WorldWideScience

Sample records for aaec

  1. Summary of recent AAEC research on noise analysis techniques

    The research establishment of the AAEC has, over the last decade, developed a comprehensive data analysis facility capable of dealing with random signals in the range 0 to 300 k Hz. All the conventional spectral and correlation functions can be estimated from either analogue or digital signals. This facility together with a wide range of available sensors have been used to detect record and analysis data derived from real and simulated nuclear plant. Although the main emphasis of the work has been to develop an experimental capability and acquire basic skills in noise analysis techniques, some application has been made to real life practical problems. The following is a brief summary of work carried out at Lucas Heights during the period 1977 to 1980. The comments are intentionally concise as reference to detailed papers are given

  2. Recent radiopharmaceutical research at the AAEC Research Establishment

    During the past few years a large part of the radiochemical research carried out at Lucas Heights has been devoted to the synthesis of ligands capable of forming chelate complexes with technetium-99m, as part of a search for tumour-localising radiopharmaceuticals. An account is given of the synthesis and biological evaluation of a range of these compounds and of the investigation of certain biochemical and biological properties affecting the clinical application of both ligands and radiopharmaceuticals. In addition to the search for novel Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals, major research programs on the development of Tc-99m generating systems have been in progress at Lucas Heights for several years. Work on the AAEC's Mark III Tc-99m technetium generator has been brought to a successful conclusion. A new type of Tc-99m generator, which uses an insoluble zirconium molybdate gel and provides high yields of pertechnetate by a simple elution technique, has also been developed. Studies are in progress on the osmium-iridium generator

  3. AAEC report titles-cumulation 1956-1975 including author and KWIC indexes

    This publication lists all unclassified technical reports issued by the AAEC Research Establishment since 1956. It supersedes the List of Report Publications dated April 1974 and is the final cumulation of reports published between 1956 and December 1975. Future editions will list reports published from January 1976. An alphabetical author index and a KWIC index to the titles are included. (author)

  4. The quality control of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals produced at the AAEC Research Establishment

    The methods of quality control used for technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals produced at the AAEC Research Establishment are described for both non-fission and fission derived sources of sodium pertechnetate, technetium-99m labelled radipopharmaceuticals, and reagent kits produced for technetium-99m labelling

  5. Med-records: an ADD database of AAEC medical records since 1966

    Since its inception in 1958 most of the staff of the AAEC Research Establishment at Lucas Heights have had annual medical examinations. Medical information accrued since 1966 has been collected as an ADD database to allow ad hoc enquiries to be made against the data. Details are given of the database schema and numerous support routines ranging from the integrity checking of input data to analysis and plotting of the summary results

  6. Environmental survey at the AAEC Research Establishment, Lucas Heights - results for 1980

    Results are presented of the environmental survey at the AAEC Research Establishment, Lucas Heights, during 1980. They show that the only radioactivity detected which could be of Research Establishment origin and which could also be ingested by man was due to tritium and 60Co. The maximum credible dose which a member of the public could receive from this radioactivity is calculated to be 0.0006 of the derived working limit, i.e. 3 microsieverts, which is equivalent to about 0.03 per cent of the natural background

  7. AAEC tritium list no.2 - 1975-1976

    Details are given of the concentration of the environmental isotope tritium in monthly samples of precipitation taken at 16 stations, situated throughout Australia, during the period 1975-1976. (Author)

  8. Effluent management practices at the AAEC Research Establishment

    A technical description is given of the facilities and operation of the waste water and liquid waste management system at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. Also described are practices and principles involved in the control and recording of radioactivity in the effluents. (Author)

  9. The AAEC rotamak experiment description and preliminary results at low input power

    A description is given of the initial experiments on a rotamak device operating with 10 kW input power at a frequency of 1.85 MHz. The experimental apparatus and the diagnostic systems are also described. The matching of the radiofrequency power sources to the drive coils is discussed and details are given of the results from discharges in hydrogen, deuterium, helium and argon. The plasma/magnetic field configuration appears to be stable although, under certain conditions, fluctuations of the magnetic field structure have been observed

  10. Validation of the sterile manufacture of the AAEC MARK III molybdenum-99/techtnetium-99m generator

    The Mark II molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator now supplied to hospitals by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission is a non-sterile elution system. The Mark III version will be supplied as a sterile elution system. A validation study has been undertaken to assess the capability of the new production facility, to evaluate up-to-date procedures for manufacturing sterile generators and to demonstrate that a sterile radionuclide generator can be made. Generator manufacturing procedures and a time study of the validation are described. Microbiological methods for monitoring in-process aspects of manufacture, disinfectant efficacy and generator sterility are defined

  11. Effects on the surrounding population of postulated major accidents at the AAEC Research Establishment

    The consequences of accidents in specific facilities at the Research Establishment are examined in terms of possible exposure of persons living around Lucas Heights to release airborne radioactive and toxic materials. In the case of radioactive materials, both individual and population doses are estimated, the latter over a range of meteorological conditions. Using currently available data on the risk of development of adverse effects in irradiated populations further estimates are made of the possible number of cases of such effects in the local population. 43 refs., 14 tabs., 3 figs

  12. Neutron activation detector saturation activities measured in the AAEC research reactor HIFAR

    Titanium and cobalt wires are irradiated with radiation damage specimens in each reactor period to determine variations in neutron flux densities. The results from these monitors constitute a considerable body of data with good statistical significance. However, a difficulty encountered when using measurements collected over a number of reactor periods for determining flux depression factors or cadmium ratios is accounting for the effects on saturation activities of different irradiation conditions, in particular the continuously changing fuel burn-up rates. This difficulty was overcome by correlating the saturation activities of (n,γ) reactions with the number of fissions in the fuel. The experimental saturation activities so correlated enable (1) flux depression factors to be obtained for cobalt and silver wires, relative to thin foils, and (2) use of these flux depression factors and others quoted in the literature to calculate the ratio of saturation activities of Co and Ag wires. Finally, reference is made to the potential usefulness of the 123Sb(n,γ) reaction as a resonance detector given that a new method for making thin monitors can be readily applied to antimony

  13. Environmental survey at the AAEC Research Establishment Lucas Heights, results for 1975, 1976 and 1977

    An environmental survey program has been in operation since 1959 at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights, N.S.W. The results for 1975, 1976 and 1977 show that the amounts of radionuclides of AAECRE origin are not greater than the amounts found in earlier years. The possible annual radiation dose to the most highly exposed member of the public, as calculated from the results, represents about one ten-thousandth of that considered acceptable by the NSW Health Commission and the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia

  14. Calibration and operation of the AAEC working standard of measurement for the activity of radionuclides. Pt. 2. Ion chamber analysis

    As a secondary method for the determination of radioactivity, the ion chamber is both convenient and precise. The equations used in the calibration of the equipment and in the calculation of unknown activities are fully derived, and it is shown that the experimental procedure outlined is the optimum for both precision and convenience

  15. Uncertainty Quantification of LBLOCA PCTR for a pressurized water reactor by AAEC Algorithm and Gaussian Process Model

    Two generalized regression methods, the Alternating Conditional Expectation (ACE) algorithm and a Gaussian process model (GPM), are presented for constructing response surface models used for uncertainty analysis of pressurized water reactor accident simulations by best-estimate thermal-hydraulic codes. Conventional regression techniques are limited by the requirement for a priori estimates of the functional form of the regression model. The ACE algorithm yields an optimal relationship between the dependent variable and multiple independent variables by obtaining one-dimensional transformations of each variable through an iterative procedure that maximizes the statistical correlation between the transformations. The GPM defines predictive distributions of the dependent variable over the multi-dimensional input variable space by taking LOCAy weighted averages of data points with weights determined by a parameterized covariance function. Both methods have been successfully implemented to obtain a probability density function (PDF) for the peak clad temperature (PCT) during the blowdown phase of a large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) in an OPR1000 reactor as a function of 20 uncertain input parameters. The ACE and GPM response surfaces were generated from 400 PCT values obtained from simulations of the LBLOCA by the MARS code. The MOSAIQUE software was used to draw samples from the input parameter distributions, generate MARS input decks, and automate the execution of MARS runs over multiple processors. PCT estimates from both response surfaces agreed well with additional MARS simulations left out of the training data set indicating the ACE algorithm and GPM are satisfactory code surrogates. Furthermore, sensitivity or importance information can be extracted from the models giving physical insight into the input-output relationships, a significant advantage over conventional regression techniques

  16. Twenty-eighth annual report 1979-80

    Contents include reviews of the world energy situation, world uranium reserves and production, uranium enrichment and waste disposal, as well as details of uranium mining in Australia and licensing and regulatory aspects of nuclear energy. Research work undertaken at the AAEC, radioisotope applications, AAEC operations and services, and international relations are also included. Staff publications are listed and accounts itemized

  17. Description of and operating instructions for the Lucas Heights Gamma Technology Research Irradiator (GATRI)

    This manual describes the gamma technology research irradiator (GATRI) located at Lucas Heights and the procedures necessary for its operation and maintenance. It supersedes a previous operating manual (AAEC/M88) as a result of the introduction of AAEC type 560 safety and control equipment into GATRI

  18. Australia`s uranium opportunities

    Alder, K.

    1996-12-31

    The book is a personal account by an insider who was deeply involved in the rise and fall of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC), and in particular in its efforts to bring Australia into the nuclear age. It reveals the thinking behind the Commission`s research programmes and major projects, such as the centrifuge enrichment program and Jervis Bay Nuclear Power project. It shows how politics, politicians and sensational journalism had disastrous effects on the AAEC, its programmes and aspirations. ills.

  19. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization Act 1987 - No 3 of 1987

    The purpose of this Act (ANSTO Act) is to establish a successor to the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) set up under the Atomic Energy Act 1953. The Act provides for a new Organization with functions which, according to Government policy, better reflect the directions in which Australia's principal research organization should tend in that area, namely realignment of AAEC activities away from work on the nuclear fuel cycle, towards greater emphasis on applications of radioisotopes and radiation in medicine, industry, agriculture, science, commerce, etc. ANSTO is prohibited from undertaking any R and D into the design and production of nuclear weapons or nuclear explosive devices. (NEA)

  20. Progress report 1979

    This progress report deals with service oriented work performed at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Services provided by the Engineering Services Division, the Safety Department, Site Information Services Department and Commercial Applications are described

  1. A Handbook for ETV Utilization in Adult Education: Final Report: Volume 3.

    Morehead State Univ., KY. Appalachian Adult Education Center.

    The document is a handbook designed to aid program administrators in planning, managing, and assessing adult educational television (ETV), to assure adult viewers the maximum instructional/learning benefit possible. The handbook includes four types of information; (1) an introduction to the Appalachian Adult Education Center (AAEC) experience, (2)…

  2. Neutronic models for the HIFAR reactor

    Standard neutronic models have been developed for the AAEC's materials testing reactor HIFAR, and are available as members of a partitioned data set. The models have been used to calculate reactor physics parameters related to operation and safety. Results from the calculations are presented

  3. Twenty-sixth annual report 1977-78

    Contents include a review of uranium as a world energy source, world and Australian uranium reserves, regulatory and safety research work undertaken at the AAEC, radioisotope applications, establishment operations and services and international regulations. Staff publications are listed and accounts itemized. (J.R.)

  4. Twenty-seventh annual report 1978-79

    Contents include a review of uranium as a world energy source, world and Australian uranium reserves, mining developments in Australia, regulatory and safety aspects of nuclear energy, research work undertaken at the AAEC, radioisotope applications, establishment operations and services, and international relations. Staff publications are listed and accounts itemized

  5. The Australian nuclear reactor, HIFAR, its past present and future

    The role of the AAEC's reactor, HIFAR has changed from support for the development of an indigenous power reactor to radioisotope producer and neutron beam source. An account is given of the last twenty-four years' operating experience. A brief review of modernisation programs for reactors of the DIDO class is followed by details of the current HIFAR refurbishing program

  6. A case for the expansion of effort and the adoption of a modified approach in Australia to education and research on the engineering and technology of nuclear power

    A positive initiative needs to be taken to place more emphasis on undergraduate education in the field of nuclear engineering in Australia. Excellent facilities exist at the AAEC to aid tertiary institutions. Many excellent opportunities also exist for developing post-graduate research projects in nuclear technology

  7. Divisional progress reports for period 1 July 1982 to 30 June 1983

    This progress report deals with technical and research work done at the AAEC Research establishment for the period 1 July 1982 to 30 June 1983. Work done in the following divisions is reported: Applied Mathematics and Computing, Applied Physics, Environmental Science, Isotope, Materials, Nuclear Technology

  8. Progress report 1979

    This progress report deals with technical and research work done at the AAEC Research Establishment in the twelve month period ending September 30, 1979. Work done in the following research divisions is reported: Applied Maths and Computing, Chemical Technology, Engineering Research, Environmental Science, Instrumentation and Control, Isotope, Materials and Physics

  9. Thirtieth annual report 1981-82

    Changes in the AAEC research program arising from the revised Government energy research arrangements announced in April 1981 are outlined. Projects in fission reactor technology, the nuclear fuel cycle, fusion, environmental studies, radiation technology, the application of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceutical research are discussed. Details of the production, sales and distribution of medical radioisotopes, of the Regulatory Bureau and of international relations are also included

  10. Research on medical applications of radioisotopes and radiation in Australia

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) produces and distributes commercially in Australia and abroad a range of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for medical applications. The AAEC carries out research and development on new and improved processes and procucts is collaboration with medical specialists in hospitals and research workers in other organisations. Examples of these processes and products are: a gel generator for production of 99mTc; radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis of tumours and brain disease and therapy for arthritis; 64Cu for study of copper metabolism; and monoclonal antibodies for tumour diagnosis and therapy. New medical applications in Australia of neutron irradiation include the measurement of total body nitrogen and neutron capture in boron-labelled compounds in vivo for melanoma therapy. (author)

  11. Angular and energy distributions of electrons from 7.5--150-keV proton collisions with oxygen and carbon dioxide

    Cross sections for the ejection of electrons, differential in the angle and energy of emission, were measured for proton collisions with two molecular gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide, over the primary energy range of 7.5--150 keV and an angular range of 10 degree to 160 degree. The energy distributions, obtained by integration over the angle, were fitted by an analytical model. A discrepancy in the angular distributions compared to those of Gibson and Reid [J. Phys. E 17, 1227 (1984); J. Phys. B 19, 3265 (1986); Radiat. Res. 112, 418 (1987); Australian Atomic Energy Commission Report No. AAEC/E659, 1987 (unpublished)] is discussed. At energies up to 50 or 100 keV, the angular distributions were found to be largely independent of the ejected electron energy and very similar for different targets

  12. The accurate measurement of flow rates in gas and wet-steam systems using a radio-tracer technique

    The utilisation of fluid resources relies heavily on the measurement of flow during processing, transport and custody transfer. To improve and maintain accuracy in industry, periodic calibration against a standard is required. The AAEC's adaptation of the radioisotope dilution method of measuring mass flow in gas systems offers a calibration technique with potentially low cost, accuracy and precision. The method is absolute, independent of pipe diameter and surface condition, and can be applied either in situ or to meters mounted in a calibration facility. The AAEC is constructing a test facility for thorough investigation of the technique over the mass flow range 0.16 - 1.5 kg s-1 using compressed air. A description of the facility is given

  13. APTCARE - Lucas Heights

    This plan details command co-ordination and support responses of Commonwealth and State Authorities in the event of an accident with offsite consequences at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The plan has been prepared by the AAEC Local Liaison Working Party, comprising representatives of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, NSW Police Department, NSW Board of Fire Commissioners, NSW State Emergency Services and Civil Defence Organisation, NSW Department of Health, NSW Department of Environment and Planning and Sutherland Shire Council

  14. Australian uranium exports: nuclear issues and the policy process

    The subject is discussed as follows: general introduction; formulation of uranium policy (the public debate; the Ranger Enquiry into all environmental aspects of a proposal by the AAEC and Ranger Uranium Mines to develop certain uranium deposits in the Northern Territory of Australia; the Government's decision); issues (non-proliferation and uranium safeguards policy; uranium enrichment in Australia; government involvement in uranium development; U development and environmental protection; U development and the Australian aborigines); conclusions. (U.K.)

  15. 76 FR 39405 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    2011-07-06

    ...-8900. For those unable to attend in person, the meeting will also be Web cast. The Web cast will be.../Viewer/?peid=b6ce0d080a594ddf9d362a0b1815b4491d . Blood Products Advisory Committee Day 2: http://fda.yorkcast.com/webcast/Viewer/?peid=68d4630cf50847c5aaec06b1720f205f1d . Contact Person: Bryan Emery...

  16. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  17. New method of preserving food

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  18. Australia's uranium export potential

    During the period 1954-71 in Australia approximately 9000 MT of U3O8 was produced from five separate localities. Of this, 7000 MT was exported to the United Kingdom and United States and the balance stockpiled by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC). Australia's uranium ore reserves occur in eight deposits in three states and the Northern Territory. However, 83% of Australia's reserves are contained in four deposits in lower Proterozoic rocks in the East Alligator River region of the Northern Territory. The AAEC has calculated Australia's recoverable uranium reserves by eliminating estimated losses during the mining and milling of the ores. AAEC has estimated reasonably assured resources of 289,000 MT of uranium at a recovery cost of less than US$80 per kilogram uranium. The companies have collectively announced a larger ore reserve than the Australian Atomic Energy Commission. This difference is a result of the companies adopting different ore reserve categories. On August 25, 1977, the federal government announced that Australia would develop its uranium resources subject to stringent environmental controls, recognition of Aboriginal Land Rights, and international safeguards. Australian uranium production should gradually increase from 1981 onward, growing to 10,000 to 15,000 MT by 1985-86. Further increases in capacity may emerge during the second half of the 1980s when expansion plans are implemented. Exploration for uranium has not been intensive due to delays in developing the existing deposits. It is likely that present reserves can be substantially upgraded if more exploration is carried out. 6 figures, 3 tables

  19. Options for the rehabilitation of Maralinga

    The UK atomic weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia, produced about 830 tonnes of debris containing an inferred 20 kg of plutonium. This debris is presently in shallow land burial in debris pits at Maralinga. About 1.5 kg of plutonium has been estimated to be present in up to 460,000 t of surface soil at or near the Taranaki test site, Maralinga. This paper is a precis of the rationale of 'Options for Clean-up of the Maralinga Test Site', AAEC/DR20. The mutual interdependence of the remedial measures is discussed and indicative costs presented. Further data needed to resolve uncertainties in estimates is outlined

  20. Review of recent developments in uranium extraction technology

    Developments in uranium ore processing technology since the AAEC Symposium on Uranium Processing in July 1972 are reviewed. The main developments include the use of autogenous or semi-autogenous grinding, beneficiation techniques such as radiometric sorting, flotation, magnetic and gravity seperation, strong acid and ferric bacterial leaching processes, solution mining and heap leaching operations, horizontal belt filters for solid-liquid separation, continuous ion exchange processes for use with solutions containing up to 8 wt % solids, hydrogen peroxide and ammonia for the precipitation of uranium to improve product yield and purity, and the recovery of by-product uranium from the manufacture of phosphoric acid and copper processing operations

  1. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  2. A reactor physics survey of water moderated, uranium-aluminium plate fuelled research reactors for a range of uranium enrichment

    The results obtained from reactor physics calculations of water moderated research reactors with fuel in the form of uranium-aluminium alloy plates are presented. The major parameters considered are uranium enrichment, uranium weight per cent in the fuel meat, 235U loading per plate and the water gap between plates. The calculations are based on the SILOE reactor and particular emphasis is placed on the requirements for a proposed new AAEC research reactor. Sufficient detail is given to enable the determination of core size, fuel consumption rate and neutron flux levels in the core and reflector when this study is combined with a thermal-hydraulic analysis

  3. The energy of runaway electrons in the LT-4 tokamak

    This report describes measurements which have been made on LT-4, using calibrated X-ray detectors, to determine the energy of runaway electrons striking the limiter. The detectors were Teledyne NaI(Tl) Integral (S-68-I). The detectors were wrapped in three layers of Metshield. Calibration of the detectors was carried out at the AAEC, Lucas Heights, using the AINSE 1.3 (nominal) Mev Van De Graaff electron accelerator. The calibration is discussed in section 2. In section 3, the results of the measurements made with LT-4 are presented

  4. An historical review and perspective of AINSE

    Ophel, T.R. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Physics

    1998-12-31

    Full text: ANSTO was formed in 1958 as a cooperative venture of modest scope, involving the newly established AAEC (created by the Atomic Energy Act of 1953 with facilities at Lucas Heights being formally opened in 1955) and the eight universities that existed at the time. Research emphasis was very much nuclear, with the two reactors MOATA and HIFAR and possible future nuclear energy developments defining it. Two accelerators, added in the early sixties - the 3 MV Van de Graaff and the 1.3 MV electron machine, were to sustain those original activities of the AAEC. It would probably be true to say that AINSE in those early days placed much importance on the general support of nuclear science throughout Australia, whereas now of course the facilitation of the use of ANSTO facilities has become the main function. Thereafter, both AINSE and the AAEC have undergone dramatic change. The number of universities expanded to 19 in the late sixties, along with more support and encouragement for research at both the new institutions and the original group of eight. University use of Lucas Heights facilities, through the agency of AINSE, expanded and began to diversify somewhat into other disciplines - a trend that has continued apace ever since. In the nineties, the Dawkins revolution led to a doubling of the number of tertiary institutions, so that once again AINSE experienced a quantum jump in size, with of course matching complexity. In parallel, AAEC broadened its activities to embrace a wide range of nuclear and energy related areas, though basic research began to taper off. Finally, the organization was given a new charter in 1985 and re-named ANSTO. A much expanded university system, the `new` ANSTO, the rise of economic rationalism and the creation of the Australian Research Council have combined to provide a succession of challenges to AINSE. From the original small, club-like beginning with narrow interests, AINSE has emerged with more than a four-fold increase in

  5. Automation of the ANSTO working standard of measurement for the activity of radionuclides

    The ANSTO working standard ion chamber is used routinely for the standardisation of a range of gamma emitting radio-isotopes. The ion chamber has recently been automated by replacing the AAEC type 292 Recycling Discriminator, timer module and model 43 teletype printer with the HP86B computer, HP-59501B voltage programmer and HP-6181C current source. The program 'MEASION', running on the Deltacom IBM AT clone, calculates the radioactivity, with full error statements, from the ion chamber measurements. Each of these programs is listed and discussed. 13 refs., 5 figs., tabs

  6. Report of the Committee of inquiry into a fire which occurred on 18 March 1987 in a radioisotope processing cell, Building 54 at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories

    At about 1745 hours on Wednesday, 18 March 1987 a fire occurred in a small charcoal filter inside a processing cell (hot cell) in Building 54 at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories (LHRL). This cell was being used to process irradiated uranium to separate the radioactive isotope molybdenum-99. Some radioactive contamination escaped from the hot cell into the operating area and three AAEC officers were found to have minor radioactive contamination on their skin/hair. The majority of the radioactive material released from the fire was trapped by the main filters outside the cell. The total amounts of radioactive noble gas and of radioiodine released to the environment during the week in which the fire occurred were within the normal range of discharge and were 53% and 2.1%, respectively, of the weekly limit authorised by the NSW Department of Health. On the evidence available to it, the Committee concludes that the fire was caused by spontaneous combustion in the charcoal filter used to trap radioactive gases released by the operations in the hot cell; the mechanism causing the fire cannot be clearly established at this stage; no member of AAEC staff, NSW emergency services personnel or the general public suffered, or will suffer, any adverse health effects from radioactivity as a result of the accident

  7. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 1997-1998

    This is the 46th Annual Report of ANSTO or its predecessor, AAEC outlining the quality services being delivered and the development of knowledge in areas where ANSTO's nuclear science and technology and related capabilities are of strategic and technical benefit. ANSTO is reporting against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives, outcomes and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff

  8. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) Annual Report 1997-1998

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This is the 46th Annual Report of ANSTO or its predecessor, AAEC outlining the quality services being delivered and the development of knowledge in areas where ANSTO`s nuclear science and technology and related capabilities are of strategic and technical benefit. ANSTO is reporting against established performance indicators within the the five core scientific business areas: International strategic relevance of Nuclear Science; Core nuclear facilities operation and development; Applications of Nuclear Science and Technology to the understanding of natural processes; Treatment and management of man-made and naturally occurring radioactive substances; and Competitiveness and ecological sustainability of industry. Also presented are the objectives, outcomes and activities which supports the core scientific areas by providing best practice corporate support, safety management, information and human resource management for ANSTO staff

  9. KINETIC MODELING AND ISOTHERM STUDIES ON A BATCH REMOVAL OF ACID RED 114 BY AN ACTIVATED PLANT BIOMASS

    N. RAJAMOHAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the dye Acid Red 114(AR 114 was removed from aqueous solutions using Acid-Activated Eichornia Crassipes (AAEC under batch conditions. The optimum conditions for AR 114 removal were found to be pH 1.5, adsorbent dosage = 1.25 g/L of solution and equilibrium time = 3 h. The equilibrium data were evaluated for compliance with Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms and Langmuir isotherm was found to fit well. The maximum sorption capacity was estimated as 112.34 mg/g of adsorbent. Also, adsorption kinetics of the dye was studied and the rates of sorption were found to follow pseudo-second order kinetics with good correlation (R2 ≥ 0.997.The kinetic study at different temperatures revealed that the sorption was an endothermic process. The activation energy of the sorption process was estimated as 9.722 kJ/mol.

  10. Some meteorological parameters for atmospheric dispersion modelling at Lucas Heights, NSW, Australia, 1975 to 1983

    Meteorological data collected in the years 1975 to 1983 at the AAEC's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights, New South Wales, Australia have been summarised. Wind speed, direction and turbulence trace types from 7 and 49 m, temperature difference between 9 and 49 m, ambient temperature and precipitation rates have been extracted as 30 minute averages. Seasonal wind speed and direction roses are summarised for 7 and 49 m together with wind direction persistence statistics which are relevant to short-term (accident) releases of atmospheric pollutants. A 'split-sigma' approach has been adopted for definition of the atmospheric stability categories: a 'turbulence' method using the wind direction turbulence trace types for the horizontal diffusion category; and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission temperature gradient criteria are combined with Smith's 1972 scheme for the vertical diffusion estimates. Statistics on 10, 50 and 90 per cent probability and average wind speeds and atmospheric stabilities are also analysed. An extensive data summary is included

  11. Forum on Economic Cooperation, Trade And Investment Between France and China

    YinShenglun

    2004-01-01

    The Forum on Economic Cooperation, Trade and Investment between France and China sponsored by the Federation of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises of France (La Confederation Generale des Petites et Moyennes Enterprises, CGPME), the Euro-Chinese Friendship Association (Association Amitie Euro-Chinoise, AAEC) and the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), assisted by the CPAFFC and supported by the Chinese Embassy in France, the Direction of Foreign Economic and Trade Relations (DFETR), and the French National Consultant Commission for Foreign Business (FNCCFB), was held in Paris on October 10, 2003. To celebrate the launching of the China-France Culture Year and greet the 40th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and France, the forum aimed at further promoting France-China economic cooperation and trade, particularly mutual understanding, exchanges and cooperation between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of the two countries. A Chinese local delegation headed by CPAFFC President Chen Haosu attended the forum.

  12. Radiation research in AINSE-affiliated universities

    The Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE) has enabled research workers from its member universities to make extensive use of the (sometimes unique) radiation facilities at Lucas Heights. This has resulted in a better understanding of the action of gamma, X-ray and electron beam radiation on physical, chemical and biological systems, and of the radical and excited species which are produced. A selection of the ensuing first class publications is described. Over the years the emphasis has changed from the obtaining of a fundamental understanding of the science and the refining of the techniques to utilising these in attacking problems in other fields. Examples are given of the use of radiation chemistry techniques in metal-organic, polymer, excited state and biological chemistry. In radiation biology, the early emphasis on genetics and on the production of chromosomal aberrations by radiation has given way to molecular biology and cancer treatment studies. In all of this, AAEC/ANSTO and CSIRO have played major roles. In addition, AINSE has organised a continuing series of specialist conferences which has facilitated interaction between research groups within the universities and involved other investigators in Australia, New Zealand and the rest of the world

  13. Education and training in nuclear engineering and science at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) - a review

    The University of New South Wales took a strong interest in the teaching of nuclear engineering and science at an early stage of its own existence and at a time when nuclear energy for peaceful purposes was as yet a relatively new concept. By 1960, it had set up the only school of Nuclear Engineering in Australia and had taken a leading part in establishing the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering (AINSE). In 1964 the University joined AINSE and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) to establish the Australian School of Nuclear Technology (ASNT) while its School of Chemistry was offering courses in Nuclear and Radiation Chemistry. This paper will summarise these developments. It will note the reduction in interest in nuclear education following the decision by the Australian government not to develop nuclear power or a nuclear industry in the foreseeable future. This negative outlook on nuclear education could look increasingly out of place when compared with an active growing interest in nuclear power generation in the South East Asia region. 4 table

  14. Radionuclide migration around uranium ore bodies - progress report on the Alligator rivers analogue project and proposals for future work

    The Australian Atomic Energy Commission has extensively evaluated uranium ore bodies in the Alligator Rivers Province of the Northern Territory of Australia as analogues of radioactive waste repositories. The objective has been to assist in the long-term prediction of the rate of transport of radionuclides through the geosphere. The research work was carried out by the AAEC in its laboratories at Lucas Heights and with extensive field trips in the Alligator Rivers Province, particularly at the uranium deposits at Ranger, Jabiluka, Nabarlek, and Koongarra. The results of the work over the last five years are briefly reviewed in this paper with emphasis on those obtained since the last review presented to the Natural Analogue Working Group in 1985. The results, their preliminary interpretation and their significance to the modelling and prediction of radionuclide transport, are discussed under the five main headings: Distribution of Uranium and Thorium Series Nuclides in Selected Uranium Deposits; The Role of Groundwater Colloids in the Transport of Radionuclides; The Study of Selected Fission Products; The Study of Transuranium Nuclides; and Application and Verification of Modelling Codes for the Transport of Radionuclides

  15. Project development and commercialization of on-line analysis systems

    A project team first in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) and since 1982 in CSIRO has developed many on-line analysis systems for the mineral and energy industries. The development of these projects has followed a common pattern of laboratory R and D, field trials, commercialisation and technology transfer. This successful pattern is illustrated using examples of the development of systems for the on-line analysis of mineral slurries, for determination of the ash content of coal on conveyors, and for determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines. The first two systems are licensed to Australian companies, Amdel Ltd and Mineral Control Instrumentation Ltd. Both systems are used by industry worldwide, and are the market leaders for radioisotope gauges in their application field. The third system, the multiphase flow meter, was licensed in 1997 to Kvaerner FSSL Ltd of Aberdeen. This meter has even greater potential than the other two systems for economic benefit from its used and for numbers of installations. The on-line analysis systems have been developed to increase the productivity of the Australian mineral and energy industries, and to provide economic benefit to Australia. The economic benefit sought is predominantly improved process control based on use of the instrument, rather than from its sale. Sales of instruments are significant, however, with about A$80 million from the analysis systems and their derivatives since the 1970s. Some of the issues associated with the development of the on-line analysis system are outlined

  16. Project development and commercialisation of on-line analysis systems

    A project team first in the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) and since 1982 in CSIRO has developed many on-line analysis systems for the mineral and energy industries. The development of these projects, usually lasting 7-10 years, has followed a common pattern of laboratory R and D, field trials, commercialisation and technology transfer. This successful pattern is illustrated using examples of the development of systems for the on-line analysis of mineral slurries, for determination of the ash content of coal on conveyors, and for determination of the flow rates of oil, water and gas in pipelines. The first two systems, licensed to Australian companies, are used world-wide. They are now the market leaders for radioisotope gauges in their application field. The third, the multiphase flow meter, was licensed in 1997 to an international company. This meter has even greater potential than the other two systems for economic benefit from its use and for numbers of installations. (author)

  17. Comparison of calculations made with three two-dependent neutron codes TDA, MORSE and POW

    Three computer codes were compared to determine their usefulness in analysing a pulsed neutron experiment. The codes were a Monte Carlo code (MORSE) a diffusion kinetics code (POW) and a time dependent SN code (TDA). A series of test problems were devised to progressively model the experiment. All problems assumed a spherical system with an isotropic source. The first problem had its source in the first energy group for the first nano-second. The second problem had its source distributed in time but not distributed in energy. The third problem had a source distributed in energy and time. POW and MORSE were shown to be in good agreement, with significant differences occurring only at times when the system did not correspond with the approximations made in POW. The AAEC version of the TDA code did not handle a time-dependent source. There was also a tendency for the results beyond 50 ns to be higher than those for the other two codes for the problems having a source constant over one time interval. (author)

  18. Optimizing the anode-filter combination in the sense of image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography

    Varjonen, Mari; Strömmer, Pekka

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents the optimized image quality and average glandular dose in digital mammography, and provides recommendations concerning anode-filter combinations in digital mammography, which is based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) detector technology. The full field digital mammography (FFDM) system based on a-Se technology, which is also a platform of tomosynthesis prototype, was used in this study. X-ray tube anode-filter combinations, which we studied, were tungsten (W) - rhodium (Rh) and tungsten (W) - silver (Ag). Anatomically adaptable fully automatic exposure control (AAEC) was used. The average glandular doses (AGD) were calculated using a specific program developed by Planmed, which automates the method described by Dance et al. Image quality was evaluated in two different ways: a subjective image quality evaluation, and contrast and noise analysis. By using W-Rh and W-Ag anode-filter combinations can be achieved a significantly lower average glandular dose compared with molybdenum (Mo) - molybdenum (Mo) or Mo-Rh. The average glandular dose reduction was achieved from 25 % to 60 %. In the future, the evaluation will concentrate to study more filter combinations and the effect of higher kV (>35 kV) values, which seems be useful while optimizing the dose in digital mammography.

  19. Australia's atomic conspiracy theory

    The author questions claims by the Newcastle University historian Wayne Reynolds in his book 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb', that the impetus behind the Snowy Mountains Scheme was to provide a secure source of power for the enrichment of uranium and production of heavy water so that Australia could produce its own atomic bombs. Reynolds also argued that the Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) was set up so that Australia had a trained scientific workforce to produce plutonium for the bomb. While the book is well researched, Reynolds does not seem to understand the principles of basic science and engineering. After the Second World War, a manufacturing and industrial base with a skilled and trained workforce was needed so it could be converted to war or defence manufacturing when the need arose. This new manufacturing community would require electrical power to sustain it. Hydroelectricity and atomic energy could help provide these needs. Even though war was still raging, Prime Minister John Curtin looked ahead and set up a Department of Post-War Reconstruction. It was through this department that the Snowy Mountains Scheme would be established. Curtin did not live to see this. He died in 1945 but his successor, Ben Chifley, continued the vision. The author believes, an understanding of the science behind these developments and an appreciation of how how humans interact with each others when it comes to getting something they want is likely to give a more balanced view of the past

  20. ANSTO's radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs

  1. AINSE's future role

    AINSE (Australian Institute for Nuclear Science and Engineering) was created in 1958 as a consortium of nine universities and the then Australian Atomic Energy Commission (AAEC) to develop research projects associated with the use of atomic energy. In 1999 AINSE remains strong, but has increased its membership to include 35 Australian universities and 1 New Zealand university. AINSE's role has been to facilitate access by researchers in universities to the facilities of the ANSTO Laboratories. Over the years the emphasis of the research projects themselves has shifted from those related to nuclear physics and the solution of problems associated with the development of nuclear energy, to projects where the emphasis is on the application of nuclear and nuclear related techniques to problems in a wide range of areas, including biomedical science and the environment. AINSE has reached a 40-year milestone and is about to enter the next millennium (and the next 40 years) at a time when ANSTO will host a new and modern reactor and the application of basic sciences to the biological areas is tipped to become the major focus of scientific discovery. Increasingly the environment becomes a source of major concern for everyone and the subject of a large component of research. The challenge for AINSE is to retain existing interests and expertise, but to also develop new ways in which nuclear science can be applied to these exciting and expanding areas of research

  2. Low enrichment Mo-99 target development program at ANSTO

    The Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO, formerly AAEC) has been producing fission product Mo-99 in HIFAR, from the irradiation of Low Enrichment Uranium (LEU) UO2 targets, for nearly thirty years. Over this period, the U-235 enrichment has been increased in stages, from natural to 1.8% to 2.2%. The decision to provide Australia with a replacement research reactor (RRR) for HIFAR has created an ideal opportunity to review and improve the current Mo-99 production process from target design through to chemical processing and waste management options. ANSTO has entered into a collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory (RERTR) to develop a target using uranium metal foil with U-235 enrichment of less than 20% The initial focus has been to demonstrate use of LEU foil targets in HIFAR, using existing irradiation methodology. The current effort focussed on designing a target assembly with optimised thermohydraulic characteristics to accommodate larger LEU foils to meet Mo-99 production needs. The ultimate goal is to produce an LEU target suitable for use in the Replacement Research Reactor when it is commissioned in 2005. This paper reports our activities on: - The regulatory approval processes required in order to undertake irradiation of this new target; -Supporting calculations (neutronics, computational fluid dynamics) for safety submission; - Design challenges and changes to prototype irradiation; - Trial irradiation of LEU foil target in HIFAR; - Future target and rig development program at ANSTO. (author)

  3. Variation of neutron yield from a titanium-tritide target during deuterium beam bombardment

    In the laboratory simulation of D-T fusion breeder blankets, 14 MeV neutrons are produced by the bombardment of a titanium-tritide target with deuterium ions, using accelerating voltages up to 500 keV and beam currents ranging from micro to milliamperes. For the accurate determination of tritium breeding ratios in the experimental assemblies, an absolute determination of the total neutron yield over the irradiation period is required. The theoretical and experimental methods used to determine the ion composition of the deuterium beam, the changing absolute yields, and energy distributions of the neutrons emitted from the target during prolonged irradiation are described, using the AAEC 14 MeV neutron generator as a typical example. Analysis of the measured data identified two ion species in the beam of the neutron generator. It was shown that after a 21-hour irradiation of the target with a 250 μA beam (18.5C) at 200 kV, the neutron output from the D-T reaction dropped from an initial value of 2 x 1010 to 4 x 108 neutrons per second. The integrated neutron output over this period was estimated to be 2.05 x 1014, of which about 24 per cent originated from the interaction of monatomic ions and 75 per cent from diatomic ions; less than one per cent arose from D-D reaction

  4. ANSTO`s radioactive waste management policy. Preliminary environmental review

    Levins, D.M.; Airey, P.; Breadner, B.; Bull, P.; Camilleri, A.; Dimitrovski, L.; Gorman, T.; Harries, J.; Innes, R.; Jarquin, E.; Jay, G.; Ridal, A.; Smith, A.

    1996-05-01

    For over forty years, radioactive wastes have been generated by ANSTO (and its predecessor, the AAEC) from the operation of nuclear facilities, the production of radioisotopes for medical and industrial use, and from various research activities. the quantities and activities of radioactive waste currently at Lucas Heights are very small compared to many other nuclear facilities overseas, especially those in countries with nuclear power program. Nevertheless, in the absence of a repository for nuclear wastes in Australia and guidelines for waste conditioning, the waste inventory has been growing steadily. This report reviews the status of radioactive waste management at ANSTO, including spent fuel management, treatment of effluents and environmental monitoring. It gives details of: relevant legislative, regulatory and related requirements; sources and types of radioactive waste generated at ANSTO; waste quantities and activities (both cumulative and annual arisings); existing practices and procedures for waste management and environmental monitoring; recommended broad strategies for dealing with radioactive waste management issues. Detailed proposals on how the recommendations should be implemented is the subject of a companion internal document, the Radioactive Waste Management Action Plan 1996-2000 which provides details of the tasks to be undertaken, milestones and resource requirements. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 18 figs.

  5. Recent experimental and assessment studies of uranium enrichment by ion exchange

    Chemical exchange methods for isotopic separation have been used successfully for only a limited number of light elements. However, a chemical exchange process involving uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) in acid solution in contact with an ion exchange resin has recently been claimed by Japanese workers to be feasible for the production of slightly enriched uranium (3% 235U). The technical and economic feasibility of such a process was examined by A.A.E.C. staff. Exchange rates of uranium(IV) and uranium(VI) species in perchlorate and sulphate solutions in the presence and absence of ion exchange resins were published. The single stage separation factor for a process has been found to be 1.0013. The energy requirement for a conceptual chemical plant was estimated to be about 1100 kWh/SWU and this value lies between that for plants based on the gaseous diffusion and centrifuge enrichment processes. The capital cost was estimated to be very much higher than the costs for either of the other processes and would not be reduced sufficiently to become attractive even if the expensive electrolytic reduction stage could be replaced by a chemical reduction stage. It is therefore concluded on the basis of current technology that the ion exchange process is not an economically attractive method of uranium enrichment. (author)

  6. The third conference on nuclear science and engineering in Australia, 1999. Conference handbook

    The Australian Nuclear Association has organised this third Conference in a biennial series with the theme: 'A Nuclear Renaissance'. The theme is based on our perception that nuclear science and technology is on the threshold of a major expansion after a period which many thought was the onset of the Dark Ages after the old Australian Atomic Energy Commission was abolished in 1987. Fortunately, nuclear science and technology was not abolished and the AAEC was replaced by the government with ANSTO, which the government has continued to support strongly. The most recent expression of this support has been the approval of nearly $300 millions in investment in a major Replacement Research Reactor to be operational in about 2005, and the establishment of the new regulatory body ARPANSA. The conference aims to review all of the major nuclear issues of importance to Australia as we enter the 21st Century. These include: uranium mining and upgrading; the management of nuclear waste; the plans for the future by the government's major nuclear research laboratory, operated by ANSTO, including plans for constructing a major Replacement Research Reactor at Lucas Heights, the status of safeguards and nuclear regulation in Australia now that the government has set up the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, and the many and varied applications of nuclear science in Australia. The conference also presents the plans for nuclear research by the universities through the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, and features in particular the work at the Australian National University in Canberra

  7. The rotamak - contributions from ANSTO and Flinders University

    Full text: The investigation of plasma/field configurations of the compact torus variety is of current interest in the field of fusion research. Two configurations of this genre are the field reversed configuration (FRC), which does not have an externally applied toroidal magnetic field, and the spherical tokamak (ST) which possesses such a field. Both of these compact torus concepts, as studied outside Australia, suffer from the very serious disadvantage that they are inherently pulsed devices; the toroidal plasma current is not maintained indefinitely. The rotamak is a compact torus configuration having the unique and distinctive feature that the toroidal plasma current is driven in a steady-state, non-inductive fashion by means of the application of a rotating magnetic field. In its basic form, the rotamak is operated as an FRC. However, by means of a simple modification, a steady toroidal magnetic field can be added to the basic rotamak apparatus and the configuration then becomes that of an ST. The rotamak concept was conceived and developed in Australia and the bulk of investigations in this field, both theoretical and experimental, have been undertaken at Flinders University (1979-1998) and AAEC/ANSTO (1982-1988). This talk will cover the history of the project in this country, will dwell on the marvelous interaction which flourished between the two research groups and will finish with the news that the rotamak concept has been enthusiastically embraced by fusion research teams in the United States

  8. Gamma Radiation Facilities at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission Research Establishment

    The used fuel elements from the AAEC experimental reactor HIFAR are to be stored on removal from the reactor for a period of about 40 days in a water-cooled storage cell. During this period, the gamma activity and thermal heating will fall by a factor of about ten. The average gamma activity of each fuel element during storage is about 105 curies. The fuel elements will be stacked vertically during storage in a regular square pattern with a total of 48 positions at 7 in. pitch. The centre position has been substituted by an irradiation thimble 9 in. in diameter. This thimble is closely surrounded by eight symmetrically placed fuel element positions. The storage capacity is somewhat larger than the normal requirement so that there will usually be considerable choice in the arrangement and selection of fuel elements in the position close to the thimble. The experimental irradiation space is a volume about 7 in. in diameter and 2 ft. 6 in. long. Material for irradiation is to be attached to a shielding plug and will be introduced into and moved from the thimble by the reactor vertical handling flask. The shielding plug has a number of access tubes which will permit heating or cooling of the irradiated material, temperature measurement, control of atmosphere and withdrawal of liquid or gaseous reaction products. The extra expense of adding this unit to the storage cell was very small and since it uses the radiation from the fuel elements during compulsory storage, radiation costs are virtually zero. It should also give valuable information on the feasibility of using fuel elements during such storage periods as radiation sources for large scale operations. The paper also describes the radiation facilities available directly from HIFAR and plans for using fuel elements after cropping as a further radiation source. (author)