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Sample records for ab initio molecular

  1. Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics

    Kühne, Thomas D

    2012-01-01

    Computer simulations and molecular dynamics in particular, is a very powerful method to provide detailed and essentially exact informations of classical many-body problems. With the advent of \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics, where the forces are computed on-the-fly by accurate electronic structure calculations, the scope of either method has been greatly extended. This new approach, which unifies Newton's and Schr\\"odinger's equations, allows for complex simulations without relying on any adjustable parameter. This review is intended to outline the basic principles as well as a survey of the field. Beginning with the derivation of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics, the Car-Parrinello method as well as novel hybrid scheme that unifies best of either approach are discussed. The predictive power is demonstrated by a series of applications ranging from insulators to semiconductors and even metals in condensed phases.

  2. Ab initio mass tensor molecular dynamics

    Tsuchida, Eiji

    2010-01-01

    Mass tensor molecular dynamics was first introduced by Bennett [J. Comput. Phys. 19, 267 (1975)] for efficient sampling of phase space through the use of generalized atomic masses. Here, we show how to apply this method to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with minimal computational overhead. Test calculations on liquid water show a threefold reduction in computational effort without making the fixed geometry approximation. We also present a simple recipe for estimating the optimal ato...

  3. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics: A Virtual Laboratory

    Hobbi Mobarhan, Milad

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we perform ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at the Hartree-Fock level, where the forces are computed on-the-fly using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The theory behind the Hartree-Fock method is discussed in detail and an implementation of this method based on Gaussian basis functions is explained. We also demonstrate how to calculate the analytic energy derivatives needed for obtaining the forces acting on the nuclei. Hartree-Fock calculations on the ground s...

  4. Serine Proteases an Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study

    De Santis, L

    1999-01-01

    In serine proteases (SP's), the H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, and that between Gly-193 and the transition state intermediate play a crucial role for enzymatic function. To shed light on the nature of these interactions, we have carried out ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on complexes representing adducts between the reaction intermediate and elastase (one protein belonging to the SP family). Our calculations indicate the presence of a low--barrier H-bond between His-57 and Asp-102, in complete agreement with NMR experiments on enzyme--transition state analog complexes. Comparison with an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on a model of the substrate--enzyme adduct indicates that the Gly-193--induced strong stabilization of the intermediate is accomplished by charge/dipole interactions and not by H-bonding as previously suggested. Inclusion of the protein electric field in the calculations does not affect significantly the charge distribution.

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of laser melting of silicon

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D

    1996-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite temperature density functional theory, is used to simulate laser heating of crystal silicon. We have found that a high concentration of excited electrons dramatically weakens the covalent bond. As a result, the system undergoes a melting transition to a metallic state. In contrast to ordinary liquid silicon, the new liquid is characterized by a high coordination number and a strong reduction of covalent bonding effects.

  6. GAUSSIAN 76: an ab initio molecular orbital program

    Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.

    1978-06-01

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.

  7. GAUSSIAN 76: An ab initio Molecular Orbital Program

    Binkley, J. S.; Whiteside, R.; Hariharan, P. C.; Seeger, R.; Hehre, W. J.; Lathan, W. A.; Newton, M. D.; Ditchfield, R.; Pople, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Gaussian 76 is a general-purpose computer program for ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations. It can handle basis sets involving s, p and d-type Gaussian functions. Certain standard sets (STO-3G, 4-31G, 6-31G*, etc.) are stored internally for easy use. Closed shell (RHF) or unrestricted open shell (UHF) wave functions can be obtained. Facilities are provided for geometry optimization to potential minima and for limited potential surface scans.

  8. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions

  9. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V.

    2014-08-01

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as "cloning," in analogy to the "spawning" procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, "trains," as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.

  10. Ab initio multiple cloning algorithm for quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

    Makhov, Dmitry V.; Shalashilin, Dmitrii V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Glover, William J.; Martinez, Todd J. [Department of Chemistry and The PULSE Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    2014-08-07

    We present a new algorithm for ab initio quantum nonadiabatic molecular dynamics that combines the best features of ab initio Multiple Spawning (AIMS) and Multiconfigurational Ehrenfest (MCE) methods. In this new method, ab initio multiple cloning (AIMC), the individual trajectory basis functions (TBFs) follow Ehrenfest equations of motion (as in MCE). However, the basis set is expanded (as in AIMS) when these TBFs become sufficiently mixed, preventing prolonged evolution on an averaged potential energy surface. We refer to the expansion of the basis set as “cloning,” in analogy to the “spawning” procedure in AIMS. This synthesis of AIMS and MCE allows us to leverage the benefits of mean-field evolution during periods of strong nonadiabatic coupling while simultaneously avoiding mean-field artifacts in Ehrenfest dynamics. We explore the use of time-displaced basis sets, “trains,” as a means of expanding the basis set for little cost. We also introduce a new bra-ket averaged Taylor expansion (BAT) to approximate the necessary potential energy and nonadiabatic coupling matrix elements. The BAT approximation avoids the necessity of computing electronic structure information at intermediate points between TBFs, as is usually done in saddle-point approximations used in AIMS. The efficiency of AIMC is demonstrated on the nonradiative decay of the first excited state of ethylene. The AIMC method has been implemented within the AIMS-MOLPRO package, which was extended to include Ehrenfest basis functions.

  11. Molecular ion LiHe+: ab initio study

    Highlights: ► Excited electronic states of LiHe+ are studied. ► Potential energy curves of thirteen states are calculated. ► Dipole moment and transition dipole moment functions are determined. ► Basic spectroscopic properties of the electronic states are derived. - Abstract: High level ab initio calculations are performed on the molecular ion LiHe+. Potential energy curves for the low-lying singlet and triplet electronic states are calculated using the multi-reference configuration interaction and single-reference coupled cluster methods with large basis sets. The corresponding dipole moments and transition dipole moments functions are also determined. The basic spectroscopic properties and excitation energies of the electronic states are derived from rovibrational bound state calculations.

  12. Ab initio molecular crystal structures, spectra, and phase diagrams.

    Hirata, So; Gilliard, Kandis; He, Xiao; Li, Jinjin; Sode, Olaseni

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Molecular crystals are chemists' solids in the sense that their structures and properties can be understood in terms of those of the constituent molecules merely perturbed by a crystalline environment. They form a large and important class of solids including ices of atmospheric species, drugs, explosives, and even some organic optoelectronic materials and supramolecular assemblies. Recently, surprisingly simple yet extremely efficient, versatile, easily implemented, and systematically accurate electronic structure methods for molecular crystals have been developed. The methods, collectively referred to as the embedded-fragment scheme, divide a crystal into monomers and overlapping dimers and apply modern molecular electronic structure methods and software to these fragments of the crystal that are embedded in a self-consistently determined crystalline electrostatic field. They enable facile applications of accurate but otherwise prohibitively expensive ab initio molecular orbital theories such as Møller-Plesset perturbation and coupled-cluster theories to a broad range of properties of solids such as internal energies, enthalpies, structures, equation of state, phonon dispersion curves and density of states, infrared and Raman spectra (including band intensities and sometimes anharmonic effects), inelastic neutron scattering spectra, heat capacities, Gibbs energies, and phase diagrams, while accounting for many-body electrostatic (namely, induction or polarization) effects as well as two-body exchange and dispersion interactions from first principles. They can fundamentally alter the role of computing in the studies of molecular crystals in the same way ab initio molecular orbital theories have transformed research practices in gas-phase physical chemistry and synthetic chemistry in the last half century. In this Account, after a brief summary of formalisms and algorithms, we discuss applications of these methods performed in our group as compelling

  13. Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A; Schwegler, Eric

    2016-04-28

    Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti. PMID:27131525

  14. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations of ion hydration free energies

    We apply ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods in conjunction with the thermodynamic integration or 'λ-path' technique to compute the intrinsic hydration free energies of Li+, Cl-, and Ag+ ions. Using the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional, adapting methods developed for classical force field applications, and with consistent assumptions about surface potential (φ) contributions, we obtain absolute AIMD hydration free energies (ΔGhyd) within a few kcal/mol, or better than 4%, of Tissandier et al.'s [J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 7787 (1998)] experimental values augmented with the SPC/E water model φ predictions. The sums of Li+/Cl- and Ag+/Cl- AIMD ΔGhyd, which are not affected by surface potentials, are within 2.6% and 1.2 % of experimental values, respectively. We also report the free energy changes associated with the transition metal ion redox reaction Ag++Ni+→Ag+Ni2+ in water. The predictions for this reaction suggest that existing estimates of ΔGhyd for unstable radiolysis intermediates such as Ni+ may need to be extensively revised.

  15. Exploring the free energy surface using ab initio molecular dynamics

    Samanta, Amit; Morales, Miguel A.; Schwegler, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Efficient exploration of configuration space and identification of metastable structures in condensed phase systems are challenging from both computational and algorithmic perspectives. In this regard, schemes that utilize a set of pre-defined order parameters to sample the relevant parts of the configuration space [L. Maragliano and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Chem. Phys. Lett. 426, 168 (2006); J. B. Abrams and M. E. Tuckerman, J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 15742 (2008)] have proved useful. Here, we demonstrate how these order-parameter aided temperature accelerated sampling schemes can be used within the Born-Oppenheimer and the Car-Parrinello frameworks of ab initio molecular dynamics to efficiently and systematically explore free energy surfaces, and search for metastable states and reaction pathways. We have used these methods to identify the metastable structures and reaction pathways in SiO2 and Ti. In addition, we have used the string method [W. E, W. Ren, and E. Vanden-Eijnden, Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002); L. Maragliano et al., J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024106 (2006)] within the density functional theory to study the melting pathways in the high pressure cotunnite phase of SiO2 and the hexagonal closed packed to face centered cubic phase transition in Ti.

  16. Ab-initio molecular dynamics for metallic systems

    This thesis deals with the problem of performing first-principles electronic structure calculations in metallic systems, with the goal of bringing ab-initio quantum-mechanical molecular dynamics simulations for these systems to the same level of computational cost, efficiency and accuracy that are now obtained for semiconductors and insulators. The problem is first reviewed from the theoretical and methodological point of view, with a presentation of the current state of research. In particular, the formulation of the electronic structure problem as a Density-Functional-Theory constrained minimization is examined in detail, as well as the description of metallic systems via generalized electronic free energy functionals. A novel reformulation of the problem is here proposed, using the language of Ensemble Density Functional Theory, and a variational realization of it is developed and implemented. The dramatic improvement in the efficiency for the convergence to the electronic ground-state is discussed and explained. The role of the fictitious electronic temperature is examined, as well as its contribution to controlling the errors originating from inadequate sampling of the Brillouin Zone. The associated systematic errors are also examined, and non-selfconsistent and self-consistent estimates for these errors in the energies and the ionic forces are made explicit. The novel technique of cold smearing is introduced. The new method of Ensemble Density Functional Theory, in conjunction with the cold smearing, is shown to reach the proposed goal of greatly improving our current efficiency and accuracy for molecular dynamics simulations, making them affordable at the level of currently available computational power. The method is applied to the study of the finite temperature properties of bulk aluminium and aluminium surfaces, to identify the microscopical processes that give rise to the premelting of the (110) surface and to show evidence for the different phase

  17. Explicit Polarization (X-Pol) Potential Using ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory and Density Functional Theory†

    Song, Lingchun; Han, Jaebeom; Lin, Yen-lin; Xie, Wangshen; Gao, Jiali

    2009-01-01

    The explicit polarization (X-Pol) method has been examined using ab initio molecular orbital theory and density functional theory. The X-Pol potential was designed to provide a novel theoretical framework for developing next-generation force fields for biomolecular simulations. Importantly, the X-Pol potential is a general method, which can be employed with any level of electronic structure theory. The present study illustrates the implementation of the X-Pol method using ab initio Hartree—Fo...

  18. An Efficient Time-Stepping Scheme for Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Tsuchida, Eiji

    2016-08-01

    In ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of real-world problems, the simple Verlet method is still widely used for integrating the equations of motion, while more efficient algorithms are routinely used in classical molecular dynamics. We show that if the Verlet method is used in conjunction with pre- and postprocessing, the accuracy of the time integration is significantly improved with only a small computational overhead. We also propose several extensions of the algorithm required for use in ab initio molecular dynamics. The validity of the processed Verlet method is demonstrated in several examples including ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water. The structural properties obtained from the processed Verlet method are found to be sufficiently accurate even for large time steps close to the stability limit. This approach results in a 2× performance gain over the standard Verlet method for a given accuracy. We also show how to generate a canonical ensemble within this approach.

  19. Exploring the speed and performance of molecular replacement with AMPLE using QUARK ab initio protein models

    Keegan, Ronan M. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom); Bibby, Jaclyn; Thomas, Jens [University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Xu, Dong [Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States); Zhang, Yang [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Mayans, Olga [University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Winn, Martyn D. [Science and Technology Facilities Council Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Rigden, Daniel J., E-mail: drigden@liv.ac.uk [University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0FA (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    Two ab initio modelling programs solve complementary sets of targets, enhancing the success of AMPLE with small proteins. AMPLE clusters and truncates ab initio protein structure predictions, producing search models for molecular replacement. Here, an interesting degree of complementarity is shown between targets solved using the different ab initio modelling programs QUARK and ROSETTA. Search models derived from either program collectively solve almost all of the all-helical targets in the test set. Initial solutions produced by Phaser after only 5 min perform surprisingly well, improving the prospects for in situ structure solution by AMPLE during synchrotron visits. Taken together, the results show the potential for AMPLE to run more quickly and successfully solve more targets than previously suspected.

  20. Investigation of the Hydroxylation Mechanism of Noncoupled Copper Oxygenases by Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Meliá, C.; Ferrer, S.; Řezáč, Jan; Parisel, O.; Reinaud, O.; Moliner, V.; de la Lande, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 51 (2013), s. 17328-17337. ISSN 0947-6539 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ab initio calculations * copper * electron transfer * enzymes * molecular dynamics * reaction mechanisms Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.696, year: 2013

  1. Ab initio molecular dynamics approach to a quantitative description of ion pairing in water

    Pluhařová, Eva; Maršálek, Ondřej; Schmidt, B.; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 23 (2013), s. 4177-4181. ISSN 1948-7185 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ion pairing * charge transfer * water * ab initio molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.687, year: 2013

  2. Stabilization of Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations at Large Time Steps

    Tsuchida, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    The Verlet method is still widely used to integrate the equations of motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We show that the stability limit of the Verlet method may be significantly increased by setting an upper limit on the kinetic energy of each atom with only a small loss in accuracy. The validity of this approach is demonstrated for molten lithium fluoride.

  3. Conformational Sampling by Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations Improves NMR Chemical Shift Predictions

    Dračínský, Martin; Möller, H. M.; Exner, T. E.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 8 (2013), s. 3806-3815. ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ab initio molecular dynamics * NMR spectroscopy * DFT calculations * hydration Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2013

  4. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of hydrogen fluoride at several thermodynamic states

    Kreitmeir, M.; Bertagnolli, H.; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen;

    2003-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen fluoride is a simple but interesting system for studies of the influence of hydrogen bonds on physical properties. We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of HF at several thermodynamic states, where we examine the microscopic structure of the liquid as well as...

  5. Ab initio calculation of molecular energies including parity violating interactions

    A new approach, RHF-CIS, based on the perturbation of the ground state RHF wave function by the CIS excitations, has been implemented for evaluation of energy of parity violating interaction in molecules, Epv. The earlier approach, RHF-SDE, was based on the perturbation of the RHF ground states by the single-determinant ''excitations'' (SDE). The results obtained show the dramatic difference between Epv values in the RHF-CIS framework and those in the RHF-SDE framework: the Epv values of the RHF-CIS formalism are more than one order of magnitude greater compared to the RHF-SDE formalism as well as the corresponding tensor components. The maximal total value obtained for hydrogen peroxide in the RHF-CIS framework is 3.661 X 10-19 EH (DZ** basis set) while the maximal Epv value for the RHF-SDE formalism is just 3.635 X 10-20 EH (TZ basis set). It is remarkable that both in the RFH-CIS and in the RHF-SDE approaches the diagonal tensor components of Epv strictly follow the geometry of a molecule and are always different from zero at chiral conformations. The zeros of the total Epv at chiral geometries are now found to be the results of the interplay between the diagonal tensor components values. We have carried out exhaustive analysis of the RHF-SDE formalism and found that it is not sufficiently accurate for studies of Epv. To this end, we have completely reproduced the previous work, which has been done in the RHF-SDE frame-work, and developed it further, studying how the RHF-SDE results vary when changing size and quality of basis sets. This last resource does not save the RHF-SDE formalism for evaluations of Epv from the general failure. Packages of FORTRAN routines called ENWEAK/RHFSDE-93 and ENWEAK/RHFCIS-94 have been developed which run on top of an ab initio MO package. We used 6-31G and 6-31G**, DZ and DZ**, TZ and TZ**, and (10s, 6p,**) basis sets. We will discuss the importance of the present results for possible measurement of the parity violating energy

  6. Ab initio charge-carrier mobility model for amorphous molecular semiconductors

    Massé, Andrea; Friederich, Pascal; Symalla, Franz; Liu, Feilong; Nitsche, Robert; Coehoorn, Reinder; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Bobbert, Peter A.

    2016-05-01

    Accurate charge-carrier mobility models of amorphous organic molecular semiconductors are essential to describe the electrical properties of devices based on these materials. The disordered nature of these semiconductors leads to percolative charge transport with a large characteristic length scale, posing a challenge to the development of such models from ab initio simulations. Here, we develop an ab initio mobility model using a four-step procedure. First, the amorphous morphology together with its energy disorder and intermolecular charge-transfer integrals are obtained from ab initio simulations in a small box. Next, the ab initio information is used to set up a stochastic model for the morphology and transfer integrals. This stochastic model is then employed to generate a large simulation box with modeled morphology and transfer integrals, which can fully capture the percolative charge transport. Finally, the charge-carrier mobility in this simulation box is calculated by solving a master equation, yielding a mobility function depending on temperature, carrier concentration, and electric field. We demonstrate the procedure for hole transport in two important molecular semiconductors, α -NPD and TCTA. In contrast to a previous study, we conclude that spatial correlations in the energy disorder are unimportant for α -NPD. We apply our mobility model to two types of hole-only α -NPD devices and find that the experimental temperature-dependent current density-voltage characteristics of all devices can be well described by only slightly decreasing the simulated energy disorder strength.

  7. Conformational space of clindamycin studied by ab initio and full-atom molecular dynamics.

    Kulczycka-Mierzejewska, Katarzyna; Trylska, Joanna; Sadlej, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations allow determining internal flexibility of molecules at atomic level. Using ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (BOMD), one can simulate in a reasonable time frame small systems with hundreds of atoms, usually in vacuum. With quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) or full-atom molecular dynamics (FAMD), the influence of the environment can also be simulated. Here, we compare three types of MD calculations: ab initio BOMD, hybrid QM/MM, and classical FAMD. As a model system, we use a small antibiotic molecule, clindamycin, which is one of the lincosamide antibiotics. Clindamycin acquires two energetically stable forms and we investigated the transition between these two experimentally known conformers. We performed 60-ps BOMD simulations in vacuum, 50-ps QM/MM, and 100-ns FAMD in explicit water. The transition between two antibiotic conformers was observed using both BOMD and FAMD methods but was not noted in the QM/MM simulations. PMID:26733483

  8. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    Matsushita, Y., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Murakawa, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Shimamura, K., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Oishi, M., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Ohyama, T., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp; Kurita, N., E-mail: kurita@cs.tut.ac.jp [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA.

  9. Specific interactions between DNA and regulatory protein controlled by ligand-binding: Ab initio molecular simulation

    The catabolite activator protein (CAP) is one of the regulatory proteins controlling the transcription mechanism of gene. Biochemical experiments elucidated that the complex of CAP with cyclic AMP (cAMP) is indispensable for controlling the mechanism, while previous molecular simulations for the monomer of CAP+cAMP complex revealed the specific interactions between CAP and cAMP. However, the effect of cAMP-binding to CAP on the specific interactions between CAP and DNA is not elucidated at atomic and electronic levels. We here considered the ternary complex of CAP, cAMP and DNA in solvating water molecules and investigated the specific interactions between them at atomic and electronic levels using ab initio molecular simulations based on classical molecular dynamics and ab initio fragment molecular orbital methods. The results highlight the important amino acid residues of CAP for the interactions between CAP and cAMP and between CAP and DNA

  10. Investigation of polarization effects in the gramicidin A channel from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Timko, Jeff; Kuyucak, Serdar

    2012-11-01

    Polarization is an important component of molecular interactions and is expected to play a particularly significant role in inhomogeneous environments such as pores and interfaces. Here we investigate the effects of polarization in the gramicidin A ion channel by performing quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and comparing the results with those obtained from classical MD simulations with non-polarizable force fields. We consider the dipole moments of backbone carbonyl groups and channel water molecules as well as a number of structural quantities of interest. The ab initio results show that the dipole moments of the carbonyl groups and water molecules are highly sensitive to the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) they participate in. In the absence of a K+ ion, water molecules in the channel are quite mobile, making the H-bond network highly dynamic. A central K+ ion acts as an anchor for the channel waters, stabilizing the H-bond network and thereby increasing their average dipole moments. In contrast, the K+ ion has little effect on the dipole moments of the neighboring carbonyl groups. The weakness of the ion-peptide interactions helps to explain the near diffusion-rate conductance of K+ ions through the channel. We also address the sampling issue in relatively short ab initio MD simulations. Results obtained from a continuous 20 ps ab initio MD simulation are compared with those generated by sampling ten windows from a much longer classical MD simulation and running each window for 2 ps with ab initio MD. Both methods yield similar results for a number of quantities of interest, indicating that fluctuations are fast enough to justify the short ab initio MD simulations.

  11. An efficient time-stepping scheme for ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Tsuchida, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    In ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of real-world problems, the simple Verlet method is still widely used for integrating the equations of motion, while more efficient algorithms are routinely used in classical molecular dynamics. We show that if the Verlet method is used in conjunction with pre- and postprocessing, the accuracy of the time integration is significantly improved with only a small computational overhead. The validity of the processed Verlet method is demonstrated in several examples including ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liquid water. The structural properties obtained from the processed Verlet method are found to be sufficiently accurate even for large time steps close to the stability limit. This approach results in a 2x performance gain over the standard Verlet method for a given accuracy.

  12. Liquid Be, Ca and Ba. An orbital-free ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    Several static and dynamic properties of liquid beryllium (l-Be), liquid calcium (l-Ca) and liquid barium (l-Ba) near their triple point have been evaluated by the orbital-free ab initio molecular dynamics method (OF-AIMD), where the interaction between valence electrons and ions is described by means of local pseudopotentials. These local pseudopotentials used were constructed through a force-matching process with those obtained from a Kohn-Sham ab initio molecular dynamics study (KS-AIMD) of a reduced system with non-local pseudopotentials. The calculated static structures show good agreement with the available experimental data, including an asymmetric second peak in the structure factor which has been linked to the existence of a marked icosahedral short-range order in the liquid. As for the dynamic properties, we obtain collective density excitations whose associated dispersion relations exhibit a positive dispersion

  13. Direct calculation of equilibrium constants for isotopic exchange reactions by ab initio molecular orbital theory

    The ability of simple levels of ab initio molecular orbital theory to describe with reasonable accuracy the energetics of isotopic exchange processes is demonstrated. Three levels of ab initio molecular orbital theory have been surveyed. The first two levels are single-determinant Hartree-Foch methods utilizing the 3-21G split-valence and 6-31G* polarization basis sets. The third level, which is computationally the most complex, uses the 6-31G* basis set but allows for partial account of electron correlation by way of Moller-Plesset perturbation theory terminated at second order. Theoretical and spectroscopic equilibrium constants for reactions XH + XD reversible XD + H2 where XD is a hydride of the first row of the periodic table are tabulated

  14. Projector augmented wave method: ab initio molecular dynamics with full wave functions

    Peter E Blöchl; Clemens J Först; Johannes Schimpl

    2003-01-01

    A brief introduction to the projector augmented wave method is given and recent developments are reviewed. The projector augmented wave method is an all-electron method for efficient ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with full wave functions. It extends and combines the traditions of existing augmented wave methods and the pseudopotential approach. Without sacrificing efficiency, the PAW method avoids transferability problems of the pseudopotential approach and it has been valuable to predict properties that depend on the full wave functions.

  15. How Is Acetylcholinesterase Phosphonylated by Soman? An Ab Initio QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Study

    Sirin, Gulseher Sarah; Zhang, Yingkai

    2014-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a crucial enzyme in the cholinergic nerve system that hydrolyzes acetylcholine (ACh) and terminates synaptic signals by reducing the effective concentration of ACh in the synaptic clefts. Organophosphate compounds irreversibly inhibit AChEs, leading to irreparable damage to nerve cells. By employing Born–Oppenheimer ab initio QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with umbrella sampling, a state-of-the-art approach to simulate enzyme reactions, we have characteriz...

  16. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations with linear scaling: application to liquid ethanol

    The structural and dynamical properties of liquid ethanol (C2H5OH) at ambient conditions have been studied by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations using a large supercell containing 125 molecules (1125 atoms). The results obtained from a trajectory of 10 ps are found to be in good agreement with available experimental data. Without sacrificing accuracy, the computational cost of simulations is reduced by more than a factor of four by the linear scaling algorithm based on the augmented orbital minimization method

  17. Hydrogen adsorption in ZIF-7: A DFT and ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    Dixit, Mudit; Major, Dan Thomas; Pal, Sourav

    2016-05-01

    Primary H2 adsorption sites in a zeolitic imidazolate framework, ZIF-7, are identified using ab-initio density functional theory (DFT) based molecular dynamics annealing simulations. The simulations suggest several low energy adsorption sites. The effect of light transition metal decoration on hydrogen storage properties was studied. Our ab-intio DFT calculations illustrate that decorating the ZIF with Sc increases both the number of H2 molecules, as well as the H2 binding energy. The binding energy (∼25 kJ/mol per H2) at 8H2 loading in the pore, suggests that Sc-ZIFs can be potential candidates for hydrogen storage.

  18. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    Sharma, Nalini; Ahluwalia, P. K. [Department of Physics, Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla(HP)-171005 (India); Thakur, Anil [Department of Physics, Govt. P. G. College Solan (HP)-173212 (India)

    2015-05-15

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg{sub 10}In{sub 90}, Hg{sub 30}In{sub 70}, Hg{sub 50}In{sub 50}, Hg{sub 70}In{sub 30} and Hg{sub 90}In{sub 10}) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys.

  19. Study of atomic structure of liquid Hg-In alloys using ab-initio molecular dynamics

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Five liquid Hg-In mixtures (Hg10In90, Hg30In70, Hg50In50, Hg70In30 and Hg90In10) at 299K are considered. The radial distribution function g(r) and structure factor S(q) of considered alloys are compared with respective experimental results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and (l-In). The radial distribution function g(r) shows the presence of short range order in the systems considered. Smooth curves of Bhatia-Thornton partial structure factors factor shows the presence of liquid state in the considered alloys

  20. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo

    Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems

  1. Electronic properties of liquid Hg-In alloys : Ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    Sharma, Nalini; Thakur, Anil; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study the structural properties of liquid Hg-In alloys. The interatomic interactions are described by ab-initio pseudopotentials given by Troullier and Martins. Three liquid Hg-In alloys (Hg10In90, Hg30In70,. Hg50In50, Hg70In30, and Hg90Pb10) at 299 K are considered. The calculated results for liquid Hg (l-Hg) and lead (l-In) are also drawn. Along with the calculated results of considered five liquid alloys of Hg-In alloy. The results obtained from electronic properties namely total density of state and partial density of states help to find the local arrangement of Hg and In atoms and the presence of liquid state in the considered five alloys.

  2. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by Quantum Monte Carlo

    Zen, Andrea; Mazzola, Guglielmo; Guidoni, Leonardo; Sorella, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Despite liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in excellent agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous Density Functional Theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab-initio simulations of complex chemical systems.

  3. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of liquid water by quantum Monte Carlo

    Zen, Andrea, E-mail: a.zen@ucl.ac.uk [Dipartimento di Fisica, “La Sapienza” - Università di Roma, piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Luo, Ye, E-mail: xw111luoye@gmail.com; Mazzola, Guglielmo, E-mail: gmazzola@phys.ethz.ch; Sorella, Sandro, E-mail: sorella@sissa.it [SISSA–International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 26, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Democritos Simulation Center CNR–IOM Istituto Officina dei Materiali, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Guidoni, Leonardo, E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, “La Sapienza” - Università di Roma, piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Università degli Studi dell’ Aquila, via Vetoio, 67100 L’ Aquila (Italy)

    2015-04-14

    Although liquid water is ubiquitous in chemical reactions at roots of life and climate on the earth, the prediction of its properties by high-level ab initio molecular dynamics simulations still represents a formidable task for quantum chemistry. In this article, we present a room temperature simulation of liquid water based on the potential energy surface obtained by a many-body wave function through quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. The simulated properties are in good agreement with recent neutron scattering and X-ray experiments, particularly concerning the position of the oxygen-oxygen peak in the radial distribution function, at variance of previous density functional theory attempts. Given the excellent performances of QMC on large scale supercomputers, this work opens new perspectives for predictive and reliable ab initio simulations of complex chemical systems.

  4. Ab initio simulations of reactions occurring in molecular crystals

    Kochman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Although the solid state may not usually be thought of as an environment suitable for chemical reactions under mild conditions, a growing number of organic compounds are known to undergo interesting and, in many cases, practically useful chemistry in the molecular crystal phase. Of particular interest are photochemical reactions occurring in molecular crystals, which possess a number of characteristic features that make them attractive to study using the methods of theoretical chemistry. Firs...

  5. Ab Initio Simulation Beryllium in Solid Molecular Hydrogen: Elastic Constant

    Guerrero, Carlo L.; Perlado, Jose M.

    2016-03-01

    In systems of inertial confinement fusion targets Deuterium-Tritium are manufactured with a solid layer, it must have specific properties to increase the efficiency of ignition. Currently there have been some proposals to model the phases of hydrogen isotopes and hence their high pressure, but these works do not allow explaining some of the structures present at the solid phase change effect of increased pressure. By means of simulation with first principles methods and Quantum Molecular Dynamics, we compare the structural difference of solid molecular hydrogen pure and solid molecular hydrogen with beryllium, watching beryllium inclusion in solid hydrogen matrix, we obtain several differences in mechanical properties, in particular elastic constants. For C11 the difference between hydrogen and hydrogen with beryllium is 37.56%. This may produce a non-uniform initial compression and decreased efficiency of ignition.

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics on the electronic Boltzmann equilibrium distribution

    Alonso, J L; Echenique, P [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Castro, A; Polo, V [Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, Mariano Esquillor s/n, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Rubio, A [Nano-Bio Spectroscopy group and ETSF Scientific Development Centre, Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Centro de Fisica de Materiales, CSIC-UPV/EHU-MPC and DIPC, E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Zueco, D, E-mail: dzueco@unizar.e [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    We prove that for a combined system of classical and quantum particles, it is possible to describe a dynamics for the classical particles that incorporates in a natural way the Boltzmann equilibrium population for the quantum subsystem. In addition, these molecular dynamics (MD) do not need to assume that the electrons immediately follow the nuclear motion (in contrast to any adiabatic approach) and do not present problems in the presence of crossing points between different potential energy surfaces (conical intersections or spin-crossings). A practical application of this MD to the study of the effect of temperature on molecular systems presenting (nearly) degenerate states-such as the avoided crossing in the ring-closure process of ozone-is presented.

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid methanol

    Handgraaf, J W; Meijer, E J; Handgraaf, Jan-Willem; Erp, Titus S. van; Meijer, Evert Jan

    2003-01-01

    We present a density-functional theory based molecular-dynamics study of the structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid methanol under ambient conditions. The calculated radial distribution functions involving the oxygen and hydroxyl hydrogen show a pronounced hydrogen bonding and compare well with recent neutron diffraction data, except for an underestimate of the oxygen-oxygen correlation. We observe that, in line with infrared spectroscopic data, the hydroxyl stretching mode is significantly red-shifted in the liquid. A substantial enhancement of the dipole moment is accompanied by significant fluctuations due to thermal motion. Our results provide valuable data for improvement of empirical potentials.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    Marsalek, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ab initio ring polymer contraction (AI-RPC) scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive pro...

  9. Accelerating ab initio path integral molecular dynamics with multilevel sampling of potential surface

    Geng, Hua Y

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel approach to sample the potential energy surface in a path integral formalism is proposed. The purpose is to reduce the required number of ab initio evaluations of energy and forces in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics (AI-PIMD) simulation, without compromising the overall accuracy. To validate the method, the internal energy and free energy of an Einstein crystal are calculated and compared with the analytical solutions. As a preliminary application, we assess the performance of the method in a realistic model, the FCC phase of dense atomic hydrogen, in which the calculated result shows that the acceleration rate is about 3 to 4 fold for a two-level implementation, and can be increased to 10 times if extrapolation is used. With only 16 beads used for the ab initio potential sampling, this method gives a well converged internal energy. The residual error in pressure is just about 3 GPa, whereas it is about 20 GPa for a plain AI-PIMD calculation with the same number of beads. The vibration...

  10. An ab initio molecular dynamics study of the roaming mechanism of the H2+HOC+ reaction

    Yu, Hua-Gen

    2011-08-01

    We report here a direct ab initio molecular dynamics study of the p-/o-H2+HOC+ reaction on the basis of the accurate SAC-MP2 potential energy surface. The quasi-classical trajectory method was employed. This work largely focuses on the study of reaction mechanisms. A roaming mechanism was identified for this molecular ion-molecule reaction. The driving forces behind the roaming mechanism were thoroughly investigated by using a trajectory dynamics approach. In addition, the thermal rate coefficients of the H2+HOC+ reaction were calculated in the temperature range [25, 300] K and are in good agreement with experiments.

  11. Benchmarking ab initio binding energies of hydrogen-bonded molecular clusters based on FTIR spectroscopy

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Du, Lin; Reiman, Heidi;

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs free binding energies in molecular complexes and clusters based on gas phase FTIR spectroscopy. The acetonitrile-HCl molecular complex is identified via its redshifted H-Cl stretching vibrational mode. We determine the Gibbs free binding energy, ΔG°295 K, to between 4.8 and 7.9 kJ mol(-1) and......Models of formation and growth of atmospheric aerosols are highly dependent on accurate cluster binding energies. These are most often calculated by ab initio electronic structure methods but remain associated with significant uncertainties. We present a computational benchmarking study of the...

  12. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations on ion pair-water complexes of metal halides and oxides

    Mohandas, P; Singh, S.; Chandrasekhar, J

    1994-01-01

    Ab initio MO calculations are performed on a series of ion-molecular and ion pair-molecular complexes of H2O + MX (MX = LiF, LiCl, NaCl, BeO and MgO) systems. BSSE-corrected stabilization energies, optimized geometrical parameters, internal force constants and harmonic vibrational frequencies have been evaluated for all the structures of interest. The trends observed in the geometrical parameters and other properties calculated for the mono-hydrated contact ion pair complexes parallel those c...

  13. Ab initio based force field and molecular dynamics simulations of crystalline TATB.

    Gee, Richard H; Roszak, Szczepan; Balasubramanian, Krishnan; Fried, Laurence E

    2004-04-15

    An all-atom force field for 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene (TATB) is presented. The classical intermolecular interaction potential for TATB is based on single-point energies determined from high-level ab initio calculations of TATB dimers. The newly developed potential function is used to examine bulk crystalline TATB via molecular dynamics simulations. The isobaric thermal expansion and isothermal compression under hydrostatic pressures obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations are in good agreement with experiment. The calculated volume-temperature expansion is almost one dimensional along the c crystallographic axis, whereas under compression, all three unit cell axes participate, albeit unequally. PMID:15267608

  14. Modelling of nuclear glasses by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics; Modelisation de verres intervenant dans le conditionnement des dechets radioactifs par dynamiques moleculaires classique et ab initio

    Ganster, P

    2004-10-15

    A calcium aluminosilicate glass of molar composition 67 % SiO{sub 2} - 12 % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} - 21 % CaO was modelled by classical and ab initio molecular dynamics. The size effect study in classical MD shows that the systems of 100 atoms are more ordered than the larger ones. These effects are mainly due to the 3-body terms in the empirical potentials. Nevertheless, these effects are small and the structures generated are in agreement with experimental data. In such kind of glass, we denote an aluminium avoidance and an excess of non bridging oxygens which can be compensated by tri coordinated oxygens. When the dynamics of systems of 100 and 200 atoms is followed by ab initio MD, some local arrangements occurs (bond length, angular distributions). Thus, more realistic vibrational properties are obtained in ab initio MD. The modelling of thin films shows that aluminium atoms extend to the most external part of the surface and they are all tri-coordinated. Calcium atoms are set in the sub layer part of the surface and they produce a depolymerization of the network. In classical MD, tri-coordinated aluminium atoms produce an important electric field above the surface. With non bridging oxygens, they constitute attractive sites for single water molecules. (author)

  15. Temperature dependent surface relaxation for Al(110) and Mg(10-10) studied by orbital free ab initio molecular dynamics

    Gonzalez, Luis E.; Gonzalez, David J

    2006-01-01

    We have performed orbital free ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in order to study the thermal behaviour of two open surfaces of solid metallic systems, namely the (110) face of fcc Al and the (10-10) face of hcp Mg. Our results reproduce qualitatively both the experimental measurements and previous ab initio calculations performed with the more costly Kohn-Sham approach of Density Functional Theory. These calculations can be viewed as a validation test of the orbital free method for s...

  16. Elastic Properties of CaSiO3 Perovskite from ab initio Molecular Dynamics

    Shigeaki Ono

    2013-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the elasticity of cubic CaSiO3 perovskite at high pressure and temperature. All three independent elastic constants for cubic CaSiO3 perovskite, C11, C12, and C44, were calculated from the computation of stress generated by small strains. The elastic constants were used to estimate the moduli and seismic wave velocities at the high pressure and high temperature characteristic of the Earth’s interior. The dependence of temp...

  17. Specific interactions between amyloid-β peptide and curcumin derivatives: Ab initio molecular simulations

    Ishimura, Hiromi; Kadoya, Ryushi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Murakawa, Takeru; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, it is effective to inhibit the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases. However, because the secretases also play important roles to produce vital proteins for human body, inhibitors for the secretases may have side effects. To propose new agents for protecting the cleavage site of APP from the attacking of the γ-secretase, we have investigated here the specific interactions between a short APP peptide and curcumin derivatives, using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations.

  18. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of successive hydrogenation reactions of carbon monoxide producing methanol

    Pham, Thi Nu; Ono, Shota; Ohno, Kaoru

    2016-04-01

    Doing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate a possibility of hydrogenation of carbon monoxide producing methanol step by step. At first, the hydrogen atom reacts with the carbon monoxide molecule at the excited state forming the formyl radical. Formaldehyde was formed after adding one more hydrogen atom to the system. Finally, absorption of two hydrogen atoms to formaldehyde produces methanol molecule. This study is performed by using the all-electron mixed basis approach based on the time dependent density functional theory within the adiabatic local density approximation for an electronic ground-state configuration and the one-shot GW approximation for an electronic excited state configuration.

  19. Quantum chemistry the development of ab initio methods in molecular electronic structure theory

    Schaefer III, Henry F

    2004-01-01

    This guide is guaranteed to prove of keen interest to the broad spectrum of experimental chemists who use electronic structure theory to assist in the interpretation of their laboratory findings. A list of 150 landmark papers in ab initio molecular electronic structure methods, it features the first page of each paper (which usually encompasses the abstract and introduction). Its primary focus is methodology, rather than the examination of particular chemical problems, and the selected papers either present new and important methods or illustrate the effectiveness of existing methods in predi

  20. Improved Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics by Minimal Biasing with Experimental Data

    White, Andrew D; Hocky, Glen M; Voth, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    Accounting for electrons and nuclei simultaneously is a key goal of computer simulation via ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD). However, AIMD is often unable to accurately reproduce the properties of systems such as water due to inaccuracies in the underlying electronic density functionals, shortcomings that are often addressed by added empirical corrections and/or increasing the simulation temperature. We present here a maximum-entropy-based approach to directly incorporate limited experimental data via a minimal bias. The biased AIMD simulations of both water and of an excess proton in water are shown to give significantly improved properties for both the biased and unbiased observables.

  1. Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: combined ab initio and model study

    Petreska, Irina; Pejov, Ljupco; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2015-01-01

    Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that confirmation dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previ...

  2. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of ion–solid interactions in zirconate pyrochlores

    In this study, an ab initio molecular dynamics method is employed to study low energy recoil events in zirconate pyrochlores (A2Zr2O7, A = La, Nd and Sm). It shows that both cations and anions in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 are generally more likely to be displaced than those in La2Zr2O7. The damage end states mainly consist of Frenkel pair defects, and the Frenkel pair formation energies in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 are lower than those in La2Zr2O7. These results suggest that the order–disorder structural transition more easily occurs in Nd2Zr2O7 and Sm2Zr2O7 resulting in a defect-fluorite structure, which agrees well with experimental observations. Our calculations indicate that oxygen migration from 48f and 8b to 8a sites is dominant under low energy irradiation. A number of new defects, including four types of cation Frenkel pairs and six types of anion Frenkel pairs, are revealed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The present results may help to advance the fundamental understanding of the irradiation response behavior of zirconate pyrochlores

  3. Embedding parameters in ab initio theory to develop approximations based on molecular similarity

    Tanha, Matteus; Kaul, Shiva; Cappiello, Alexander; Gordon, Geoffrey J; Yaron, David J

    2015-01-01

    A means to take advantage of molecular similarity to lower the computational cost of electronic structure theory is explored, in which parameters are embedded into a low-cost, low-level (LL) ab initio model and adjusted to obtain agreement with results from a higher-level (HL) ab initio model. A parametrized LL (pLL) model is created by multiplying selected matrix elements of the Hamiltonian operators by scaling factors that depend on element types. Various schemes for applying the scaling factors are compared, along with the impact of making the scaling factors linear functions of variables related to bond lengths, atomic charges, and bond orders. The models are trained on ethane and ethylene, substituted with -NH2, -OH and -F, and tested on substituted propane, propylene and t-butane. Training and test datasets are created by distorting the molecular geometries and applying uniform electric fields. The fitted properties include changes in total energy arising from geometric distortions or applied fields, an...

  4. Embedding parameters in ab initio theory to develop well-controlled approximations based on molecular similarity

    Tanha, Matteus; Cappiello, Alex; Gordon, Geoffrey J; Yaron, David J

    2013-01-01

    A means to take advantage of molecular similarity to lower the computational cost of electronic structure theory is proposed, in which parameters are embedded into a low-cost, low-level (LL) ab initio theory and adjusted to obtain agreement with a higher level (HL) ab initio theory. This approach is explored by training such a model on data for ethane and testing the resulting model on methane, propane and butane. The electronic distribution of the molecules is varied by placing them in strong electrostatic environments consisting of random charges placed on the corners of a cube. The results find that parameters embedded in HF/STO-3G theory can be adjusted to obtain agreement, to within about 2 kcal/mol, with results of HF/6-31G theory. Obtaining this level of agreement requires the use of parameters that are functions of the bond lengths, atomic charges, and bond orders within the molecules. The argument is made that this approach provides a well-controlled means to take advantage of molecular similarity in...

  5. A set of molecular models based on quantum mechanical ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data

    Eckl, Bernhard; Hasse, Hans

    2009-01-01

    A parameterization strategy for molecular models on the basis of force fields is proposed, which allows a rapid development of models for small molecules by using results from quantum mechanical (QM) ab initio calculations and thermodynamic data. The geometry of the molecular models is specified according to the atom positions determined by QM energy minimization. The electrostatic interactions are modeled by reducing the electron density distribution to point dipoles and point quadrupoles located in the center of mass of the molecules. Dispersive and repulsive interactions are described by Lennard-Jones sites, for which the parameters are iteratively optimized to experimental vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data, i.e. vapor pressure, saturated liquid density, and enthalpy of vaporization of the considered substance. The proposed modeling strategy was applied to a sample set of ten molecules from different substance classes. New molecular models are presented for iso-butane, cyclohexane, formaldehyde, dimethyl...

  6. i-PI: A Python interface for ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations

    Ceriotti, Michele; Manolopoulos, David E

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in path integral methodology have significantly reduced the computational expense of including quantum mechanical effects in the nuclear motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. However, the implementation of these developments requires a considerable programming effort, which has hindered their adoption. Here we describe i-PI, an interface written in Python that has been designed to minimise the effort required to bring state-of-the-art path integral techniques to an electronic structure program. While it is best suited to first principles calculations and path integral molecular dynamics, i-PI can also be used to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations, and can just as easily be interfaced with an empirical forcefield code. To give just one example of the many potential applications of the interface, we use it in conjunction with the CP2K electronic structure package to showcase the importance of nuclear quantum effects in high pressure water.

  7. Realistic modelling of water/solid interfaces from ab Initio molecular dynamics

    Tocci, G.

    2014-01-01

    Water/solid interfaces are of utmost importance to a number of technological processes. Theoretical studies, based on ab initio approaches are suitable to unveil processes occurring at water/solid interfaces and can therefore be instrumental to delineate guidelines to improve the efficiency of these processes. In this thesis we study several systems of current interest using ab initio methods based on density functional theory (DFT). By going often beyond the use of standard DFT methods and a...

  8. i-PI: A Python interface for ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations

    Ceriotti, Michele; More, Joshua; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2014-03-01

    Recent developments in path integral methodology have significantly reduced the computational expense of including quantum mechanical effects in the nuclear motion in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. However, the implementation of these developments requires a considerable programming effort, which has hindered their adoption. Here we describe i-PI, an interface written in Python that has been designed to minimise the effort required to bring state-of-the-art path integral techniques to an electronic structure program. While it is best suited to first principles calculations and path integral molecular dynamics, i-PI can also be used to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations, and can just as easily be interfaced with an empirical forcefield code. To give just one example of the many potential applications of the interface, we use it in conjunction with the CP2K electronic structure package to showcase the importance of nuclear quantum effects in high-pressure water. Catalogue identifier: AERN_v1_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AERN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License, version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138626 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3128618 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python. Computer: Multiple architectures. Operating system: Linux, Mac OSX, Windows. RAM: Less than 256 Mb Classification: 7.7. External routines: NumPy Nature of problem: Bringing the latest developments in the modelling of nuclear quantum effects with path integral molecular dynamics to ab initio electronic structure programs with minimal implementational effort. Solution method: State-of-the-art path integral molecular dynamics techniques are implemented in a Python interface. Any electronic structure code can be patched to receive the atomic

  9. From ab initio quantum chemistry to molecular dynamics: The delicate case of hydrogen bonding in ammonia

    Boese, A D; Martin, J M L; Marx, D; Chandra, Amalendu; Martin, Jan M.L.; Marx, Dominik

    2003-01-01

    The ammonia dimer (NH3)2 has been investigated using high--level ab initio quantum chemistry methods and density functional theory (DFT). The structure and energetics of important isomers is obtained to unprecedented accuracy without resorting to experiment. The global minimum of eclipsed C_s symmetry is characterized by a significantly bent hydrogen bond which deviates from linearity by about 20 degrees. In addition, the so-called cyclic C_{2h} structure is extremely close in energy on an overall flat potential energy surface. It is demonstrated that none of the currently available (GGA, meta--GGA, and hybrid) density functionals satisfactorily describe the structure and relative energies of this nonlinear hydrogen bond. We present a novel density functional, HCTH/407+, designed to describe this sort of hydrogen bond quantitatively on the level of the dimer, contrary to e.g. the widely used BLYP functional. This improved functional is employed in Car-Parrinello ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of liq...

  10. Hydrogen Recombination and Dimer Formation on Graphite from Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Casolo, S; Tantardini, G F; Martinazzo, R

    2016-07-14

    We studied Eley-Rideal molecular hydrogen formation on graphite using ab initio molecular dynamics, in the energy range relevant for the chemistry of the interstellar medium and for terrestrial experiments employing cold plasma (0.02-1 eV). We found substantial projectile steering effects that prevent dimer formation at low energies, thereby ruling out any catalytic synthetic pathways that form hydrogen molecules. Ortho and para dimers do form efficiently thanks to preferential sticking, but only at energies that are too high to be relevant for the chemistry of the interstellar medium. Computed reaction cross sections and ro-vibrational product populations are in good agreement with available experimental data and capable of generating adsorbate configurations similar to those observed with scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. PMID:26905385

  11. Statistical Properties of the Dense Hydrogen Plasma an ab initio Molecular Dynamics Investigation

    Kohanoff, J J; Kohanoff, Jorge; Hansen, Jean-Pierre

    1996-01-01

    The metallic regime of the hydrogen plasma is studied by ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations, for classical protons and fully degenerate electrons, in the strong coupling regime of the protons. The breakdown of linear screening observed for decreasing density gives rise to a surprisingly rich low-temperature phase diagram, showing in particular a dramatic drop of the melting temperature of the proton crystal. Extensive dynamical simulations reveal the remarkable persistence of a weakly damped high-frequency ion acoustic mode (plasmon-like), even under conditions of strong electron screening. This collective mode should disappear in the molecular phase, thus providing a probe for the metal-insulator transition in a region of parameters where experiment is difficult to achieve. Finite-size effects arising in the simulation of liquid metals are discussed. The status of the dense Hydrogen matter is extensively reviewed in the introduction.

  12. Lattice thermal conductivity of UO2 using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics

    We applied the non-equilibrium ab-initio molecular dynamics and predict the lattice thermal conductivity of the pristine uranium dioxide for up to 2000 K. We also use the equilibrium classical molecular dynamics and heat-current autocorrelation decay theory to decompose the lattice thermal conductivity into acoustic and optical components. The predicted optical phonon transport is temperature independent and small, while the acoustic component follows the Slack relation and is in good agreement with the limited single-crystal experimental results. Considering the phonon grain-boundary and pore scatterings, the effective lattice thermal conductivity is reduced, and we show it is in general agreement with the sintered-powder experimental results. The charge and photon thermal conductivities are also addressed, and we find small roles for electron, surface polaron, and photon in the defect-free structures and for temperatures below 1500 K

  13. Charge Transfer in FeO: A combined Molecular-Dynamics and Ab Initio Study

    Molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio electronic structure calculations were carried out to determine the rate of charge transfer in stoichiometric w-stite (FeO). The charge transfer of interest occurs by II/III valence interchange between nearest-neighbor Fe atoms, with the Fe(III) constituting a ''hole'' electronic defect. There are two possible nearest-neighbor charge transfers in the FeO lattice, which occur between edge-sharing or corner-sharing FeO6 octahedra. Molecular dynamics simulations predict charge transfer rates of 3.7x1011 and 1.9x109 s-1 for the edge and corner transfers, respectively, in good agreement with those calculated using an ab initio cluster approach (1.6x1011 and 8.0x108 s-1, respectively). The calculated rates are also similar to those along basal and c-axis directions in hematite (?-Fe2O3) determined previously. Therefore, as is the case for hematite, w-stite is predicted to show anisotropic electrical conductivity. Our findings indicate that a rigid ion model does not give acceptable results, thus showing the need to account for the change in polarizability of the system upon charge transfer. Our model achieves this by using a simple mechanical shell model. By calculating the electronic coupling matrix elements for many transition state configurations obtained from the molecular dynamics simulations, we found evidence that the position of the bridging oxygen atoms can greatly affect the amount electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor states. Finally, we address the effect of oxygen vacancies on the charge transfer. It was found that an oxygen vacancy not only creates a driving force for holes to transport away from the vacancy (or equivalently for electrons to diffuse toward the vacancy) but also lowers the free energy barriers for charge transfer. In addition, the reorganization energy significantly differed from the non-defective case in a small radius around the defect

  14. Dissociation dynamics of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Shimamura, K.; Shibuta, Y.; Ohmura, S.; Arifin, R.; Shimojo, F.

    2016-04-01

    The atomistic mechanism of dissociative adsorption of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation free energy to dehydrogenate an ethylene molecule on the Ni cluster and the corresponding reaction rate is estimated. A remarkable finding is that the adsorption energy of ethylene molecules on the Ni cluster is considerably larger than the activation free energy, which explains why the actual reaction rate is faster than the value estimated based on only the activation free energy. It is also found from the dynamic simulations that hydrogen molecules and an ethane molecule are formed from the dissociated hydrogen atoms, whereas some exist as single atoms on the surface or in the interior of the Ni cluster. On the other hand, the dissociation of the C-C bonds of ethylene molecules is not observed. On the basis of these simulation results, the nature of the initial stage of carbon nanotube growth is discussed.

  15. Structural properties of iron nitride on Cu(100): An ab-initio molecular dynamics study

    Heryadi, Dodi

    2011-01-01

    Due to their potential applications in magnetic storage devices, iron nitrides have been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical investigations. Thin films of iron nitride have been successfully grown on different substrates. To study the structural properties of a single monolayer film of FeN we have performed an ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation of its formation on a Cu(100) substrate. The iron nitride layer formed in our simulation shows a p4gm(2x2) reconstructed surface, in agreement with experimental results. In addition to its structural properties, we are also able to determine the magnetization of this thin film. Our results show that one monolayer of iron nitride on Cu(100) is ferromagnetic with a magnetic moment of 1.67 μ B. © 2011 Materials Research Society.

  16. Dissociation dynamics of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    The atomistic mechanism of dissociative adsorption of ethylene molecules on a Ni cluster is investigated by ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations. The activation free energy to dehydrogenate an ethylene molecule on the Ni cluster and the corresponding reaction rate is estimated. A remarkable finding is that the adsorption energy of ethylene molecules on the Ni cluster is considerably larger than the activation free energy, which explains why the actual reaction rate is faster than the value estimated based on only the activation free energy. It is also found from the dynamic simulations that hydrogen molecules and an ethane molecule are formed from the dissociated hydrogen atoms, whereas some exist as single atoms on the surface or in the interior of the Ni cluster. On the other hand, the dissociation of the C-C bonds of ethylene molecules is not observed. On the basis of these simulation results, the nature of the initial stage of carbon nanotube growth is discussed. (paper)

  17. Ab initio theory for current-induced molecular switching: Melamine on Cu(001)

    Ohto, Tatsuhiko

    2013-05-28

    Melamine on Cu(001) is mechanically unstable under the current of a scanning tunneling microscope tip and can switch among configurations. However, these are not equally accessible, and the switching critical current depends on the bias polarity. In order to explain such rich phenomenology, we have developed a scheme to evaluate the evolution of the reaction paths and activation barriers as a function of bias, which is rooted in the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method implemented within density functional theory. This, combined with the calculation of the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy signal, allows us to identify the vibrational modes promoting the observed molecular conformational changes. Finally, once our ab initio results are used within a resonance model, we are able to explain the details of the switching behavior, such as its dependence on the bias polarity, and the noninteger power relation between the reaction rate constants and both the bias voltage and the electric current. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  18. Hydrogen bond dynamics in liquid water: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    Kim, Cheolhee; Kim, Eunae [College of Pharmacy, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Min Sun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The effect of intermolecular interaction on the distribution of the harmonic vibrational frequencies of water molecules was investigated through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on the Born-Oppenheimer approach. For single water, the effect of the dynamics of the oxygen atom in single water and the simulation time step on the frequency distribution were examined. The distributions of the OH stretching and HOH bending vibrational frequencies of liquid water were compared to those of single water. The probability distributions of the change in OH bond length and the lifetime of the dangling OH bond were also obtained. The distribution of the frequencies was strongly affected by the long lifetime of the dangling OH bond, resulting in the formation of hydrogen bonds between water molecules.

  19. Decarboxylation of furfural on Pd(111): Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Xue, Wenhua; Dang, Hongli; Shields, Darwin; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu

    2013-03-01

    Furfural conversion over metal catalysts plays an important role in the studies of biomass-derived feedstocks. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the decarboxylation process of furfural on the palladium surface at finite temperatures. We observed and analyzed the atomic-scale dynamics of furfural on the Pd(111) surface and the fluctuations of the bondlengths between the atoms in furfural. We found that the dominant bonding structure is the parallel structure in which the furfural plane, while slightly distorted, is parallel to the Pd surface. Analysis of the bondlength fluctuations indicates that the C-H bond is the aldehyde group of a furfural molecule is likely to be broken first, while the C =O bond has a tendency to be isolated as CO. Our results show that the reaction of decarbonylation dominates, consistent with the experimental measurements. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). Simulations and calculations were performed on XSEDE's and NERSC's supercomputers.

  20. Femtosecond Laser Processing of Germanium: An Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study

    Ji, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    An ab initio molecular dynamics study of femtosecond laser processing of germanium is presented in this paper. The method based on the finite temperature density functional theory is adopted to probe the structural change, thermal motion of the atoms, dynamic property of the velocity autocorrelation, and the vibrational density of states. Starting from a cubic system at room temperature (300 K) containing 64 germanium atoms with an ordered arrangement of 1.132 nm in each dimension, the femtosecond laser processing is simulated by imposing the Nose Hoover thermostat to the electronic subsystem lasting for ~100 fs and continuing with microcanonical ensemble simulation of ~200 fs. The simulation results show solid, liquid and gas phases of germanium under adjusted intensities of the femtosecond laser irradiation. We find the irradiated germanium distinguishes from the usual germanium crystal by analyzing their melting and dynamic properties.

  1. Accelerated ab-initio Molecular Dynamics: probing the weak dispersive forces in dense liquid hydrogen

    Sorella, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    We propose an ab-initio molecular dynamics method, capable to reduce dramatically the autocorrelation time required for the simulation of classical and quantum particles at finite temperature. The method is based on an efficient implementation of a first order Langevin dynamics modified by means of a suitable, position dependent acceleration matrix $S$. Here we apply this technique, within a Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) based wavefuntion approach and within the Born-Oppheneimer approximation, for determining the phase diagram of high-pressure Hydrogen with simulations much longer than the autocorrelation time. With the proposed method, we are able to equilibrate in few hundreds steps even close to the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLT). Within our approach we find that the LLT transition is consistent with recent density functionals predicting a much larger transition pressures when the long range dispersive forces are taken into account.

  2. Structural, dynamical, electronic, and bonding properties of laser-heated silicon: An ab initio molecular-dynamics study

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A.; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D.

    1997-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to simulate laser heating of crystalline silicon. We found that a high concentration of excited electrons dramatically weakens the covalent bonding. As a result the system undergoes a melting t

  3. Ab initio electronic structure and correlations in pristine and potassium-doped molecular crystals of copper phthalocyanine

    Giovannetti, Gianluca; Brocks, Geert; Brink, van den Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effect that potassium intercalation has on the electronic structure of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) molecular crystals by means of ab initio density functional calculations. Pristine CuPc (in its alpha and beta structures) is found to be an insulator containing local magnetic mome

  4. Ab initio study of intrinsic defects and diffusion behaviors in solid molecular hydrogens

    Sun, Qingqiang; Ye, Yingting; Yang, Tianle; Yang, Li; Peng, Shuming; Long, Xinggui; Zhou, Xiaosong; Zu, Xiaotao; Du, Jincheng

    2015-12-01

    The behaviors of intrinsic defects in solid molecular hydrogens (H2) were investigated using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The results show that the formation energy of a vacancy is dependent on molecule orientation in disordered hexagonal close-packed (hcp) H2 crystals, but independent of molecular orientation in face-centered cubic-Pa3 H2. Furthermore, H2 molecules generally prefer to occupy the basal octahedral sites in hcp and octahedral sites in Pa3 structures. The formation energies of an interstitial H2 depend sensitively on the volume of interstitial sites, and also on near spatial distributions of molecular axes of a H2 in hcp H2 crystals. The strong force field introduced by an interstitial H2 might induce the rotation of molecular axes and reduce the formation energy of the interstitial H2. The migration barrier energy of a vacancy in Pa3 is larger than the average in hcp structures. However, the H2 molecules prefer to jump though vacancies in the two structures of solid H2 than the interstitial migrations.

  5. Tunneling of electrons via rotor-stator molecular interfaces: Combined ab initio and model study

    Petreska, Irina; Ohanesjan, Vladimir; Pejov, Ljupčo; Kocarev, Ljupčo

    2016-07-01

    Tunneling of electrons through rotor-stator anthracene aldehyde molecular interfaces is studied with a combined ab initio and model approach. Molecular electronic structure calculated from first principles is utilized to model different shapes of tunneling barriers. Together with a rectangular barrier, we also consider a sinusoidal shape that captures the effects of the molecular internal structure more realistically. Quasiclassical approach with the Simmons' formula for current density is implemented. Special attention is paid on conformational dependence of the tunneling current. Our results confirm that the presence of the side aldehyde group enhances the interesting electronic properties of the pure anthracene molecule, making it a bistable system with geometry dependent transport properties. We also investigate the transition voltage and we show that conformation-dependent field emission could be observed in these molecular interfaces at realistically low voltages. The present study accompanies our previous work where we investigated the coherent transport via strongly coupled delocalized orbital by application of Non-equilibrium Green's Function Formalism.

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E., E-mail: tmarkland@stanford.edu [Department of Chemistry, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E.

    2016-02-01

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost.

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics with nuclear quantum effects at classical cost: Ring polymer contraction for density functional theory.

    Marsalek, Ondrej; Markland, Thomas E

    2016-02-01

    Path integral molecular dynamics simulations, combined with an ab initio evaluation of interactions using electronic structure theory, incorporate the quantum mechanical nature of both the electrons and nuclei, which are essential to accurately describe systems containing light nuclei. However, path integral simulations have traditionally required a computational cost around two orders of magnitude greater than treating the nuclei classically, making them prohibitively costly for most applications. Here we show that the cost of path integral simulations can be dramatically reduced by extending our ring polymer contraction approach to ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. By using density functional tight binding as a reference system, we show that our ring polymer contraction scheme gives rapid and systematic convergence to the full path integral density functional theory result. We demonstrate the efficiency of this approach in ab initio simulations of liquid water and the reactive protonated and deprotonated water dimer systems. We find that the vast majority of the nuclear quantum effects are accurately captured using contraction to just the ring polymer centroid, which requires the same number of density functional theory calculations as a classical simulation. Combined with a multiple time step scheme using the same reference system, which allows the time step to be increased, this approach is as fast as a typical classical ab initio molecular dynamics simulation and 35× faster than a full path integral calculation, while still exactly including the quantum sampling of nuclei. This development thus offers a route to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations at negligible computational cost. PMID:26851913

  10. Reactive wetting properties of TiO2 nanoparticles predicted by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Brandt, Erik G.; Agosta, Lorenzo; Lyubartsev, Alexander P.

    2016-07-01

    Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity.Small-sized wet TiO2 nanoparticles have been investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chemical and physical adsorption of water on the TiO2-water interface was studied as a function of water content, ranging from dry nanoparticles to wet nanoparticles with monolayer coverage of water. The surface reactivity was shown to be a concave function of water content and driven by surface defects. The local coordination number at the defect was identified as the key factor to decide whether water adsorption proceeds through dissociation or physisorption on the surface. A consistent picture of TiO2 nanoparticle wetting at the microscopic level emerges, which corroborates existing experimental data and gives further insight into the molecular mechanisms behind nanoparticle wetting. These calculations will facilitate the engineering of metal oxide nanoparticles with a controlled catalytic water activity. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Simulation data on equilibration of energies and structures (root-mean-square-deviations and

  11. ab initio Studies on Molecular Conductor (BEDSe-TTF)2[Fe(CN)5NO

    YAO Kai-Lun; TU Hai-Bo; WANG Wei-Zhong

    2001-01-01

    In this paper the ab initio study using pseudopotential plane wave method with the local spin density functional approximation is presented for the molecular conductor (BEDSe-TTF)2[Fe(CN)5NO]. The mean electronic density distributions are obtained, and we find that the extended π orbital of the selenium does not affect the properties of material as assumed in other papers and the "side-by-side" type S...S interaction is the primary interaction between donors. From band structure calculations we analyze the influence of the NO groups on the electronic structure and magnetic properties of molecule. It is shown that the itinerant electrons important to electronic properties in these types of hybrids are delocalized electrons contributed by NO groups, instead of by the 3d electrons of Fe. Additionally, we have found that the localized magnetic moment is also contributed by the NO groups in this molecular conductor. From total energy calculations the molecular structure with the lowest energy is found due to the interaction between split spins, and the particular positions of the NO groups are obtained.

  12. Vibrational free energy and phase stability of paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic CrN from ab-initio molecular dynamics

    Shulumba, Nina; Alling, Björn; Hellman, Olle; Mozafari, Elham; Steneteg, Peter; Odén, Magnus; Abrikosov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical first-principles method to calculate the free energy of a magnetic system in its high-temperature paramagnetic phase, including vibrational, electronic, and magnetic contributions. The method for calculating free energies is based on ab-initio molecular dynamics and combines a treatment of disordered magnetism using disordered local moments molecular dynamics (DLM-MD) with the temperature dependent effective potential (TDEP) method to obtain the vibrational contributi...

  13. Ambient-Potential Composite Ewald Method for ab Initio Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2016-06-14

    A new approach for performing Particle Mesh Ewald in ab initio quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) simulations with extended atomic orbital basis sets is presented. The new approach, the Ambient-Potential Composite Ewald (CEw) method, does not perform the QM/MM interaction with Mulliken charges nor electrostatically fit charges. Instead the nuclei and electron density interact directly with the MM environment, but in a manner that avoids the use of dense Fourier transform grids. By performing the electrostatics with the underlying QM density, the CEw method avoids self-consistent field instabilities that have been encountered with simple charge mapping procedures. Potential of mean force (PMF) profiles of the p-nitrophenyl phosphate dissociation reaction in explicit solvent are computed from PBE0/6-31G* QM/MM molecular dynamics simulations with various electrostatic protocols. The CEw profiles are shown to be stable with respect to real-space Ewald cutoff, whereas the PMFs computed from truncated and switched electrostatics produce artifacts. PBE0/6-311G**, AM1/d-PhoT, and DFTB2 QM/MM simulations are performed to generate two-dimensional PMF profiles of the phosphoryl transesterification reactions with ethoxide and phenoxide leaving groups. The semiempirical models incorrectly produce a concerted ethoxide mechanism, whereas PBE0 correctly produces a stepwise mechanism. The ab initio reaction barriers agree more closely to experiment than the semiempirical models. The failure of Mulliken-charge QM/MM-Ewald is analyzed. PMID:27171914

  14. Ab initio calculation of molecular field interactions in rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics (invited)

    Brooks, M. S. S.; Gasche, T.; Auluck, S.; Nordström, L.; Severin, L.; Trygg, J.; Johansson, B.

    1991-11-01

    The interaction, KRM, between the rare-earth 4f moment and the transition-metal 3d moments in rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics is shown to depend upon the R-5d moment, which is due to 3d-5d hybridization, and local 4f-5d exchange integrals. Both the R-5d moment and KRM may be calculated ab initio from the local spin-density approximation to density functional theory in self-consistent energy-band calculations with the localized 4f-moments fixed at their Russel-Saunders values. Detailed examples are given for the RFe2 (R=Gd-Yb) series. The exchange integrals are similar to those entering into the density functional version of Stoner theory and their energy dependence must be treated carefully. The calculated local exchange integrals are shown to be related to the molecular fields derived from spin Hamiltonians, hence to the spin-wave spectra. Reasonable agreement with values of the molecular fields extracted from inelastic neutron scattering and high field susceptibility measurements is obtained.

  15. Ab initio valence calculations in chemistry

    Cook, D B

    1974-01-01

    Ab Initio Valence Calculations in Chemistry describes the theory and practice of ab initio valence calculations in chemistry and applies the ideas to a specific example, linear BeH2. Topics covered include the Schrödinger equation and the orbital approximation to atomic orbitals; molecular orbital and valence bond methods; practical molecular wave functions; and molecular integrals. Open shell systems, molecular symmetry, and localized descriptions of electronic structure are also discussed. This book is comprised of 13 chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the use of the Schrödinge

  16. Resolving the HONO formation mechanism in the ionosphere via ab initio molecular dynamic simulations.

    He, Rongxing; Li, Lei; Zhong, Jie; Zhu, Chongqin; Francisco, Joseph S; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2016-04-26

    Solar emission produces copious nitrosonium ions (NO(+)) in the D layer of the ionosphere, 60 to 90 km above the Earth's surface. NO(+) is believed to transfer its charge to water clusters in that region, leading to the formation of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) and protonated water cluster. The dynamics of this reaction at the ionospheric temperature (200-220 K) and the associated mechanistic details are largely unknown. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations and transition-state search, key structures of the water hydrates-tetrahydrate NO(+)(H2O)4 and pentahydrate NO(+)(H2O)5-are identified and shown to be responsible for HONO formation in the ionosphere. The critical tetrahydrate NO(+)(H2O)4 exhibits a chain-like structure through which all of the lowest-energy isomers must go. However, most lowest-energy isomers of pentahydrate NO(+)(H2O)5 can be converted to the HONO-containing product, encountering very low barriers, via a chain-like or a three-armed, star-like structure. Although these structures are not the global minima, at 220 K, most lowest-energy NO(+)(H2O)4 and NO(+)(H2O)5 isomers tend to channel through these highly populated isomers toward HONO formation. PMID:27071120

  17. Anomalous structural dynamics in liquid Al80Cu20: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    In this work, the structural dynamics of liquid Al80Cu20 is systematically investigated in terms of the evolution of its atomic structure, diffusivity, viscosity and fragility through ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. In addition to using pair correlation functions and coordination numbers, the various local ordered clusters are characterized comprehensively by Honeycutt-Anderson bond pairs and Voronoi polyhedra. Compared to the self diffusivity of pure liquid Cu, the tracer diffusion coefficients of Cu in liquid Al80Cu20 are increased, in agreement with the results measured by quasielastic neutron-scattering (QENS). Although the interdiffusion coefficients predicted by Darken’s equation match well to those obtained from the viscosity measurements via the Stokes-Einstein relation, they are smaller than those measured by QENS or X-ray radiography, indicative of an anomalous nature of the structural dynamics, dominated by the local ordered clusters in liquid Al80Cu20. Furthermore, Vogel–Fulcher–Tammann fitting results indicate that the liquid Al80Cu20 can be classified into a strong liquid. The deformation electron density shows that the intrinsic tetrahedral-type bonds in FCC Al and Cu are transformed into an amorphous type in liquid Al80Cu20. The present work provides insights into the understanding of structural dynamics and the kinetic properties of such metallic melts

  18. Insights into photodissociation dynamics of acetaldehyde from ab initio calculations and molecular dynamics simulations

    In the present paper we report a theoretical study on mechanistic photodissociation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). Stationary structures for H2 and CO eliminations in the ground state (S0) have been optimized with density functional theory method, which is followed by the intrinsic reaction coordinate and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations to confirm the elimination mechanism. Equilibrium geometries, transition states, and intersection structures for the C-C and C-H dissociations in excited states were determined by the complete-active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method. Based on the CASSCF optimized structures, the potential energy profiles for the dissociations were refined by performing the single-point calculations using the multireference configuration interaction method. Upon the low-energy irradiation of CH3CHO (265 nm1 C-C bond fission following intersystem crossing from the S1 state is the predominant channel and the minor channel, the ground-state elimination to CH4+CO after internal conversion (IC) from S1 to S0, could not be excluded. With the photon energy increasing, another pathway of IC, achieved via an S1/S0 intersection point resulting from the S1 C-C bond fission, becomes accessible and increases the yield of CH4+CO.

  19. Ab initio molecular dynamics of the reaction of quercetin with superoxide radical

    Lespade, Laure

    2016-08-01

    Superoxide plays an important role in biology but in unregulated concentrations it is implicated in a lot of diseases such as cancer or atherosclerosis. Antioxidants like flavonoids are abundant in plant and are good scavengers of superoxide radical. The modeling of superoxide scavenging by flavonoids from the diet still remains a challenge. In this study, ab initio molecular dynamics of the reaction of the flavonoid quercetin toward superoxide radical has been carried out using Car-Parrinello density functional theory. The study has proven different reactant solvation by modifying the number of water molecules surrounding superoxide. The reaction consists in the gift of a hydrogen atom of one of the hydroxyl groups of quercetin to the radical. When it occurs, it is relatively fast, lower than 100 fs. Calculations show that it depends largely on the environment of the hydroxyl group giving its hydrogen atom, the geometry of the first water layer and the presence of a certain number of water molecules in the second layer, indicating a great influence of the solvent on the reactivity.

  20. Surface electron density models for accurate ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction

    Novko, D.; Blanco-Rey, M.; Alducin, M.; Juaristi, J. I.

    2016-06-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction (AIMDEF) is a valuable methodology to study the interaction of atomic particles with metal surfaces. This method, in which the effect of low-energy electron-hole (e-h) pair excitations is treated within the local density friction approximation (LDFA) [Juaristi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 116102 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.116102], can provide an accurate description of both e-h pair and phonon excitations. In practice, its applicability becomes a complicated task in those situations of substantial surface atoms displacements because the LDFA requires the knowledge at each integration step of the bare surface electron density. In this work, we propose three different methods of calculating on-the-fly the electron density of the distorted surface and we discuss their suitability under typical surface distortions. The investigated methods are used in AIMDEF simulations for three illustrative adsorption cases, namely, dissociated H2 on Pd(100), N on Ag(111), and N2 on Fe(110). Our AIMDEF calculations performed with the three approaches highlight the importance of going beyond the frozen surface density to accurately describe the energy released into e-h pair excitations in case of large surface atom displacements.

  1. Ab initio investigation of the adsorption of atomic and molecular hydrogen on AlN nanotubes

    Highlights: • The adsorption characteristics of hydrogen inside the zigzag and armchair AlN nanotubes are explored. • The AlN nanotubes can store hydrogen up to 8.89 wt% with the average binding energies of 0.2–0.4 eV/H-2. - Abstract: The adsorption of atomic and molecular hydrogen on zigzag and armchair AlN nanotubes is investigated within the ab initio density functional theory. The adsorption configurations are magnetic when the H atom is adsorbed on the Al atom and the center of a hexagon. The total magnetic moment is 1.00 μB which comes from the H atom and the nearest neighbor N atoms. The barrier height of various adsorption configurations is very low, indicating that the adsorbed H atom can easily transform into other forms. The adsorption energies of hydrogen atoms to the zigzag and armchair AlN nanotubes are calculated at 25%, 50%, 75%, 100%, 133%, and 200% coverages, the most favorable adsorption configurations are 100% hydrogen coverages. The adsorption configuration of hydrogen molecule adsorbed on the Al atom is the most energetically favorable. Each Al atom is capable of binding one hydrogen molecule, corresponding to the hydrogen gravimetric density to 8.89 wt%. Our theoretical study demonstrates that AlN nanotube can be a potential candidate for the hydrogen storage materials

  2. Ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics and the quantum nature of hydrogen bonds

    Yexin, Feng; Ji, Chen; Xin-Zheng, Li; Enge, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen bond (HB) is an important type of intermolecular interaction, which is generally weak, ubiquitous, and essential to life on earth. The small mass of hydrogen means that many properties of HBs are quantum mechanical in nature. In recent years, because of the development of computer simulation methods and computational power, the influence of nuclear quantum effects (NQEs) on the structural and energetic properties of some hydrogen bonded systems has been intensively studied. Here, we present a review of these studies by focussing on the explanation of the principles underlying the simulation methods, i.e., the ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics. Its extension in combination with the thermodynamic integration method for the calculation of free energies will also be introduced. We use two examples to show how this influence of NQEs in realistic systems is simulated in practice. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11275008, 91021007, and 10974012) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2014M550005).

  3. The crystallization process of liquid vanadium studied by ab initio molecular dynamics

    We present a study of the crystallization process in liquid vanadium over a temperature range from 3000 K down to 1500 K using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Short-range order evolution during solidification is studied using various structural analysis methods. We show that the icosahedral-like short-range order is detected in the stable liquid phase and grows upon supercooling. The system undergoes a first-order phase transition (from a liquid to a solid state) at a temperature of about 1600 K. The crystal nucleation process is further studied using the time–temperature transformation mechanism by annealing the system at 1650 K. The nucleation is examined using bond-orientational order and density fluctuation analysis. Our finding is that various precursors appear in the region of high bond-orientational order with the majority having body-centered cubic (bcc)-like symmetry. This bcc-like region grows on annealing via thermal fluctuations. Our results reveal that the bond-orientational order precedes the density fluctuation, and is the main driving factor for nucleation. (papers)

  4. Direct molecular simulation of nitrogen dissociation based on an ab initio potential energy surface

    Valentini, Paolo, E-mail: vale0142@umn.edu; Schwartzentruber, Thomas E., E-mail: schwart@aem.umn.edu; Bender, Jason D., E-mail: jbender73@gmail.com; Nompelis, Ioannis, E-mail: nompelis@umn.edu; Candler, Graham V., E-mail: candler@umn.edu [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Mechanics, College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The direct molecular simulation (DMS) approach is used to predict the internal energy relaxation and dissociation dynamics of high-temperature nitrogen. An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) is used to calculate the dynamics of two interacting nitrogen molecules by providing forces between the four atoms. In the near-equilibrium limit, it is shown that DMS reproduces the results obtained from well-established quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) analysis, verifying the validity of the approach. DMS is used to predict the vibrational relaxation time constant for N{sub 2}–N{sub 2} collisions and its temperature dependence, which are in close agreement with existing experiments and theory. Using both QCT and DMS with the same PES, we find that dissociation significantly depletes the upper vibrational energy levels. As a result, across a wide temperature range, the dissociation rate is found to be approximately 4–5 times lower compared to the rates computed using QCT with Boltzmann energy distributions. DMS calculations predict a quasi-steady-state distribution of rotational and vibrational energies in which the rate of depletion of high-energy states due to dissociation is balanced by their rate of repopulation due to collisional processes. The DMS approach simulates the evolution of internal energy distributions and their coupling to dissociation without the need to precompute rates or cross sections for all possible energy transitions. These benchmark results could be used to develop new computational fluid dynamics models for high-enthalpy flow applications.

  5. Direct molecular simulation of nitrogen dissociation based on an ab initio potential energy surface

    The direct molecular simulation (DMS) approach is used to predict the internal energy relaxation and dissociation dynamics of high-temperature nitrogen. An ab initio potential energy surface (PES) is used to calculate the dynamics of two interacting nitrogen molecules by providing forces between the four atoms. In the near-equilibrium limit, it is shown that DMS reproduces the results obtained from well-established quasiclassical trajectory (QCT) analysis, verifying the validity of the approach. DMS is used to predict the vibrational relaxation time constant for N2–N2 collisions and its temperature dependence, which are in close agreement with existing experiments and theory. Using both QCT and DMS with the same PES, we find that dissociation significantly depletes the upper vibrational energy levels. As a result, across a wide temperature range, the dissociation rate is found to be approximately 4–5 times lower compared to the rates computed using QCT with Boltzmann energy distributions. DMS calculations predict a quasi-steady-state distribution of rotational and vibrational energies in which the rate of depletion of high-energy states due to dissociation is balanced by their rate of repopulation due to collisional processes. The DMS approach simulates the evolution of internal energy distributions and their coupling to dissociation without the need to precompute rates or cross sections for all possible energy transitions. These benchmark results could be used to develop new computational fluid dynamics models for high-enthalpy flow applications

  6. Elastic properties of amorphous boron suboxide based solids studied using ab initio molecular dynamics

    We have studied the correlation between chemical composition, structure, chemical bonding and elastic properties of amorphous B6O based solids using ab initio molecular dynamics. These solids are of different chemical compositions, but the elasticity data appear to be a function of density. This is in agreement with previous experimental observations. As the density increases from 1.64 to 2.38 g cm-3, the elastic modulus increases from 74 to 253 GPa. This may be understood by analyzing the cohesive energy and the chemical bonding of these compounds. The cohesive energy decreases from -7.051 to -7.584 eV/atom in the elastic modulus range studied. On the basis of the electron density distributions, Mulliken analysis and radial distribution functions, icosahedral bonding is the dominating bonding type. C and N promote cross-linking of icosahedra and thus increase the density, while H hinders the cross-linking by forming OH groups. The presence of icosahedral bonding is independent of the density

  7. Ab-initio molecular modeling of interfaces in tantalum-carbon system

    Processing of ultrahigh temperature TaC ceramic material with sintering additives of B4C and reinforcement of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) gives rise to possible formation of several interfaces (Ta2C-TaC, TaC-CNT, Ta2C-CNT, TaB2-TaC, and TaB2-CNT) that could influence the resultant properties. Current work focuses on interfaces developed during spark plasma sintering of TaC-system and performing ab initio molecular modeling of the interfaces generated during processing of TaC-B4C and TaC-CNT composites. The energy of the various interfaces has been evaluated and compared with TaC-Ta2C interface. The iso-surface electronic contours are extracted from the calculations eliciting the enhanced stability of TaC-CNT interface by 72.2%. CNTs form stable interfaces with Ta2C and TaB2 phases with a reduction in the energy by 35.8% and 40.4%, respectively. The computed Ta-C-B interfaces are also compared with experimentally observed interfaces in high resolution TEM images.

  8. Ab initio computational studies on molecular conformation of N-methyl-glyphosate

    Kaliannan, P.; Naseer Ali, M. Mohamed; Venuvanalingam, P.

    Conformational analysis of N-methyl-glyphosate has been carried out using an ab initio molecular orbital (MO) method at the HF/3-21G* levels of theory and the results are compared with the results of a previously studied compound, namely glyphosate. The potential energy surface of the molecule obtained by varying the central torsion angles (Φ, Ψ) was investigated in detail. Fourteen conformers with 5 kcal mol-1 energy cut-off have been selected from the potential energy surface for geometry optimization to locate the true minimum on the conformational space. The minimum has been found to be at (-62°, 110°) for the central torsion angles. This conformation is stabilized by hydrogen bond interactions (O-H···O and C-H···O) and the interactions due to protons nearer to each other. This cationic field leads to the formation of a hydrophobic patch in this structure, as well as in the structures closer to the global minimum. This patch may destabilize the favourable interaction of N-methyl-glyphosate with the surrounding amino acid residues in the binding cavity as they form the cationic field throughout the glyphosate binding region.

  9. Finite temperature elastic constants of paramagnetic materials within the disordered local moment picture from ab initio molecular dynamics calculations

    Mozafari, Elham; Shulumba, Nina; Steneteg, Peter; Alling, Björn; Abrikosov, Igor A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical scheme to calculate the elastic constants of magnetic materials in the high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our approach is based on a combination of disordered local moments picture and ab initio molecular dynamics (DLM-MD). Moreover, we investigate a possibility to enhance the efficiency of the simulations using recently introduced method: symmetry imposed force constant temperature dependent effective potential (SIFC-TDEP). We have chosen cubic paramagnetic CrN as ...

  10. Pharmacological Classification and Activity Evaluation of Furan and Thiophene Amide Derivatives Applying Semi-Empirical ab initio Molecular Modeling Methods

    Leszek Bober; Tomasz Baczek; Piotr Kawczak

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological and physicochemical classification of the furan and thiophene amide derivatives by multiple regression analysis and partial least square (PLS) based on semi-empirical ab initio molecular modeling studies and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) retention data is proposed. Structural parameters obtained from the PCM (Polarizable Continuum Model) method and the literature values of biological activity (antiproliferative for the A431 cells) expressed...

  11. Self-Healing of Stone—Wales Defects in Boron Nitride Monolayer by Irradiation: Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    We show an effective method of healing the Stone—Wales (SW) defects through low energy electron irradiation using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation. The SW defects can be healed by irradiation through bond rotation. Although the healing energy shows an anisotropic behavior, it is lower than the displacement threshold energy. The healing of the SW defect through electron irradiation can be effectively used in other sp2-bonded materials

  12. AB INITIO HF AND DFT STUDIES ON MOLECULAR STRUCTURE AND VIBRATIONAL ANALYSIS OF 2,5-DIBROMOPYRIDINE

    ÇIRAK, Çağrı; KOÇ, Nurettin

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 2,5-dibromopyridine (2,5-DBP) have been investigated. The optimized geometry, theoretical vibration frequencies and intensities were calculated by using ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) basis sets. The vibrational analysis of title molecule was done and its optimized geometry parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) were given. Scaled theoretical frequencies have been compared with e...

  13. Structural, dynamical, electronic, and bonding properties of laser-heated silicon: An ab initio molecular-dynamics study

    Silvestrelli, P.-L.; Alavi, A; Parrinello, M.; Frenkel, D

    1997-01-01

    The method of ab initio molecular dynamics, based on finite-temperature density-functional theory, is used to simulate laser heating of crystalline silicon. We found that a high concentration of excited electrons dramatically weakens the covalent bonding. As a result the system undergoes a melting transition to a metallic state. We studied several structural, dynamical, electronic, and bonding properties of this phase of silicon. In contrast to ordinary liquid silicon, this liquid is characte...

  14. Benzene dimer: Dynamic structure and thermodynamics derived from on-the-fly ab initio DFT-D molecular dynamic simulations

    Řezáč, Jan; Hobza, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 11 (2008), s. 1835-1840. ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA AV ČR IAA400550510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : benzene dimer * dynamic structure * on-the fly ab initio DFT-D molecular dynamic simulation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.274, year: 2008

  15. Structure, dynamics and stability of water/scCO2/mineral interfaces from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Mal-Soon Lee; B. Peter McGrail; Roger Rousseau; Vassiliki-Alexandra Glezakou

    2015-01-01

    The boundary layer at solid-liquid interfaces is a unique reaction environment that poses significant scientific challenges to characterize and understand by experimentation alone. Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) methods, we report on the structure and dynamics of boundary layer formation, cation mobilization and carbonation under geologic carbon sequestration scenarios (T = 323 K and P = 90 bar) on a prototypical anorthite (001) surface. At low coverage, water film formation is ent...

  16. The ab initio calculation of molecular electric, magnetic and geometric properties.

    Bast, Radovan; Ekström, Ulf; Gao, Bin; Helgaker, Trygve; Ruud, Kenneth; Thorvaldsen, Andreas J

    2011-02-21

    We give an account of some recent advances in the development of ab initio methods for the calculation of molecular response properties, involving electric, magnetic, and geometric perturbations. Particular attention is given to properties in which the basis functions depend explicitly both on time and on the applied perturbations such as perturbations involving nuclear displacements or external magnetic fields when London atomic orbitals are used. We summarize a general framework based on the quasienergy for the calculation of arbitrary-order molecular properties using the elements of the density matrix in the atomic-orbital basis as the basic variables. We demonstrate that the necessary perturbed density matrices of arbitrary order can be determined from a set of linear equations that have the same formal structure as the set of linear equations encountered when determining the linear response equations (or time-dependent self-consistent-field equations). Additional components needed to calculate properties involving perturbation-dependent basis sets are flexible one- and two-electron integral techniques for geometric or magnetic-field differentiated integrals; in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT), we also need to calculate derivatives of the exchange-correlation functional. We describe a recent proposal for evaluating these contributions based on automatic differentiation. Within this framework, it is now possible to calculate any molecular property for an arbitrary self-consistent-field reference state, including two- and four-component relativistic self-consistent-field wave functions. Examples of calculations that can be performed with this formulation are presented. PMID:21180690

  17. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of liquid sodium and cesium up to critical point

    Yuryev, Anatoly A. [Institute of Metallurgy of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Amundsen st. 101,620016, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Ural Federal University, Vira st. 19, 620002, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Gelchinski, Boris R. [Institute of Metallurgy of Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Amundsen st. 101,620016, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-17

    Ab initio modeling of liquid metals Na and K is carried out using the program SIESTA. We have determined the parameters of the model (the optimal step, the number of particles, the initial state etc) and calculated a wide range of properties: the total energy, pair correlation function, coefficient of self-diffusion, heat capacity, statistics of Voronoi polyhedra, the density of electronic states up to the critical temperature.

  18. On the room-temperature phase diagram of high pressure hydrogen: an ab initio molecular dynamics perspective and a diffusion Monte Carlo study.

    Chen, J; Ren, X.; Li, X Z; Alfè, D.; Wang, E

    2014-01-01

    The finite-temperature phase diagram of hydrogen in the region of phase IV and its neighborhood was studied using the ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) and the ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD). The electronic structures were analyzed using the density-functional theory (DFT), the random-phase approximation, and the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. Taking the state-of-the-art DMC results as benchmark, comparisons of the energy differences between structures generated from ...

  19. The hydriding resistance of plutonium oxides and mononitride: A view from ab initio molecular dynamics

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Haifeng; Song, Haifeng

    2015-06-01

    Based on the non-local van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF)+ U scheme, we carry out the ab initio molecular dynamics study of the interaction dynamics for H2 molecules impingement against Pu-oxides and mononitride surfaces. We show that except for the weak physisorption, both PuO2 and PuN surfaces are so difficult of access that almost all of H2 molecules will bounce back to the vacuum when their initial kinetic energies are not sufficient. Although the dissociative adsorption of H2 on PuO2 surfaces is found to be exothermic, the collision-induced dissociation barriers of H2 are very high (up to 2.2 eV). However, PuO2 overlayer on Pu-metal can be reduced to α-Pu2O3 drived by oxygen-lean conditions, and H2 can penetrate and diffuse in α-Pu2O3 easily. As a result, α-Pu2O3 can promote the hydriding process of Pu. Unlike PuO2, PuN is found to be one kind of stable and uniform passivation layer against Pu-hydriding. Specifically, the incorporation of PuN and H-atom is proven to be thermodynamically unstable. Overall, our current study reveals the mechanical and chemical resistances of Pu-oxide and Pu-nitride to hydrogen corrosion, which have strong implications to the understanding of the surface corrosion and passivation of Pu metal. This work was supported by the FDST of CAEP under Grant No. 9090707.

  20. Diffusion within α-CuI studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    The structure and dynamics of superionic α-CuI are studied in detail by means of ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. The extreme cation disorder and a soft immobile face centred cubic sublattice are evident from the highly diffuse atomic density profiles. The Cu-Cu pair distribution function and distribution of Cu-I-Cu bond angles possess distinct peaks at 2.6 A and 60 deg. respectively, which are markedly lower than the values expected from the average cationic density, pointing to the presence of pronounced short-range copper-copper correlations. Comparison with lattice static calculations shows that these correlations and the marked shift in the cationic density profile in the (111) directions are associated with a locally distorted cation sublattice, and that the movements within the tetrahedral cavities involve rapid jumps into and out of shallow basins on the system potential energy surface. On average, the iodines are surrounded by three coppers within their first coordination shell, with the fourth copper being located in a transition zone between two neighbouring iodine cavities. However, time-resolved analysis reveals that the local structure actually involves a mixture of threefold-, fourfold- and fivefold-coordinated iodines. Examination of the ionic trajectories shows that the copper ions jump rapidly to nearest neighbouring tetrahedral cavities (aligned in the (100) directions) following a markedly curved trajectory and often involving short-lived (∼1 ps) interstitial positions. The nature of the correlated diffusion underlying the unusually high fraction of coppers with short residence time can be attributed to the presence of a large number of 'unsuccessful' jumps and the likelihood of cooperative motion of pairs of coppers. The calculated diffusion coefficient at 750 K, DCu = 2.8 x 10-5 cm2 s-1, is in excellent agreement with that found experimentally.

  1. Diffusion within α-CuI studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Mohn, Chris E.; Stølen, Svein; Hull, Stephen

    2009-08-01

    The structure and dynamics of superionic α-CuI are studied in detail by means of ab initio Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. The extreme cation disorder and a soft immobile face centred cubic sublattice are evident from the highly diffuse atomic density profiles. The Cu-Cu pair distribution function and distribution of Cu-I-Cu bond angles possess distinct peaks at 2.6 Å and 60° respectively, which are markedly lower than the values expected from the average cationic density, pointing to the presence of pronounced short-range copper-copper correlations. Comparison with lattice static calculations shows that these correlations and the marked shift in the cationic density profile in the lang111rang directions are associated with a locally distorted cation sublattice, and that the movements within the tetrahedral cavities involve rapid jumps into and out of shallow basins on the system potential energy surface. On average, the iodines are surrounded by three coppers within their first coordination shell, with the fourth copper being located in a transition zone between two neighbouring iodine cavities. However, time-resolved analysis reveals that the local structure actually involves a mixture of threefold-, fourfold- and fivefold-coordinated iodines. Examination of the ionic trajectories shows that the copper ions jump rapidly to nearest neighbouring tetrahedral cavities (aligned in the lang100rang directions) following a markedly curved trajectory and often involving short-lived (~1 ps) interstitial positions. The nature of the correlated diffusion underlying the unusually high fraction of coppers with short residence time can be attributed to the presence of a large number of 'unsuccessful' jumps and the likelihood of cooperative motion of pairs of coppers. The calculated diffusion coefficient at 750 K, DCu = 2.8 × 10-5 cm2 s-1, is in excellent agreement with that found experimentally.

  2. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the interlayer and micropore structure of aqueous montmorillonite clays

    Suter, James L.; Kabalan, Lara; Khader, Mahmoud; Coveney, Peter V.

    2015-11-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to gain an understanding of the interfacial microscopic structure and reactivity of fully hydrated clay edges. The models studied include both micropore and interlayer water. We identify acidic sites through dissociation mechanisms; the resulting ions can be stabilized by both micropore and interlayer water. We find clay edges possess a complex amphoteric behavior, which depends on the face under consideration and the location of isomorphic substitution. For the neutral (1 1 0) surface, we do not observe any dissociation on the timescale accessible. The edge terminating hydroxyl groups participate in a hydrogen bonded network of water molecules that spans the interlayer between periodic images of the clay framework. With isomorphic substitutions in the tetrahedral layer of the (1 1 0) clay edge, we find the adjacent exposed apical oxygen behaves as a Brönsted base and abstracts a proton from a nearby water molecule, which in turn removes a proton from an AlOH2 group. With isomorphic substitutions in the octahedral layer of the (1 1 0) clay edge the adjacent exposed apical oxygen atom does not abstract a proton from the water molecules, but increases the number of hydrogen bonded water molecules (from one to two). Acid treated clays are likely to have both sites protonated. The (0 1 0) surface does not have the same interfacial hydrogen bonding structure; it is much less stable and we observe dissociation of half the terminal SiOH groups (tbnd Sisbnd Osbnd H → tbnd Sisbnd O- + H+) in our models. The resulting anions are stabilized by solvation from both micropore and interlayer water molecules. This suggests that, when fully hydrated, the (0 1 0) surface can act as a Brönsted acid, even at neutral pH.

  3. An ab initio molecular dynamics study of the roaming mechanism of the H{sub 2}+HOC{sup +} reaction

    Yu Huagen, E-mail: hgy@bnl.gov [Department of Chemistry, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We report here a direct ab initio molecular dynamics study of the p-/o-H{sub 2}+HOC{sup +} reaction on the basis of the accurate SAC-MP2 potential energy surface. The quasi-classical trajectory method was employed. This work largely focuses on the study of reaction mechanisms. A roaming mechanism was identified for this molecular ion-molecule reaction. The driving forces behind the roaming mechanism were thoroughly investigated by using a trajectory dynamics approach. In addition, the thermal rate coefficients of the H{sub 2}+HOC{sup +} reaction were calculated in the temperature range [25, 300] K and are in good agreement with experiments.

  4. NO sub 3 , the study of molecular properties and photodissociation by ab initio method, spectroscopy, and translational spectroscopy

    Kim, B.

    1990-10-01

    This report discusses the following topics: molecular structure of NO{sub 3} radical studied by laser induced fluorescence; photodissociation and fluorescence spectroscopy of NO{sub 3} in molecular beam; vertical electronic spectrum of NO{sub 3}:{sup 2}A{prime}{sub 2}, {sup 2}E{double prime}({sup 2}A{sub 2}{sup 2}B{sub 1}), and {sup 2}E{prime} states; and Ab initio study of the vibrational spectra of NO{sub 3}.

  5. Statistical properties of the dense hydrogen plasma: An ab initio molecular dynamics investigation

    The hydrogen plasma is studied in the very high density (atomic and metallic) regime by extensive ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations. Protons are treated classically, and electrons in the Born-Oppenheimer framework, within the local density approximation (LDA). Densities and temperatures studied fall within the strong coupling regime of the protons. We address the question of the validity of linear screening, and we find it to yield a reasonably good description up to rs approx. 0.5, but already too crude for rs = 1 (with rs = (3/4πρ)1/3 the ion sphere radius). Finite-size and Brillouin zone sampling effects in metallic systems are studied and shown to be very delicate also in the fluid (liquid metal) phase. We analyse the low-temperature phase diagram and the melting transition. A remarkably fast decrease of the melting temperature with decreasing density is found, up to a point when it becomes comparable to the Fermi temperature of the protons. The possible vicinity of a triple point bcc-hcp(fcc)- liquid is discussed in the region of rs approx. 1.1 and T approx. 100 - 200K. The fluid phase is studied in detail for several temperatures. Proton-electron correlations show a weak temperature dependence, and proton-proton correlations exhibit a well-defined first coordination shell, thus characterizing fluid H in this regime as an atomic liquid. Diffusion coefficients are compared to the values for the one-component plasma. Vibrational densities of states (VDOS) show a plasmon renormalization due to electron screening, and the presence of a plasmon-coupled single-particle mode up to very high temperatures. Collective modes are studied through dynamical structure factors. In close relationship with the VDOS, the simulations reveal the remarkable persistent of a weakly damped high-frequency ion acoustic mode, even under conditions of strong electron screening. The possibility of using this observation as a diagnostic for the plasma phase transition to the fluid

  6. An analysis of hydrated proton diffusion in ab initio molecular dynamics

    A detailed understanding of the inherently multiscale proton transport process raises a number of scientifically challenging questions. For example, there remain many (partially addressed) questions on the molecular mechanism for long-range proton migration and the potential for the formation of long-lived traps giving rise to burst-and-rest proton dynamics. Using results from a sizeable collection of ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations (totaling ∼2.7 ns) with various density functional approximations (Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr (BLYP), BLYP–D3, Hamprecht-Cohen-Tozer-Handy, B3LYP) and temperatures (300–330 K), equilibrium and dynamical properties of one excess proton and 128 water molecules are studied. Two features in particular (concerted hops and weak hydrogen-bond donors) are investigated to identify modes in the system that are strongly correlated with the onset of periods of burst-and-rest dynamics. The question of concerted hops seeks to identify those time scales over which long-range proton transport can be classified as a series of sequential water hopping events or as a near-simultaneous concerted process along compressed water wires. The coupling of the observed burst-and-rest dynamics with motions of a fourth neighboring water molecule (a weak hydrogen-bond donor) solvating the protonated water molecule is also investigated. The presence (absence) of hydrogen bonds involving this fourth water molecule before and after successful proton hopping events is found to be strongly correlated with periods of burst (rest) dynamics (and consistent with pre-solvation concepts). By analyzing several realizations of the AIMD trajectories on the 100-ps time scale, convergence of statistics can be assessed. For instance, it was observed that the probability for a fourth water molecule to approach the hydronium, if not already proximal at the beginning of the lifetime of the hydronium, is very low, indicative of the formation of stable void regions

  7. Coupling of temperature with pressure induced initial decomposition mechanisms of two molecular crystals: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    QIONG WU; DONG XIANG; GUOLIN XIONG; WEIHUA ZHU; HEMING XIAO

    2016-05-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the initiation of decompositionand formation of first products of two molecular crystals pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazole-3-one (NTO) under thermal decomposition temperature (475 K for PETN and 531 Kfor NTO) coupled with different pressures (1-5 GPa). The pressure effects on the initial decomposition stepsand initially generated products on PETN and NTO were very different. PETN was triggered by C-H... O intermolecular hydrogen transfer. The initial decomposition mechanism was independent of the pressure. ForNTO, two different initial decomposition mechanisms were found. At 1, 2, and 3 GPa, it was triggered by NH....O intermolecular hydrogen transfer, while at 4 and 5 GPa, it was triggered by N-H.....N intermolecularhydrogen transfer. This indicates that the initial decomposition mechanism was dependent on the pressure.Our study may provide new insights into initial mechanisms and decomposition reactions of molecular crystalexplosives under thermal decomposition temperature coupled with different pressures with details at atomiclevel.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics with noisy forces: Validating the quantum Monte Carlo approach with benchmark calculations of molecular vibrational properties

    Luo, Ye, E-mail: xw111luoye@gmail.com; Sorella, Sandro, E-mail: sorella@sissa.it [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), and CRS Democritos, CNR-INFM, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Zen, Andrea, E-mail: zen.andrea.x@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2014-11-21

    We present a systematic study of a recently developed ab initio simulation scheme based on molecular dynamics and quantum Monte Carlo. In this approach, a damped Langevin molecular dynamics is employed by using a statistical evaluation of the forces acting on each atom by means of quantum Monte Carlo. This allows the use of an highly correlated wave function parametrized by several variational parameters and describing quite accurately the Born-Oppenheimer energy surface, as long as these parameters are determined at the minimum energy condition. However, in a statistical method both the minimization method and the evaluation of the atomic forces are affected by the statistical noise. In this work, we study systematically the accuracy and reliability of this scheme by targeting the vibrational frequencies of simple molecules such as the water monomer, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and phosphine. We show that all sources of systematic errors can be controlled and reliable frequencies can be obtained with a reasonable computational effort. This work provides convincing evidence that this molecular dynamics scheme can be safely applied also to realistic systems containing several atoms.

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics with noisy forces: Validating the quantum Monte Carlo approach with benchmark calculations of molecular vibrational properties

    We present a systematic study of a recently developed ab initio simulation scheme based on molecular dynamics and quantum Monte Carlo. In this approach, a damped Langevin molecular dynamics is employed by using a statistical evaluation of the forces acting on each atom by means of quantum Monte Carlo. This allows the use of an highly correlated wave function parametrized by several variational parameters and describing quite accurately the Born-Oppenheimer energy surface, as long as these parameters are determined at the minimum energy condition. However, in a statistical method both the minimization method and the evaluation of the atomic forces are affected by the statistical noise. In this work, we study systematically the accuracy and reliability of this scheme by targeting the vibrational frequencies of simple molecules such as the water monomer, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, ammonia, and phosphine. We show that all sources of systematic errors can be controlled and reliable frequencies can be obtained with a reasonable computational effort. This work provides convincing evidence that this molecular dynamics scheme can be safely applied also to realistic systems containing several atoms

  10. Theoretical design of a novel copper doped gold cluster supported on graphene utilizing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been used to inspect the adsorption of O2 to a small gold-copper alloy cluster supported on graphene. The exposed Cu atom in this cluster acts as a crucial attractive site for the approaching of O2 and consequently widens the reaction channel for the adsorption process. Conversely, a pure Au cluster on the same graphene support is inactive for the O2 adsorption because the corresponding reaction channel for the adsorption is very narrow. These results clearly indicate that doping a different metal to the Au cluster is a way to enhance the oxygen adsorption and to promote catalytic reactions

  11. Vibrational dynamics of zero-field-splitting hamiltonian in gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents from ab initio molecular dynamics

    The electronic relaxation of gadolinium complexes used as MRI contrast agents was studied theoretically by following the short time evolution of zero-field-splitting parameters. The statistical analysis of ab initio molecular dynamics trajectories provided a clear separation between static and transient contributions to the zero-field-splitting. For the latter, the correlation time was estimated at approximately 0.1 ps. The influence of the ligand was also probed by replacing one pendant arm of our reference macrocyclic complex by a bulkier phosphonate arm. In contrast to the transient contribution, the static zero-field-splitting was significantly influenced by this substitution

  12. Calculations of reduced partition function ratios of hydrated monoborate anion by the ab initio molecular orbital theory

    Based on the ab initio molecular orbital theory at the HF/6-31G(d) level, the effect of hydration on the reduced partition function ratio(RPFR) of the monoborate anion (B(OH)4-) is evaluated in order to better understand boron isotope fractionation observed in aqueous systems. Aquoborate anions up to decaaquoborate anion, B(OH)4-(H2O)10, were considered and their geometry optimization and RPFR calculations were carried out. It was induced that hydration decreased the ln(RPFR) value of B(OH)4- by ca. 1.2%. (author)

  13. Orbital free ab initio molecular dynamics simulation study of some static and dynamic properties of liquid noble metals

    G.M. Bhuiyan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several static and dynamic properties of liquid Cu, Ag and Au at thermodynamic states near their respective melting points, have been evaluated by means of the orbital free ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation method. The calculated static structure shows good agreement with the available X-ray and neutron diffraction data. As for the dynamic properties, the calculated dynamic structure factors point to the existence of collective density excitations along with a positive dispersion for l-Cu and l-Ag. Several transport coefficients have been obtained which show a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  14. Coordination properties of a metal chelator clioquinol to Zn(2+) studied by static DFT and ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Rodríguez-Santiago, Luis; Alí-Torres, Jorge; Vidossich, Pietro; Sodupe, Mariona

    2015-05-28

    Several lines of evidence supporting the role of metal ions in amyloid aggregation, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have turned metal ion chelation into a promising therapeutic treatment. The design of efficient chelating ligands requires proper knowledge of the electronic and molecular structure of the complexes formed, including their hydration properties. Among various potential chelators, clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline, CQH) has been evaluated with relative success in in vitro experiments and even in phase 2 clinical trials. Clioquinol interacts with Zn(ii) to lead to a binary metal/ligand 1 : 2 stoichiometric complex in which the phenolic group of CQH is deprotonated, resulting in Zn(CQ)2 neutral complexes, to which additional water molecules may coordinate. In the present work, the coordinative properties of clioquinol in aqueous solution have been analyzed by means of static, minimal cluster based DFT calculations and explicit solvent ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Results from static calculations accounting for solvent effects by means of polarized continuum models suggest that the preferred metal coordination environment is tetrahedral Zn(CQ)2, whereas ab initio molecular dynamics simulations point to quasi degenerate penta Zn(CQ)2(H2O) and hexa Zn(CQ)2(H2O)2 coordinated complexes. The possible reasons for these discrepant results are discussed. PMID:25939963

  15. High adsorption capacity of heavy metals on two-dimensional MXenes: an ab initio study with molecular dynamics simulation.

    Guo, Xun; Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Huang, Qing; Xue, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculation is employed to study the adsorption properties of Pb and Cu on recently synthesized two-dimensional materials MXenes, including Ti3C2, V2C1 and Ti2C1. The influence of surface decoration with functional groups such as H, OH and F have also been investigated. Most of these studied MXenes exhibit excellent capability to adsorb Pb and Cu, especially the adsorption capacity of Pb on Ti2C1 is as high as 2560 mg g(-1). Both the binding energies and the adsorption capacities are sensitive to the functional groups attached to the MXenes' surface. Ab initio molecular dynamics (ab-init MD) simulation confirms that Ti2C1 remains stable at room temperature after adsorbing Pb atoms. Our calculations imply that these newly emerging two-dimensional MXenes are promising candidates for wastewater treatment and ion separation. PMID:26602974

  16. Proposal for an inhibitor of Alzheimer's disease blocking aggregation of amyloid-β peptides: ab initio molecular simulations

    Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is believed to play a key role in the mechanism of molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To inhibit the aggregation and prevent AD, numerous compounds have been synthesized. A previous experimental study elucidated that a triazine derivative AA3E2 has anti-amyloidogenic ability, while a triazine derivative AA3D2 having a different substituent has no inhibitory effect. However, the reason for this remarkable difference in the ability cannot be explained by the chemical structures of these derivatives. In the present study, we present stable structures of the solvated complexes with Aβ and AA3E2/AA3D2 obtained by classical molecular mechanics method. The specific interactions between Aβ and AA3E2/AA3D2 in the complexes are investigated by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results obtained, we attempt to propose new potent inhibitors for the Aβ aggregation.

  17. Hydrogen atom injection into carbon surfaces by comparison between Monte-Carlo, molecular dynamics and ab-initio calculations

    Full text: To understand the plasma-wall interaction on divertor plates, we investigate the interaction of hydrogen atoms and carbon materials used in the high heat flux components by the use of the following simulations. Monte-Carlo (MC) method based on binary collision approximation can calculate the sputtering process of hydrogen atoms on the carbon material quickly. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) method employs multi-body potential models and can treat realistic structures of crystal and molecule. The ab-initio method can calculate electron energy in quantum mechanics, which is regarded as realistic potential for atoms. In the present paper, the interaction of the hydrogen and the carbon material is investigated using the multi-scale (MC, MD and ab-initio) methods. The bombardment of hydrogen atoms onto the carbon material is simulated by the ACAT-code of the MC method, which cannot represent the structure of crystal, and the MD method using modified reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential, which treats single crystal graphite and amorphous carbon. Consequently, we clarify that the sputtering yield and the reflection rate calculated by the ACAT-code agree with those on the amorphous carbon calculated by the MD. Moreover, there are many kinds of REBO potential for the MD. Adsorption, reflection and penetration rates between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface are calculated by the MD simulations using the two kinds of potential model. For the incident energy of less than 1 eV, the MD simulation using the modified REBO potential, which is based on Brenner's REBO potential in 2002, shows that reflection is dominant, while the most popular Brenner's REBO potential in 1990 shows that adsorption is dominant. This reflection of the low energy injection is caused by a small potential barrier for the hydrogen atom in the modified REBO potential. The small potential barrier is confirmed by the ab-initio calculations, which are hybrid DFT (B3LYP/cc-pVDZ), ab-initio

  18. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  19. Quantum Ring-Polymer Contraction Method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab-initio molecular dynamics

    John, Chris; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method, which facilitates ab-initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions. This development permits to routinely include nuclear quantum effects in ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations.

  20. Structural transformation between long and short-chain form of liquid sulfur from \\textit{ab initio} molecular dynamics

    Plašienka, Dušan; Martoňák, Roman

    2014-01-01

    We present results of \\textit{ab initio} molecular dynamics study of a structural transformation occurring in hot liquid sulfur under high pressure, which corresponds to the chain-breakage phenomenon recently observed experimentally by Liu \\textit{et al.} [1] and to the electronic transition reported by Brazhkin \\textit{et al.} [2,3]. We performed an extensive \\textit{ab initio} study and confirmed the existence of one transformation separating two distinct liquid polymeric phases: one composed of short chain-like fragments and another one with very long chains. We have not observed additional transformations reported in Refs. [2,3] and in the recent theoretical study by Zhao and Mu [4] and our findings are in agreement with the most recent experiment [1]. We offer a structural description of this liquid-liquid transformation in terms of chain lengths, cross-linking and geometry and investigate several physical properties. We conclude that the transformation is accompanied by changes in configurational energy...

  1. Matching a surface complexation model with ab initio molecular dynamics: montmorillonite case

    Speciation modelling of sorption on mineral-water interfaces is performed with help of surface complexation models (SCM), suitable for diluted suspensions that seem to reach adsorption equilibrium within laboratory times. Electrostatic SCMs need several input parameters even for a relatively simple oxide mineral surface. Moreover, the electrolyte ion adsorption constants in triple layer (TL) or basic Stern (BS) models depend on the inner layer capacitance density Cl, but clear physical understanding of this parameter is missing so far. SCMs can fit acidimetric or metal titration data well at quite different combinations of input parameters, and this fact casts doubt on any interpretation of fitted parameter values in terms of microscopic physicochemical mechanisms. The problem is even deeper in SCMs for clay minerals like montmorillonite having at least two surface types: the edges exposing different (aluminol and silanol) functional groups, and the basal siloxane planes with permanent charge and ion exchange. A feasible way to overcome the caveat of SCMs is seen nowadays in relying on crystallographic data and ab initio calculations to restrict the EDL setup, species stoichiometries, and input parameter values when constructing the adsorption model. The aim of this contribution is to discuss how recent advances in sample surface characterization an d in quantum-chemistry calculations for pyrophyllite can help in putting together a multi-site-surface electrostatic SCM for montmorillonite implemented in GEM approach. The quality of macroscopic model fits is checked against the titration data. (authors)

  2. Atomic Spectral Methods for Ab Initio Molecular Electronic Energy Surfaces: Transitioning From Small-Molecule to Biomolecular-Suitable Approaches.

    Mills, Jeffrey D; Ben-Nun, Michal; Rollin, Kyle; Bromley, Michael W J; Li, Jiabo; Hinde, Robert J; Winstead, Carl L; Sheehy, Jeffrey A; Boatz, Jerry A; Langhoff, Peter W

    2016-08-25

    Continuing attention has addressed incorportation of the electronically dynamical attributes of biomolecules in the largely static first-generation molecular-mechanical force fields commonly employed in molecular-dynamics simulations. We describe here a universal quantum-mechanical approach to calculations of the electronic energy surfaces of both small molecules and large aggregates on a common basis which can include such electronic attributes, and which also seems well-suited to adaptation in ab initio molecular-dynamics applications. In contrast to the more familiar orbital-product-based methodologies employed in traditional small-molecule computational quantum chemistry, the present approach is based on an "ex-post-facto" method in which Hamiltonian matrices are evaluated prior to wave function antisymmetrization, implemented here in the support of a Hilbert space of orthonormal products of many-electron atomic spectral eigenstates familiar from the van der Waals theory of long-range interactions. The general theory in its various forms incorporates the early semiempirical atoms- and diatomics-in-molecules approaches of Moffitt, Ellison, Tully, Kuntz, and others in a comprehensive mathematical setting, and generalizes the developments of Eisenschitz, London, Claverie, and others addressing electron permutation symmetry adaptation issues, completing these early attempts to treat van der Waals and chemical forces on a common basis. Exact expressions are obtained for molecular Hamiltonian matrices and for associated energy eigenvalues as sums of separate atomic and interaction-energy terms, similar in this respect to the forms of classical force fields. The latter representation is seen to also provide a long-missing general definition of the energies of individual atoms and of their interactions within molecules and matter free from subjective additional constraints. A computer code suite is described for calculations of the many-electron atomic eigenspectra and

  3. On the room-temperature phase diagram of high pressure hydrogen: an ab initio molecular dynamics perspective and a diffusion Monte Carlo study.

    Chen, Ji; Ren, Xinguo; Li, Xin-Zheng; Alfè, Dario; Wang, Enge

    2014-07-14

    The finite-temperature phase diagram of hydrogen in the region of phase IV and its neighborhood was studied using the ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) and the ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD). The electronic structures were analyzed using the density-functional theory (DFT), the random-phase approximation, and the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. Taking the state-of-the-art DMC results as benchmark, comparisons of the energy differences between structures generated from the MD and PIMD simulations, with molecular and dissociated hydrogens, respectively, in the weak molecular layers of phase IV, indicate that standard functionals in DFT tend to underestimate the dissociation barrier of the weak molecular layers in this mixed phase. Because of this underestimation, inclusion of the quantum nuclear effects (QNEs) in PIMD using electronic structures generated with these functionals leads to artificially dissociated hydrogen layers in phase IV and an error compensation between the neglect of QNEs and the deficiencies of these functionals in standard ab initio MD simulations exists. This analysis partly rationalizes why earlier ab initio MD simulations complement so well the experimental observations. The temperature and pressure dependencies for the stability of phase IV were also studied in the end and compared with earlier results. PMID:25028021

  4. On the room-temperature phase diagram of high pressure hydrogen: An ab initio molecular dynamics perspective and a diffusion Monte Carlo study

    The finite-temperature phase diagram of hydrogen in the region of phase IV and its neighborhood was studied using the ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) and the ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics (PIMD). The electronic structures were analyzed using the density-functional theory (DFT), the random-phase approximation, and the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) methods. Taking the state-of-the-art DMC results as benchmark, comparisons of the energy differences between structures generated from the MD and PIMD simulations, with molecular and dissociated hydrogens, respectively, in the weak molecular layers of phase IV, indicate that standard functionals in DFT tend to underestimate the dissociation barrier of the weak molecular layers in this mixed phase. Because of this underestimation, inclusion of the quantum nuclear effects (QNEs) in PIMD using electronic structures generated with these functionals leads to artificially dissociated hydrogen layers in phase IV and an error compensation between the neglect of QNEs and the deficiencies of these functionals in standard ab initio MD simulations exists. This analysis partly rationalizes why earlier ab initio MD simulations complement so well the experimental observations. The temperature and pressure dependencies for the stability of phase IV were also studied in the end and compared with earlier results

  5. Stability of nucleic acid base pairs in organic solvents: Molecular dynamics, molecular dynamics/quenching, and correlated ab initio study

    Zendlová, Lucie; Hobza, Pavel; Kabeláč, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 10 (2007), s. 2591-2609. ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512; GA ČR GA203/05/0009; GA ČR(CZ) GD203/05/H001; GA AV ČR KJB400550518 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ab initio calculation * organic solvent * nucleobases * H-bonding * stacking Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.086, year: 2007

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of temperature dependent structure properties of liquid lead–bismuth eutectic alloy

    Song, Chi [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Dongdong [National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xu, Yichun [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Pan, B.C. [National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, C.S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Zhiguang [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Considerable attention has been devoted to liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) alloy due to its potential application as spallation target and coolant in future sub-critical reactors. Whether there exists an abnormal structural change at high temperatures in this liquid alloy is still under debate. In this paper, we perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulation on the structure and dynamics of liquid LBE at different temperatures from 573 to 1173 K. Through the analysis of the pair correlation function, static structure factor, coordination number, atomic bonded pair, excess entropy, and diffusion constant with increasing temperature, we find that these structure-sensitive quantities change gradually with temperature and exhibit linear temperature dependence. No abnormal structural transformations with temperature variation are observed.

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the static, dynamic, and electronic properties of liquid mercury at room temperature.

    Calderín, L; González, L E; González, D J

    2009-05-21

    We report a study on several static, dynamic, and electronic properties of liquid Hg at room temperature. We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations using Kohn-Sham density functional theory combined with a nonlocal ultrasoft pseudopotential. The calculated static structure shows good agreement with the available experimental data. We present results for the single-particle dynamics, and recent experimental data are analyzed. The calculated dynamic structure factors S(q,omega) fairly agree with their experimental counterparts as measured by inelastic x-ray (and neutron) scattering experiments. The dispersion relation exhibits a positive dispersion, which however is not so marked as suggested by the experiment; moreover, its slope at the long-wavelength limit provides a good estimate of the experimental sound velocity. We have also analyzed the dynamical processes behind the S(q,omega) in terms of a model including a relaxation mechanism with both fast and slow characteristic time scales. PMID:19466841

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the properties of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K temperature

    For liquid-sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor systems, it is crucial to understand the behavior of lanthanides and other potential fission products in liquid sodium or other liquid metal solutions such as liquid cesium-sodium. In this study, we focus on lanthanide behavior in liquid sodium. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we found that the solubility of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K was less than 0.78 at. %, and the diffusion coefficient of cerium in liquid sodium was calculated to be 5.57 × 10−9 m2/s. Furthermore, it was found that cerium in small amounts may significantly alter the heat capacity of the liquid sodium system. Our results are consistent with the experimental results for similar materials under similar conditions

  9. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the properties of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K temperature

    Samin, Adib; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsuo [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Mariani, R. D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuels Complex, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    For liquid-sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor systems, it is crucial to understand the behavior of lanthanides and other potential fission products in liquid sodium or other liquid metal solutions such as liquid cesium-sodium. In this study, we focus on lanthanide behavior in liquid sodium. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we found that the solubility of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K was less than 0.78 at. %, and the diffusion coefficient of cerium in liquid sodium was calculated to be 5.57 × 10{sup −9} m{sup 2}/s. Furthermore, it was found that cerium in small amounts may significantly alter the heat capacity of the liquid sodium system. Our results are consistent with the experimental results for similar materials under similar conditions.

  10. Ab initio molecular dynamics study of the properties of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K temperature

    Samin, Adib; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jinsuo; Mariani, R. D.; Unal, Cetin

    2015-12-01

    For liquid-sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor systems, it is crucial to understand the behavior of lanthanides and other potential fission products in liquid sodium or other liquid metal solutions such as liquid cesium-sodium. In this study, we focus on lanthanide behavior in liquid sodium. Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we found that the solubility of cerium in liquid sodium at 1000 K was less than 0.78 at. %, and the diffusion coefficient of cerium in liquid sodium was calculated to be 5.57 × 10-9 m2/s. Furthermore, it was found that cerium in small amounts may significantly alter the heat capacity of the liquid sodium system. Our results are consistent with the experimental results for similar materials under similar conditions.

  11. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for the role of hydrogen in catalytic reactions of furfural on Pd(111)

    Xue, Wenhua; Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Jentoft, Friederike; Resasco, Daniel; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-01

    In the study of catalytic reactions of biomass, furfural conversion over metal catalysts with the presence of hydrogen has attracted wide attention. We report ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for furfural and hydrogen on the Pd(111) surface at finite temperatures. The simulations demonstrate that the presence of hydrogen is important in promoting furfural conversion. In particular, hydrogen molecules dissociate rapidly on the Pd(111) surface. As a result of such dissociation, atomic hydrogen participates in the reactions with furfural. The simulations also provide detailed information about the possible reactions of hydrogen with furfural. Supported by DOE (DE-SC0004600). This research used the supercomputer resources of the XSEDE, the NERSC Center, and the Tandy Supercomputing Center.

  12. Theoretical design of a novel copper doped gold cluster supported on graphene utilizing ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Koizumi, Kenichi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Elements Strategy Initiative for Catalysts and Batteries (ESICB), Kyoto University, Katsura, Kyoto 615-8520 (Japan); Boero, Mauro [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg UMR 7504, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, F-67034 Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations have been used to inspect the adsorption of O{sub 2} to a small gold-copper alloy cluster supported on graphene. The exposed Cu atom in this cluster acts as a crucial attractive site for the approaching of O{sub 2} and consequently widens the reaction channel for the adsorption process. Conversely, a pure Au cluster on the same graphene support is inactive for the O{sub 2} adsorption because the corresponding reaction channel for the adsorption is very narrow. These results clearly indicate that doping a different metal to the Au cluster is a way to enhance the oxygen adsorption and to promote catalytic reactions.

  13. Calculations of reduced partition function ratios of hydrated boric acid molecule by the ab initio molecular orbital theory

    Based on the ab initio molecular orbital theory at the HF/6-31G(d) level, the effect of hydration on the reduced partition function ratio (RPFR) of the boric acid molecule (B(OH)3) was evaluated in order to better understand boron isotope fractionation observed in aqueous systems. The B(OH)3(H2O)n species with n up to 12 were considered and their geometry optimization and RPFR calculations were carried out. It was induced that hydration decreased the RPFR of B(OH)3 and the degree of decrease in ln(RPFR) was ca. 1.5%, which was nearly equivalent to that of B(OH)4-. (author)

  14. On the full exploitation of symmetry in periodic (as well as molecular) self-consistent-field ab initio calculations

    Orlando, Roberto; De La Pierre, Marco; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio M.; Erba, Alessandro; Dovesi, Roberto

    2014-09-01

    Use of symmetry can dramatically reduce the computational cost (running time and memory allocation) of self-consistent-field ab initio calculations for molecular and crystalline systems. Crucial for running time is symmetry exploitation in the evaluation of one- and two-electron integrals, diagonalization of the Fock matrix at selected points in reciprocal space, reconstruction of the density matrix. As regards memory allocation, full square matrices (overlap, Fock, and density) in the Atomic Orbital (AO) basis are avoided and a direct transformation from the packed AO to the symmetry adapted crystalline orbital basis is performed, so that the largest matrix to be handled has the size of the largest sub-block in the latter basis. Quantitative examples, referring to the implementation in the CRYSTAL code, are given for high symmetry families of compounds such as carbon fullerenes and nanotubes.

  15. Argon Interaction with Gold Surfaces: Ab Initio-Assisted Determination of Pair Ar-Au Potentials for Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Grenier, Romain; To, Quy-Dong; de Lara-Castells, María Pilar; Léonard, Céline

    2015-07-01

    Global potentials for the interaction between the Ar atom and gold surfaces are investigated and Ar-Au pair potentials suitable for molecular dynamics simulations are derived. Using a periodic plane-wave representation of the electronic wave function, the nonlocal van-der-Waals vdW-DF2 and vdW-OptB86 approaches have been proved to describe better the interaction. These global interaction potentials have been decomposed to produce pair potentials. Then, the pair potentials have been compared with those derived by combining the dispersionless density functional dlDF for the repulsive part with an effective pairwise dispersion interaction. These repulsive potentials have been obtained from the decomposition of the repulsive interaction between the Ar atom and the Au2 and Au4 clusters and the dispersion coefficients have been evaluated by means of ab initio calculations on the Ar+Au2 complex using symmetry adapted perturbation theory. The pair potentials agree very well with those evaluated through periodic vdW-DF2 calculations. For benchmarking purposes, CCSD(T) calculations have also been performed for the ArAu and Ar+Au2 systems using large basis sets and extrapolations to the complete basis set limit. This work highlights that ab initio calculations using very small surface clusters can be used either as an independent cross-check to compare the performance of state-of-the-art vdW-corrected periodic DFT approaches or, directly, to calculate the pair potentials necessary in further molecular dynamics calculations. PMID:26046588

  16. Cis-trans photoisomerization of azobenzene upon excitation to the S-1 state: An ab initio molecular dynamics and QM/MM study

    Pederzoli, Marek; Pittner, Jiří; Barbatti, M.; Lischka, H.

    Bellingham: SPIE-INT SOC OPTICAL ENGINEERING, 2012 - (Dobisz, E.; Eldada, L.), s. 846318 ISBN 978-0-8194-9180-0. [Conference on Nanoengineering - Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices /9./. San Diego (US), 14.08.2012-16.08.2012] Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : azobenzene * ab initio molecular dynamics * excited states Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  17. On the hierarchical parallelization of ab initio simulations

    Ruiz-Barragan, Sergi; Shiga, Motoyuki

    2016-01-01

    A hierarchical parallelization has been implemented in a new unified code PIMD-SMASH for ab initio simulation where the replicas and the Born-Oppenheimer forces are parallelized. It is demonstrated that ab initio path integral molecular dynamics simulations can be carried out very efficiently for systems up to a few tens of water molecules. The code was then used to study a Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and butenone by ab initio string method. A reduction in the reaction energy barrier is found in the presence of hydrogen-bonded water, in accordance with experiment.

  18. Molecular determinants for drug-receptor interactions. Part 2. An ab initio molecular orbital and dipole moment study of the novel nootropic agent piracetam (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-ylacetamide)

    Lumbroso, H.; Liégeois, C.; Pappalardo, G. C.; Grassi, A.

    From the ab initio molecular energies of the possible conformers and from a classical dipole moment analysis of 2-oxopyrrolidin-l-ylacetamide (μ = 4.02 D in dioxan at 30.0°C), the preferred conformation in solution of this novel nootropic agent has been determined. The exocyclic N-CH 2 bond is rotated in one sense by 90° and the exocyclic CH 2-C bond rotated in the same sense by 120° from the "planar" ( OO)- cis conformation. The structures of the two enantiomers in solution differ from that of the crystalline molecule.

  19. Dissociative chemisorption of methane on metal surfaces: Tests of dynamical assumptions using quantum models and ab initio molecular dynamics

    The dissociative chemisorption of methane on metal surfaces is of great practical and fundamental importance. Not only is it the rate-limiting step in the steam reforming of natural gas, the reaction exhibits interesting mode-selective behavior and a strong dependence on the temperature of the metal. We present a quantum model for this reaction on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces based on the reaction path Hamiltonian. The dissociative sticking probabilities computed using this model agree well with available experimental data with regard to variation with incident energy, substrate temperature, and the vibrational state of the incident molecule. We significantly expand the vibrational basis set relative to earlier studies, which allows reaction probabilities to be calculated for doubly excited initial vibrational states, though it does not lead to appreciable changes in the reaction probabilities for singly excited initial states. Sudden models used to treat the center of mass motion parallel to the surface are compared with results from ab initio molecular dynamics and found to be reasonable. Similar comparisons for molecular rotation suggest that our rotationally adiabatic model is incorrect, and that sudden behavior is closer to reality. Such a model is proposed and tested. A model for predicting mode-selective behavior is tested, with mixed results, though we find it is consistent with experimental studies of normal vs. total (kinetic) energy scaling. Models for energy transfer into lattice vibrations are also examined

  20. Spin orbit coupling for molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations: Application to g-tensors

    Roemelt, Michael, E-mail: michael.roemelt@theochem.rub.de [Lehrstuhl für Theoretische Chemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany and Max-Planck Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2015-07-28

    Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.

  1. Spin orbit coupling for molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations: Application to g-tensors

    Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method

  2. Spin orbit coupling for molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group calculations: Application to g-tensors

    Roemelt, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Spin Orbit Coupling (SOC) is introduced to molecular ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) calculations. In the presented scheme, one first approximates the electronic ground state and a number of excited states of the Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian with the aid of the DMRG algorithm. Owing to the spin-adaptation of the algorithm, the total spin S is a good quantum number for these states. After the non-relativistic DMRG calculation is finished, all magnetic sublevels of the calculated states are constructed explicitly, and the SOC operator is expanded in the resulting basis. To this end, spin orbit coupled energies and wavefunctions are obtained as eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the full Hamiltonian matrix which is composed of the SOC operator matrix and the BO Hamiltonian matrix. This treatment corresponds to a quasi-degenerate perturbation theory approach and can be regarded as the molecular equivalent to atomic Russell-Saunders coupling. For the evaluation of SOC matrix elements, the full Breit-Pauli SOC Hamiltonian is approximated by the widely used spin-orbit mean field operator. This operator allows for an efficient use of the second quantized triplet replacement operators that are readily generated during the non-relativistic DMRG algorithm, together with the Wigner-Eckart theorem. With a set of spin-orbit coupled wavefunctions at hand, the molecular g-tensors are calculated following the scheme proposed by Gerloch and McMeeking. It interprets the effective molecular g-values as the slope of the energy difference between the lowest Kramers pair with respect to the strength of the applied magnetic field. Test calculations on a chemically relevant Mo complex demonstrate the capabilities of the presented method.

  3. A web-deployed interface for performing ab initio molecular dynamics, optimization, and electronic structure in FIREBALL

    Keith, J. Brandon; Fennick, Jacob R.; Junkermeier, Chad E.; Nelson, Daniel R.; Lewis, James P.

    2009-03-01

    FIREBALL is an ab initio technique for fast local orbital simulations of nanotechnological, solid state, and biological systems. We have implemented a convenient interface for new users and software architects in the platform-independent Java language to access FIREBALL's unique and powerful capabilities. The graphical user interface can be run directly from a web server or from within a larger framework such as the Computational Science and Engineering Online (CSE-Online) environment or the Distributed Analysis of Neutron Scattering Experiments (DANSE) framework. We demonstrate its use for high-throughput electronic structure calculations and a multi-100 atom quantum molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Program summaryProgram title: FireballUI Catalogue identifier: AECF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 279 784 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 836 145 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: PC and workstation Operating system: The GUI will run under Windows, Mac and Linux. Executables for Mac and Linux are included in the package. RAM: 512 MB Word size: 32 or 64 bits Classification: 4.14 Nature of problem: The set up and running of many simulations (all of the same type), from the command line, is a slow process. But most research quality codes, including the ab initio tight-binding code FIREBALL, are designed to run from the command line. The desire is to have a method for quickly and efficiently setting up and running a host of simulations. Solution method: We have created a graphical user interface for use with the FIREBALL code. Once the user has created the files containing the atomic coordinates for each system that they are

  4. Vibrational lifetimes of hydrogen on lead films: An ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction (AIMDEF) study

    Saalfrank, Peter [Institut für Chemie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam (Germany); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Juaristi, J. I. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Alducin, M.; Muiño, R. Díez [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Centro de Física de Materiales CFM/MPC (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 5, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Blanco-Rey, M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de Químicas UPV/EHU, Apartado 1072, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain)

    2014-12-21

    Using density functional theory and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Electronic Friction (AIMDEF), we study the adsorption and dissipative vibrational dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on free-standing lead films of increasing thickness. Lead films are known for their oscillatory behaviour of certain properties with increasing thickness, e.g., energy and electron spillout change in discontinuous manner, due to quantum size effects [G. Materzanini, P. Saalfrank, and P. J. D. Lindan, Phys. Rev. B 63, 235405 (2001)]. Here, we demonstrate that oscillatory features arise also for hydrogen when chemisorbed on lead films. Besides stationary properties of the adsorbate, we concentrate on finite vibrational lifetimes of H-surface vibrations. As shown by AIMDEF, the damping via vibration-electron hole pair coupling dominates clearly over the vibration-phonon channel, in particular for high-frequency modes. Vibrational relaxation times are a characteristic function of layer thickness due to the oscillating behaviour of the embedding surface electronic density. Implications derived from AIMDEF for frictional many-atom dynamics, and physisorbed species will also be given.

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of organic electrolytes, electrodes, and lithium ion transport for Li-ion batteries

    Kent, P. R. C.; Ganesh, P.; Jiang, De-En; Borodin, O.

    2012-02-01

    Optimizing the choice of electrolyte in lithium ion batteries and an understanding of the solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is required to optimize the balance between high-energy storage, high rate capability, and lifetime. We perform accurate ab initio molecular-dynamics simulations of common cyclic carbonates and LiPF6 to build solvation models which explain available Neutron and NMR spectroscopies. Our results corroborate why ethylene carbonate is a preferred choice for battery applications over propylene carbonate and how mixtures with dimethyl carbonate improve Li-ion diffusion. We study the role of functionalization of graphite-anode edges on the reducibility of the electrolyte and the ease of Li-ion intercalation at the initial stages of SEI formation. We find that oxygen terminated edges readily act as strong reductive sites, while hydrogen terminated edges are less reactive and allow faster Li diffusion. Orientational ordering of the solvent molecules precedes reduction at the interphase. Inorganic reductive components are seen to readily migrate to the anode edges, leading to increased surface passivation of the anode. We are currently quantifying Li-intercalation barriers across realistic SEI models, and progress along these lines will be presented.

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics investigations of low-energy recoil events in Ni and NiCo

    Low-energy recoil events in pure Ni and the equiatomic NiCo alloy are studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the threshold displacement energies are strongly dependent on orientation and weakly dependent on composition. The minimum threshold displacement energies are along the [1 1 0] direction in both pure Ni and the NiCo alloy. Compared to pure Ni, the threshold displacement energies increase slightly in the NiCo alloy due to the stronger bonds in the alloy, irrespective of the element type of the PKA. A single Ni interstitial occupying the center of a tetrahedron formed by four Ni atoms and a  <1 0 0>  split interstitial is produced in pure Ni by the recoils, while only the  <1 0 0>  split interstitial is formed in the NiCo alloy. Compared to the replacement sequences in pure Ni, anti-site defect sequences are observed in the alloy, which have high efficiency for both producing defects and transporting energy outside of the cascade core. These results provide insights into energy transfer processes occurring in equiatomic alloys under irradiation. (paper)

  7. Proton affinity of the histidine-tryptophan cluster motif from the influenza A virus from ab initio molecular dynamics

    Highlights: • The estimated pKa is in agreement with the experimental one. • The affinity for protons is similar to that of a histidine residue in aqueous solution. • The electrostatic environment is responsible for the stabilization of the charged imidazolium moiety. - Abstract: Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations have been used to compare and contrast the deprotonation reaction of a histidine residue in aqueous solution with the situation arising in a histidine-tryptophan cluster. The latter is used as a model of the proton storage unit present in the pore of the M2 proton conducting ion channel. We compute potentials of mean force for the dissociation of a proton from the Nδ and N∊ positions of the imidazole group to estimate the pKas. Anticipating our results, we will see that the estimated pKa for the first protonation event of the M2 channel is in good agreement with experimental estimates. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the histidine is partially desolvated in the M2 channel, the affinity for protons is similar to that of a histidine in aqueous solution. Importantly, the electrostatic environment provided by the indoles is responsible for the stabilization of the charged imidazolium

  8. Vibrational lifetimes of hydrogen on lead films: An ab initio molecular dynamics with electronic friction (AIMDEF) study

    Using density functional theory and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics with Electronic Friction (AIMDEF), we study the adsorption and dissipative vibrational dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on free-standing lead films of increasing thickness. Lead films are known for their oscillatory behaviour of certain properties with increasing thickness, e.g., energy and electron spillout change in discontinuous manner, due to quantum size effects [G. Materzanini, P. Saalfrank, and P. J. D. Lindan, Phys. Rev. B 63, 235405 (2001)]. Here, we demonstrate that oscillatory features arise also for hydrogen when chemisorbed on lead films. Besides stationary properties of the adsorbate, we concentrate on finite vibrational lifetimes of H-surface vibrations. As shown by AIMDEF, the damping via vibration-electron hole pair coupling dominates clearly over the vibration-phonon channel, in particular for high-frequency modes. Vibrational relaxation times are a characteristic function of layer thickness due to the oscillating behaviour of the embedding surface electronic density. Implications derived from AIMDEF for frictional many-atom dynamics, and physisorbed species will also be given

  9. On the structure of crystalline and molten cryolite: Insights from the ab initio molecular dynamics in NpT ensemble

    Bučko, Tomáš; Šimko, František

    2016-02-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations in isobaric-isothermal ensemble have been performed to study the low- and the high-temperature crystalline and liquid phases of cryolite. The temperature induced transitions from the low-temperature solid (α) to the high-temperature solid phase (β) and from the phase β to the liquid phase have been simulated using a series of MD runs performed at gradually increasing temperature. The structure of crystalline and liquid phases is analysed in detail and our computational approach is shown to reliably reproduce the available experimental data for a wide range of temperatures. Relatively frequent reorientations of the AlF6 octahedra observed in our simulation of the phase β explain the thermal disorder in positions of the F- ions observed in X-ray diffraction experiments. The isolated AlF63-, AlF52-, AlF4-, as well as the bridged Al 2 Fm 6 - m ionic entities have been identified as the main constituents of cryolite melt. In accord with the previous high-temperature NMR and Raman spectroscopic experiments, the compound AlF5 2 - has been shown to be the most abundant Al-containing species formed in the melt. The characteristic vibrational frequencies for the AlFn 3 - n species in realistic environment have been determined and the computed values have been found to be in a good agreement with experiment.

  10. Ab initio calculations of optical properties of silver clusters: cross-over from molecular to nanoscale behavior

    Titantah, John T.; Karttunen, Mikko

    2016-05-01

    Electronic and optical properties of silver clusters were calculated using two different ab initio approaches: (1) based on all-electron full-potential linearized-augmented plane-wave method and (2) local basis function pseudopotential approach. Agreement is found between the two methods for small and intermediate sized clusters for which the former method is limited due to its all-electron formulation. The latter, due to non-periodic boundary conditions, is the more natural approach to simulate small clusters. The effect of cluster size is then explored using the local basis function approach. We find that as the cluster size increases, the electronic structure undergoes a transition from molecular behavior to nanoparticle behavior at a cluster size of 140 atoms (diameter ~1.7 nm). Above this cluster size the step-like electronic structure, evident as several features in the imaginary part of the polarizability of all clusters smaller than Ag147, gives way to a dominant plasmon peak localized at wavelengths 350 nm ≤ λ ≤ 600 nm. It is, thus, at this length-scale that the conduction electrons' collective oscillations that are responsible for plasmonic resonances begin to dominate the opto-electronic properties of silver nanoclusters.

  11. Proton affinity of the histidine-tryptophan cluster motif from the influenza A virus from ab initio molecular dynamics

    Bankura, Arindam; Klein, Michael L.; Carnevale, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.carnevale@temple.edu

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: • The estimated pK{sub a} is in agreement with the experimental one. • The affinity for protons is similar to that of a histidine residue in aqueous solution. • The electrostatic environment is responsible for the stabilization of the charged imidazolium moiety. - Abstract: Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations have been used to compare and contrast the deprotonation reaction of a histidine residue in aqueous solution with the situation arising in a histidine-tryptophan cluster. The latter is used as a model of the proton storage unit present in the pore of the M2 proton conducting ion channel. We compute potentials of mean force for the dissociation of a proton from the Nδ and N∊ positions of the imidazole group to estimate the pK{sub a}s. Anticipating our results, we will see that the estimated pK{sub a} for the first protonation event of the M2 channel is in good agreement with experimental estimates. Surprisingly, despite the fact that the histidine is partially desolvated in the M2 channel, the affinity for protons is similar to that of a histidine in aqueous solution. Importantly, the electrostatic environment provided by the indoles is responsible for the stabilization of the charged imidazolium.

  12. The amorphous silica–liquid water interface studied by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD): local organization in global disorder

    The structural organization of water at a model of amorphous silica–liquid water interface is investigated by ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations at room temperature. The amorphous surface is constructed with isolated, H-bonded vicinal and geminal silanols. In the absence of water, the silanols have orientations that depend on the local surface topology (i.e. presence of concave and convex zones). However, in the presence of liquid water, only the strong inter-silanol H-bonds are maintained, whereas the weaker ones are replaced by H-bonds formed with interfacial water molecules. All silanols are found to act as H-bond donors to water. The vicinal silanols are simultaneously found to be H-bond acceptors from water. The geminal pairs are also characterized by the formation of water H-bonded rings, which could provide special pathways for proton transfer(s) at the interface. The first water layer above the surface is overall rather disordered, with three main domains of orientations of the water molecules. We discuss the similarities and differences in the structural organization of the interfacial water layer at the surface of the amorphous silica and at the surface of the crystalline (0 0 0 1) quartz surface. (paper)

  13. Study on Exploration of Azeotropic Point of Pb-Sb Alloys by Vacuum Distillation and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    Song, Bingyi; Jiang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Baoqiang; Kong, Lingxin; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian

    2016-07-01

    The possibility of the separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was investigated theoretically. The results show that Pb and Sb can be separated by vacuum distillation. However, the experimental results show that vacuum distillation technique does not provide clear separation. According to the literature, Pb-Sb alloys belong to azeotropic compounds under some certain temperature; the experiment and computer simulation were carried out based on the exceptional condition so as to analyze the reason from the experiment and microstructure of Pb-Sb alloys perspective. The separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was experimentally carried out to probe the azeotropic point. Also, the functions, such as partial radial distributions functions, the structure factor, mean square displacement, and the density of state, were calculated by ab-initio molecular dynamics for the representation of the structure and properties of Pb-Sb alloys with different composition of Sb. The experimental results indicate that there exists common volatilization for Pb-Sb alloys when Sb content is 16.5 wt pct. On the other hand, the calculation results show that there is an intense interaction between Pb and Sb when Sb content is 22 wt pct, which supports the experimental results although Sb content is slightly deviation.

  14. Ab initio molecular orbital characterization of dimethyl group-III azides as sources for photolytic production of free radical beams

    Use of a beam of biradicaloid such as dialkyl group-III nitrene produced by the method of photodissociation of energetic compound beams (PDECB) is expected to be advantageous to the low-temperature thin-film growth of stoichiometric group-III nitride. Through the clarification of fundamental processes involved in pyrolysis as well as photolysis of dimethylgallium azide [(CH3)2GaN3], dimethylaluminum azide [(CH3)2AlN3], and dimethylboron azide [(CH3)2BN3] based on post-self-consistent field ab initio molecular orbital methods, we discuss the suitability of these possible source compounds for the production of beams of dimethylgalliumnitrene [(CH3)2GaN], dimethylaluminumnitrene [(CH3)2AlN], and dimethylboronnitrene [(CH3)2BN] by the PDECB method. The theoretical results suggested that (CH3)2GaN3 is a promising PDECB source material in that this molecule possesses the nature of unimolecular metastable dye

  15. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of the atom packing and density of Al-Ni amorphous alloys

    2010-01-01

    Al-Ni alloys have better glass forming ability (GFA) than other Al-based alloys. However, the relationship among the atomic arrangement, glass transition, packing density and composition hasn’t been systematically studied. In this paper the ab initio molecular dynamics simulation (AIMD) was performed on the atom packing and density of AlxNi100-x (x=80, 83, 85, 86, 87 and 90) alloys. The pair correlation function and Voronoi tessellation indicated that there are obvious topological and chemical short-range orders in these alloys. The topological structure consists of Al-centered icosahedra like and Ni-centered tri-capped trigonal prism (TTP) like polyhedra. There is strong chemical short-range ordering between Al and Ni atoms indicated by the bond-length of Al-Ni pair shorter than the sum of the radii of Al and Ni atoms, which increases with the increasing of Ni content. It is shown that the densities of amorphous alloys don’t agree with the linear law with a peak at x=85. Based on the features of the structure and density, it is concluded that Al-Ni alloys at x=84–86 have high GFA, which can be extended to multi-component Al-based alloys.

  16. Efficient "on-the-fly" calculation of Raman spectra from \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics: Application to hydrophobic/hydrophilic solutes in bulk water

    Partovi-Azar, Pouya

    2015-01-01

    We present a computational method to accurately calculate Raman spectra from first principles with an at least one order of magnitude higher efficiency. This scheme thus allows to routinely calculate finite-temperature Raman spectra "on-the-fly" by means of \\textit{ab-initio} molecular dynamics simulations. To demonstrate the predictive power of this approach we investigate the effect of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in water solution on the infrared and Raman spectra.

  17. Ab initio calculations of optical properties of silver clusters: Cross-over from molecular to nanoscale behavior

    Titantah, John T.; Karttunen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Electronic and optical properties of silver clusters were calculated using two different \\textit{ab initio} approaches: 1) based on all-electron full-potential linearized-augmented plane-wave method and 2) local basis function pseudopotential approach. Agreement is found between the two methods for small and intermediate sized clusters for which the former method is limited due to its all-electron formulation. The latter, due to non-periodic boundary conditions, is the more natural approach t...

  18. Ab initio analysis of electron-phonon coupling in molecular devices

    Sergueev, N.; Roubtsov, D.; Guo, Hong

    2005-01-01

    We report first principles analysis of electron-phonon coupling in molecular devices under external bias voltage and during current flow. Our theory and computational framework are based carrying out density functional theory within the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. We analyze which molecular vibrational modes are most relevant to charge transport under nonequilibrium conditions. For a molecular tunnel junction of a 1,4-benzenedithiolate molecule contacted by two leads, t...

  19. Recent achievements in ab initio modelling of liquid water

    Khaliullin, Rustam Z

    2013-01-01

    The application of newly developed first-principle modeling techniques to liquid water deepens our understanding of the microscopic origins of its unusual macroscopic properties and behaviour. Here, we review two novel ab initio computational methods: second-generation Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics and decomposition analysis based on absolutely localized molecular orbitals. We show that these two methods in combination not only enable ab initio molecular dynamics simulations on previously inaccessible time and length scales, but also provide unprecedented insights into the nature of hydrogen bonding between water molecules. We discuss recent applications of these methods to water clusters and bulk water.

  20. High Throughput Ab initio Modeling of Charge Transport for Bio-Molecular-Electronics

    Bruque, Nicolas A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembled nanostructures, composed of inorganic and organic materials, have multiple applications in the fields of engineering and nanotechnology. Experimental research using nanoscaled materials, such as semiconductor/metallic nanocrystals, nanowires (NW), and carbon nanotube (CNT)-molecular systems have potential applications in next generation nano electronic devices. Many of these molecular systems exhibit electronic device functionality. However, experimental analytical techniques t...

  1. An adaptive mass algorithm for Car-Parrinello and Ehrenfest ab initio molecular dynamics

    Kadir, Ashraful; Szepessy, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ehrenfest and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics are computational alternatives to approximate Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics without solving the electron eigenvalue problem at each time-step. A non-trivial issue is to choose the artificial electron mass parameter appearing in the Car-Parrinello method to achieve both good accuracy and high computational efficiency. In this paper, we propose an algorithm, motivated by the Landau-Zener probability, to systematically choose an artificial mass dynamically, which makes the Car-Parrinello and Ehrenfest molecular dynamics methods dependent only on the problem data. Numerical experiments for simple model problems show that the time-dependent adaptive artificial mass parameter improves the efficiency of the Car-Parrinello and Ehrenfest molecular dynamics.

  2. Improving the Precision of Ab Initio Spectra Modeling by Employing Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Benda, Ladislav; Bouř, Petr

    Düsseldorf : Heinrich Heine Universität Düsseldorf, 2014 - (Schmitt, M.). s. 103 [EUCMOS 2014. European Congress on Molecular Spectroscopy /32./. 24.08.2014-29.08.2014, Düsseldorf] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : multi-scale spectra modeling * quantum chemistry * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  3. High throughput ab initio modeling of charge transport for bio-molecular-electronics

    Bruque, Nicolas Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Self-assembled nanostructures, composed of inorganic and organic materials, have multiple applications in the fields of engineering and nanotechnology. Experimental research using nanoscaled materials, such as semiconductor/metallic nanocrystals, nanowires (NW), and carbon nanotube (CNT)-molecular systems have potential applications in next generation nano electronic devices. Many of these molecular systems exhibit electronic device functionality. However, experimental analytical techniques to determine how the chemistry and geometry affects electron transport through these devices does not yet exist. Using theory and modeling, one can approximate the chemistry and geometry at the atomic level and also determine how the chemistry and geometry governs electron current. Nanoelectronic devices however, contain several thousand atoms which makes quantum modeling difficult. Popular atomistic modeling approaches are capable of handling small molecular systems, which are of scientific interest, but have little engineering value. The lack of large scale modeling tools has left the scientific and engineering community with a limited ability to understand, explore, and design complex systems of engineering interest. To address these issues, I have developed a high performance general quantum charge transport model based on the non-equilibrium Green function (NEGF) formalism using density functional theory (DFT) as implemented in the FIREBALL software. FIREBALL is a quantum molecular dynamics code which has demonstrated the ability to model large molecular systems. This dissertation project of integrating NEGF into FIREBALL provides researchers with a modeling tool capable of simulating charge current in large inorganic/organic systems. To provide theoretical support for experimental efforts, this project focused on CNT-molecular systems, which includes the discovery of a CNT-molecular resonant tunneling diode (RTD) for electronic circuit applications. This research also

  4. Electronic Transport Properties of a Naphthopyran-Based Optical Molecular Switch:an ab initio Study

    XIA Cai-Juan; LIU De-Sheng; ZHANG Ying-Tang

    2011-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of a. Naphthopyran-based molecular optical switch are investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's Function formalism combined with first-principles density functional theory. The molecule that comprises the switch can convert between its open and closed forms upon photoexcitation. Theoretical results show that the current through the open form is significantly larger than that through the closed form, which is different from other optical switches based on ring-opening reactions of the molecular bridge. The maximum on-off ratio (about 90) can be obtained at 1.4 V. The physical origin of the switching behavior is interpreted based on the spatial distributions of molecular orbitals and the HOMO-LUMO gap. Our result shows that the naphthopyran-based molecule is a good candidate for optical molecular switches and will be useful in the near future.%@@ ronic transport properties of a naphthopyran-based molecular optical switch are investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism combined with first-principles density functional theory.The molecule that comprises the switch can convert between its open and closed forms upon photoexcitation.Theoretical results show that the current through the open form is significantly larger than that through the closed form,which is different from other optical switches based on ring-opening reactions of the molecular bridge.The maximum on-off ratio(about 90)can be obtained at 1.4 V.The physical origin of the switching behavior is interpreted based on the spatial distributions of molecular orbitals and the HOMO-LUMO gap.Our result shows that the naphthopyran-based molecule is a good candidate for optical molecular switches and will be useful in the near future.

  5. Ab initio non-relativistic spin dynamics

    Ding, Feizhi; Goings, Joshua J.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: xsli@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Frisch, Michael J. [Gaussian, Inc., 340 Quinnipiac St, Bldg 40, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492 (United States)

    2014-12-07

    Many magnetic materials do not conform to the (anti-)ferromagnetic paradigm where all electronic spins are aligned to a global magnetization axis. Unfortunately, most electronic structure methods cannot describe such materials with noncollinear electron spin on account of formally requiring spin alignment. To overcome this limitation, it is necessary to generalize electronic structure methods and allow each electron spin to rotate freely. Here, we report the development of an ab initio time-dependent non-relativistic two-component spinor (TDN2C), which is a generalization of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations. Propagating the TDN2C equations in the time domain allows for the first-principles description of spin dynamics. A numerical tool based on the Hirshfeld partitioning scheme is developed to analyze the time-dependent spin magnetization. In this work, we also introduce the coupling between electron spin and a homogenous magnetic field into the TDN2C framework to simulate the response of the electronic spin degrees of freedom to an external magnetic field. This is illustrated for several model systems, including the spin-frustrated Li{sub 3} molecule. Exact agreement is found between numerical and analytic results for Larmor precession of hydrogen and lithium atoms. The TDN2C method paves the way for the ab initio description of molecular spin transport and spintronics in the time domain.

  6. Ab initio analysis of electron-phonon coupling in molecular devices.

    Sergueev, N; Roubtsov, D; Guo, Hong

    2005-09-30

    We report a first principles analysis of electron-phonon coupling in molecular devices under external bias voltage and during current flow. Our theory and computational framework are based on carrying out density functional theory within the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. Using a molecular tunnel junction of a 1,4-benzenedithiolate molecule contacted by two aluminum leads as an example, we analyze which molecular vibrational modes are most relevant to charge transport under nonequilibrium conditions. We find that the low-lying modes are most important. As a function of bias voltage, the electron-phonon coupling strength can change drastically while the vibrational spectrum changes at a few percent level. PMID:16241682

  7. Mapping Enzymatic Catalysis Using the Effective Fragment Molecular Orbital Method: Towards all ab initio Biochemistry

    Svendsen, Casper Steinmann; Jensen, Jan; Fedorov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    We extend the Effective Fragment Molecular Orbital (EFMO) method to the frozen domain approach where only the geometry of an active part is optimized, while the many-body polarization effects are considered for the whole system. The new approach efficiently mapped out the entire reaction path of ...

  8. Design of two-photon molecular tandem architectures for solar cells by ab initio theory

    Ørnsø, Kristian Baruël; García Lastra, Juan Maria; De La Torre, Gema;

    2015-01-01

    structural and energetic properties of several thousand porphyrin dyes. The third design is a molecular analogy of the intermediate band solar cell, and involves a single dye molecule with strong intersystem crossing to ensure a long lifetime of the intermediate state. Based on the calculated energy levels...

  9. Storing of molecular hydrogen in graphite cell. An ab initio study

    Full text: Weakly-bounded hydrogen bonds are of fundamental importance in structural chemistry and biology, supramolecular chemistry and crystal engineering. Molecular hydrogen (H2) holds a promise of the ideal energy source for production of electricity in transportable devices. Carbon-based materials, such as nano-structured graphite platelets (graphene) or cells are among the most attractive physisorption substrates. A computationally tractable model of graphene is provided by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) such as benzene. The importance of benzene and molecular hydrogen complex as a model system for molecular hydrogen storage in graphite cells as well as the importance of noncovalent interactions in a variety of different systems prompted us to study the H2-π interaction. Adequate quantum-chemical description of H2-PAH interactions require post-Hartree-Fock treatment of electron correlation and of basis set superposition error (BSSE) effects. In a previous study we analyzed the weakly-bounded hydrogen bonds between acetylene and different proton donors as a model of C-H-π interaction. Important BSSE effects have been found due to the long range interaction of electron correlation, especially for the dispersion energy component. Similar effects can be found in case of benzene and molecular hydrogen complex. To treat this effect, we use the well-known a posteriori counterpoise (CP) BSSE correction scheme introduced by Boys and Bernardi. The theoretical values of interaction energies between the benzene ring and the molecular hydrogen as well as the intermolecular distances between them show an important BSSE and basis size effects. (author)

  10. Structure and dynamics of high-pressure Na close to the melting line: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    Marqués, M.; González, D. J.; González, L. E.

    2016-07-01

    The melting curve of sodium for a pressure range up to 100 GPa has been evaluated by the orbital free ab initio molecular dynamics method. This method uses the electronic density as the basic variable combined with an approximate electronic kinetic energy functional and a local ionic pseudopotential and makes it possible to perform simulations with a large number of particles and for long simulation times. The calculated melting curve shows a maximum melting temperature at a pressure around 30 GPa followed by a steep decrease up to 100 GPa. For various pressures and temperatures we have evaluated several static properties, including average and local structure, electronic properties, like the electron localization function (ELF), and dynamic properties, both single-particle and collective ones, from which some transport coefficients are deduced. Despite the accurate reproduction of the available experimental data, we do not observe any indication of an early transition from a bcc-like to an fcc-like liquid, as suggested previously by other authors, but rather pressure-induced change in the variation of icosahedral-like order and bcc-like order, with no sign of fcc-like structures in the whole liquid range studied. We also consider the evolution of the ELF within this type of local arrangement upon pressurization. In the dynamic realm, we find an enlarged wave-vector region where atomic collisions play an important role in the dynamic properties of the system as pressure is increased and temperature decreased along the melting line, leading to a peculiar behavior of the dynamic properties.

  11. Ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation of hydrogen diffusion in $\\alpha$-iron

    Sanchez, J; Fullea García, José; Andrade Perdrix, Maria del Carmen; de Andres, P. L.

    2011-01-01

    First-principles atomistic molecular dynamics simulation in the micro-canonical and canonical ensembles has been used to study the diffusion of interstitial hydrogen in $\\alpha$-iron. Hydrogen to Iron ratios between $\\theta=1/16 and 1/2 have been considered by locating interstitial hydrogen atoms at random positions in a $2 \\times 2 \\times 2$ supercell. We find that the average optimum absorption site and the barrier for diffusion depend on the concentration of interestitials. Iron Debye temp...

  12. Ab initio investigation of molecular hydrogen physisorption on graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Henwood, D; Carey, JD

    2007-01-01

    Density-functional theory is used to investigate hydrogen physisorption on a graphene layer and on single wall carbon nanotubes. Both external and internal adsorption sites of (9, 0) and (10, 0) carbon nanotubes have been studied with the hydrogen molecular axis oriented parallel or perpendicular to the nanotube wall. A range of hydrogen molecule binding sites has been examined and it is found that hydrogen binds weakly to each of the graphitic structures and at all adsorption sites examined....

  13. Determinação da estrutura molecular do ciclooctano por métodos ab initio e difração de elétrons na fase gasosa Molecular structure determination of cyclootane by ab initio and electron diffraction methods in the gas phase

    Wagner B. De Almeida

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the molecular structure of molecules is of fundamental importance in chemistry. X-rays and electron diffraction methods constitute in important tools for the elucidation of the molecular structure of systems in the solid state and gas phase, respectively. The use of quantum mechanical molecular orbital ab initio methods offer an alternative for conformational analysis studies. Comparison between theoretical results and those obtained experimentally in the gas phase can make a significant contribution for an unambiguous determination of the geometrical parameters. In this article the determination of the molecular structure of the cyclooctane molecule by electron diffraction in the gas phase and ab initio calculations will be addressed, providing an example of a comparative analysis of theoretical and experimental predictions.

  14. Derivatization and diffusive motion of molecular fullerenes: Ab initio and atomistic simulations

    Berdiyorov, G., E-mail: gberdiyorov@qf.org.qa; Tabet, N. [Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute (QEERI), Hamad Ben Khalifa University (HBKU), Qatar Foundation, P.O. Box 5825, Doha (Qatar); Harrabi, K. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, 31261 Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Mehmood, U.; Hussein, I. A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, 31261 Dharan (Saudi Arabia); Peeters, F. M. [Departement Fysica, Universiteit Antwerpen, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Zhang, J. [Department of Materials and London Centre for Nanotechnology, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom); McLachlan, M. A. [Department of Materials and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-14

    Using first principles density functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effect of derivatization on the electronic and transport properties of C{sub 60} fullerene. As a typical example, we consider [6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), which forms one of the most efficient organic photovoltaic materials in combination with electron donating polymers. Extra peaks are observed in the density of states (DOS) due to the formation of new electronic states localized at/near the attached molecule. Despite such peculiar behavior in the DOS of an isolated molecule, derivatization does not have a pronounced effect on the electronic transport properties of the fullerene molecular junctions. Both C{sub 60} and PCBM show the same response to finite voltage biasing with new features in the transmission spectrum due to voltage induced delocalization of some electronic states. We also study the diffusive motion of molecular fullerenes in ethanol solvent and inside poly(3-hexylthiophene) lamella using reactive molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the mobility of the fullerene reduces considerably due to derivatization; the diffusion coefficient of C{sub 60} is an order of magnitude larger than the one for PCBM.

  15. Derivatization and diffusive motion of molecular fullerenes: Ab initio and atomistic simulations

    Using first principles density functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism, we study the effect of derivatization on the electronic and transport properties of C60 fullerene. As a typical example, we consider [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), which forms one of the most efficient organic photovoltaic materials in combination with electron donating polymers. Extra peaks are observed in the density of states (DOS) due to the formation of new electronic states localized at/near the attached molecule. Despite such peculiar behavior in the DOS of an isolated molecule, derivatization does not have a pronounced effect on the electronic transport properties of the fullerene molecular junctions. Both C60 and PCBM show the same response to finite voltage biasing with new features in the transmission spectrum due to voltage induced delocalization of some electronic states. We also study the diffusive motion of molecular fullerenes in ethanol solvent and inside poly(3-hexylthiophene) lamella using reactive molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the mobility of the fullerene reduces considerably due to derivatization; the diffusion coefficient of C60 is an order of magnitude larger than the one for PCBM

  16. Ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational spectrum, molecular geometry and some molecular properties of the antidepressant drug sertraline (Zoloft) hydrochloride

    Sagdinc, Seda; Kandemirli, Fatma; Bayari, Sevgi Haman

    2007-02-01

    Sertraline hydrochloride is a highly potent and selective inhibitor of serotonin (5HT). It is a basic compound of pharmaceutical application for antidepressant treatment (brand name: Zoloft). Ab initio and density functional computations of the vibrational (IR) spectrum, the molecular geometry, the atomic charges and polarizabilities were carried out. The infrared spectrum of sertraline is recorded in the solid state. The observed IR wave numbers were analysed in light of the computed vibrational spectrum. On the basis of the comparison between calculated and experimental results and the comparison with related molecules, assignments of fundamental vibrational modes are examined. The X-ray geometry and experimental frequencies are compared with the results of our theoretical calculations.

  17. Ab initio Calculation of Dipole Moments and Transition Dipole Moments of HCl+ and HBr+ Molecular Ions

    Gurin, Valerij S

    2014-01-01

    Electronic structure of HCl+ and HBr+ molecular ions is calculated using the symmetry-adapted-cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) method. In this paper, we analyse dipole moments (DM) for a series of low-lying six 2Pi-states and transition dipole moments (TDM for transitions from the ground state X2Pi to the excited 2Pi-series. Behavior of DMs with change of interatomic distances is different for these ions for the excited 2Pi-states in correspondence with different dissociation paths. TDMs reveal the pronounced maxima at the beginning steps of dissociation.

  18. Infrared Spectroscopy of N-Methylacetamide Revisited by ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Gaigeot, M P; Vuilleumier, R; Sprik, M; Borgis, D

    2005-09-01

    The density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulation method ("Car-Parrinello") was applied in a numerical study of the electronic properties, hydrogen bonding, and infrared spectroscopy of the trans and cis isomer of N-methylacetamide in aqueous solution. A detailed analysis of the electronic structure of the solvated molecules, in terms of localized Wannier functions and Born atomic charges, is presented. Two schemes for the computation of the solute infrared absorption spectrum are investigated:  In the first method the spectrum is determined by Fourier transforming the time correlation function of the solute dipole as determined from the Wannier function analysis. The second method uses instead the molecular current-current correlation function computed from the Born charges and atomic velocities. The resulting spectral properties of trans- and cis-NMA are carefully compared to each other and to experimental results. We find that the two solvated isomers can be clearly distinguished by their infrared spectral profile in the 1000-2000 cm(-)(1) range. PMID:26641894

  19. Perovskite Quantum Dots Modeled Using ab Initio and Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics

    Buin, Andrei

    2015-06-18

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Organometal halide perovskites have recently attracted tremendous attention at both the experimental and theoretical levels. Much of this work has been dedicated to bulk material studies, yet recent experimental work has shown the formation of highly efficient quantum-confined nanocrystals with tunable band edges. Here we investigate perovskite quantum dots from theory, predicting an upper bound of the Bohr radius of 45 Å that agrees well with literature values. When the quantum dots are stoichiometric, they are trap-free and have nearly symmetric contributions to confinement from the valence and conduction bands. We further show that surface-associated conduction bandedge states in perovskite nanocrystals lie below the bulk states, which could explain the difference in Urbach tails between mesoporous and planar perovskite films. In addition to conventional molecular dynamics (MD), we implement an enhanced phase-space sampling algorithm, replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD). We find that in simulation of methylammonium orientation and global minima, REMD outperforms conventional MD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first REMD implementation for realistic-sized systems in the realm of DFT calculations.

  20. Structure of the glass-forming metallic liquids by ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics, a case study: Quenching the Cu60Ti20Zr20 alloy

    We consider the question of the amorphization of metallic alloys by melt quenching, as predicted by molecular dynamics simulations with semi-empirical potentials. The parametrization of the potentials is discussed on the example of the ternary Cu-Ti-Zr transition metals alloy, using the ab-initio simulation as a reference. The pair structure in the amorphous state is computed from a potential of the Stillinger-Weber form. The transferability of the parameters during the quench is investigated using two parametrizations: from solid state data, as usual and from a new parametrization on the liquid structure. When the adjustment is made on the pair structure of the liquid, a satisfactory transferability is found between the pure components and their alloys. The liquid structure predicted in this way agrees well with experiment, in contrast with the one obtained using the adjustment on the solid. The final structure, after quenches down to the amorphous state, determined with the new set of parameters is shown to be very close to the ab-initio one, the latter being in excellent agreement with recent X-rays diffraction experiments. The corresponding critical temperature of the glass transition is estimated from the behavior of the heat capacity. Discussion on the consistency between the structures predicted using semi-empirical potentials and ab-initio simulation, and comparison of different experimental data underlines the question of the dependence of the final structure on the thermodynamic path followed to reach the amorphous state

  1. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling’s iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step

  2. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost, E-mail: Joost.VandeVondele@mat.ethz.ch [Nanoscale Simulations, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-06-28

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling’s iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.

  3. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations.

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-28

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step. PMID:26133420

  4. A prototypical ionic liquid explored by ab initio molecular dynamics and Raman spectroscopy

    Bodo, E.; Sferrazza, A.; Caminiti, R.; Mangialardo, S.; Postorino, P.

    2013-10-01

    We present an analysis of the liquid and of a small isolated cluster of n-ethyl ammonium nitrate based on "first principles" molecular dynamics. We discover that the peculiar properties of ionic liquids make such compounds ideal candidates for such an analysis. We have been able to characterize some important features of the liquid structure and we have validated our simulations by comparing our findings with experimental vibrational spectra of the liquid phase. Theoretical spectra, which present a remarkable agreement with the measurements, besides the assignment of the main spectra features, allow an interpretation of the spectra at high frequencies where the vibrational motions involve the hydrogen-bonded atoms, thus providing a picture of the hydrogen bonding network that exists in such compounds.

  5. Sound velocity in shock compressed molybdenum obtained by ab initio molecular dynamics

    Lukinov, Tymofiy; Belonoshko, Anatoly; Simak, Sergey

    The sound velocity of Mo along the Hugoniot adiabat is calculated from first principles using density-functional theory based molecular dynamics. These data are compared to the sound velocity as measured in recent experiments. The theoretical and experimental Hugoniot and sound velocities are in very good agreement up to pressures of 210 GPa and temperatures of 3700 K on the Hugoniot. However, above that point the experiment and theory diverge. This implies that Mo undergoes a phase transition at about the same point. Considering that the melting point of Mo is likely much higher at that pressure, the related change in the sound velocity in experiment can be ascribed to a solid-solid transition.

  6. Hydration and translocation of an excess proton in water clusters: An ab initio molecular dynamics study

    Arindam Bankura; Amalendu Chandra

    2005-10-01

    The hydration structure and translocation of an excess proton in hydrogen bonded water clusters of two different sizes are investigated by means of finite temperature quantum simulations. The simulations are performed by employing the method of Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics where the forces on the nuclei are obtained directly from `on the fly' quantum electronic structure calculations. Since no predefined interaction potentials are used in this scheme, it is ideally suited to study proton translocation processes which proceed through breaking and formation of chemical bonds. The coordination number of the hydrated proton and the index of oxygen to which the excess proton is attached are calculated along the simulation trajectories for both the clusters.

  7. Efficient preconditioning of the electronic structure problem in large scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Schiffmann, Florian; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-06-01

    We present an improved preconditioning scheme for electronic structure calculations based on the orbital transformation method. First, a preconditioner is developed which includes information from the full Kohn-Sham matrix but avoids computationally demanding diagonalisation steps in its construction. This reduces the computational cost of its construction, eliminating a bottleneck in large scale simulations, while maintaining rapid convergence. In addition, a modified form of Hotelling's iterative inversion is introduced to replace the exact inversion of the preconditioner matrix. This method is highly effective during molecular dynamics (MD), as the solution obtained in earlier MD steps is a suitable initial guess. Filtering small elements during sparse matrix multiplication leads to linear scaling inversion, while retaining robustness, already for relatively small systems. For system sizes ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand atoms, which are typical for many practical applications, the improvements to the algorithm lead to a 2-5 fold speedup per MD step.

  8. Non-equilibrium dynamics in disordered materials: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    The dynamic properties of liquid B2O3 under pressure and highly-charged bromophenol molecule are studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on density functional theory (DFT). Diffusion properties of covalent liquids under high pressure are very interesting in the sense that they show unexpected pressure dependence. It is found from our simulation that the magnitude relation of diffusion coefficients for boron and oxygen in liquid B2O3 shows the anomalous pressure dependence. The simulation clarified the microscopic origin of the anomalous diffusion properties. Our simulation also reveals the dissociation mechanism in the coulomb explosion of the highly-charged bromophenol molecule. When the charge state n is 6, hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl group dissociates at times shorter than 20 fs while all hydrogen atoms dissociate when n is 8. After the hydrogen dissociation, the carbon ring breaks at about 100 fs. There is also a difference on the mechanism of the ring breaking depending on charge states, in which the ring breaks with expanding (n = 6) or shrink (n = 8)

  9. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Study of Aqueous Solvation of Ethanol and Ethylene

    Van Erp, T S; Erp, Titus S. van; Meijer, Evert Jan

    2002-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of aqueous solvation of ethanol and ethylene are studied by DFT-based Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics. We did not find an enhancement of the structure of the hydrogen bonded network of hydrating water molecules. Both ethanol and ethylene can easily be accommodated in the hydrogen-bonded network of water molecules without altering its structure. This is supports the conclusion from recent neutron diffraction experiments that there is no hydrophobic hydration around small hydrophobic groups. Analysis of the electronic charge distribution using Wannier functions shows that the dipole moment of ethanol increases from 1.8 D to 3.1 D upon solvation, while the apolar ethylene molecule attains an average dipole moment of 0.5 D. For ethylene, we identified configurations with $\\pi$-H bonded water molecules, that have rare four-fold hydrogen-bonded water coordination, yielding instantaneous dipole moments of ethylene of up to 1 D. The results provide valuable information for the improvement...

  10. Non-equilibrium dynamics in disordered materials: Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations

    Ohmura, Satoshi; Nagaya, Kiyonobu; Yao, Makoto [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Shimojo, Fuyuki [Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    The dynamic properties of liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} under pressure and highly-charged bromophenol molecule are studied by using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on density functional theory (DFT). Diffusion properties of covalent liquids under high pressure are very interesting in the sense that they show unexpected pressure dependence. It is found from our simulation that the magnitude relation of diffusion coefficients for boron and oxygen in liquid B{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows the anomalous pressure dependence. The simulation clarified the microscopic origin of the anomalous diffusion properties. Our simulation also reveals the dissociation mechanism in the coulomb explosion of the highly-charged bromophenol molecule. When the charge state n is 6, hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl group dissociates at times shorter than 20 fs while all hydrogen atoms dissociate when n is 8. After the hydrogen dissociation, the carbon ring breaks at about 100 fs. There is also a difference on the mechanism of the ring breaking depending on charge states, in which the ring breaks with expanding (n = 6) or shrink (n = 8)

  11. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    Martinez, Todd

    Traditional approaches for modeling chemical reaction networks such as those involved in combustion have focused on identifying individual reactions and using theoretical approaches to explore the underlying mechanisms. Recent advances involving graphical processing units (GPUs), commodity products developed for the videogaming industry, have made it possible to consider a distinct approach wherein one attempts to discover chemical reactions and mechanisms. We provide a brief summary of these developments and then discuss the concept behind the ``ab initio nanoreactor'' which explores the space of possible chemical reactions and molecular species for a given stoichiometry. The nanoreactor concept is exemplified with an example to the Urey-Miller reaction network which has been previously advanced as a potential model for prebiotic chemistry. We briefly discuss some of the future directions envisioned for the development of this nanoreactor concept.

  12. Ab Initio Studies of Stratospheric Ozone Depletion Chemistry

    Lee, Timothy J.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    An overview of the current understanding of ozone depletion chemistry, particularly with regards the formation of the so-called Antarctic ozone hole, will be presented together with an outline as to how ab initio quantum chemistry can be used to further our understanding of stratospheric chemistry. The ability of modern state-of-the art ab initio quantum chemical techniques to characterize reliably the gas-phase molecular structure, vibrational spectrum, electronic spectrum, and thermal stability of fluorine, chlorine, bromine and nitrogen oxide species will be demonstrated by presentation of some example studies. The ab initio results will be shown to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data, and where the experimental data are either not known or are inconclusive, the theoretical results are shown to fill in the gaps and to resolve experimental controversies. In addition, ab initio studies in which the electronic spectra and the characterization of excited electronic states of halogen oxide species will also be presented. Again where available, the ab initio results are compared to experimental observations, and are used to aid in the interpretation of experimental studies.

  13. Structure and Dynamics of the Instantaneous Water/Vapor Interface Revisited by Path-Integral and Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Kessler, Jan; Spura, Thomas; Karhan, Kristof; Partovi-Azar, Pouya; Hassanali, Ali A; Kühne, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of the water/vapor interface is revisited by means of path-integral and second-generation Car-Parrinello ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with an instantaneous surface definition [A. P. Willard and D. Chandler, J. Phys. Chem. B 114, 1954 (2010)]. In agreement with previous studies, we find that one of the OH bonds of the water molecules in the topmost layer is pointing out of the water into the vapor phase, while the orientation of the underlying layer is reversed. Therebetween, an additional water layer is detected, where the molecules are aligned parallel to the instantaneous water surface.

  14. Mechanism of Spectral Tuning Going from Retinal in Vacuo to Bovine Rhodopsin and its Mutants: Multireference ab initio Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Studies

    Altun, Ahmet; Yokoyama, Shozo; Morokuma, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated photoabsorption spectra of bovine rhodopsin and its mutants (E122Q and E113Q) by hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations as well as retinal in vacuo by pure QM calculations, employing multireference (MR) ab initio and TD-B3LYP methods. The sophisticated MR-SORCI+Q and MRCISD+Q methods extrapolated with respect to adopted approximations can reproduce the experimental absorption maxima of retinal very well. The relatively inexpensive MR-DDCI2+Q m...

  15. Exploring the Nature of the H[subscript 2] Bond. 2. Using Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Calculations to Obtain the Molecular Constants

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2013-01-01

    A project for students in an upper-level course in quantum or computational chemistry is described in which they are introduced to the concepts and applications of a high quality, ab initio treatment of the ground-state potential energy curve (PEC) for H[subscript 2] and D[subscript 2]. Using a commercial computational chemistry application and a…

  16. Ab initio two-component Ehrenfest dynamics

    We present an ab initio two-component Ehrenfest-based mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method to describe the effect of nuclear motion on the electron spin dynamics (and vice versa) in molecular systems. The two-component time-dependent non-collinear density functional theory is used for the propagation of spin-polarized electrons while the nuclei are treated classically. We use a three-time-step algorithm for the numerical integration of the coupled equations of motion, namely, the velocity Verlet for nuclear motion, the nuclear-position-dependent midpoint Fock update, and the modified midpoint and unitary transformation method for electronic propagation. As a test case, the method is applied to the dissociation of H2 and O2. In contrast to conventional Ehrenfest dynamics, this two-component approach provides a first principles description of the dynamics of non-collinear (e.g., spin-frustrated) magnetic materials, as well as the proper description of spin-state crossover, spin-rotation, and spin-flip dynamics by relaxing the constraint on spin configuration. This method also holds potential for applications to spin transport in molecular or even nanoscale magnetic devices

  17. Hydroxyl-functionalized 1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium ionic liquids: thermodynamic and structural properties using molecular dynamics simulations and ab initio calculations.

    Fakhraee, Mostafa; Zandkarimi, Borna; Salari, Hadi; Gholami, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-11

    The influences of hydroxyl functional group (-OH) on the thermodynamic and structural properties of ionic liquids (ILs) composed of 1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-3-methyl imidazolium ([C2OHmim](+)) cation and the six different conventional anions, including [Cl](-), [NO3](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [TfO](-), and [Tf2N](-) have been extensively investigated using classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations combined with ab initio calculations over a wide range of temperature (298-550 K). The volumetric thermodynamic properties, enthalpy of vaporization, cohesive energy density, Hildebrand solubility parameter, and heat capacity at constant pressure were estimated at desired temperature. The simulated densities were in good agreement with the experimental data with a slight overestimation. The interionic interaction of selected ILs was also computed using both the MD simulations and ab initio calculations. It was found that the highest association of cation and anion is attributed to [C2OHmim][Cl] followed by [C2OHmim][NO3], and [C2OHmim][Tf2N] with the bulkiest anion has the weakest interionic interaction among chosen ILs. The similar trend of interactions energies was nearly observed from cohesive energy density results. Additional structural details were comprehensively yielded by calculating radial distribution functions (RDFs) and spatial distribution function (SDFs) at 358 K. The most stable configurations of isolated and dimer ion pairs of these ILs were in excellent consistency with RDFs and SDFs results. Significant changes in arrangement of anions around the [C2OHmim](+) cation in comparison with conventional imidazolium-based ILs can be inferred from the MD simulations and ab initio results. Also, microscopic structural properties disclosed that the most strong cation-cation interaction is ascribed to the hydroxyl-functionalized ILs composed of bulkier anions, whereas ILs incorporating [Cl](-) and [NO3](-) anions are mainly involved in cation-anion interactions. The

  18. Hydration structure and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in water clusters of varying size and temperature: Quantum chemical and ab initio molecular dynamics studies

    Highlights: ► A theoretical study of hydroxide ion-water clusters is carried for varying cluster size and temperature. ► The structures of OH−(H2O)n are found out through quantum chemical calculations for n = 4, 8, 16 and 20. ► The finite temperature behavior of the clusters is studied through ab initio dynamical simulations. ► The spectral features of OH modes (deuterated) and their dependence on hydrogen bonding states of water are discussed. ► The mechanism and kinetics of proton transfer processes in these anionic clusters are also investigated. - Abstract: We have investigated the hydration structure and dynamics of OH−(H2O)n clusters (n = 4, 8, 16 and 20) by means of quantum chemical and ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that the solvation structure of the hydroxide ion transforms from three and four-coordinated surface states to five-coordinated interior state with increase in cluster size. Several other isomeric structures with energies not very different from the most stable isomer are also found. Ab initio simulations show that the most probable configurations at higher temperatures need not be the lowest energy isomeric structure. The rates of proton transfer in these clusters are found to be slower than that in bulk water. The vibrational spectral calculations reveal distinct features for free OH (deuterated) stretch modes of water in different hydrogen bonding states. Effects of temperature on the structural and dynamical properties are also investigated for the largest cluster considered here.

  19. Structural Properties of Liquid Water and Ice Ih from Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics with a Non-Local Correlation Functional

    Niall J. English

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Equilibrium Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in the canonical ensemble to investigate the structural properties of liquid water and ice Ih (hexagonal ice at 298 and 273 K, respectively, using a state-of-the-art non-local correlation functional, whilst size effects have been examined explicitly in the case of liquid water. This has led to improved agreement with experiments for pair distribution functions, in addition to molecular dipole moments, vis-à-vis previous flavours of ab-initio molecular dynamics simulation of water, highlighting the importance of appropriate dispersion. Intramolecular geometry has also been examined, in addition to hydrogen-bonding interactions; it was found that an improved description of dispersion via non-local correlation helps to reduce over-structuring associated with the Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof (PBE and other commonly-used functionals.

  20. Neutron diffraction at 15 and 120 K and ab initio molecular-orbital studies of the molecular structure of 1,2,4-triazole

    The crystal structure of 1,2,4-triazole, C2H3N3, has been refined using single-crystal neutron diffraction data [lambda = 1.0470(1) A] measured at 15 and 120 K. The crystal data at 15 K [120 K] are Msub(r) = 69.07; Pbca; Z = 8; a = 9.748(2) [9.760(2)], b = 9.331(2) [9.345(2)], c = 6.927(2) [6.989(2)] A; Dsub(n) = 1.456 [1.439] g cm-3. The final agreement factors are R(F) = 0.039 [0.055], wR(F2) = 0.050 [0.054], S = 1.309 [1.114] for 1249 [1258] observations. The molecule is very close to planar, with the ring atoms deviating from their least-squares plane by less than 0.0015(6) A. The H atoms deviate from this plane by less than 0.061(2) A. Thermal-motion corrections based on rigid-body and segmented-body analyses resulted in differences of less than 0.005 A in the corrected bond lengths from the two refinements. Ab initio molecular orbital calculations were carried out at the Hartree-Fock (HF) 3-21G level, using GAUSSIAN83 to optimize the geometry of the isolated molecule for minimum energy. There are differences between the thermally corrected experimental and calculated bond lengths for the ring bonds of between 0.010 and 0.030 A. These differences are largely accounted for by estimations of corrections for approximation in the theoretical calculations based on higher-order calculations on simpler molecules. The agreement between the observed and theoretical C-H and N-H bond lengths is improved when an empirical anharmonic stretching correction is applied. Ab initio calculations, at the HF/STO-3G level, were carried out on formaldehyde hydrazone and formaldehyde hydrazone dimer to predict the effects of hydrogen bonding. (Auth.)

  1. Speciation and thermodynamic properties of zinc in sulfur-rich hydrothermal fluids: Insights from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Mei, Yuan; Etschmann, Barbara; Liu, Weihua; Sherman, David M.; Testemale, Denis; Brugger, Joël

    2016-04-01

    Chlorine and sulfur are the main elements involved in the complexing of metals in ore-forming fluids. The nature and thermodynamic properties of the Zn(II)-Cl complexes have been investigated by previous experimental and theoretical studies and are now well established up to high temperatures (600 °C). In contrast, the role of bisulfide complexes for zinc speciation in sulfur-bearing fluids remains poorly known, and a better understanding of Zn(II)-HS complexation is required for modeling zinc transport in magmatic and metamorphic fluids and for optimizing the hydrometallurgical processing of sulfide ores. We have conducted ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to calculate the speciation of Zn(II)-HS complexes from ambient to hydrothermal-magmatic conditions (25-600 °C, up to 2000 bar). These theoretical calculations were complemented by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements of Zn(II) in HS--rich solutions at 200-500 °C and 600-1000 bar. The speciation and geometrical properties predicted by the ab initio MD simulations and the in situ XAS data are in excellent agreement. Upon heating from room temperature to 250 °C, Zn(II) speciation in HS--rich solutions shows a transition from the sixfold octahedral hexaaquo complex [Zn(H2O)6]2+ to fourfold tetrahedral [Zn(HS)n(H2O)4-n]2-n complexes (n = 1-4). Ab initio MD simulations also show that at temperatures > 250 °C, the threefold trigonal-planar [Zn(HS)3]- complex becomes increasingly stable, and predominates in S-rich solutions; in contrast, chloro-complexes display a tetrahedral geometry at 25-500 °C, while trigonal planar ZnCl3- predominates at temperatures > 500 °C. The stability constants of Zn(II)-HS complexes were calculated by thermodynamic integration of constrained ab initio MD simulations at 200, 350 and 600 °C. The stability constants generated from this study predict that zinc can be transported by HS- at high temperature in reduced, neutral to alkaline solutions, while Zn

  2. Pharmacological Classification and Activity Evaluation of Furan and Thiophene Amide Derivatives Applying Semi-Empirical ab initio Molecular Modeling Methods

    Leszek Bober

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological and physicochemical classification of the furan and thiophene amide derivatives by multiple regression analysis and partial least square (PLS based on semi-empirical ab initio molecular modeling studies and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC retention data is proposed. Structural parameters obtained from the PCM (Polarizable Continuum Model method and the literature values of biological activity (antiproliferative for the A431 cells expressed as LD50 of the examined furan and thiophene derivatives was used to search for relationships. It was tested how variable molecular modeling conditions considered together, with or without HPLC retention data, allow evaluation of the structural recognition of furan and thiophene derivatives with respect to their pharmacological properties.

  3. Emission spectra of p-Si and p-Si:H models generated by ab initio molecular dynamics methods

    Loustau, E R L

    2011-01-01

    We created 4 p-Si models and 4 p-Si:H models all with 50% porosity. The models contain 32, 108, 256 and 500 silicon atoms with a pore parallel to one of the simulational cell axes and a regular cross-section. We obtained the densities of states of our models by means of ab initio computational methods. We wrote a code to simulate the emission spectra of our structures considering particular excitations an decay conditions. After comparing the simulated spectra with the experimental results, we observe that the position of the maximum of the emission spectra might be related with the size of the silicon backbone for the p-Si models as the quantum confinement models say and with the hydrogen concentration for the p-Si:H structures. We conclude that the quantum confinement model can be used to explain the emission of the p-Si structures but, in the case of the p-Si:H models it is necessary to consider others theories.

  4. Energetics and structure in solvent: A dielectric continuum model of solvation combined with molecular mechanics, Ab Initio, and Semi-empirical molecular orbital treatments of the solute

    We present a method for computing the electrostatic component of the solvation free energy, ΔGel, of a solute molecule in the presence of solvent modeled as a dielectric continuum. The method is based on an integral form of Poisson's equation which is solved to obtain a distribution of induced polarization charge at the solute-solvent dielectric interface. The solution of Poisson's equation is obtained by application of a boundary element procedure. The method is tested by comparing its predictions of ΔGel to exact values for several model problems. The method is then used in a variety of contexts to assess its qualitative prediction ability. It is first combined with a molecular mechanics treatment of the solute to evaluate the effects of aqueous solvent on the conformational equilibria of several small molecules of interest-these are N-methyl acetamide and alanine dipeptide. For both molecules dielectric continuum solvation predicts torsional free energies of solvation that are in accord with other more complete treatments of solvation. The method is then combined with ab initio and semi-empirical molecular orbital theory for the solute. Self consistent reaction field calculations (SCRF) are performed to evaluate the correlation is in general very good. Relative agreement with experiment is best for ions where electrostatics predominate and worst for non-polar neutral molecules were electrostatics are minor. Semi-empirical configuration interaction SCRF calculations are also performed in the presence of solvent in order to determine ground-to-excited state absorption energy shifts for formaldehyde and indole mine ground-to-excited state absorption energy shifts for formaldehyde and indole when placed in water. We find a rough correlation between transition energy shifts and the dipole moments of the initial and final states involved in the transition

  5. Discovering chemistry with an ab initio nanoreactor

    Wang, Lee-Ping; Titov, Alexey; McGibbon, Robert; Liu, Fang; Pande, Vijay S.; Martínez, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Chemical understanding is driven by the experimental discovery of new compounds and reactivity, and is supported by theory and computation that provides detailed physical insight. While theoretical and computational studies have generally focused on specific processes or mechanistic hypotheses, recent methodological and computational advances harken the advent of their principal role in discovery. Here we report the development and application of the ab initio nanoreactor – a highly accelerat...

  6. Ab initio vel ex eventu. II

    Thiessen, P. A.; Treder, H.-J.

    Jedes initium wird durch experimenta crucis zum eventus. Jedes theoretisch interpretierbare ex-eventu-Resultat führt auf ein neues Initium. Gerade dies ist die gemeinsame Aussage von Atomistik, Quantenmechanik und Relativitätstheorie.Translated AbstractAb initio vel ex eventu. IIEvery initium becomes an eventus by experimenta crucis. Every theoretically interpretable ex-eventu result leads to a new initium. Right this is the joint assertion of atomism, quantum mechanics, and relativity.

  7. Highly scalable Ab initio genomic motif identification

    Marchand, Benoît

    2011-01-01

    We present results of scaling an ab initio motif family identification system, Dragon Motif Finder (DMF), to 65,536 processor cores of IBM Blue Gene/P. DMF seeks groups of mutually similar polynucleotide patterns within a set of genomic sequences and builds various motif families from them. Such information is of relevance to many problems in life sciences. Prior attempts to scale such ab initio motif-finding algorithms achieved limited success. We solve the scalability issues using a combination of mixed-mode MPI-OpenMP parallel programming, master-slave work assignment, multi-level workload distribution, multi-level MPI collectives, and serial optimizations. While the scalability of our algorithm was excellent (94% parallel efficiency on 65,536 cores relative to 256 cores on a modest-size problem), the final speedup with respect to the original serial code exceeded 250,000 when serial optimizations are included. This enabled us to carry out many large-scale ab initio motiffinding simulations in a few hours while the original serial code would have needed decades of execution time. Copyright 2011 ACM.

  8. Ab initio molecular dynamics determination of competitive O2vs. N2 adsorption at open metal sites of M2(dobdc).

    Parkes, Marie V; Greathouse, Jeffery A; Hart, David B; Sava Gallis, Dorina F; Nenoff, Tina M

    2016-04-20

    The separation of oxygen from nitrogen using metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is of great interest for potential pressure-swing adsorption processes for the generation of purified O2 on industrial scales. This study uses ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations to examine for the first time the pure-gas and competitive gas adsorption of O2 and N2 in the M2(dobdc) (M = Cr, Mn, Fe) MOF series with coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. Effects of metal, temperature, and gas composition are explored. This unique application of AIMD allows us to study in detail the adsorption/desorption processes and to visualize the process of multiple guests competitively binding to coordinatively unsaturated metal sites of a MOF. PMID:27063148

  9. Simulation of NEXAFS spectra of a photo-reactive copolymer with considerably large monomer units: An ab initio molecular orbital study

    We performed the simulation of near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectra of a photo-reactive copolymer with considerably large monomer units by ab initio molecular orbital calculation, in order to explain the spectral change induced by irradiation of the linearly polarized near ultra-violet (LPNUV) light. The 'building block approach' is applied for the theoretical calculation to calculate the core-excited states of the polymer with such large monomer units; the monomer unit is divided into subunits, whose core-excited states are calculated individually, and the results are summed up to simulate the spectra of the polymer. With the result of the simulation, the peaks in the observed spectra were assigned. The spectral change after the LPNUV-irradiation is attributed to the change in the electronic structure caused by the breakdown of the π-conjugation system of chalconyl group after photo-dimerization

  10. Atomic packing and diffusion in Fe85Si2B9P4 amorphous alloy analyzed by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation

    In the work reported in this paper, ab initio molecular dynamics simulation was performed on Fe85Si2B9P4 amorphous alloy. Preferred atomic environment of the elements was analyzed with Voronoi polyhedrons. It showed that B and P atoms prefer less neighbors compared with Fe and Si, making them structurally incompatible with Fe rich structure and repulsive to the formation of α-Fe. However, due to the low bonding energy of B and P caused by low coordination number, the diffusion rates of them were considerably large, resulting in the requirement of fast annealing for achieving optimum nano-crystallization for its soft magnetic property. The simulation work also indicates that diffusion rate in amorphous alloy is largely determined by bonding energy rather than atomic size

  11. Molexpl: a tool for ab initio data exploration and visualization

    Wang, Xueying; Onofrio, Nicolas,; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) based on ab initio theory, is a powerful method to resolve the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids. However, in practical, DFT is limited to few hundreds of atoms. To overcome this limitation, researchers have developed empirical interatomic potentials implemented in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. MD ignores the movements of electrons and describes bonding and non-bonding interaction as a function of the distance between atoms called force...

  12. Communication: Energy-dependent resonance broadening in symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions from an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function approach

    The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals

  13. Communication: Energy-dependent resonance broadening in symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions from an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function approach

    Liu, Zhen-Fei [Molecular Foundry and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neaton, Jeffrey B. [Molecular Foundry and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    The electronic structure of organic-inorganic interfaces often features resonances originating from discrete molecular orbitals coupled to continuum lead states. An example is molecular junction, individual molecules bridging electrodes, where the shape and peak energy of such resonances dictate junction conductance, thermopower, I-V characteristics, and related transport properties. In molecular junctions where off-resonance coherent tunneling dominates transport, resonance peaks in the transmission function are often assumed to be Lorentzian functions with an energy-independent broadening parameter Γ. Here we define a new energy-dependent resonance broadening function, Γ(E), based on diagonalization of non-Hermitian matrices, which can describe resonances of a more complex, non-Lorentzian nature and can be decomposed into components associated with the left and right leads, respectively. We compute this quantity via an ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach based on density functional theory (DFT) for both symmetric and asymmetric molecular junctions, and show that our definition of Γ(E), when combined with Breit-Wigner formula, reproduces the transmission calculated from DFT-NEGF. Through a series of examples, we illustrate how this approach can shed new light on experiments and understanding of junction transport properties in terms of molecular orbitals.

  14. Ab-initio calculations on melting of thorium

    Mukherjee, D.; Sahoo, B. D.; Joshi, K. D.; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C.

    2016-05-01

    Ab-initio molecular dynamics study has been performed on face centered cubic structured thorium to determine its melting temperature at room pressure. The ion-electron interaction potential energy calculated as a function of temperature for three volumes (a0)3 and (1.02a0)3 and (1.04a0)3 increases gradually with temperature and undergoes a sharp jump at ~2200 K, ~2100 K and ~1800 K, respectively. Here, a0 = 5.043 Å is the equilibrium lattice parameter at 0 K obtained from ab-initio calculations. These jumps in interaction energy are treated as due to the onset of melting and corresponding temperatures as melting point. The melting point of 2100 K is close to the experimental value of 2023K. Further, the same has been verified by plotting the atomic arrangement evolved at various temperatures and corresponding pair correlation functions.

  15. Understanding phonon transport in thermoelectric materials using ab initio approaches

    Broido, David

    Good thermoelectric materials have low phonon thermal conductivity, kph. Accurate theories to describe kph are important components in developing predictive models of thermoelectric efficiency that can help guide synthesis and measurement efforts. We have developed ab initio approaches to calculate kph, in which phonon modes and phonon scattering rates are computed using interatomic force constants determined from density functional theory, and a full solution of the Boltzmann transport equation for phonons is implemented. A recent approach to calculate interatomic force constants using ab initio molecular dynamics has yielded a good description of the thermal properties of Bi2Te3. But, the complexity of new promising candidate thermoelectric materials introduces computational challenges in assessing their thermal properties. An example is germanane, a germanium based hydrogen-terminated layered semiconductor, which we will discuss in this talk.

  16. Ab initio no core full configuration approach for light nuclei

    Kim, Youngman; Shin, Ik Jae; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P.; Forssén, Christian; Rotureau, Jimmy

    2015-10-01

    Comprehensive understanding of the structure and reactions of light nuclei poses theoretical and computational challenges. Still, a number of ab initio approaches have been developed to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei using fundamental interactions among nucleons. Among them, we work with the ab initio no core full configuration (NCFC) method and ab initio no core Gamow Shell Model (GSM). We first review these approaches and present some recent results.

  17. Mechanistic Insights into Radical-Mediated Oxidation of Tryptophan from ab Initio Quantum Chemistry Calculations and QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Wood, Geoffrey P F; Sreedhara, Alavattam; Moore, Jamie M; Wang, John; Trout, Bernhardt L

    2016-05-12

    An assessment of the mechanisms of (•)OH and (•)OOH radical-mediated oxidation of tryptophan was performed using density functional theory calculations and ab initio plane-wave Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics simulations. For the (•)OH reactions, addition to the pyrrole ring at position 2 is the most favored site with a barrierless reaction in the gas phase. The subsequent degradation of this adduct through a H atom transfer to water was intermittently observed in aqueous-phase molecular dynamics simulations. For the (•)OOH reactions, addition to the pyrrole ring at position 2 is the most favored pathway, in contrast to the situation in the model system ethylene, where concerted addition to the double bond is preferred. From the (•)OOH position 2 adduct QM/MM simulations show that formation of oxy-3-indolanaline occurs readily in an aqueous environment. The observed transformation starts from an initial rupture of the O-O bond followed by a H atom transfer with the accompanying loss of an (•)OH radical to solution. Finally, classical molecular dynamics simulations were performed to equate observed differential oxidation rates of various tryptophan residues in monoclonal antibody fragments. It was found that simple parameters derived from simulation correlate well with the experimental data. PMID:27082439

  18. Ab initio calculations of material strength

    Šob, Mojmír; Friák, Martin; Vitek, V.

    Tokyo : The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2003, s. 467-475. [International Symposium on Micro-Mechanical Engineering - Heat Transfer, Fluid Dynamics, Reliability and Mechanotronics.. Tsuchiura and Tsukuba (JP), 01.12.2003-03.12.2003] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041302; GA ČR GA202/03/1351; GA MŠk OC 523.90 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : ab initio calculations * electronic structure * theoretical tensile strength Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  19. Germacrene D Cyclization: An Ab Initio Investigation

    William N. Setzer

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils that contain large concentrations of germacrene D are typically accompanied by cadinane sesquiterpenoids. The acid-catalyzed cyclization of germacrene D to give cadinane and selinane sesquiterpenes has been computationally investigated using both density functional (B3LYP/6-31G* and post Hartree-Fock (MP2/6-31G** ab initio methods. The calculated energies are in general agreement with experimentally observed product distributions, both from acid-catalyzed cyclizations as well as distribution of the compounds in essential oils.

  20. Towards hydrogen metallization: an Ab initio approach; Vers la metallisation de l`hydrogene: approche AB initio

    Bernard, St

    1998-12-31

    The quest for metallic hydrogen is a major goal for both theoretical and experimental condensed matter physics. Hydrogen and deuterium have been compressed up to 200 GPa in diamond anvil cells, without any clear evidence for a metallic behaviour. Loubeyere has recently suggested that hydrogen could metallize, at pressures within experimental range, in a new Van der Waals compound: Ar(H{sub 2}){sub 2} which is characterized at ambient pressure by an open and anisotropic sublattice of hydrogen molecules, stabilized by an argon skeleton. This thesis deals with a detailed ab initio investigation, by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics methods, of the evolution under pressure of this compound. In a last chapter, we go to much higher pressures and temperatures, in order to compare orbital and orbital free ab initio methods for the dense hydrogen plasma. (author) 109 refs.

  1. Defining Active Catalyst Structure and Reaction Pathways from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics and Operando XAFS: Dehydrogenation of Dimethylaminoborane by Rhodium Clusters

    Rousseau, Roger J.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Fulton, John L.; Linehan, John C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Autrey, Thomas

    2009-08-05

    We present the results of a detailed operando XAFS and density functional theory (DFT) based ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) investigation of the proposed mechanism of dehydrogenation of dimethylaminoborane (DMAB) by a homogeneous Rh4 cluster catalyst. Our AIMD simulations reveal that the previously proposed Rh structures are highly fluxional exhibiting both metal cluster and ligand isomerizations and dissociaton which can only be accounted for by a examining finite temperature ensemble as generated by AIMD. It is found that a highly fluxional species Rh4((H2BNMe2)82+ is fully compatible with operando XAFS measurements which suggest that this species may be the catalyst resting state. Based on this assignment we propose a catalytic mechanism for DMAB dehydrogenation which exhibits a maximum energy barrier of 24 kcal/mol, which is half that observed for the uncatalyzed thermal reaction. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Chemical Sciences program, and was performed in part using the Molecular Science Computing Facility (MSCF) in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a DOE national scientific user facility located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  2. Ab initio studies of O2-(H2O)n and O3-(H2O)n anionic molecular clusters, n≤12

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Kurtén, T.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker;

    2011-01-01

    An ab initio study of gaseous clusters of O2− and O2− with water is presented. Based on thorough scans of configurational space, we determine the thermodynamics of cluster growth. The results are in good agreement with benchmark computational methods and existing experimental data. We find...

  3. Ab initio studies of O-2(-) (H2O)(n) and O-3(-) (H2O)(n) anionic molecular clusters, n

    Bork, Nicolai Christian; Kurten, T.; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker;

    2011-01-01

    An ab initio study of gaseous clusters of O-2(-) and O-3(-) with water is presented. Based on thorough scans of configurational space, we determine the thermodynamics of cluster growth. The results are in good agreement with benchmark computational methods and existing experimental data. We find...

  4. Transport and optical properties of warm dense aluminum in the two-temperature regime: Ab initio calculation and semiempirical approximation

    Knyazev, D. V.; Levashov, P. R.

    2014-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of transport and optical properties of liquid aluminum in the two-temperature case. At first optical properties, static electrical and thermal conductivities were obtained in the \\textit{ab initio} calculation. The \\textit{ab initio} calculation is based on the quantum molecular dynamics, density functional theory and the Kubo-Greenwood formula. The semiempirical approximation was constructed based on the results of the \\textit{ab initio} caculation. ...

  5. Kopplung von Dichtefunktional- und ab-initio-Methoden

    Goll, Erich

    2008-01-01

    Im Rahmen der Doktorarbeit wurde untersucht, inwieweit die Kopplung von Dichtefunktionalmethoden und ab-initio-Korrelationsmethoden der Quantenchemie eine Verbesserung bezüglich beider Grenzmethoden erbringt. Die Kopplung erfolgt durch eine Aufspaltung des interelektronischen Hamiltonoperators (abstoßende Coulombwechselwirkung). Die kurzreichweitige Wechselwirkung wird mit Dichtefunktionaltheorie behandelt, die langreichweitige mit Hilfe von ab-initio-Methoden. Diese Aufteilung soll dazu dien...

  6. Ab Initio Path to Heavy Nuclei

    Binder, Sven; Calci, Angelo; Roth, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We present the first ab initio calculations of nuclear ground states up into the domain of heavy nuclei, spanning the range from 16-O to 132-Sn based on two- plus three-nucleon interactions derived within chiral effective field theory. We employ the similarity renormalization group for preparing the Hamiltonian and use coupled-cluster theory to solve the many-body problem for nuclei with closed sub-shells. Through an analysis of theoretical uncertainties resulting from various truncations in this framework, we identify and eliminate the technical hurdles that previously inhibited the step beyond medium-mass nuclei, allowing for reliable validations of nuclear Hamiltonians in the heavy regime. Following this path we show that chiral Hamiltonians qualitatively reproduce the systematics of nuclear ground-state energies up to the neutron-rich Sn isotopes.

  7. Guiding ab initio calculations by alchemical derivatives

    to Baben, M.; Achenbach, J. O.; von Lilienfeld, O. A.

    2016-03-01

    We assess the concept of alchemical transformations for predicting how a further and not-tested change in composition would change materials properties. This might help to guide ab initio calculations through multidimensional property-composition spaces. Equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and relative lattice stability of fcc and bcc 4d transition metals Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Pd, and Ag are calculated using density functional theory. Alchemical derivatives predict qualitative trends in lattice stability while equilibrium volumes and bulk moduli are predicted with less than 9% and 28% deviation, respectively. Predicted changes in equilibrium volume and bulk moduli for binary and ternary mixtures of Rh-Pd-Ag are in qualitative agreement even for predicted bulk modulus changes as large as +100% or -50%. Based on these results, it is suggested that alchemical transformations could be meaningful for enhanced sampling in the context of virtual high-throughput materials screening projects.

  8. Ab initio molar volumes and Gaussian radii.

    Parsons, Drew F; Ninham, Barry W

    2009-02-12

    Ab initio molar volumes are calculated and used to derive radii for ions and neutral molecules using a spatially diffuse model of the electron distribution with Gaussian spread. The Gaussian radii obtained can be used for computation of nonelectrostatic ion-ion dispersion forces that underlie Hofmeister specific ion effects. Equivalent hard-sphere radii are also derived, and these are in reasonable agreement with crystalline ionic radii. The Born electrostatic self-energy is derived for a Gaussian model of the electronic charge distribution. It is shown that the ionic volumes used in electrostatic calculations of strongly hydrated cosmotropic ions ought best to include the first hydration shell. Ionic volumes for weakly hydrated chaotropic metal cations should exclude electron overlap (in electrostatic calculations). Spherical radii are calculated as well as nonisotropic ellipsoidal radii for nonspherical ions, via their nonisotropic static polarizability tensors. PMID:19140766

  9. Operator evolution for ab initio nuclear theory

    Schuster, Micah D; Johnson, Calvin W; Jurgenson, Eric D; Navratil, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a revolution in ab initio calculations of nuclear properties. One key element has been the development of a rigorous effective interaction theory, applying unitary transformations to soften the nuclear Hamiltonian and hence accelerate the convergence as a function of the model space size. For consistency, however, one ought to apply the same transformation to other operators when calculating transitions and mean values from the eigenstates of the renormalized Hamiltonian. Working in a translationally-invariant harmonic oscillator basis for the two- and three-nucleon systems, we evolve the Hamiltonian, square-radius and total dipole strength operators by the similarity renormalization group (SRG). The inclusion of up to three-body matrix elements in the 4He nucleus all but completely restores the invariance of the expectation values under the transformation. We also consider a Gaussian operator with adjustable range and find at short ranges an increased contribution from such ind...

  10. Modeling surface motion effects in N2 dissociation on W(110): Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations and generalized Langevin oscillator model

    Nattino, Francesco; Galparsoro, Oihana; Costanzo, Francesca; Díez Muiño, Ricardo; Alducin, Maite; Kroes, Geert-Jan

    2016-06-01

    Accurately modeling surface temperature and surface motion effects is necessary to study molecule-surface reactions in which the energy dissipation to surface phonons can largely affect the observables of interest. We present here a critical comparison of two methods that allow to model such effects, namely, the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) method and the generalized Langevin oscillator (GLO) model, using the dissociation of N2 on W(110) as a benchmark. AIMD is highly accurate as the surface atoms are explicitly part of the dynamics, but this advantage comes with a large computational cost. The GLO model is much more computationally convenient, but accounts for lattice motion effects in a very approximate way. Results show that, despite its simplicity, the GLO model is able to capture the physics of the system to a large extent, returning dissociation probabilities which are in better agreement with AIMD than static-surface results. Furthermore, the GLO model and the AIMD method predict very similar energy transfer to the lattice degrees of freedom in the non-reactive events, and similar dissociation dynamics.