant, ?D, in the PDO32- anion has been measured in solution by NMR spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time measurements and it has been calculated via ab initio methods. The experimental value of 94.7 ± 0.5 kHz is in excellent agreement with the ab initio value of 95.0 kHz. The activation energy for the ion reorientation is 2.23 ± 0.01 kJ mol-1
Physical origin of satellite in photoemission of doped graphene: An ab-initio GW plus cumulant study
Lischner, Johannes; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Louie, Steven G.
2013-01-01
We calculate the photoemission spectra of suspended and epitaxial doped graphene using an ab initio cumulant expansion of the Green's function based on the GW self-energy. Our results are compared to experiment and to standard GW calculations. For doped graphene on a silicon carbide substrate, we find, in contrast to earlier calculations, that the spectral function from GW only does not reproduce experimental satellite properties. However, ab initio GW plus cumulant theory c...
Kamarulzaman Abdul Ghani; Mohammad Shiham Mahfuz; Abdul Jamir Md. Saad; Nik Mohd. Rahimi Nik Yusoff
2014-01-01
This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between Language Learning Strategies (LLS) and the level of proficiency of students in Arabic Ab Initio language. There were also several studies done to investigate the achievement of students and their frequent usage of these Language Learning Strategies. Meanwhile, the level of student proficiency was measured by their results based on college-level exam results before they were registered in the Arabic Ab Initio classes. 162 year 1 stud...
Transition pathway in GaAs under uniaxial stress: an ab initio study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the behaviour of GaAs under a uniaxial compression using an ab initio constant-pressure technique and find that GaAs undergoes a first-order phase transition to a side-disordered orthorhombic Imm 2 structure via an intermediate state having the space group of I4-barm2. The transition pathway and mechanism under uniaxial stress are found to be considerably different from those under the hydrostatic compression
Arnaud, Roger; Barone, Vincenzo; Olivella, Santiago; Sole, Albert
1985-08-01
Addition of methyl radicals to ethylene and acetylene has been studied by ab initio molecular-orbital calculations. In agreement with experimental data, we find that, although addition to ethylene is characterized by a lower activation energy, addition to acetylene is faster due to the opposite and larger trend of pre-exponential factors. The reaction barriers have been analyzed by the energy decomposition scheme proposed by Morokuma.
All electron ab initio investigations of the electronic states of the FeC molecule
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl A.
1999-01-01
The low lying electronic states of the molecule FeC have been investigated by performing all electron ab initio multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) and multi reference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. The relativistic corrections for the one electron Darwin contact term and the relativistic mass-velocity correction have been determined in perturbation calculations. The electronic structure of the FeC molecule is interpreted as antiferromagnetic couplings of the local...
All Electron ab initio Investigations of the Electronic States of the MoN Molecule
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl A.
1999-01-01
The low lying electronic states of the molecule MoN have been investigated by performing all electron ab initio multi-configuration self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculations. The relativistic corrections for the one electron Darwin contact term and the relativistic mass-velocity correction have been determined in perturbation calculations. The electronic ground state is confirmed as being 4 . The chemical bond of MoN has triple bond character due to the approximately fully occupied delocalized...
Ab Initio Investigations of the C2F4S Isomers and of Their Interconversions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shim, Irene; Vallano-Lorenzo, Sandra; Lisbona-Martin, Pilar; Senning, Alexander
2003-01-01
The transition states and the activation energies for the unobserved isomerization reactions between the three possible C2F4S isomers with divalent sulfur, trifluorothioacetyl fluoride 1, tetrafluorothiirane 2, and trifluoroethenesulfenyl fluoride 3, have been determined by ab initio Hartree-Fock, Møller-Plesset second order perturbation calculations and by Gaussian-3 theory. The results show that the unobserved isomerization reactions are feasible. Furthermore, all three isomers should exist as...
Two-gap superconductivity in heavily n-doped graphene: Ab initio Migdal-Eliashberg theory
Margine, ER; Giustino, F.
2014-01-01
Graphene is the only member of the carbon family from zero- to three-dimensional materials for which superconductivity has not been observed yet. At this time, it is not clear whether the quest for superconducting graphene is hindered by technical challenges, or else by the fluctuation of the order parameter in two dimensions. In this area, ab initio calculations are useful to guide experimental efforts by narrowing down the search space. In this spirit, we investigate from first principles t...
The role of ab initio electronic structure calculations in multiscale modelling of materials.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šob, Mojmír
Cambridge, England : Woodhead Publishing and Maney Publishing, 2007 - ( Guo , Z.), s. 1-24 ISBN 978-1-84569-071-7 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/03/1351; GA AV ?R IAA1041302; GA MŠk OC 147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : multiscale modelling * electronic structure * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Ab initio study of the migration of intrinsic defects in 3C-SiC
Bockstedte, Michel; Mattausch, Alexander; Pankratov, Oleg
2003-01-01
The diffusion of intrinsic defects in 3C-SiC is studied using an ab initio method based on density functional theory. The vacancies are shown to migrate on their own sublattice. The carbon split-interstitials and the two relevant silicon interstitials, namely the tetrahedrally carbon-coordinated interstitial and the -oriented split-interstitial, are found to be by far more mobile than the vacancies. The metastability of the silicon vacancy, which transforms into a vacancy-an...
A set of molecular models based on quantum mechanical ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data
Eckl, Bernhard; Vrabec, Jadran; Hasse, Hans
2009-01-01
A parameterization strategy for molecular models on the basis of force fields is proposed, which allows a rapid development of models for small molecules by using results from quantum mechanical (QM) ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data. The geometry of the molecular models is specified according to the atom positions determined by QM energy minimization. The electrostatic interactions are modeled by reducing the electron density distribution to point dipoles and po...
Gao, Haiyuan; Xu, Yang; Li, Meijiao; Guo, Zhendong; Chen, Hongshen; Jin, Zhonghe; Yu, Bin
2011-01-01
Electronic transport properties of monolayer graphene with extreme physical bending up to 90o angle are studied using ab Initio first-principle calculations. The importance of key structural parameters including step height, curvature radius and bending angle are discussed how they modify the transport properties of the deformed graphene sheet comparing to the corresponding flat ones. The local density of state reveals that energy state modification caused by the physical be...
Properties of defect centres on nanothick silica layers: an ab initio investigation
COLUCCIA, Salvatore; Martra, Gianmario
2007-01-01
The structural, vibrational and electronic properties of the nanothick surfaces of mesoporous molecular sieves have been investigated at a microscopic level by ab-initio molecular dynamics. Simulations were performed on a series of 1-nm thick layers of a-SiO2 exhibiting different kinds of defects and on two reference samples of bulk amorphous silica. Our results show that the nanometre thickness of the mesoporous silica walls strictly influences the properties of the defect centres.
Pair potentials for alumina from ab initio results on the Al2O3 molecule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use results from an ab initio investigation by Chang et al. on energetically low-lying stationary points of the Al2O3 molecule to determine interionic potentials for the Al-O, O-O and Al-Al pairs. Our results are discussed in the perspective of previous studies of the condensed phases of alumina, with special regard to the structure of its molten state. (author)
Fertitta, E.; Paulus, B; Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö.
2014-01-01
We have studied the Metal-Insulator like Transition (MIT) in lithium and beryllium ring-shaped clusters through ab initio Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method. Performing accurate calculations for different interatomic distances and using Quantum Information Theory (QIT) we investigated the changes occurring in the wavefunction between a metallic-like state and an insulating state built from free atoms. We also discuss entanglement and relevant excitations amon...
Ab initio study of charge transport through single oxygen molecules in atomic aluminum contacts
Schön, G.; Wohlthat, S.; Pauly, F.; Viljas, J. K.; J. C. Cuevas
2009-01-01
We present ab initio calculations of transport properties of atomic-sized aluminum contacts in the presence of oxygen. The experimental situation is modeled by considering a single oxygen atom (O) or one of the molecules O2 and O3 bridging the gap between electrodes forming ideal, atomically sharp pyramids. The transport characteristics are computed for these geometries with increasing distances between the leads, simulating the opening of a break junction. To facilitate com...
Pernot, Pascal
2008-01-01
Bayesian Model Calibration is used to revisit the problem of scaling factor calibration for semi-empirical correction of ab initio calculations. A particular attention is devoted to uncertainty evaluation for scaling factors, and to their effect on prediction of observables involving scaled properties. We argue that linear models used for calibration of scaling factors are generally not statistically valid, in the sense that they are not able to fit calibration data within t...
Experimental IR study and ab initio modelling of ethylene adsorption in a MFI - type host zeolite
Zvereva-Loëte, Natalia; Ballandras, Anthony; Weber, Guy; ROTGER, Maud; Boudon, Vincent
2009-01-01
Abstract Different ab initio methods and experimental results are used to investigate the effect of the adsorption of one ethylene molecule on silicalite-1, a MFI type zeolite. We used simplified models to simulate a portion of a straight or sinusoidal channel of silicalite-1 at a quantum level. The calculated absorption spectra of the models are qualitatively in good agreement with the experimental FTIR spectrum of silicalite-1. Additionally we simulate the FTIR spectrum of the ...
GlimmerM, Exonomy and Unveil: three ab initio eukaryotic genefinders
Majoros, William H; Pertea, Mihaela; Antonescu, Corina; Salzberg, Steven L.
2003-01-01
We present three programs for ab initio gene prediction in eukaryotes: Exonomy, Unveil and GlimmerM. Exonomy is a 23-state Generalized Hidden Markov Model (GHMM), Unveil is a 283-state standard Hidden Markov Model (HMM) and GlimmerM is a previously-described genefinder which utilizes decision trees and Interpolated Markov Models (IMMs). All three are readily re-trainable for new organisms and have been found to perform well compared to other genefinders. Results are presented for Arabidopsis ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bork, Nicolai Christian; Du, Lin; Reiman, Heidi; Kurtén, Theo; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum
2014-01-01
Models of formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols are highly dependent on accurate cluster binding energies. These are most often calculated by ab initio electronic structure methods but remain associated with significant uncertainties. We present a computational benchmarking study of the Gibbs free binding energies in molecular complexes and clusters based on gas phase FTIR spectroscopy. The acetonitrile-HCl molecular complex is identified via its redshifted H-Cl stretching vibrational mod...
Ab-initio calculations of diffusion barriers of small vacancy clusters in silicon
Markevich, Alexander
2009-01-01
Esta tese apresenta os resultados de um programa de investigação sobre a difusão da lacuna, bi-lacuna e tri-lacuna em silício utilizando simulações numéricas pelo método da teoria do funcional da densidade. Este método está implementado na forma de um programa informático referido como AIMPRO (Ab Initio Modelling PROgram). Para o cálculo dos pontos cela dos mecanismos de difusão foi usado o método “Nudged Elastic Band”. As condições fronteira dos problemas foram impostas recorrendo à...
Ab initio study of antiphase boundaries and stacking faults in L12 and DO22 compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosengaard, N. M.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1994-01-01
We have performed ab initio calculations of the energies of antiphase boundaries as well as complex and superlattice intrinsic stacking faults in nine intermetallic compounds observed in the face-centered-cubic L1(2) and DO22 structures. The calculations were performed by means of a Green's function technique based on the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method within the tight-binding and atomic-sphere approximations.
Härkönen, Ville J.; Karttunen, Antti J.
2014-01-01
The thermal and lattice dynamical properties of seven silicon clathrate framework structures are investigated with ab initio density functional methods (frameworks I, II, IV, V, VII, VIII, and H). The negative thermal expansion (NTE) phenomenon is investigated by means of quasiharmonic approximation and applying it to equal time displacement correlation functions. The thermal properties of the studied clathrate frameworks, excluding the VII framework, resemble those of the c...
Structural properties of ${\\alpha}$-RuCl$_3$: an ab-initio study
Kim, Heung-Sik; Kee, Hae-Young
2015-01-01
$\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ has been proposed recently as an excellent playground for exploring Kitaev physics on a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb lattice. However, structural clarification of the compound has not been completed, which is crucial in understanding the physics of this system. Here, using {\\it ab-initio} electronic structure calculations, we study a full three dimensional (3D) structure of $\\alpha$-RuCl$_3$ including the effects of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and electroni...
Ab initio study of electronic structure and crystalline phases of tellurium.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hemzalová, P.; Legut, Dominik; Šob, Mojmír
Brno : Masarykova univerzita, 2007 - (Trnková, L.; Janderka, P.; Kizek, R.), s. 57-58 ISBN 978-80-210-4235-3. [Pracovní setkání fyzikálních chemik? a elektrochemik? /7./. Brno (CZ), 29.01.2007-30.01.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA1041302; GA MŠk OC 147 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : electronic structure * tellurium * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Ab initio calculations for S=-2, A=4-6 s-shell hypernuclei with strangeness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe full-coupled-channel ab initio calculations for S=-2, A=4-6 s-shell hypernuclei. The wave function includes explicit ??, ??, ?? and ?? channels. Minnesota ??, D2' ?? and Nijmegen model D (or F) simulated ?? interactions are used. Bound state solutions of the ?? hypernuclei, ??4H, ??5H, ??5He and ??6He, are obtained. This is the first attempt to explore the few-body problem of the full-coupled channel scheme for these systems. (author)
Ab initio study of the TiO$_2$ Rutile(110)/Fe interface
Gruenebohm, Anna; Herper, Heike C.; Entel, Peter
2013-01-01
Adsorption of Fe on the rutile (110)-surface is investigated by means of {\\it ab initio} density functional theory calculations. We discuss the deposition of single Fe atoms, an increasing Fe coverage, as well as the adsorption of small Fe clusters. It is shown that the different interface structures found in experiment can be understood in terms of the adsorption of the Fe atoms landing first on the rutile surface. On the one hand, strong interface bonds form if single Fe a...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ehala, Sille; Dybal, Ji?í; Makrlík, E.; Kaši?ka, Václav
2009-01-01
Ro?. 32, ?. 4 (2009), s. 597-604. ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA203/06/1044; GA ?R(CZ) GA203/08/1428; GA AV ?R 1ET400500402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : capillary affinity electrophoresis * valinomycin * ab initio calculation Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2009
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of hydrogen fluoride at several thermodynamic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kreitmeir, M.; Bertagnolli, H.; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Parrinello, M.
2003-01-01
Liquid hydrogen fluoride is a simple but interesting system for studies of the influence of hydrogen bonds on physical properties. We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of HF at several thermodynamic states, where we examine the microscopic structure of the liquid as well as its static and dynamic properties. The results obtained show good agreement with well established data, and, moreover, we were able to show significant changes within the structure depending on the syste...
Raman Spectroscopy and Ab-Initio Model Calculations on Ionic Liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Rolf W.
2007-01-01
A review of the recent developments in the study and understanding of room temperature ionic liquids are given. An intimate picture of how and why these liquids are not crystals at ambient conditions is attempted, based on evidence from crystallographical results combined with vibrational spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular orbital calculations. A discussion is given, based mainly on some recent FT-Raman spectroscopic results on the model ionic liquid system of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4m...
Ab initio configuration interaction calculations on the hydrogen molecular excimer, H4*
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Results of ab initio configuration interaction calculations are presented for a simple model of molecular excimers, (H4)*. Preliminary SCF calculations as well as several levels of CI are discussed for the lowest three singlet and triplet states of H4. Square, rectangular, and regular trapezoidal geometries of H4 are examined. The results of this study are significantly better in a quantitative sense than earlier work on the excited states of H4. (Auth.)
Ab initio I-V characteristics of short C-20 chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roland, C.; Larade, B.; Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Guo, H.
2002-01-01
We have calculated the I-V characteristics of short chains of C-20 molecular cages between Al and Au leads with an ab initio formalism. The results indicate that a linear chain of such molecules acts primarily as metallic nanowires. The transmission, however, depends sensitively both on the orientation and distance between the individual C-20 molecules. Transport through the molecular chains is accompanied by a significant amount of charge transfer, which remains localized at the electrode/molec...
Ab initio excited states calculations of Kr3+, probing semi-empirical modelling.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Milko, Petr; Kalus, R.; Paidarová, Ivana; Hrušák, Jan; Gadéa, F. X.
-, 23 June (2009), s. 25. ISSN 1432-2234 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : cluster model ling * rare gas ions * ab initio potential energie * evaporation energies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.springerlink.com/content/100493/?Content+Status=Accepted&sort=p_OnlineDate&sortorder=desc&v=condensed&o=20
Raman spectroscopy, ab-initio model calculations, and conformational, equilibria in ionic liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Rolf W.
2009-01-01
A review of the recent developments in the study and understanding of room temperature ionic liquids are given. An intimate picture of how and why these liquids are not crystals at ambient conditions is attempted, based on evidence from crystallographical results combined with vibrational spectroscopy and ab-initio molecular orbital calculations. A discussion is given, based mainly on some recent FT- Raman spectroscopic results on the model ionic liquid system of 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium ([C...
An ab initio study of core-valence correlation. [in atoms
Partridge, H.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Walch, S. P.; Liu, B.
1983-01-01
Especially in the cases of the first two columns of the periodic table, the inclusion of core-valence correlation in ab initio CI calculations yields a contraction of the atomic valence shell and improves both calculated atomic ionization potentials and atomic energy separations. For the alkali dimers Na2, K2, and Rb2, the presently calculated bond lengths are in excellent agreement with experiments when core-valence is included. In addition, the valence dissociation energies are accurate.
Ab initio modeling of boron related point defects in amorphous silicon
Oliveira, Tiago José Águeda
2011-01-01
O presente trabalho tem como principal objectivo modelar os defeitos pontuais de boro em silício amorfo, usando um método ab initio, o código de teoria da densidade funcional – pseudopotencial (AIMPRO). Os complexos de boro foram introduzidos em supercélulas de 64 átomos de silício. Os defeitos de boro foram estudados em 15 supercélulas diferentes. Estas supercélulas foram obtidas por um mecanismo de troca de ligação Wooten-Winer-Weaire por Ribeiro et al. (2010). Em média, a...
Relativistic ab initio study of forbidden transitions of singly ionized Zinc using CCSD(T)
Dixit, Gopal; Sahoo, B. K.; Chaudhuri, R. K.; Majumder, Sonjoy
2007-01-01
In this work, the {\\it ab initio} calculations have been carried out to study the oscillator strengths corresponding to `forbidden transitions' of astrophysically important electromagnetic transitions of singly ionized zinc, Zn II. Many important electron correlations are considered to all-orders using the relativistic coupled-cluster theory. Calculated ionization potentials are compared with the experimental values, wherever available. To our knowledge, oscillator strengths...
Operator evolution for ab initio electric dipole transitions of 4He
Schuster, Micah D.; Quaglioni, Sofia; Johnson, Calvin W.; Jurgenson, Eric D.; Navratil, Petr
2013-01-01
A goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative predictions of low-energy nuclear observables starting from accurate microscopic internucleon forces. A major element of such an effort is applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence of ab initio calculations as a function of the model space size. The consistent simultaneous transformation of external operators, however, has been overlooked in applications of the theo...
Glowacki, Leszek; Migdalek, Jacek
2006-04-01
The relativistic configuration-interaction (CI) method with numerical Dirac-Fock wavefunctions generated in the field of ab initio screened model potential is used to compute oscillator strengths for some spin-allowed and spin-forbidden ns2 1S0-nsnp 1P1, 3P1 transitions in light systems with two valence electrons: beryllium, magnesium and zinc. The present results are discussed and compared with other theoretical and experimental data available.
Ab initio study of phase transformations in transition-metal disilicides.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Ká?a, Tomáš; Šob, Mojmír; Vitek, V.
2011-01-01
Ro?. 19, ?. 7 (2011), s. 919-926. ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA100100920; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10008 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : silicides various * phase transformation * plastic deformation mechanisms * defects * dislocation geometry and arrangement * ab-initio calculations * aero- engine components Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2011
Ab initio calculations of ideal tensile strength and mechanical stability in copper.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
?erný, M.; Šob, Mojmír; Pokluda, J.; Šandera, P.
2004-01-01
Ro?. 16, ?. 7 (2004), s. 1045-1052. ISSN 0953-8984 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/03/1351; GA AV ?R IAA1041302 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk1(CZ) 262100002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electronic structure * theoretical tensile strength Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.049, year: 2004
i-PI: A Python interface for ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations
Ceriotti, M.; More, J; Manolopoulos, DE
2014-01-01
Recent developments in path integral methodology have significantly reduced the computational expense of including quantum mechanical effects in the nuclear motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. However, the implementation of these developments requires a considerable programming effort, which has hindered their adoption. Here we describe i-PI, an interface written in Python that has been designed to minimise the effort required to bring state-of-the-art path integral techniques...
Expanded phase of ZrO2: An ab initio constant-pressure study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The stability of ZrO2 in the tensile regime is studied using an ab initio constant-pressure technique. A first-order phase transformation from the baddeleyite structure to an anatase-like structure (I41/amd) is predicted through the constant-pressure simulation. A transformation mechanism at the atomistic level is discussed. Furthermore this phase transformation is studied from the energy-volume calculations. (author)
Expanded phase of ZrO{sub 2}: An ab initio constant-pressure study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durandurdu, M. [Texas at El Paso - El Paso Univ., Dept. of Physics, TX (United States); Ahi Evran Univ., Fizik Bolumu, Kirsehir (Turkey)
2009-12-15
The stability of ZrO{sub 2} in the tensile regime is studied using an ab initio constant-pressure technique. A first-order phase transformation from the baddeleyite structure to an anatase-like structure (I4{sub 1}/amd) is predicted through the constant-pressure simulation. A transformation mechanism at the atomistic level is discussed. Furthermore this phase transformation is studied from the energy-volume calculations. (author)
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid sodium and cesium up to critical point
Yuryev, Anatoly A.; Gelchinski, Boris R.
2015-08-01
Ab initio modeling of liquid metals Na and K is carried out using the program SIESTA. We have determined the parameters of the model (the optimal step, the number of particles, the initial state etc) and calculated a wide range of properties: the total energy, pair correlation function, coefficient of self-diffusion, heat capacity, statistics of Voronoi polyhedra, the density of electronic states up to the critical temperature.
Projector augmented wave method: ab initio molecular dynamics with full wave functions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Peter E Blöchl; Clemens J Först; Johannes Schimpl
2003-01-01
A brief introduction to the projector augmented wave method is given and recent developments are reviewed. The projector augmented wave method is an all-electron method for efficient ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with full wave functions. It extends and combines the traditions of existing augmented wave methods and the pseudopotential approach. Without sacrificing efficiency, the PAW method avoids transferability problems of the pseudopotential approach and it has been valuable to predict properties that depend on the full wave functions.
Advances and applications in the FIREBALL ab initio tight-binding molecular-dynamics formalism.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lewis, J.P.; Jelínek, Pavel; Ortega, J.; Demkov, A.A.; Trabada, D.G.; Haycock, B.; Wang, H.; Adams, G.; Tomfohr, J.K.; Abad, E.; Wang, Ho.; Drabold, D.A.
2011-01-01
Ro?. 248, ?. 9 (2011), 1989-2007. ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA202/09/0545; GA ?R GAP204/10/0952 Grant ostatní: AV?R(CZ) M100100904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : DFT * ab initio molecular-dynamics Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2011
Ab initio simulation of three-axial deformation of perfect iron crystal.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
?erný, M.; Šandera, P.; Pokluda, J.; Friák, Martin; Šob, Mojmír
Brno : Vutium, 2001, s. 146-150. ISBN 80-214-1892-3. [Materials Structure and Micromechanics of Fracture /3./. VUT Brno (CZ), 27.06.2001-29.06.2001] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA1010817; GA ?R GA106/99/1178 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ab initio calculations * ideal strength * lmto-asa Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
How fragility makes phase-change data storage robust: insights from ab initio simulations
Zhang, Wei; Ronneberger, Ider; Zalden, Peter; XU Ming; SALINGA, Martin; Wuttig, Matthias; Mazzarello, Riccardo
2014-01-01
Phase-change materials are technologically important due to their manifold applications in data storage. Here we report on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of crystallization of the phase change material Ag4In3Sb67Te26 (AIST). We show that, at high temperature, the observed crystal growth mechanisms and crystallization speed are in good agreement with experimental data. We provide an in-depth understanding of the crystallization mechanisms at the atomic level. At temperatures below 55...
Ab initio study of the work functions of elemental metal crystals
Fall, Caspar
1999-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the theoretical study of the physical characteristics of metallic surfaces. Ab initio quantum calculations are performed to determine the electronic properties of clean elemental metal surfaces, fully accounting for the material's atomic structure. We aim to understand the atomicscale mechanisms responsible for the dependence of the work function on the surface geometry, including the crystallographic orientation of the surface, the atomic relaxation and reconstr...
Ab-initio calculation of the ${}^6Li$ binding energy with the Hybrid Multideterminant scheme
Puddu, Giovanni
2010-01-01
We perform an ab-initio calculation for the binding energy of ${}^6Li$ using the CD-Bonn 2000 NN potential renormalized with the Lee-Suzuki method. The many-body approach to the problem is the Hybrid Multideterminant method. The results indicate a binding energy of about $31 MeV$, within a few hundreds KeV uncertainty. The center of mass diagnostics are also discussed.
A Deep Learning Network Approach to ab initio Protein Secondary Structure Prediction
Spencer, Matt; Eickholt, Jesse; Cheng, Jianlin
2014-01-01
Ab initio protein secondary structure (SS) predictions are utilized to generate tertiary structure predictions, which are increasingly demanded due to the rapid discovery of proteins. Although recent developments have slightly exceeded previous methods of SS prediction, accuracy has stagnated around 80% and many wonder if prediction cannot be advanced beyond this ceiling. Disciplines that have traditionally employed neural networks are experimenting with novel deep learning techniques in atte...
Recent developments in ab-initio few-body scattering calculations including the Coulomb interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recent progress on the solution of ab-initio three- and four-nucleon scattering equations in momentum space that include the correct treatment of the Coulomb interaction is reviewed; results for specific observables in reactions initiated by p + d, p + 3He and n + 3He are shown. In addition three-body calculations of d + 12C reactions are compared with equivalent CDCC calculations. Presented at the 20th Few-Body Conference, Pisa, Italy, 10-14 September 2007 (author)
Ab initio calculation of Quasi-equilibrium microcracks in cubic boron nitride
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A crack in cubic boron nitride crystal was simulated within ab initio density-functional theory. The lattice constant, critical stress intensity factor Kc, which describes crack creation stress, and fracture surface energy ? were calculated from the elongated 2 x 6 x 1 supercell and these quantities agree quite well with the experimental data. We conclude that density-functional theory can be used to estimate crack's material constants. (author)
Ab Initio Calculations of Deuterium Isotope Effects on Chemical Shifts of Salt-Bridged Lysines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ullah, Saif; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Williamson, Mike P.; Hansen, Poul Erik
2011-01-01
Deuterium isotope effects measure the change in chemical shift on substitution of a proton by deuterium. They have been calculated by direct treatment of the H/D nuclear quantum effect using a multicomponent ab initio molecular orbital method based on a non-Born?Oppenheimer approximation. This method enables the determination of both the electronic and the protonic (deuteronic) wave functions simultaneously and can directly calculate the geometrical difference induced by H/D isotope effects. The...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The interaction potential energy surface (PES) of H4 is of great importance for quantum chemistry, as a test case for molecule--molecule interactions. It is also required for a detailed understanding of certain astrophysical processes, namely, collisional excitation and dissociation of H2 in molecular clouds, at densities too low to be accessible experimentally. Accurate ab initio energies were computed for 6046 conformations of H4, using a multiple reference (single and) double excitation configuration interaction (MRD-CI) program. Both systematic and ''random'' errors were estimated to have an rms size of 0.6 mhartree, for a total rms error of about 0.9 mhartree (or 0.55 kcal/mol) in the final ab initio energy values. It proved possible to include in a self-consistent way ab initio energies calculated by Schwenke, bringing the number of H4 conformations to 6101. Ab initio energies were also computed for 404 conformations of H3; adding ab initio energies calculated by other authors yielded a total of 772 conformations of H3. (The H3 results, and an improved analytic PES for H3, are reported elsewhere.) Ab initio energies are tabulated in this paper only for a sample of H4 conformations; a full list of all 6101 conformations of H4 (and 772 conformations of H3 ) is available from Physics Auxiliary Publication Service (PAPS), or from the authors
Modeling of nuclear glasses by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A calcium aluminosilicate glass of molar composition 67 % SiO2 - 12 % Al2O3 - 21 % CaO was modelled by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. The size effect study in classical MD shows that the systems of 100 atoms are more ordered than the larger ones. These effects are mainly due to the 3-body terms in the empirical potentials. Nevertheless, these effects are small and the structures generated are in agreement with experimental data. In such kind of glass, we denote an aluminium avoidance and an excess of non bridging oxygens which can be compensated by tri-coordinated oxygens. When the dynamics of systems of 100 and 200 atoms is followed by ab initio MD, some local arrangements occurs (bond length, angular distributions). Thus, more realistic vibrational properties are obtained in ab initio MD. The modelling of thin films shows that aluminum atoms extend to the most external part of the surface and they are all tri-coordinated. Calcium atoms are set in the sub layer part of the surface and they produce a depolymerization of the network. In classical MD, tri-coordinated aluminium atoms produce an important electric field above the surface. With non bridging oxygens, they constitute attractive sites for single water molecules. (author)
Geng, Hua Y.
2015-02-01
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model-the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of rs = 0.912.
Geng, Hua Y
2014-01-01
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model, the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4 fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibration...
Ab initio study of the reaction of ozone with bromide ion.
Gladich, Ivan; Francisco, Joseph S; Buszek, Robert J; Vazdar, Mario; Carignano, Marcelo A; Shepson, Paul B
2015-05-14
Surface level ozone destruction in polar environments may be initiated by oxidation of bromide ions by ozone, ultimately leading to Br2 production. Ab initio calculations are used to support the development of atmospheric chemistry models, but errors can occur in study of the bromide-ozone reaction due to inappropriate treatment of the many-electron species and the ionic nature of the reaction. In this work, a high level ab initio study is used to take into account the electronic correlation and the polarization effects. Our results show three possible pathways for the reaction. In particular, we find that this process, though endothermic on the singlet spin state surface, can be energetically feasible on the triplet surface. The triplet surface can be reached through photoexcitation of ozone or by the spin crossing of the potential energy surface. Because this process is known to occur in the dark, it may be that it occurs after intersystem crossing to a triplet surface. This paper also provides a starting point calibration for any future ab initio calculation studies of the bromide-ozone reaction, from the gas to the condensed phase. PMID:25642913
Modelling of nuclear glasses by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A calcium aluminosilicate glass of molar composition 67 % SiO2 - 12 % Al2O3 - 21 % CaO was modelled by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. The size effect study in classical MD shows that the systems of 100 atoms are more ordered than the larger ones. These effects are mainly due to the 3-body terms in the empirical potentials. Nevertheless, these effects are small and the structures generated are in agreement with experimental data. In such kind of glass, we denote an aluminium avoidance and an excess of non bridging oxygens which can be compensated by tri coordinated oxygens. When the dynamics of systems of 100 and 200 atoms is followed by ab initio MD, some local arrangements occurs (bond length, angular distributions). Thus, more realistic vibrational properties are obtained in ab initio MD. The modelling of thin films shows that aluminium atoms extend to the most external part of the surface and they are all tri-coordinated. Calcium atoms are set in the sub layer part of the surface and they produce a depolymerization of the network. In classical MD, tri-coordinated aluminium atoms produce an important electric field above the surface. With non bridging oxygens, they constitute attractive sites for single water molecules. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The behaviour of silicon carbide under irradiation has been studied using classical and ab initio simulations, focusing on the nano scale elementary processes. First, we have been interested in the calculation of threshold displacement energies, which are difficult to determine both experimentally and theoretically, and also the associated Frenkel pairs. In the framework of this thesis, we have carried out simulations in classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. For the classical approach, two types of potentials have been used: the Tersoff potential, which led to non satisfactory results, and a new one which has been developed during this thesis. This potential allows a better modelling of SiC under irradiation than most of the empirical potentials available for SiC. It is based on the EDIP potential, initially developed to describe defects in silicon, that we have generalized to SiC. For the ab initio approach, the feasibility of the calculations has been validated and average energies of 19 eV for the C and 38 eV for the Si sublattices have been determined, close to the values empirically used in the fusion community. The results obtained with the new potential EDIP are globally in agreement with those values. Finally, the elementary processes involved in the crystal recovery have been studied by calculating the stability of the created Frenkel pairs and determining possible recombination mechanisms with the nudged elastic band method. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geng, Hua Y., E-mail: huay.geng@gmail.com [National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-102, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Baker Laboratory, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
2015-02-15
A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model—the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4-fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased up to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibrational free energy of the FCC phase of dense hydrogen at 300 K is also calculated with an AI-PIMD thermodynamic integration method, which gives a result of about 0.51 eV/proton at a density of r{sub s}=0.912.
Atomic-like shell models for alkali trimers derived from ab initio calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Alkali metal clusters have received great attention due to their role as bridge between atomic and solid state physics. Among the smallest clusters, the trimers are of special interest, since these systems provide complex spectra including Jahn-Teller distortions, yet the spectra are well defined and still accessible via ab initio calculations. The experimental spectra, as well as ab initio calculations, show a regular pattern of electronic states. High level ab initio calculations [CCSD(T), CASPT2] provide detailed information about the participating electronic orbitals, and allow us to rationalize the observed patterns in terms of simplified shell models. For the low-spin states of K3 the standard electron-droplet model offers a qualitative explanation. In this simplified picture the electronic states are interpreted as single electron excitations into delocalized molecular orbitals with typical atomic-like shape. For the description of the quartet manifolds of K3, K2Rb, KRb2 and Rb3 we utilize the eigenstates of a harmonic oscillator in a quantum-dot-like confining potential. (author)
Dominant Modes in Light Nuclei - Ab Initio View of Emergent Symmetries
Draayer, J. P.; Dytrych, T.; Launey, K. D.; Dreyfuss, A. C.; Langr, D.
2015-01-01
An innovative symmetry-guided concept is discussed with a focus on emergent symmetry patterns in complex nuclei. In particular, the ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model (SA-NCSM), which capitalizes on exact as well as partial symmetries that underpin the structure of nuclei, provides remarkable insight into how simple symmetry patterns emerge in the many-body nuclear dynamics from first principles. This ab initio view is complemented by a fully microscopic no-core symplectic shell-model framework (NCSpM), which, in turn, informs key features of the primary physics responsible for the emergent phenomena of large deformation and alpha-cluster substructures in studies of the challenging Hoyle state in Carbon-12 and enhanced collectivity in intermediate-mass nuclei. Furthermore, by recognizing that deformed configurations often dominate the low-energy regime, the SA-NCSM provides a strategy for determining the nature of bound states of nuclei in terms of a relatively small subspace of the symmetry-reorganized complete model space, which opens new domains of nuclei for ab initio investigations, namely, the intermediate-mass region, including isotopes of Ne, Mg, and Si.
Iron -chromium alloys and free surfaces: from ab initio calculations to thermodynamic modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferritic steels possibly strengthened by oxide dispersion are candidates as structural materials for generation IV and fusion nuclear reactors. Their use is limited by incomplete knowledge of the iron-chromium phase diagram at low temperatures and of the phenomena inducing preferential segregation of one element at grain boundaries or at surfaces. In this context, this work contributes to the multi-scale study of the model iron-chromium alloy and their free surfaces by numerical simulations. This study begins with ab initio calculations of properties related to the mixture of atoms of iron and chromium. We highlight complex dependency of the magnetic moments of the chromium atoms on their local chemical environment. Surface properties are also proving sensitive to magnetism. This is the case of impurity segregation of chromium in iron and of their interactions near the surface. In a second step, we construct a simple energy model for high numerical efficiency. It is based on pair interactions on a rigid lattice to which are given local chemical environment and temperature dependencies. With this model, we reproduce the ab initio results at zero temperature and experimental results at high temperature. We also deduce the solubility limits at all intermediate temperatures with mean field approximations that we compare to Monte Carlo simulations. The last step of our work is to introduce free surfaces in our model. We then study the effect of ab initio calculated bulk and surface properties on surface segregation.Finally, we calculate segregation isotherms. We therefore propose an evolution model of surface composition of iron-chromium alloys as a function of bulk composition. which are given local chemical environment and temperature dependencies. With this model, we reproduce the ab initio results at zero temperature and experimental results at high temperature. We also deduce the solubility limits at all intermediate temperatures with mean field approximations that we compare to Monte Carlo simulations. The last step of our work is to introduce free surfaces in our model. We then study the effect of ab initio calculated bulk and surface properties on surface segregation. Finally, we calculate segregation isotherms. We therefore propose an evolution model of surface composition of iron-chromium alloys as a function of bulk composition. (author)
Vogel, Eckhard; Hellmann, Robert; Bich, Eckard
2008-01-01
Abstract A neon-neon interatomic potential energy curve was derived from quantum-mechanical ab initio calculations using basis sets of up to t-aug-cc-pV6Z quality supplemented with bond functions and ab initio methods up to CCSDT(Q). In addition, corrections for relativistc effects were determined. An analytical potential function was fitted to the ab initio values and utilized to calculate the rovibrational spectra. The quality of the interatomic potential function was tested by c...
Ab initio theories of electric transport in solid systems with reduced dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio theories of electric transport in solid systems with reduced dimensions, i.e., systems that at best are characterized by two-dimensional translational invariance, are reviewed in terms of a fully relativistic description of the Kubo-Greenwood equation. As the use of this equation requires concepts such as collinearity and non-collinearity in order to properly define resistivities or resistances corresponding to particular magnetic configurations, respective consequences of the (local) density functional theory are recalled in quite a detailed manner. Furthermore, since theoretical descriptions of solid systems with reduced dimensions require quantum mechanical methods different from bulk systems (three-dimensional periodicity), the so-called Screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (SKKR-) method for layered systems is introduced together with a matching coherent potential approximation (inhomogeneous CPA). The applications shown are mainly meant to illustrate various aspects of electric transport in solid systems with reduced dimensions and comprise not only current-in-plane (CIP) experiments, but also current perpendicular to the planes of atoms geometries, consequences of tunneling, and finite nanostructures at or on metallic substrates. In order to give a more complete view of available ab initio methods also a non-relativistic approach based on the Tight Binding Linear Combination of muffin tin orbitals (TB-LMTO-) method and the so-called Kubo-Landauer equation in terms of transmission and reflection matrices is presented. A compilation of references with respect to ab-initio type approaches not explicitly discussed in here finally concludes the discussion of electric properties in solid systems with reduced dimensions
Time-dependent Born charges of lithium borate melts by ab initio molecular dynamics
Ohkubo, Takahiro; Tsuchida, Eiji; Iwadate, Yasuhiko
2014-09-01
We present time-dependent Born effective charges of B and O in lithium borate melts determined by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations. The Born charge, based on polarization theory, is calculated from all atoms at each time step of the AIMD run. The time-averaged charge distributions are obtained for specific chemical species such as three-coordinated B, four-coordinated B, bridging O (Ob) and, non-bridging O (Onb). Ob and Onb have similar time-averaged charge distributions, indicating that positively charged Li+ is compensated not only by Onb but also by the glass network of the melt as a whole.
Ab initio calculations on low-energy structures of perindopril erbumine.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Czernek, Ji?í
Cavtat : World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS), 2006, s. 26-29. ISBN 960-8457-46-7. ISSN 1790-5109. [International Conference on Mathematics and Computers in Biology and Chemistry /7./. Cavtat (HR), 12.06.2006-15.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ?R 1ET400500402; GA AV ?R IAA400500602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : perindopril erbumine * perindoprilat * ab initio Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.wseas.org
Ab initio no core calculations of light nuclei and preludes to Hamiltonian quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vary, J.P.; Maris, P.; /Iowa State U.; Shirokov, A.M.; /Iowa State U. /SINP, Moscow; Honkanen, H.; li, J.; /Iowa State U.; Brodsky, S.J.; /SLAC; Harindranath, A.; /Saha Inst.; Teramond, G.F.de; /Costa Rica U.
2009-08-03
Recent advances in ab initio quantum many-body methods and growth in computer power now enable highly precise calculations of nuclear structure. The precision has attained a level sufficient to make clear statements on the nature of 3-body forces in nuclear physics. Total binding energies, spin-dependent structure effects, and electroweak properties of light nuclei play major roles in pinpointing properties of the underlying strong interaction. Eventually,we anticipate a theory bridge with immense predictive power from QCD through nuclear forces to nuclear structure and nuclear reactions. Light front Hamiltonian quantum field theory offers an attractive pathway and we outline key elements.
Ab initio calculation of coverage-dependent adsorption properties of H on Pd(001)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The preferential adsorption sites, bond lengths, and vibration frequencies for H on the Pd (001) surface are determined by use of the ab initio pseudopotential local-orbital method. From the calculated total energies we derive a coverage-dependent adsorption energy in very good agreement with experiment. We establish that at low coverages (theta?1), H occupies fourfold hollow sites. At higher coverages (1< theta?2), islands of bridge-bonded H (local coverage theta = 2) are predicted to coexist with regions of H in hollow sites
Synthesis and Ab Initio/DFT Studies on 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzo[d]thiazole
ÃƒÂ–ztekin AlgÃƒÂ¼l; Hakan Arslan
2007-01-01
2-aminothiophenol and 4-methoxybenzaldehyde were cyclized under microwave irridation and solvent free conditions to synthesize 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)benzo[d]thiazole. The molecular structure and vibrational frequencies of the title compound in the ground state have been investigated with ab initio (HF) and density functional theory methods (BLYP, B3LYP, B3PW91 and mPW1PW91) implementing the standard 6–311G(d,p) basis set. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of title co...
An Ab Initio MP2 Study of HCN-HX Hydrogen Bonded Complexes
Araújo Regiane C.M.U.; Ramos Mozart N.
1998-01-01
An ab initio MP2/6-311++G** study has been performed to obtain geometries, binding energies and vibrational properties of HCN-HX H-bonded complexes with X = F, Cl, NC, CN and CCH. These MP2/6-311++G** results have revealed that: (i) the calculated H-bond lengths are in very good agreement with the experimental ones; (ii) the H-bond strength is associated with the intermolecular charge transfer and follows the order: HCN-HNC ~ HCN-HF > HCN-HCl ~ HCN-HCN > HCN-HCCH; (iii) BSSE correction introd...
Ab initio description of transverse transport due to impurity scattering in transition-metals
Zimmermann, Bernd
2014-01-01
This thesis attempts to shed light on various spin-orbit driven transport phenomena in materials, as a crucial for the further development of the field of spintronics. In particular, we address the skew-scattering mechanism in dilute alloys, which gives rise to the anomalous and spin Hall effect, as well as spin-relaxation processes. We create the tools to access these quantities from ab initio calculations in the framework of the full-potential all-electron Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green-funct...
Raman and ab initio studies of simple and binary 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, R.W.; Deetlefs, M.; Seddon, K.R.; Shim, Irene; Thompson, J.M.
2005-01-01
Raman spectra of the ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF6]), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(6)mim]Cl), and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)mim][PF6]), and binary mixtures thereof, have been assigned using ab initio MP2 calculations. The previously reported anti and gauche forms of the [C(4)mim](+) cation have been observed, and this study reveals this to be a general feature of the long-chain I-alkyl derivatives. Analysis o...
"Ab initio" studies of hydrogen-enhanced oxygen diffusion in silicon
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
R. B., Capaz; L. V. C., Assali; L. C., Kimerling; K., Cho; J. D., Joannopoulos.
1999-12-01
Full Text Available A novel microscopic mechanism for hydrogen-enhanced oxygen diffusion in p-doped silicon is proposed. A path for joint diffusion of O and H is obtained from an ab-initio molecular dynamics "kick" simulation. The migration pathway consists of a two-step mechanism, with a maximum energy of 1.46 eV. Thi [...] s path represents a 0.54 eV reduction in the static barrier when compared with the diffusion of isolated O in Si, in excellent agreement with experiments.
Atomic defects in D03-Ni3Sb: An ab initio study
Bester, G.; Meyer, B.; Fähnle, M.
1998-05-01
The effective formation energies and the effective formation volumes of atomic defects in the ordered compound NixSb1-x in the D03 structure are calculated by the statistical mechanics in combination with the ab initio electron theory. For the Sb-rich compounds the structural defect is the Ni vacancy on the ? sublattice. The stoichiometric compound is a pentadefect system where on the average four Ni vacancies on the ? sublattice and one Ni antistructure atom are generated. The calculations strongly support the interpretation of results from neutron-scattering experiments.
Overlap model and ab initio cluster calculations of polarisabilities of ions in solids
Domene, C; Fowler, PW; Madden, PA; Wilson, M.; Wheatley, RJ
1999-01-01
A recently developed overlap model for exchange-induction is used to simulate in-crystal anion polarisabilities for alkali halides and chalcogenides (LiF, NaF, KF, LiCl, NaCl, KCl, LiBr, NaBr, KBr, MgO, CaO, SrO, MgS, CaS and SrS) in overall qualitative agreement with results of ab initio cluster calculations and experiment. Extension to AgF supports the proposal that crystal-field splitting causes significant enhancement of cation polarisability for d10 systems, in contrast to the demonstrat...
Fertitta, E; Barcza, G; Legeza, Ö
2014-01-01
We have studied the Metal-Insulator like Transition (MIT) in lithium and beryllium ring-shaped clusters through ab initio Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) method. Performing accurate calculations for different interatomic distances and using Quantum Information Theory (QIT) we investigated the changes occurring in the wavefunction between a metallic-like state and an insulating state built from free atoms. We also discuss entanglement and relevant excitations among the molecular orbitals in the Li and Be rings and show that the transition bond length can be detected using orbital entropy functions. Also, the effect of different orbital basis on the effectiveness of the DMRG procedure is analyzed comparing the convergence behavior.
Current rectification by simple molecular quantum dots: an ab-initio study
Larade, B.; Bratkovsky, A. M.
2003-01-01
We calculate a current rectification by molecules containing a conjugated molecular group sandwiched between two saturated (insulating) molecular groups of different length (molecular quantum dot) using an ab-initio non-equilibrium Green's function method. In particular, we study S-(CH2)m-C10H6-(CH2)n-S dithiol with Naphthalene as a conjugated central group. The rectification current ratio ~35 has been observed at m = 2 and n = 10, due to resonant tunneling through the molec...
Thermodynamic and ab initio investigation of the A1-H-Mg system
Baricco, Marcello
2007-01-01
A coupled ab initio and thermodynamic study of the Al-H-Mg system has been carried out and a self-consistent thermodynamic database has been obtained. Magnesium alanate Mg(AlH4)2, a candidate material for hydrogen storage, has been included into the database. According to Density Functional first principles calculations, the alanate is an insulator and its thermodynamic properties have been obtained at room temperature. This compound has been found metastable at 298.15 K and 1 bar. The alanat...
Ab initio study of spin-dependent transport in carbon nanotubes with iron and vanadium adatoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Brandbyge, Mads; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Stokbro, Kurt
2008-01-01
We present an ab initio study of spin-dependent transport in armchair carbon nanotubes with transition metal adsorbates: iron or vanadium. The method based on density functional theory and nonequilibrium Green's functions is used to compute the electronic structure and zero-bias conductance. The presence of the adsorbate causes scattering of electrons of mainly one spin type. The scattering is shown to be due to a coupling of the two armchair band states to the metal 3d orbitals with matching sy...
Tuning magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic chains by exchange interactions: ab initio studies.
Tao, Kun; Guo, Qing; Jena, Puru; Xue, Desheng; Stepanyuk, Valeri S
2015-10-21
The possibility of using exchange interactions to manipulate the spin state of an antiferromagnetic nanostructure is explored using ab initio calculations. By considering M (M = Mn, Fe, Co) mono-atomic chains supported on Cu2N islands on a Cu(001) surface as a model system, it is demonstrated that two indistinguishable Néel states of an antiferromagnetic chain can be tailored into a preferred state by the exchange interaction with a magnetic STM tip. The magnitude and direction of the anisotropy for antiferromagnetic chains can also be tuned by exchange coupling upon varying the tip-chain separation. PMID:26387802
Ab initio studies of ionization potentials of hydrated hydroxide and hydronium
Swartz, Charles W
2013-01-01
The ionization potential distributions of hydrated hydroxide and hydronium are computed with many-body approach for electron excitations with configurations generated by {\\it ab initio} molecular dynamics. The experimental features are well reproduced and found to be closely related to the molecular excitations. In the stable configurations, the ionization potential is mainly perturbed by water molecules within the first solvation shell. On the other hand, electron excitation is delocalized on both proton receiving and donating complex during proton transfer, which shifts the excitation energies and broadens the spectra for both hydrated ions.
Heavy Metal Compounds and Hydrogen Storage Materials from Ab Initio Calculations
Sun, Weiwei
2013-01-01
In principle, most of the properties of solids can be determined by their electronic structures. So the understanding of electronic structures is essential. This thesis presents two classes of materials using ab initio method based on density functional theory. One is heavy metal compounds like Ta2AlC, ThO and the other one is hydrogen storage material namely MgH2 surfaces. The study of correlation and relativistic effects in Ta2AlC are presented. Based on our results, Ta2AlC is a weakly corr...
Ab initio study of magnesium alanate, Mg(AlH4)2
Setten, M.J. van; de Wijs, G. A.; Popa, V.A.; Brocks, G.
2005-01-01
Magnesium alanate Mg(AlH4)2 has recently raised interest as a potential material for hydrogen storage. We apply ab initio calculations to characterize structural, electronic and energetic properties of Mg(AlH4)2. Density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) are used to optimize the geometry and obtain the electronic structure. The latter is also studied by quasi-particle calculations at the GW level. Mg(AlH4)2 is a large band gap...
Exploration for Two-Dimensional Electrides via Database Screening and Ab Initio Calculation
Inoshita, Takeshi; Jeong, Sehoon; Hamada, Noriaki; Hosono, Hideo
2014-07-01
Inspired by the recent demonstration that Ca2N is a two-dimensional electride in which electrons near the Fermi level float between ionic layers, we have conducted a systematic search for 2D electrides by an approach combining crystal structure databases and ab initio electronic structure calculations. Starting from a set of working hypotheses, we have identified six 2D metallic electrides, of which one is nonmagnetic and five are nearly ferromagnetic ferrimagnets with a distinct spin texture. The latter five materials are the first magnetic electrides reported at ambient pressure.
Quantum chemistry the development of ab initio methods in molecular electronic structure theory
Schaefer III, Henry F
2004-01-01
This guide is guaranteed to prove of keen interest to the broad spectrum of experimental chemists who use electronic structure theory to assist in the interpretation of their laboratory findings. A list of 150 landmark papers in ab initio molecular electronic structure methods, it features the first page of each paper (which usually encompasses the abstract and introduction). Its primary focus is methodology, rather than the examination of particular chemical problems, and the selected papers either present new and important methods or illustrate the effectiveness of existing methods in predi
Monte Carlo methods in AB initio quantum chemistry quantum Monte Carlo for molecules
Lester, William A; Reynolds, PJ
1994-01-01
This book presents the basic theory and application of the Monte Carlo method to the electronic structure of atoms and molecules. It assumes no previous knowledge of the subject, only a knowledge of molecular quantum mechanics at the first-year graduate level. A working knowledge of traditional ab initio quantum chemistry is helpful, but not essential.Some distinguishing features of this book are: Clear exposition of the basic theory at a level to facilitate independent study. Discussion of the various versions of the theory: diffusion Monte Carlo, Green's function Monte Carlo, and release n
Ab initio calculation of the spectrum and structure of $^{16}$O
Epelbaum, Evgeny; Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rupak, Gautam
2013-01-01
We present ab initio lattice calculations of the low-energy even-parity states of $^{16}$O using chiral nuclear effective field theory. We find good agreement with the empirical energy spectrum, and with the electromagnetic properties and transition rates. For the ground state, we find that the nucleons are arranged in a tetrahedral configuration of alpha clusters. For the first excited spin-0 state, we find that the predominant structure is a square configuration of alpha clusters, with rotational excitations that include the first spin-2 state.
Ab initio studies of the tunneling magneto-Seebeck effect: influence of magnetic material
Heiliger, Christian; Franz, Christian; Czerner, Michael
2013-01-01
We found a strong influence of the composition of the magnetic material on the temperature dependence of the tunneling magneto-Seebeck effect in $MgO$ based tunnel junctions. We use \\textit{ab initio} alloy theory to consider different $Fe_xCo_{1-x}$ alloys for the ferromagnetic layer. Even a small change of the composition leads to strong changes in the magnitude or even in the sign of the tunneling magneto-Seebeck effect. This can explain differences between recent experim...
Ab initio many-body calculations of the 4He photo-absorption cross section
Schuster, Micah D; Johnson, Calvin W; Jurgenson, Eric D; Navratil, Petr
2013-01-01
A major goal of nuclear theory is to make quantitative calculations of low-energy nuclear observables starting from microscopic internucleon forces. Computationally, this is complicated by the large model spaces needed to reach convergence in many-body approaches, such as the no-core shell model (NCSM). In recent years, the similarity renormalization group (SRG) has provided a powerful and versatile means to soften interactions for ab initio structure calculations, thus leading to convergence within smaller model spaces. Here we compute the 4He total photo absorption cross section and study, for the first time, the consistency of the SRG approach in a continuum observable.
Ab initio studies of the electronic and transport properties of topological insulator-metal contacts
Spataru, Catalin; Leonard, Francois
2014-03-01
Topological insulators (TI) hold great promise for novel applications in electronics and optoelectronics. For such device applications, TIs need to be contacted with a metal for electron injection. Depending on the character and strength of the interaction, a metal contact can modify the properties of TI surface states and induce new states at the interface. In this work, we study via ab initio Density Functional Theory the electronic and transport properties of realistic interfaces between a thin film TI and several magnetic and non-magnetic metal surfaces. We will discuss how band topology, band bending and hybridization effects affect charge injection and the contact properties (Schotkky versus ohmic) of the interface.
Enhancing mechanical toughness of aluminum surfaces by nano-boron implantation: An ab initio study
Zhu, Zhen; Kwon, Dae-Gyeon; Kwon, Young-Kyun; Tománek, David
2015-01-01
Searching for ways to enhance surface hardness of aluminum, we study the equilibrium structure, stability, elastic properties and formation dynamics of a boron-enriched surface using ab initio density functional calculations. We used molecular dynamics simulations to model the implantation of energetic boron nanoparticles in Al and identify structural arrangements that optimize the formation of strong covalent Bsbnd Al bonds. Nano-indentation simulations based on constrained optimization suggest that presence of boron nanostructures in the subsurface region enhances significantly the mechanical hardness of aluminum surfaces.
Ab initio calculation of the vibrationally resolved O 1s photoelectron spectrum of CO2
Hahne, J. A.; Carroll, T. X.; Thomas, T. D.
1998-06-01
The oxygen 1s photoelectron spectrum for CO2 has been calculated using ab initio electronic structure theory, a localized hole simulated by the equivalent-cores approximation, and the harmonic-oscillator approximation. The predicted spectrum is found to be in good agreement with a recently reported experimental spectrum, and is in better agreement with the experimental spectrum than is an earlier prediction by Domcke and Cederbaum. The equivalence of the approach taken here and that used by Cederbaum and Domcke is discussed, as well as the reasons for the differences in the calculated results.
Holst, Bastian; Redmer, Ronald; 10.1103/PhysRevB.83.235120
2012-01-01
Using Kubo's linear response theory, we derive expressions for the frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (Kubo-Greenwood formula), thermopower, and thermal conductivity in a strongly correlated electron system. These are evaluated within ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to study the thermoelectric transport coefficients in dense liquid hydrogen, especially near the nonmetal-to-metal transition region. We also observe significant deviations from the widely used Wiedemann-Franz law which is strictly valid only for degenerate systems and give an estimate for its valid scope of application towards lower densities.
Ab initio study of the positron affinity of LiH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio calculations, within an LCAO-MO-SCF framework, are presented demonstrating that a positron can bind to the LiH molecule giving rise to a stable [LiH; e+] complex. The binding of the positron in [LiH; e+] is compared to that of the 'extra' electron in LiH-. In both cases the charge density of the 'extra' particle is dominated by the dipole field of the neutral molecule. In particular, both the positron affinity and the electron affinity are found to vary nearly linearly with the dipole moment which in turn varies nearly linearly with the Li-H bond length. (author)
Transport coefficients of helium-argon mixture based on ab initio potential.
Sharipov, Felix; Benites, Victor J
2015-10-21
The viscosity, thermal conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and thermal diffusion factor of helium-argon mixtures are calculated for a wide range of temperature and for various mole fractions up to the 12th order of the Sonine polynomial expansion with an ab initio intermolecular potential. The calculated values for these transport coefficients are compared with other data available in the open literature. The comparison shows that the obtained transport coefficients of helium-argon mixture have the best accuracy for the moment. PMID:26493894
Ab Initio Investigations of the C2F4S Isomers and of Their Interconversions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shim, Irene; Vallano-Lorenzo, Sandra
2003-01-01
The transition states and the activation energies for the unobserved isomerization reactions between the three possible C2F4S isomers with divalent sulfur, trifluorothioacetyl fluoride 1, tetrafluorothiirane 2, and trifluoroethenesulfenyl fluoride 3, have been determined by ab initio Hartree-Fock, Møller-Plesset second order perturbation calculations and by Gaussian-3 theory. The results show that the unobserved isomerization reactions are feasible. Furthermore, all three isomers should exist as stable species, but the unknown isomer, 3, is considerably less stable than the known isomers, 1 and 2.
Ab initio study of the dissociative recombination of HCNH{sup +}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ngassam, V [University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Centre for Atomic Molecular Physics and Quantum Optics, Douala (Cameroon); Orel, A E [University of California Davis, Davis, CA (United States); Suzor-Weiner, A [Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay (France)
2005-01-01
Dissociative recombination of protonated hydrogen cyanide HCNH{sup +} is a very important process in dark interstellar molecular clouds. The dominant mechanism that drives this process, either 'direct' through a resonance, or 'indirect' through Rydbergs is currently an issue of controversy. Only qualitative conclusions for the branching ratio between the HCN and HNC fragments is available. We will report ab initio electron scattering calculations using the complex Kohn variational method for low energy electron scattering from HCNH{sup +} using a correlated wave function for the target. Resonance energies and widths were abstracted and their behavior as a function of the internuclear geometry is studied.
Ab initio electronic properties of dual phosphorus monolayers in silicon
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drumm, Daniel W.; Per, Manolo C.
2014-01-01
In the midst of the epitaxial circuitry revolution in silicon technology, we look ahead to the next paradigm shift: effective use of the third dimension - in particular, its combination with epitaxial technology. We perform ab initio calculations of atomically thin epitaxial bilayers in silicon, investigating the fundamental electronic properties of monolayer pairs. Quantitative band splittings and the electronic density are presented, along with effects of the layers’ relative alignment and comments on disordered systems, and for the first time, the effective electronic widths of such device components are calculated.
Kolmogorov, A.N.; Shah, S; Margine, E. R.; Bialon, A. F.; Hammerschmidt, T.; Drautz, R.
2011-01-01
New candidate ground states at 1:4, 1:2, and 1:1 compositions are identified in the well-known Fe-B system via a combination of ab initio high-throughput and evolutionary searches. We show that the proposed oP12-FeB2 stabilizes by a break up of 2D boron layers into 1D chains while oP10-FeB4 stabilizes by a distortion of a 3D boron network. The uniqueness of these configurations gives rise to a set of remarkable properties: oP12-FeB2 is expected to be the first semiconducting...
Elastic Properties of CaSiO3 Perovskite from ab initio Molecular Dynamics
Shigeaki Ono
2013-01-01
Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the elasticity of cubic CaSiO3 perovskite at high pressure and temperature. All three independent elastic constants for cubic CaSiO3 perovskite, C11, C12, and C44, were calculated from the computation of stress generated by small strains. The elastic constants were used to estimate the moduli and seismic wave velocities at the high pressure and high temperature characteristic of the Earth’s interior. The dependence of temp...
Ramsdellite-structured LiTiO 2: A new phase predicted from ab initio calculations
Koudriachova, M. V.
2008-06-01
A new phase of highly lithiated titania with potential application as an anode in Li-rechargeable batteries is predicted on the basis of ab initio calculations. This phase has a composition LiTiO2 and may be accessed through electrochemical lithiation of ramsdellite-structured TiO2 at the lowest potential reported for titanium dioxide based materials. The potential remains constant over a wide range of Li-concentrations. The new phase is metastable with respect to a tetragonally distorted rock salt structure, which hitherto has been the only known polymorph of LiTiO2.
Balta, B.; Gianturco, F. A.
2000-04-01
Ab initio calculations are carried out, at various levels of treatment of correlation forces, for the orientation and distance dependence of the interaction between a helium atom and the structure of the ionic core found earlier in protonated He cluster studies, i.e. the linear (HeHHe) + triatomic molecular ion. Several aspects of the potential energy surface are discussed and specific details of the stable configuration analysed. The final energy surface is spline-fitted for further use in the stochastic calculations for the ground vibrational states of the small protonated clusters presented in a following paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Silicon is often described as the prototype covalent material, and when it comes to developing atomistic models this situation is well described by the sentiment that 'everything works for silicon'. The same cannot be said for carbon though, where the interaction potential has always proved problematical, be it with empirical, tight-binding or ab initio methods. Thus far the most decisive contributions to understanding amorphous carbon networks have come from ab initio simulations using the Car-Parrinello method, where the fully quantum treatment of the valence electrons has provided unexpected insight into the local structure. However such first principles calculations are restricted spatially and temporally to systems with approximately 100 atoms and times of order one picosecond. There is therefore demand for less expensive techniques capable of resolving important questions whose solution can only to found with larger simulations running for longer times. In the case of tetrahedral amorphous carbon, such issues include the release of compressive stress through annealing, the origin of graphitic surface layers and the nature of the film growth process and thermal spike. Against this background tight-binding molecular dynamics has emerged as a popular alternative to first principles methods, and our group has an ongoing program to understand film growth using one of the efficient variants of tight-binding. Another direction of research is a new empirical potential based on the Environment Dependent Interaction Potential (EDIP) recently developed for silicon. The EDIP approach represents a promising direction for empirical potentials through its use of ab initio data to motivate the functional form as well as the more conventional parametrisation. By inverting ab initio cohesive energy curves the authors of EDIP arrived at a pair potential expression which reduces to the well-known Stillinger-Weber form at integer coordination, while providing interpolation and extrapolation to situations where the coordination was either fractional or beyond the fitting data set. The application of EDIP to carbon has thus far been quite encouraging, in particular the two-body pair potential which exhibits a remarkably good degree of transferability to coordinations two and six, despite being fitted to only the graphene and diamond structures. Current development work is concentrating on the c-axis ?-repulsion and dihedral rotation penalties which are absent from the original EDIP. Preliminary molecular dynamics simulations using this modified EDIP provide a visual and intuitive demonstration of why these effects are so important when modelling amorphous carbons
Razee, S S A; Ginatempo, B; Pinski, F J; Bruno, E
1999-01-01
The cubic lattice symmetry of ferromagnetic homogeneously disordered alloys is when a compositional modulation is imposed. This can have a profound influence on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE). We describe our ab-initio theory of this effect and use the framework of concentration waves with the electronic structure described within the spin-polarised relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation. We find that ordering produces a 2 order of magnitude increase in the MAE as well as altering the equilibrium direction of magnetisation. Using the same theoretical framework we also examine directional compositional order produced by magnetic annealing with an explicit study of permalloy.
Ab initio calculations and analysis of the torsional spectra of dimethylamine and dimethylphosphine
Senent Díez, María Luisa; Smeyers, Y. G.
1996-01-01
In the present paper, ab initio calculations at MP2/RHF level are performed with different basis sets 6-31G(d,p), 6-311G(d,p), and 6-311(df,p) to determine the potential energy functions, the kinetic parameters, and the dipole moment components as a function of the double methyl rotation in dimethylamine (DMA) and dimethylphosphine (DMP). From the potential energy and kinetic parameters, the torsional energy levels and torsional functions are determined, and from the dipole moment variations,...
Fully ab initio finite-size corrections for charged-defect supercell calculations.
Freysoldt, Christoph; Neugebauer, Jörg; Van de Walle, Chris G
2009-01-01
In ab initio theory, defects are routinely modeled by supercells with periodic boundary conditions. Unfortunately, the supercell approximation introduces artificial interactions between charged defects. Despite numerous attempts, a general scheme to correct for these is not yet available. We propose a new and computationally efficient method that overcomes limitations of previous schemes and is based on a rigorous analysis of electrostatics in dielectric media. Its reliability and rapid convergence with respect to cell size is demonstrated for charged vacancies in diamond and GaAs. PMID:19257218
Ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of metallic tin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The electronic and optical properties of the metallic bcc and ?-Sn phases of tin are studied using density functional theory. The effects of spin-orbit coupling are examined and significant splittings are found in the band structures for both phases. Based on ab initio band structures we calculate the anisotropic optical response of ?-Sn. Both intra- and interband contributions are included and the plasma frequencies for both the ordinary and extraordinary optical axis are calculated. The theoretical results are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental spectra for the anisotropic optical response. We identify the electronic transitions responsible for the dominant interband resonances in the near-infrared response.
Initial oxidation of TiAl: An ab-initio investigation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present ab-initio investigation of oxygen adsorption up to two monolayer coverage on the stoichiometric TiAl(100) surface to illustrate the initial oxidation stage. The formation of band gap near the Fermi level demonstrates the transformation from metal to oxide surface with increasing oxygen coverage. The oxidation of Ti rather than Al is observed from our electronic structure calculations. The energy barriers of oxygen diffusion between different sites on surface as well as in subsurface and bulk region are derived. It is shown that the diffusion of oxygen is much easier on the surface than that into the subsurface region
Initial oxidation of TiAl: An ab-initio investigation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakulin, Alexander V., E-mail: bakulin@ispms.tsc.ru; Kulkova, Svetlana E., E-mail: bakulin@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Hu, Qing-Miao; Yang, Rui [Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang, 110016 (China)
2014-11-14
We present ab-initio investigation of oxygen adsorption up to two monolayer coverage on the stoichiometric TiAl(100) surface to illustrate the initial oxidation stage. The formation of band gap near the Fermi level demonstrates the transformation from metal to oxide surface with increasing oxygen coverage. The oxidation of Ti rather than Al is observed from our electronic structure calculations. The energy barriers of oxygen diffusion between different sites on surface as well as in subsurface and bulk region are derived. It is shown that the diffusion of oxygen is much easier on the surface than that into the subsurface region.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Hashemi, J.
2009-01-01
Fullerene functionalized carbon nanotubes-NanoBuds-form a novel class of hybrid carbon materials, which possesses many advantageous properties as compared to the pristine components. Here, we report a theoretical study of the electronic transport properties of these compounds. We use both ab initio techniques and tight-binding calculations to illustrate these materials' transmission properties and give physical arguments to interpret the numerical results. Specifically, above the Fermi energy we find a strong reduction in electron transmission due to localized states in certain regions of the structure while below the Fermi energy all considered structures exhibit a high-transmission energy band with a geometry-dependent width.
Electronic structure of superconducting gallium-doped germanium from ab-initio calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lebegue, S. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, Resonance Magnetique et Modelisations (CRM2, UMR CNRS 7036), Institut Jean Barriol, Nancy Universite, BP 239, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)
2009-10-15
Using ab-initio calculations, we study the electronic structure of gallium-doped germanium, which was found recently to be a superconductor, with a critical temperature of 0.5 K, and a particularly low density of Cooper pairs. The calculations of the electronic properties reveal that no sign of an impurity band is observed, and that the Fermi level lies in the valence band of Ge. Moreover, the calculation of the phonon frequencies shows that a new mode associated to the Ga atom is appearing, around 175 cm{sup -1}. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Periodic arrays of intercalated atoms in twisted bilayer graphene: an \\it{ ab initio} investigation
Miwa, R. H.; Venezuela, P.; Morell, E. Suárez
2015-01-01
We have performed an \\it {ab initio} investigation of transition metals (TMs = Mo, Ru, Co, and Pt) embedded in twisted bilayer graphene (tBG) layers. Our total energy results reveal that, triggered by the misalignment between the graphene layers, Mo and Ru atoms may form a quasi-periodic (triangular) array of intercalated atoms. In contrast, the formation of those structures is not expected for the other TMs, Co and Pt atoms. The net magnetic moment (m) of Mo and Ru atoms ma...
Calzado, Carmen J.
2009-01-01
Abstract A series of ab initio quantum chemistry calculations on a trinuclear mixed-valence system [(NH3)6Cu3O2]+3 have been performed in order to simultaneously evaluate its magnetic and electronic parameters, namely the magnetic coupling constants J1 and J2, the electron transfer integrals t1 and t2, and the exchange-transfer terms h1 and h2. The procedure is based on the use of the effective Hamiltonian theory. The results evidence the presence of two ferromagnetic interactions ...
Ab initio simulation of effects of structural singularities in aerogel absorption potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work simulation of Van der Waals potential between helium atom and part of silica aerogel strand by means of ab initio methods was performed. Cell with alpha quartz structure was used as building block of aerogel strand, because it is the most stable structure at low temperature, and only the surface layer of aerogel has been considered. For modeling absorption potential field in plane, summation of potential from individual building blocks has been provided. Two dimensional Van der Waals energy field was calculated for different geometries of aerogel strands. A rather deep potential well has been found in the corner formed due to aerogel strand crossing.
Rodríguez Martínez, Dayté Dayana
2013-01-01
Els actuals mètodes ab initio per a la resolució d'estructures macromoleculars estan generalment limitats a casos de proteïnes petites que difracten a resolució atòmica (1.2Å màxim) llevat que continguin àtoms pesats. ARCIMBOLDO1 és un mètode general per a la resolució d'estructures amb dades de difracció de fins 2Å que s'executa en un entorn de multiso lució. Està basat en l'ús del programa Phaser2, per a la localització de petits fragments model com ?-hèlixs (la seva presència es pot predir...
Polarization effects in semiconductors from ab initio theory to device applications
Wood, Colin
2007-01-01
This book presents the latest understanding of the solid physics, electronic implications and practical applications of the unique spontaneous or pyro-electric polarization charge of hexagonal semiconductors, and the piezo-electric effects in thin film hetero-structures, which are used in wide forbidden band gap sensor, electronic and opto-electronic semiconductor devices. The book covers ab initio theory of polarization in cubic and hexagonal semiconductors, growth of thin film GaN, and GaN/AlGaN GaAlN/ AlGaInN and other nitride, and SiC hetero-structures; graded structures for distributed pi
Initial stages of salt crystal dissolution determined with ab initio molecular dynamics.
Liu, Li-Min; Laio, Alessandro; Michaelides, Angelos
2011-08-01
The initial stages of NaCl dissolution in liquid water have been examined with state-of-the-art ab initio molecular dynamics and free energy sampling techniques. Our simulations reveal a complex multi-step process triggered by the departure of Cl ions from the lattice, with a well-defined intermediate state wherein departing ions are partially solvated but remain in contact with the crystal. The polarizability of Cl(-) is identified as the source of the anion's preferential initial dissolution, an effect which leads a forcefield based description of NaCl dissolution to fail to identify a preference for Cl over Na dissolution. PMID:21637872
Pride, Prejudice, and Penury of {\\it ab initio} transport calculations for single molecules
Evers, F
2006-01-01
Recent progress in measuring the transport properties of individual molecules has triggered a substantial demand for {\\it ab initio} transport calculations. Even though program packages are commercially available and placed on custom tailored to address this task, reliable information often is difficult and very time consuming to attain in the vast majority of cases, namely when the molecular conductance is much smaller than $e^2/h$. The article recapitulates procedures for molecular transport calculations from the point of view of time-dependent density functional theory. Emphasis is describing the foundations of the ``standard method''. Pitfalls will be uncovered and the domain of applicability discussed.
Experimental and ab initio DFT calculated Raman Spectrum of Sudan I, a Red Dye
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kunov-Kruse, Andreas Jonas; Kristensen, Steffen Buus; Liu, Chuan; Berg, Rolf W.
2011-01-01
The red dye Sudan I was investigated by Raman spectroscopy using different excitation wavelengths (1064, 532 and 244 nm). A calculation of the Raman spectrum based on quantum mechanical ab initio density functional theory (DFT) was made using the RB3LYP method with the 3-21G and 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets. The vibrations in the region 1600–1000 cm?1 were found to comprise variousmixed modes including in-plane stretching and bending of various C–C,N–N, C–N and C–Obonds and angles in the molecule. Be...
Pietrucci, Fabio; Andreoni, Wanda
2011-08-01
Social permutation invariant coordinates are introduced describing the bond network around a given atom. They originate from the largest eigenvalue and the corresponding eigenvector of the contact matrix, are invariant under permutation of identical atoms, and bear a clear signature of an order-disorder transition. Once combined with ab initio metadynamics, these coordinates are shown to be a powerful tool for the discovery of low-energy isomers of molecules and nanoclusters as well as for a blind exploration of isomerization, association, and dissociation reactions.
Illg, Christian; Haag, Michael; Mueller, Benedikt Y.; Czycholl, Gerd; Fähnle, Manfred
2015-11-01
Transition matrix elements for electron-phonon scattering are discussed. The approximate expression for the matrix element derived by the combination of a phenomenological theory of electronic and ionic screening of the electron-electron interaction with a microscopic perturbation theory for the matrix element is compared with unscreened matrix elements from the ab initio electron theory. The matrix elements calculated in these two ways differ very strongly. A situation is investigated (ultrafast demagnetization of a ferromagnetic film after excitation with a femtosecond laser pulse) in which nevertheless both types of matrix elements yield similar results for the demagnetization rate.
Ab Initio Calculations and Raman and SERS Spectral Analyses of Amphetamine Species
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, Rolf W.; NØrbygaard, Thomas
2011-01-01
For the first time, the differences between the spectra of amphetamine and amphetamine-H+ and between different conformers are thoroughly studied by ab initio model calculations, and Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectra are measured for different species of amphetamine. The spectra of amphetamine and amphetamine-H+ sampleswere obtained and assigned according to a comparison of the experimental spectra and the ab initio MO calculations, performed using the Gaussian 03W program (Gaussian, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA). The analyses were based on complete geometry minimization of the conformational energy of the S-plus-amphetamine molecule and the S-plus-amphetamine-H+ ion. The harmonic frequency calculations provide information about the characteristic features of the Raman spectra and the nature of the bonding in the molecule. It is concluded that vibrational bands from salt anions with internal bonds (sulfates, hydrogen phosphates, etc.) need to be taken into account when employing these spectra for identification purposes. These results also show how Raman spectroscopy can assist the forensic community in drug profiling studies. Furthermore, because their spectra are different, discrimination between the free and protonated forms of amphetamine salts can be observed. Here, we provide evidence for this difference and show experimentally how it has been overseen.
Sumner, Isaiah
A methodology, Quantum Wavepacket Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics (QWAIMD), for the efficient, simultaneous dynamics of electrons and nuclei is presented. This approach allows for the quantum-dynamical treatment of a subset of nuclei in complex, molecular systems while treating the remaining nuclei and electrons within in the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) paradigm. Developments of QWAIMD discussed within include: (a) a novel sampling algorithm dubbed Time-Dependent Deterministic Sampling (TDDS), which increases the computational efficiency by several orders of magnitude; (b) generalizations to hybrid QM/QM and QM/MM electronic structure methods via a combination of the ONIOM and empirical valence bond approaches, which may allow for the accurate simulation of large molecules; and (c) a novel velocity-flux autocorrelation function to calculate the vibrational density-of-states of quantum-classical systems. These techniques are benchmarked on calculations of small, hydrogen-bound clusters. Furthermore, since many chemical processes occur over time-scales inaccessible to computation, a scheme is discussed and benchmarked here which can bias both QWAIMD and classical-AIMD dynamics to sample these long time-scale events, like proton transfer in enzyme catalysis. Finally, hydrogen tunneling in an enzyme, soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) is examined by calculating the orbitals (eigenstates) of the transferring proton along the reaction coordinate. This orbital analysis is then supplemented by using quantum measurement theory to reexamine the transfer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kimberg, Victor, E-mail: victor.kimberg@pks.mpi.de [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Miron, Catalin, E-mail: miron@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, BP 48, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
2014-08-15
Highlights: • Some studies related to the vibrational wave functions mapping phenomenon are reviewed. • The core-excited vibrational wave functions were mapped using dissociative and bound final states. • High-resolution experimental data is accompanied by ab initio calculations. • The mapping phenomenon allows one to extract constants of the molecular potentials. • The mapping techniques are general and can be applied for the study of many systems. - Abstract: The recent development of high brightness 3{sup rd} generation soft X-ray sources and high energy resolution electron spectrometers made it possible to accurately trace quantum phenomena associated to the vibrational dynamics in core-excited molecules. The present paper reviews the recent results on mapping of vibrational wave functions and molecular potentials based on electron spectroscopy. We discuss and compare the mapping phenomena in various systems, stressing the advantages of the resonant X-ray scattering for studying of the nuclear dynamics and spectroscopic constants of small molecules. The experimental results discussed in the paper are most often accompanied by state-of-the-art ab initio calculations allowing for a deeper understanding of the quantum effects. Besides its fundamental interest, the vibrational wave function mapping is shown to be useful for the analysis of core- and valence-excited molecular states based on the reflection principle.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new full-dimensional global potential energy surface (PES) for the acetylene-vinylidene isomerization on the ground (S0) electronic state has been constructed by fitting ?37 000 high-level ab initio points using the permutation invariant polynomial-neural network method with a root mean square error of 9.54 cm?1. The geometries and harmonic vibrational frequencies of acetylene, vinylidene, and all other stationary points (two distinct transition states and one secondary minimum in between) have been determined on this PES. Furthermore, acetylene vibrational energy levels have been calculated using the Lanczos algorithm with an exact (J = 0) Hamiltonian. The vibrational energies up to 12 700 cm?1 above the zero-point energy are in excellent agreement with the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians, suggesting that the PES is approaching spectroscopic accuracy. In addition, analyses of the wavefunctions confirm the experimentally observed emergence of the local bending and counter-rotational modes in the highly excited bending vibrational states. The reproduction of the experimentally derived effective Hamiltonians for highly excited bending states signals the coming of age for the ab initio based PES, which can now be trusted for studying the isomerization reaction
Ab initio molecular dynamics study of dissociation of water under an electric field
Saitta, A Marco; Giaquinta, Paolo V
2012-01-01
The behavior of liquid water under an electric field is a crucial phenomenon in science and engineering. However, its detailed description at a microscopic level is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here we report on the first ab initio molecular-dynamics study on water under an electric field. We observe that the hydrogen-bond length and the molecular orientation are significantly modified at low-to-moderate field intensities. Fields beyond a threshold of about 0.35 V/\\AA are able to dissociate molecules and sustain an ionic current via a series of correlated proton jumps. Upon applying even more intense fields (1.0 V/\\AA), a 15-20% fraction of molecules are instantaneously dissociated and the resulting ionic flow yields a conductance of about 7.8 $\\Omega^{-1}cm^{-1}$, in good agreement with experimental values. This result paves the way to quantum-accurate microscopic studies of the effect of electric fields on aqueous solutions and, thus, to massive applications of ab initio molecular dynamics in neurob...
Renison, C Alicia; Fernandes, Kyle D; Naidoo, Kevin J
2015-07-01
This article describes an extension of the quantum supercharger library (QSL) to perform quantum mechanical (QM) gradient and optimization calculations as well as hybrid QM and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations. The integral derivatives are, after the two-electron integrals, the most computationally expensive part of the aforementioned calculations/simulations. Algorithms are presented for accelerating the one- and two-electron integral derivatives on a graphical processing unit (GPU). It is shown that a Hartree-Fock ab initio gradient calculation is up to 9.3X faster on a single GPU compared with a single central processing unit running an optimized serial version of GAMESS-UK, which uses the efficient Schlegel method for s- and l-orbitals. Benchmark QM and QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations are performed on cellobiose in vacuo and in a 39 Å water sphere (45 QM atoms and 24843 point charges, respectively) using the 6-31G basis set. The QSL can perform 9.7 ps/day of ab initio QM dynamics and 6.4 ps/day of QM/MM dynamics on a single GPU in full double precision. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25975864
Ab Initio Classical Dynamics Simulations of CO_2 Line-Mixing Effects in Infrared Bands
Lamouroux, Julien; Hartmann, Jean-Michel; Tran, Ha; Snels, Marcel; Stefani, Stefania; Piccioni, Giuseppe
2013-06-01
Ab initio calculations of line-mixing effects in CO_2 infrared bands are presented and compared with experiments. The predictions were carried using requantized Classical Dynamics Molecular Simulations (rCDMS) based on an approach previously developed and successfully tested for CO_2 isolated line shapes. Using classical dynamics equations, the force and torque applied to each molecule by the surrounding molecules (described by an ab initio intermolecular potential) are computed at each time step. This enables, using a requantization procedure, to predict dipole and isotropic polarizability auto-correlation functions whose Fourier-Laplace transforms yield the spectra. The quality of the rCDMS calculations is demonstrated by comparisons with measured spectra in the spectral regions of the 3?_3 and 2?_1+2?_2+?_3 Infrared bands. J.-M. Hartmann, H. Tran, N. H. Ngo, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. A {87} (2013), 013403. H. Tran, C. Boulet, M. Snels, S. Stefani, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer {112} (2011), 925-936.
Tilocca, Antonio
2007-12-01
Ab initio (Car-Parrinello) molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to investigate the melt precursor of a modified phosphosilicate glass with bioactive properties, and to quench the melt to the vitreous state. The properties of the 3000K liquid were extensively compared with those of the final glass structure. The melt is characterized by a significant fraction of structural defects (small rings, undercoordinated and overcoordinated ions), often combined together. The creation or removal of these coordinative defects in the liquid (through Si-O bond formation or dissociation) reflects frequent exchanges within the silicate first coordination shell, which in turn dynamically modify the intertetrahedral connectivity of silicate groups. The observed dynamical variation in both the identity and the number of silicate groups linked to a tagged Si ( Qn speciation) are considered key processes in the viscous flow of silicate melts [I. Farnan and J. F. Stebbins, Science 265, 1206 (1994)]. On the other hand, phosphate groups do not show an equally marked exchange activity in the coordination shell, but can still form links with Si. Once formed, these Si-O-P bridges are rather stable, and in fact they are retained in the glass phase obtained after cooling; their formation within the present full ab initio melt-and-quench approach strongly supports their presence in melt-derived phosphosilicate glasses with bioactive applications. On the other hand, the simulations show that the fraction of structural defects rapidly decreases during the cooling, and the glass is essentially free of miscoordinated ions and small rings.
Ab initio quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation using real-time feedback control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berni, Adriano; Gehring, Tobias
2015-01-01
Optical phase estimation is a vital measurement strategy that is used to perform accurate measurements of various physical quantities including length, velocity and displacements(1,2). The precision of such measurements can be greatly enhanced by the use of entangled or squeezed states of light as demonstrated in a variety of different optical systems(3-8). Most of these accounts, however, deal with the measurement of a very small shift of an already known phase, which is in stark contrast to ab initio phase estimation where the initial phase is unknown(9-12). Here, we report on the realization of a quantum-enhanced and fully deterministic ab initio phase estimation protocol based on real-time feedback control. Using robust squeezed states of light combined with a real-time Bayesian adaptive estimation algorithm, we demonstrate deterministic phase estimation with a precision beyond the quantum shot noise limit. The demonstrated protocol opens up new opportunities for quantum microscopy, quantum metrology and quantum information processing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • Some studies related to the vibrational wave functions mapping phenomenon are reviewed. • The core-excited vibrational wave functions were mapped using dissociative and bound final states. • High-resolution experimental data is accompanied by ab initio calculations. • The mapping phenomenon allows one to extract constants of the molecular potentials. • The mapping techniques are general and can be applied for the study of many systems. - Abstract: The recent development of high brightness 3rd generation soft X-ray sources and high energy resolution electron spectrometers made it possible to accurately trace quantum phenomena associated to the vibrational dynamics in core-excited molecules. The present paper reviews the recent results on mapping of vibrational wave functions and molecular potentials based on electron spectroscopy. We discuss and compare the mapping phenomena in various systems, stressing the advantages of the resonant X-ray scattering for studying of the nuclear dynamics and spectroscopic constants of small molecules. The experimental results discussed in the paper are most often accompanied by state-of-the-art ab initio calculations allowing for a deeper understanding of the quantum effects. Besides its fundamental interest, the vibrational wave function mapping is shown to be useful for the analysis of core- and valence-excited molecular states based on the reflection principle
Ab initio quantum chemistry in parallel-portable tools and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In common with many of the computational sciences, ab initio chemistry faces computational constraints to which a partial solution is offered by the prospect of highly parallel computers. Ab initio codes are large and complex (O(105) lines of FORTRAN), representing a significant investment of communal effort. The often conflicting requirements of portability and efficiency have been successfully resolved on vector computers by reliance on matrix oriented kernels. This proves inadequate even upon closely-coupled shared-memory parallel machines. We examine the algorithms employed during a typical sequence of calculations. Then we investigate how efficient portable parallel implementations may be derived, including the complex multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction algorithm. A portable toolkit, modeled after the Intel iPSC and the ANL-ACRF PARMACS, is developed, using shared memory and TCP/IP sockets. The toolkit is used as an initial platform for programs portable between LANS, Crays and true distributed-memory MIMD machines. Timings are presented. 53 refs., 4 tabs
Field theoretic approach to dynamical orbital localization in ab initio molecular dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Techniques from gauge-field theory are employed to derive an alternative formulation of the Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular-dynamics method that allows maximally localized Wannier orbitals to be generated dynamically as the calculation proceeds. In particular, the Car-Parrinello Lagrangian is mapped onto an SU(n) non-Abelian gauge-field theory and the fictitious kinetic energy in the Car-Parrinello Lagrangian is modified to yield a fully gauge-invariant form. The Dirac gauge-fixing method is then employed to derive a set of equations of motion that automatically maintain orbital locality by restricting the orbitals to remain in the 'Wannier gauge'. An approximate algorithm for integrating the equations of motion that is stable and maintains orbital locality is then developed based on the exact equations of motion. It is shown in a realistic application (64 water molecules plus one hydrogen-chloride molecule in a periodic box) that orbital locality can be maintained with only a modest increase in CPU time. The ability to keep orbitals localized in an ab initio molecular-dynamics calculation is a crucial ingredient in the development of emerging linear scaling approaches
Phase diagrams from ab-initio calculations: Re-W and Fe-B
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The CALPHAD (CaLculation of Phase Diagrams) method relies on Gibbs energy databases and is of limited predictive power in cases where only limited experimental data is available for constructing the Gibbs energy databases. This is problematic for, e.g., the calculation of the phase transformation kinetics within phase field simulations that not only require the thermodynamic equilibrium data but also information on metastable phases. Such information is difficult to obtain directly from experiment but ab-initio calculations may supplement experimental databases as they comprise metastable phases and arbitrary chemical compositions. We present simulations for two prototypical systems: Re-W and Fe-B. For both systems we calculate the heat of formation for an extensive set of structures using ab-initio calculations and employ the total energies in CALPHAD in order to determine the corresponding phase diagrams. We account for the configurational entropy within the Bragg-Williams approximation and neglect the phenomenological excess-term that is commonly used in CALPHAD as well as the contribution of phonons and electronic excitations to the free energy. According to our calculations the complex intermetallic phases in Re-W are stabilized by the configurational entropy. For Fe-B, we calculate metastable and stable phase diagrams including recently predicted new stable phases.
Ab initio many-body calculations of nucleon-nucleus scattering
Quaglioni, Sofia
2009-01-01
We develop a new ab initio many-body approach capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei, by combining the resonating-group method with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters. This approach preserves translational symmetry and Pauli principle. We outline technical details and present phase shift results for neutron scattering on 3H, 4He and 10Be and proton scattering on 3He and 4He, using realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) potentials. Our A=4 scattering results are compared to earlier ab initio calculations. We find that the CD-Bonn NN potential in particular provides an excellent description of nucleon-4He S-wave phase shifts. On the contrary, the experimental nucleon-4He P-wave phase shifts are not well reproduced by any NN potential we use. We demonstrate that a proper treatment of the coupling to the n-10Be continuum is successful in explaining the parity-inverted ground state in 11Be.
Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic, and ab initio study of the Heusler compound Fe2NiGa
Nejadsattari, Farshad; Stadnik, Zbigniew M.; Przewo?nik, Janusz; Buschow, Kurt H. J.
2015-11-01
The structural, electronic, magnetic, elastic, and hyperfine-interaction properties of Fe2NiGa have been determined by means of X-ray diffraction, 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy, and magnetic measurements and ab initio calculations. The compound studied crystallizes in the cubic space group F 4 bar 3 m with lattice constant a = 5.7961(4) A ? . Evidence is provided for the presence of significant structural disorder in the compound. Fe2NiGa is predicted to be half-metallic with covalent chemical bonding. It orders ferromagnetically with the Curie temperature TC = 586.0(7) K. The saturation magnetization per formula unit and the estimated Fe magnetic moments at the A and B sites are 3.00, 1.87(2), and 2.25(2) ? B, respectively. The ab initio calculations overestimate the values of the A- and B-site Fe magnetic moments. It is observed that the magnetic properties of Fe2NiGa are very strongly dependent on its heat treatment. The calculated hyperfine-interaction parameters show general agreement with the experimental ones. It is demonstrated that the compound studied decomposes when heated and kept at temperatures above around 500 K. The Debye temperature of Fe2NiGa is found to be 378(5) K.
Ab-initio description of spin-dependent transport in disordered alloys
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koedderitzsch, Diemo; Lowitzer, Stephan; Ebert, Hubert [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department Chemie und Biochemie, Physikalische Chemie, Muenchen (Germany)
2011-07-01
Spin-orbit induced couplings are the source of many interesting physical phenomena like the anomalous- and spin-Hall-effects (AHE, SHE), which recently received a lot of attention due to their potential application in the field of spintronics. During the last years several theoretical works have dealt with the intrinsic AHE and SHE, based on the band structure of pure materials and only few of them use a parameter free ab initio approach. We present a coherent ab initio description of both, the AHE and SHE, that is applicable to pure and disordered alloys by treating all sources, i.e. intrinsic as well as extrinsic contributions, on equal footing. We use an implementation of the Kubo-Streda equation employing the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function method in conjunction with the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA) alloy theory. For discussing spin currents we employ our recently devised relativistic spin projection scheme and a corresponding generalization of the Kubo-Streda equation. We illustrate the power and versatility of the approach by giving several examples.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koedderitzsch, Diemo; Chadova, Kristina; Lowitzer, Stephan; Ebert, Hubert [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Department Chemie und Biochemie, Physikalische Chemie, Butenandtstrasse 11, D-81377 Muenchen (Germany)
2011-07-01
We present a coherent ab initio, i.e. parameter free, description of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) that is applicable to pure as well as disordered alloy systems by treating all sources of the AHE on equal footing. We employ an implementation of the Kubo-Streda equation using the fully relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker (KKR) Green's function method in conjunction with the Coherent Potential Approximation (CPA) alloy theory. Applications to the pure elemental ferromagnets bcc-Fe, hcp-Co and fcc-Ni lead to results in full accordance to previous ab initio studies determining the intrinsic contribution only. However, the power of the approach presented is the ability to explicitly treat also extrinsic contributions to the AHE which is demonstrated by an application to the fcc alloy systems Fe{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}, Co{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x} and Ni{sub x}Pd{sub 1-x}. We obtain a very satisfying qualitative agreement with experiment over the whole concentration range including the sign reversal of the AH-conductivity. A detailed discussion of skew and side-jump scattering processes exemplifies the capability of the proposed method.
Shi, Lin; Xu, Ke; Wang, Lin-Wang
2015-05-01
Nonradiative carrier recombination is of both great applied and fundamental importance, but the correct ab initio approaches to calculate it remain to be inconclusive. Here we used five different approximations to calculate the nonradiative carrier recombinations of two complex defect structures GaP :Z nGa-OP and GaN :Z nGa-VN , and compared the results with experiments. In order to apply different multiphonon assisted electron transition formalisms, we have calculated the electron-phonon coupling constants by ab initio density functional theory for all phonon modes. Compared with different methods, the capture coefficients calculated by the static coupling theory are 4.30 ×10-8 and 1.46 ×10-7c m3/s for GaP :Z nGa-OP and GaN :Z nGa-VN , which are in good agreement with the experiment results, (4-1+2) ×10-8 and 3.0 ×10-7c m3/s , respectively. We also provided arguments for why the static coupling theory should be used to calculate the nonradiative decays of semiconductors.
Embedding parameters in ab initio theory to develop approximations based on molecular similarity
Tanha, Matteus; Kaul, Shiva; Cappiello, Alexander; Gordon, Geoffrey J; Yaron, David J
2015-01-01
A means to take advantage of molecular similarity to lower the computational cost of electronic structure theory is explored, in which parameters are embedded into a low-cost, low-level (LL) ab initio model and adjusted to obtain agreement with results from a higher-level (HL) ab initio model. A parametrized LL (pLL) model is created by multiplying selected matrix elements of the Hamiltonian operators by scaling factors that depend on element types. Various schemes for applying the scaling factors are compared, along with the impact of making the scaling factors linear functions of variables related to bond lengths, atomic charges, and bond orders. The models are trained on ethane and ethylene, substituted with -NH2, -OH and -F, and tested on substituted propane, propylene and t-butane. Training and test datasets are created by distorting the molecular geometries and applying uniform electric fields. The fitted properties include changes in total energy arising from geometric distortions or applied fields, an...
Tanha, Matteus; Cappiello, Alex; Gordon, Geoffrey J; Yaron, David J
2013-01-01
A means to take advantage of molecular similarity to lower the computational cost of electronic structure theory is proposed, in which parameters are embedded into a low-cost, low-level (LL) ab initio theory and adjusted to obtain agreement with a higher level (HL) ab initio theory. This approach is explored by training such a model on data for ethane and testing the resulting model on methane, propane and butane. The electronic distribution of the molecules is varied by placing them in strong electrostatic environments consisting of random charges placed on the corners of a cube. The results find that parameters embedded in HF/STO-3G theory can be adjusted to obtain agreement, to within about 2 kcal/mol, with results of HF/6-31G theory. Obtaining this level of agreement requires the use of parameters that are functions of the bond lengths, atomic charges, and bond orders within the molecules. The argument is made that this approach provides a well-controlled means to take advantage of molecular similarity in...
Ab initio design of elastically isotropic TiZrNbMoVx high-entropy alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • The refractory high-entropy alloys are studied with ab initio theory. • We study the effect of alloying elements on the elastic parameters. • We propose an criterion of elastically isotropic refractory high-entropy alloys. - Abstract: The TiZrVNb and TiZrNbMoVx (x = 0–1.5) high-entropy alloys (HEAs) are single-phase solid solutions having the body centered cubic crystallographic structure. Here we use the ab initio exact muffin-tin orbitals method in combination with the coherent potential approximation to study the equilibrium bulk properties of the above refractory HEAs. We provide a detailed investigation of the effect of alloying elements on the electronic structure and elastic parameters. Our results indicate that vanadium enhances the anisotropy of TiZrNbMoVx. As an application of the present theoretical database, we verify the often quoted correlation between the valence electron concentration (VEC) and the micro-mechanical properties in the case of multi-component alloys. Furthermore, we predict that the present HEAs become elastically isotropic for VEC?4.72
A theoretical study of Ti nanoparticle effect on sodium water reaction: Using ab initio calculation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Soo Jae; Park, Gunyeop [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, JeHyun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyungbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
Highlights: • We report effectiveness and possible mechanisms of Na atom and Ti nanoparticle surface interaction to the sodium water reaction. • Chemical interaction between Na atom and Ti nanoparticle surface was evaluated by ab initio calculation with density functional theory. • Covalent like metallic Na adsorbed atomic layer onto Ti(0 0 0 1) surface was found and its strength was evaluated as 1.65 eV. • We postulate that strong chemical interaction between Na atoms and Ti NP surface increase both hydration energy and activation energy required initiate SWR. - Abstract: The sodium–water reaction (SWR) is a serious impediment to development of sodium fast cooled nuclear reactors. The reaction can be suppressed by suspending 2 at% of 10-nm Ti nanoparticles (NPs) in liquid Na, but the mechanisms by which the Ti NPs suppress the SWR are not known. In this study, ab initio calculation revealed a strong chemical bond with interaction strength 1.65 eV (64.5 kT at 298 K) between Na atoms and the Ti NP surface. We postulate that this interaction with Ti atoms causes a layer of Na atoms to form on the Ti NP surface, and that this layer increases both hydration energy and the activation energy required to initiate SWR. As a result, these interactions suppress the SWR by reducing effective reaction area.
Ab initio determination of an extended Heisenberg Hamiltonian in CuO{sub 2} layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calzado, C.J.; Malrieu, J.P. [Lab. de Physique Quantique, IRSAMC, Univ. Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France)
2001-06-01
Accurate ab initio calculations on embedded Cu{sub 4}O{sub 12} square clusters, fragments of the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} lattice, confirm a value of the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic coupling (J = 124 meV) previously obtained from ab initio calculations on bicentric clusters and in good agreement with experiment. These calculations predict non negligible antiferromagnetic second-neighbor interaction (J' = 6.5 meV) and four-spin cyclic exchange (K = 14 meV), which may affect the thermodynamic and spectroscopic properties of these materials. The dependence of the magnetic coupling on local lattice distortions has also been investigated. Among them the best candidate to induce a spin-phonon effect seems to be the movement of the Cu atoms, changing the Cu-Cu distance, for which the variation of the nearest neighbor magnetic coupling with the Cu-O distance is {delta}J/{delta}d{sub Cu} {sub -} {sub O} {proportional_to} 1700 cm {sup -1} A {sup -1}. (orig.)
Ab initio rotation-vibration energies and intensities for the H 2F + molecule
Bunker, P. R.; Jensen, Per; Wright, J. S.; Hamilton, I. P.
1990-12-01
In a previous publication [I. D. Petsalakis, G. Theodorakopoulos, J. S. Wright, and I. P. Hamilton, J. Chem. Phys., 92, 2440-2449 (1990)] we reported the ab initio multireference configuration interaction calculation of the three-dimensional potential energy surface of the H 2F + molecule in the ground X˜1A 1 electronic state at 119 nuclear geometries spanning an energy range up to about 50 000 cm -1 above equilibrium. We fitted the 71 points within 33 000 cm -1 of equilibrium to an analytic expression and performed variational calculation of the vibrational energies in Jacobi coordinates using the Discrete Variable Representation and Distributed Gaussian Basis functions (DVR-DGB) technique. In the present paper we examine the effect on the vibrational energies of using a surface obtained by fitting through 52 points within 25 000 cm -1 of equilibrium. We use this surface in a variational calculation of the J = 0, 1, and 2 rotation-vibration energies using the Morse Oscillator Rigid Bender Internal Dynamics Hamiltonian [P. Jensen, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 128, 478-501 (1988); J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 2, 84, 1315-1340 (1988)]. The vibrational energies obtained are compared with those obtained by the DVR-DGB technique. We also calculate ab initio the dipole moment function and rotation-vibration intensities, and we simulate the ?2 band, which has not yet been observed.
Malerba, L.; Ackland, G. J.; Becquart, C. S.; Bonny, G.; Domain, C.; Dudarev, S. L.; Fu, C.-C.; Hepburn, D.; Marinica, M. C.; Olsson, P.; Pasianot, R. C.; Raulot, J. M.; Soisson, F.; Terentyev, D.; Vincent, E.; Willaime, F.
2010-11-01
The objective of the FP6 Perfect Project was to develop a first example of integrated multiscale computational models, capable of describing the effects of irradiation in nuclear reactor components, namely vessel and internals. The use of ab initio techniques to study, in the most reliable way currently possible, atomic-level interactions between species and defects, and the transfer of this knowledge to interatomic potentials, of use for large scale dynamic simulations, lie at the core of this effort. The target materials of the Project were bainitic steels (vessel) and austenitic steels (internals), i.e. iron alloys. In this article, the advances made within the Project in the understanding of defect properties in Fe alloys, by means of ab initio calculations, and in the development of interatomic potentials for Fe and Fe alloys are overviewed, thereby providing a reference basis for further progress in the field. Emphasis is put in showing how the produced data have enhanced our level of understanding of microstructural processes occurring under irradiation in model alloys and steels used in existing nuclear power plants.
Boese, A D; Martin, J M L; Marx, D; Chandra, Amalendu; Martin, Jan M.L.; Marx, Dominik
2003-01-01
The ammonia dimer (NH3)2 has been investigated using high--level ab initio quantum chemistry methods and density functional theory (DFT). The structure and energetics of important isomers is obtained to unprecedented accuracy without resorting to experiment. The global minimum of eclipsed C_s symmetry is characterized by a significantly bent hydrogen bond which deviates from linearity by about 20 degrees. In addition, the so-called cyclic C_{2h} structure is extremely close in energy on an overall flat potential energy surface. It is demonstrated that none of the currently available (GGA, meta--GGA, and hybrid) density functionals satisfactorily describe the structure and relative energies of this nonlinear hydrogen bond. We present a novel density functional, HCTH/407+, designed to describe this sort of hydrogen bond quantitatively on the level of the dimer, contrary to e.g. the widely used BLYP functional. This improved functional is employed in Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liq...
Ab initio calculations of non-radiative carrier trapping due to deep impurity levels
Wang, Lin-Wang; Shi, Lin
2013-03-01
Non-radiative carrier decay due to deep impurity levels in semiconductors is an important process which affects the efficiencies of devices from solar cells to light emitting diode. This process is due to multiple phonon emission. Despite of the fact the analytical formalisms have been derived long time ago, so far there is no direct ab initio calculations due to the high cost of calculating all the electron-phonon coupling constants. Here we introduce an algorithm which calculates all the electron-phonon coupling constants at once, hence allows the ab initio calculations of such processes. Another approximation is introduced to calculate the phonon modes of a given impurity system. We use a ZnGa-VN paired defect in GaN as an example to study this process. We found that while most of the promoting phonon modes (used to promote the transition with the electron-phonon coupling) come from the optical modes, the accepting phonon modes (used to satisfy the energy conservation) come mostly from the acoustic phonons. This work is supported by SC/BES/MSED of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, and by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. 2011AA03A103)
Globally accurate ab initio based potential energy surface of H2O+(X 4A?)
Song, Yu-Zhi; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Lu-Lu; Gao, Shou-Bao; Meng, Qing-Tian
2015-06-01
A globally accurate potential energy surface is reported for the electronic ground-state H2O+. The ab initio energies utilized to map the potential energy surface are calculated at the multireference configuration interaction method employing the aug-cc-pVQZ basis set and the full valence complete active space wave function as reference. In order to improve accuracy of the resulting raw ab initio energies, they are then extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and most importantly to the full configuration-interaction limit by semiempirically correcting the dynamical correlation using the double many-body expansion-scaled external correlation method. The topographical features of the current potential energy surface were examined in detail, which agree nicely with those of other theoretical work. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304185 and 11074151), China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M561957), the Postdoctoral Innovation Project of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. 201402013), and the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. ZR2014AM022).
Ab initio study on electron excitation and electron transfer in tryptophan-tyrosine system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this article, ab initio calculation has been performed to evaluate the transition energy of electronic excitation in tryptophan and tyrosine by using semiempirical molecular orbital method AM1 and complete active space self-consistent field method. The solvent effect has been considered by means of the conductor-like screening model. After geometric optimizations of isolated tryptophan and tyrosine, and their corresponding radicals and cations, reaction heat of these electron transfer reactions have been obtained by the means of complete active space self-consistent field method. The transition energies from the ground state, respectively, to the lowest excited state and to the lowest triplet state of these two amino acids are also calculated and compared with the experimentally observed values. The ionization potential and electron affinity are also calculated for tryptophan and tyrosine employing Koopmans' theorem and ab initio calculation. Compared with the experimental measurements, the theoretical results are found satisfactory. Theoretical results give good explanations on the experimental phenomena that N3· can preferably oxide the side chain of tryptophan residue and then the electron transfer from tyrosine residue to tryptophan residue follows in peptides involving tryptophan and tyrosine
Lee, Jeehye
2010-01-01
We present the first systematic {\\em ab initio} study of anti-ferrodistortive (AFD) order in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of strontium titanate, Sr$_{1+n}$Ti$_n$O$_{3n+1}$, as a function of both compressive epitaxial strain and phase number $n$. We find all RP phases to exhibit AFD order under a significant range of strains, recovering the bulk AFD order as $\\sim 1/n^2$. A Ginzburg-Landau Hamiltonian generalized to include inter-octahedral interactions reproduces our {\\em ab initio} results well, opening a pathway to understanding other nanostructured perovskite systems.
Janisch, Rebecca; Hartmaier, Alexander
2010-01-01
We have performed ab-initio tensile tests of bulk Al along different tensile axes, as well as perpendicular to different grain boundaries to determine mechanical properties such as interface energy, work of separation and theoretical strength. We show that all the different investigated geometries exhibit energy-displacement curves that can be brought into coincindence in the spirit of the well known UBER curve. This simplyfies significantly the calculation of ab-initio tensile strengths for the whole parameter space of grain boundaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Electron-ion structure factors, calculated in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, are reported for several binary liquids with different kinds of chemical bonding: metallic liquid alloy Bi–Pb, molten salt RbF, and liquid water. We derive analytical expressions for the long-wavelength asymptotes of the partial electron-ion structure factors of binary systems and show that the analytical results are in good agreement with the ab initio simulation data. The long-wavelength behaviour of the total charge structure factors for the three binary liquids is discussed
Palacios Clemente, Pablo; Aguilera Bonet, Irene; Wahnón Benarroch, Perla
2008-01-01
In this work, we present frozen phonon and linear response ab-initio research into the vibrational properties of the CuGaS2 chalcopyrite and transition metal substituted (CuGaS2)M alloys. These systems are potential candidates for developing a novel solar-cell material with enhanced optoelectronic properties based in the implementation of the intermediate-band concept. We have previously carried out ab-initio calculations of the electronic properties of these kinds of chalcopyrite metal alloy...
Chiral three-nucleon interactions in ab-initio nuclear structure and reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The prediction of nuclear structure and reaction observables based on nuclear Hamiltonians including two- and three-nucleon (NN+3N) interactions derived from chiral effective field theory constitutes a challenging task for ab-initio nuclear theory. In particular, the consistent inclusion of 3N interactions requires formal extensions of the many-body methods and, at the same time, causes a significant increase of the computational cost. This work presents the necessary steps for the inclusion and the subsequent application of 3N interactions in different ab-initio nuclear structure and reaction approaches. The first part is dedicated to the preparation of the chiral nuclear forces before they enter the many-body methods. It addresses the similarity renormalization group (SRG) as a tool to soften the initial chiral interactions and its generalization to consistently include 3N interactions. Moreover, the technically important 3N matrix-element management in a convenient basis for the subsequent many-body methods including an efficient storage scheme is discussed. In addition, a possibility to derive approximative schemes for 3N interactions using normal ordering is presented. In the second part the SRG-evolved chiral NN+3N Hamiltonians are applied in nuclear structure calculations using the importance truncated no-core shell model (IT-NCSM) as well as coupled-cluster theory. The impact of SRG-induced and chiral 3N interactions on ground-state energies and low-energy spectra of different p-shell nuclei is studied, including a sensitivity analysis concerning uncertainties of the chiral interactions in the 12C and 10B spectra. Furthermore, the first ab-initio study of even oxygen isotopes with explicit 3N interactions is presented, and by means of the normal-ordered two-body approximation the ground-state energy systematics of selected closed-shell nuclei throughout the calcium, nickel, and tin isotopic chains are obtained in qualitative agreement with experiment. The third part of this work focuses on 3N interactions in ab-initio nuclear scattering approaches. This includes a detailed discussion of the inclusion of 3N interactions in the no-core shell model combined with the resonating-group method (NCSM/RGM) with emphasis on the ability to treat targets beyond the lightest nuclei. The extended formalism is then applied to nucleon-4He scattering, where the 3N interaction overall improves scattering phase shifts, differential cross sections and analyzing powers. Finally, the no-core shell model with continuum approach, which constitutes a unified ab-initio approach to bound and scattering states resulting from the combination of the NCSM and the NCSM/RGM, is generalized to 3N interactions and applied to the neutron-8Be system to study the impact of the continuum on the 9Be energy levels. The results demonstrate the importance of the consistent treatment of continuum states.
Vlahos, Vasilios; Booske, John H.; Morgan, Dane
2010-02-01
Microwave, x-ray, and radio-frequency radiation sources require a cathode emitting electrons into vacuum. Thermionic B-type dispenser cathodes consist of BaxOz coatings on tungsten (W), where the surface coatings lower the W work function and enhance electron emission. The new and promising class of scandate cathodes modifies the B-type surface through inclusion of Sc, and their superior emissive properties are also believed to stem from the formation of a low work function surface alloy. In order to better understand these cathode systems, density-functional theory (DFT)-based ab initio modeling is used to explore the stability and work function of BaxScyOz on W(001) monolayer-type surface structures. It is demonstrated how surface depolarization effects can be calculated easily using ab initio calculations and fitted to an analytic depolarization equation. This approach enables the rapid extraction of the complete depolarization curve (work function versus coverage relation) from relatively few DFT calculations, useful for understanding and characterizing the emitting properties of novel cathode materials. It is generally believed that the B-type cathode has some concentration of Ba-O dimers on the W surface, although their structure is not known. Calculations suggest that tilted Ba-O dimers are the stable dimer surface configuration and can explain the observed work function reduction corresponding to various dimer coverages. Tilted Ba-O dimers represent a new surface coating structure not previously proposed for the activated B-type cathode. The thermodynamically stable phase of Ba and O on the W surface was identified to be the Ba0.25O configuration, possessing a significantly lower ? value than any of the Ba-O dimer configurations investigated. The identification of a more stable Ba0.25O phase implies that if Ba-O dimers cover the surface of emitting B-type cathodes, then a nonequilibrium steady state must dominate the emitting surface. The identification of a stable and low work function Ba0.25Sc0.25O structure suggests that addition of Sc to the B-type cathode surface could form this alloy structure under operating conditions, leading to improved cathode performance and stability. Detailed comparison to previous experimental results of BaxScyOz on W surface coatings are made to both validate the modeling and aid in interpretation of experimental data. The studies presented here demonstrate that ab initio methods are powerful for understanding the fundamental physics of electron emitting materials systems and can potentially aid in the development of improved cathodes.
Realization of prediction of materials properties by ab initio computer simulation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Yoshiyuki Kawazoe
2003-01-01
Ab initio treatment is becoming realistic to predict physical, chemical, and even mechanical properties of academically and industrially interesting materials. There is, however, some limitation in size and time of the system up to the order of several hundred atoms and ? 1 pico second, even if we use the fastest supercomputer efficiently. Therefore, it is very difficult to simulate realistic materials with grain boundaries and important reactions like diffusion in materials. To improve this situation, two ways have been invented. One way is to upgrade approximations to match the necessary levels according to inhomogeneous electron gas theory beyond the present day standard, i.e. local density approximation (LDA). The reason is simply that the system we are interested in is composed of many particles interacting with Coulomb forces governed by quantum mechanics. (Complete knowledge is available, and only what we should do is to make better approximations to explain the phenomena!). Another is to extract the necessary parameters from the ab initio calculations on systems with limited number of atoms, and apply these results into cluster variation, direct, or any other sophisticated methods based on classical concepts such as statistical mechanics. In this paper, several typical examples recently worked out by our research group are introduced to indicate that these methodologies are actually possible to be successfully used to predict materials properties before experiments based on the present day state-of-art supercomputing systems. It includes scientific visualization of the results of ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on atom insertion process to C60 and to carbon nanotube, tight-binding calculation of single electron conductance properties in nanotube to create nano-scale diode virtually by computer, which will be a base of future nanoscale electric device in nanometer size, Li + H reaction without Born–Oppenheimer approximation, structural phase transitions in perovskite materials under very high pressure in earth by direct method, and prediction of wavelength of emitted light from Na clusters with GW (G = Green function-vertex, W = screened Coulomb interaction) approximation.
i-PI: A Python interface for ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations
Ceriotti, Michele; More, Joshua; Manolopoulos, David E.
2014-03-01
Recent developments in path integral methodology have significantly reduced the computational expense of including quantum mechanical effects in the nuclear motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. However, the implementation of these developments requires a considerable programming effort, which has hindered their adoption. Here we describe i-PI, an interface written in Python that has been designed to minimise the effort required to bring state-of-the-art path integral techniques to an electronic structure program. While it is best suited to first principles calculations and path integral molecular dynamics, i-PI can also be used to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations, and can just as easily be interfaced with an empirical forcefield code. To give just one example of the many potential applications of the interface, we use it in conjunction with the CP2K electronic structure package to showcase the importance of nuclear quantum effects in high-pressure water. Catalogue identifier: AERN_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138626 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3128618 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer: Multiple architectures. Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX, Windows. RAM: Less than 256 Mb Classification: 7.7. External routines: NumPy Nature of problem: Bringing the latest developments in the modelling of nuclear quantum effects with path integral molecular dynamics to ab initio electronic structure programs with minimal implementational effort. Solution method: State-of-the-art path integral molecular dynamics techniques are implemented in a Python interface. Any electronic structure code can be patched to receive the atomic coordinates from the Python interface, and to return the forces and energy that are used to integrate the equations of motion. Restrictions: This code only deals with distinguishable particles. It does not include fermonic or bosonic exchanges between equivalent nuclei, which can become important at very low temperatures. Running time: Depends dramatically on the nature of the simulation being performed. A few minutes for short tests with empirical force fields, up to several weeks for production calculations with ab initio forces. The examples provided with the code run in less than an hour.
Ab initio study of the low-lying electronic states of the CaO molecule
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalil, Hossain; Brites, Vincent; Quere, Frederic Le [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, Batiment Lavoisier, 5 boulevard Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee, Cedex 2 (France); Leonard, Celine, E-mail: celine.leonard@univ-paris-est.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Laboratoire de Modelisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, UMR 8208 CNRS, Batiment Lavoisier, 5 boulevard Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee, Cedex 2 (France)
2011-07-28
Graphical abstract: Highly correlated ab initio calculations have been performed for an accurate determination of the electronic structure of the low-lying electronic states of the CaO molecule. The computations are done using the aug-cc-pV5Z basis set for O and the cc-pCV5Z for Ca. The potential energy curves for the molecular states correlating to the lowest three asymptotes are calculated at the CASSCF level. The potential curves of the lowest five molecular states, X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}, a{sup 3}{Pi}, A'{sup 1{Pi}}, b{sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} and A{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}, and the corresponding dipole moment functions have been determined using internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction approaches. The spectroscopic constants associated with these electronic states are compared to experimental values. The corresponding electronic wavefunctions have also been analyzed using the dipole moment functions. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} The five lowest electronic states of Cao have been determined ab initio at a high level of accuracy. {yields} Large active space, core-valence correlation and configuration interaction are required. {yields} The multi-configurational nature of the electronic ground state is confirmed as well as its monovalent and divalent ionic nature using dipole moment analysis. {yields} These interacting potentials will serve for future obtention of spin-rovibronic levels. - Abstract: Highly correlated ab initio calculations have been performed for an accurate determination of the electronic structure of the low-lying electronic states of the CaO molecule. The computations are done using the aug-cc-pV5Z basis set for O and the cc-pCV5Z for Ca. The potential energy curves for the molecular states correlating to the lowest three asymptotes are calculated at the CASSCF level. The potential curves of the lowest five molecular states, X{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}, a{sup 3}{Pi}, A'{sup 1}{Pi}, b{sup 3}{Sigma}{sup +} and A{sup 1}{Sigma}{sup +}, and the corresponding dipole moment functions have been determined using internally contracted multi-reference configuration interaction approaches. The spectroscopic constants associated with these electronic states are compared to experimental values. The corresponding electronic wavefunctions have also been analyzed using the dipole moment functions.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
?ársky, Petr
2010-01-01
Ro?. 43, ?. 17 (2010), s. 175204. ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09079; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA ?R GA202/08/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electron scattering * polyatomic molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2010
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Štrof, J.; Pavl?, Jana; Wdowik, U.; Buršík, Ji?í; Šob, Mojmír; V?eš?ál, Jan
2014-01-01
Ro?. 44, MAR (2014), s. 62-69. ISSN 0364-5916 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : laves phases * V-Zr system * ab initio calculations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.370, year: 2014
Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinkasserer, Lukas Eugen Marsoner, E-mail: marsoner@zedat.fu-berlin.de [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustraße 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany); MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, 6140 Wellington (New Zealand); Gaston, Nicola [MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, P.O. Box 600, 6140 Wellington (New Zealand); Paulus, Beate [Institut für Chemie und Biochemie, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustraße 3, 14195 Berlin (Germany)
2015-04-21
Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Šob, Mojmír; Kroupa, Aleš; Pavl?, Jana; V?eš?ál, Jan
2009-01-01
Ro?. 150, ?. 1 (2009), s. 1-28. ISSN 1012-0394 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 147; GA ?R GA106/07/1078 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Ab initio calculations * CALPHAD method * Laves phases * sigma phase * ternary systems * super-austenitic steels Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism
Weak interactions in Graphane/BN systems under static electric fields—A periodic ab-initio study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab-initio calculations via periodic Hartree-Fock (HF) and local second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (LMP2) are used to investigate the adsorption properties of combined Graphane/boron nitride systems and their response to static electric fields. It is shown how the latter can be used to alter both structural as well as electronic properties of these systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of the tritium ?- decay in mono-tritiated formic acid dimer on the two O--H--O hydrogen bonds is studied by ab initio MO calculations. The results indicate that the ?--decay results in the migration of one hydrogen atom in the hydrogen bond, producing CO2 and HCO2H2+. (Auth.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
?ársky, Petr
2010-01-01
Ro?. 43, ?. 17 (2010), s. 175203. ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09079; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10046; GA ?R GA202/08/0631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electron scattering * polyatomic molecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.902, year: 2010
Ab-initio calculations, FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2-chloro-6-methyl benzonitrile.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kumar, V.; Panikar, Y.; Palafox, M. A.; Vats, J.K.; Kostova, I.; Lang, Kamil; Rastori, V. K.
2010-01-01
Ro?. 48, ?. 2 (2010), s. 85-94. ISSN 0019-5596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : Ab-initio calculations * FT-IR * FT-Raman spectra Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010
Nature of binding of bombykol in pheromone binding protein. An .I.ab initio./I. study.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klusák, Vojt?ch; Havlas, Zden?k; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Vondrášek, Ji?í; Svatoš, Aleš
Bäckaskog Castle : Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 2003. s. 70. [International Symposium on Insect Pheromones /3./. 25.05.2003-29.05.2003, Bäckaskog Castle] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bombykol * .I.ab initio./I. study * interactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry
Amorphous Ge quantum dots embedded in crystalline Si: ab initio results.
Laubscher, M; Küfner, S; Kroll, P; Bechstedt, F
2015-10-14
We study amorphous Ge quantum dots embedded in a crystalline Si matrix through structure modeling and simulation using ab initio density functional theory including spin-orbit interaction and quasiparticle effects. Three models are generated by replacing a spherical region within diamond Si by Ge atoms and creating a disordered bond network with appropriate density inside the Ge quantum dot. After total-energy optimisations of the atomic geometry we compute the electronic and optical properties. We find three major effects: (i) the resulting nanostructures adopt a type-I heterostructure character; (ii) the lowest optical transitions occur only within the Ge quantum dots, and do not involve or cross the Ge-Si interface. (iii) for larger amorphous Ge quantum dots, with diameters of about 2.0 and 2.7?nm, absorption peaks appear in the mid-infrared spectral region. These are promising candidates for intense luminescence at photon energies below the gap energy of bulk Ge. PMID:26402441
Steinmann, Casper; Jensen, Jan H
2012-01-01
We extend the Effective Fragment Molecular Orbital (EFMO) method to the frozen domain approach where only the geometry of an active part is optimized, while the many-body polarization effects are considered for the whole system. The new approach efficiently mapped out the entire reaction path of chorismate mutase in less than four days using 80 cores on 20 nodes, where the whole system containing 2398 atoms is treated in the ab initio fashion without using any force fields. The reaction path is constructed automatically with the only assumption of defining the reaction coordinate a priori. We determine the reaction barrier of chorismate mutase to be $18.3\\pm 3.6$ kcal mol$^{-1}$ using ONIOM with MP2/cc-pVDZ and EFMO/6-31G(d) for the high and low layers, respectively.
Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Sato, Shunsuke A.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro
2014-08-01
We theoretically investigate the generation of ultrafast currents in insulators induced by strong few-cycle laser pulses. Ab initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory give insight into the atomic-scale properties of the induced current signifying a femtosecond-scale insulator-metal transition. We observe the transition from nonlinear polarization currents during the laser pulse at low intensities to tunnelinglike excitation into the conduction band at higher laser intensities. At high intensities, the current persists after the conclusion of the laser pulse considered to be the precursor of the dielectric breakdown on the femtosecond scale. We show that the transferred charge sensitively depends on the orientation of the polarization axis relative to the crystal axis, suggesting that the induced charge separation reflects the anisotropic electronic structure. We find good agreement with very recent experimental data on the intensity and carrier-envelope phase dependence [A. Schiffrin et al., Nature (London) 493, 70 (2013)].
Ab initio investigation of electronic properties of the magnesium hydride molecular ion.
Khemiri, Noura; Dardouri, Riadh; Oujia, Brahim; Gadéa, Florent Xavier
2013-09-12
In this work, adiabatic potential energy curves, spectroscopic constants, dipole moments, and vibrational levels for numerous electronic states of magnesium hydride molecular ion (MgH(+)) are computed. These properties are determined by the use of an ab initio method involving a nonempirical pseudopotential for the magnesium core (Mg), the core polarization potential (CPP), the l-dependent cutoff functions and the full valence configuration interaction (FCI). The molecular ion is thus treated as a two-electron system. Our calculations on the MgH(+) molecular ion extend previous theoretical works to numerous electronic excited states in the various symmetries. A good agreement with the available theoretical and experimental works is obtained for the spectroscopic constants, the adiabatic potential energy curves, and the dipole moments for the lowest states of MgH(+). PMID:23944679
Ab initio and experimental study of the K-shell spectra of 2,5-dihydrofuran
Duflot, D.; Flament, J.-P.; Giuliani, A.; Heinesch, J.; Hubin-Franskin, M.-J.
2005-04-01
The K-shell spectra of gaseous 2,5-dihydrofuran at the carbon and oxygen thresholds are reported for the first time. They have been measured using the inner-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy (ISEELS) method. Ab initio Configuration Interaction calculations have been carried out to assign the observed bands. The O1s spectrum is similar to that of tetrahydrofuran and the assignments of the bands are close to those obtained in the case of furan, excepting the furan first ?* band. At the C1s edge, the spectrum differs from the furan case, because of the different chemical environment of one of the non-equivalent carbon atoms: due to the presence of hydrogen atoms out of the carbon-oxygen ring plane, several Rydberg core excited states have an important valence character, leading to large intensities in the experimental spectrum.
Ab initio and experimental study of the K-shell spectra of 2,5-dihydrofuran
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The K-shell spectra of gaseous 2,5-dihydrofuran at the carbon and oxygen thresholds are reported for the first time. They have been measured using the inner-shell electron energy loss spectroscopy (ISEELS) method. Ab initio Configuration Interaction calculations have been carried out to assign the observed bands. The O1s spectrum is similar to that of tetrahydrofuran and the assignments of the bands are close to those obtained in the case of furan, excepting the furan first ?* band. At the C1s edge, the spectrum differs from the furan case, because of the different chemical environment of one of the non-equivalent carbon atoms: due to the presence of hydrogen atoms out of the carbon-oxygen ring plane, several Rydberg core excited states have an important valence character, leading to large intensities in the experimental spectrum
Ab initio modeling of radiation damage in MgF{sub 2} crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abuova, F.U. [L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 3 Munaitpasova Str., Astana (Kazakhstan); Kotomin, E.A., E-mail: kotomin@latnet.lv [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063, Riga (Latvia); Lisitsyn, V.M. [Tomsk Polytechnical University, Tomsk 634003 (Russian Federation); Akilbekov, A.T. [L. N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, 3 Munaitpasova Str., Astana (Kazakhstan); Piskunov, S. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063, Riga (Latvia)
2014-05-01
MgF{sub 2} with a rutile structure is important radiation-resistant material with numerous applications due to its transparency from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared range of photon energies. We present and discuss the results of calculations for basic radiation defects in this crystal. The study is based on the large scale ab initio DFT calculations using hybrid B3PW exchange–correlation functional and atomic basis set. We analyzed the electronic structure, atomic displacements, charge density distribution as well as defect formation energies using large supercells. We compared properties of close and well separated F?H (Frenkel) defect pairs as well as individual defects. We simulated also formation and energetic preference of inert F{sub 2} interstitial molecules as sinks of mobile interstitial fluorine atoms which is relevant for material radiation stability. We discussed also diffusion of the primary electronic defects—F centers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The determination of the molecular structure of molecules is of fundamental importance in chemistry. X-rays and electron diffraction methods constitute in important tools for the elucidation of the molecular structure of systems in the solid state and gas phase, respectively. The use of quantum mechanical molecular orbital ab initio methods offer an alternative for conformational analysis studies. Comparison between theoretical results and those obtained experimentally in the gas phase can make a significant contribution for an unambiguous determination of the geometrical parameters. In this article the determination for an unambiguous determination of the geometrical parameters. In this article the determination of the molecular structure of the cyclooctane molecule by electron diffraction in the gas phase an initio calculations will be addressed, providing an example of a comparative analysis of theoretical and experimental predictions. (author)
An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics
Nakamura, Makoto; Morishita, Tetsuya; Oda, Tatsuki
2014-01-01
We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields.
An ab initio approach to free-energy reconstruction using logarithmic mean force dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an ab initio approach for evaluating a free energy profile along a reaction coordinate by combining logarithmic mean force dynamics (LogMFD) and first-principles molecular dynamics. The mean force, which is the derivative of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate, is estimated using density functional theory (DFT) in the present approach, which is expected to provide an accurate free energy profile along the reaction coordinate. We apply this new method, first-principles LogMFD (FP-LogMFD), to a glycine dipeptide molecule and reconstruct one- and two-dimensional free energy profiles in the framework of DFT. The resultant free energy profile is compared with that obtained by the thermodynamic integration method and by the previous LogMFD calculation using an empirical force-field, showing that FP-LogMFD is a promising method to calculate free energy without empirical force-fields
Atomic carbon chains as spin-transmitters: An ab initio transport study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Brandbyge, Mads
2010-01-01
An atomic carbon chain joining two graphene flakes was recently realized in a ground-breaking experiment by Jin et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 102 (2009) 205501). We present ab initio results for the electron transport properties of such chains and demonstrate complete spin-polarization of the transmission in large energy ranges. The effect is due to the spin-polarized zig-zag edge terminating each graphene flake causing a spin-splitting of the graphene pi(z) bands, and the chain states. Transmission occurs when the graphene p-states resonate with similar states in the strongly hybridized edges and chain. This effect should in general hold for any p-conjugated molecules bridging the zig-zag edges of graphene electrodes. The polarization of the transmission can be controlled by chemically or mechanically modifying the molecule, or by applying an electrical gate.
Ab initio study of structural transition and pseudoelasticity in Cu nanowires
Hung, Nguyen Tuan; Van Truong, Do
2015-11-01
In this study, ab initio density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the intrinsic mechanical responses of copper nanowires with an initial axis and {110} side surfaces (/{110} Cu NWs) under a large tensile strain. For the small cross sectional diameters below 1.38 nm, surface stresses alone may cause to transform from an initial face-centred-cubic (FCC) to a body-centred-tetragonal (BCT) structures. Under loading and unloading conditions, the structural transition from a BCT to a face-centred-tetragonal (FCT) structures reversibly occurs and is a key to explain the pseudoelastic behaviour of the /{110} Cu NWs. The mechanical properties of the Cu NWs investigated depend not only on diameter size but also side surface.
Characterization of amorphous In2O3: An ab initio molecular dynamics study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work, we report on the structural and electronic properties of amorphous In2O3 obtained with ab initio molecular dynamics. Our results show crystal-like short range InO6 polyhedra having average In-O distance consistent with x-ray spectroscopy data. Structural disorder yields band tailing and localized states, which are responsible of a strong reduction of the electronic gap. Most importantly, the appearance of a peculiar O-O bond imparts n-type character to the amorphous compound and provides contribution for interpreting spectroscopic measurements on indium based oxidized systems. Our findings portray characteristic features to attribute transparent semiconductive properties to amorphous In2O3.
Ab initio study of the migration of intrinsic defects in 3C-SiC
Bockstedte, M; Pankratov, O; Bockstedte, Michel; Mattausch, Alexander; Pankratov, Oleg
2003-01-01
The diffusion of intrinsic defects in 3C-SiC is studied using an ab initio method based on density functional theory. The vacancies are shown to migrate on their own sublattice. The carbon split-interstitials and the two relevant silicon interstitials, namely the tetrahedrally carbon-coordinated interstitial and the -oriented split-interstitial, are found to be by far more mobile than the vacancies. The metastability of the silicon vacancy, which transforms into a vacancy-antisite complex in p-type and compensated material, kinetically suppresses its contribution to diffusion processes. The role of interstitials and vacancies in the self-diffusion is analyzed. Consequences for the dopant diffusion are qualitatively discussed. Our analysis emphasizes the relevance of mechanisms based on silicon and carbon interstitials.
The role of ab initio electronic structure calculations in studies of the strength of materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we give an account of applications of quantum-mechanical (first-principles) electronic structure calculations to the problem of theoretical tensile strength in metals and intermetallics. First, we review previous as well as ongoing research on this subject. We then describe briefly the electronic structure calculational methods and simulation of the tensile test. This approach is then illustrated by calculations of theoretical tensile strength in iron and in the intermetallic compound Ni3Al. The anisotropy of calculated tensile strength is explained in terms of higher-symmetry structures encountered along the deformation paths studied. The table summarizing values of theoretical tensile strengths calculated up to now is presented and the role of ab initio electronic structure calculations in contemporary studies of the strength of material is discussed
Yu, Kuang; Carter, Emily A.
2014-03-01
The density functional theory (DFT)+U method is an efficient and effective way to calculate the ground-state properties of strongly correlated transition metal compounds, with the effective U parameters typically determined empirically. Two ab initio methods have been developed to compute the U parameter based on either constrained DFT (CDFT) or unrestricted Hartree-Fock (UHF) theory. Previous studies have demonstrated the success of both methods in typical open-shell materials such as FeO and NiO. In this Communication we report numerical instability issues that arise for the CDFT method when applied to closed-shell transition metals, by using ZnO and Cu2O as examples. By contrast, the UHF method behaves much more robustly for both closed- and open-shell materials, making it more suitable for treating closed-shell transition metals, as well as main group elements.
Ab initio determination of the instability growth rate of warm dense beryllium-deuterium interface
Wang, Cong; Li, Zi; Li, DaFang; Zhang, Ping
2015-10-01
Accurate knowledge about the interfacial unstable growth is of great importance in inertial confinement fusion. During implosions, the deuterium-tritium capsule is driven by laser beams or X-rays to access the strongly coupled and partially degenerated warm dense matter regime. At this stage, the effects of dissipative processes, such as diffusion and viscosity, have significant impact on the instability growth rates. Here, we present ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to determine the equations of state and the transport coefficients. Several models are used to estimate the reduction in the growth rate dispersion curves of Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities with considering the presence of these dissipative effects. We show that these instability growth rates are effectively reduced when considering diffusion. The findings provide significant insights into the microscopic mechanism of the instability growth at the ablator-fuel interface and will refine the models used in the laser-driven hydrodynamic instability experiments.
Lattice thermal conductivity of UO{sub 2} using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Hyoungchul [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); High-Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136–791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kaviany, Massoud, E-mail: kaviany@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-03-28
We applied the non-equilibrium ab-initio molecular dynamics and predict the lattice thermal conductivity of the pristine uranium dioxide for up to 2000?K. We also use the equilibrium classical molecular dynamics and heat-current autocorrelation decay theory to decompose the lattice thermal conductivity into acoustic and optical components. The predicted optical phonon transport is temperature independent and small, while the acoustic component follows the Slack relation and is in good agreement with the limited single-crystal experimental results. Considering the phonon grain-boundary and pore scatterings, the effective lattice thermal conductivity is reduced, and we show it is in general agreement with the sintered-powder experimental results. The charge and photon thermal conductivities are also addressed, and we find small roles for electron, surface polaron, and photon in the defect-free structures and for temperatures below 1500?K.
Current rectification by simple molecular quantum dots: an ab-initio study
Larade, B
2003-01-01
We calculate a current rectification by molecules containing a conjugated molecular group sandwiched between two saturated (insulating) molecular groups of different length (molecular quantum dot) using an ab-initio non-equilibrium Green's function method. In particular, we study S-(CH2)m-C10H6-(CH2)n-S dithiol with Naphthalene as a conjugated central group. The rectification current ratio ~35 has been observed at m = 2 and n = 10, due to resonant tunneling through the molecular orbital (MO) closest to the electrode Fermi level (lowest unoccupied MO in the present case). The rectification is limited by interference of other conducting orbitals, but can be improved by e.g. adding an electron withdrawing group to the naphthalene.
Faghaninia, Alireza; Lo, Cynthia S
2015-01-01
Accurate models of carrier transport are essential for describing the electronic properties of semiconductor materials. To the best of our knowledge, the current models following the framework of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) either rely heavily on experimental data (i.e., semi-empirical), or utilize simplifying assumptions, such as the constant relaxation time approximation (BTE-cRTA). While these models offer valuable physical insights and accurate calculations of transport properties in some cases, they often lack sufficient accuracy -- particularly in capturing the correct trends with temperature and carrier concentration. We present here a general transport model for calculating low-field electrical drift mobility and Seebeck coefficient of n-type semiconductors, by explicitly considering all relevant physical phenomena (i.e. elastic and inelastic scattering mechanisms). We first rewrite expressions for the rates of elastic scattering mechanisms, in terms of ab initio properties, such as the ban...
{\\it Ab initio} Simulation of Silver Transport in Ge_xSe_1-x: Ag
Tafen, D N; Mitkova, M; Tafen, De Nyago
2005-01-01
In this paper, we present models of Ge-Se glasses heavily doped with Ag obtained from {\\it ab initio} simulation and study the dynamics of the network with an emphasis on the motion of Ag$^+$ ions. The models are analyzed with partial pair correlation functions, static structure factors and novel wavelet techniques. The electronic properties are characterized by the electronic density of states and analysis of specific electronic eigenstates. As Ag content increases, the optical band gap increases. Ag diffusion is observed directly from thermal simulation. The most diffusive Ag$^+$ ions move preferentially through low density regions of the network and the existence of well-defined trapping centers is confirmed. Preliminary information about temperature dependence of trapping and release is provided.
He, Yuping
2015-03-01
We present calculations of the thermal transport coefficients of Si-based clathrates and solar perovskites, as obtained from ab initio calculations and models, where all input parameters derived from first principles. We elucidated the physical mechanisms responsible for the measured low thermal conductivity in Si-based clatherates and predicted their electronic properties and mobilities, which were later confirmed experimentally. We also predicted that by appropriately tuning the carrier concentration, the thermoelectric figure of merit of Sn and Pb based perovskites may reach values ranging between 1 and 2, which could possibly be further increased by optimizing the lattice thermal conductivity through engineering perovskite superlattices. Work done in collaboration with Prof. G. Galli, and supported by DOE/BES Grant No. DE-FG0206ER46262.
Ab-initio Hartree-Fock study of tritium desorption from Li{sub 2}O
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taniguchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoru [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1998-03-01
Dissociative adsorption of hydrogen on Li{sub 2}O (110) surface has been investigated with ab-initio Hartree-Fock quantum chemical calculation technique. Heat of adsorption and potential energy surface for H{sub 2} dissociative adsorption was evaluated by calculating the total energy of the system. Calculation results on adsorption heat indicated that H{sub 2} adsorption is endothermic. However, when oxygen vacancy exists adjacent to the adsorption sites, heat of adsorption energy became less endothermic and the activation energy required to dissociate the H-H bonding was smaller than that for the terrace site. This is considered to be caused by the excess charge localized near the defect. (author)
Ab initio calculation and spectral properties of nano- and bulk materials
Kulagin, N. A.
2013-01-01
This paper presents the development of ab initio calculation of the electronic structure of either clusters, nano-crystals, doped and unperfected bulk crystals. In addition, analysis of selected experimental data for ?- or plasma irradiated pure and doped wide-band gap oxides such as sapphire, ?-Al2O3, garnet, Y3Al5O12, Gd3Sc2Al3O12 and perovskites YAlO3, SrTiO3 is presented. Change in the crystals surface morphology and spectroscopic properties of sapphire, perovskites, garnets as well as ion oxidation state in pure and doped ?- and plasma irradiated crystals are discussed in detail using the optical and X ray spectroscopy experimental results.
Ab initio calculation and spectral properties of nano- and bulk materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents the development of ab initio calculation of the electronic structure of either clusters, nano-crystals, doped and unperfected bulk crystals. In addition, analysis of selected experimental data for ?- or plasma irradiated pure and doped wide-band gap oxides such as sapphire, ?-Al2O3, garnet, Y3Al5O12, Gd3Sc2Al3O12 and perovskites YAlO3, SrTiO3 is presented. Change in the crystals surface morphology and spectroscopic properties of sapphire, perovskites, garnets as well as ion oxidation state in pure and doped ?- and plasma irradiated crystals are discussed in detail using the optical and X ray spectroscopy experimental results.
Stress reduction of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films from ab initio calculations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaowei Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Structure and properties of Cu-doped diamond-like carbon films (DLC were investigated using ab initio calculations. The effect of Cu concentrations (1.56?7.81 at.% on atomic bond structure was mainly analyzed to clarify the residual stress reduction mechanism. Results showed that with introducing Cu into DLC films, the residual compressive stress decreased firstly and then increased for each case with the obvious deterioration of mechanical properties, which was in agreement with the experimental results. Structural analysis revealed that the weak Cu-C bond and the relaxation of both the distorted bond angles and bond lengths accounted for the significant reduction of residual compressive stress, while at the higher Cu concentration the increase of residual stress attributed to the existence of distorted Cu-C structures and the increased fraction of distorted C-C bond lengths.
Theoretical AB initio study of the hydrogen bonding nature of the A:T base pair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of applied external electric field on DNA occurs mostly at high field intensity. The results of the theoretical ab initio study on the applied electric field on A:T base pair components are reported. The geometries of the local minima were optimized at DFT level (B3LYP). The 6-31 G(d,p) basis set was used. The geometrical parameters, relative stability, interaction energies and nature of hydrogen bonding energy are reported. Also focus on the range of hydrogen bonding energy and the flexibility of the rotation angle between the A:T base pair. So that the electric field mutation may be able to be classified as multi-point mutation
Theoretical ab initio study the hydrogen bonding nature of the A:T base pair
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of applied external electric field on DNA occurs mostly at high field intensity. The results of the theoretical ab initio study on the applied electric field on A:T base pair components are reported. The geometries of the local minima were optimized at DFT level. The 6-31 G(d,p) basis set was used. The geometrical parameters, relative stability, interaction energies and nature of hydrogen bonding energy are reported. Also, focus on the range of hydrogen bonding energy and the flexibility of the rotation angle between the A:T base pair. So that the electric field mutation may be able to be classified as multi-point mutation
Relaxation of the excited -(2-hydroxy benzylidene) aniline molecule: An ab initio and TD DFT study
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Biswajit Chowdhury; Rina De; Pinaky Sett; Joydeep Chowdhury
2010-11-01
The photophysical behaviour of N-(2-hydroxy benzylidene) aniline or most commonly known as salicylideneaniline (SA) has been investigated using the ab initio and DFT levels of theory. The quantum chemical calculations show that the optimized non planar enol ($C_1$) form of the SA molecule is the most stable conformer in the ground state and is marked by the twisting of the phenolic and anilino rings of the molecule. The geometry optimizations and the subsequent frequency calculations of the excited singlet electronic states of the various tautomeric forms of SA molecule were performed with the CIS level of theory. A detail theoretical investigation on the relaxation dynamics of the SA molecule has been presented. Possible explanation on the excitation wavelength dependence of the photochromic yield of the molecule is also reported.
Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study
Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2014-05-01
A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.
Ab initio study of M2AlN (M = Ti,V,Cr)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We have studied M2AlN phases, where M = Ti, V, and Cr, by means of ab initio total energy calculations. The bulk modulus of M2AlN increases as Ti is replaced with V and Cr by 19.0% and 26.5%, respectively, which can be understood on the basis of the increased number of valence electrons filling the p-d hybridized bonding states. The bulk modulus of M2AlN is generally higher than that of the corresponding M2AlC phase, which may be explained by an extra electron in the former phases contributing to stronger chemical bonding. This work is important for fundamental understanding of elastic properties of these ternary nitrides and may inspire future experimental research. (letter to the editor)
Ab initio simulations of H2 in Li-doped carbon nanotube systems
Sabir, A; Roland, C; Bernholc, J; Sabir, Abdenour; Lu, Wenchang; Roland, Christopher; Bernholc, Jerzy
2006-01-01
Because of their unique structure, it has been proposed that carbon nanotube ropes may well provide an ideal container for the storage of molecular hydrogen. Indeed, there has been some experimental evidence of enhanced hydrogen uptake in doped Li and other alkali metal systems [Chen et al, Science 285, 91 (1999)]. We have therefore addressed this issue of hydrogen storage in Li-doped graphite and carbon nanotube systems theoretically with ab initio simulations. Our results find no evidence for such enhanced storage, based on the induced structural changes. In addition, we have also investigated the diffusion barriers for hydrogen to enter into nanotube interiors, both in the presence and absence of topological defects. Even if nanotube interiors are made accessible, the hydrogen uptake remains modest, i.e., less than 3.5 wt%. Mechanically or chemically processing nanotubes is therefore not likely to lead to greatly increased hydrogen storage.
Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of nitrous oxide.
Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard
2015-06-28
We present an analytical intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) for two rigid nitrous oxide (N2O) molecules derived from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. Interaction energies for 2018 N2O-N2O configurations were computed utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ supplemented with bond functions. A site-site potential function with seven sites per N2O molecule was fitted to the pair interaction energies. We validated our PES by computing the second virial coefficient as well as shear viscosity and thermal conductivity in the dilute-gas limit. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data. PMID:26133428
Ab-initio investigation of ferroelectricity in asymmetrically layered magnetic perovskites
Hatt, Alison; Spaldin, Nicola
2007-03-01
In an effort to combine magnetism and ferroelectricity in a single material we are motivated to explore creative routes to ferroelectricity that allow the coexistence of magnetism. In this talk we present results from an ab-initio study of a system of asymmetrically layered magnetic perovskite oxides in which the asymmetric layering should induce a ferroelectric polarization. We investigate this prediction in a model system of La(Al,Fe,Cr)O3, and find that a large switchable ferroelectric polarization can indeed be obtained, although it does not originate from the asymmetric layering. We examine the forces driving polarization in this system, and propose two- and three-dimensional heteroepitaxy as a general route to stabilizing novel ferroelectrics and multiferroics.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abild-Pedersen, Frank; NØrskov, Jens Kehlet
2006-01-01
Mechanisms and energetics of graphene growth catalyzed by nickel nanoclusters were studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. It is demonstrated that nickel step-edge sites act as the preferential growth centers for graphene layers on the nickel surface. Carbon is transported from the deposition site at the free nickel surface to the perimeter of the growing graphene layer via surface or subsurface diffusion. Three different processes are identified to govern the growth of graphene layers, depending on the termination of the graphene perimeter at the nickel surface, and it is argued how these processes may lead to different nanofiber structures. The proposed growth model is found to be in good agreement with previous findings.
Rezaee, Mohammadreza; Compton, Robert
2015-05-01
Collision induced dissociation (CID) and ab initio calculations were utilized to study a few derivatives of azobenzene molecule and their product ions. High level computational methods along with large basis set size yield values in close agreement with the experimental results. Möller-Plesset and coupled-cluster theory including perturbative triple excitations, CCSD(T), method were performed to obtain a high accuracy estimation of the bond dissociation energy value. The electron affinities have been studied experimentally using the photoelectron spectroscopy method as well as theoretically using ab inito calculations. For the trans-2,2',6,6' tetra-fluoro azobenzene the bond dissociation has been experimentally determined to be 1.88 eV and the vertical detachment energy is 1.78 eV.
Ab initio calculation of the ion feature in x-ray Thomson scattering
Plagemann, Kai-Uwe; Rüter, Hannes R.; Bornath, Thomas; Shihab, Mohammed; Desjarlais, Michael P.; Fortmann, Carsten; Glenzer, Siegfried H.; Redmer, Ronald
2015-07-01
The spectrum of x-ray Thomson scattering is proportional to the dynamic structure factor. An important contribution is the ion feature which describes elastic scattering of x rays off electrons. We apply an ab initio method for the calculation of the form factor of bound electrons, the slope of the screening cloud of free electrons, and the ion-ion structure factor in warm dense beryllium. With the presented method we can calculate the ion feature from first principles. These results will facilitate a better understanding of x-ray scattering in warm dense matter and an accurate measurement of ion temperatures which would allow determining nonequilibrium conditions, e.g., along shock propagation.
Ab initio approach to model x-ray diffraction in warm dense matter.
Vorberger, J; Gericke, D O
2015-03-01
It is demonstrated how the static electron-electron structure factor in warm dense matter can be obtained from density functional theory in combination with quantum Monte Carlo data. In contrast to theories assuming well-separated bound and free states, this ab initio approach yields also valid results for systems close to the Mott transition (pressure ionization), where bound states are strongly modified and merge with the continuum. The approach is applied to x-ray Thomson scattering and compared to predictions of the Chihara formula whereby we use the ion-ion and electron-ion structure from the same simulations. The results show significant deviations of the screening cloud from the often applied Debye-like form. PMID:25871229
A set of molecular models based on quantum mechanical ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data
Eckl, Bernhard; Hasse, Hans
2009-01-01
A parameterization strategy for molecular models on the basis of force fields is proposed, which allows a rapid development of models for small molecules by using results from quantum mechanical (QM) ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data. The geometry of the molecular models is specified according to the atom positions determined by QM energy minimization. The electrostatic interactions are modeled by reducing the electron density distribution to point dipoles and point quadrupoles located in the center of mass of the molecules. Dispersive and repulsive interactions are described by Lennard-Jones sites, for which the parameters are iteratively optimized to experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, i.e. vapor pressure, saturated liquid density, and enthalpy of vaporization of the considered substance. The proposed modeling strategy was applied to a sample set of ten molecules from different substance classes. New molecular models are presented for iso-butane, cyclohexane, formaldehyde, dimethyl...
Ellipsometry and ab initio approaches to the refractive index of porous silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cisneros, Rodolfo; RamIrez, Carlos; Wang, Chumin [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-360, 04510, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2007-10-03
Spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to determine the complex refractive index (n-ik), porosity, and thickness of porous silicon (PSi) films. These films are obtained by anodizing p-type crystalline silicon in a hydrofluoric acid bath. After etching, PSi samples are heated to 750 deg. Cin a controlled oxygen environment. A detailed analysis of the ellipsometry data is performed in order to determine the complex refractive index of PSi thin film. This frequency dependence of n and k is compared with the results of ab initio quantum mechanical calculations carried out by means of CASTEP codes within the density functional theory. The theoretical results show a diminution of the lattice constant as the oxygen content grows, in contrast to the hydrogen-saturated surface case.
Ab initio calculation of BaF{sub 2} cross-luminescence spectrum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myasnikova, A., E-mail: sasham@igc.irk.r [Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Favorsky Street 1A, 664033 Irkutsk, P.O. Box 4019 (Russian Federation); Radzhabov, E.; Mysovsky, A. [Vinogradov Institute of Geochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Favorsky Street 1A, 664033 Irkutsk, P.O. Box 4019 (Russian Federation)
2009-12-15
We present the theoretical calculations of the core hole electronic and spatial structure and cross-luminescence spectrum in [Ba{sub 13}F{sub 32}]{sup -6} cluster. The ab initio Hartree-Fock calculation of cross-luminescence has been performed in embedded-cluster approach. The theoretical spectrum reproduces well the characteristics of the experimental one. The valence states corresponding to the 5.6, 6.3 and 7.1 eV emissions is found to be localized. The low-energy tail is shown to be due to transitions between 5p core states of Ba{sup 2+} ion and 2p valence states of next-nearest F{sup -} ions.
Ab-initio calculations of charge symmetry breaking in the A=4 hypernuclei
Gazda, Daniel
2015-01-01
We report on ab-initio NCSM calculations of the A=4 mirror Lambda hypernuclei Lambda-4H and Lambda-4He, using the Bonn-Juelich LO chiral EFT YN potentials plus a CSB Lambda0--Sigma0 mixing vertex. In addition to reproducing rather well the 0+ (g.s.) and 1+ (exc.) binding energies, these four-body calculations demonstrate for the first time that the observed CSB splitting of mirror levels, reaching hundreds of keV for 0+ (g.s.), can be reproduced using realistic theoretical interaction models, although with a non-negligible momentum cutoff dependence. Our results are discussed in relation to recent measurements of the Lambda-4H (0+ g.s.) binding energy [MAMI A1 Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 232501 (2015)] and the Lambda-4He (1+ exc.) excitation energy [J-PARC E13 Collaboration, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 222501 (2015)].
Hydrogen-water mixtures in giant planet interiors studied with ab initio simulations
Soubiran, F.; Militzer, B.
2015-12-01
We study water-hydrogen mixtures under planetary interior conditions using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We determine the thermodynamic properties of various water-hydrogen mixing ratios at temperatures of 2000 and 6000 K for pressures of a few tens of GPa. These conditions are relevant for ice giant planets and for the outer envelope of the gas giants. We find that at 2000 K the mixture is in a molecular regime, while at 6000 K the dissociation of hydrogen and water is important and affects the thermodynamic properties. We study the structure of the liquid and analyze the radial distribution function. We provide estimates for the transport properties, diffusion and viscosity, based on autocorrelation functions. We obtained viscosity estimates of the order of a few tenths of mPa s for the conditions under consideration. These results are relevant for dynamo simulations of ice giant planets.
Impact of oxygen on the 300-K isotherm of Laser Megajoule ablator using ab initio simulation
Colin-Lalu, P.; Recoules, V.; Salin, G.; Huser, G.
2015-11-01
The ablator material for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsules on the Laser Mégajoule is a glow-discharge polymer (GDP) plastic. Its equation of state (EOS) is of primary importance for the design of such capsules, since it has direct consequences on shock timing and is essential to mitigate hydrodynamic instabilities. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD), we have investigated the 300-K isotherm of amorphous CH1.37O0.08 plastic, whose structure is close to GDP plastic. The 300-K isotherm, which is often used as a cold curve within tabular EOS, is an important contribution of the EOS in the multimegabar pressure range. AIMD results are compared to analytic models within tabular EOS, pointing out large discrepancies. In addition, we show that the effect of oxygen decreases 300-K isotherm pressure by 10%-15%. The implication of these observations is the ability to improve ICF target performance, which is essential to achieve fusion ignition.
Ab initio studies of structures and properties of small potassium clusters
Banerjee, Arup; Chakrabarti, Aparna
2008-01-01
We have studied the structure and properties of potassium clusters containing even number of atoms ranging from 2 to 20 at the ab initio level. The geometry optimization calculations are performed using all-electron density functional theory with gradient corrected exchange-correlation functional. Using these optimized geometries we investigate the evolution of binding energy, ionization potential, and static polarizability with the increasing size of the clusters. The polarizabilities are calculated by employing Moller-Plesset perturbation theory and time dependent density functional theory. The polarizabilities of dimer and tetramer are also calculated by employing large basis set coupled cluster theory with single and double excitations and perturbative triple excitations. The time dependent density functional theory calculations of polarizabilities are carried out with two different exchange-correlation potentials: (i) an asymptotically correct model potential and (ii) within the local density approximati...
Kinetics of reaction with water vapor and ab initio study of titanium beryllide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beryllium is one of the candidate materials of the neutron multiplier in the tritium-breeding blanket. Titanium beryllides such as Be12Ti are known to have advantages over beryllium from the perspectives of higher melting point, lower chemical reactivity, lower swelling and so forth. The reaction of titanium beryllides with water vapor was investigated. The sample disks of Be12Ti were exposed to an argon gas with 10 000 ppm of water vapor, and the sample temperature was raised to 1000 oC. However, the chaotic breakaway reaction was not observed. The kinetics of oxidation on the surface of Be12Ti by water vapor was investigated using a model differential equation, and the reaction constant was quantified. Furthermore, to know the electron state in Be12Ti, ab initio calculations of quantum chemistry were performed using CRYSTAL 98. The structure optimization of Be12Ti crystal was attempted, and an electron density map was generated
Ab initio investigation of the aqueous solvation of the nitrate ion.
Pruitt, Spencer R; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S
2015-10-28
The surface affinity of the nitrate ion in aqueous clusters is investigated with a variety of theoretical methods. A sampling of structures in which the nitrate ion is solvated by 32 water molecules is optimized using second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2). Four of these MP2 optimized structures are used as starting points for fully ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at the dispersion corrected restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF-D) level of theory. The nitrate ion solvated by 16, 32, and 64 water molecules is also investigated with umbrella sampling molecular dynamics simulations using QM/MM methodology, where the nitrate ion is modeled with MP2 and the water molecules are described using either the non-empirical effective fragment potential (EFP) or the empirical TIP5P potential. The turning point between surface and interior solvation of the nitrate ion is predicted to lie around a cluster size of 64 water molecules. PMID:26412597
Olsson, Pär A. T.; Kese, Kwadwo; Alvarez Holston, Anna-Maria
2015-12-01
In this work we report the results of an ab initio study of the influence of hydrogen filled vacancies on the mechanical properties of zirconium. The modelling shows that hydrogen filled vacancies contribute to a lowering of the surface energy and an increase in the unstable stacking fault energy, which implies a reduction in ductility. The increase in unstable stacking fault energy suggests that the defects promote a change in the dislocation glide mechanism from prismatic to basal slip. To investigate the cleavage energetics, we model the decohesion process. For describing the interplanar interaction we adopt an extended version of Rose's universal binding energy relation, which is found to reproduce the behaviour accurately. The results of the modelling imply that the work of fracture and peak stress decrease as a result of the presence of hydrogen filled vacancies.
Ab Initio No Core Shell Model - Recent Results and Further Prospects
Vary, James P; Potter, Hugh; Caprio, Mark A; Smith, Robin; Binder, Sven; Calci, Angelo; Fischer, Sebastian; Langhammer, Joachim; Roth, Robert; Aktulga, Hasan Metin; Ng, Esmond; Yang, Chao; Oryspayev, Dossay; Sosonkina, Masha; Saule, Erik; Çatalyürek, Ümit
2015-01-01
There has been significant recent progress in solving the long-standing problems of how nuclear shell structure and collective motion emerge from underlying microscopic inter-nucleon interactions. We review a selection of recent significant results within the ab initio No Core Shell Model (NCSM) closely tied to three major factors enabling this progress: (1) improved nuclear interactions that accurately describe the experimental two-nucleon and three-nucleon interaction data; (2) advances in algorithms to simulate the quantum many-body problem with strong interactions; and (3) continued rapid development of high-performance computers now capable of performing $20 \\times 10^{15}$ floating point operations per second. We also comment on prospects for further developments.
Decarboxylation of furfural on Pd(111): Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
Xue, Wenhua; Dang, Hongli; Shields, Darwin; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu
2013-03-01
Furfural conversion over metal catalysts plays an important role in the studies of biomass-derived feedstocks. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the decarboxylation process of furfural on the palladium surface at finite temperatures. We observed and analyzed the atomic-scale dynamics of furfural on the Pd(111) surface and the fluctuations of the bondlengths between the atoms in furfural. We found that the dominant bonding structure is the parallel structure in which the furfural plane, while slightly distorted, is parallel to the Pd surface. Analysis of the bondlength fluctuations indicates that the C-H bond is the aldehyde group of a furfural molecule is likely to be broken first, while the C =O bond has a tendency to be isolated as CO. Our results show that the reaction of decarbonylation dominates, consistent with the experimental measurements. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). Simulations and calculations were performed on XSEDE's and NERSC's supercomputers.
Ab initio study on the dynamics of furfural at the liquid-solid interfaces
Dang, Hongli; Xue, Wenhua; Shields, Darwin; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu
2013-03-01
Catalytic biomass conversion sometimes occurs at the liquid-solid interfaces. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at finite temperatures for the catalytic reactions involving furfural at the water-Pd and water-Cu interfaces. We found that, during the dynamic process, the furan ring of furfural prefers to be parallel to the Pd surface and the aldehyde group tends to be away from the Pd surface. On the other hand, at the water-Cu(111) interface, furfural prefers to be tilted to the Cu surface while the aldehyde group is bonded to the surface. In both cases, interaction of liquid water and furfural is identified. The difference of dynamic process of furfural at the two interfaces suggests different catalytic reaction mechanisms for the conversion of furfural, consistent with the experimental investigations. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). Simulations and calculations were performed on XSED's and NERSC's supercomputers
ESTUDIO TEÓRICO DE LA MOLÉCULA DE HIDROGENO CALCULO AB-INITIO
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Quitián
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Utilizando la técnica LCGO-SCF-MO (Combinación Lineal de los Orbitales Moleculares en Orbitales Gausianos, en el método del Campo Auto-Coherente, se determinaron las energías de orbital, la energía electrónica total, la energía de repulsión nuclear y la energía de Hartree-Fock de la molécula de hidrógeno en su estado fundamental, mediante un cálculo ab initio y utilizando una base de funciones gausianas. Los orbitales moleculares fueron desarrollados en términos de una función Is contraída por átomo de hidrógeno, obtenida por la minimización de los coeficientes y de los exponentes de los orbitales gausianos para el átomo aislado. Los resultados obtenidos nos permiten afirmar que la base molecular mejora sensiblemente los resultados, acercándose más al límite de Hartree-Fock.
Quantum fluctuations and isotope effects in ab initio descriptions of water
Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E
2014-01-01
Nuclear quantum effects, such as zero-point energy and tunneling, cause significant changes to the structure and dynamics of hydrogen bonded systems such as liquid water. However, due to the current inability to simulate liquid water using an exact description of its electronic structure, the interplay between nuclear and electronic quantum effects remains unclear. Here we use simulations that incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the nuclei and electrons to provide a fully ab initio determination of the particle quantum kinetic energies, free energy change upon exchanging hydrogen for deuterium and the isotope fractionation ratio in water. These properties, which selectively probe the quantum nature of the nuclear degrees of freedom, allow us to make direct comparison to recent experiments and elucidate how electronic exchange and correlation and nuclear quantum fluctuations determine the structure of the hydrogen bond in water.
Ab initio calculations on magnetism induced by composite defects in magnesium oxide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Yao-Fang [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300384 (China); College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Feng, Min [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shao, Bin [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Lu, Yuan; Zuo, Xu, E-mail: xzuonku@gmail.com [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Liu, Hong [Office of International Academic Exchanges, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2014-05-07
The local magnetic state induced by the composite defects, composed of an oxygen vacancy and a nitrogen substituting oxygen, in magnesium oxide has been studied by using ab initio calculation based on density functional theory. The calculated results show that local magnetic moment can be induced by the composite defects around the oxygen vacancy, when the exchange split of the oxygen vacancy is enhanced either by the hybridization between the N-p and nearest neighbor O-p orbitals or by applying on-site Coulomb repulsion (U) and exchange interaction (J). We show that the magnetic state induced by the composite defect is energetically more stable than the non-magnetic state. In addition, we show that the U and J applied on the p-orbitals of N and O atoms may significantly impact the calculated magnetic state of the composite defect, resulting in magnetic state for a configuration that is non-magnetic by generalized gradient approximation.
Iftimie, R; Schofield, J P; Iftimie, Radu; Salahub, Dennis; Schofield, Jeremy
2003-01-01
In this article, we propose an efficient method for sampling the relevant state space in condensed phase reactions. In the present method, the reaction is described by solving the electronic Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the solute atoms in the presence of explicit solvent molecules. The sampling algorithm uses a molecular mechanics guiding potential in combination with simulated tempering ideas and allows thorough exploration of the solvent state space in the context of an ab initio calculation even when the dielectric relaxation time of the solvent is long. The method is applied to the study of the double proton transfer reaction that takes place between a molecule of acetic acid and a molecule of methanol in tetrahydrofuran. It is demonstrated that calculations of rates of chemical transformations occurring in solvents of medium polarity can be performed with an increase in the cpu time of factors ranging from 4 to 15 with respect to gas-phase calculations.
AB INITIO Modeling of Thermomechanical Properties of Mo-Based Alloys for Fossil Energy Conversion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ching, Wai-Yim
2013-12-31
In this final scientific/technical report covering the period of 3.5 years started on July 1, 2011, we report the accomplishments on the study of thermo-mechanical properties of Mo-based intermetallic compounds under NETL support. These include computational method development, physical properties investigation of Mo-based compounds and alloys. The main focus is on the mechanical and thermo mechanical properties at high temperature since these are the most crucial properties for their potential applications. In particular, recent development of applying ab initio molecular dynamic (AIMD) simulations to the T1 (Mo{sub 5}Si{sub 3}) and T2 (Mo{sub 5}SiB{sub 2}) phases are highlighted for alloy design in further improving their properties.
Ab initio MRD CI calculations on the cesium hydride (CsH) molecule
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio multi-reference configuration interaction (MRD CI) calculations were carried out for the potential energy curves of the first 17 electronic states of the CsH molecule up to large bond distances (20 bohr). The 1?+ states were also calculated by means of relativistic all-electron SCF and CI using the spin-free no-pair operator with external field projectors. For the low-lying states, the spectroscopic parameters were determined. Dipole moments as well as the transition dipole moments: ?(X1?+?A1?+), ?(X1?+?B1?+), ?(A1?+?B1?+), were also calculated. Non-relativistic and relativistic results are compared. An analysis of the interactions in the 1,3?+ states is also proposed. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Karl-Heinz Böhm
2014-04-01
Full Text Available We present ab-initio calculations of secondary isotope effects on NMR chemical shieldings. The change of the NMR chemical shift of a certain nucleus that is observed if another nucleus is replaced by a different isotope can be calculated by computing vibrational corrections on the NMR parameters using electronic structure methods. We demonstrate that the accuracy of the computational results is sufficient to even distinguish different conformers. For this purpose, benchmark calculations for fluoro(2-2Hethane in gauche and antiperiplanar conformation are carried out at the HF, MP2 and CCSD(T level of theory using basis sets ranging from double- to quadruple-zeta quality. The methodology is applied to the secondary isotope shifts for 2-fluoronorbornane in order to resolve an ambiguity in the literature on the assignment of endo- and exo-2-fluoronorbornanes with deuterium substituents in endo-3 and exo-3 positions, also yielding insight into mechanistic details of the corresponding synthesis.
Isomerism of OBe3F3+ cation: an ab initio study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio MP2/6-31G*/HF/6-31G*+ZPE(HF/6-31G*) calculations of the potential energy surface in the vicinity of stationary points and the pathways of intramolecular rearrangements between low-lying structures of the OBe3F3+ cation detected in the mass spectra of ?4-Be4O(CF3COO)6 were carried out. Ten stable isomers with di- and tricoordinate oxygen atoms were localized. The relative energies of six structures lie in the range 0-8 kcal mol-1 and those of the rest four structures lie in the range 20-40 kcal mol-1. two most favorable isomers are a planar C2, isomer and a pyramidal C3 isomer
Ab initio studies of the relative energetics of glycine and its zwitterion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ab initio molecular orbital calculations using the 4-31G atomic orbital basis set have been carried out for various conformations of the glycine zwitterion. The equilibrium conformation based on standard bond lengths and bond angles is characterized by a planar framework involving an intramolecular NH...O hydrogen bond and lies 29 kcal/mol above the equilibrium conformation for the nonzwitterionic form, implying a hydration energy of approximately 50 kcal/mol for the gas-phase zwitterion. Examination of the energetics of intramolecular proton transfer indicates that the zwitterionic form is associated with a very shallow local minimum characterized by an elongated NH bond (1.075 A) and separated from the nonzwitterion by a very small barrier (approximately <0.5 kcal/mol). Thus the gas-phase zwitterion is not expected to have an observable lifetime, and it is not even clear that a vibrational state would exist within the local minimum which defines it
Hydrogen-Water Mixtures in Giant Planet Interiors Studied with Ab Initio Simulations
Soubiran, Francois
2015-01-01
We study water-hydrogen mixtures under planetary interior conditions using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We determine the thermodynamic properties of various water-hydrogen mixing ratios at temperatures of 2000 and 6000 K for pressures of a few tens of GPa. These conditions are relevant for ice giant planets and for the outer envelope of the gas giants. We find that at 2000 K the mixture is in a molecular regime, while at 6000 K the dissociation of hydrogen and water is important and affects the thermodynamic properties. We study the structure of the liquid and analyze the radial distribution function. We provide estimates for the transport properties, diffusion and viscosity, based on autocorrelation functions. We obtained viscosity estimates of the order of a few tenths of mPa.s for the conditions under consideration. These results are relevant for dynamo simulations of ice giant planets.
Structural properties of iron nitride on Cu(100): An ab-initio molecular dynamics study
Heryadi, Dodi
2011-01-01
Due to their potential applications in magnetic storage devices, iron nitrides have been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical investigations. Thin films of iron nitride have been successfully grown on different substrates. To study the structural properties of a single monolayer film of FeN we have performed an ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation of its formation on a Cu(100) substrate. The iron nitride layer formed in our simulation shows a p4gm(2x2) reconstructed surface, in agreement with experimental results. In addition to its structural properties, we are also able to determine the magnetization of this thin film. Our results show that one monolayer of iron nitride on Cu(100) is ferromagnetic with a magnetic moment of 1.67 ? B. © 2011 Materials Research Society.
Barbosa, Marcelo
A review about the nuclear properties, namely the nuclear moments (magnetic dipole moment and electric quadrupole moment) and their interaction with electromagnetic fields external to the nucleus (hyperfine interactions), as well as the angular distribution of radiation produced by $\\gamma$-decay, is presented. A detailed description about the theory of Perturbed Angular Correlations was done, including the comparison between $\\gamma-\\gamma$- correlations and $e^{-}- \\gamma$ correlations. For dynamic nuclear interactions, an introduction to the theory of stochastic states in PAC was performed. We focused on ab-initio implementation of observables for analyzing fluctuating quadrupole hyperfine interactions on time dependent perturbed angular correlations experiments. The development of computacional codes solving the full problem, adapted to fit data obtained on single crystals or polycrystals for two-state transient fields with any axial symmetry and orientation was the main purpose of this work. The final pa...
Electronic states of lithium passivated germanium nanowires: An ab-initio study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trejo, A.; Carvajal, E.; Vázquez-Medina, R.; Cruz-Irisson, M. [Instituto Politécnico Nacional, ESIME-Culhuacan, Av. Santa Ana 1000, 04430 D.F. (Mexico)
2014-05-15
A study of the electronic and structural properties of germanium nanowires (GeNWs) was performed using the ab-initio Density Functional Theory within the generalized gradient approximation where electron-ion interactions are described by ultrasoft pseudopotentials. To study the effects of the lithium in the surface of the GeNWs we compare the electronic band structures of Hydrogen passivated GeNWs with those of partial and totally Li passivated GeNWs. The nanowires were constructed in the [001], [111] and [110] directions, using the supercell model to create different wire diameters. The results show that in the case of partial Li passivation there are localized orbitals near the valence band maximum, which would create a p-doped-kind of state. The total Li passivation created metallic states for all the wires.
Ab initio studies on the mechanic and magnetic properties of PdHx
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Based on ab initio total energy calculations, the structural, electronic, mechanic, and magnetic properties of PdHx are investigated. It is found that bulk modulus of PdHx is larger than the metal Pd with the hydrogen storage except Pd4H2. The calculated results for the magnetic moments show that the hydrogen addition weakens the magnetic properties of the PdHx systems. A strong magneto-volume effect is found in PdHx structures as well as Pd. The transition from paramagnetism to ferromagnetism is discussed. The corresponding densities of states for both structures are also shown to understand the magnetic behaviour. (condensed matter: structure, thermal and mechanical properties)
STM and ab initio study of holmium nanowires on a Ge(111) surface
Eames, C.; Bonet, C.; Probert, M. I. J.; Tear, S. P.; Perkins, E. W.
2006-11-01
A nanorod structure has been observed on the Ho/Ge(111) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The rods do not require patterning of the surface or defects such as step edges in order to grow as is the case for nanorods on Si(111). At low holmium coverage the nanorods exist as isolated nanostructures while at high coverage they form a periodic 5×1 structure. We propose a structural model for the 5×1 unit cell and show using an ab initio calculation that the STM profile of our model structure compares favorably to that obtained experimentally for both filled and empty states sampling. The calculated local density of states shows that the nanorod is metallic in character.
Symmetry-adapted ab initio no-core shell model calculations for 12C
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Symmetry-adapted no-core shell-model calculations reveal dominant symmetry patterns in the structure of light nuclei, independent of whether the system Hamiltonian is phenomenological in nature or derived from realistic interactions. We show results of large-scale nuclear structure computations based on the ab initio symmetry-adapted no-core shell model that use only a fraction of the model space. In addition, the symmetry patterns unveiled in these results are employed to explore ultra-large model spaces for 12C. The outcome suggests a possible path forward for realizing collective theories that target correlated highly-deformed and alpha-cluster structures in terms of microscopic degrees of freedom that build forward from the nucleon-nucleon interaction itself.
Ab initio study of nitrogen-multisubstituted neutral and positively charged C{sub 20} fullerene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rani, Anita, E-mail: ranianita64@gmail.com [Guru Nanak College for Girls, Sri Muktsar Sahib, Punjab-141002 (India); Kumar, Ranjan [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh-160014 (India)
2014-04-24
Ab initio investigation of structural and electronic properties of Nitrogen doped fullerenes, obtained from C{sub 20} by replacing up to 10 C atoms with N atoms, are studied by means of first principals density functional theory calculations using numerical orbitals as basis sets. We have obtained the ground state structures for C{sub 20?n}N{sub n} for n=1-10. While substituting nitrogen atoms, we cannot substitute more than 9 nitrogen atoms. Nitrogen doping in C20 shows a significant change in density of states. For a better comparison with experimental measurements, we have also considered some positively charged ions and report the differences between properties of these ions and the corresponding neutral molecules.
Ab initio calculations of the electronic transport in MnAs nanoclusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Czerner, Michael; Simon, Andre; Heiliger, Christian [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 (Germany)
2010-07-01
Magnetic MnAs nanoclusters can be grown on a GaAs substrate in a controlled manner. Such structures can be used to construct planar magnetic devices for spintronic applications. We perform ab initio calculations by means of the non-equilibrium Keldysh formalism implemented in the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method. We study the spin-dependent transport of MnAs in the hexagonal NiAs structure along different crystallographic directions. Furthermore we discuss in detail the transport through interfaces formed by two MnAs clusters with different magnetic domains. We found a very large magnetoresistance ratio above 200% while the spin polarization is low, which is originated by the different Fermi surface topologies of the two spin channels.
Broquier, Michel; Soorkia, Satchin; Grégoire, Gilles
2015-09-30
We present a comprehensive experimental study of protonated tyramine ions in a cold 3D quadrupole ion trap coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Multiple UV photodissociation techniques have been developed, including single and double resonance spectroscopy along with time-resolved excited state lifetime measurements through a picosecond pump-probe scheme. An original UV-UV hole burning method is presented which can be used without modification of the quadrupole ion trap. The electronic spectrum of the cold protonated tyramine exhibits well-defined vibronic transitions, allowing the firm assignment of its two low-lying energy conformations by comparison with CC2 ab initio excited state calculations. PMID:25971335
Ab initio study of Ni2MnGa under shear deformation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zelený Martin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The effect of shear deformation on Ni2MnGa magnetic shape memory alloy has been investigated using ab initio electronic structure calculations. We used the projector-augmented wave method for the calculations of total energies and stresses as functions of applied affine shear deformation. The studied nonmodulated martensite (NM phase exhibits a tetragonally distorted L21 structure with c/a > 1. A large strain corresponding to simple shears in {001}, {100} and {100} systems was applied to describe a full path between two equivalent NM lattices. We also studied {101} shear which is related to twining of NM phase. Twin reorientation in this system is possible, because applied positive shear results in path with significantly smaller energetic barrier than for negative shear and for shears in other studied systems. When the full relaxation of lattice parameters is allowed, the barriers further strongly decrease and the structures along the twinning path can be considered as orthorhombic.
Gao, Haiyuan; Li, Meijiao; Guo, Zhendong; Chen, Hongshen; Jin, Zhonghe; Yu, Bin
2011-01-01
Electronic transport properties of monolayer graphene with extreme physical bending up to 90o angle are studied using ab Initio first-principle calculations. The importance of key structural parameters including step height, curvature radius and bending angle are discussed how they modify the transport properties of the deformed graphene sheet comparing to the corresponding flat ones. The local density of state reveals that energy state modification caused by the physical bending is highly localized. It is observed that the transport properties of bent graphene with a wide range of geometrical configurations are insensitive to the structural deformation in the low-energy transmission spectra, even in the extreme case of bending. The results support that graphene, with its superb electromechanical robustness, could serve as a viable material platform in a spectrum of applications such as photovoltaics, flexible electronics, OLED, and 3D electronic chips.
Pressure-induced semimetallic behavior of calcium from ab initio calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A loss of metallic properties in fcc calcium under high pressure is studied ab initio using the density functional theory (DFT) and GW approximation. It is found that a more correct description of many-electron effects given by GW method does not provide significant changes in the behavior of electronic spectrum in comparison with DFT approach. We note that the obtained width of (pseudo)gap is highly sensitive to the k-point sampling used for density of states calculation. The analysis of fcc calcium's band structure at p ? 20 GPa shows that the crossing of bands at the Fermi level is removed if the spin-orbit coupling is taken into account.
Density functional and ab initio study of the free radical MgNC.
Kieninger, M.; Irving, K.; Rivas-Silva, F.; Palma, A.; Ventura, O. N.
1998-01-01
A new "non-terrestrial" molecule present in the envelope of the carbon star IRC+10216 was described for the first time in 1986. Recently, this molecule was identified as the free radical MgNC, the first Mg-containing molecule in space. The authors present the first density functional study performed on this radical, as well as on its isomer MgCN and the transition state connecting these species. It is shown that the optimum geometry obtained at the Becke3LYP/6-311+G(3df) level leads to the most exact rotational constants Be and Bo calculated up to now. It is also shown that the energy differences between the three species are completely in agreement with the best ab initio calculations available. Furthermore, it is shown that the popular MP2 method fails for this system in the same way that has been demonstrated for other radicals.
Ab initio calculation of electronic and optical properties of metallic tin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedersen, Thomas G; Pedersen, Kjeld [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, Aalborg University, DK-9220 Aalborg Oest (Denmark); Modak, Paritosh; Christensen, Niels E [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Kjeldsen, Mads M; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) (Denmark)
2009-03-18
The electronic and optical properties of the metallic bcc and {beta}-Sn phases of tin are studied using density functional theory. The effects of spin-orbit coupling are examined and significant splittings are found in the band structures for both phases. Based on ab initio band structures we calculate the anisotropic optical response of {beta}-Sn. Both intra- and interband contributions are included and the plasma frequencies for both the ordinary and extraordinary optical axis are calculated. The theoretical results are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental spectra for the anisotropic optical response. We identify the electronic transitions responsible for the dominant interband resonances in the near-infrared response.
Ab initio determination of coarse-grained interactions in double stranded DNA
Hsu, Chia Wei; Fyta, Maria; Lakatos, Greg; Melchionna, Simone; Kaxiras, Efthimios
2012-02-01
We derive the coarse-grained interactions between DNA nucleotides from ab initio calculations using density functional theory (DFT). The interactions take into account the base and sequence specificity, and are decomposed into physically distinct contributions. The interactions energies calculated from DFT for a wide range of configurations are fitted to simple analytical expressions for use in the coarse-grained model, which reduces each nucleotide into two sites. This non-empirical model accurately yields structural properties of B-DNA even in extreme conditions, and predicts persistence length in excellent agreement with experiments. The model enables quantitative an efficient investigations of the dynamics of long DNA strands in various environments, making it possible to reach microsecond time scales and beyond.
An ab initio Study of the Molecular Electric-field Gradients of the Chlorsilanes
Suter, H. U.; Maric, D. M.; Meier, P. F.
1996-02-01
The electric field gradient (EFG) of chlorine in the chlorine containing silanes (SiCl4 , SiCl3H, SiCl2H2 , and SiClH3) was determined by means of ab initio methods and compared to recent experiments from which nuclear quadrupole moments are extracted. A careful estimation of the AO basis sets and the effect of the electron correlation is undertaken. The results showed the importance of the use of extended basis sets in the calculation of EFGs in second row atoms. Good agreement with deviations less than 5% from the experiments was found. The effect of the electron correlation was found to be small.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Femtosecond laser pulse induced structural changes in silica glass and their role in changing the refractive index of the glass have been investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation methods based on finite-temperature density functional theory. The average nearest-neighbor Si-O, Si-Si, and O-O distances are found to increase during laser irradiation due to the weakening of bonds resulting from the thermalization of electrons. These changes in the nearest-neighbor distances are almost completely recovered during the postirradiation evolution of the glass structure. However, persistent structural changes are found to involve the formation of three-coordinated Si atoms and nonbridging oxygens that correspond to the defect species of Si E' centers and nonbridging oxygen hole centers, respectively. These defects give rise to optical absorptions that increase the refractive index of silica glass through a Kramers-Kronig mechanism
Non-adiabatic collisions in H+ + O2 system: An $ab$ initio study
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Saieswari; Sanjay Kumar
2007-09-01
An $ab$ initio study on the low-lying potential energy surfaces of H+ + O2 system for different orientations () of H+ have been undertaken employing the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method and Dunning's $cc-p$VTZ basis set to examine their role in influencing the collision dynamics. Nonadiabatic interactions have been analysed for the $2 \\times 2$ case in two dimensions for $\\gamma = 0^\\circ$, 45° and 90°, and the corresponding diabatic potential energy surfaces have been obtained using the diabatic wavefunctions and their CI coefficients. The characteristics of the collision dynamics have been analysed in terms of vibrational coupling matrix elements for both inelastic and charge transfer processes in the restricted geometries. The strengths of coupling matrix elements reflect the vibrational excitation patterns observed in the state-to-state beam experiments.
Nelson, Tammie; Zhang, Bo; Prezhdo, Oleg
2010-03-01
We report an ab initio study of the interaction of two nucleobases, cytosine and adenine, with a novel graphene nanopore device for detecting the base sequence of a single-stranded nucleic acid (ssDNA or RNA). The nucleobases were inserted into a pore in a graphene nanoribbon, and the electrical current and conductance spectra were calculated as functions of voltage applied across the nanoribbon. The conductance spectra and charge densities were analyzed in the presence of each nucleobase in the graphene nanopore. The results indicate that, due to significant differences in the conductance spectra, the proposed device has adequate sensitivity to discriminate between different nucleotides. Moreover, we show that the nucleotide conductance spectra is not affected by its orientation inside the graphene nanopore. The proposed technique may be extremely useful for real applications in developing ultrafast, low cost DNA sequencing methods.
Ab initio potential energy surfaces, bound states and electronic spectrum of the Ar-SH complex
Doyle, R J; Hutson, J M; Doyle, Richard J.; Hirst, David M.; Hutson, Jeremy M.
2006-01-01
New ab initio potential energy surfaces for the doublet pi ground electronic state of the Ar-SH complex are presented, calculated at the RCCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z level. Weakly bound rotation-vibration levels are calculated using coupled-channel methods that properly account for the coupling between the two electronic states. The resulting wavefunctions are analysed and a new adiabatic approximation including spin-orbit coupling is proposed. The ground-state wavefunctions are combined with those obtained for the excited doublet sigma + state [Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 5463 (2004)] to produce transition dipole moments. Modelling the transition intensities as a combination of these dipole moments and calculated lifetime values [J. Chem. Phys. 109, 170 (1998)] leads to a good representation of the experimental fluorescence excitation spectrum [J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4301 (1993)].
Quantum fluctuations and isotope effects in ab initio descriptions of water
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Lu; Markland, Thomas E., E-mail: tmarkland@stanford.edu [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, 333 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Ceriotti, Michele, E-mail: michele.ceriotti@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Computational Science and Modeling, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2014-09-14
Isotope substitution is extensively used to investigate the microscopic behavior of hydrogen bonded systems such as liquid water. The changes in structure and stability of these systems upon isotope substitution arise entirely from the quantum mechanical nature of the nuclei. Here, we provide a fully ab initio determination of the isotope exchange free energy and fractionation ratio of hydrogen and deuterium in water treating exactly nuclear quantum effects and explicitly modeling the quantum nature of the electrons. This allows us to assess how quantum effects in water manifest as isotope effects, and unravel how the interplay between electronic exchange and correlation and nuclear quantum fluctuations determine the structure of the hydrogen bond in water.
Communication: Ab initio study of O4H+: A tracer molecule in the interstellar medium?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The structure and energetics of the protonated molecular oxygen dimer calculated via ab initio methods is reported. We find structures that share analogies with the eigen and zundel forms for the protonated water dimer although the symmetrical sharing of the proton is more prevalent. Analysis of different fragmentation channels show charge transfer processes which indicate the presence of conical intersections for various states including the ground state. An accurate estimate for the proton affinity of O4 leads to a significantly larger value (5.6 eV) than for O2 (4.4 eV), implying that the reaction H3+ + O4 ? O4H+ + H2 is exothermic by 28 Kcal/mol as opposed to the case of O2 which is nearly thermoneutral. This opens up the possibility of using O4H+ as a tracer molecule for oxygen in the interstellar medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The field of computational materials physics has grown very quickly in the past decade, and it is now possible to simulate properties of complex materials completely from first principles. The presentation has mostly focused on first-principles dynamic simulations. Such simulations have been pioneered by Car and Parrinello, who introduced a method for performing realistic simulations within the context of density functional theory. The Car-Parrinello method and related plane wave approaches are reviewed in depth. The Car-Parrinello method was reviewed and illustrated with several applications: the dynamics of the C60 solid, diffusion across Si steps, and computing free energy differences. Alternative ab initio simulation schemes, which use preconditioned conjugate gradient techniques for energy minimization and dynamics were also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aggregation of amyloid-? (A?) peptides is believed to play a key role in the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To inhibit the aggregation and prevent AD, numerous compounds have been synthesized. A previous experimental study elucidated that a triazine derivative AA3E2 has anti-amyloidogenic ability, while a triazine derivative AA3D2 having a different substituent has no inhibitory effect. However, the reason for this remarkable difference in the ability cannot be explained by the chemical structures of these derivatives. In the present study, we present stable structures of the solvated complexes with A? and AA3E2/AA3D2 obtained by classical molecular mechanics method. The specific interactions between A? and AA3E2/AA3D2 in the complexes are investigated by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results obtained, we attempt to propose new potent inhibitors for the A? aggregation.
i-PI: A Python interface for ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations
Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E
2014-01-01
Recent developments in path integral methodology have significantly reduced the computational expense of including quantum mechanical effects in the nuclear motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. However, the implementation of these developments requires a considerable programming effort, which has hindered their adoption. Here we describe i-PI, an interface written in Python that has been designed to minimise the effort required to bring state-of-the-art path integral techniques to an electronic structure program. While it is best suited to first principles calculations and path integral molecular dynamics, i-PI can also be used to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations, and can just as easily be interfaced with an empirical forcefield code. To give just one example of the many potential applications of the interface, we use it in conjunction with the CP2K electronic structure package to showcase the importance of nuclear quantum effects in high pressure water.
Ab-initio calculations on two-electron ions in strongly coupled plasma environment
Bhattacharyya, S; Mukherjee, T K
2015-01-01
In this work, the controversy between the interpretations of recent measurements on dense aluminum plasma created with Linac coherent light sources (LCLS) X-ray free electron laser (FEL) and Orion laser has been addressed. In both kind of experiments, helium-like and hydrogen-like spectral lines are used for plasma diagnostics . However, there exist no precise theoretical calculations for He-like ions within dense plasma environment. The strong need for an accurate theoretical estimates for spectral properties of He-like ions in strongly coupled plasma environment leads us to perform ab initio calculations in the framework of Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle in Hylleraas coordinates where ion-sphere potential is used. An approach to resolve the long-drawn problem of numerical instability for evaluating two-electron integrals with extended basis inside a finite domain is presented here. The present values of electron densities corresponding to disappearance of different spectral lines obtained within the fram...
Ab-initio theory of superconductivity - I: Density functional formalism and approximate functionals
Lüders, M; Lathiotakis, N N; Floris, A; Profeta, G; Fast, L; Continenza, A; Massidda, S; Gross, E K U
2004-01-01
A novel approach to the description of superconductors in thermal equilibrium is developed within a formally exact density-functional framework. The theory is formulated in terms of three ``densities'': the ordinary electron density, the superconducting order parameter, and the diagonal of the nuclear N-body density matrix. The electron density and the order parameter are determined by Kohn-Sham equations that resemble the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. The nuclear density matrix follows from a Schroedinger equation with an effective N-body interaction. These equations are coupled to each other via exchange-correlation potentials which are universal functionals of the three densities. Approximations of these exchange-correlation functionals are derived using the diagrammatic techniques of many-body perturbation theory. The bare Coulomb repulsion between the electrons and the electron-phonon interaction enter this perturbative treatment on the same footing. In this way, a truly ab-initio description is achiev...
Ab initio potential energy surface and rovibrational bound states for the Kr-HCCCN complex
Sun, Xueli; Hu, Yun; Zhu, Hua
2013-04-01
The first ab initio potential energy surface for Kr-HCCCN was calculated using the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with noniterative inclusion of connected triples [CCSD(T)] with a large basis set containing bond functions. The potential has a T-shaped global minimum and a local linear minimum with the Kr atom facing the H atom. The radial discrete variables representation (DVR)/angular finite basis representation (FBR) method and the Lanczos algorithm were employed to calculate the rovibrational energy levels for three isotopomers 84Kr-HCCCN, 82Kr-HCCCN, and 86Kr-HCCCN. The spectroscopic constants for the ground and the first excited states of Kr-HCCCN were predicted.
Ab initio perspective on the Mollwo-Ivey relation for F centers in alkali halides
Tiwald, Paul; Karsai, Ferenc; Laskowski, Robert; Gräfe, Stefanie; Blaha, Peter; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Wirtz, Ludger
2015-10-01
We revisit the well-known Mollwo-Ivey relation that describes the "universal" dependence of the absorption energies of F-type color centers on the lattice constant a of alkali-halide crystals, Eabs?a-n. We perform both state-of-the-art ab initio quantum chemistry and post-DFT calculations of F-center absorption spectra. By "tuning" independently the lattice constant and the atomic species we show that the scaling with the lattice constant alone (keeping the elements fixed) would yield n =2 in agreement with the "particle-in-the-box" model. Keeping the lattice constant fixed and changing the atomic species enables us to quantify the ion-size effects which are shown to be responsible for the exponent n ?1.8 .
Ab initio calculation of linear and nonlinear optical properties of semiconductor structures
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
F., Bechstedt; B., Adolph; W. G., Schmidt.
1999-12-01
Full Text Available The theoretical and numerical approaches are discussed for ab initio calculations of optical properties. The density functional theory (DFT) combined with the local-density approximation (LDA) allows the calculation of the geometry of crystalline solids and their surfaces with a precision of about o [...] ne percent. The DFT-LDA band structure and single-electron states therefore provide a reasonable starting point for the calculation of linear and nonlinear susceptibilities within the independent-particle approximation. However, this approach has to be improved by taking into account many-body interactions: self-energy effects, local-field corrections, and electron-hole attraction. Three types of optical spectra are studied: the frequency-dependent dielectric function, the second-harmonic generation, and surface reflectance anisotropy spectra. The systems considered are two-atomic semiconductors, their polytypes and their surfaces.
Ab initio prediction of environmental embrittlement at a crack tip in aluminum
Warner, Derek
2013-03-01
This talk reports on our ab initio predictions of environmental embrittlement in aluminum. We have used an atomistic-continuum multiscale framework to simulate the behavior of a loaded crack tip in the presence of oxygen and hydrogen. The multiscale simulations and subsequent analysis suggest that electronegative surface impurities can inhibit dislocation nucleation from a loaded crack tip, thus raising the likelihood for incremental brittle crack growth to occur during near-threshold fatigue. The metal-impurity bonding characteristics have been analyzed using a Bader charge transfer approximation, and the effect of this bond on the theoretical slip distribution has been investigated using a continuum Peierls model. The Peierls model, which is a function of the position dependent stacking fault energy along the slip plane, was used to estimate the effects of several common environmental impurities.
Ab Initio Molecular-Dynamics Simulation of Neuromorphic Computing in Phase-Change Memory Materials.
Skelton, Jonathan M; Loke, Desmond; Lee, Taehoon; Elliott, Stephen R
2015-07-01
We present an in silico study of the neuromorphic-computing behavior of the prototypical phase-change material, Ge2Sb2Te5, using ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. Stepwise changes in structural order in response to temperature pulses of varying length and duration are observed, and a good reproduction of the spike-timing-dependent plasticity observed in nanoelectronic synapses is demonstrated. Short above-melting pulses lead to instantaneous loss of structural and chemical order, followed by delayed partial recovery upon structural relaxation. We also investigate the link between structural order and electrical and optical properties. These results pave the way toward a first-principles understanding of phase-change physics beyond binary switching. PMID:26040531
High-pressure physical properties of magnesium silicate post-perovskite from ab initio calculations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Zi-Jiang Liu; Xiao-Wei Sun; Cai-Rong Zhang; Jian-Bu Hu; Ling-Cang Cai; Qi-Feng Chen
2012-08-01
The structure, thermodynamic and elastic properties of magnesium silicate (MgSiO3) post-perovskite at high pressure are investigated with quasi-harmonic Debye model and ab initio method based on the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated structural parameters of MgSiO3 post-perovskite are consistent with the available experimental results and the recent theoretical results. The Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient at high pressures and temperatures are predicted using the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The elastic constants are calculated using stress–strain relations. A complete elastic tensor of MgSiO3 post-perovskite is determined in the wide pressure range. The calculated elastic anisotropic factors and directional bulk modulus show that MgSiO3 post-perovskite possesses high elastic anisotropy.
Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: combined ab initio and model study
Petreska, Irina; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco
2015-01-01
Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that confirmation dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previ...
Precise Electromagnetic Tests of Ab Initio Calculations of Light Nuclei: States in 10Be
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In order to test ab initio calculations of light nuclei, we have remeasured lifetimes in 10Be using the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM) following the 7Li(7Li,?)10Be reaction at 8 and 10 MeV. The new experiments significantly reduce systematic uncertainties in the DSAM technique. The J?=21+ state at 3.37 MeV has ?=205±(5)stat±(7)sys fs corresponding to a B(E2?) of 9.2(3)e2 fm4 in broad agreement with many calculations. The J?=22+ state at 5.96 MeV was found to have a B(E2?) of 0.11(2)e2 fm4 and provides a more discriminating test of nuclear models. New Green's function Monte Carlo calculations for these states and transitions with a number of Hamiltonians are also reported and compared to experiment.
Amorphous Ge quantum dots embedded in crystalline Si: ab initio results
Laubscher, M.; Küfner, S.; Kroll, P.; Bechstedt, F.
2015-10-01
We study amorphous Ge quantum dots embedded in a crystalline Si matrix through structure modeling and simulation using ab initio density functional theory including spin-orbit interaction and quasiparticle effects. Three models are generated by replacing a spherical region within diamond Si by Ge atoms and creating a disordered bond network with appropriate density inside the Ge quantum dot. After total-energy optimisations of the atomic geometry we compute the electronic and optical properties. We find three major effects: (i) the resulting nanostructures adopt a type-I heterostructure character; (ii) the lowest optical transitions occur only within the Ge quantum dots, and do not involve or cross the Ge-Si interface. (iii) for larger amorphous Ge quantum dots, with diameters of about 2.0 and 2.7?nm, absorption peaks appear in the mid-infrared spectral region. These are promising candidates for intense luminescence at photon energies below the gap energy of bulk Ge.
Raman and ab initio studies of simple and binary 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, R.W.; Deetlefs, M.
2005-01-01
Raman spectra of the ionic liquids, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(4)mim][PF6]), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(6)mim]Cl), and 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C(6)mim][PF6]), and binary mixtures thereof, have been assigned using ab initio MP2 calculations. The previously reported anti and gauche forms of the [C(4)mim](+) cation have been observed, and this study reveals this to be a general feature of the long-chain I-alkyl derivatives. Analysis of mixtures Of [C(6)mim]Cl and [C(6)mim][PF6] has provided information on the nature of the hydrogen bonding between the imidazolium headgroup and the anions, and the invariance of the essentially 50:50 mixture of the predominant conformers informs on the nature of glass formation in these systems.
Ab initio static and molecular dynamics studies of helium behavior in beryllium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beryllium is an effective neutron multiplier material widely exploited in nuclear applications. It will be used in the helium-cooled beryllium pebble bed of fusion reactor blankets for increasing the efficiency of tritium production. Macroscopic effects of irradiation (e.g., swelling) on beryllium are greatly influenced by accumulated transmutation helium. Atomic scale simulations of beryllium behavior under irradiation are necessary for understanding the basic mechanisms and reliable prediction of microstructural changes. In this study, we investigate the behavior of interstitial and substitutional helium, its diffusion pathways and interaction with point defects present in irradiated beryllium by means of static and molecular dynamics ab initio simulations. It was shown that a mixed dumbbell consisting of self-interstitial and helium atoms represents the ground-state configuration for interstitial helium. At low temperatures, the mixed dumbbell migrates in the basal plane through a series of in-basal-plane rotations, while at higher temperatures it jumps also between adjacent basal planes. It was revealed that, as in many other metals, interstitial helium atoms are bound to each other (Eb?1eV). In beryllium, two mixed dumbbells meet each other so that helium atoms are the nearest neighbors, whereas the helium pair can be oriented either in- or out-of-basal plane. Diffusion modes of the pair are discussed. In addition, it was found that helium is very strongly bound to vacancies: the binding energy of more than 3 eV found by static ab initio calculations suggests that helium is unlikely to be released from a mono-vacancy at temperatures below the melting point. As has been shown previously, vacancy clusters are unstable in beryllium. This study shows that the addition of helium stabilizes di-vacancies. Thus, it is confirmed that the presence of transmutation gas is necessary for the development of a porous microstructure in beryllium
High-throughput ab initio screening for two-dimensional electride materials.
Tada, Tomofumi; Takemoto, Seiji; Matsuishi, Satoru; Hosono, Hideo
2014-10-01
High-throughput ab initio screening of approximately 34000 materials in the Materials Project was conducted to identify two-dimensional (2D) electride materials, which are composed of cationic layers and anionic electrons confined in a 2D empty space. The screening was based on three indicators: (1) a positive total formal charge per formula unit; (2) layered structures for two-dimensionality; (3) empty spaces between the layer units. Three nitrides, Ca2N, Sr2N, and Ba2N, and the carbide Y2C were identified as 2D electrides, where Ca2N is the only experimentally confirmed 2D electride (Lee, K.; et al. Nature 2013, 494, 336-341). Electron density analysis using ionic radii revealed a smaller number of anionic electrons in Y2C than those in the three nitrides as a result of the partial occupation of the anionic electrons in the d orbitals of Y. In addition, no candidates were identified from the p-block elements, and thus the ab initio screening indicates that the s-block elements (i.e., alkali or alkaline-earth metals) are highly preferable as cation elements. To go beyond the database screening, a tailored modeling was conducted to determine unexplored compounds including the s-block elements that are suitable for 2D electrides. The tailored modeling found that (1) K2Cl, K2Br, Rb2Cl, and Rb2Br dialkali halides are highly plausible candidates, (2) Li2F and Na2Cl dialkali halides are highly challenging candidates, and (3) the Cs2O(1-x)F(x) halogen-doped dialkali oxide is a promising candidate. PMID:25210807
Ab initio simulations of doped single-walled carbon nanotube sensors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Talla, Jamal A., E-mail: jtalla@kfu.edu.sa [King Faisal University, Department of Physics, Al-Ahsaa 31982 (Saudi Arabia)
2012-01-02
Graphical abstract: Ab initio calculations used to study O-doped and N-doped SWNT within the framework of the DFT. We introduced new type of gas sensor that can detect the presence of H{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, NO, and CO molecules. Band-gap narrowing occurs when the nanotube is doped with oxygen or nitrogen atoms. We proposed a new methodology of designing reliable, sensitive, and selective nanotube sensors. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ab initio calculations used to study O-doped and N-doped SWNT within the framework of the DFT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We introduced new type of gas sensor that can detect the presence of H{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, NO, and CO molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band-gap narrowing occurs when the nanotube is doped with oxygen or nitrogen atoms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We proposed a new methodology of designing reliable, sensitive, and selective nanotube sensors. - Abstract: The interactions between oxygen and nitrogen atoms with single-walled carbon nanotubes were investigated for nanotubes with two different geometrical configurations using first-principle calculations within the framework of the density functional theory. We introduced a new type of toxic gas sensor that can detect the presence of H{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, CO, and NO molecules. We also demonstrated that the sensitivity of this device can be controlled by the concentration of the dopants on the surface of the nanotube. In addition, the transport properties of the doped nanotube were studied for different concentrations of oxygen or nitrogen atoms that were randomly distributed on the surface of the single-walled carbon nanotube. We observed that small amounts of dopants can modify the electronic and transport properties of the nanotube and can lend metallic properties to the nanotube. Band-gap narrowing occurs when the nanotube is doped with either oxygen or nitrogen atoms.
Charge Transfer in FeO: A combined Molecular-Dynamics and Ab Initio Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio electronic structure calculations were carried out to determine the rate of charge transfer in stoichiometric w-stite (FeO). The charge transfer of interest occurs by II/III valence interchange between nearest-neighbor Fe atoms, with the Fe(III) constituting a ''hole'' electronic defect. There are two possible nearest-neighbor charge transfers in the FeO lattice, which occur between edge-sharing or corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra. Molecular dynamics simulations predict charge transfer rates of 3.7x1011 and 1.9x109 s-1 for the edge and corner transfers, respectively, in good agreement with those calculated using an ab initio cluster approach (1.6x1011 and 8.0x108 s-1, respectively). The calculated rates are also similar to those along basal and c-axis directions in hematite (?-Fe2O3) determined previously. Therefore, as is the case for hematite, w-stite is predicted to show anisotropic electrical conductivity. Our findings indicate that a rigid ion model does not give acceptable results, thus showing the need to account for the change in polarizability of the system upon charge transfer. Our model achieves this by using a simple mechanical shell model. By calculating the electronic coupling matrix elements for many transition state configurations obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, we found evidence that the position of the bridging oxygen atoms can greatly affect the amount electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor states. Finally, we address the effect of oxygen vacancies on the charge transfer. It was found that an oxygen vacancy not only creates a driving force for holes to transport away from the vacancy (or equivalently for electrons to diffuse toward the vacancy) but also lowers the free energy barriers for charge transfer. In addition, the reorganization energy significantly differed from the non-defective case in a small radius around the defect
Towards a full ab initio theory of strong electronic correlations in nanoscale devices
Jacob, David
2015-06-01
In this paper I give a detailed account of an ab initio methodology for describing strong electronic correlations in nanoscale devices hosting transition metal atoms with open d- or f-shells. The method combines Kohn-Sham density functional theory for treating the weakly interacting electrons on a static mean-field level with non-perturbative many-body methods for the strongly interacting electrons in the open d- and f-shells. An effective description of the strongly interacting electrons in terms of a multi-orbital Anderson impurity model is obtained by projection onto the strongly correlated subspace properly taking into account the non-orthogonality of the atomic basis set. A special focus lies on the ab initio calculation of the effective screened interaction matrix U for the Anderson model. Solution of the effective Anderson model with the one-crossing approximation or other impurity solver techniques yields the dynamic correlations within the strongly correlated subspace giving rise e.g. to the Kondo effect. As an example the method is applied to the case of a Co adatom on the Cu(0?0?1) surface. The calculated low-bias tunnel spectra show Fano-Kondo lineshapes similar to those measured in experiments. The exact shape of the Fano-Kondo feature as well as its width depend quite strongly on the filling of the Co 3d-shell. Although this somewhat hampers accurate quantitative predictions regarding lineshapes and Kondo temperatures, the overall physical situation can be predicted quite reliably.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M. [Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)
2015-05-21
The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup ?1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.