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Sample records for aa5052 aluminium alloy

  1. Electrochemical and DFT studies of quinoline derivatives on corrosion inhibition of AA5052 aluminium alloy in NaCl solution

    Wang, Dapeng; Yang, Dong; Zhang, Daquan; Li, Kang; Gao, Lixin; Lin, Tong

    2015-12-01

    Two quinoline derivatives, 8-aminoquinoline (8-AQ) and 8-nitroquinoline (8-NQ), have been used as inhibitors to examine their corrosion protection effect on AA5052 aluminium alloy in 3% NaCl solution. The weight-loss and electrochemical measurement have indicated that 8-AQ and 8-NQ play as anodic inhibitor to retard the anodic electrochemical process. SEM/EDS analysis clearly shows that 8-AQ and 8-NQ form a protective film on the AA5052 alloy surface. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation confirmed the formation of strong hybridization between the p-orbital of reactive sites in the inhibitor molecules and the sp-orbital of the Al atom. 8-aminoquinoline and 8-nitroquinoline may be useful as effective corrosion inhibitors for aluminium alloys.

  2. Microstructural evaluation of friction stir weld of dissimilar aluminium alloys AA 5052 and AA 6061

    Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid state joining technique is being extensively used in the similar as well as dissimilar joining of Al, Mg, Cu, Ti and their alloys. In this process, the plates to be welded are abutted and a non-consumable tool rotating at higher speeds is plunged through the thickness at the joint. It is then moved along the joint line, frictionally heating the material which leads to material softening, which then easily moves behind the tool and forms a solid state weld as the stirred material is consolidated. With this process a wide range of combination of dissimilar materials (which previously were considered incompatible for welding) is possible today. Friction stir welding trials of 5 mm thick plates of two aluminium alloys - AA 6061 and AA 5052 were carried out at tool rotation speeds of 1120 and 1400 rpm and tool traverse speeds of 60, 80 and 100 mm/min. The transverse cross section of the weld was used for optical as well as electron microscopy observations. A microhardness profile was obtained in the mid- thickness region across the weld structure using a load of 50 g and a 10 s dwell time. For analytical microscopy, a Cameca SX100 electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA) equipped with three wavelength dispersive spectrometers was used. Standard tensile specimen having gauge length of 25 mm and gauge width of 5 mm were cut using electro discharge machine (EDM) from the welded plates by keeping the tensile axis perpendicular to the welding direction and were tested using screw driven Instron machine at a strain rate of 10-4 sec-1. The fractured surfaces were further examined using secondary electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, a brief description of FSW of dissimilar aluminium alloys is enumerated

  3. The growing rate and the type of corrosion products of aluminium alloy AA 5052 in deionized water at temperature up to 3000C

    The process of corrosion concerning the aluminum alloy AA5052 in deionized water at temperatures of 400C, 800C, 900C, 1400C, 2000C and 2800C is studied. The following methods are used: periodic weighting of the test samples; analysis by neutronic activation of the corrosion products dissolved in water; thermogravimetric and thermodiferential analysis; analysis through X-ray diffraction and from metalografic observations of the crystals produced in the corrosion process; an optical microscope using polarized and normal light and a scanning electronic microscope. The activation energies are calculated for the corrosion film formation, and for the dissolution of the corrosion products in the deionized water. (ARHC)

  4. Quantitative analysis of texture evolution of cold-rolled direct-chill-cast and continuous-cast AA5052 and AA5182 aluminum alloys during isothermal annealing

    Zhao, Y. M.; Liu, W. C.; Morris, J. G.

    2004-11-01

    The as-received direct-chill-cast (DC) and continuous-cast (CC) AA5052 and AA5182 hot bands were preheated at 454 °C for 4 hours, followed by cold rolling to an 80 pct reduction in thickness. The texture evolution of these cold-rolled samples during isothermal annealing was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The variation in texture volume fractions with annealing time was quantitatively analyzed by using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation. The differences in recrystallization textures between the AA5052 and AA5182 alloys and between the DC and CC alloys were compared. It was found that the AA5052 alloy possessed a stronger cube recrystallization texture than the AA5182 alloy for the DC and CC materials. The recrystallization textures of the AA5182 alloy were affected strongly by the annealing temperature. As the annealing temperature increased, the cube recrystallization texture strengthened, whereas the R texture weakened. The annealing temperature had little influence on the recrystallization textures of the AA5052 alloy. The DC AA5052 and 5182 alloys also exhibited stronger cube recrystallization textures than the corresponding CC alloys. For the DC and CC AA5052 alloys, the n value in the JMAK-type equation increased with an increase in the annealing temperature, while the n values varied only slightly with the annealing temperature for the DC and CC AA5182 alloys.

  5. Effect of temperature on the anodizing process of aluminum alloy AA 5052

    Theohari, S.; Kontogeorgou, Ch.

    2013-11-01

    The effect of temperature (10-40 °C) during the anodizing process of AA 5052 for 40 min in 175 g/L sulfuric acid solution at constant voltage (15 V) was studied in comparison with pure aluminum. The incorporated magnesium species in the barrier layer result in the further increase of the minimum current density passed during anodizing, as the temperature increases, by about 42% up to 30 °C and then by 12% up to 40 °C. Then during the anodizing process for 40 min a blocking effect on oxide film growth was gradually observed as the temperature increased until 30 °C. The results of EDAX analysis on thick films reveal that the mean amount of the magnesium species inside the film is about 50-70% less than that in the bulk alloy, while it is higher at certain locations adjacent to the film surface at 30 °C. The increase of anodizing temperature does not influence the porosity of thin films (formed for short times) on pure aluminum, while it reduces it on the alloy. At 40 °C the above mentioned blocking effects disappear. It means that the presence of magnesium species causes an impediment to the effect of temperature on iss, on the film thickness and on the porosity of thin films, only under conditions where film growth takes place without significant loss of the anodizing charge to side reactions.

  6. Texture evolution rate in continuous cast AA5052 aluminum alloy during single pass hot rolling

    Continuous cast AA5052 Al alloy slab was hot rolled by a single pass with entrance and exit temperatures of 482 deg. C and 400 deg. C, respectively. The thickness of the slab was reduced from 21.5 mm to 8.6 mm. The evolution of texture and microstructure during the rolling was investigated by X-ray diffraction, SEM and optical microscopy. It was found that the grain structure changed from equiaxed to elongated in shape in the alloy at a rolling reduction over 38%. With increase in rolling reduction, the ?-fiber texture was increased rapidly in the expense of the remainder component, while the rest of the texture components were only changed slightly during the hot rolling. The evolution of different texture components during the hot rolling process was quantified using modified Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov-type equations. The corresponding evolution rates were also computed from these equations. Among the three main components (copper, brass and S) in ?-fiber, the copper component was the strongest, having the fastest evolution rate, and S the weakest, during hot rolling

  7. The optimum combination of tool rotation rate and traveling speed for obtaining the preferable corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA5052 aluminum alloy

    Highlights: No reports available on study both corrosionmechanical properties of FSWed AA5052. Optimum corrosion and mechanical properties of SZ were attained at (? = 400, ? = 250). An extremely fine grain structure was obtained in the SZ at (? = 400, ? = 250). At (? = 400, ? = 250), further grain reinforcement in SZ accelerated the passivation. Grain reinforcement in weld at (? = 400, ? = 250) improved the mechanical properties. - Abstract: This study attempts to find an optimum combination of the welding tool rotation rate (?) and traveling speed (?), concerning the corrosion and mechanical properties of Friction Stir Welded (FSWed) AA5052 Aluminum alloy. The effect of the tool speeds on the FSWed AA5052 are investigated via potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential (OCP) monitoring, test of the susceptibility to intergranular corrosion, weight loss, tension and micro-hardness tests. Optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were employed for studying the morphology and analyzing the probable intergranular attacks. It was found that by increasing ? up to 200 mm/min at ? = 400 rpm, the microstructural evolution is in a way that the finer grain structure intensifies the anodic reactivity of the Stir Zone (SZ). At faster ? (about 250 mm/min), further grain reinforcement resulted in a predominant effect of passive film formation and thereby an unexpected high corrosion resistant SZ with a proper mechanical characteristics was attained

  8. Effect of tool rotational speed on force generation, microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al–Mg–Cr–Mn (AA 5052-O) alloy

    Highlights: • 3 mm thick AA 5052-O alloy plates were successfully joined by FSW process. • The joint was produced at 1000 rpm yielded a maximum tensile strength of 132 MPa. • The dissolution of β-Mg2Al3 intermetallic phases of FSWed joints were reported. • Different axial forces acted on welding tool during welding were investigated. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) between 3 mm thick AA 5052-O aluminum alloy plates was investigated in the present study. Different welded specimens were produced by employing a constant tool traverse speed of 120 mm/min and by varying rotating speeds from 800 to 3000 rpm. The welded joints were characterized by its appearances, microstructural and mechanical properties at room temperature. The measurement of different forces acted on the tool during the FSW of AA 5052-O plates provided a significant insight to determine the quality of the welded joints. From the appearances of the welded joints it was evident that, except the tool rotational speed of 3000 rpm all other rotational speeds produced sound welded joints with smooth surface. The joint produced at 1000 rpm yielded a maximum tensile strength of 132 MPa which was 74% of the base material strength. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the stir zone suggested that, β-Mg2Al3 intermetallic phases of the base material were mechanically fractured, smeared and mixed to different geometries due to tool stirring. The dissolution and redistribution of β-Mg2Al3 second phase particles in the stir zone had a considerable effect on the reduction of the tensile strength of the welded joints. The reduction in hardness at the nugget zone (NZ) of the welded joints under different tool rotational speeds could be attributed to the dislocation of Mg-rich phases and segregation of Mg solute atoms at grain boundaries, which drew solute Mg atoms away from the α-aluminum matrix

  9. The Effect of Fe Content on Recrystallization Texture Evolution, Microstructures, and Earing of Cold Rolled Continuous Cast AA5052 Alloy Sheets

    Wen, Xiyu; Wen, Wei; Zhang, Yuanbin; Xu, Bin; Zeng, Qiang; Liu, Yansheng; Tong, Lirong; Zhai, Tongguang; Li, Zhong

    2016-04-01

    Continuous cast AA5052 Al alloys, containing iron contents of 0.120 and 0.466 wt pct, respectively, were cold rolled and annealed at temperatures ranging from 505 K to 755 K (232 °C to 482 °C). The recrystallization textures in the two alloys were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and electron back scatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that higher Fe content promoted the formation of deformation textures and retarded the formation of cube texture in the two alloys. Most cube-oriented grains formed in both these alloys were associated with coarse particles, whereas the P—{011}, R—{123}, and Goss or randomly oriented grains were often related to particle stringers consisted of fine particles along the rolling direction. It was also found that the volume fraction of each texture component was a Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov-type function of annealing temperature in the two alloys. The texture evolution rate with the annealing temperature was calculated from this function and used to determine the onset temperature of each recrystallization texture component.

  10. A crystallographic texture perspective formability investigation of aluminium 5052 alloy sheets at various annealing temperatures

    Formability, an important mechanical property of the sheet metal is strongly reliant on the crystallographic texture. Consequently deep drawability is also influenced. This paper deals with the perspective of crystallographic texture and its relevance with the formability of AA 5052 aluminium alloy sheet of 2 mm thickness annealed at four different temperatures namely 200 deg. C, 250 deg. C, 300 deg. C and 350 deg. C. Forming limit diagrams determined and plotted experimentally, their crystallographic textures obtained and their ODF plots prepared by X-ray diffraction were analyzed. The Forming limit diagrams (FLDs) of AA 5052 sheets annealed under different temperatures were examined with respect to the crystallographic texture point of view. The FLDs and crystallographic textures were then correlated with normal anisotropy of the sheet metal. It was found that the formability of aluminium alloy AA 5052 annealed at 350 deg. C possessed good formability, optimal texture and high normal anisotropy value

  11. Resistance Spot Welding of AA5052 Sheet Metal of Dissimilar Thickness

    Mat Din, N. A.; Zuhailawati, H.; Anasyida, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Resistance spot welding of dissimilar thickness of AA5052 aluminum alloy was performed in order to investigate the effect of metal thickness on the weldment strength. Resistance spot welding was done using a spot welder machine available in Coraza Systems Sdn Bhd using a hemispherical of chromium copper electrode tip with radius of 6.00 mm under 14 kA of current and 0.02 bar of pressure for all thickness combinations. Lap joint configuration was produced between 2.0 mm thick sheet and 1.2 - 3.2 mm thick sheet, respectively. Microstructure of joint showed asymmetrical nugget shape that was larger on the thicker side indicating larger molten metal volume. Joint 2.0 mm x 3.2 mm sheets has the lowest hardness in both transverse direction and through thickness direction because less heat left in the weld nugget. The microstructure shows that this joint has coarse grains of HAZ. As thickness of sheet metal increased, the failure load of the joints increased. However, there was no linear correlation established between joint strength and metal thickness due to different shape of fusion zone in dissimilar thickness sheet metal.

  12. Wear and Friction Behavior of in-situ AA5052/ZrB2Composites under Dry Sliding Conditions

    N. Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In-situ AA5052/ZrB2 composites with different volume percentage (0,3, 6 and 9 vol.% of zirconium diboride (ZrB2 particles were successfully prepared by in-situ reaction between two inorganic salts potassium-hexa-fluoro-zirconate (K2ZrF6, potassium tetra-fluoro-borate (KBF4 and aluminum alloy AA5052 at 860 °C. The composites were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD for the confirmation of in-situ formed ZrB2 particles. Optical microscopy examination reveals the grain refinement of Al-rich grains due to in-situ formed ZrB2 particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS studies were carried out to reveal the morphology, distribution and secondary confirmation of ZrB2 particles in the matrix. Transmission electron microscope (TEM analysis was done to reveal the crystal structure, interfacial characteristics and dislocations around the ZrB2 particles. Hardness of composites improved significantly as compared to base alloy. Dry sliding wear and friction study of composites was carried out at room temperature on pin-on-disc apparatus. The results revealed that cumulative weight loss of both the base alloy and composites shows a linear relationship with sliding distance, however, change in slope is observed at certain intervals. Wear rate decrease with formation of in-situ ZrB2 particles and improves as the reinforcement amount increases, whereas, coefficient of friction of composites follows a reverse trend. Worn surfaces of pin samples reveal mild-oxidative and severe-metallic wear under scanning electron microscope.

  13. Soldering of aluminium alloys

    A literature survey about soldering in general and aluminium alloys soldering in particular is presented. The existing methods of soldering aluminium alloys are described. These include soldering with flux, soldering after preliminary plating, vacuum brazipressure and temperature (NTP), sample age calculation based on 14C half life of 5570 and 5730 years, age correction for NTP, dendrochronological corrections and the relative radiocarbon concentration. All results are given with one standard deviation. Input data test (Chauvenet's criterion), gas purity test, standard deviation test and test of the data processor are also included in the program. (author)

  14. Effect of ZrB2 particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hybrid (ZrB2 + Al3Zr)/AA5052 insitu composites

    Present study outlines the effect of ZrB2 particles variation on the morphology and mechanical properties of (ZrB2+Al3Zr)/AA5052Al alloy composites. Composites with varying amount of ZrB2 particles have been produced by direct melt reaction (DMR) technique. These composites have been characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the presence of ZrB2 and Al3Zr particles. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to understand the morphology. To see the effect of ZrB2 variation on mechanical properties, hardness and tensile properties have been evaluated. The XRD and EDS results confirm the successful formation of ZrB2 particles in matrix of AA5052Al alloy. SEM and TEM studies exhibit that ZrB2 particles are mostly in hexagonal and some rectangular shape while Al3Zr particles are in polyhedron and rectangular shapes. Most of ZrB2 particles are within a size range of 10–190 nm. Interface region is free of any impurity. OM studies show grain refinement of AA5052Al alloy matrix with formation of second phase ZrB2 particles. Tensile results indicate that the UTS and YS improve up to 3 vol.% of ZrB2 but beyond this composition a decreasing trend is observed. The strength coefficient increases with increase in ZrB2 particles up to 3 vol.% in the Al3Zr/Al alloy composites, whereas strain hardening decreases. While beyond 3 vol.% ZrB2 particles in the Al3Zr/Al alloy composite, opposite trend is observed in strength coefficient and strain hardening. Percentage elongation also improves with 1vol.% ZrB2, but further addition of ZrB2 shows an adverse effect. However, a continuous increasing trend has been observed in bulk hardness. Fracture studies show facets of Al3Zr particles and dimples of matrix, but with inclusion of ZrB2 dimple size decreases. Increase in ZrB2 leads to quasi cleavage fracture and debonding of ZrB2 clusters. - Highlights: • The (ZrB2 + Al3Zr)/AA5052 composites were produced by direct melt reaction. • The morphology of matrix and Al3Zr particles changed with ZrB2 vol.%. • Facets of Al3Zr were observed in TEM studies. • UTS and YS of the composites improved up to 3 vol.% of ZrB2 particles. • Ductility improved by about 50% with 1 vol.% ZrB2 particles

  15. Silicon Alloying On Aluminium Based Alloy Surface

    Silicon alloying on surface of aluminium based alloy was carried out using electron beam. This is performed in order to enhance tribological properties of the alloy. Silicon is considered most important alloying element in aluminium alloy, particularly for tribological components. Prior to silicon alloying. aluminium substrate were painted with binder and silicon powder and dried in a furnace. Silicon alloying were carried out in a vacuum chamber. The Silicon alloyed materials were assessed using some techniques. The results show that silicon alloying formed a composite metal-non metal system in which silicon particles are dispersed in the alloyed layer. Silicon content in the alloyed layer is about 40% while in other place is only 10.5 %. The hardness of layer changes significantly. The wear properties of the alloying alloys increase. Silicon surface alloying also reduced the coefficient of friction for sliding against a hardened steel counter face, which could otherwise be higher because of the strong adhesion of aluminium to steel. The hardness of the silicon surface alloyed material dropped when it underwent a heating cycle similar to the ion coating process. Hence, silicon alloying is not a suitable choice for use as an intermediate layer for duplex treatment

  16. Weld Quality in Aluminium Alloys

    Deekhunthod, Rujira Ninni

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this project are to present an understanding in what happens when aluminium-(Al) alloys are welded, and to investigate how the Mg-, Si- and Cr-contents in AA6005A influence the weld strength and cracking susceptibility. It is known that heat from welding affects the mechanical properties (strength) of the material. Different heat cycles during welding are one of the main reasons that the strength varies. Welding can cause various phenomena such as decreased strength, porosity, def...

  17. A comparison of microstructure, texture and formability of direct chill cast versus continuous cast aluminum-magnesium alloys

    Zhao, Yumin

    In this dissertation, microstructure and texture evolution of Al-Mg alloys produced by direct chill (DC) cast and continuous cast processes (CC) during thermo-mechanical processing were compared and the differences in formability between DC and CC alloys were identified. At the same time, the underlining mechanisms that cause the difference in structure, texture and formability between DC and CC alloys were analyzed. The recrystallization temperature of the DC AA5052 hot band was about 55°C lower than that of the CC AA5052 hot band. After complete recrystallization, DC AA5052 hot band possessed a stronger cube component than the CC AA5052 hot band. This result was associated with the particle structures of DC and CC AA5052 hot bands. Two different phase particles, Al6((Mn,Fe) and Mg2Si, existed in the DC and CC AA5052 hot bands. CC AA5052 hot band contained more Mg2Si particles than did the DC AA5052 hot band due to the absence of homogenization of the CC material before hot rolling. Mg2Si particles were easily dissolved at high treatment temperatures. After preheating at 454°C for 4 hours, the particle density in the preheated CC AA5052 hot band is closer to that in DC AA5052 alloy due to the dissolution of the Mg2Si particles. Therefore, the differences on recrystallization behaviors of the 80% cold rolled materials decreased, if the DC and CC materials were preheated at 454°C for 4 hours before cold rolling. If the as-received DC and CC AA5052 hot bands were directly cold rolled to 80% reduction, the cold rolled CC AA5052 alloy had a higher recrystallization temperature and a weaker cube recrystallization texture than the cold rolled DC AA5052 alloy. There still existed differences in texture evolution during cold rolling and isothermal annealing between DC and CC AA5052 and AA5182 materials, although the preheat treatment decreased the differences in particle structures and recrystallization temperature between DC and CC materials. Texture evolution during cold rolling and isothermal annealing was quantitatively analyzed by Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) type equations, which allow the precise prediction of texture of cold rolled and annealed aluminum sheets. CC materials show good mechanical isotropy, while DC materials possess superior bendability and stretchability at O-temper condition.

  18. Inhibition properties and adsorption behavior of imidazole and 2-phenyl-2-imidazoline on AA5052 in 1.0 M HCl solution

    Highlights: • IM and 2-PI show corrosion inhibition for AA5052 in HCl solution. • Synergistic effect between IM and 2-PI is observed and its mechanism is assumed. • Adsorption properties are estimated using ΔGads0, ΔHads0 and Ea, respectively. • Adsorption structures and inhibition mechanism for AA5052 are proposed. - Abstract: The inhibition behavior of imidazole (IM) and 2-phenyl-2-imidazoline (2-PI) for AA5052 was investigated by weight loss, electrochemical, contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that IM and 2-PI can inhibit the corrosion of AA5052 and the inhibition efficiency of 2-PI is higher. The adsorption properties of them are estimated using ΔGads0, ΔHads0 and Ea. The results reveal that the adsorption processes are exothermic reactions mainly by a monolayer chemisorption mechanism, and follow Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The differences of the monolayer adsorption structure between IM and 2-PI on AA5052 surface are analyzed, and the inhibition mechanisms are proposed

  19. Effect of ZrB{sub 2} particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of hybrid (ZrB{sub 2} + Al{sub 3}Zr)/AA5052 insitu composites

    Gautam, Gaurav, E-mail: gauravgautamm1988@gmail.com; Mohan, Anita, E-mail: amohan.app@iitbhu.ac.in

    2015-11-15

    Present study outlines the effect of ZrB{sub 2} particles variation on the morphology and mechanical properties of (ZrB{sub 2}+Al{sub 3}Zr)/AA5052Al alloy composites. Composites with varying amount of ZrB{sub 2} particles have been produced by direct melt reaction (DMR) technique. These composites have been characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to confirm the presence of ZrB{sub 2} and Al{sub 3}Zr particles. Optical microscopy (OM) and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to understand the morphology. To see the effect of ZrB{sub 2} variation on mechanical properties, hardness and tensile properties have been evaluated. The XRD and EDS results confirm the successful formation of ZrB{sub 2} particles in matrix of AA5052Al alloy. SEM and TEM studies exhibit that ZrB{sub 2} particles are mostly in hexagonal and some rectangular shape while Al{sub 3}Zr particles are in polyhedron and rectangular shapes. Most of ZrB{sub 2} particles are within a size range of 10–190 nm. Interface region is free of any impurity. OM studies show grain refinement of AA5052Al alloy matrix with formation of second phase ZrB{sub 2} particles. Tensile results indicate that the UTS and YS improve up to 3 vol.% of ZrB{sub 2} but beyond this composition a decreasing trend is observed. The strength coefficient increases with increase in ZrB{sub 2} particles up to 3 vol.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr/Al alloy composites, whereas strain hardening decreases. While beyond 3 vol.% ZrB{sub 2} particles in the Al{sub 3}Zr/Al alloy composite, opposite trend is observed in strength coefficient and strain hardening. Percentage elongation also improves with 1vol.% ZrB{sub 2}, but further addition of ZrB{sub 2} shows an adverse effect. However, a continuous increasing trend has been observed in bulk hardness. Fracture studies show facets of Al{sub 3}Zr particles and dimples of matrix, but with inclusion of ZrB{sub 2} dimple size decreases. Increase in ZrB{sub 2} leads to quasi cleavage fracture and debonding of ZrB{sub 2} clusters. - Highlights: • The (ZrB{sub 2} + Al{sub 3}Zr)/AA5052 composites were produced by direct melt reaction. • The morphology of matrix and Al{sub 3}Zr particles changed with ZrB{sub 2} vol.%. • Facets of Al{sub 3}Zr were observed in TEM studies. • UTS and YS of the composites improved up to 3 vol.% of ZrB{sub 2} particles. • Ductility improved by about 50% with 1 vol.% ZrB{sub 2} particles.

  20. Recent developments in advanced aircraft aluminium alloys

    Highlights: • To compete with composites, performance of aluminium alloys should be increased. • Al–Li alloys have higher strength, fracture and fatigue/corrosion resistance. • Improvements of aerospace Al alloys are due to optimised solute content and ratios. • In selecting new materials, there should be no reduction in the level of safety. • The use of hybrid materials could provide additional opportunities for Al alloys. - Abstract: Aluminium alloys have been the primary material for the structural parts of aircraft for more than 80 years because of their well known performance, well established design methods, manufacturing and reliable inspection techniques. Nearly for a decade composites have started to be used more widely in large commercial jet airliners for the fuselage, wing as well as other structural components in place of aluminium alloys due their high specific properties, reduced weight, fatigue performance and corrosion resistance. Although the increased use of composite materials reduced the role of aluminium up to some extent, high strength aluminium alloys remain important in airframe construction. Aluminium is a relatively low cost, light weight metal that can be heat treated and loaded to relatively high level of stresses, and it is one of the most easily produced of the high performance materials, which results in lower manufacturing and maintenance costs. There have been important recent advances in aluminium aircraft alloys that can effectively compete with modern composite materials. This study covers latest developments in enhanced mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, and high performance joining techniques. The mechanical properties on newly developed 2000, 7000 series aluminium alloys and new generation Al–Li alloys are compared with the traditional aluminium alloys. The advantages and disadvantages of the joining methods, laser beam welding and friction stir welding, are also discussed

  1. Effect of hydrogen on aluminium and aluminium alloys: A review

    Ambat, Rajan; Dwarakadasa, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    Susceptibility of aluminium and its alloys towards hydrogen embrittlement has been well established. Still a lot of confusion exists on the question of transport of hydrogen and its possible role in stress corrosion cracking. This paper reviews some of the fundamental properties of hydrogen in...... aluminium and its alloys and its effect on mechanical properties. The importance of hydrogen embrittlement over anodic dissolution to explain the stress corrosion cracking mechanism of these alloys is also examined in considerable detail. The various experimental findings concerning the link between...

  2. Shot peening of aluminium alloys

    Shot peening is a process of cold-hammering where a metallic surface is pelted with spherical grains. Each grain bumping into the surface acts as a hammer head and creates a small crater. The overlapping of these craters produces a residual compression layer just underneath the surface. It is well known that cracks cannot spread in a compression zone. In most cases of fatigue rupture and stress corrosion cracks propagate from the surface towards the inside so shot peening allows a longer lifetime of castings. Moreover most materials present a better resistance due to the cold-hammering effect of shot peening. Metallic surfaces can be treated in workshops or directly on site. Typical pieces that undergo shot peening on site are storing tanks, gas and steam turbines, tubes of steam generators and piping in oil or nuclear or chemical industries. This article describes shot peening from a theoretical and general point of view and presents the application to aluminium-lithium alloys. In the case of aluminium alloys shot peening can be used to shape the piece (peen-forming). (A.C.)

  3. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase γ, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase α) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl2) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl2 particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  4. Investigation & Analysis of Different Aluminium Alloys t

    Nibedita Sethi*¹,; Ajit Senapati²

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloy LM-29, A-356 AND A-6060 was fabricated in sand casting method. Mach inability of aluminium alloy LM-29, A-356 AND A-6060 was investigated and evaluate the mach inability studying the different parameter such as cutting force, surface roughness, chip thickness, and power consumption during turning at different cutting speed and constant depth of cut and feed rate. In this paper also studies the mechanical properties means hardness, density and tensile strength o...

  5. Study on hardening mechanisms in aluminium alloys

    P. K. Mandal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Al-Zn-Mg alloys are most commonly used age-hardenable aluminium alloys. The hardening mechanism is further enhanced in addition of Sc. Sc additions to aluminium alloys are more promising. Due to the heterogeneous distribution of nano-sized Al3Sc precipitates hardening effect can be accelerated. Mainly, highlight on hardening mechanism in Al-Zn-Mg alloys with Sc effect is to study. In addition, several characterisations have been done to age-hardening measurements at elevated temperatures from 120oC to 180 oC. The ageing kinetics has also been calculated from Arrhenius equation. Furthermore, friction stir processing (FSP can be introduced to surface modification process and hardened the cast aluminium alloys. In this study, hardening mechanism can be evaluated by Vicker’s hardness measurement and mechanical testing is present task.

  6. Alloys oxidation of aluminium-scandium system

    Alloys and compounds of rare earth metals with aluminium thanks to their high corrosion stability, durability and small specific weight find to apply in various new techniques. On the base of carried out investigation it could be recommend as de oxidizing and alloying compositions containing 15-50 % of scandium as in possession of minimal oxidation

  7. Electron irradiation of dilute aluminium alloys

    Zone-refined aluminium and dilute alloys with silicon and indium have been irradiated inside a high voltage electron microscope. Interstitial dislocation loops nucleated and grew in all samples, but no voids could be observed. The precipitation of silicon was observed during irradiation. The effect of alloying on the loop growth rate is discussed. (author)

  8. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    morphology and growth of oxide film on different intermetallic particles and corrosion behaviour of such alloys.Surface morphology was observed by using FEG-SEM, EDX and FIB-SEM. Metal oxide surface characterization and compositional depth profiling were investigated by using XPS and GD-OES respectively......Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed...... into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium...

  9. Effects of Rolling Reduction and Strength of Composed Layers on Bond Strength of Pure Copper and Aluminium Alloy Clad Sheets Fabricated by Cold Roll Bonding

    Yoji Miyajima; Kotaro Iguchi; Susumu Onaka; Masaharu Kato

    2014-01-01

    Three types of clad sheets, Cu/Al, Cu/AA5052, and Cu/AA5083, were produced by cold roll bonding with the rolling reduction of 50% and 75%. Tensile shear tests which give tensile shear strength were performed in order to assess the bond strength. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on the fractured interface produced by the tensile shear tests, which suggests that the fracture occurs within the Al alloy layer. The tensile shear strengths considering the area fraction of deposit of Al al...

  10. Steam Assisted Accelerated Growth of Oxide Layer on Aluminium Alloys

    Din, Rameez Ud; Yuksel, Serkan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per; Ambat, Rajan

    2013-01-01

    Corrosion resistance of aluminium alloys is related to the composition and morphology of the oxide film on the surface of aluminium. In this paper we investigated the use of steam on the surface modification of aluminium to produce boehmite films. The study reveals a detailed investigation of the...... effect of vapour pressure, structure of intermetallic particles and thickness of boehmite films on the corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloys....

  11. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content; Alliages uranium-aluminium a faible teneur en aluminium

    Cabane, G.; Englander, M.; Lehmann, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Uranium, as obtained after spinning in phase {gamma}, presents an heterogeneous structure with large size grains. The anisotropic structure of the metal leads to an important buckling and surface distortion of the fuel slug which is incompatible with its tubular cladding for nuclear fuel uses. Different treatments have been made to obtain an isotropic structure presenting high thermal stability (laminating, hammering and spinning in phase {alpha}) without success. Alloys of uranium and aluminium with low aluminium content present important advantage in respect of non allied uranium. The introduction of aluminium in the form of intermetallic compound (UAl{sub 2}) gives a better resistance to thermal fatigue. Alloys obtained from raw casting present an improved buckling and surface distortion in respect of pure uranium. This improvement is obtained with uranium containing between 0,15 and 0,5 % of aluminium. An even more improvement in thermal stability is obtained by thermal treatments of these alloys. These new characteristics are explained by the fine dispersion of the UAl{sub 2} particles in uranium. The results after treatments obtained from an alloy slug containing 0,4 % of aluminium show no buckling or surface distortion and no elongation. (M.P.)

  12. Mechanical behaviour of aluminium-lithium alloys

    N Eswara Prasad; A A Gokhale; P Rama Rao

    2003-02-01

    Aluminium-lithium alloys hold promise of providing a breakthrough response to the crying need for lightweight alloys for use as structurals in aerospace applications. Considerable worldwide research has gone into developing a range of these alloys over the last three decades. As a result, substantial understanding has been developed of the microstructure-based micromechanisms of strengthening, of fatigue and fracture as well as of anisotropy in mechanical properties. However, these alloys have not yet greatly displaced the conventionally used denser Al alloys on account of their poorer ductility, fracture toughness and low cycle fatigue resistance. This review aims to summarise the work pertaining to study of structure and mechanical properties with a view to indicate the directions that have been and can be pursued to overcome property limitations.

  13. Perforation of aluminium alloy thin plates

    ANTOINAT, Léonard; Kubler, Régis; BAROU, Jean Luc; VIOT, Philippe; BARRALLIER, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Low velocity perforation of aeronautical aluminium alloy sheets 2024 T3 is studied in this paper. After a literature review on recent experiments and models of plate’s perforation, experimental results for 2 thicknesses (2 mm and 4 mm) of plates are presented. Perforation tests are performed with an instrumented drop test. The striker has a large diameter and a conical shape nose. Two models for perforation are presented and calibrated to bring a better understanding of the experiments. The f...

  14. Neutron irradiation of dilute aluminium alloys

    Aluminium alloys containing up to 0.4% silicon and 0.1% indium were irradiated at various doses up to 1021n/cm2 (E>0.1 MeV) at pile temperature. Indium was found to enhance and silicon to suppress the nucleation of voids. The reasons for this are discussed in terms of possible nucleation processes. The changes in 0.2% proof stress were correlated with the change in microstructure. (Auth.)

  15. FSW characterization of 6082 aluminium alloys sheets

    K. Mroczka; A. Pietras

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6082 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.Design/methodology/approach: The FSW was tried at different speeds and at additional cooling. The welds microstructure was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The mechanical properties of produced connections are discussed regarding their tensile test and microhardness measurements.Findings: The FSW we...

  16. Friction factor of CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys

    N Vidhya Sagar; K S Anand; A C Mithun; K Srinivasan

    2006-12-01

    Friction factor has been determined for CP aluminium and aluminium–zinc alloys using ring compression test at different temperatures from 303 K to 773 K. It is found that CP aluminium exhibits sticking whereas Al–Zn alloys do not exhibit sticking at elevated temperatures. Hot working of Al–Zn alloy is easier than that of CP aluminium at 773 K. As zinc content increases up to 10 wt% the friction factor decreases up to 0.02.

  17. Study of fatigue behaviour of 7475 aluminium alloy

    B B Verma; J D Atkinson; M Kumar

    2001-04-01

    Fatigue properties of a thermomechanically treated 7475 aluminium alloy have been studied in the present investigation. The alloy exhibited superior fatigue life compared to conventional structural aluminium alloys and comparable stage II crack growth rate. It was also noticed that the fatigue crack initiated from a surface grain and the crack extension was dominated by ductile striations. Analysis also revealed that this alloy possessed fracture toughness and tensile properties superior to that noticed with other structural aluminium alloys. Therefore the use of this alloy can safely reduce the overall weight of the aircraft.

  18. Fluidity of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    Di Sabatino, Marisa

    2007-01-01

    The fluidity of an alloy plays a key role for the foundry and transport industries as it affects the quality and soundness of the cast products. Particularly, fluidity influences the reject rates, hence casting costs and the production of thinwalled, hence light components. Fluidity is a complex technological property and depends on many parameters. However, many aspects of this subject are still not fully understood. The motivation of the research presented in this doctoral thesis was, there...

  19. Characterisation of electron beam welded aluminium alloys

    Cam, G.; Ventzke, V.; Dos Santos, J.F.; Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung; Jennequin, G.; Gonthier-Maurin, P. [CNIM, Zone Industrielle de Bregaillon, La Seyne-Sur-Mer (France)

    2001-07-01

    Electron beam (EB) welding was performed on three different aluminium alloys, namely alloys 2024, 5005, and 6061 (plate thickness 5 mm except alloy 5005 which was 3 mm in thickness), to establish the local microstructure-property relationships that would satisfy the service requirements for an electron beam welded aluminium alloy component with weld zone strength undermatching. Microstructural characterisation of the weld metals was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. A very low level of porosity was observed in all EB welds owing to surface cleaning before welding and the vacuum environment of the EB welding process. Extensive microhardness measurements were also conducted in the weld regions of the joints. Global tensile properties and fracture toughness properties (in terms of crack tip opening displacement, CTOD) of the EB joints were determined at room temperature. The effects of strength mismatch and local microstructure on fracture toughness of the EB joints are discussed. The purpose of the present paper is to report the partial results of the European Brite-Euram project ASPOW (assessment of quality of power beam weld joints; BRPR-CT95-0021), which has been undertaken predominantly by industrial companies to establish a European framework for destructive and non-destructive testing and assessment criteria for laser and electron beam welds of over 20 metallic materials. (orig.)

  20. Aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel

    The first part of this report addresses mechanism, kinetics and structure factors of aluminium alloys containing iron and nickel in water and high temperature steam. The studied alloys contain from 0.3 to 0.7 per cent of iron, and 0.2 to 1.0 per cent of nickel. Corrosion resistance and corrosion structure have been studied. The experimental installation, process and samples are presented. Corrosion structures in water at 350 C are identified and discussed (structure of corrosion products, structure of metal-oxide interface), and then in steam at different temperatures (350-395 C). Corrosion kinetics is experimentally studied (weight variation in time) in water at 350 C and in steam at different temperatures. Reactions occurring at over-heated steam (more than 400 C) are studied, and the case of welded alloys is also addressed. The second part addresses the metallurgical mechanism and processes influencing aluminium alloy resistance to corrosion by high temperature water as it appeared that separated phases protect the solid solution through a neighbourhood action. In order to avoid deep local corrosions, it seems necessary to multiply protective phases in an as uniform as possible way. Some processes enabling this result are described. They belong to conventional metallurgy or to powder metallurgy (with sintering and extrusion)

  1. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    B. Bobic; Mitrovic, S.; Babic, M.; I. Bobic

    2010-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion) was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  2. The Mechanism of Dross Formation on Aluminium and Aluminium Magnesium Alloys

    Impey, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    Metal loss is an unavoidable consequence of the large scale melting of aluminium and its alloys. The objective of such processing must be to minimise losses, both from an economic viewpoint and to ensure optimum quality of cast and wrought products. Aluminium losses during melting and casting are primarily due to the formation of dross, a mixture of oxide and melt. Many of the commercially important aluminium alloys contain appreciable levels of magnesium (up to 5%) which...

  3. FSW characterization of 6082 aluminium alloys sheets

    K. Mroczka

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the investigations was to elaborate a set of FSW parameters for connecting 6082 aluminium alloy sheets allowing to produce welds of highest strength.Design/methodology/approach: The FSW was tried at different speeds and at additional cooling. The welds microstructure was studied using optical and scanning electron microscopes. The mechanical properties of produced connections are discussed regarding their tensile test and microhardness measurements.Findings: The FSW welds, aside some zigzag lines connected probably with the incorporation of the surface oxides, were found to be devoid of any macro defects. The weld microstructure showed strong grain refining with the smallest of ~14 μm located in their centre. The highest ultimate tensile strength of such connections of ~230 MPa was obtained for experiments performed at a linear velocity of 710 rpm, rate of rotation 560 mm/min and applied intensive cooling of the joined plates. The welds showed lowest hardness in the centre rising by ~20% at its sides. The friction stir welding connections retain plastic properties of 6082 aluminium alloy presenting ductile fracture.Research limitations/implications: In the further studies bending tests and transmission electron microscopy investigations are planned. Additionally, the stability of microstructure of the welds at higher temperature will be analysed.Practical implications: The elaborated parameters for FSW of 6082 welding can be applied as starting data for industry FSW tests for such alloy.Originality/value: The results of present experiments are adding new information on FSW of the aluminium alloys, especially 6082 type. The applied welding parameters provide good quality of welds.

  4. Corrosion-electrochemical behavior of doped aluminium-manganese alloys

    Present article is devoted to corrosion-electrochemical behavior of doped aluminium-manganese alloys. Thus, the influence of rare earth metals (yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and ytterbium) on corrosion-electrochemical properties of aluminium-manganese alloys (with manganese content 0.2%) in the medium of 3% sodium chloride solution is studied.

  5. Roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy

    Haga, T; M. Mtsuo; D. Kunigo; Hatanaka, Y; R. Nakamuta; H. Watari; S. Kumai

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: of this paper is investigation of the ability of the high speed roll casting of 5182 aluminium alloy. Appropriate twin roll caster to cast the 5182 strip was researched.Design/methodology/approach: Method used in the present study was an unequal diameter twin roll caster and a vertical type high speed twin roll caster equipped with mild steel rolls without parting material.Findings: are that the vertical type high speed twin roll caster was effective to cast 5182 strip at high speed....

  6. Aluminium Alloy Cast Shell Development for Torpedoes

    Vijaya Singh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sand-cast aluminium alloy cylindrical shells were developed for the advanced experimental torpedo applications. The components had intricate geometry, thin-walled sections, and stringent property requirements. The casting defects, such as shrinkage, porosity, incomplete filling of thin sections, cold shuts, inclusions and dimensional eccentricity, etc were found inthe initial castings trials. improvements in casting quality were achieved through modified methodology, selective chilling, risering, and by introducing ceramic-foam filters in the gatingsystem. The heat-treated and machined components met radiographic class I grade C/E standards, mechanical properties to BS1490 specifications, and leakage and hydraulic pressure testrequirements relevant for such applications.

  7. Forming limit diagram and void coalescence analysis of AA5052 coated with molybdenum-based ceramic nanocomposites

    Highlights: • Ceramic nanocomposite was coated using sputtering process. • Studies on fracture using double edge notch tensile geometry. • Adiabatic shear deformation are analyzed during tension. • The void coalescence analysis of ceramic nanocomposite carried. • Potential application in TBC in automobile, aerospace industries, etc. - Abstract: Aluminium 5052 alloy sheets of size 75 × 25 mm and 3 mm thickness with double edge semicircular notches of diameter from 2–8 mm have been coated with MoSi2–SiC nanocomposite coatings by sputtering process. The structural morphology of the ceramic coatings was explored by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The coated and uncoated sheet samples were subjected to tension–compression state of strain up to fracture by varying the notch sizes using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine (UTM). Fracture behaviour studies of the sheets were performed and forming limit diagram (FLD) was drawn. The void coalescence analysis was also carried out by using SEM images and the effect of coating behaviour of combined forming and fracture were analyzed. In the coated sheet, the L/W ratio was very close to 1.0. Thus, no oblate/prolate voids were observed and the heat generated during deformation was retained for longer time and thereby adiabatic shear band formation has occurred with increased formability

  8. TEM microstructure investigations of aluminium alloys used for laser alloying

    K. Labisz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper there are presented results of Transmission Electron Microscope investigation concerning the structure of the AlSi7Cu4 cast aluminium alloy using for alloying and remelting with the high power diode laser (HPDL. There are also presented the results of the thermo-derivative analysis performed using the UMSA (Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyser device, allowing to determine the specific points of the solidifying alloy, what is helpful for phase determination occurred in this alloy. In this work especially the changes of the precipitation type, size and shape were determined.Design/methodology/approach: The investigations were performed using electron microscopy for the microstructure and phases determination. By mind of the transmission electron microscopy, especially selected area diffraction method appliance it was possible to determine the phases occurred in the alloy in the as cast state. The morphology and size of the Mg2Si was also possible to determine as well the lattice parameters for this phase.Findings: : The reason of this work was also to present the laser treatment technology, which will be used for further alloying and remelting with ceramic powders – especially carbides and oxides. Particularly the overview will be directed on the laser power to achieve good layer hardness for protection of this hot work tool steel from losing their work stability and to make the tool surface more resistant to action in external conditions. The structure of the surface laser tray changes in a way, that there are very high roughness of the surface zone and the flatness or geometry changes in an important manner, crucial for further investigation.Research limitations/implications: The aluminium samples were examined metallographically using transmission electron microscope with different image techniques.Practical implications: Developing of new technology with appliance of Al alloys, High Power Diode Laser and diverse ceramic powders will be possible to obtain, based in findings from this research project. Some other investigation should be performed in the future, but the knowledge found in this research concerning the proper process parameters for each type of alloy shows an interesting investigation direction.Originality/value: The combination of metallographic investigation for cast aluminium alloys - including electron microscope investigation - and HPDL treatment parameters makes the investigation very attractive for automobile, aviation industry, and others where aluminium alloys plays an important role.

  9. Lubricated sliding wear behaviour of aluminium alloy composites

    J. C. Walker; Rainforth, W. M.; Jones, H.

    2005-01-01

    Interest in aluminium alloy (Al-alloy) composites as wear resistant materials continues to grow. However, the use of the popular Al-alloy-SiC composite can be limited by the abrasive nature of the SiC, leading to increased counterface wear rates. This study reports new Al-alloy composites that offer high wear resistance, to a level similar to Al-alloy-SiC. Aluminium alloy (2124, 5056) matrix composites reinforced by nominally 15 vol.% of Cr3Si, MoSi2, Ni3Al and SiC particles were prepared by ...

  10. TITANIUM CARBON ALUMINIUM : A NOVEL GRAIN REFINER FOR ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM ALLOYS

    Birch, M.; Cowell, A.

    1987-01-01

    This work explores the possibility of achieving grain size control in aluminium-lithium alloys with the titanium carbon aluminium (TiCAl) master alloys invented at the Technical University of Berlin and developed by London and Scandinavian Metallurgical Co Ltd (LSM). Grain refining tests were conducted on a single batch of 8090 alloy using addition rates of 0.2wt% and 0.4wt% of TiCAl and 3/1 titanium boron aluminium (TiBAl). Other tests using 0.4wt% of binary TiAl gave poor results, showing t...

  11. Local electrochemical behaviour of 7xxx aluminium alloys:

    Andreatta, F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminium alloys of the 7xxx series (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) are susceptible to localized types of corrosion like pitting, intergranular corrosion and exfoliation corrosion. This represents a limitation for the application of these alloys in the aerospace components because localized corrosion might have a negative effect on safety and costs. This PhD thesis investigates the relation between electrochemical behaviour and microstructure of a number of 7xxx aluminium alloys: AA7075, AA7349 and an experime...

  12. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos; Marilene Morelli Serna; Nelson Batista de Lima; Isolda Costa; Jesualdo Luiz Rossi

    2005-01-01

    Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken f...

  13. The dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems

    Present article is devoted to dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems. Therefore the dissolution temperatures of alloys and intermetallics of aluminium-lanthanum and aluminium-cerium systems were defined by means of calorimetry method. The enthalpy of formation of intermetallics of Al-Ce system was defined as well. The regularities in changes of dissolution and formation enthalpy of alloys and intermetallics depending on composition were studied.

  14. Corrosion of Metal-Matrix Composites with Aluminium Alloy Substrate

    B. Bobic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion behaviour of MMCs with aluminium alloy matrix was presented. The corrosion characteristics of boron-, graphite-, silicon carbide-, alumina- and mica- reinforced aluminium MMCs were reviewed. The reinforcing phase influence on MMCs corrosion rate as well as on various corrosion forms (galvanic, pitting, stress corrosion cracking, corrosion fatique, tribocorrosion was discussed. Some corrosion protection methods of aluminium based MMCs were described

  15. Influence of aluminium alloy type on dissimilar friction stir lap welding of aluminium to copper

    Galvão, I; Verdera, D; Gesto, D; Loureiro, A.; Rodrigues, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    A heat-treatable (AA 6082) and a non-heat treatable (AA 5083) aluminium alloys were friction stir lap welded to copper using the same welding parameters. Macro and microscopic analysis of the welds enabled to detect important differences in welding results, according to the aluminium alloy type. Whereas important internal defects, resulting from ineffective materials mixing, were detected for the AA 5083/copper welds, a relatively uniform material mixing was detected in the AA 6082/copper wel...

  16. Examples of liquid metal embrittlement in industrial aluminium alloys

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) phenomena were investigated in two industrial aluminium alloys. Gallium penetration in 7010 alloys was systematically investigated to shed light on the effect of microstructure and plasticity ahead of the crack tip. Hot temperature shortness in 5083 alloy is given as an example of cleavage induced by LME. (authors)

  17. Examples of liquiq metal embrittlement in industrial aluminium alloys

    Bréchet, Y.; Rodine, A.; Véron, M.; Péron, S.; Deschamps, A.

    2002-09-01

    Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) phenomena were investigated in two industrial aluminium alloys. Gallium penetration in 7010 alloys was systematically investigated to shed light on the effect of microstructure and plasticity ahead of the crack tip. Hot temperature shortness in 5083 alloy is given as an example of cleavage induced by LME.

  18. Internal friction in iron-aluminium alloys having a high aluminium content

    By using a torsion pendulum to measure the internal friction of iron-aluminium alloys containing between 25 and 50 atom per cent of aluminium, it has been possible to show the existence of three damping peaks due to interstitial carbon. Their evolution is followed as a function of the carbon content, of the thermal treatment and of the aluminium content. A model based on the preferential occupation of tetrahedral sites is proposed as an interpretation of the results. A study of the Zener peak in these substitution alloys shows also that a part of the short distance disorder existing at high temperatures can be preserved by quenching. (author)

  19. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Ivan Michalec; Milan Marônek

    2013-01-01

    Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  20. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Marini Marno; Ahmad Badri Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Torsional deformation and fatigue behaviour of both solid and thin-walled tubular specimens were made from as-received and heat treated 6061 aluminium alloy were studied. 6061 aluminium alloy have been widely used as a candidate material in automobile, aerospace, aircraft and structural application because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good ductility and others. The differences in cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviours between round and soli...

  1. Ball Pad Mold Electromagnetic Forming Process for Aluminium Alloy Sheet

    Wang, Wen-ping; Wu, Xiang-Dong; Wan, Min; Chen, Xiao-wei; Xiong, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In order to meet requirements of lightweight technology in the field of aerospace, the new forming technology for aluminium alloy skin parts and integral panel are brought to more attention. Based on the principle of electromagnetic forming (EMF) and energy distribution, a new electromagnetic forming process using ball as pad mold for aluminium alloy sheet forming was suggested and test apparatus was designed. The new method was verified by the finite element simulation and exp...

  2. Peculiar features of aluminium alloys welding with electromagnetic stirring

    The application perspectives of aluminium alloys in the atomic energy are shown. Peculiarities of argon-arc welding with alternating current for tube of aluminium alloys, which sould be taken in account at welding equipment design, are described. The ways to improve welding quality by means of current programming by the joint, electromagnetic stirring of the bath, automatic feed of welding wire in continuous and pulse mode are shown

  3. Adhesive Bonding of Aluminium Alloy A5754 by Epoxy Resins

    Ivan Michalec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Joining thin sheets of aluminium and its alloys is a promising area in the field of joining materials. Nowadays, joining methods that do not melt the material itself are increasingly being utilised. This paper deals with adhesive bonding of aluminium alloy A5754 by two-component epoxy resins. Theresults show that joints bonded by Hysol 9466 have appropriate mechanical properties, but that joints bonded by Hysol 9492 have better thermal stability.

  4. A Reaction Coating on Aluminium Alloys by Laser Processing

    Zhou, X.B.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    1993-01-01

    An aluminium oxide layer of 100 µm in thickness has been successfully coated on aluminium alloy 6061 and pure aluminium using a powder mixture of silicon oxide and aluminium by laser processing. A strong Al/Al2O3 interface was formed. The exothermic chemical reaction between SiO2 and Al may promote the metal/oxide wetting and the formation of Al2O3 layer. This new approach of ceramic coating on metals using a chemical reaction of other ceramics with metals may be applied to other systems.

  5. Niobium and aluminium segregation in nickel alloy welds

    The segregation of niobium and aluminium in nickel-niobium and nickel-aluminium binary alloy joints has been studied. The segregation evaluations according to estimation patterns and those of X-ray microspectral analysis of element distribution were compared. A very clearly marked niobium tendency to segregation has been found in nickel binary alloy joints. Aluminium shows an insignificant segregation. Niobium, to a great degree, supresses grain boundary migration and intercrystalline sliding, and reduces hot cracking resistance. Nb and Al segregation data are shown to be in a good agreement with the theoretical ones

  6. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  7. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W. George

    2009-08-01

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  8. Computer modelling of age hardening for cast aluminium alloys

    Wu, Linda; Ferguson, W George, E-mail: ywu034@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, the University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-08-15

    Age hardening, or precipitation hardening, is one of the most widely adopted techniques for strengthening of aluminium alloys. Although various age hardening models have been developed for aluminium alloys, from the large volume of literature reviewed, it appears that the bulk of the research has been concentrated on wrought aluminium alloys, only a few of the established precipitation models have been applied to the casting aluminium alloys. In the present work, there are two modelling methods that have been developed and applied to the casting aluminium alloys A356 and A357. One is based on the Shercliff-Ashby methodology to produce a process model, by which we mean a mathematical relationship between process variables (alloy composition, ageing temperature and time) and material properties (yield strength or hardness) through microstructure evolution (precipitate radius, volume fraction). The other method is based on the Kampmann and Wagner Numerical (KWN) model which deals with concomitant nucleation, growth and coarsening and is thus capable of predicting the full evolution of the particle size distribution and then a strength model is used to evaluate the resulting change in hardness or yield strength at room temperature by taking into account contributions from lattice resistance, solid solution hardening and precipitation hardening.

  9. SOLUBILITY OF SILICON IN CAST ALUMINIUM ALLOY AFTER ELECTROHYDROPULSE TREATMENT

    Dyachenko, S.; Fedchenko, N.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of cast aluminium alloy AЛ9 exposed to electrohydropulse treatment (EHPT) was studied. It has been shown that after EHPT solubility of silicon in alloy matrix was increased. With the help of thermodynemic analysis the structural changes in metal after EHPT were explained.

  10. Modelling of micro- and macrosegregation for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys

    Ellingsen, K.; Mortensen, D.; M'Hamdi, M.

    2015-06-01

    Realistic predictions of macrosegregation formation during casting of aluminium alloys requires an accurate modeling of solute microsegregation accounting for multicomponent phase diagrams and secondary phase formation. In the present work, the stand alone Alstruc model, a microsegregation model for industrial multicomponent aluminium alloys, is coupled with the continuum model ALSIM which calculates the macroscopic transport of mass, enthalpy, momentum, and solutes as well as stresses and deformation during solidification of aluminium. Alstruc deals with multicomponent alloys accounting for temperature dependent partition coefficients, liquidus slopes and the precipitation of secondary phases. The challenge associated with computation of microsegregation for multicomponent alloys is solved in Alstruc by approximating the phase diagram data by simple, analytical expressions which allows for a CPU-time efficient coupling with the macroscopic transport model. In the present work, the coupled model has been applied in a study of macrosegregation including thermal and solutal convection, solidification shrinkage and surface exudation on an industrial DC-cast billet.

  11. Thermal and structure analysis of the aluminium alloy

    Mariusz Król

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure that is attributable from the specific casting method dictates further mechanical and physical properties of the material. In order to understand how to control the microstructure of the casting, it is important to understand the changes in microstructure during crystallization. The work focused on thermal analysis, metallurgical characterization and laser treatment of an aluminium alloy. The research show that the thermal analysis carried out on UMSA Technology Platform is an efficient tool for collect and calculates thermal parameters. The paper contributes to better understanding non-equilibrium metallurgical characterization of aluminium alloys. The solidification of the aluminium dendritic network, iron containing intermetallic phases, the aluminium-silicon eutectic and magnesium containing intermetallic phases were characterized. 

  12. Mechanical Properties of Spray Cast 7XXX Series Aluminium Alloys

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2002-01-01

    Mechanical properties of spray deposited and extruded 7xxx series aluminium alloys were investigated in peak aged condition. To study the influence of Zn additions on the mechanical behaviour of spray deposited materials, three alloy compositions were selected, namely: SS70 (11.5% Zn), N707 (10.9% Zn) and 7075 (5.6% Zn). After ageing treatment, notched and unnotched specimens of spray deposited alloys were subjected to tensile tests at room temperature. Experimental results showed...

  13. Use of acoustic energy in sand casting of aluminium alloys

    Puga, Hélder; Barbosa, J; Oliveira, Joana

    2013-01-01

    During the last years, some researchers have focused the development of ultrasonic microstructure refinement /modification techniques of die-casting aluminium alloys, to improve their properties. The developed techniques are highly efficient when applied to the die-casting process, but their capability with sand and ceramic moulding are unknown. Sand/ceramic aluminium castings are prone to coarse microstructure, porosities and inclusions due to low cooling rates and turbulent gravity pouri...

  14. Application of Pre-heating to Improve the Consistency and Quality in AA5052 Resistance Spot Welding

    Luo, Zhen; Ao, Sansan; Chao, Yuh Jin; Cui, Xuetuan; Li, Yang; Lin, Ye

    2015-10-01

    Making consistent resistance spot welds of aluminum alloy with good quality and at high volume has several obstacles in automotive industry. One of the difficult issues arises from the presence of a tough non-conducting oxide film on the aluminum sheet surface. The oxide film develops over time and often is non-uniform across the surface of the aluminum alloy sheet, which makes the contact resistance characteristics irregular at the faying interface during welding. The consistency in quality of the final spot welds is therefore problematic to control. To suppress the effect of the irregular oxide film on the spot weld quality, application of a pre-heating treatment in the welding schedule for aluminum alloy 5052 is investigated in this present work. The current level of the pre-heating required to reduce the scatter of the contact resistance at the W/W (workpiece-to-workpiece) faying interface is quantified experimentally. The results indicate that the contact resistance at the W/W faying interface with a pre-heating treatment becomes much consistent and can be reduced by two orders of magnitude. Having the uncertain variation of the contact resistance at the W/W faying surface virtually reduced or removed, the quality of the spot welds in terms of the peak load and nugget diameter is examined and shows a great improvement. The proposed method may provide a robust method for high-volume spot welding of aluminum alloy sheets in auto industry.

  15. Aluminium and its alloys: weldability, welding metallurgy; L'aluminium et ses alliages: soudabilite, metallurgie du soudage

    Boucher, Ch.

    2000-07-01

    The aim of this book is to give technological and use elements of the welding processes as well as the knowledge in weldability and metallurgy required for a better control of the welding of aluminium alloys. In the first part are detailed the generalities on aluminium alloys, their properties and uses sectors. The bases of the physical metallurgy of the aluminium alloys are dealt with too. The second part concerns the welding and the related techniques as well as the properties of the assemblies. Several supplements give useful data for the construction with aluminium alloys. This book is particularly devoted to engineers and technicians using or having to use for the first time the welding of aluminium alloys. (O.M.)

  16. Effect of Low Strain Rate on Formability of Aluminium Alloy

    Bidulská, J.; T. Kvačkaj; Bidulský, R.; Cabbibo, M.; Evangelista, E.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of low strain rate on formability of aluminium alloy 2014 by means of torsion test was performed. The presented experimental results exhibit decrease of the ductility with increase and decrease of ε and T, respectively, and optimal values of , ε T are thus obtained.

  17. Extractive-photometric determination of boron in aluminium alloys

    A method for determination of boron in aluminium alloys without preliminary isolation is developed. The method is based on extraction of the ion associate of the tetrafluoroborate ion with brilliant green by butyl acetate. The interval of determinable concentrations of boron is 0.1-0.8 ?g/ml

  18. Crystallographic orientation-spray formed hypereutectic aluminium-silicon alloys

    Hamilta de Oliveira Santos

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium-silicon alloys have been wide accepted in the automotive, electric and aerospace industries. Preferred orientation is a very common condition for metals and alloys. Particularly, aluminium induces texture during the forming process. The preparation of an aggregate with completely random crystal orientation is a difficult task. The present work was undertaken to analyse the texture by X-ray diffraction techniques, of three spray formed hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. Samples were taken from a billet of an experimental alloy (alloy 1 and were subsequently hot-rolled and cold-rolled (height reduction, 72% and 70%, respectively. The other used samples, alloys 2 and 3, were taken from cylinders liners. The results from the Laue camera showed texture just in the axial direction of alloy 3. The pole figures also indicated the presence of a typical low intensity deformation texture, especially for alloy 3. The spray formed microstructure, which is very fine, hinders the Al-Si texture formation during mechanical work.

  19. Weldability of high strength aluminium-scandium alloys

    Australia possesses a significant percentage of the world reserves of the ores required for the production of light alloys such as aluminium, magnesium and titanium. However, most of these minerals deposits are exported for processing, losing the potential of value adding benefits. Scandium has been known for some time to possess excellent grain refining properties when alloyed with aluminium. Although this adds considerable benefits to the mechanical properties of these alloys, it has not been fully exploited due to the high cost of producing the scandium metal. Deposits of scandium containing ore have recently been identified in Australia that are far more accessible than other deposits throughout the world. CSIRO Manufacturing Science and Technology had initiated a research project to investigate the effect of scandium and other grain refining additions on the properties of selected aluminium alloys in order to develop the market and maximise the potential benefits from Australian resources. The major objective of the project is to develop high strength aluminum alloys that exhibit good processing characteristics, particularly good weldability

  20. Effects and mechanisms of grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    K T Kashyap; T Chandrashekar

    2001-08-01

    Grain refinement plays a crucial role in improving characteristics and properties of cast and wrought aluminium alloys. Generally Al–Ti and Al–Ti–B master alloys are added to the aluminium alloys to grain refine the solidified product. The mechanism of grain refinement is of considerable controversy in the scientific literature. The nucleant effects i.e. which particle and its characteristics nucleate -Al, has been the subject of intensive research. Lately the solute effect i.e. the effect of dissolved titanium on grain refinement, has come into forefront of grain refinement research. The present paper attempts to review the literature on the nucleant effects and solute effects on grain refinement and addresses the importance of dissolved titanium in promoting nucleation of -Al on nucleant particles.

  1. The effects of radiation on aluminium alloys in the core of energy nuclear reactors

    One of the attractive directions in the worldwide practice of nuclear installations is the replacement of expensive zirconium alloy with more cheap materials, particularly aluminium allo. For Heat Supply Nuclear Plants (HSNP) with approximately 473 K core temperatures, the use of heat-resistant aluminium alloys seems to be reasonable. The present work is concerned with the studies on radiation effects on aluminium alloy, and interaction between the alloy and coolant in the reactor core. (author). 2 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Aluminium-lithium alloys with scandium

    The influence of scandium on phase composition and properties of Al-Li alloys is considered. It is shown that the alloying with scandium increases strength properties, improves the weldability and affects the character and the velocity of decomposition of a supersaturated solid solution. The best compromise between strength and plastic properties is stated to be provided by combined introduction of Sc and Zr to Al-Li alloys

  3. Shear bands in aluminium-lithium alloys

    The formation of shear bands in Al-Li alloys in cold rolling and their influence on mechanical properties of rolled and heat treated sheets are under consideration. It is shown that shear bands as well as the network of recrystallized grains along previous bands are undesirable structural constituents in aluminum alloy sheets as they decrease processing and operational properties of alloys. In further metal forming the localization of strain is observed along shear bands or zones of recrystallized grains. To avoid failure due to shear band formation it is recommended to roll alloys in as-annealed state and properly regulate reduction degree

  4. On the effect of heat and metallurgical treatments on the thermal conductivity of cast aluminium alloys

    Rauta, Veijo

    2015-01-01

    In this research the goal was to find possible ways, such as optimization of alloy composition, heat and melt treatments, to improve thermal conductivity of aluminium castings, especially aluminium die castings. The main target was to increase the thermal conductivity (TC) of aluminium die cast parts up to 190 W/mK or to the same level as extruded aluminium wrought alloys have and the goal was reached. Casting methods were die casting, sand, permanent mould and rheocasting. Studied alumini...

  5. TORSIONAL DEFORMATION AND FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF 6061 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    marini marno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Torsional deformation and fatigue behaviour of both solid and thin-walled tubular specimens were made from as-received and heat treated 6061 aluminium alloy were studied. 6061 aluminium alloy have been widely used as a candidate material in automobile, aerospace, aircraft and structural application because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength to weight ratio, good ductility and others. The differences in cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviours between round and solid specimens where a stress gradient exist, and thin-walled tubular specimens where a uniform stress state is commonly assumed, are also discussed. Von Mises and Tresca criteria has been used to predict the monotonic and cyclic deformation curve and compared to the torsional data obtained from the experiment. The S-N curve was used to present and evaluate the fatigue life of the specimens. Through fractographic analysis, failure criteria of fracture surfaces were observed and discussed. 

  6. Viscous pressure bulging of aluminium alloy sheet at warm temperatures

    Improving the formability of aluminium alloy sheet metal by using warm or elevated temperature has become a valid approach. In this paper, viscous pressure bulging (VPB) at warm temperature is proposed. The coupled thermomechanical finite element method and experimental method were used to investigate the VPB of aluminium alloy AA3003 at warm temperature. The temperature distributions of sheet metal and viscous medium were analyzed for non-isothermal VPB. The influence of forming temperature on thickness distribution, forming load and failure location of sheet metal were investigated. Research results show the temperature gradient field in sheet metal forms when the initial temperature of viscous medium is lower than that of sheet metal. The formability and failure location of sheet metal changes with initial temperature of viscous medium

  7. LASER CLADDING ON ALUMINIUM BASE ALLOYS

    Pilloz, M.; Pelletier, J.; Vannes, A.; Bignonnet, A.

    1991-01-01

    laser cladding is often performed on iron or titanium base alloys. In the present work, this method is employed on aluminum alloys ; nickel or silicon are added by powder injection. Addition of silicon leads to sound surface layers, but with moderated properties, while the presence of nickel induces the formation of hard intermetallic compounds and then to an attractive hardening phenomena ; however a recovery treatment has to be carried out, in order to eliminate porosity in the near surface...

  8. Wrought Aluminium Alloy Corrosion Propensity in Domestic Food Cooking Environment

    Adeosun, S. O.; E. I. Akpan; S. A. Balogun

    2012-01-01

    The study on corrosion behaviour of wrought aluminium alloy in domestic food cooking conditions has been examined using the gravimetric approach. Flat cold rolled and annealed sheets were subjected to solutions of Capsicum annuum, L. esculentum, Allium cepa, and their blend under three conditions, namely, heating and cooling in still air, heating and cooling in refrigerator, and leaving some in open still atmosphere. Results show that corrosion occurred within the test period (288 hours) in t...

  9. State diagram of copper-aluminium alloys after neutron irradiation

    It is ascertained that under reactor irradiation of copper-aluminium alloys (18.0-31.2 at% of Al) radiation-induced phase transformations occur, alpha-phase is decomposed into two ones with alpha'-phase precipitation, in gamma2-phase separate regions of its high-temperature disordered modification (gamma1-phase) are formed. Thermal stability of precipitations is investigated, regions of their existence are defined on the state diagram

  10. Melting defect characterization in aluminium alloys by using computerized tomography

    This paper analyses the performance of parallel beam X-ray transmission computerized tomography, in the characterization of melting defects on a aluminium alloy. The results obtained presented a spatial resolution approximately of 0.8 mm. The porosity distribution existent in the piece appears as noise at the tomographic images with impossible detection. From the tomograms analyses it was possible to classify two defect regions at the pieces: empty and large pore concentration

  11. Oxidation of solid aluminium-magnesium alloy doped by scandium

    The oxidation of solid aluminium-magnesium alloy with scandium was studied by means of thermogravimetry method. The kinetic and energy parameters of oxidation process were defined. The kinetics of oxidation was studied by means of thermogravimetry method. The apparent activation energy was defined as well. The products of oxidation were studied by means of X-ray analysis method. It was shown that the main products of oxidation were γ-Al2O3 and Mg O.

  12. Friction Stir Welding and Processing of Aluminium Alloys

    Serra Bigas, Estela

    2011-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding is a method which joint different materials that in traditional weld it can’t be welded. This technique improves properties of materials because to be weld materials don’t pass to the liquid-state, they stay in a plastic state. In this study it has been utilized different aluminium alloys as 6082 and 7042 which have very interesting properties for applications as aerospace or building field. Concerning Al-6082, light microscope shows grain refinement in stirred zon...

  13. CHROMIUM-FREE CONVERSION COATING OF ALUMINIUM-COPPER ALLOYS

    George, Faith Olajumoke

    2011-01-01

    Aluminium alloys are frequently pre-treated by a conversion coating before application of an organic coating in order to improve the corrosion resistance and adhesive properties of the surface and the corrosion resistance provided by the system. Chromate-containing conversion coatings are commonly used for this purpose. However, legislation limits future use of hexavalent chromium compounds due to their toxic and carcinogenic nature. Therefore, alternative, so-called chromium-free conversion ...

  14. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys:

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditions of the stable grain refinement effect in different alloying systems; and (3) to apply the knowledge gained as a result of an experimental work on a small scale to direct chill (DC) casting proc...

  15. Grain boundary phenomena and failure of aluminium alloys

    Haas, Marc-Jan de,

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis, grain boundary phenomena leading to intergranular failure of commercial aluminium alloys from the 6XXX- and 7XXX-series are investigated and explained. Both ductile and more brittle types of grain boundary fracture are considered. As the former type is very often related to precipitation of second phase particles at the grain boundary, a physical model is used in order to understand and quantify processes as grain boundary segregation and precipitation. The influence of the in...

  16. Thermal and structure analysis of the aluminium alloy

    Mariusz Król; Przemysław Snopiński; Marek Tadeusz Roszak; Stanislav Rusz; Peter Palček

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure that is attributable from the specific casting method dictates further mechanical and physical properties of the material. In order to understand how to control the microstructure of the casting, it is important to understand the changes in microstructure during crystallization. The work focused on thermal analysis, metallurgical characterization and laser treatment of an aluminium alloy. The research show that the thermal analysis carried out on UMSA Technology Platform is...

  17. Cavitation-aided grain refinement in aluminium alloys

    Atamanenko, T.V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with grain refinement under the influence of ultrasonic-driven cavitation in aluminium casting processes. Three major goals of this research were: (1) to identify the mechanism of the cavitation-aided grain refinement at different stages of solidification; (2) to reveal the conditions of the stable grain refinement effect in different alloying systems; and (3) to apply the knowledge gained as a result of an experimental work on a small scale to direct chill (DC) casting proc...

  18. Surface roughness of aluminium alloy cut by abrasive waterjet

    Maros, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Different aluminium alloys are frequently applied in different fields of industry like aerospace or automobile industry. First machining operation of these parts is often the abrasive waterjet cutting. Abrasive waterjet cutting is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining methods. Quality of the machined parts is determined by the surface roughness of the cut. Some results of research work oriented to the surface characteristics are summarised in this paper.

  19. Gas accumulation at grain boundaries during 800 MeV proton irradiation of aluminium and aluminium-alloys

    Singh, Bachu Narain; Horsewell, Andy; Sommer, W. F.; Lohmann, W.

    Samples of pure aluminium (99.9999%) and commercial Al-2.7%Mg(AlMg3) and Al-1.1%Mg-0.5%Si(Al6061) alloys were irradiated with 800 MeV protons at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) at a temperature between 40-100°C to a maximum dose of 0.2 dpa. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM......) showed a complete absence of voids or bubbles in the grain interiors of the aluminium and the aluminium-alloys. Bubbles were clearly visible by TEM at grain boundaries in pure Al and the AlMg3 alloy; but bubbles were not visible in the Al6061 alloy. The bubble density in the AlMg3 alloy was considerably...... higher than in the pure Al. The amount of gas accumulation at grain boundaries was found to depend on gas generation rate, alloying and cold-work microstructure...

  20. Research progress of aluminium alloy endplates for PEMFCs

    Fu, Yu.; Hou, Junbo [Fuel Cell system and Engineering Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hou, Ming; Yan, Xiqiang; Luo, Xiaokuan; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian [Fuel Cell system and Engineering Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2007-04-15

    The endplate is a crucial component in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) stack. It can provide the necessary rigidity and strength for the stack. An aluminium alloy is one of the ideal materials for PEMFC endplates because of its low density and high rigidity. But it does not meet the requirements of corrosion resistance and electrical insulation in PEMFC environments. In this work, methods of sealing treatments and the conditions of aluminium alloy anodization were investigated. Corrosion resistances of the samples prepared by different technologies were evaluated in simulated PEMFC environments. The results showed that the corrosion resistance of the samples sealed by epoxy resin was greatly improved compared with those sealed in boiling water, and the samples anodized at a constant current density performed better than those anodized at a constant voltage. By insulation measurements, all of the samples showed good electrical insulation. The aluminium alloy endplate anodized at a constant current density and sealed with thermosetting bisphenol-A epoxy resin exhibited promising potential for practical applications by assembling it in a PEMFC stack and applying a life test. (author)

  1. Machinability of magnesium and aluminium alloys. Part I: cutting resistance

    Aluminium (2.7 g/cm3) and magnesium (1.7 g/cm3) are two competing light metals with similar mechanical properties and excellent possibilities for recycling. The forming of magnesium is often seen as an impediment to its use. New forming techniques using magnesium shavings are being developed, particularly in Japan. The machining of magnesium alloys by removal of metal raises safety concerns (risk of fire), which limits many potential applications of magnesium. The purpose of this work is to clarify and compare the machining properties of these two types of metal and better understand the mechanisms that may explain the differences in behaviour. Such a comparison could eventually provide an estimate of the cost of producing shavings for the manufacture of aluminium and magnesium parts through forging and extrusion, which would limit environmental pollution. Based on an analysis of cutting resistance during machining, it was demonstrated that magnesium alloys are easier to machine than similar aluminium alloys. Magnesium shavings are shorter than those of 6061-T6, but are especially more regular than those of A356, and their size is independent of cutting speed. It was also demonstrated that the fragility of materials can be characterized based on the results of cutting resistance produced during drilling

  2. Improvement in Wear Properties of a Hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon Alloy with Manganese

    Prabhkiran Kaur; D.K. Dwivedi; P.M. Pathak; Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Improvement in wear properties of rare earth Cerium base hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy with Manganese modification has been reported in this paper. Wear studies were carried out on cast samples of hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy (Al-Si) with rare earth Cerium oxide (CeO2) and Manganese (Mn) modification. Final wear properties of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy were compared with the values of author?s previous work on rare ear...

  3. Asymmetric rolling of 5182 aluminium alloy and interstitial free steel sheets

    Tamimi, Saeed

    2013-01-01

    This Ph.D. research focuses on asymmetric rolling (ASR), as an alternative method for improving mechanical responses of aluminium-magnesium alloy and interstitial free (IF) steel regarding industrial requirements. Aluminium alloys are attractive materials in various industries due to their appropriate properties such as low density and corrosion resistance; however, their low formability has limited their applications. As formability of aluminium alloys can be improved throu...

  4. PROCESS CAPABILITY STUDY OF A RAPID CASTING SOLUTION FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOYS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

    Singh, R

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the best shell wall thickness of a mould cavity was investigated in a process capability study of a rapid casting solution for aluminium alloys using three-dimensional printing (3DP). Starting from the identification of a component/benchmark, an aluminium-alloy casting prototype was produced with different shell wall thicknesses by three dimensional printing. The results of the study suggest that, at the best shell wall thickness (5 mm) for aluminium alloys, the rapid cas...

  5. Aluminium alloys in sulfuric acid. Pt. 2: Aluminium-oxygen cells

    Mueller, S.; Holzer, F.; Desilvestro, J.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-12-01

    Aluminium alloys were tested in Al/O{sub 2} cells with strongly acidic electrolytes containing minor amounts of chloride ions. The faradaic efficiency, the maximum discharge capacity and the peak power of various Al/O{sub 2} cells were evaluated. The temperature dependence of the faradaic efficiency was measured for an Al/O{sub 2} cell over the temperature range from 15 to 50{sup o}C. With a zinc-containing aluminium alloy, a faradaic efficiency of 84% and a cell voltage of 1.6 V at open circuit and 0.7 V at 100 mA cm{sup -2} could be reached. The highest peak power 120 mW cm{sup -2}, was obtained with an Al-Zn/Sn alloy. On the basis of the solubility of the anode products in the electrolyte, a limiting specific energy of 70 Wh kg{sup -1} was estimated. The cell voltage depends on the Al-alloys and on the catalyst used in the oxygen electrode. The cell voltage could be increased by about 200 mV when replacing the Pt-catalysed oxygen electrode with a noble-metal-free (CoCAA/DCD) electrode. (author)

  6. The kinetics of oxidation of solid aluminium-lithium alloys alloyed by alkali earth metals

    For the investigation of influence of alkali earth metals on kinetics of oxidation of aluminium-lithium alloys by authors was synthesised the series of alloys with containing of alkali earth metals from 0.01 til 0.01% on mass. For the investigation of kinetics oxidation of above mentioned alloys applied thermogravimetric method. Investigation was carried out in the air atmosphere at temperature 723 and 793 K

  7. Thixoextrusion of A357 aluminium alloy

    Forn Alonso, Antonio; Vaneetveld, Gregory; PIERRET, Jean-Christophe; Menargues Muñoz, Sergi; Baile Puig, Maria Teresa; Campillo Betbese, Manel; RASSILI, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to attempt the application of A357 Al-Si-Mg cast alloy in the thixoextrusion process, evaluating the different forming parameters effect. Thixoextrusion offers several advantages compared with traditional hot-extrusion such as lower pressure, minor friction forces, higher material fluidity and longer tool life. This type of semi-solid process requires high solid fraction (0.7

  8. Aluminium. II - A review of deformation properties of high purity aluminium and dilute aluminium alloys.

    Reed, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The elastic and plastic deformation behavior of high-purity aluminum and of dilute aluminum alloys is reviewed. Reliable property data, including elastic moduli, elastic coefficients, tensile, creep, fatigue, hardness, and impact are presented. Single crystal tensile results are discussed. Rather comprehensive reference lists, containing publications of the past 20 years, are included for each of the above categories. Defect structures and mechanisms responsible for mechanical behavior are presented. Strengthening techniques (alloys, cold work, irradiation, quenching, composites) and recovery are briefly reviewed.

  9. Development of promising aluminium alloy for bases of rigid magnetic disks with high recording density

    A study was made into the influence of additional alloying of the AMS aluminium base alloys on the structure of blanks for magnetic disk bases. A new alloy Amadis is developed as a result of researches. Comparison with commercial products from AMS and 1541 alloys confirmed high structural parameter of the new alloy. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Hot Deformation Of 6xxx Series Aluminium Alloys

    Mrwka-Nowotnik G.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation behavior of the 6xxx aluminum alloys was investigated by compression tests in the temperature range 100C-375C and strain rate range 10?4s?1 and 410?4s?1 using dilatometer DIL 805 BHR Thermoanalyse equipped with accessory attachment deformation allows the process to execute thermoplastic in vacuum and inert gas atmosphere. Associated microstructural changes of characteristic states of examined alloys were studied by using the transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results show that the stress level decreases with increasing deformation temperature and deformation rate. And was also found that the activation energy Q strongly depends on both, the temperature and rate of deformation. The results of TEM observation showing that the dynamic flow softening is mainly as the result of dynamic recovery and recrystallization of 6xxx aluminium alloys.

  11. Molten aluminium alloy fuel fragmentation experiments

    Experiments were conducted in which streams of molten aluminum alloys were injected into a 1.2-m deep pool of water. The parameters varied were (i) injectant material (8001 aluminum alloy and 12.3 wt% U-87.7 wt% Al), (ii) melt superheat (0 to 50 K), (iii) water temperature (313, 343 and 373 K) and (iv) size and geometry of the pour stream (5, 10 and 20 mm diameter circular and 57 mm annular). The pour stream fragmentation was dominated by surface tension with large particles (?30 mm) being formed from varicose wave breakup of the 10-mm circular pours and from the annular flow off a 57 mm diameter tube. The fragments produced by the 5 mm circular jet were smaller (?10 mm), and the 20 mm jet which underwent sinuous wave breakup produced ?100 mm fragments. The fragments froze in 313 K water to form large solid particles with high voidage which would be readily coolable. However, in water ?343 K the melt fragments did not freeze during their transit through 1.2 m of water and agglomerated into a melt pool at the bottom of the vessel. (orig.)

  12. A super-ductile alloy for the die-casting of aluminium automotive body structural components

    Watson, D.; Ji, S; Fan, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Super-ductile die-cast aluminium alloys are critical to future light-weighting of automotive body structures. This paper introduces a die-cast aluminium alloy that can satisfy the requirements of these applications. After a review of currently available alloys, the requirement of a die-cast aluminium alloy for automotive body structural parts is proposed and an Al-Mg-Si system is suggested. The effect of the alloying elements, in the composition, has been investigated on the microstructure an...

  13. ''Ventilated brake discs manufactured in aluminium matrix composites and hypereutectic aluminium alloys''

    Goni, J.; Coleto, J.; Eguizabal, P.; Rubio, A. [Fundacion INASMET, San Sebastian (Spain); Garcia, A.; Sanchez, J. [Inst. Univ. de investigacion del Automovil, Madrid (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    Two different aluminium alloy materials have been used to produce ventilated brake discs, on one hand, AS17G0.6 hypereutectic alloy and on the other hand, AS7G0.6 reinforced with 20% in wt. of SiC particles. The casting production technique used has been low pressure casting (LPC) and some of the brake discs have been heat treated using a T6 treatment. Once the ventilated brake discs were produced and machined, they were tested in a dynamometer in order to compare the performance under service conditions of the aluminium alloy and grey cast iron (GCI) discs currently used in the market. (orig.)

  14. Secondary ageing in an aluminium alloy 7050

    Secondary precipitation takes place in alloy 7050 at 65 deg. C after underageing at 130 deg. C and quenching (T6I4-65 temper) and results in a significantly increased number density of the ?' platelets, the precipitates also formed in the T6 temper. The modified microstructure results in tensile properties comparable to that of the T6 temper, but with significantly improved fracture toughness. A combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study has shown that secondary ageing at 65 deg. C results in evolution of the GPI zones formed during underageing into the ?' phase. Ageing at 65 deg. C alone results in the formation of GPII zones, which provide lesser strengthening than the ?' platelets. The DSC study revealed six exothermic reactions corresponding to the formation of six different types of precipitate during the DSC scan

  15. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    I. Sudhakar; V. Madhu; G. Madhusudhan Reddy; K. Srinivasa Rao

    2015-01-01

    Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to tha...

  16. Improvement in Wear Properties of a Hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon Alloy with Manganese

    Prabhkiran Kaur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvement in wear properties of rare earth Cerium base hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy with Manganese modification has been reported in this paper. Wear studies were carried out on cast samples of hypereutectic Aluminium-Silicon alloy (Al-Si with rare earth Cerium oxide (CeO2 and Manganese (Mn modification. Final wear properties of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy were compared with the values of author?s previous work on rare earth Cerium oxide modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy and hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy. Rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modification in hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy reduced the wear rates as compared to rare earth Cerium oxide modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy and hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy. A comparison of wear rates at same velocity, load and sliding distance was made between above three different conditions and it was observed that rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified alloy performed with least wear rates. Wear rates for rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy was 6.36 times lesser than wear rate of hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon base alloy and was 2.97 times lesser than rare earth Cerium oxide modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy. Wear rates were also calculated for rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy at various velocities ranging from 0.2 m/s to 1.0 m/s at an equal interval of 0.2 m/s. It was noticed that minimum wear occurred at 1.0 m/s velocity and maximum at 0.2 m/s velocity. Further, scanning electron micrographs (SEM of worn surfaces and wear debris of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy were compared at low velocity (0.2 m/s and high velocity (1.0m/s conditions at constant load (30 N and sliding distance (500 m. It was observed that worn surface and wear debris of rare earth Cerium oxide and Manganese modified hypereutectic Aluminium Silicon alloy, showed mild oxidative wear irrespective of lower velocity.

  17. Anodization of cast aluminium alloys produced by different casting methods

    K. Labisz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the usability of two casting methods, of sand and high pressure cast for the anodization of AlSi12 and AlSi9Cu3 aluminium cast alloys was investigated. With defined anodization parameters like electrolyte composition and temperature, current type and value a anodic alumina surface layer was produced. The quality, size and properties of the anodic layer was investigated after the anodization of the chosen aluminium cast alloys. The Alumina layer was observed used light microscope, also the mechanical properties were measured as well the abrasive wear test was made with using ABR-8251 equipment. The researches included analyze of the influence of chemical composition, geometry and roughness of anodic layer obtained on aluminum casts. Conducted investigations shows the areas of later researches, especially in the direction of the possible, next optimization anodization process of aluminum casting alloys, for example in the range of raising resistance on corrosion to achieve a suitable anodic surface layer on elements for increasing applications in the aggressive environment for example as materials on working building constructions, elements in electronics and construction parts in air and automotive industry.

  18. Microplasma anodization of aluminium and its copper-containing alloy in potassium hyxafluorozirconate solution

    Specific features of oxide coating formation on the surface of aluminium and its copper-conaining alloy in potassium hexafluorozirconate solution have been studied under conditions of microplasma anodization. Potentiality of producing coatings on the surface of aluminium and its alloys, which consist of zirconium dioxide both of its crystalline modifications in combination with amorphous aluminium oxide and small amount of its crystal phase, has been considered by the method of microplasma anodization. Refs. 7, figs. 2

  19. Friction stir welding of 6061 aluminium alloy

    6061 AA (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to-weight ratio and good corrosion resistance such as marine frames, pipelines, storage tanks, and aircraft components [1]. It is also used for the manufacturing of fuel elements in the nuclear research reactors. Compared to many of the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural alloys, friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded is not melted and recast [2]. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding traverse speed, and tool profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. Several FSW tools (differ from each other in pin angle, shoulder diameter, and shoulder concavity) have been used to fabricate a number of joints in order to obtain a tool with which a sound weld can be produced. It was found that the FSW tool with tapered cone pin, concave shoulder, and shoulder diameter equal to four times the welded plate thickness is suitable to produce a sound weld. The effect of the traverse speed on the global and local tensile properties of friction stir welded joints has been investigated in the 6061-T6 AA. The global tensile properties of the FSW joints were improved with increasing the traverse speed at constant rotation rate. It is found that the global tensile strength of the FSW joint is limited by the local tensile strength of the nearest region to the weld center at which the cross section is composed mainly of the HAZ. The effect of the initial butt surface on the formation of the zigzag line on the tensile properties of the welds was examined by using three types of welding samples differ in the preparation of the initial butt surface. The first type of samples welded without removing the oxide layer from the initial butt surface (uncleaned butt surfaces joint). In the second type of samples the oxide layer was removed from the butt surfaces before welding (cleaned butt surfaces joint). In the third type of samples there was no initial butt surface (stirred joint). The zigzag line appears only within the cross section of the uncleaned butt surface joints, and no zigzag line observed within the cross section of the cleaned butt surface joints or the stirred joints. The three types of welds exhibited similar tensile properties, so the zigzag line has no effect on the tensile properties in the as welded condition

  20. The fracture of boron fibre-reinforced 6061 aluminium alloy

    Wright, M. A.; Welch, D.; Jollay, J.

    1979-01-01

    The fracture of 6061 aluminium alloy reinforced with unidirectional and cross-plied 0/90 deg, 0/90/+ or - 45 deg boron fibres has been investigated. The results have been described in terms of a critical stress intensity, K(Q). Critical stress intensity factors were obtained by substituting the failure stress and the initial crack length into the appropriate expression for K(Q). Values were obtained that depended on the dimensions of the specimens. It was therefore concluded that, for the size of specimen tested, the values of K(Q) did not reflect any basic materials property.

  1. Foaming of aluminium-silicon alloy using concentrated solar energy

    Cambronero, L.E.G.; Ruiz-Roman, J.M. [Grupo de Materiales Hibridos, ETSIM-UPM, Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Canadas, I.; Martinez, D. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    Solar energy is used for the work reported here as a nonconventional heating system to produce aluminium foam from Al-Si alloy precursors produced by powder metallurgy. A commercial precursor in cylindrical bars enclosed in a stainless-steel mould was heated under concentrated solar radiation in a solar furnace with varied heating conditions (heating rate, time, and temperature). Concentrated solar energy close to 300 W/cm{sup 2} on the mould is high enough to achieve complete foaming after heating for only 200 s. Under these conditions, the density and pore distribution in the foam change depending on the solar heating parameters and mould design. (author)

  2. Precipitation kinetics of Si in aluminium alloys

    The precipitation kinetics of Si in an Al-1.7 wt.%Si alloy after different thermal treatments has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dilatometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained are explained by a model based on simple nucleation and growth/dissolution laws and are compared with measured precipitate size distributions. The evolution of precipitates in water-quenched samples during linear heating depicts the exothermic formation of platelets and globular Si precipitates (200-300 deg. C). The endothermal dissolution of Si platelets starts at lower temperatures than that of the globular precipitates. Coarsening and finally dissolution of globular precipitates is observed with increasing temperature. Samples slowly cooled from the solution treatment temperature present mostly globular precipitates, which are nucleated during cooling. Here, an exothermal effect related to the growth of Si precipitates increasing their volume fraction is observed at relatively high temperatures (350-460 deg. C) during linear heating. The formed precipitates are stable up to ?460 deg. C, where the modelled critical radius becomes bigger than most of the Si precipitates formed so far

  3. Precipitation kinetics of Si in aluminium alloys

    Lasagni, Fernando [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/E308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: lasagni@pop.tuwien.ac.at; Mingler, Bernhard [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Dumont, Myriam [TECSEN-UMR 6122, Universite Paul Cezanne Aix-Marseille III, Faculte des Science et Techniques de St-Jerome, Case 261, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Degischer, Hans Peter [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13/E308, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-05-15

    The precipitation kinetics of Si in an Al-1.7 wt.%Si alloy after different thermal treatments has been studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dilatometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results obtained are explained by a model based on simple nucleation and growth/dissolution laws and are compared with measured precipitate size distributions. The evolution of precipitates in water-quenched samples during linear heating depicts the exothermic formation of platelets and globular Si precipitates (200-300 deg. C). The endothermal dissolution of Si platelets starts at lower temperatures than that of the globular precipitates. Coarsening and finally dissolution of globular precipitates is observed with increasing temperature. Samples slowly cooled from the solution treatment temperature present mostly globular precipitates, which are nucleated during cooling. Here, an exothermal effect related to the growth of Si precipitates increasing their volume fraction is observed at relatively high temperatures (350-460 deg. C) during linear heating. The formed precipitates are stable up to {approx}460 deg. C, where the modelled critical radius becomes bigger than most of the Si precipitates formed so far.

  4. Modelling technological properties of commercial wrought aluminium alloys

    The purpose of this paper is to model three important technological properties for aluminium alloys, based on their performance indices. The models are based on the chemical compositions and microstructure characteristics which are calculated using thermodynamical calculations. The properties that were modelled are the general corrosion, the weldability (MIG and TIG) and the machinability. The results from these models are to be used in materials selection and optimisation. The models clearly show that the general corrosion resistance is reduced for all alloy additions, except for small amounts of titanium. The largest influence on the corrosion is from copper and zinc. The weldability is negatively influenced by the copper and zinc-content, and for small additions of zirconium and titanium it is increased. The machinability is positively influenced by the hardness of the alloy or by adding lead or bismuth. For the non-heat-treatable alloys there was no influence from the composition to the corrosion resistance or the weldability. Copper and zinc which are added to increase the strength to the alloy strongly reduce both the weldability and the corrosion resistance but due to the increase in hardness increase the workability.

  5. Selective anodic dissolution and corrosion of copper-aluminium alloys in chloride-alkaline solution

    Anode behaviour and corrosion of Cu, Al-alloys in 0.4 M NaCl+0.6 M NaOH solution (pH = 12.4) as functions of aluminium content in copper-base homogeneous solution are studied by means of potentiodynamic polarization, chronopotentiometry and atom-absorption spectroscopy. It is revealed that kinetics of selective dissolving of alloys is determined by diffusion rate of aluminium atoms in the alloy surface layer with diffusion factor of 10-12 - 10-13 cm2/s . The rate of dealuminizing of the alloy surface increases proportionally to aluminium content

  6. Laser surface alloying of aluminium-transition metal alloys

    Almeida, A.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser surface alloying has been used as a tool to produce hard and corrosion resistant Al-transition metal (TM alloys. Cr and Mo are particularly interesting alloying elements to produce stable highstrength alloys because they present low diffusion coefficients and solid solubility in Al. To produce Al-TM surface alloys a two-step laser process was developed: firstly, the material is alloyed using low scanning speed and secondly, the microstructure is modified by a refinement step. This process was used in the production of Al-Cr, Al-Mo and Al-Nb surface alloys by alloying Cr, Mo or Nb powder into an Al and 7175 Al alloy substrate using a CO2 laser. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed at Instituto Superior Tecnico on laser alloying of Al-TM alloys, over the last years.

    En el presente trabajo se estudia la aleación superficial mediante láser de aluminio con metales de transición. El cromo y el molibdeno son particularmente interesantes porque producen aleaciones de alta resistencia y por el bajo coeficiente de difusión y solución sólida en aluminio. Para producir estas aleaciones se ha seguido un procedimiento desarrollado en dos partes. En primer lugar, el material se alea usando una baja velocidad de procesado y en segundo lugar la estructura se modifica mediante un refinamiento posterior. Este procedimiento se ha empleado en la producción de aleaciones Al-Cr, Al-Mo y Al-Nb mediante aleación con láser de CO2 de polvos de Cr, Mo o Nb en aluminio y la aleación 7175. Este trabajo es una revisión del desarrollado en el Instituto Superior Técnico de Lisboa en los últimos años.

  7. Image analysis used for aluminium alloy microstructure investigation

    M. Krupiński

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this work the metallographic microstructure analysis of the investigated AlSi7Cu3Mg aluminium cast alloy was performed for samples cooled with different cooling rate settings. The preformed investigations are subjected to the analysis of cooling rate influence on the phase morphology.Design/methodology/approach: The solidification process itself is analysed using the UMSA device by appliance of the Derivative Thermo Analysis. The influence of the cooling rate on the alloy microstructure was investigated using computer aided image analysis, in this work also the content of particular phases was analysed, as well the percentage of pinholes compared to the chosen cooling rate.Findings: The treated sample is without holes, cracks and defects as well as has a slightly higher hardness value compared to the as-cast material.Research limitations/implications: The investigated samples were made of the cylindrical shape and were cooled in the range of 0.2°C/s to 1.25°C/s. In this work also the derivative thermoanalysis was performed to determine the correlation between the chosen cooling rate and the microstructure as well changes in the derivative curve shape. For alloy cooling with chosen cooling rate as well for the derivative thermo-analysis the UMSA analysator was applied.Practical implications: The investigated material can find its use in the foundry industry; an improvement of component quality depends mainly on better control over the production parameters.Originality/value: The originality of this work is based on applying of regulated cooling rate of aluminium alloy for structure and mechanical properties changes. As an effect of this study it will be possible to understand and to influence the mechanism of structure forming, refinement and nucleation. Also a better understanding of the thermal characteristics will be provided to achieve a desirable phase morphology required for application of this material under production conditions.

  8. Contradictory effect of chromate inhibitor on corrosive wear of aluminium alloy

    Research highlights: → Corrosive wear of aluminium alloy in inhibited artificial acid rain was studied. → Tribometer with linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used.→ Corrosion potential, polarization current and friction coefficient were measured. → Chromate decreases corrosion of aluminium alloy under wear conditions. → Chromate in general accelerates corrosive wear of the alloy in acid rain. - Abstract: The corrosive wear of D16T aluminium alloy in artificial acid rain was studied. A special tribometer with the linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used. The setup allows to measure simultaneously an open circuit potential, to carry out potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization studies of the alloy corrosion and to record the friction coefficient. It was established that the addition of strontium chromate inhibitor to the working environment decreases an electrochemical corrosion of the aluminium alloy under wear conditions, but in general accelerates its destruction due to insufficient wear resistance of a formed surface film.

  9. Contradictory effect of chromate inhibitor on corrosive wear of aluminium alloy

    Pokhmurskii, V.I. [Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5, Naukova Str., Lviv 79601 (Ukraine); Zin, I.M., E-mail: zin@ipm.lviv.u [Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5, Naukova Str., Lviv 79601 (Ukraine); Vynar, V.A.; Bily, L.M. [Karpenko Physico-Mechanical Institute, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 5, Naukova Str., Lviv 79601 (Ukraine)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Corrosive wear of aluminium alloy in inhibited artificial acid rain was studied. {yields} Tribometer with linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used.{yields} Corrosion potential, polarization current and friction coefficient were measured. {yields} Chromate decreases corrosion of aluminium alloy under wear conditions. {yields} Chromate in general accelerates corrosive wear of the alloy in acid rain. - Abstract: The corrosive wear of D16T aluminium alloy in artificial acid rain was studied. A special tribometer with the linear reciprocating ball-on-flat geometry was used. The setup allows to measure simultaneously an open circuit potential, to carry out potentiostatic and potentiodynamic polarization studies of the alloy corrosion and to record the friction coefficient. It was established that the addition of strontium chromate inhibitor to the working environment decreases an electrochemical corrosion of the aluminium alloy under wear conditions, but in general accelerates its destruction due to insufficient wear resistance of a formed surface film.

  10. Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminium to Titanium: Microstructure, Properties, and Alloying Effects

    Zhang, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Use of welded titanium alloy to aluminium alloy structures in the aerospace industry has a number of potential benefits for both cost and weight saving by enabling titanium to be used only in the most critical parts, with the cheaper and lighter aluminum alloy making up the rest of the structure. However, due to the formation of brittle intermetallic compounds (IMC) at interface and the enormous gap in melting point, the welding of titanium to aluminium remains a major challenge. Solid state ...

  11. Corrosion Behaviour of Friction Stir Welded AA5xxx Aluminium Alloys

    Abuaisha, Ramadan R

    2013-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a well recognised method for joining aluminium alloys and other engineering materials at a temperature below their melting point. However, the microstructure of the alloys may be modified during the welding process due to frictional heat and severe plastic deformation.In this study, the microstructures of friction stir welded AA5754-H111 and AA5083-O aluminium alloys have been investigated using optical microscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy e...

  12. A study of the anodic behaviour of aluminium alloys in alkaline electrolytes

    Walters, B.N.

    1988-01-01

    Recent studies an the discharge performance of aluminium alloys in alkaline media have led to improved alloys with significantly lower corrosion rates and more anodic potentials. Performance, of various alkaline electrolytes have also been examined and considerable progress has been made in this area. A review of the available literature reveals a list of several elements which are suitable for alloying with aluminium as regards reducing corrosion and overpotential. Previous work at the Chemi...

  13. Fracture toughness behaviour of FSW joints aluminium alloys

    Strombeck, A. v.; Santos, J.F. dos; Torster, F.; Laureano, P.; Kocak, M. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Materialforschung

    2000-07-01

    The friction stir welding (FSW) process can be successfully used to achieve defect-free joints in Al-alloys. However, a thorough characterisation of the joints is needed in order to satisfy the stringent requirements of advanced applications such as aerospace, automotive and shipbuilding. In this work, FSW was performed on four different aluminium alloys, namely 5005-H14, 2024-T351, 6061-T6, and 7020-T6 (plate thickness being 5 mm except alloy 5005 which is 3 mm thick). The main objective was to establish the local microstructure-property relationships and to determine the fracture toughness levels of welded plates with weld zone strength undermatching. The FSW welds were void and crack free in all of the investigated alloys. Tensile and fracture toughness properties (in terms of CTOD) of the FSW joints were determined at room temperature in addition to extensive hardness measurements and tensile tests. The effects of strength mismatch and local microstructure on the fracture toughness of these joints were discussed. (orig.)

  14. Excimer Laser Surface Melting Treatment on 7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy for Improved Corrosion Resistance

    Elkandari, Bader M H m

    2013-01-01

    High strength 7xxx aluminium alloys are used extensively in the aerospace industry because the alloys offer excellent mechanical properties. Unfortunately, the alloys can suffer localised corrosion due to the presence of large intermetallic particles at the alloy surface that are aligned in the rolling direction. Laser surface melting (LSM) techniques offer the potential to reduce and/or to eliminate the intermetallic phases from the surface of the alloy without affecting the alloy matrix.The...

  15. Performance of commercial aluminium alloys as anodes in gelled electrolyte aluminium-air batteries

    Pino, M.; Chacón, J.; Fatás, E.; Ocón, P.

    2015-12-01

    The evaluation of commercial aluminium alloys, namely, Al2024, Al7475 and Al1085, for Al-air batteries is performed. Pure Al cladded Al2024 and Al7475 are also evaluated. Current rates from 0.8 mA cm-2 to 8.6 mA cm-2 are measured in a gel Al-air cell composed of the commercial alloy sample, a commercial air-cathode and an easily synthesizable gelled alkaline electrolyte. The influence of the alloying elements and the addition to the electrolyte of ZnO and ZnCl2, as corrosion inhibitors is studied and analysed via EDX/SEM. Specific capacities of up to 426 mAh/g are obtained with notably flat potential discharges of 1.3-1.4 V. The competition between self-corrosion and oxidation reactions is also discussed, as well as the influence of the current applied on that process. Al7475 is determined to have the best behaviour as anode in Al-air primary batteries, and cladding process is found to be an extra protection against corrosion at low current discharges. Conversely, Al1085 provided worse results because of an unfavourable metallic composition.

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of thixoformed A319 aluminium alloy

    Highlights: • A319 was successfully thixoformed at 50% liquid, i.e. at 571 °C. • T6 heat treatment has increased the strength and hardness of the thixoformed alloy. • The elongation after T6 heat treatment is even significantly improved. • The iron-rich intermetallic phase reduces the strength of the thixoformed alloy. - Abstract: Thixoforming is a viable technology for forming alloys in a semisolid state into near net-shaped products. In the present study, the effect of a thixoforming process on the microstructure and mechanical properties of A319 aluminium alloy was investigated. The ingots obtained from the cooling slope were thixoformed in a press after they remained at 571 °C for 5 min, yielding a microstructure predominantly composed of α-Al globules and inter-globular Si particles. Some of the thixoformed samples were treated with an ageing process (T6) and then, hardness and tensile samples were prepared from the as-cast, as-thixoformed and thixoformed T6. All the thixoformed samples were characterised using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) as well as hardness measurements and tensile tests. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of the thixoformed A319 alloy increased after the T6 heat treatment (hardness of 124.2 ± 3.2 HV, tensile strength of 298 ± 3.0 MPa, yield strength of 201 ± 2.6 MPa and elongation to fracture of 4.5 ± 0.3%). The fracture samples from the tensile test were analysed, revealing that the iron-rich intermetallic observed in the samples reduced the tensile strength and ductility of the thixoformed A319 alloys

  17. PROCESS CAPABILITY STUDY OF A RAPID CASTING SOLUTION FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOYS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL PRINTING

    R. Singh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the best shell wall thickness of a mould cavity was investigated in a process capability study of a rapid casting solution for aluminium alloys using three-dimensional printing (3DP. Starting from the identification of a component/benchmark, an aluminium-alloy casting prototype was produced with different shell wall thicknesses by three dimensional printing. The results of the study suggest that, at the best shell wall thickness (5 mm for aluminium alloys, the rapid casting solution using a 3DP process lies within the ±3.999 sigma (σ limit.

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE HETEROGENEOUS ALUMINIUM ALLOYS PRODUCTION AT PARTIAL DISSOLUTION OF FAST-COOLED DISPERSE ALLOY

    L. P. Dolgij

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the matters of improvement of special characteristics such as hightemperature strength, corrosion resistance, thermalphysic indices of alloys on the basis of aluminium by means of alloying them by elements of transition group. Influence of concentrations of elements in addition alloy, speed of its cooling, methods of introduction, portions of alloys introduction, content of applied fluxes and other factors on the structure and characteristics at production of heterogeneous aluminium alloys with the purpose of ensuring of high exploitation characteristics of castings is examined.

  19. Quantitative prediction of solute strengthening in aluminium alloys.

    Leyson, Gerard Paul M; Curtin, William A; Hector, Louis G; Woodward, Christopher F

    2010-09-01

    Despite significant advances in computational materials science, a quantitative, parameter-free prediction of the mechanical properties of alloys has been difficult to achieve from first principles. Here, we present a new analytic theory that, with input from first-principles calculations, is able to predict the strengthening of aluminium by substitutional solute atoms. Solute-dislocation interaction energies in and around the dislocation core are first calculated using density functional theory and a flexible-boundary-condition method. An analytic model for the strength, or stress to move a dislocation, owing to the random field of solutes, is then presented. The theory, which has no adjustable parameters and is extendable to other metallic alloys, predicts both the energy barriers to dislocation motion and the zero-temperature flow stress, allowing for predictions of finite-temperature flow stresses. Quantitative comparisons with experimental flow stresses at temperature T=78 K are made for Al-X alloys (X=Mg, Si, Cu, Cr) and good agreement is obtained. PMID:20676087

  20. High effective organic corrosion inhibitors for 2024 aluminium alloy

    The inhibiting effect of several organic compounds on the corrosion of 2024 aluminium alloy in neutral chloride solution was investigated in the present work. The candidates were selected based on the assumption that effective inhibitors should form highly insoluble complexes with components of AA2024. Along with organic complexing agents, the salts of rare-earth elements were included into screening electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test for getting comparative data. Results of EIS analysis revealed three most effective organic inhibitors: salicylaldoxime, 8-hydroxyquinoline and quinaldic acid. Their anti-corrosion performance was additionally investigated via dc polarization, as well as localized techniques: scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy coupled with scanning Kelvin probe (SKPFM). Localized measurements at exactly the same microdimensional zones of the alloy before and after immersion into 0.05 M sodium chloride solution allowed tracing the evolution of the Volta potential, chemical composition, surface topography and formation of corrosion products on the surface and intermetallic inclusions during the corrosion tests. The results show that the quinaldic acid, salicylaldoxime and 8-hydroxyquinoline provide anti-corrosion protection for AA2024 forming a thin organic layer of insoluble complexes on the surface of the alloy. Inhibiting action is the consequence of suppression of dissolution of Mg, Al and Cu from the corrosion active intermetallic zones

  1. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    Robinson, J.S., E-mail: jeremy.robinson@ul.ie [Department of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Biomedical Engineering, University of Limerick (Ireland); Redington, W. [Materials and Surface Science Institute, University of Limerick (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin{sup 2}ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling.

  2. The influence of alloy composition on residual stresses in heat treated aluminium alloys

    The as quenched properties of eight different heat treatable aluminium alloys are related to residual stress magnitudes with the objective being to establish if there is a relationship between the residual stress and the as quenched alloy hardness and strength. Near surface residual stresses were assessed with X-ray diffraction using both the established sin2ψ method and the more recent cos α technique. Through thickness residual stresses were also characterised using neutron diffraction. The alloys were chosen to encompass a wide range of strengths. The low to medium strength alloys were 6060 and 6082, medium to high strength 2618A, 2014A, 7075, 7010 and two variants of 7449, while the very high strength alloy was the powder metallurgy alloy N707. To assess the as quenched strength, dynamic hardness and tensile properties were determined from samples tested immediately after quenching to minimise the influence of precipitation hardening by natural aging. In addition, hot hardness measurements were made in situ on samples cooled to simulate quench paths. Within the experimental constraints of the investigation, the distribution of residual stress through the thickness was found to follow the same pattern for all the alloys investigated, varying from tensile in the interior to surface compression. The influence of alloy strength was manifested as a change in the observed residual stress magnitudes, and surface residual stresses were found to vary linearly with as quenched hardness and strength. - Highlights: • As quenched aluminium alloys contain high magnitude residual stresses. • Surface is compressive balance by a tensile core. • As quenched surface residual stress is linear function of alloy strength. • In situ hot hardness demonstrates rapid change in intrinsic hardness during rapid cooling

  3. Alloy development and associated dimensional changes of aluminium alloys during liquid phase sintering

    Martin, J.M.; Castro, F. [Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Tecnicas de Guipuzcoa (CEIT) and TECNUN, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2003-07-01

    The sintering behaviour and microstructural evolution of two aluminium alloys, of the 2XXX and 7XXX series, has been studied under, both, laboratory and industrial conditions. Quenching experiments from selected temperatures during the heating cycles, coupled with microstructural characterisation by Electron Microscopy, were used to investigate the gradual approach towards equilibrium of the alloys, from the as-pressed powder mixtures to the consolidated state after sintering. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was used to identify the reactions leading to the formation of liquid phases during sintering while the associated dimensional changes were determined by Dilatometry. The sinterability of these alloys and the development of necks between the solid aluminium particles is based upon the initial formation of transient liquid phases that favour the incorporation of alloying additions, followed by the development of permanent liquid phases, mainly containing Zn/Mg/Al and Cu/Al for the 7XXX and 2XXX series, respectively, leading to the densification of the alloys. A series of geometrically complex components with adequate dimensional tolerance and properties were industrially produced for an automotive application using the 2XXX series P/M Al alloy. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of oxyde films and conversion layers on aluminium alloys

    Corrosion resistance and specific functional properties (dielectrical and decorative properties, adhesion, wear resistance) of aluminium alloys can be improved by surface treatments as electrochemical or chemical conversion reaction. The purpose of this study is to discuss the applicability of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and electrochemical impedance spectrometry (EIS) for the characterization of the obtained conversion surface layers. It can be concluded that SE yields an accurate characterization for the thickness and the interfacial properties of both the barrier an porous oxide layer. The EIS allows to measure and to determine the sealing grade of the porous layer. These two complementary techniques can be used to investigate the growth mechanism of phosphate chromate conversion layers. (orig.)

  5. Cold Spray Deposition of Titanium onto Aluminium Alloys

    M., Barbosa; N., Cinca; S., Dosta; J. M., Guillemany.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A liga de alumnio 7075-T6 amplamente utilizada na aeronutica devido sua elevada relao resistncia mecnica/peso. Porm est sujeita a diversas formas de corroso resultantes dos diferentes ambientes em que se encontra inserida. Uma possvel soluo para melhorar o comportamento desta liga em [...] situaes de corroso o seu revestimento com uma camada de titnio puro. Porm, uma vez que o titnio um metal extremamente sensvel oxidao, a sua deposio no estado puro encontra-se limitada a processos como a Electrodeposio, Chemical Vapour Deposition ou Vacuum Plasma Spray, que so tcnicas lentas e dispendiosas. Este trabalho prope a deposio deste metal num substrato de alumnio 7075 atravs de uma tecnologia inovadora de deposio a frio conhecida como Cold Spray. A influncia de diferentes parmetros de deposio estudada (temperatura e presso do gs de processo, velocidade de alimentao do p) e foi possvel obter um revestimento de titnio puro superior a 300m, de forma rpida e fcil, sem quaisquer alteraes microestruturais. Aps optimizao dos parmetros de deposio, o processo de Cold Spray, quando comparado s tcnicas de projeco trmica convencional, permite obter revestimentos com boas propriedades mecnicas de forma rpida e econmica, tornando-o ideal para aplicaes industriais. Abstract in english The aluminium alloy 7075-T6 is widely used in aeronautic engineering due to its high mechanical resistance to weight ratio. Depending upon the environmental conditions, many types of corrosion mechanisms have been found to occur in aircraft structural aluminium alloys. A possible solution to improve [...] the alloys behaviour is the deposition of a pure Titanium coating. At present the deposition of Titanium is limited to processes such as Electroplating, Chemical Vapour Deposition and Vacuum Plasma Spray. These traditional approaches are generally slow and expensive, while the common thermal spray processes have two major limitations which are the presence of porosity and oxides in the spray-deposited material. Since Titanium is a metal very sensitive to oxidation, it is proposed in the present work to deposit it onto Aluminium substrates by a novel thermal spray process known as Cold Spray. In this work, the influence of the gas pressure and temperature, and the powder feeding rate on the cold spray process and in the final coating characteristics was studied, and a dense pure titanium coating onto aluminium 7075 substrates, with thickness higher than 300m and no microstructural changes was easily and fast obtained. It was possible to conclude that after optimization, the cold spray process when compared to the conventional thermal spray techniques, results in coatings with very good properties and cost-time effective (higher coating thickness can be achieved in less time and with less money investment), making it ideal for industrial applications.

  6. Characteristics of electric parameters in aluminium alloy MAO coating process

    Long, B H [College of Physics and Department of Materials Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Wu, H H [College of Physics and Department of Materials Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Long, B Y [College of Physics and Department of Materials Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Wang, J B [National Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, N D [College of Physics and Department of Materials Science, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Lue, X Y [National Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Jin, Z S [National Key Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Bai, Y Z [State Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Department of Physics, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2005-09-21

    Characteristics of electric parameters in the microarc oxidation (MAO) process of aluminium alloy at constant voltage were studied by a homemade data collecting system. The experimental results show that (1) the variations of the cathodic and anodic current amplitudes and the effective working current reflect obviously five different stages in the course of treatment and (2) variations of the dynamic forward resistance and electric resistivity of coatings have different stages too, while changes of the dynamic backward resistance and resistivity with treatment time are not evident. During the MAO process, the dynamic forward resistance is not equal to the backward resistance at any time, and the former is generally greater than the latter. Scanning electron microscopy analysis shows that these changes are attributed to variations of the coating porous structure during different treating times.

  7. Characterization of AA7050 aluminium alloy processed by ECAP

    The commercial AA7050 aluminium alloy in the solution heat treated condition (W) was processed by ECAP through route A. Two pressing temperatures (room and 150 deg C and velocities (5 and 30mm/min) were used, as well as different number of passes. The effect of such variables on the microstructure evolution was evaluated using optical and transmission electron microscopy with EDX microanalysis, and xray diffraction. It was found that the microstructure has been refined by ECAP, as a result of subgrains formed within deformation bands. ECAP at 150 deg C resulted in intense precipitation of plate like η phase, which evolves to equiaxial morphology as the number of passes increases. (author)

  8. THE PHYSICAL METALLURGY OF ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM-COPPER-MAGNESIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS-8090 AND 8091

    Miller, W.; White, J.; Lloyd, D

    1987-01-01

    Aluminium alloys containing up to 3wt% lithium and cast using an ingot metallurgy route are currently being developed for aerospace applications. The objective of this paper is to review the current status of the metallurgical understanding of these alloys. Particular emphasis is placed on the alloy system Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr, which includes the alloys 8090 and 8090 developed in the United Kingdom by the Royal Aircraft Establishment and Alcan. Comparison is made with other alloy systems, where app...

  9. Machinability of magnesium and aluminium alloys. Part II: formation of shavings

    This work compares the methods of forming shavings during the machining of magnesium and aluminium alloys. The microstructural analysis of shavings explains the phenomena observed during machining. It has been confirmed that the shearing angle during machining of magnesium alloys is greater than that obtained with aluminium alloys. This also confirms the ductile/fragile behaviour of these two materials, the effects of which are seen in cutting resistance. Shavings obtained during drilling of magnesium alloys are shorter than those of 6061-T6, but are especially more regular than those of A356, and their size is independent of cutting speed. All of these results explain the major difference in behaviour of these two types of material: magnesium alloys are clearly easier to machine than aluminium alloys

  10. Surface Chemistry of Aluminium Alloy Slid against Steel Lubricated by Organic Friction Modifier in Hydrocarbon Oil

    Ichiro Minami; Ayumi Sugibuchi

    2012-01-01

    The lubrication mechanism of aluminium alloy slid against steel was investigated from the standpoint of surface chemistry. Low friction and low wear were observed using glycerol mono-olate in a hydrocarbon as lubricant. Increase in the silicon content in the aluminium alloy during rubbing was observed by surface analyses using (1) Auger electron spectroscopy, (2) scanning electron microscopy along with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and (3) X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Mild remova...

  11. Corrosion Inhibitive Effect of Ocimum Gratissimum Extract on Zinc - Aluminium Alloy in Hydrochloric Acid

    Mojisola O. Nkiko; Janet T. Bamgbose

    2011-01-01

    The inhibitive effect of Ocimum gratissimum by seed extract on the corrosion of zinc - aluminium (ZA) alloy in 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) solution has been studied using gravimetric methods. Inhibition increases with concentration of extract but decreases with temperature. This observation implies that Ocimum gratissimum seed extract is an effective and non toxic inhibitor of the corrosion of zinc - aluminium alloy. Adsorption of the extract on the surface obeyed the Freundlich adsorption is...

  12. A review of friction stir welding of AA 6061 aluminium alloy

    N. Bhanodaya Kiran Babu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss about the friction stir welding of joining heat treatable aluminium alloys for aerospace and automobile industries. These welded joints have higher tensile strength to weight ratio and finer microsturcture. FSW of aluminium alloys have the potential to hold good mechanical and metallurgical properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of process parameters on the tensile strength of the welded joints.

  13. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Verification of Upsetting Temperature Optimization of Aluminium Alloy

    Maros Martinkovic; Maria Kapustova

    2012-01-01

    Warm forming of metal materials represents a profitable method of precise forming pieces production due to energy and time savings, obtaining of higher surface quality and dimension precision of forming pieces in comparison with hot forming. An optimal forming temperature was selected from experimental measurement of mechanical properties, plasticity and workability of an aluminium alloy. Upsetting forming process of aluminium alloy AlSiMg type was simulated using finite element method at war...

  14. Corrosion of aluminium-zinc-rare earth alloys in solutions of polyvanadic acid salts

    Electrochemical behaviour of aluminium alloys with rare earth metals (Sc, Y, Nd, Ce, P) in polyvanadium acid salt solutions has been studied by the method of anodic polarization curves. It has been ascertained that in the salt series NaVO3-KVO3-NH4VO3 their depolarizing activity as regards the aluminium-zinc alloys studied, decreases due to increase in vanadate-anions polymerization degree. 10 refs.; 2 figs

  15. Microstructure Scaling Properties and Fatigue Resistance of Pre-Strained Aluminium Alloys (Part 1: Al-Cu alloy)

    Froustey, C.; NAIMARK, O.; BANNIKOV, M.; Oborin, V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work is to provide the link between the fatigue behaviour of pre-strained aluminium alloys and the scaling properties of damage induced on the fracture surface. Fatigue tests performed on pre-strained aluminium alloys revealed a large difference in their residual fatigue resistance linked to the material: the Al-Cu alloy demonstrated a sharp decrease of HCF life-time due to the pre-straining whereas the insensitivity of the Al-Mg alloy was clear. For ...

  16. Surface mechanical behaviour of composite Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy

    Ni-P-fly ash coatings were produced on zincate coated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of an electroless deposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-P-fly ash coating was found to consist of an amorphous Ni-P matrix with dispersed fly ash particles. The wear resistance of the Ni-P-fly ash coating on zincate treated aluminium alloy was observed to be higher than that of the bare aluminium alloy, when sliding against a stainless steel counterface. In addition, the adhesion between the Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating and the aluminium alloy substrate was also studied with a scratch testing apparatus. The adhesion strength of Ni-P-fly ash/zincate coating on the aluminium alloy substrate was observed to be higher in comparison to the Ni-P/zincate coating on the same aluminium alloy.

  17. Corrosion Behaviour of Alpha Phase Aluminium Bronze Alloy in Selected Environments

    Oluwayomi BALOGUN; Joseph BORODE; Kenneth ALANEME; Michael BODUNRIN

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the corrosion behaviour of aluminium (8 wt %) bronze alloys produced via sand casting in acidic, alkaline, and marine environments. The aluminium bronze was produced from aluminium (6063) alloy and copper scraps by sand casting according to European standard specification (UNS. C61400-CuAl8), after which they were cut into smaller sizes and immersed in the selected corrosive media for corrosion test investigation. H2SO4, NaCl, NaOH, and HCl of 0.1 M, 0.2 M, 0.3 M, 0...

  18. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    Cecchetto, L; Ambat, Rajan; Davenport, A.J.; Delabouglise, D; Petit, J.-P.; Neel, O.

    2007-01-01

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin Wlms of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very eVective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines...... factors: • a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, • a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer–metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidiWcation in Wrst steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces....

  19. Microscopic observation of pattern attack by aggressive ions on finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode

    This paper presents the results of a microscopic observation on submerged finished surface of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode. Experimental tests were carried out on polished surface aluminium anode exposed to seawater containing aggressive ions in order to observe of pattern corrosion attack on corroding surface of anode. Results have shown, at least under the present testing condition, that surface of sacrificial anode were attack by an aggressive ion such as chloride along grain boundaries. In addition, results of microanalysis showed that the corrosion products on surface of aluminium alloy have Al, Zn and O element for all sample and within the pit was consists of Al, Zn, O and Cl element. (author)

  20. Scandium effect on corrosion resistance of aluminium and its alloys in 3% NaCl solution

    Scandium effect on corrosion and electrochemical features of aluminium and its high-impact alloys in NaCl 3%-solution is studied. Positive effect of scandium doping of alloys was determined. Mechanism of scandium behaviour when aluminium corrosion resistance is improved is suggested. The suggested mechanism takes account of scandium ability to be selectively dissolved and oxidized by water oxygen with formation of Sc2O3 oxide accumulated at the surface in the form of fine-dispersed precipitation insoluble in electrolyte and forming no mixed oxides with aluminium

  1. Analysis of the influence oxygen and hydrogen during melting aluminium and his alloys

    A. W. Bydałek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work was stated term the analysis of ion influences in melting codnuction of aluminium and his alloys. Influence from hydrogen and oxygen, hydrogen and oxygen and steam water together was distinguished. Where have worked out the scheme of influences leading to gas porosity of aluminium and his alloys. In analysis was referred to theory of double electric layer. It was conducted the analysis regularity of opinion influence oxygen and hydrogen in melt aluminium in support on Allena - Hewitta dependence.

  2. Effect of mechanical alloying and Ti addition on solution and ageing treatment of an AA7050 aluminium alloy

    Kátia Regina Cardoso; Dilermando Nagle Travessa; Asunción García Escorial; Marcela Lieblich

    2007-01-01

    In this work, solution heat treatments at different temperatures were performed in a commercial based AA7050 aluminium alloy, with and without titanium addition, produced by mechanical alloying and hot extrusion with the aim to investigate the effect of titanium addition and mechanical alloying in the precipitates stability. The same heat treatment conditions were used in a reference sample obtained from a commercial AA7050 alloy. Solution heat treated samples were characterised by differenti...

  3. Directionality in the Mechanical Properties of Spray Cast and Extruded 7XXX Series Aluminium Alloys

    SALAMCI, Elmas

    2003-01-01

    Three 7xxx series aluminium SS70, N707 and 7075 alloys have been produced by the spray deposition process. The alloys were extruded and subsequently heat treated in the T6 and T7 temper conditions. Texture analysis of as-received and solution treated alloys revealed and fibre textures leading to higher mechanical properties in the longitudinal direction. Anisotropic behaviour was observed in these alloys. In addition, the influence of recrystallizing, heat treatment, stretching, ...

  4. Radiation effects in the aluminium alloys irradiated with neutrons

    Full text: Materials of fuel elements for water cooled nuclear reactors are exposed to simultaneous action of an ionizing radiation, temperature and yields of water radiolysis. In particular, irradiation by fast neutrons (En> 0.1 MeV) in research reactors influences mainly the mechanical properties of aluminium alloys, increasing their strength and reducing the plasticity. Radiation can essentially affect the stability of the heat-generating assembly material, changing its structure state. The structure change may also be the result of post-radiation ageing. This paper presents the results of studying the influence of reactor neutrons (research reactor of INP AS RU) on microstructure, electrical characteristics and length changes of SAV-1 and AMG-2 aluminium alloys used in nuclear industry. These alloys are low-alloyed solid solutions and intermetallic phases of CuAl2, Mg2Si, CuMgAl2, CuMg4Al6, Al2Mg2 in an equilibrium state. Samples were cut with orientation in 111 crystallographic axis in the shape of disks with the diameter d= 15 mm and thickness h= 3 mm for the metallographic analysis, and rods with the length of 40 mm and width d = 5 mm for measuring specific electrical resistance and linear dimension changes prior and after irradiations. For precise measurements the sample surfaces were mechanically handled and polished in a chemical solution, and then washed out in the distilled water and ethanol. Further samples, were put into the aluminum container and irradiated in a vertical channel of the reactor to fluencies 1018, 1019, 1020 n/cm2. The relative elongation (extension) δ was calculated as the measured length ratio of the non-irradiated and irradiated sample: δ=L0/L1x100%. Determination of element composition and the metallographic analysis of studied samples were done at the X-ray microanalyzer 'Jeol' JSM 5910 IV. Specific resistance (ρ) values were measures with four probe technique by compensation method at the direct voltage. The sample lengths were measured by means of a micrometer. Under the irradiation the sample surface is oxidized, and local nonsoluble intermetallic phases of Al-Mg-Si-Fe system are shattered and diffused in the sample volume practically uniformly. Such smashing of local nonsoluble intermetallic phases, finally, leads to essential local change of the element composition, increase of phase interfaces, magnification of interior mechanical stresses, and, hence, to increase in deficiency. The considerable increase of the structure deficiency level of the irradiated alloy is shown first of all in the observed ρ increase. For the SAV-1 sample the ρ value increases from 3.53x10-6 Ohm·m for not irradiated reference up to 3.86x10-6 Ohm·m after the fluency increase to 1020 cm-2 and for alloy AMG-2 from 3.60x10-6 Ohm·m to 5.31x10-6 Ohm·m, respectively. The neutron irradiation induced change of δ depends on the impurity contents. For the SAV-1 sample the relative extension is incremented at the beginning to 0.52 % at 1018 cm-2, then decreases proportionally to a neutron fluence to 0.47 % at 1020 cm-2. For the AMG-2 alloy sample the fluence dependence of δ was found more complicate. At 1.3x1018 cm2 the length reduction was at first 0.23 %, then increases smoothly to 0.25 % at 1.5x1019 cm-2 and decreased to 0.1 % at 1.2x1020 cm2. The irradiation induced defects of crystal lattice entered have created the energy barrier system in the materials, and charge carriers scattered at the barriers that resulted in the ρ magnification. The dislocation density increases in metal with smashing of intermetallic phases. However, their motion is interfered by major number of demarcations. As a result the explored alloys become a little strengthened while losing plasticity. Hardening is promoted also by other irregularities of the crystalline structure, such as atoms of the impurities dissolved in metal and alloying elements, inclusions of the secondary phases, boundaries of grains or blocks etc, and also by braking dislocation motion. Regarding the observed small values of δ, it is possible to conclude about possibility of application of the studied aluminum alloys up to fluences of 1020 cm-2 without appreciable strength losses. (authors)

  5. Development of Al-TiC Alloys Using Powder Metallurgy as Grain Refiners for Aluminium and Its Alloys

    Abdel-Nasser .M. Omran

    2014-01-01

    Al-Ti-C master alloys have been widely investigated for many years as grain refiner for aluminium and its alloys. In this work, the Al-Ti-C master alloys are synthesized using powder metallurgy technique through the mixing of aluminium and TiC powders with different TiC contents 3.75 (3), 5(4), 6.25(5) and 7.5(6) Wt% TiC(Wt% Ti). The mixing powders with different contents of TiC were pressed in cylinder shape. The pressed specimens were sintered from 450 oC in a tube furnace u...

  6. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author)

  7. Modeling of recrystallization applied to commercial aluminium alloys

    Furu, T.

    1992-09-01

    A comprehensive study of the annealing behavior of some non heat-treatable commercial aluminium alloys has been carried out. The primary objective of this work has been to establish a detailed knowledge of the recovery and recrystallization processes occurring during annealing of heavily deformed metals, from both an experimental and a modeling point of view. The experimental part has focused on the evolution in stored energy and mechanical properties as well as the kinetics of recovery and recrystallization during annealing. The modeling part has dealt with the construction of a computer model based on physical metallurgical principles for describing the kinetic aspects of both recovery and recrystallization. The time dependency of recrystallization, described in terms of the JMAK-exponent (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov) has been followed for a range of annealing temperatures, strains and alloys. The results revealed for all these variants JMAK-exponents of about 2, which are much lower than the classical values of 3 and 4 for three dimensional homogenous site saturation and Johnson-Mehl- kinetics, respectively. A recrystallization model has been developed, which consists of the following main features: Nucleation sites are distributed approximately randomly in space; Nucleation of new grains is site saturated; The growth rate of the recrystallized grains decreases with time according to either the deformation zones associated with large undeformable particles or concurrent recovery simultaneous with the recrystallization process. The modeling results have shown that introducing a decreasing growth rate due to deformation zones decreases the JMAK-exponent to a value which corresponds to the experimental JMAK-values. 112 refs., 88 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Modelling of Local Necking and Fracture in Aluminium Alloys

    Non-linear Finite Element simulations are extensively used in forming and crashworthiness studies of automotive components and structures in which fracture need to be controlled. For thin-walled ductile materials, the fracture-related phenomena that must be properly represented are thinning instability, ductile fracture and through-thickness shear instability. Proper representation of the fracture process relies on the accuracy of constitutive and fracture models and their parameters that need to be calibrated through well defined experiments. The present study focuses on local necking and fracture which is of high industrial importance, and uses a phenomenological criterion for modelling fracture in aluminium alloys. As an accurate description of plastic anisotropy is important, advanced phenomenological constitutive equations based on the yield criterion YLD2000/YLD2003 are used. Uniaxial tensile tests and disc compression tests are performed for identification of the constitutive model parameters. Ductile fracture is described by the Cockcroft-Latham fracture criterion and an in-plane shear tests is performed to identify the fracture parameter. The reason is that in a well designed in-plane shear test no thinning instability should occur and it thus gives more direct information about the phenomenon of ductile fracture. Numerical simulations have been performed using a user-defined material model implemented in the general-purpose non-linear FE code LS-DYNA. The applicability of the model is demonstrated by correlating the predicted and experimental response in the in-plane shear tests and additional plane strain tension tests

  9. Mushy Zone Properties and Castability of Aluminium Foundry Alloys

    Dahle, A.K.

    1996-01-01

    The growing application and market share of aluminium castings demand better understanding of the mechanisms of defect formation during casting. Although casting is a cost-effective production route, inadequate reproducibility and quality of the cast structure often restrict the utilization of castings. This doctoral thesis aims to (1) determine how the solidification conditions affect the rheological behaviour in the partially solidified state, (2) to measure how alterations in solidification variables influence castability, and (3) to investigate the relationship between mushy zone rheology and castability. The development of mechanical strength in the mushy zone was measured as a function of chemical composition. Measurements of the dendrite coherency point provided accurate determination of the point where the dendrite network is established. The strength measurements confirm that the dendrites are largely independent and free-floating before dendrite coherency. The point and rate of strength development in the subsequently established interdendritic network strongly depend on the size and morphology of the dendrites and fraction solid. The castability investigation was limited to evaluations of fluidity and feeding. Fluidity measurements showed a complex effect of increased grain refinement. Alterations of the concentration and type of main alloying element gave a direct relationship between mushy zone rheology and fluidity. The range of the operating feeding mechanisms during solidification is directly related to the rheological properties of the mushy zone. 251 refs., 77 refs., 25 tabs.

  10. Residual stress measurements in laser clad aircraft aluminium alloys

    Fatigue and corrosion damage of structural components threatens the safety and availability of civil and military aircrafts. There is no sign of relief from these threats as civil and military aircrafts worldwide are continuously being pushed further into and past their initial design fatigue lives in tight financial circumstances. Given fatigue and corrosion damage often initiates at the surface and sub-surface of the components, there has been extensive research and development worldwide focused on advanced aircraft repair technologies and surface enhancement methods. The Deep Surface Rolling (DSR) is one of advanced surface enhancement technologies that can introduce deep compressive residual stresses into the surface of aircraft metallic structure to extend its fatigue life. For the development of cost-effective aircraft structural repair technologies such as laser cladding, in this study, aluminium alloy 7075-T651 specimens with simulated corrosion damage were repaired using laser cladding technology. The surface of the laser cladding region was then processed by DSR. The experimental results from subsequent fatigue testing of laser cladded baseline, DSR and post-heat treated laser cladded specimens discovered that the DSR process can significantly increase fatigue life in comparison with the ascladded baseline. The three dimensional residual stresses were measured by neutron diffraction and the results confirmed the beneficial compressive residual stresses at the cladding surface can be achieved in depth more than 1.0 mm.

  11. Nanostructure of aluminium alloy 2024: Segregation, clustering and precipitation processes

    Variations in solute element distribution occurring in a commercial 2024 aluminium alloy during isothermal ageing treatments at 170 deg. C for up to 120 h have been characterized using atom probe tomography. An early (0.5 h at 170 deg. C) rapid increase in hardness was correlated with the formation of fine scale (average 24 atom) solute clusters, comprising principally Mg and Cu, but with minor concentrations of Si and Zn. There was, in addition, evidence of significant segregation of Mg, Cu and Si to at least some fraction of grain boundaries and existing matrix dislocations. At peak hardness (80 h at 170 deg. C) the microstructure comprised coarse precipitates of S phase, with a composition approaching stoichiometric Al2CuMg, a dense distribution of Guinier-Preston-Bagaryatsky zones elongated parallel to in a matrix of α-Al and a residual distribution of smaller equiaxed solute clusters. Both the clusters and zones contained predominantly Mg and Cu, with minor concentrations of Si and Zn. The S phase contained small but significant (0.5-1.8 at.%) concentrations of Si, which was non-uniformly distributed in elongated domains within the laths of the S phase. In overaged samples (114 h at 170 deg. C) the microstructure comprised almost exclusively coarse S phase, Al2Mg(Cu,Si), in assemblies suggestive of a combination of precipitate coarsening and coalescence.

  12. Severe wear of a near eutectic aluminium-silicon alloy

    The severe wear of a near eutectic aluminium-silicon alloy is explored using a range of electron microscopic, spectroscopic and diffraction techniques to identify the residually strained and unstrained regions, microcracks and oxidized regions in the subsurface. In severe wear the contact pressure exceeds the elastic shakedown limit. Under this condition the primary and eutectic silicon particles fragment drastically. The fragments are transported by the matrix as it undergoes incremental straining with each cyclic contact at the asperity level. The grains are refined from ?2000 nm in the bulk to 30 nm in the near surface region. A large reduction in the interparticle distance compared with that for a milder stage of wear gives rise to high strain gradients which contribute to an enhancement of the dislocation density. The resulting regions of very high strain in the boundaries of the recrystallized grains as well as within the subgrains lead to the formation of microvoids/cracks. This is accompanied by the formation of brittle oxides at these subsurface interfaces due to enhanced diffusion of oxygen. We believe that the abundance of such microcracks in the near surface region, primed by severe plastic deformation, is what distinguishes a severe wear regime from mild wear.

  13. Comparison of modification with strontium and the refining with antimony in A 356 aluminium alloys

    Strontium and Antimony treated A356 aluminium alloy samples were metallographically characterized in the as cast and solution and aged conditions. Antimony treated alloy has shown slower spheroidizing kinetics of the Silicon particles during solution treatment, lower porosity level and higher tensile strength and elongation than Strontium treated one. (author)

  14. Investigation into structure and properties of the piston aluminium alloy processed by electron beam

    Mechanical properties of the piston aluminium alloys after hardening electron-beam processing are studied. Considerable structural alloy components dispersion caused by the hardness and wear-resistance increasing accordingly at 1.5-1.6 and 2-2.6 times compared to the initial state is determined

  15. Effect of Alloying Elements to Aluminium on the Wettability of AL/SiC System

    CANDAN, Ercan

    2002-01-01

    The wettability at a liquid Al-alloy/SiC interface was evaluated by the sessile drop method at 750oC. The wetting angle, q ,of a sessile drop on SiC substrate decreased with the addition of Pb, Mg and Ca to pure aluminium. The reduction in q of the Al-Pb alloy was proportional to the reduction in surface tension, glv, of aluminium, whereas in Al-Mg and Al-Ca alloys the reduction in q was greater than the reduction in g lv of Al. This was attributed to reactions that took place at the Al-all...

  16. Electrochemical behaviour of aluminium alloys containing indium and tin in NaCl solution

    The electrochemical behaviour of Al, Al-In, Al-Sn and Al-Sn-In alloys in 2 M NaCl solution has been studied using an open circuit potential, potentiodynamic polarization and ac impedance measurements as well as by optical microscopy examination. The addition of alloying components to aluminium produced in all cases a considerable activation of aluminium. The activation is manifested by shifting the open corrosion potential and the pitting potential in the negative direction (for about 0.6 V) and significant reducing of the passive potential region. The degree of activation depended on alloying element and it was found that there is an increase in the order: Al 3+/Al potential. The ac impedance measurements performed at different potentials in wide potential range (corresponding to passive and active state of each examined samples) confirmed the great activity of Al-Sn and Al-Sn-In alloys compared to aluminium.

  17. Investigation of interphase hydrogen distribution in aluminium alloys by autoradiographical analysis method

    The distribution of hydrogen in the structure of binary alloys of aluminium with silicon, titanium and zirconium has been studied. Specimens were activated by tritium in a special installation. It was shown of the intermetallic compounds formed by aluminium with hydride forming elements (Al3Ti, Al3Zr), the solubility of hydrogen is greater than in the solution of aluminium. A study of the microstructure and the autoradiogram of the Al-Zr alloy, in which the large intermetallic compound carries cracks, has established that hydrogen can be adsorbed on the surface of cracks and other micro-discontinuities inside the metal. A study of the autoradiogram of alloys subsequent to heat treatment has shown that the latter can affect substantially the character of distribution of hydrogen. The segregation of hydrogen on the inter-phase boundaries of intermetallic compounds can have a substantial effect upon the behaviour of alloy in plastic deformation and failure

  18. Influence of modification on structure, fluidity and strength of 226D aluminium alloy

    A. Dolata-Grosz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the fluidity, solidification conditions, microstructure and tensile properties have been studied for the non-modified and modified 226D aluminium silicon alloy.Realized investigations concerned modification of alloy 226D for application as the matrix to carbon fibre reinforcement composite (MMC-Cf. One of main factors determining to good connection between metal matrix and fibres reinforcement is good wettability. It is possible to obtain suitable conditions of wettability by modification of chemical composition metal matrix alloy or proper sizing of reinforcement fibres. Into consideration of interaction between liquide aluminium and carbon fibers following modifiers were used for addition to the commercial aluminium alloy (226D. The magnesium (2%Mg, strontium (0,03%Sr and titanium (0,5%Ti with boron (0,01%B modifiers and their combination were used in the presented work.

  19. Determination of the Uranium Content of Aluminium Alloys

    Many materials testing reactors use as fuel an alloy of aluminium and enriched uranium. The amount of U235 in each fuel element must be known accurately. The techniques used to determine this are not only simple in principle but also varied; they include measurement of the alloy density, counting of the γ-activity of the U235, chemical analysis, determination of the isotopic content and evaluation of radiograph blackening. Unfortunately, all these methods possess more or less serious disadvantages when used for inspection on an industrial scale. The measurement of alloy density by Archimedes’ method gives sufficiently accurate results if care is taken and the densities of the constituent metals are exactly known. The procedures employed, however, make this a very slow method. Moreover, the isotopic content must be known with great accuracy if the amount of U235 contained is to be determined. Counting the y-activity of the U235 yields a direct evaluation of this isotope, but the many parameters of a single-channel spectrometer require the use of accurately known standards and exceptionally stable counting facilities. Nevertheless, this method is in the authors’ opinion the most suitable one for determinations on an industrial scale; and although the choice of standards requires care, and it is a slow and expensive matter to establish them, for any given level of production the choice is made once and for all, the only practical difficulty being to ensure the continued electronic stability of the installation. The other methods mentioned - chemical and isotopic analyses, and densitometry - are not. in common use. Measurement of the blackening of a radiograph is not sufficiently precise and does not permit the determination of uranium content with the required degree of accuracy. Densitometric examination of radiographs is nevertheless very useful, even indispensable, in assessing the homogeneity of an alloy or its mean content compared with two extreme standards on the same negative. Chemical and isotopic analyses can be very accurate, but they are also destructive: certain working precautions must be taken in order on the one hand to eliminate errors due to chemical impurities in the alloy, and on the other to allow for the presence of the different uranium isotopes, the proportions of which must be known for an exact calculation of the U235 content. Finally, the authors show that the measurement of uranium content must be carried out in several stages, each involving all the resources of relatively simple techniques. The value and limits of each technique are discussed. The choice of standards is based on the evidence of radiographs. The exact U235 content of the standards is determined by chemical and isotopic analyses. Production-line inspection is carried out by measuring the alloy density or by counting the γ-activity of the U235. The precision of the two methods is comparable (± 0.5% relative to the uranium content). From the economic point of view the authors recommend determining the U235 content by y-counting whenever a large number of components of a given shape have to be inspected. This subject has already been dealt with. The paper reports and discusses the results of an industrial experiment. (author)

  20. Evaluation of mechanical properties of aluminium alloyaluminaboron carbide metal matrix composites

    Highlights: Fabrication of MMC with aluminium alloyaluminaboron carbide is done. Different proportions of reinforcements are added. The effects of varying proportions are studied. Investigation on mechanical properties above composites is performed. Failure morphology analysis is done using SEM. - Abstract: This paper deals with the fabrication and mechanical investigation of aluminium alloy, alumina (Al2O3) and boron carbide metal matrix composites. Aluminium is the matrix metal having properties like light weight, high strength and ease of machinability. Alumina which has better wear resistance, high strength, hardness and boron carbide which has excellent hardness and fracture toughness are added as reinforcements. Here, the fabrication is done by stir casting which involves mixing the required quantities of additives into stirred molten aluminium. After solidification, the samples are prepared and tested to find the various mechanical properties like tensile, flexural, impact and hardness. The internal structure of the composite is observed using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)

  1. Researches focused on structure of aluminium alloys processed by rapid solidification, used in automotive industry

    The paper present some new results focused on an aluminium high temperature alloy, obtained by 'melt spinning method'. alloy composition, processing conditions, resulted structures and the influence between them are presented. There are studied the two zone structures of the alloy and the relation between processing conditions and the characteristics of the zones, with implications on mechanical behavior in real conditions. The final conclusion show that is possible to control the structure in order to improve material behavior. (author)

  2. Investigation of selective atomization and radiation-induced segregation of impurities in aluminium alloyed with scandium

    The methods of RBS and Auger-electron spectroscopy were applied to investigate selective atomization and radiation-induced segregation of impurities in AMG type aluminium alloys irradiated by 10 keV H+ ions. Introduction of 0.5% scandium into the alloy suppresses magnesium radiation-induced segregation to surface, that results in sharp decrease of its content in the composition of atomized particles, and the total coefficient of alloy atomization decreases approximately 2 times

  3. STUDIES ON CASTING FLUIDITY AND POROSITY ON SOLIDIFICATION OF ALUMINIUM SILICON EUTECTIC ALLOY

    Anju Ramesh; N. Saleem; N. M Najarajan

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium Silicon eutectic alloy called LM-6 contains 10 to 13% of Silicon by weight. It has good casting properties such as high strength to weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. So this alloy finds application in automobile, aircraft and marine industries. In this project work, modifier is added to improve the mechanical properties of LM-6 alloy such as tensile strength, fluidity and also the variation in porosity distribution. Modification is a chemical treat...

  4. Effect of Slow Cooling in Reducing Pore Size in a Sintered Powder Metallurgical 6061Aluminium Alloy

    S. Solay Anand; B.Mohan; T. R. Parthasarathy

    2011-01-01

    The usage of powder metallurgy aluminium compacts in lieu of ferrous components in automotives helps to lower vehicle weight. The major drawback in the commercially available press sintered aluminium alloy is porosity which is mainly dependent on the powder metallurgical process parameters such as compaction pressure, sintering temperature and cooling rate after sintering. In this paper the effect of particle size and furnace controlled cooling after sintering on porosity level and micro hard...

  5. BEHAVIOUR OF COPPER AND ALUMINIUM ELECTRODES ON EDM OF EN-8 ALLOY STEEL

    DHANANJAY PRADHAN; Dr. S. C. JAYSWAL

    2011-01-01

    Electrical discharge machining (EDM) has been recognized as an efficient production method for precision machining of electrically conducting hardened materials. Copper and aluminium are used as electrode materials in this process with Kerosene oil as the dielectric medium. In this work, the behavior of copper and aluminium electrodes on electric discharge machining of EN-8 alloy steel had been studied. Keeping all other machining parameters same, the hardened work material was machined with ...

  6. Application of heat-removing aluminium coatings in welding zirconium alloys with 2.5% Nb

    Effect of heat-removing aluminium coatings of 1...2.7 mm thickness on thermal arc welding cycles of 2.5% niobium zirconium alloy of 7 and 2 mm thickness was considered. It is shown that use of such coatings permits to reduce heat affected zone width 2-3 times as well as to decrease metal stay time at temperatures above 1270 K owing to high thermal conductivity of aluminium and ideal thermal contact of cooled surface with coating

  7. Tribological Behaviour of W-DLC against an Aluminium Alloy Subjected to Lubricated Sliding

    S Bhowmick; Banerji, A.; A.T. Alpas

    2015-01-01

    Diamond like carbon (DLC) coatings mitigate aluminium adhesion and reduce friction under the ambient conditions but their tribological behaviour under lubricated sliding need to be further investigated. In this study, tribological tests were performed to evaluate the friction and wear characteristics of W-DLC and H-DLC coatings sliding against an aluminium alloy (319 Al) under unlubricated (40 % RH) and lubricated sliding conditions. For unlubricated sliding, coefficient of friction (COF) val...

  8. Water chemistry during storage of the research reactor spent fuel assemblies, fabricated from aluminium base alloys

    The results of the experiment on the storage and examination of the aluminium samples of the research reactor spent fuel elements are described. The experiments were carried out in the MIR reactor spent fuel storage pool. The effect of the pool water-chemical mode (WCM) on the aluminium alloys corrosion is analyzed. The experimental results made it possible to determine the WCM optimal parameters for the reactor spent fuel storages

  9. HIGH PURITY ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM MASTER ALLOY BY MOLTEN SALT ELECTROLYSIS

    Watanabe, Y.; Toyoshima, M.; Itoh, K.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop the economical production process of the Al-Li master alloy free from metallic sodium, calcium and potassium. This master alloy can be used for aluminium-lithium alloys for structual materials of aircrafts, automobiles and robots. Moreover the Al-Li master alloy with lithium content of 18-20wt. % is applicable to the blanket of fusion reactors and the active mass of batteries. This Al-Li master alloy can be produced by means of LiCl-KCl molten salt electroly...

  10. Investigation of the properties of aluminium alloys used in the construction of nuclear research reactors

    Hajewska, E. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1993-11-01

    In the paper there are described the results of the studies of the properties of aluminium alloys using in the construction of research reactors, especially of the Polish alloy PAR-1 which belongs to the group of Al-Mg-Si alloys. The influence of the heat treatment on structure of the alloy as well as on the mechanical and corrosion properties was studying. In the paper the results of some properties of PAR-1 alloy after irradiation were done. (author). 27 refs, 43 figs, 9 tabs.

  11. Investigation of the properties of aluminium alloys used in the construction of nuclear research reactors

    In the paper there are described the results of the studies of the properties of aluminium alloys using in the construction of research reactors, especially of the Polish alloy PAR-1 which belongs to the group of Al-Mg-Si alloys. The influence of the heat treatment on structure of the alloy as well as on the mechanical and corrosion properties was studying. In the paper the results of some properties of PAR-1 alloy after irradiation were done. (author). 27 refs, 43 figs, 9 tabs

  12. Recycling of Glass Fibre Reinforced Aluminium Laminates and Silicon Removal from Aerospace Al Alloy:

    Zhu, G

    2012-01-01

    Aerospace aluminium alloys (7xxx and 2xxx series Al alloy) is one of the important Al alloys in our life. The recycling of aerospace Al alloy plays a significant role in sustainable development of Al industry. The fibre reinforced metal laminates GLARE including 67 wt.% 2024 Al alloy was used as upper fuselage in Airbus A380, but the solution for GLARE recycling is not available. Thermal recycling which uses high temperature to decompose the resin and separate the reinforcement fibres and fi...

  13. Synthesis and study of binary compounds of actinides and lanthanides. 21. On curium alloy formation with aluminium

    Microsamples of curium-244 alloys with aluminium, prepared by high-temperature condensation of one component vapors on a thin metallic film of the other component, have been studied. New data on the regularities of curium-aluminium alloy formation and influence of 244Cm intensive alpha-decay on crystal structure of the solid compounds formed have been obtained. 8 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Electrochemical aspects of exfoliation corrosion of aluminium alloys: The effects of heat treatment

    Research highlights: ? Development of new aluminium alloys for aircraft industries. ? Impact of chemical composition change during tempering on exfoliation corrosion. ? Role of hydrogen in the exfoliation corrosion of aluminium-based alloys. ? Mechanical effects and hydrogen bubbling during exfoliation corrosion. - Abstract: Electrochemical approaches are used to investigate the exfoliation corrosion (EFC) of a 7XXX series aluminium alloy that has undergone different tempering treatments. EFC was produced under an artificial crevice at open circuit potential in neutral chloride solutions, and is found to be associated to current and potential transients. EFC was also produced under galvanostatic control conditions. Observations made through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) suggest that these transients result from the progression of inter-granular cracks. Last, over-ageing heat treatments that are known to decrease both metal hardness and EFC sensitivity were found to decrease the number of transients.

  15. The research of corrosion defects in aluminium alloy SAV-1, irradiated by neutrons

    The study of corrosion resistance of rod from low aluminium alloy SAV-1 after a long term operating in the nuclear reactor WWR-K and in water pool storage are resulted. The corrosion tests executed with usage of chemical and electrochemical methods of an estimation of a fixed potential and corrosion rate in chlorine solution to the environment on an accelerated mode on samples cut from the top and bottom end of a atomic reactor rod. With application of methods of a volume determination by hydrostatic weighting of corrosion of aluminium alloy SAV-1 irradiated by a different fluency of neutrons. Is showing, that the irradiation decrease periods of passivation and accelerates a rate corrosion of aluminium alloy SAV-1. (author)

  16. Flow and failure of an aluminium alloy from low to high temperature and strain rate

    Sancho Rafael; Cendón David; Gálvez Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy is presented in this paper. The study has been carried out to analyse the flow and failure of the aluminium alloy 7075-T73. An experimental study has been planned performing tests of un-notched and notched tensile specimens at low strain rates using a servo-hydraulic machine. High strain rate tests have been carried out using the same geometry in a Hopkinson Split Tensile Bar. The dynamic experiments at low temperature were performed using a cryo...

  17. Integrated Precipitate Simulation for Friction Stir Welding of Age Hardening Aluminium Alloys

    Hersent, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a recent welding process invented by The Welding Institute (TWI). It is particularly interesting for the aeronautical sector due to its capacity to weld 2XXX and 7XXX age-hardening aluminium alloys, which were previously considered unweldable. This relatively new process is currently the subject of active research. This work aims to simulate the hardness profile of an AA2024-T3 friction stir weld. AA2024-T3 is an age hardening aluminium alloy, so it is necessary...

  18. Silica mesoporous thin films as containers for benzotriazole for corrosion protection of 2024 aluminium alloys

    Recloux, Isaline; Mouanga, Maixent; Druart, Marie-Eve; Paint, Yoann; Olivier, Marie-Georges

    2015-08-01

    This work contributes to the development of a new environmentally friendly alternative pretreatment for 2024 aluminium alloys to replace hexavalent chromium based conversion layers in the aeronautical field. A silica mesoporous thin film, synthesized through the evaporation induced self-assembly process, was doped with benzotriazole to obtain active corrosion protection. Inhibitor loading contents were correlated with pore characteristics. The release kinetics was studied as function of pH. The application of the doped mesoporous film on 2024 aluminium alloy revealed a slowing down of corrosion processes, demonstrating its potential as an active inhibitor storage layer.

  19. Determination of lithium in lithium-aluminium alloy by capillary electrophoresis

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of lithium in lithium-aluminium alloy using capillary electrophoresis (CE) is developed. The method separates Li from other metal ions and it does not require prior separation of aluminium, which is major constituent of the alloy. Separation of Li was achieved using BGE of 20mM Imidazole (pH 2) with an applied voltage of 20kV. The precision of the method is better than 10% at 0.5 ppm of Li and LOD is 0.12 ppm. (author)

  20. Influência do superaquecimento nas variáveis térmicas de solidificação e na formação da microestrutura de ligas de alumínio Overheating influence on solidification - thermal variables and microstructure formation of aluminium alloy

    Jean Robert Pereira Rodrigues

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho é o desenvolvimento de uma análise comparativa do processo de solidificação da liga de alumínio com diferentes taxas de superaquecimento. Os principais parâmetros de solidificação foram determinados experimentalmente afetados pelo grau de superaquecimento e sua influência na formação da microestrutura. Foi escolhida a liga de AA5052 contendo 3% de magnésio pelo seu interesse comercial. A liga foi vazada com três diferentes graus de superaquecimento, em um dispositivo que permite a solidificação unidirecional e o monitoramento, através de um sistema de aquisição de dados, das variações de temperatura em diferentes posições da peça. A partir dos resultados de temperatura são determinados outros parâmetros do processo. Os espaçamentos interdendríticos são determinados a partir das micrografias. Através da análise experimental, é determinada a influência do grau de superaquecimento nos seguintes parâmetros relativos ao processo de solidificação: coeficiente de transferência de calor na interface metal/molde, velocidade de avanço da frente de solidificação, gradiente de temperatura em frente à isoterma liquidus, taxa de resfriamento, tempo local de solidificação e espaçamentos interdendríticos primário e secundário. Também é analisada a transição entre a estrutura colunar e equiaxial.A comparative analysis of the 5052 aluminum alloy solidification process involving different overheating ranges is presented herein. Experimentally determined, the main parametersof the solidification process were affected in the overheating range and influenced the microstructure arrangement. The 5052 aluminium alloy was selected.It contains about 3% magnesium and is used for commercial purposes. The aluminium alloy was poured into a device that allows unidirectional solidification and was programmed with three different overheating ranges. Temperature variation at different sample positions was monitored using a data acquisition system. From the temperature results, the other parameters of the process were determined. The dendritic spacing was determined by the micrographs. Through experimental analysis, the influence of the overheating range was established at the following parameters related to the solidification process: the heat transfer coefficient at the metal/mold interface, the solidification rate, the thermal gradient at the liquidus isotherm, the cooling rate, the local solidification time and secondary arm spacing. The change between the columnar and equiaxed structure was also studied.

  1. Treatment of titanium alloy by pulsed heterogeneous plasma with surface burning off and alloying by aluminium and nickel

    Methods of metallography, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray analysis were used to study the effect of technological parameters on thickness, alloying degree, phase composition, structure and properties of titanium alloy surface modified by aluminium and nickel impulse alloying with surface partial melting by heterogeneity plasma of capacitor discharge. Regimes of plasmacondensate coatings formation and surface modification are determined. Fine-grained alloyed layers of a few tens microns depth have homogeneous by depth multiphase composition dependent on treatment regime. Intermetallic hardening leads to increase of hardness and wear resistance of surface layers

  2. Structure and selected properties of high-aluminium Zn alloy with silicon addition

    A. Zyska; Konopka, Z.; M. Łągiewka; M. Nadolski

    2011-01-01

    The results of examinations concerning the abrasive wear resistance, hardness, and thermal expansion of high-aluminium zinc alloys are presented. The examinations were carried out for five synthetic ZnAl28 alloys with variable silicon content ranging from 0.5% to 3.5%, and – for the purpose of comparison – for the standardised ZnAl28Cu4 alloy. It was found that silicon efficiently increases the tribological properties and decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion of zinc alloys. The most...

  3. MICROSTRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL STUDY OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS SUBMITTED TO DISTINCT SOAKING TIMES DURING SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT

    Valmir Martins Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties for different aluminium alloys (1100, 3104 and 8011 hot rolled sheets that were subjected to a solution heat treatment with distinct soaking times, in order to promote microstructural and mechanical changes on these alloys with solute fractions slightly above the maximum solubility limit. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM / Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-Ray (EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD and Hardness Tests were employed to observe the microstructural / compositional and mechanical evaluation. For the 1100 and 8011 alloys the more suitable soaking time occur between 1 and 2 hours, and for the 3104 alloy occurs between 2 and 3 hours.

  4. Recent developments of the aluminium-lithium system alloys for aircraft uses

    A brief review is made of the latest developments in the production of Aluminium-Lithium alloys. The necessity for new materials in the field of aeronautics has speeded up research on metallic and non-metallic materials. Lately, a good part of the research in the field of metallic components has been directed at Al-Li alloys. More recently, with the development of quaternary alloys Al-Li-X-X, the old problem of low toughness was overcome. The finality of this study is to cover the developments of the mentioned alloys, including the fundamentals of physical metallurgy of the complex system recently developed Al-Li-Cu-Mg. (author)

  5. Temperature dependence of radiation blistering in aluminium alloys under helium ion bombardment

    Invstigations into the radiation-induced blistering of AMg type aluminium alloys have been performed. The 40 and 80 keV helium ions were employed for irradiation of samples in the temperature range of 50 to 600 deg C with the incident ion beam normal to the target or at an angle. The coefficients of the alloy sputtering by 10 keV H+ ions have been measured. The effect of radiation-induced segregation of the magnesium atoms in the AMg alloy has been revealed. The AMg alloy with Sc-addition could be recommended as a possible material for the INTOR first wall

  6. Recovery of actinides from actinide–aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part II

    Souček, P., E-mail: pavel.soucek@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Cassayre, L. [Laboratoire de Génie Chimique (LGC), Département Procédés Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Université de Toulouse III – Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); Eloirdi, R.; Malmbeck, R.; Meier, R.; Nourry, C.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-04-01

    A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from actinide–aluminium alloys, which originate from pyrochemical recovery of actinides from spent metallic nuclear fuel by electrochemical methods in molten LiCl–KCl. In the present work, the most important steps of this route were experimentally tested using U–Pu–Al alloy prepared by electrodeposition of U and Pu on solid aluminium plate electrodes. The investigated processes were vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the alloy by chlorine gas and sublimation of the AlCl{sub 3} formed. The processes parameters were set on the base of a previous thermochemical study and an experimental work using pure UAl{sub 3} alloy. The present experimental results indicated high efficiency of salt distillation and chlorination steps, while the sublimation step should be further optimised.

  7. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part II corrosion performance

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-11-01

    Surface treatment of aluminium alloys using steam with oxidative chemistries, namely KMnO4 and HNO3 resulted in accelerated growth of oxide on aluminium alloys. Detailed investigation of the corrosion performance of the treated surfaces was carried out using potentiodynamic polarisation and standard industrial test methods such as acetic acid salt spray (AASS) and filiform corrosion on commercial AA6060 alloy. Barrier properties of the film including adhesion were evaluated using tape test under wet and dry conditions. Electrochemical results showed reduced cathodic and anodic activity, while the protection provided by steam treatment with HNO3 was a function of the concentration of NO3- ions. The coating generated by inclusion of KMnO4 showed highest resistance to filiform corrosion. Overall, the performance of the steam treated surfaces under filiform corrosion and AASS test was a result of the local coverage of the alloy microstructure resulting from steam containing with KMnO4 and HNO3.

  8. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of microarc oxidation coatings and 2024 aluminium alloy substrate

    Xue Wenbin [Key Laboratory for Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Wang Chao [Key Laboratory for Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Deng Zhiwei [Key Laboratory for Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Chen Ruyi [Key Laboratory for Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Li Yongliang [Analytical and Testing Centre, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China); Zhang Tonghe [Key Laboratory for Radiation Beam Technology and Materials Modification, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2002-11-11

    A determination of the phase constituents of ceramic coatings produced on Al-Cu-Mg alloy by microarc discharge in alkaline solution was performed using x-ray diffraction. The profiles of the hardness, H, and elastic modulus, E, across the ceramic coating were determined by means of nanoindentation. In addition, a study of the influence of microarc oxidation coatings on the tensile properties of the aluminium alloy was also carried out. The results show that the H-and E-profiles are similar, and both of them exhibit a maximum value at the same depth of coating. The distribution of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase content determines the H- and E-profiles of the coatings. The tensile properties of 2024 aluminium alloy show less change after the alloy has undergone microarc discharge surface treatment.

  9. Galvanic corrosion of rare earth modified AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys coupled to steel and aluminium alloys

    Mohedano, M.; Arrabal, R.; Pardo, A.; Paucar, A.; Merino, M. C.; Matykina, E.; Mingo, B.; Garces, G.

    2014-04-01

    Electrochemical and gravimetric measurements were used to examine the effects of neodymium and gadolinium additions on the galvanic corrosion behaviour of AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys coupled to A 570 Gr 36 carbon steel and AA2011-AA6082 aluminium alloys. Rare earth modified alloys showed Al{sub 2}Nd/Al{sub 2}Gd and Al-Mn-Nd/Al-Mn-Gd intermetallics, reduced area fraction of {beta}-Mg{sub 1}7Al{sub 1}2 phase and increased corrosion resistance due to increased surface passivity and suppression of micro-galvanic couples. Neodymium and gadolinium additions improved the galvanic corrosion resistance of AM50 alloy, but were less effective in case of the AZ91D alloy. The AA6082 alloy was the most compatible material and the AA2011 alloy was the least compatible. (Author)

  10. Modelling the corrosion behaviour of Al2CuMg coarse particles in copper-rich aluminium alloys

    Blanc, Christine; Freulon, Alexandre; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Kihn, Yolande; Mankowski, Georges

    2006-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of 2024 aluminium alloy in sulphate solutions was studied; attention was focused on the influence of coarse intermetallic Al2CuMg particles on the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Model alloys representative of the aluminium matrix and of Al2CuMg coarse intermetallics were synthesized by magnetron sputtering. Open-circuit potential measurements, current–potential curve plotting and galvanic coupling tests were performed in sulphate solutions with or without chlorides...

  11. Corrosion monitoring of aluminium alloys in the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor

    Aluminium alloys and stainless steels have been used as cladding materials for nuclear fuel in research reactors, such as the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, located at the Centre for Development of Nuclear Energy in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of the corrosion problems with aluminium- and stainless steel-clad in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor, a monitoring programme has been initiated, as part of an IAEA sponsored Regional Technical Cooperation Project for Latin America (RLA/4/018). The programme consists of in-pool tests using corrosion surveillance coupons made of aluminium alloys and stainless steel. This paper presents the surveillance programme developed for the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor and the analysis of the first corrosion rack removed from reactor in July 2003, after 1 year of exposure. (author)

  12. Emeraldine base as corrosion protective layer on aluminium alloy AA5182, effect of the surface microstructure

    AA5182 aluminium alloy cold rolled samples were coated by thin films of emeraldine base (EB) obtained from a 5% solution in N-methylpyrrolidinone. Accelerated corrosion tests prove this coating very effective for corrosion protection of aluminium alloys in neutral environment. This study underlines the prominent role of surface cathodic intermetallic particles in pit initiation and coating break down in enhanced corrosion conditions and suggest that, beside the EB barrier properties, the enhanced corrosion resistance observed on the EB coated samples could partly arise from two other mains factors:- a weak redox activity of the polymer which passivate the metal, - a proton involving self-healing process taking place at the polymer-metal interface, which contributes to delay local acidification in first steps of corrosion on EB coated aluminium surfaces

  13. THE EFFECT OF THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE RESTITUTION COEFFICIENT

    Stanisław Bławucki; Kazimierz Zaleski

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on the effect of the surface roughness of aluminum alloy on its coefficient of restitution. It describes the current method of finishing the workpiece surface layer after cutting and innovative measuring device which was used in the research. The material used in the research was aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. The paper also presents a relationship between the coefficient of restitution and surface roughness of the milled samples as well as impressions ...

  14. Identification of the metallurgical parameters explaining the corrosion susceptibility in a 2050 aluminium alloy

    Guérin, Mathilde; Alexis, Joël; Andrieu, Eric; Laffont-Dantras, Lydia; Lefebvre, Williams; Odemer, Grégory; Blanc, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The corrosion behaviour of a 2050 aluminium alloy was studied in a NaCl solution. The structure ofprecipitation did not fully explain the susceptibility to intergranular (in the -T34 state) and intragran-ular corrosion for the aged state (the -T8 state). A relationship between the nature of interfaces, thegrains characteristics (size, internal misorientation and orientation according to the plane exposed tothe electrolyte) on one hand and the corrosion susceptibility of the alloy on the other...

  15. Aluminium Alloy-Based Metal Matrix Composites: A Potential Material for Wear Resistant Applications

    Rupa Dasgupta

    2012-01-01

    Aluminium alloy-based metal matrix composites (AMMCs) have been by now established themselves as a suitable wear resistant material especially for sliding wear applications. However, in actual practice engineering components usually encounter combination of wear types. An attempt has been made in the present paper to highlight the effect of dispersing SiC in 2014 base alloy adopting the liquid metallurgy route on different wear modes like sliding, abrasion, erosion, and combinations of wear m...

  16. Influence of modification on structure, fluidity and strength of 226D aluminium alloy

    A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia; J. Śleziona

    2008-01-01

    In the article the fluidity, solidification conditions, microstructure and tensile properties have been studied for the non-modified and modified 226D aluminium silicon alloy.Realized investigations concerned modification of alloy 226D for application as the matrix to carbon fibre reinforcement composite (MMC-Cf). One of main factors determining to good connection between metal matrix and fibres reinforcement is good wettability. It is possible to obtain suitable conditions of wettability by ...

  17. Arc welding of high strength aluminium alloys for armour systems applications

    Pickin, Craig Graeme

    2011-01-01

    The ternary Al-Cu-Mg system 2xxx series aluminium alloys were examined as construction materials for armour system applications based upon comparable ballistic properties to the currently employed Al-7xxx series alloys. Utilising MIG welding solidification cracking was evident when welding constrained Al-2024 candidate base material using Al-2319 filler, the only available consumable wire for this series. A previously developed thermodynamic model suggested that an incompatible...

  18. Corrosion Control of Friction Stir Welded AA2024-T351 Aluminium Alloys

    Younes, Yousif Younes Abo

    2010-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a modern solid state welding technique developed at thewelding institute (TWI) in 1991. The joining is achieved by heat generation, materialsoftening and plastic deformation following the travelling of non-consumable pin throughthe gap between the two workpieces to be joined.In present study, joining of AA 2024-T3 aluminium alloy, is achieved by FSW. Theinfluence of the FSW on the alloy microstructure and corrosion behaviour is determined.The effect of laser sur...

  19. Role of Microstructure on Corrosion Control of AA2024-T3 Aluminium Alloy

    Luo, Chen

    2011-01-01

    A heterogeneous microstructure is intentionally developed in AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy during solidification and thermomechanical processes to obtain good mechanical properties. As a consequence, the alloy is susceptible to localized corrosion, which is the major nucleus for onset of stress corrosion cracking and fatigue cracking.In this research, electron microscopy was employed to observe intermetallic particles and their periphery and monitor the initiation and development of intermetallic...

  20. Influence of Zinc on Surface Treatments of Aluminium-Zinc Alloys

    Gentile, Marialuisa

    2010-01-01

    This research work studies the influence of zinc on surface treatments such as mechanical polishing, anodic alkaline etching, alkaline etching and electropolishing. Solid-solution binary alloys containing 0.6, 1.0 and 1.9at.%Zn were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopies and ion beam analysis. Initially, the near-surface composition of the surface pretreated aluminium alloys were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), medium energy ion scatt...

  1. High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminium and Magnesium Alloys :Grain Structure and Segregation Characteristics

    Laukli, Hans Ivar

    2004-01-01

    Cold chamber high pressure die casting, (HPDC), is an important commercial process for the production of complex near net shape aluminium and magnesium alloy castings. The work presented in the thesis was aimed at investigating the microstructure formation in this type of casting. The solidification characteristics related to the process and the alloys control the formation of grains and defects. This again has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the castings.The investigatio...

  2. High Pressure Die Casting of Aluminium and Magnesium Alloys : Grain Structure and Segregation Characteristics

    Laukli, Hans Ivar

    2004-01-01

    Cold chamber high pressure die casting, (HPDC), is an important commercial process for the production of complex near net shape aluminium and magnesium alloy castings. The work presented in the thesis was aimed at investigating the microstructure formation in this type of casting. The solidification characteristics related to the process and the alloys control the formation of grains and defects. This again has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the castings. The investigati...

  3. Use of acoustic energy in the processing of molten aluminium alloys

    Puga, Hlder; Barbosa, J; Costa, Snia; Ribeiro, Carlos Silva

    2013-01-01

    During the last years aluminium alloys have been gaining increased acceptance as structural materials in the automotive and aeronautical industries, mainly due to their light weight, good formability and corrosion resistance. However, improvement of mechanical properties is a constant in research activities, either by the development of new alloys or by microstructure manipulation. This presentation focuses a novel effective dynamic methodology to perform microstructural refinement / modi...

  4. Microstructure and properties of FSW joints of 2017A/6013 aluminium alloys sheets

    K. Mroczka; Dutkiewicz, J; L. Lityńska-Dobrzyńska; A. Pietras

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the studies was to analyse the structure and mechanical properties of FSW joints. Experiment were perform in order to study possibilities to join different aluminium alloys 2017A and 6013. The alloys differ one from the other with respect to chemical composition and mechanical properties especially, therefore the ability to perform the correct joints may be useful for special constructions.Design/methodology/approach: The joints were produced applying different parameters ...

  5. MICROSTRUCTURAL AND MECHANICAL STUDY OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS SUBMITTED TO DISTINCT SOAKING TIMES DURING SOLUTION HEAT TREATMENT

    Valmir Martins Monteiro; Saulo Brinco Diniz; Bruna Godoi Meirelles; Luis Celso da Silva; Andersan dos Santos Paula

    2014-01-01

    This work studies the microstructural characteristics and mechanical properties for different aluminium alloys (1100, 3104 and 8011) hot rolled sheets that were subjected to a solution heat treatment with distinct soaking times, in order to promote microstructural and mechanical changes on these alloys with solute fractions slightly above the maximum solubility limit. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) / Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy X-Ray (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Har...

  6. Coefficient of linear heat expansion of alloy's systems of aluminium-beryllium and rare metals

    The article considers about the results of experimental date coefficient of linear heat expansion of alloy's systems of aluminium-beryllium and rare earth metals (Al-Be-Rare Earth Metals) in dependence of temperature (temperature liquids nitrogen to the 637 K)

  7. Small fatigue crack growth in aluminium alloy EN-AW 6082/T6

    Jíša, D.; Liškutín, P.; Kruml, Tomáš; Polák, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 12 (2010), s. 1913-1920. ISSN 0142-1123 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Aluminium alloy s * small cracks * grack growth rate Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.799, year: 2010

  8. Approximation model of the stress-strain curve for deformation of aluminium alloys

    J. Horsinka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to give a mathematical description of flow stress of examined aluminium alloys on the basis of upsetting tests perdormed in a servohydraulic plastomer. Deformation curves have been described by means of the Sellars-Tegart-Garofalo equation, with the aid of linear regression analysis by the neural network method implemented in the NEUREX program.

  9. Thermal-mechanical fatigue behaviour of the cast aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg

    Luft, J.; Beck, T.; Loehe, D. [Univ. of Karlsruhe, Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde I (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The present report gives results of OP-TMF-tests and OP-TMF-tests (OP=out-of-phase) with superimposed mechanical high cycle fatigue (HCF) loading at the cast aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg0.3-T6. The results are interpreted on the basis of stress-strain curves, S-N-curves and metallographic examinations.

  10. Irradiation effects in surface layers of aluminium alloys and austenitic steels

    The regularities and features of physical processes (blistering, sputtering, radiation-induced segregation and radiation-intensified sublimation), occurring in surface-adjacent layers of aluminium alloys and austenitic steels under the action of the fluxes of accelerated charged ions and electrons are considered

  11. Latest investigations for determination of oxygen content in aluminium and its alloys

    Thin layer on the surface of metal prevents to determine oxygen content in the high purity aluminium and in its alloys. Experiments and their results have been presented, directed towards elimination of errors appearing due to the surface oxides during activation analysis by means of a neutron generator application

  12. Spectrochemical determination of impurities in aluminium alloys by DC arc technique

    Two spectrochemical methods are described for the determination of 12 impurities in aluminium alloys. These methods are suitable for the determination of traces of the following elements in the range of 5-400 ppm: B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Ti, Zn. (author)

  13. Calculation of Yield Surfaces and Determination of Forming Limit Diagrams of Aluminium Alloys

    Fundenberger, J. J.; Philippe, M. J.; Esling, C.; Lequeu, P.; Chenal, B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to point out the influence of the crystallographic texture on the formability of 2 aluminium alloys, the orientation distribution function (ODF) will be carried out using the series expansion method. Combining the ODF with a Taylor plastic deformation model we are able to calculate the yield loci and to predict the plastic strain ratio which is of high interest in the formability.

  14. Study of localized corrosion in AA2024 aluminium alloy using electron tomography

    Highlights: ► SEM tomography of localized corrosion has been achieved. ► Nanotomography provides evidence that links microstructure and corrosion propagation path. ► IGC stemmed from localized corrosion associated with buried clusters of intermetallics. ► IGC started beneath the alloy surface and may emerge on the alloy surface. - Abstract: SEM based tomography of localized corrosion has been achieved using selective detection of backscattered electrons. The high resolution tomography provides direct evidence that links the surface appearance of corroded alloy, the alloy microstructure and the corrosion propagation path. Stable localized corrosion of AA2024-T351 aluminium alloy was initiated at locations where large clusters of S phase particles were buried beneath the surface. Propagating away from the initiation sites, corrosion developed preferentially along the grain boundary network. The grain boundary attack started beneath the alloy surface, proceeded along preferred grain boundaries and may emerge at the alloy surface.

  15. Cleaning of aluminium alloy chambers with ozonized water

    In the fabrication of aluminium vacuum chambers of the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a cleaning treatment with ozonized water followed machining in an ethanol environment. After cleaning with ozonized water, aluminium samples were analyzed according to Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and measurement of the thermal outgassing rate and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD). The results showed that cleaning with ozonized water has a superior performance. A thermal outgassing rate q72 ? 6.4 x 10-12 Pa m/s after baking and a photon-desorption yield ? ? 2 x 10-5 molecules/photon at an accumulated beam dose 3 x 1021 photons/cm2 were obtained

  16. Aging of maraging steel welds during aluminium alloy die casting

    Klobčar, Damjan; Pleterski, Matej; Taljat, Boštjan; Kosec, Ladislav; Tušek, Janez

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate precipitation annealing of 18% Ni maraging steel repair welds during aluminium die casting and to predict the prolonged in-service tool life. The emphasis of this study is the influence ofpost-weld precipitation annealing heat treatment and aluminium die casting thermal cycling on metallurgical and mechanical properties. A series of specimens of 1.2344 tool steel is prepared to which 1.6356 maraging steel is GTA weld cladded. Analysis of weld microstructur...

  17. Vacuum brazing of aluminium metal matrix composite (55 vol.% SiCp/A356) using aluminium-based filler alloy

    Highlights: ? The proper filler metal has been developed, especially for contents of Mg and Si. ? The pressure device has been designed for specimen in vacuum brazing process. ? The accurate measurement method for shear strength of lap joint has been found. ? The brazing temperature of 560 C has been optimised. ? The micro-mechanism has been discussed for SiCp/Al composites brazing joint. - Abstract: Aluminium matrix composites with high volume fractions of SiC particles, as the reinforcements, are potentially suitable materials for electronic packaging. These composites, due to their poor weldability, however, have very limited applications. The microstructure and shear strengths of the bonds made in 55 vol.% SiCp/A356 composite, using an aluminium based filler alloy containing Cu, Si, Mg and Ni, were investigated in this paper. The brazing temperature had a clear effect on the bond integrity, and the samples brazed at 560 C demonstrated good bonding between the filler alloy and the SiC particles. The maximum shear strength achieved in this work was 102 MPa.

  18. Recovery of tritium from lithium-sintered aluminium product (SAP) and lithium-aluminium alloys

    The tritium release rates of irradiated samples of lithium-containing aluminium (Li-Al) and sintered aluminium product (Li-SAP) were investigated to evaluate the potential application of both materials in fusion reactors. The observed release rates followed the pattern expected for bulk diffusion of tritium in a solid. Therefore, diffusion coefficients for tritium in Li-SAP were determined over a temperature range of 383 and 5000C and tritium in Li-Al at 4500C. At 4500C, the diffusion coefficients of tritium in Li-SAP and Li-Al are 2.988 x 10-10 cm2 sec-1 and 1.462 x 10-6 cm2 sec-1, respectively. (author)

  19. Aluminium enriched diffusion layers on NiAl alloy

    Bartuška, Pavel; Lašek, Jiří; Paidar, Václav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2003), s. 185-188. ISSN 0267-0844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1041302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : intermetallics based on Ni-Al * aluminium enriched diffusion layers * local elemental analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.571, year: 2003

  20. Indium segregation in dilute indium-aluminium alloys

    Polycrystalline as well as single-crystal samples of aluminium containing 14-58 at. ppm indium were quenched from a temperature TQ=350-5500C to -900C and subsequently annealed during 15 min at step-wise increasing temperatures. After each step a PAC measurement was carried out. (orig./TW)

  1. Oxidation behavior of FeCr and FeCrY alloys coated with an aluminium based paint

    Marina Fuser Pillis; Olandir Vercino Correa; Edval Gonçalves de Araújo; Lalgudi Venkataraman Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    A variety of metallic components rely on properties that are specific to the alloy and its surface. Coatings have been extensively used to protect metallic surfaces from the aggressive effects of the environment to which it is exposed. In this investigation, the high temperature oxidation behavior of a FeCr and a FeCrY alloy coated with an aluminium based paint has been studied. The objective was to form the more resistant alumina surface layer on an aluminium free alloy. Aluminium based pain...

  2. Property enhancement by grain refinement of zinc-aluminium foundry alloys

    Krajewski, W. K.; Greer, A. L.; Piwowarski, G.; Krajewski, P. K.

    2016-03-01

    Development of cast alloys with good mechanical properties and involving less energy consumption during their melting is one of the key demands of today's industry. Zinc foundry alloys of high and medium Al content, i.e. Zn-(15-30) wt.% Al and Zn-(8-12) wt.% Al, can satisfy these requirements. The present paper summarizes the work [1-9] on improving properties of sand-cast ZnAl10 (Zn-10 wt.% Al) and ZnAl25 (Zn-25 wt. % Al) alloys by melt inoculation. Special attention was devoted to improving ductility, whilst preserving high damping properties at the same time. The composition and structural modification of medium- and high-aluminium zinc alloys influence their strength, tribological properties and structural stability. In a series of studies, Zn - (10-12) wt. % Al and Zn - (25-26) wt.% Al - (1-2.5) wt.% Cu alloys have been doped with different levels of added Ti. The melted alloys were inoculated with ZnTi-based refiners and it was observed that the dendritic structure is significantly finer already after addition of 50 - 100 ppm Ti to the melted alloys. The alloy's structure and mechanical properties have been studied using: SEM (scanning electron microscopy), LM (light microscopy), dilatometry, pin-on-disc wear, and tensile strength measurements. Grain refinement leads to significant improvement of ductility in the binary high-aluminium Zn-(25-27) Al alloys while in the medium-aluminium alloys the effect is rather weak. In the ternary alloys Zn-26Al-Cu, replacing a part of Cu with Ti allows dimensional changes to be reduced while preserving good tribological properties. Furthermore, the high initial damping properties were nearly entirely preserved after inoculation. The results obtained allow us to characterize grain refinement of the examined high-aluminium zinc alloys as a promising process leading to the improvement of their properties. At the same time, using low melting ZnTi-based master alloys makes it possible to avoid the excessive melt overheating needed for TiCAl or TiBAl refiners and reduces the possibility of gas pick-up and material loss.

  3. Structure and selected properties of high-aluminium Zn alloy with silicon addition

    A. Zyska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations concerning the abrasive wear resistance, hardness, and thermal expansion of high-aluminium zinc alloys are presented. The examinations were carried out for five synthetic ZnAl28 alloys with variable silicon content ranging from 0.5% to 3.5%, and for the purpose of comparison for the standardised ZnAl28Cu4 alloy. It was found that silicon efficiently increases the tribological properties and decreases the coefficient of thermal expansion of zinc alloys. The most advantageous set of the examined properties is exhibited by the alloys containing over 2.5% Si. They are characterised by higher parameters as compared with the standardised alloy. Observations of microstructures reveal that silicon precipitates as a separate compact phase, and its morphology depends on t he Si content in the alloy. The performed examinations show that silicon can satisfactorily replace copper in high aluminium Zn alloys, thus eliminating the problem of dimensional instability of castings.

  4. Galvanic corrosion of rare earth modified AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys coupled to steel and aluminium alloys

    Mohedano, Marta; Arrabal, Raúl; Pardo, Angel; Paucar, Karín; Merino, M. Concepción; Matykina, Endzhe; Mingo, Beatriz; Garcés, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical and gravimetric measurements were used to examine the effects of neodymium and gadolinium additions on the galvanic corrosion behaviour of AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys coupled to A 570 Gr 36 carbon steel and AA2011-AA6082 aluminium alloys. Rare earth modified alloys showed Al2Nd/Al2Gd and Al-Mn-Nd/Al-Mn-Gd intermetallics, reduced area fraction of β-Mg17Al12 phase and increased corrosion resistance due to increased surface passivity and suppression of micro-galvanic couples....

  5. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al)xN1-x/Si3N4 coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC (registered) ) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr1-xAlxN type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  6. Development of multilayer coatings for forming dies and tools of aluminium alloy from liquid state

    Torres, E; Ugues, D [Politecnico di Torino DICHI, Corso Duca degli Abbruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Brytan, Z [Politecnico di Torino, Sede di Alessandria, Viale T. Michel 5, 15100 Alessandria (Italy); Perucca, M [Clean NT Lab Division, Environment Park S.p.A. Via Livorno 58/60, Torino (Italy)], E-mail: eloy.torres@polito.it

    2009-05-21

    In this work, a nanocomposite (Cr,Al){sub x}N{sub 1-x}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} coating system was deposited on H11 hot work tool steel, using the Lateral Arc Rotating Cathodes (LARC (registered) ) deposition system and modulating the chemical composition of the chromium and aluminium-silicon content. Structural characterizations were performed using scanning electron microscopy, equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy probe, and applying x-ray diffraction, for the evaluation of phase constitution and crystallite size. In addition to the structural features, the coatings' resistance to cyclic immersions in molten aluminium alloy was evaluated. The deposited CrAlSiN coatings exhibited an fcc-Cr{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N type structure with different aluminium contents, which directly influence hardness and wear and fatigue resistance in cyclic immersion tests. The main failure modes that occurred on the coatings' surface were soldering and thermal fatigue cracks mainly in the form of heat checks. The aluminium rich coatings were able to withstand about 15 000 cycles, whereas the decrease in the aluminium content in the coatings results in a decrease in the resistance to the immersion in molten aluminium bath. It is worthwhile to note that uncoated H11, subjected to similar testing conditions, withstood at maximum 5000 cycles.

  7. Recovery of actinides from actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorination: Part I

    Cassayre, L., E-mail: cassayre@chimie.ups-tlse.fr [Laboratoire de Genie Chimique (LGC), Departement Procedes Electrochimiques, CNRS-UMR 5503, Universite de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Soucek, P.; Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Eloirdi, R.; Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, JRC, Institute for Transuranium Elements, Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Pyrochemical processes in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU for recovery of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The fuel is anodically dissolved to the molten salt electrolyte and actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. A chlorination route is being investigated for recovery of actinides from the alloys. This route consists in three steps: Vacuum distillation for removal of the salt adhered on the electrode, chlorination of the actinide-aluminium alloys by chlorine gas and sublimation of the formed AlCl{sub 3}. A thermochemical study showed thermodynamic feasibility of all three steps. On the basis of the conditions identified by the calculations, experiments using pure UAl{sub 3} alloy were carried out to evaluate and optimise the chlorination step. The work was focused on determination of the optimal temperature and Cl{sub 2}/UAl{sub 3} molar ratio, providing complete chlorination of the alloy without formation of volatile UCl{sub 5} and UCl{sub 6}. The results showed high efficient chlorination at a temperature of 150 deg. C.

  8. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps.

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2004-01-01

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 degrees C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 degrees C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 degrees C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics. PMID:14761750

  9. Recovery of aluminium, nickel-copper alloys and salts from spent fluorescent lamps

    This study explores a combined pyro-hydrometallurgical method to recover pure aluminium, nickel-copper alloy(s), and some valuable salts from spent fluorescent lamps (SFLs). It also examines the safe recycling of clean glass tubes for the fluorescent lamp industry. Spent lamps were decapped under water containing 35% acetone to achieve safe capture of mercury vapour. Cleaned glass tubes, if broken, were cut using a rotating diamond disc to a standard shorter length. Aluminium and copper-nickel alloys in the separated metallic parts were recovered using suitable flux to decrease metal losses going to slag. Operation variables affecting the quality of the products and the extent of recovery with the suggested method were investigated. Results revealed that total loss in the glass tube recycling operation was 2% of the SFLs. Pure aluminium meeting standard specification DIN 1712 was recovered by melting at 800 deg. C under sodium chloride/carbon flux for 20 min. Standard nickel-copper alloys with less than 0.1% tin were prepared by melting at 1250 deg. C using a sodium borate/carbon flux. De-tinning of the molten nickel-copper alloy was carried out using oxygen gas. Tin in the slag as oxide was recovered by reduction using carbon or hydrogen gas at 650-700 deg. C. Different valuable chloride salts were also obtained in good quality. Further research is recommended on the thermodynamics of nickel-copper recovery, yttrium and europium recovery, and process economics

  10. The influence of alloying elements in aluminium on the grain refinement with ALTI5B1

    Naglič I.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the influence of alloying elements in aluminium on the grain refinement with various additions of AlTi5B1. Grain-refinement tests were made at a cooling rate of 15 °C/s. The results revealed that in both aluminium and an Al-Fe alloy the grain size decreases with increasing additions of the AlTi5B1 grain refiner. We found that for the same boron content the grain size was smaller in the case of the Al-Fe alloy. The difference in the grain sizes for the same content of boron was approximately 15 μm; this is considerably smaller than the difference between the grain sizes in samples with the same difference of growth-restricting factor made at slower cooling rates.

  11. STUDIES ON CASTING FLUIDITY AND POROSITY ON SOLIDIFICATION OF ALUMINIUM SILICON EUTECTIC ALLOY

    Anju Ramesh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium Silicon eutectic alloy called LM-6 contains 10 to 13% of Silicon by weight. It has good casting properties such as high strength to weight ratio and excellent corrosion resistance. So this alloy finds application in automobile, aircraft and marine industries. In this project work, modifier is added to improve the mechanical properties of LM-6 alloy such as tensile strength, fluidity and also the variation in porosity distribution. Modification is a chemical treatment of metal in molten condition which is done along with fluxing, grain refining and degassing. Therefore LM-6 alloy can be strengthened by modification. These properties of LM-6 alloy with modification and without modification are also compared in this project. Test results reveal that modification enhances strength of LM-6 alloy considerably and also it reduces porosity. A small amount of reduction is noted in fluidity,while increasing the addition of modifier.

  12. The investigation on aluminium alloys automobile wheel with low-titanium content produced by electrolysis

    Jingpei Xie [Key Lab. of Material physics, Ministry of Education, Zhengzhou Univ. (China); Coll. of Mater. Sci. and Eng. Henan Univ. of Science and Technology, Luoyang (China); Jiwen Li; Zhongxia Liu; Yonggang Weng; Tianfu Song; Zhiyong Liu; Jiefang Wang [Key Lab. of Material physics, Ministry of Education, Zhengzhou Univ. (China); Aiqin Wang [Coll. of Mater. Sci. and Eng. Henan Univ. of Science and Technology, Luoyang (China)

    2005-07-01

    The in-situ Ti alloying of aluminium alloys was fulfilled by electrolysis, and the material was made into A356 alloy and used in automobile wheels. The results show that the grains of the A356 alloy was refined and the second dendrites arm was shortened due to the in-situ Ti alloying. Trough 3-hour solution treatment and 2-hour aging treatment for the A356 alloy, the microstructures were homogeneous, and Si particles were spheroid and distribute in the matrix fully. The outstanding mechanical properties with tensile strength ({sigma}{sub b}{>=}300 Mpa) and elongation values ({delta}{>=}10%) have been obtained because the heat treatment was optimized. Compared with the traditional materials, tensile strength and elongation were increased by 7.6{proportional_to}14.1% and 7.4{proportional_to}44.3% respectively. The qualities of the automobile wheels were improved remarkably. (orig.)

  13. Precipitate assemblies formed on dislocation loops in aluminium-silver-copper alloys

    Rosalie, Julian M; Bourgeois, Laure; Muddle, Barrington C.

    2012-01-01

    The precipitation microstructure of the \\gamma' (AlAg2) intermetallic phase has been examined in aluminium-silver-copper alloys. The microstructure developed in an Al-0.90at.%Ag-0.90at.%Cu alloy was significantly different from that reported for binary Al-Ag alloys. The orientation relationship between the matrix and precipitate was unchanged; however, the \\gamma' phase formed as aggregates with a two-dimensional open assemblies. Each such assembly contained two variants of the \\gamma' phase ...

  14. Cleaning of aluminium alloy chambers with ozonized water

    Chan, C K; Hsiung, G Y; Chang, C C; Chen, R; Yang, C Y; Chen, C L; Hsueh, H P; Hsu, S N; Chen, J R [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Liu, I [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ckchan@nsrrc.org.tw

    2008-03-01

    In the fabrication of aluminium vacuum chambers of the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a cleaning treatment with ozonized water followed machining in an ethanol environment. After cleaning with ozonized water, aluminium samples were analyzed according to Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and measurement of the thermal outgassing rate and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD). The results showed that cleaning with ozonized water has a superior performance. A thermal outgassing rate q{sub 72} {approx} 6.4 x 10{sup -12} Pa {center_dot} m/s after baking and a photon-desorption yield {eta} {approx} 2 x 10{sup -5} molecules/photon at an accumulated beam dose 3 x 10{sup 21} photons/cm{sup 2} were obtained.

  15. Cleaning of aluminium alloy chambers with ozonized water

    Chan, C. K.; Hsiung, G. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, R.; Yang, C. Y.; Chen, C. L.; Hsueh, H. P.; Hsu, S. N.; Liu, I.; Chen, J. R.

    2008-03-01

    In the fabrication of aluminium vacuum chambers of the Taiwan Photon Source (TPS), a cleaning treatment with ozonized water followed machining in an ethanol environment. After cleaning with ozonized water, aluminium samples were analyzed according to Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and measurement of the thermal outgassing rate and photon-stimulated desorption (PSD). The results showed that cleaning with ozonized water has a superior performance. A thermal outgassing rate q72 ~ 6.4 × 10-12 Pa · m/s after baking and a photon-desorption yield η ~ 2 × 10-5 molecules/photon at an accumulated beam dose 3 × 1021 photons/cm2 were obtained.

  16. Modelling research of hydrogen desorption from liquid aluminium and its alloys

    M. Saternus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The refining process is essential for the removing undesirable hydrogen and harmful impurities from liquid aluminium and its alloys. Physical modelling allows to observe the level of refining gas dispersion in the liquid aluminium. Test stand for physical modelling of the barbotage process of aluminum for the bath reactor (URO-200 and continuous reactor (URC-7000 were built. Measurements of the oxygen removal from water were carried out as analogy of the hydrogen desorption process from liquid aluminium. In the research the distilled water saturated with the compressed oxygen was used. The level of water saturation with oxygen and then oxygen desorption from water was reached by means of the dissolved oxygen meter Elmetron CO-401.

  17. Predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints by a mathematical model

    AA6061 aluminium alloy (Al-Mg-Si alloy) has gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring a high strength-to weight ratio and good corrosion resistance. Compared to the fusion welding processes that are routinely used for joining structural aluminium alloys, friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process in which the material that is being welded does not melt and recast. This process uses a non-consumable tool to generate frictional heat in the abutting surfaces. The welding parameters such as tool rotational speed, welding speed, axial force etc., and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the joint strength. An attempt has been made to develop a mathematical model to predict tensile strength of the friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy by incorporating FSW process parameters. Four factors, five levels central composite design has been used to minimize number of experimental conditions. Response surface method (RSM) has been used to develop the model. Statistical tools such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), student's t-test, correlation co-efficient etc. have been used to validate the developed model. The developed mathematical model can be effectively used to predict the tensile strength of FSW joints at 95% confidence level

  18. Investigation of Kelvin probe force microscopy efficiency for the detection of hydrogen ingress by cathodic charging in an aluminium alloy

    Larignon, Céline; Alexis, Joël; Andrieu, Eric; Lacroix, Loïc; Odemer, Grégory; Blanc, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Detecting and locating absorbed hydrogen in aluminium alloys is necessary for evaluating the contribution of hydrogen embrittlement to the degradation of the mechanical properties for corroded or cathodically hydrogen-charged samples. The capability of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM) to overcome this issue was demonstrated. Aluminium alloy samples were hydrogenated by cathodic polarisation in molten salts (KHSO4/NaHSO4.H2O). The presence of absorbed hydrogen was revealed; the affected zon...

  19. HARDNESS VERSUS TIME DEPENDENCY DURING ARTIFICIAL AGEING OF AlMgSi0.5 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Mimica, Ratko

    2015-01-01

    Al-Mg-Si aluminium alloy are characterized by excellent deformability, but mechanical properties are not significant in extruded state. Improvement of mechanical properties is achieved by heat treatment, a process which allows formation of metastable precipitates during subsequent ageing. In this work, hardness versus time dependency for artificially aged AlMgSi0.5 (EN AW-6060) aluminium alloy at 185°C is presented, along with qualitative and quantitative analysis of results.

  20. Study of the Fatigue Life and Weight Optimization of an Automobile Aluminium Alloy Part under Random Road Excitation

    Saoudi, A.; Bouazara, M.; Marceau, D.

    2010-01-01

    Weight optimization of aluminium alloy automobile parts reduces their weight while maintaining their natural frequency away from the frequency range of the power spectral density (PSD) that describes the roadway profile. We present our algorithm developed to optimize the weight of an aluminium alloy sample relative to its fatigue life. This new method reduces calculation time; It takes into account the multipoint excitation signal shifted in time, giving a tangle of the constraint signals of ...

  1. ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM-COPPER-MAGNESIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS WITH HIGH STRENGTH AND HIGH TOUGHNESS - SOLVING THE PERCEIVED DICHOTOMY

    Miller, W.; White, J.; Reynolds, M.; Mcdarmaid, D.; Starr, G.

    1987-01-01

    Throughout the past decade extensive research and development has been carried out on aluminium-lithium base alloys because of the attractive combination of lower density and higher modulus that can be achieved in this system compared with "conventional" aluminium alloys. Much of this effort has been directed at understanding and overcoming their "Achilles heel" of low ductility and poor fracture toughness (particularly for crack planes perpendicular to the short transverse direction). This s...

  2. Influence of temperature and strain rate on the formability of aluminium alloys: Comparison between experimental and predictive results

    Chu, XingRong,; Leotoing, Lionel; Guines, Dominique; Ragneau, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The use of sheet metal forming processes can be limited by the formability of materials, especially in the case of aluminium alloys. To improve the formability, warm forming processes can be considered. In this work, the effects of temperature and strain rate on the formability of a given aluminium alloy (AA5086) have been studied by means of both experimental and predictive approaches. Experimental tests have been carried out with a Marciniak stamping experimental device. Forming limit curve...

  3. Wear Performance and Hardness Property Of A356.1 Aluminium Alloy Reinforced with Zirconium Oxide Nano Particle

    Girisha.K.B1 ,; Dr.H.C. Chittappa2

    2014-01-01

    Aluminium alloy reinforced with Nano-sized ZrO2 particles are widely used for high performance applications such as automotive, military, aerospace, and electricity industries because of their improved physical and mechanical properties. In this research, Zirconium Oxide (ZrO2) Nano particles were synthesized by Solution Combustion Synthesis process. The Nano particles were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and TEM. A356.1 Aluminium alloy was reinforced with 0.5...

  4. Aluminium EN AC-AlSi12 alloy matrix composite materials reinforced by Al2O3 porous preforms

    Nagel, A.; M. Kremzer; L.A. Dobrzański,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to elaborate the method of manufacturing of composite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by eutectic aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The material for investigations was fabricated by pressure infiltration method of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12 was use as a matrix while as reinforcement were used ceramic preforms fabricated by sintering of Al2O3 Alcoa CL 2500 powder with addition of po...

  5. Corrosion of alloys of the niobium--titanium--aluminium system

    The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of niobium--titanium--aluminum alloys in 20 percent HCl and 40--75 percent H2SO4 at 40 and 1000C are considered. Current density vs potential and corrosion rate vs potential potentiostatic curves plotted in 75 percent H2SO4 at 1400C for the alloys with different titanium contents at a constant content of aluminum and also for alloys with a constant titanium content at different contents of aluminum are given. It was shown that the corrosion resistance of the alloys in 75 percent H2SO4 at 1400C is an exponential function of the atomic content of the alloying components (Ti, Al) in them; aluminum vitiates the corrosion resistance very strongly

  6. Appearance of anodised aluminium: Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish

    Aggerbeck, Martin; Canulescu, Stela; Dirscherl, Kai; Johansen, Villads Egede; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Schou, Jørgen; Ambat, Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Effect of alloy composition and prior surface finish on the optical appearance of the anodised layer on aluminium alloys was investigated. Four commercial alloys namely AA1050, Peraluman 706, AA5754, and AA6082 were used for the investigation. Microstructure and surface morphology of the substrate...... prior to anodising were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The optical appearance of the anodised surface with and without sealing was investigated using a photography setup, photospectrometry and bidirectional reflectance distribution function. It was found that...... the roughness of the as-etched surface increases with the degree of alloying due to second phase particles making the reflection more diffused, and that the as-etched surface morphology is similar to the oxide–substrate interface after anodising. Proper polishing is achieved on hard alloys and the...

  7. Accelerated growth of oxide film on aluminium alloys under steam: Part II: Effects of alloy chemistry and steam vapour pressure on corrosion and adhesion performance

    Din, Rameez Ud; Bordo, Kirill; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The steam treatment of aluminium alloys with varying vapour pressure of steamresulted in the growth of aluminium oxyhydroxide films of thickness range between 450 - 825nm. The surface composition, corrosion resistance, and adhesion of the produced films was characterised by XPS, potentiodynamic...

  8. Laser Welding of aluminum alloys. Aluminium gokin no laser yosetsu

    Honda, K.; Makino, Y. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-04-01

    This paper describes the current situation and features of laser welding of aluminum alloys that is drawing attention as a new precision bonding method. Aluminum alloys are generally unsuitable for laser welding. It has many difficulties such as low absorbability into CO2 laser, high temperature oxide films generated on alloy surface, and cracking due to alloy multiplicity. As a result of improving processibility, stable welding beads have become obtainable with argon shielding if attention is paid on laser power density on base material surface. Discussions were given also on the relation between power density in laser welding and depth of fusion. Al-Mg system alloy produces stable beads at lower power density than in Al-Cu system alloy. Attaining sound welds requires pretreatment before welding, solution treatment after welding, and aging treatment. Tensile strength of a laser welded joint after an aging treatment ranges from 310 MPa to 330 MPa (Al-Cu system 2219-T3 material). Data in the conventional arc welding of aluminum alloys were used as the basis for this welding. 8 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. First results on nitriding aluminium alloys in a low-pressure RF plasma

    Full text: Aluminium alloys are now well established as materials of choice for many commercial applications, especially where strength-to-weight ratio is a critical parameter. However, their more widespread use is inhibited by their low surface hardness. For steels, similar problems can be overcome by nitriding. The nitrogen-rich surface layer has high hardness and load-bearing capacity, and is very well bonded to the substrate. The development of a similar surface-treatment process for aluminium alloys is clearly a desirable goal. It is therefore not surprising that many research groups worldwide have attempted to nitride aluminium. Much of this work studied pure aluminium, a material of no interest for structural applications. Previous investigations into nitriding aluminium alloys' had indifferent results. However, they have served to identify the key issues, which are the importance of a pre-cleaning steps to remove the surface oxide, of impurity control during the nitriding and the desirability of using as low a process temperature as possible. In all of these areas, our process using a low-pressure RF plasma is likely to be competitive. In view of this, we have undertaken a comparative study of a range of commercially available aluminium alloys. All treatments were carried out in the hot-wall nitriding reactor at ANSTO. The samples consist of disks 25mm in diameter and ∼3mm thick which were polished and ultrasonically cleaned in alcohol prior to treatment. The samples were stored in air at all times except when in the nitriding reactor. In a series of treatments, the treatment time was varied in the range 1-16 h and the temperature in the range 350-500 deg C. All treatments were preceeded by a plasma cleaning step in a H2/50%Ar mixture for a duration of 1.5-2.0 h while the reactor reached processing temperature. The treatments all used pure N2 at a pressure of 0.4Pa and a nitrogen flow rate of 12μmol s-1, with 245W of rf power at 13.56MHz applied to the antenna and a workpiece bias of -250V with respect to the reactor walls. All alloys displayed various surface colorations following treatment. This work was supported by the Australian Institute of Nuclear Science and Engineering, the Australian Research Council, and an Australian Postgraduate Research Award

  10. Corrosion of aluminium alloys in research reactor cores - processes and assessment

    Around 250 research reactors (RR) are presently operating and these consist of several types, use fuels of different designs and have varying power levels and core configurations. The commonly used RR core materials include aluminium alloys, stainless steels and zirconium alloys. Aluminium alloys are used for cladding fuels and absorbers, targets, thermal columns and other irradiation facilities. Regardless of reactor type or application, most RR cores are surrounded by water that functions as a coolant, moderator and biological shielding. In this metal/environment system, aluminium alloys are prone to different types of corrosion, namely uniform, pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion. Parameters that affect these forms of corrosion are water chemistry, temperature, solids in suspension, flow rate, bimetallic contacts and crevices. Much information is available about Al corrosion and is used in the design stage of core components. Nevertheless, many factors cause these 'well designed components' to corrode and these include transients in specific water parameters, synergism in the effects of certain water parameters, planned but inappropriate design changes, lack of or inappropriate surveillance practices and other site-specific constraints. The corrosion resistance of Al alloys can be seriously impaired in the presence of very small quantities of chloride ions in the primary coolant water and by contact with other materials. Oxide growth on Al alloy surfaces depends on surface state, temperature and water parameters such as pH, conductivity, dissolved species, flow rate and heat flux. Aluminium alloys, like other metals that rely on surface oxide films for protection are particularly susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion. Galvanic corrosion is driven by differences in electrochemical potential, ratio of surface areas of the metals in contact and the distance between the metals in contact. This paper will present: (a) a brief overview of the different forms of corrosion of Al alloys and the effect of specific chemical and physical parameters on corrosion; (b) details of the on-going and previous corrosion surveillance programs in the IEA-R1 reactor at IPEN; (c) guidelines to plan and execute a corrosion surveillance programme to monitor and assess corrosion degradation of Al alloy core components in RR; (d) use of on-line and off-line measurements of specific parameters as well as visual inspection techniques to monitor the status of core components; (e) two case studies to highlight interpretation of data from on-line measurements, video imaging, off-line measurements (SEM/EDS/XRD) and a corrosion surveillance programme to explain fuel cladding degradation in the IEA-R1 research reactor at IPEN in Brazil. (author)

  11. Impact toughness improvement of high-strength aluminium alloy by intrinsic and extrinsic fracture mechanisms via hot roll bonding

    A multilayer aluminium laminate comprising 10 layers of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy (82 vol.%) and nine layers of pure aluminium (18 vol.%) has been processed by hot rolling. The rolled laminate was characterized by electron backscattering diffraction, Charpy impact and shear tests. The multilayer laminate showed an outstanding Charpy impact toughness, which was 18 times higher than that for the as-received Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. The improvement in damage tolerance was due to the high volume fraction of the high-strength aluminium and extrinsic fracture mechanisms.

  12. Braze Welding TIG of Titanium and Aluminium Alloy Type Al – Mg

    Winiowski A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the course and the results of technological tests related to TIG-based arc braze welding of titanium and AW-5754 (AlMg3 aluminium alloy. The tests involved the use of an aluminium filler metal (Al99.5 and two filler metals based on Al-Si alloys (AlSi5 and AlSi12. Braze welded joints underwent tensile tests, metallographic examinations using a light microscope as well as structural examinations involving the use of a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The highest strength and quality of welds was obtained when the Al99.5 filler metal was used in a braze welding process. The tests enabled the development of the most convenient braze welding conditions and parameters.

  13. Mechanical properties of an undercooled aluminium alloy Al-0.6Mg-0.7Si

    Compression tests of an undercooled aluminium alloy Al-0.6Mg-0.7Si have been performed in a quenching and deformation dilatometer. Samples have been solution annealed and quenched in the dilatometer with varying quenching rates (0.1 K/min to 1000 K/min) and varying quenching temperatures. Immediately after quenching, compression tests on quenching temperature have been performed in the dilatometer. The results have been correlated with the precipitation behaviour of the undercooled aluminium alloy Al-0.6Mg-0.7Si. Stress-strain-curves of quenching rates higher than the critical cooling rate for precipitation differ from those of quenching rates lower than the critical cooling rate. Further, stress-strain-curves of temperatures above and during precipitation differ from those of temperatures below precipitation.

  14. RESEARCH OF FATIGUE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AlMg1SiCu ALUMINIUM ALLOYS

    Mária Mihaliková

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with an analysis of utility and fatigue properties of industrially produced aluminium alloy, specifically EN AW 6061 (AlMg1SiCu, reinforced with the particles of SiC. The following properties were subject to evaluation: microstructure and sub-structure, mechanical characteristics. All of these mechanical properties in pre- and post- equal channel angular pressed (ECAP state have been studied. The hardness was evaluated by Vickers hardness test at the load of HV10. The significant part the thesis was devoted to the fatigue properties at cyclic load in torsion. The presented results demonstrate well that the combination of fractography and microscopy can give a significant contribution to the knowledge of initiation and propagation crack in the aluminium alloy.

  15. Monte Carlo calculations for the simulation of channeling experiments on irradiated aluminium alloys

    One of the most useful application of the channeling technique is the location of solute atoms in irradiation produced mixed dumbbells of aluminium alloys. Therefore here the channeling process is simulated on the basis of Monte Carlo calculations regarding the collisions of the channeled He ions with the nearest target atom in momentum approximation. Flux distributions are determined as a function of the angle of incidence. The report contains 81 figures each of which represents , , and axial as well as {100}, {110}, and {111} planar angular yields of He ions backscattered from solute atoms in mixed dumbbells of different concentrations. The solute atom is assumed to be displaced from the lattice site in , , or direction. On the basis of these curves the positions of the Mn, Ag, Cu, Ge, and Zn atoms in mixed dumbbells of aluminium alloys could be determined from experimental scans. (orig.)

  16. Composite Ni-Co-fly ash coatings on 5083 aluminium alloy

    Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were deposited on zincate treated 5083 wrought aluminium alloy substrates with the aid of the electrodeposition technique. Structural and chemical characterization of the produced composite coatings was performed with the aid of X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) techniques. The Ni-Co-fly ash coatings were found to consist of a crystalline Ni-Co solid solution with dispersed fly ash particles. In addition, chemical analysis of the Ni-Co matrix showed that it consisted of 80 wt.% Ni and 20 wt.% Co. The co-deposition of fly ash particles leads to a significant increase of the microhardness of the coating. The corrosion behaviour of the Ni-Co-fly ash/zincate coated aluminium alloy, in a 0.3 M NaCl solution (pH = 3.5), was studied by means of potentiodynamic corrosion experiments.

  17. Effect of Process Parameters of Friction Stir Welded Joint for Similar Aluminium Alloys H30

    Vanita S. Thete

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effect of process parameters of friction stir welded joint for similar aluminium alloys H30 was studied. Taper cylindrical with three flutes all made of High speed steel was used for the friction stir welding (FSW aluminium alloy H30 and the tensile test of the welded joint were tested by universal testing method. The optimization done using detailed mathematical model is simulated by Minitab17. In this investigation, an effective approach based on Taguchi method, has been developed to determine the optimum conditions leading to higher tensile strength. Experiments were conducted on varying rotational speed, transverse speed, and axial force using L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. The present study aims at optimizing process parameters to achieve high tensile strength.

  18. Corrosion Inhibitive Effect of Ocimum Gratissimum Extract on Zinc - Aluminium Alloy in Hydrochloric Acid

    Mojisola O. Nkiko

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitive effect of Ocimum gratissimum by seed extract on the corrosion of zinc - aluminium (ZA alloy in 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl solution has been studied using gravimetric methods. Inhibition increases with concentration of extract but decreases with temperature. This observation implies that Ocimum gratissimum seed extract is an effective and non toxic inhibitor of the corrosion of zinc - aluminium alloy. Adsorption of the extract on the surface obeyed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. The calculated rate constant (k shows a first order kinetics in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. The kinetic parameter B, measured for the reaction has a high negative value which implies that Ocimum gratissimum becomes more effective as the temperature increases. Synergistic effect of halide additives shows an increase in the efficiency of the extract. However synergism parameter shows that synergism of halide additives decreases with increased concentration of inhibitor.

  19. Tribological Properties of Aluminium 2024 Alloy Beryl Particulate MMC's

    H.B. Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs are emerging as the most versatile materials for advanced structural, automotive, aviation, aerospace, marine, defense applications and other related sectors because of their excellent combination of properties. In the present investigation, Al2024-Beryl composites were fabricated by liquid metallurgy route by varying Weight Percentage (wt. % of reinforcement from 0 wt. % to 10 wt. % in steps of 2 wt. %. The dry sliding wear tests were conducted to examine the wear behavior of the Al2024 alloy and its composites. The sliding wear tests were conducted for various loads, speeds and sliding distances. The result reveals that wear rates of the composite is lower than that of the matrix alloy and friction coefficient was minimum when compared to monolithic alloy. The incorporation of beryl particles as reinforcement material in Al2024 alloy improves the tribological characteristics.

  20. On glass formation in rapidly solidified aluminium-based alloys

    Thermodynamic properties of the melts of several Al-Y and Al-Fe-Y alloys are studied by means of calibrated differential thermal analysis. The results can be used to optimize process parameters of rapid solidification which are important for glass formation in the Al-based alloys. Close examinations of the melt-spun alloys show that the process parameters, particularly the temperature of the melts, will influence not only the amorphicity and the chemical short range order but also the crystallization process of the glasses. A key point of glass formation in the Al-based alloys in found to be related to the content in the melts of certain amount of the intermetallic compounds which are gradually dissolved into the premelted α Al matrix. (orig.)

  1. High-Rate Compaction of Aluminium Alloy Foams

    The response of aluminium foams to impact can be categorised according to the impact velocity. Tests have been carried out at a range of impact velocities from quasi-static to velocities approaching the speed of sound in the foam. Various experimental arrangements have been employed including pneumatic launcher tests and plate impact experimants at velocities greater than 1000 m s-1. The quasi-static compression behaviour was approximately elastic, perfectly-plastic, locking. For static and dynamic compression at low impact velocities the deformation pattern was through the cumulative multiplication of discrete, non-contiguous crush bands. Selected impact tests are presented here for which the impact velocity is less than the velocity of sound, but above a certain critical impact velocity so that the plastic compression occurs in a shock-like manner and the specimens deform by progressive cell crushing. Laboratory X-ray microtomography has been employed to acquire tomographic datasets of aluminium foams before and after tests. The morphology of the underformed foam was used as the input dataset to an Eulerian code. Hydrocode simulations were then carried out on a real microstructure. These simulations provide insight to mechanisms associated with the localization of deformation

  2. Advances in aluminium alloy products for structural applications in transportation

    This paper describes the needs of the aviation and automotive markets for structural materials and presents examples of developments of aluminum alloy products to fill these needs. Designers of aircraft desire materials which will allow them to design lightweight, cost-effective structures which have the performance characteristics of durability and damage tolerance. Their needs are being met by new and emerging materials varying from Al-Li alloys for thick structure, high-strength plate and extrusions for wings, and new monolithic and aluminum-fiber laminates for fuselages. Increase in fuel economy because of lighter weight structure is the driving force for aluminum alloys in the automotive market, and cost is extremely important. Mechanical properties for automotive use also depend on the application, and corrosion resistance must be adequate. For ''hang-on'' components such as fenders and hoods, formability is typically the limiting mechanical property. Strength must be adequate to resist denting at a thickness which offers cost-effective weight savings over steel. Because formability often decreases with increasing yield strength, alloys which are highly formable in the T4 temper and which age harden during the paint bake operation were developed. Alloys such as 6009 and 6010 are now being challenged by 2008, 6111 and 6016. Body structure components must be made from materials which absorb energy and fail gracefully during a crash. Such components for an automotive space frame are being die cast from an Al-Si-Mg alloy. These ductile die castings are joined to thin 6XXX extrusions which must combine formability, strength, ductility and the ability to deform plastically on impact. Bumpers must combine strength and adequate formability; in the event that current alloys are inadequate for future needs, a new 7XXX alloy offers an improved combination of properties. (orig.)

  3. Ultrafine-grained aluminium alloys prepared by severe plastic defomation (ECAP)

    Dám, Karel

    Leoben : The Austrian Society for Metallurgy and Materials, 2011, 203-207. ISBN 978-3-200-02155-6. [International student´s day of Metallurgy /18./. Leoben (AT), 17.03.2011-19.03.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN300100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : Equal-Chanel Angular Pressing * aluminium alloy s * grain refinement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  4. Effect of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) on creep in aluminium alloys

    Sklenička, Václav; Dvořák, Jiří; Král, Petr; Kvapilová, Marie; Svoboda, Milan; Saxl, Ivan; Horita, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 539-543, - (2007), s. 2904-2909. ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2041301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : equal-channel angular pressing * aluminium alloy s * ultrafine-grained microscructure Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  5. Microstructure and hot tearing of 6000 series aluminium alloys laser welds

    Fabregue, Damien

    2004-01-01

    There has been a rapid growth in the use of the laser welding process due to its higher productivity rate compared to conventional processes. However its development in the field of aluminium alloys has been limited due to the presence of solidification defects (e.g. porosity, hot cracking). This study is focused on the understanding of the problem of hot cracking during welding. Numerous welding tests were done under different conditions, followed by microstructural examinations so as to und...

  6. Deformation structures in 6082 aluminium alloy after severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing

    Liu Manping [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Alfred Getz vei 2b, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: manping.liu@material.ntnu.no; Roven, Hans J.; Yu Yingda; Werenskiold, Jens C. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Alfred Getz vei 2b, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-06-15

    Deformation structures of a commercial Al-Mg-Si alloy (6082) processed by equal-channel angular pressing at room temperature were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Deformation twins, which have never been observed in coarse-grained aluminium, were experimentally confirmed together with numerous other features. The possible roles of twinning and different grain boundary structures on the severe plastic deformation (SPD) mechanisms, including grain refinement, were discussed.

  7. Deformation structures in 6082 aluminium alloy after severe plastic deformation by equal-channel angular pressing

    Deformation structures of a commercial Al-Mg-Si alloy (6082) processed by equal-channel angular pressing at room temperature were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Deformation twins, which have never been observed in coarse-grained aluminium, were experimentally confirmed together with numerous other features. The possible roles of twinning and different grain boundary structures on the severe plastic deformation (SPD) mechanisms, including grain refinement, were discussed

  8. Analysis of the strain behaviour of a friction stir processed superplastic aluminium alloy

    Sorgente Donato; Campanelli Sabina Luisa; Stecchi Alessandro; Contuzzi Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Superplastic forming is a well-established process by which very large, very complex shaped and also multi-sheets components can be manufactured in a single step. Combining this process with a suitable joining technique is of great industrial interest. In this work the strain behaviour of a friction stir processed aluminium alloy was investigated through free inflation tests. Principal parameters of the friction stir process were changed and free inflation tests were performed to assess the f...

  9. Thermal Analysis on Butt Welded Aluminium Alloy AA7075 Plate Using FEM

    M. Pal Pandi; Dr. R. Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical finite element analysis has been performed to assess the residual stress in the butt weld joints of aluminium Alloy AA7075 plates by utilizing the commercial software package ABAQUS. This paper presents an efficient FE technique using equivalent load to precisely predict welding deformations and residual stresses in butt joints. The radial heat flux distribution is considered on the top surface of the weldment. Convective and radiative heat lo...

  10. High-temperature mechanical properties of aluminium alloys reinforced with boron carbide particles

    The mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites based on aluminium alloys (6061 and 7015) at high temperatures were studied. Boron carbide particles were used as reinforcement. All composites were produced by hot extrusion. The tensile properties and fracture analysis of these materials were investigated at room temperature and at high temperature to determine their ultimate strength and strain to failure. The fracture surface was analysed by scanning electron microscopy

  11. Micro-scale abrasion behaviour of electroless Ni-P-SiC coating on aluminium alloy

    Franco, M.; Sha, Wei; Malinov, Savko

    2014-01-01

    Electroless nickel (EN) and electroless nickel composite (ENC) coatings were deposited on aluminium alloy substrate, LM24. The micro abrasion test was conducted to study the wear behaviour of the coatings with the effect of SiC concentration. Microhardness of the coatings was tested also. The wear scars were analysed using optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The wear resistance was found to be improved in composite coating that has higher microhardness as compared to pa...

  12. Study of quality of nine aluminium alloys surfaces created using abrasive waterjet

    Klichová, D.; Klich, J.; Gurková, L. (Lucie)

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on the normalized method of measurement and evaluation of a surface texture created using the abrasive waterjet. It detects selected amplitude parameters of a roughness profile providing a form of a quantified description of properties of a surface topography. It studies the change in quality of machined surfaces created by the abrasive waterjet in nine selected materials of aluminium alloys when changing the traverse speed. Studied samples were measured by an optica...

  13. Behaviour modelling of aluminium alloy sheet for Single Point Incremental Forming

    Decultot, Nicolas; Velay, Vincent; Robert, Laurent; Bernhart, Gérard; Massoni, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify behaviour models of an aluminium alloy sheet formed by incremental stamping process by using both numerical simulations (FEM) and experimental procedures. The procedure developed will be used in Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF) in using several original experimental tests allowing to reproduce loading paths close to those induced in the industrial operations and full-field measurements by 3D-Digital Image Correlation (DIC).

  14. Heat line formation during roll-casting of aluminium alloys at thin gauges

    Yun, M.; Hunt, J.; Edmonds, D.

    1993-01-01

    Heat line formation during roll-casting of aluminium alloys at thin gauges has been studied experimentally and numerically. It has been found that the thinner the strip, the less the risk of forming heat lines or the less severe the heat lines are should them form. This behaviour has been discussed in terms of the heat transfer between the strip and the roll within the contact region in the twin-roll casting process.

  15. Influence of sulphuric acid anodising on the fatigue strength of a 7075-T73 aluminium alloy

    Savas, TP; Earthman, JC

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a sulphuric acid anodising process on the fatigue behaviour of a 7075-T73 aluminium alloy has been investigated. Single edge circular notch (SECN) fatigue specimens were used enabling localisation of fatigue damage and assisting detection of fatigue crack initiation and growth. Elastic finite element modelling was performed to quantify the stress concentration factor and von Mises equivalent stress distribution of the notched region. A surface replication method in combinatio...

  16. Metallurgical bond between magnesium AZ91 alloy and aluminium plasma sprayed coatings

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pala, Zdeněk; Neufuss, Karel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Stoulil, J.; Slepička, P.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, November (2015), s. 163-170. ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * AZ91 magnesium alloy * Aluminium * Metallurgical bond * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.998, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897215303297

  17. Characteristics of aluminium-scandium alloy thin sheets obtained by physical vapour deposition

    Thin sheets of an age-hardenable aluminium-scandium alloy were deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering. As targets an aluminium-scandium pre-alloy with a scandium content of 2.0 mass% (size 88 x 500 mm) was applied. The substrates to be coated consisted of thin steel sheets which after deposition were dissolved in an oxidizing medium. In this way, free-standing sheets of less than 30 μm thickness of the aluminium-scandium alloy were received. Two deposition temperatures, 37 and 160 oC, were applied. The as-received sheets showed a typical columnar structure. Two post-treatments of the sheets were applied: a cold isostatic pressing and an artificial ageing for 1 h at temperatures between 200 and 400 oC. The strength of the sheets was measured by tensile tests. The employed specimens had a width of 10 mm and were gained from the sheets by cutting. During testing, load and strain were measured by a 1000 N load cell and a video extensometer, respectively. The as-deposited specimens show a tensile strength of 350 MPa. Artificial ageing at 300 oC increases the tensile strength to more than 400 MPa. It could be shown that during tensile tests cracks are initialized at coating defects.

  18. Inhibitive Behaviour of Corrosion of Aluminium Alloy in NaCl by Mangrove Tannin

    Anticorrosion potential of mangrove tannins on aluminium alloys AA6061 in NaCl solution has been studied using potentiodynamic polarisation method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The study was carried out in different pH of corrosive medium in the absence and presence of various concentrations of tannin. The corrosion inhibition behaviour of the mangrove tannin on AA6061 aluminium alloy corrosion was found to be dependant on the pH of NaCl solution. Our results showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with increasing tannins concentration in chloride solution at pH 6. Treatment of aluminium alloy 6061 with all concentrations of mangrove tannins reduced the current density, thus decreased the corrosion rate. Tannins behaved as mixed inhibitors at pH 6 and reduction in current density predominantly affected in cathodic reaction. Meanwhile, at pH 12, addition of tannins shifted the corrosion potential to more cathodic potentials and a passivating effect was observed in anodic potentials. SEM studies have shown that the addition of tannins in chloride solution at pH 12 reduced the surface degradation and the formation of pits. (author)

  19. The Interaction between Particles and Low Angle Boundaries during Recovering of Aluminium-Alumina Alloys

    Jones, A.R.; Hansen, Niels

    1981-01-01

    Certain quantitative and qualitative aspects both of subgrain growth and of the interaction between particles and low angle grain boundaries during recovery have been investigated in two aluminium alloys containing low volume fractions of small alumina particles. Quantitative data have been...... boundaries during recovery involves effects in addition to those of simple Zener pinning of migrating boundaries. For the current alloys it is found that a determination of the limits to normal subgrain growth in terms of a modified Zener analysis produces an underestimate of the true extent of particle...

  20. Aluminium Alloy AA6060 surface treatment with high temperature steam containing chemical additives

    Din, Rameez Ud; Tabrizian, Naja; Jellesen, Morten S.; Ambat, Rajan

    The steam treatment process was employed to produce a conversion coating on aluminium alloy AA6060. The changes in microstructure and its effect on corrosion resistance properties were investigated. Various concentrations of KMnO4 containing Ce(NO3)3 was injected into the steam and its effect on...... the formation of steam-based conversion coating was evaluated. The use of Mn-Ce into the steam resulted in incorporation of these species into the conversion coating, which resulted in improved corrosion resistance of the alloy substrate....

  1. THE EFFECT OF THE ALUMINIUM ALLOY SURFACE ROUGHNESS ON THE RESTITUTION COEFFICIENT

    Stanisław Bławucki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research on the effect of the surface roughness of aluminum alloy on its coefficient of restitution. It describes the current method of finishing the workpiece surface layer after cutting and innovative measuring device which was used in the research. The material used in the research was aluminium alloy EN AW 7075. The paper also presents a relationship between the coefficient of restitution and surface roughness of the milled samples as well as impressions left by bead in function of velocity and a sample surface roughness.

  2. Analysis of intermetallic particles in AlSi1MgMn aluminium alloy

    G. Mrówka-Nowotnik; J. Sieniawski; M. Wierzbińska

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The main objective of this study was to analyze the morphology and composition of complexmicrostructure of the intermetallic phases in AlSi1Mg alloy.Design/methodology/approach: In this study, several methods were used such as: optical light microscopy(LM), transmission (TEM) and scanning (SEM) electron microscopy in combination with X-ray analysis (EDS)using polished sample, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to identify intermetallics in AlSi1MgMn aluminium alloy.Findings: The results sho...

  3. The structure and properties of autogenous laser beam welds in aluminium alloys

    Whitaker, Iain Robert

    1994-01-01

    Autogenous laser beam welds were made in sheets of the aluminium alloys 8090, 8009 and 6061. The Al-Li based alloy 8090 was subjected to both continuous wave CO2 and pulsed Nd:YAG thermal cycles with average powers of 1.5-3.8 kW and 0.8- 0.9 kW respectively. The two techniques were compared for their influence on the 8090 solidified weld pool shape, the fusion zone microstructure and microhardness, the HAZ and the susceptibility of the fusion zone to post-weld heat treatment. It was found tha...

  4. Study on segregation of aluminium-uranium alloys

    The relations between alloy solidification and solute segregation were considered. The solidification structure and the solute redistribution during the solidification of alloys with dendritic micro morphology were studied. The macro and micro segregation theories were reviewed. The mechanisms that could change the solidification structure were taken into account in the context of more homogeneous alloy production. Aluminum alloys solidification structures and segregation were studied experimentally in the 13 to 45% uranium range, usually considering solidification in static molds. The uranium alloys with up to 20% uranium were studied both for solidification in ingot molds and for controlled directional solidification. It was verified that these alloy compositions had structures similar to those of hipoeutectic alloys, showing an a phase with dendritic morphology and inter dendritic eutectic. For the alloys with more than 25% uranium, it was observed the formation of UAl3 and UAl4 phases with dendritic morphology. The dendritic UAl3, phase morphology was affected both by the solute concentration in the alloy and by the growth rate. The dendritic UAl3 phase non-singular aspect could be destroyed with decrease of the alloy solute concentration. In the alloys obtained with higher cooling rates it was found a tendency for the formation of substantial quantities of equi axial crystals of the solute enriched phases in the central regions of the ingot upper half. In the more external regions it was observed dendritic growth of these phases, for alloy compositions with over 25% uranium. An adequate reduction in the cooling rate changed the solidification structure form and distribution, as well as the segregation type and intensity. The uranium content in the solidified macro structures is presented as a function of: cooling rate, superheating, mold size, mold form and its temperature, number of remelting and time for the melt homogenization and agitation. It was observed that the uranium concentration gradient increased with the deviation from the eutectic composition. The cooling rate reduction promoted horizontal segregation of the uranium, decreasing its vertical segregation. It was shown that the stability regions of certain structure forms found in the ingot could be obtained as a function of the growth rate and solute concentration. The uranium segregation for the alloys obtained with higher cooling rates, was anticipated for al-1 the compositions studied using the inverse segregation theory. The positive segregation in the ingot higher regions appeared when, in the solidification initial stages, it occurred nucleation and growth of crystals in a quantity larger than that corresponding to equilibrium. These particles moved later to the central axis of the ingot higher regions during the solidification in the ingot molds. The origin of the negative segregation close to the cooled ingot faces is due to two mechanisms: 1) movement of solute depleted liquid in the channels of dendritic or equi axial phases in the direction of the cooled faces; 2) movement of solute enriched phases to the last regions to be solidified. The uranium normal segregation is analysed using the concept of solute rejection in front of a growth interface with dendritic micro morphology. It is assumed that the composition of the primary phase dendrites do not stay effectively in the K Q C o value. Therefore, this fact contributes also for the segregation. It is discussed the possibility of occurring liquid currents induced by density differences, dendritic interactions, decanting of the solute-rich inter dendritic liquid, and porosity, that may have affected the segregation intensity. The segregation at the eutectic temperature and the deposition of solute enriched phases are also analysed. (author)

  5. Microstructural and electrochemical characterization of environmentally friendly conversion layers on aluminium alloys

    Palomino Luis Enrique M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerium conversion layers (CeCL have been investigated as a replacement for chromium conversion layers to protect Al alloys against corrosion. In this work the microstructure and the electrochemical behaviour of aluminium alloy 2024 with and without CeCL were investigated using, respectively, SEM-EDX and EIS. EDX results have shown that the presence of dispersed plated Cu particles on the alloy surface enhances the formation of the CeCL increasing the intensity of Ce peaks in the EDX spectra. EIS measurements on conversion-coated samples have shown that the presence of the layer increases the impedance, and that its presence is detected by the presence of a high frequency time constant. Results of potentiodynamic experiments have shown that the corrosion protection afforded by the conversion layer is due to the hindrance of the oxygen reduction reaction and that the pitting potential of the alloy is not changed.

  6. Influence of constitutional liquation on corrosion behaviour of aluminium alloy 2017A

    The purpose of this work was to investigate microstructural aspects of constitutional liquation in the aluminium alloy 2017A and to determine its effect on corrosion behaviour of this alloy. Non-equilibrium melting of the alloy in the naturally aged condition was provoked by rapid heating above the eutectic temperature and immediate cooling in air. Corrosion testing was performed by exposure to a marine onshore atmosphere. The microstructure examinations were carried out using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersion and X-ray diffraction analysis. It was found that, due to rapid heating rate, coarse θ (Al2Cu) particles were melted by constitutional liquation and this way introduced strong susceptibility of 2017A alloy to intergranular corrosion.

  7. Precipitation hardening of cast Zr-containing A356 aluminium alloy

    The effect of small additions of zirconium on the hardness, grain size, precipitate type and size of cast A356 aluminium alloy was investigated. The cast alloys were solution treated and then artificially aged for different periods of time. Hardness tests and scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were carried out on the as-cast, as-solutionised and age-hardened specimens. Incoherent, coarse Al3Zr particles formed in the microstructure during the solidification of the alloy and caused grain refinement in the as-cast structure. These particles dissolved and reprecipitated as smaller-size particles during the solution treatment, causing the hardness of the alloy to remain constant at high temperatures for long periods of time due to the slow diffusion of Zr in the ?-Al.

  8. Ageing and work-hardening behaviour of a commercial AA7108 aluminium alloy

    In the 7xxx aluminium alloying system several mechanisms influence the hardening behaviour of the alloys, e.g. particle size and distribution, dislocation density and alloying elements in solid solution. This work is an experimental study of ageing and work-hardening considering a commercial AA7108 alloy in the as-cast and homogenized condition. Tensile specimens have been exposed to a solution heat treatment and a two-step age-hardening treatment with varying time at the final temperature. The tensile data for the different tempers have been evaluated in elucidation of already existing models based on a one-parameter framework. The precipitate size and distribution have been further investigated in the transmission electron microscope for a selection of tempers, and the influence of these parameters on the work-hardening behaviour has been discussed.

  9. Precipitation, strength and work hardening of age hardened aluminium alloys

    Ryen, .; Holmedal, B.; Marthinsen, K.; Furu, T.

    2015-08-01

    The strength and work hardening of age hardened AA6063 and AA6082 alloys have been investigated in terms of a detailed characterization of precipitate and dislocation structures obtained by TEM and SEM. Tensile and compression tests were performed at as quenched, peak aged and severely aged conditions. A strong work hardening in the as quenched condition was found, similar to AlMg alloys with twice as much alloying elements in solid solution. It was found that the initial work hardening rate and the critical failure strain are both smallest at the peak aged condition. During large deformations the needle-shaped precipitates are sheared uniformly by dislocations altering their orientations, which indicates extensive cross slip. In the overaged condition the early initial work hardening is larger than at the peak aged condition, but followed by a weak linear work hardening, apparently directly entering stage IV at a low strain. Cracked, needle-shaped precipitates were seen at larger strains.

  10. Structural properties of molten dilute aluminium-transition metal alloys

    The short-range order in liquid binary Al-rich alloys (Al-Fe, Al-Ti) was studied by x-ray diffraction. The measurements were performed using a novel containerless technique which combines aerodynamic levitation with inductive heating. The average structure factors, S(Q), have been determined for various temperatures and compositions in the stable liquid state. From S(Q), the pair correlation functions, g(r), have been calculated. The first interatomic distance is nearly temperature-independent, whereas the first-shell coordination number decreases with increasing temperature for all the alloys investigated. For the Al-Fe alloys, room-temperature scanning electron microscropy (SEM) studies show the formation of a microstructure, namely the existence of Al13Fe4 inclusions in the Al matrix

  11. Phase-oriented surface segregation in an aluminium casting alloy

    There have been many reports of the surface segregation of minor elements, especially Mg, into surface layers and oxide films on the surface of Al alloys. LM6 casting alloy (Al-12%Si) represents a challenging system to examine such segregation as the alloy features a particularly inhomogeneous phase structure. The very low but mobile Mg content (approximately 0.001 wt.%), and the surface segregation of modifiers such as Na, mean the surface composition responds in a complex manner to thermal treatment conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to determine the distribution of these elements within the oxide film. Further investigation by dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) confirmed a strong alignment of segregated Na and Mg into distinct phases of the structure.

  12. Structural properties of molten dilute aluminium-transition metal alloys.

    Pozdnyakova, I; Hennet, L; Mathiak, G; Brillo, J; Zanghi, D; Brun, J-F; Brassamin, S; Bytchkov, A; Cristiglio, V; Véron, E; Matzen, G; Geandier, G; Thiaudière, D; Moss, S C; Spaepen, F; Egry, I; Price, D L

    2006-07-19

    The short-range order in liquid binary Al-rich alloys (Al-Fe, Al-Ti) was studied by x-ray diffraction. The measurements were performed using a novel containerless technique which combines aerodynamic levitation with inductive heating. The average structure factors, S(Q), have been determined for various temperatures and compositions in the stable liquid state. From S(Q), the pair correlation functions, g(r), have been calculated. The first interatomic distance is nearly temperature-independent, whereas the first-shell coordination number decreases with increasing temperature for all the alloys investigated. For the Al-Fe alloys, room-temperature scanning electron microscropy (SEM) studies show the formation of a microstructure, namely the existence of Al(13)Fe(4) inclusions in the Al matrix. PMID:21690847

  13. Aluminium casting alloy for high strength/high temperature applications

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises by weight the following: 7.0-13.0% copper, 0.4-1.2% manganese, 0.21-0.40% vanadium, 0.31-0.70% zirconium, impurities limited as follows: generally equal amounts silicon and iron with Fe less than 0.8% and Si less than 0.6%, up to 0.2% Zn, up to 0.1% Mg, up to 0.2% Ni, the remainder being essentially aluminum, the alloy having a tensile strength of 33 ksi or greater when exposed to a temperature of 500 degrees F for at least 1000 hours

  14. Corrosion Behaviour of Extruded Heat Exchanger Aluminium Alloys

    Laferrere, Alice Marie

    2012-01-01

    Extruded Al-Mn alloy are used in heat exchanger applications due to their light weight and good thermal conductivity. Depending on the application, the units may be subjected to external corrosion, which can lead to perforation of the tube. The industrial test most commonly used to assess heat exchanger alloys is the seawater acetic acid test (SWAAT). This is a cyclic fog at 40°C and pH 2.9. In the present study, it was found that pits developing in extruded Al-Mn tubes during the SWAAT test ...

  15. Development of electron beam welding of 6061-T6 aluminium alloy for the Jules Horowitz Reactor - Development of the electron beam welding of the 6061-T6 aluminium alloy

    In a text and in a Power Point presentation, the author first evokes the interesting properties of the 6061-T6 aluminium alloy and the problems its raises as far as welding is concerned. He also evokes that hundreds of tests and characterizations (destructive and non destructive testing) of TIG, MIG and EB (electron beam) welding processes have been performed before the selection of the electron beam welding process. The author discusses the weldability of aluminium alloys, and more particularly that of the 6061-T6 alloy (control of mechanical properties of the welded joint, hot cracking during welding, solidification or liquation)

  16. Microstructures and mechanical properties of an Osprey aluminium 7000 alloy

    Cottignies, L.; Brechet, Y.; Audier, M.; Livet, F.; Louchet, F.; Sainfort, P.

    1993-01-01

    An alloy from the 7000 serie obtained by the Osprey process has been studied both from the microstructural (TEM, SAXS) and from the mechanical viewpoint. The modelling of the mechanical properties and of their anisotropy was performed using both models from physical metallurgy and a self consistent eslastoplastic model.

  17. Castability tests applied to an aluminium-copper alloy

    Garda, B.; Fortin, L; Durand, F.; Durand, Franck

    1993-01-01

    Simplified castability tests were performed on an Al-2%Cu alloy. Measured values of the fluid length can be represented by Ragone's model, giving an estimate for the metal-mould heat transfer coefficient. The grain structure can be considered as a case of columnar-toequiaxed transition in relatively simple flow conditions.

  18. Cavitation erosion resistance of microarc oxidation coating on aluminium alloy

    Cheng, Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Jiang, Shuyun, E-mail: jiangshy@seu.edu.cn [School of Mechanical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Liang, Jun [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou, 730000 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Two ceramic coatings are prepared on 2124 aluminum alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) technology. To explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the MAO coating, cavitation tests were performed by using a rotating-disk test rig. The mass losses, surface morphologies, chemical compositions and the phase constituents of the samples after cavitation tests were examined by using digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the MAO coatings can extend the incubation period of aluminum alloy, and thus enhance the cavitation erosion resistance as compared to the untreated aluminum alloy samples. After duration of 63 h cavitation test, a lot of erosion pits and the particles in various shapes can be observed on the surfaces of the aluminum alloy samples, while only a few erosion pits are observed on the MAO coatings. Moreover, the mean depths of erosion on the MAO coatings are lower in the first 30 h and are independent on erosion time. The results show that the cavitation erosion of MAO coating is governed by water mechanical impaction, resulting from the effects of brittle fracture of the MAO coating.

  19. Cavitation erosion resistance of microarc oxidation coating on aluminium alloy

    Two ceramic coatings are prepared on 2124 aluminum alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO) technology. To explore the cavitation erosion resistance of the MAO coating, cavitation tests were performed by using a rotating-disk test rig. The mass losses, surface morphologies, chemical compositions and the phase constituents of the samples after cavitation tests were examined by using digital balance, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The results indicate that the MAO coatings can extend the incubation period of aluminum alloy, and thus enhance the cavitation erosion resistance as compared to the untreated aluminum alloy samples. After duration of 63 h cavitation test, a lot of erosion pits and the particles in various shapes can be observed on the surfaces of the aluminum alloy samples, while only a few erosion pits are observed on the MAO coatings. Moreover, the mean depths of erosion on the MAO coatings are lower in the first 30 h and are independent on erosion time. The results show that the cavitation erosion of MAO coating is governed by water mechanical impaction, resulting from the effects of brittle fracture of the MAO coating.

  20. Study of thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary liquid alloys of aluminium with the elements iron, cobalt, nickel and oxygen

    The present work deals with the thermodynamic study of aluminium liquid alloys with the metals iron, cobalt and nickel. The experiments carried out lead to the activity, at 1600 deg C, of aluminium in the (Al, Fe), (Al, Co), (Al, Ni) liquid alloys. The experimental method used consists in studying the partition of aluminium between the liquid immiscible phases made up with the pairs of metals (Fe, Ag), (Co, Ag), (Ni, Ag). The informations so obtained are used for drawing the isothermal equilibrium phases diagrams sections of (Al, Fe, Ag), (Al, Co, Ag), (Al, Ni, Ag) systems. The study of the partition of silver between lead and aluminium joined with the determinations of several authors allows us to determine the aluminium activity, analytically presented, in the metal M (iron cobalt and nickel). The Wagner's interaction parameters of aluminium in metal M are determined. The results obtained as the equilibrium phases diagrams of (Al, M) systems allow to compare the thermodynamic properties of the Al Fe system in liquid and solid states and to estimate the enthalpies of melting of the AlCo and AlNi intermetallic compounds. The activity, at 1600 deg C, of aluminium in (Al, Fe, Co), (Al, Fe, Ni), (Al, Co, Ni) liquid alloys is estimated through thermodynamic properties of binary components systems by application of several methods leading to results in good agreement. The study of aluminium-oxygen interactions in the liquid metallic solvants M allows us to propose an explanation for the shape of the deoxidation equilibrium line of iron, cobalt and nickel by aluminium and to compare the de-oxidizing power of aluminium toward iron, cobalt and nickel oxides. (author)

  1. Accelerated growth of oxide film on aluminium alloys under steam: Part I: Effects of alloy chemistry and steam vapour pressure on microstructure

    Din, Rameez Ud; Gudla, Visweswara C.; Jellesen, Morten S.; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium alloys were treated with steam of varying vapour pressures which resulted in the growth of aluminium oxyhydroxide layers of an average thickness of ~450–825 nm. The microstructure and composition of the generated layers were characterised by GD-OES, FEG-SEM, GI-XRD and TEM. The thickness...... structure at the top. The kinetics of formation of film understeamwas rapid; approx. 350nm thick layers were generated within 5 s of steam treatment, however increase in thickness of the oxide retarded further growth. The enrichment or depletion of different alloying elements at the surface of aluminium as...... a result of alkaline etching pre-treatment influenced the thickness and growth of theoxide. Moreover the steam treatment resulted in the partial oxidation of second phase intermetallic particles present in the aluminium alloy microstructure....

  2. Influence of microstructure on work-hardening and ductile fracture of aluminium alloys

    Highlights: • Microstructural effects on work-hardening and fracture of aluminium are studied. • Four alloys with three different processing steps are tested in uniaxial tension. • An experimental–numerical approach is used to determine the work-hardening. • The microstructure has a strong effect on both work-hardening and ductility. • A linear decrease in failure strain with yield stress for the materials is found. - Abstract: The effect of microstructure on the work-hardening and ductile fracture of aluminium alloys was studied using an experimental–numerical approach. Four aluminium alloys with different strength and particle content were tested in uniaxial tension after the following subsequent processing steps: (1) casting and homogenisation, (2) extrusion, and (3) cold rolling followed by heat treatment. The latter processing step was carried out to obtain a recrystallized grain structure with random crystallographic texture. The alloys were two AlFe alloys with different Fe content, one AlMn alloy and one AlMgSi alloy. The grain structure, particle distribution and crystallographic texture were determined for all combinations of alloy and processing route using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Tensile tests were carried out on axisymmetric samples to obtain the true stress–strain curves to failure and the true failure strain of the materials, using a laser-based measuring system. Based on numerical simulations of the tensile tests, the equivalent stress–strain curves were determined to failure, assuming J2 flow theory. The results showed that the microstructure had a marked effect on both work-hardening and ductility, whilst the ductile fracture mechanism remained unchanged. The plastic anisotropy, induced by the extrusion process and not entirely removed by the cold rolling and heat treatment, led to a wide range of fracture modes of the axisymmetric samples. The failure strain was markedly lower for the cast and homogenised material than for the extruded and the cold rolled and recrystallized materials of the same alloy. The failure strain was further found to decrease linearly with the yield stress for similar microstructure

  3. On the friction stir welding of aluminium alloys EN AW 2024-0 and EN AW 5754-H22

    C. Ozarpa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose of this paper is investigate the friction stir welding capability of the EN AW 2024-0 and EN AW 5754-H22 Al alloys are studied, because two aluminium alloys are widely used in the industry and friction stir welding is getting widened to be used to join the aluminium alloys.Design/methodology/approach: Friction stir welding (FSW is a new solid fhase technique invented and patented for aluminium alloys. EN AW 2024-0 and EN AW 5754-H22 are aluminium alloys can be welded by fusion welding, but many welding problems arises from fusion welding. While the friction stir welding is a solid state welding process, some problems may be prevented.Findings: It is found in the course that these two aluminium alloys can be friction stir welded if fhe welding parameters are carefully selected. Hardness value in weld area for EN AW 2024-0, there is an increase about 10-40 Hv. Because of this is recrystalization and getting smaller grains. For EN AW 5754-H22 there is a decrease of hardness value because of recrystalization. Welding performance of EN AW 2024-0 is reached to 96.6 %. This value is 57 % for EN AW 5754-H22. It is possible to perform dissimilar welding using different aluminium alloys. elding performance of dissimilar aluminium alloys EN AW 2024-0 and EN AW 5754-H22 is reached a value of 66.39%.Research limitations/implications: Research limitations are that the design of the welding probe which is used in the experiments is changed, the speed of the welding can be improved. The material of the welding probe can be changed.Originality/value: The aluminium alloys EN AW 2024-0 and EN AW 5754-H22 are widely used ones but the friction stir weldability is not investigated so far. It is found that if the welding parameters are carefully selected, these aluminium alloys can be friction stir welded succesfuly.

  4. Formation of zirconium-based conversion coatings on aluminium and Al–Cu alloys

    Highlights: ► Formation of zirconium-based conversion coatings is investigated on aluminium. ► Copper alloying is shown to reduce the rate of coating growth. ► Copper is shown to promote the formation of corrosion product beneath the coating. ► Compositions of coatings are determined using ion beam analyses. ► Oxidation rates of substrates are determined using sputtering-deposited layers. - Abstract: The influence of copper addition to aluminium on the formation of a zirconium-based conversion coating is investigated using sputtering-deposited substrates. Coatings formed on aluminium are ∼1.5 times the thickness of the aluminium consumed by oxidation, with an O:Zr atomic ratio of ∼2.5. Copper additions reduce the coating growth rate, especially when added in amounts above a few at.%. In contrast, the copper has relatively little effect on the oxidation rate of the substrate. Copper also promotes the formation of a layer of corrosion product beneath the coating and appears to influence the adherence of the coating to the substrate.

  5. Liquid metal corrosion on cladding materials, especially aluminium alloys, for target elements of a spallation neutron source

    Liquid metal corrosion and embrittlement have been investigated under conditions expected for the lead based target element of the spallation neutron source. Emphasis has been put on the reaction between liquid lead aluminium, as well as on the reaction of mercury, one of the spallation products, with the aluminium cladding of the target element. Tensile tests after a pretreatment in liquid mercury show for an AlCuMg alloy a severe decrease of the ductility. For a thin sheet specimen of the Al 6061-T6 alloy a dramatic loss of the ductility was found. Static isothermal corrosion tests show a severe attack of liquid lead on the aluminium alloys. In cyclic loading tests of AlMgSi-alloys in mercury a decrease in cycles to fracture was found at higher stress levels, but the fatigue limit was unaffected. (orig.)

  6. The fatigue response of the aluminium-lithium alloy, 8090

    Birt, M. J.; Beevers, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    The fatigue response of an Al-Li-Cu-Mg-Zr (8090) alloy has been studied at room temperature. The initiation and growth of small and long cracks has been examined at R = 0.1 and at a frequency of 100 Hz. Initiation was observed to occur dominantly at sub-grain boundaries. The growth of the small cracks was crystallographic in character and exhibited little evidence of retardation or arrest at the grain boundaries. The long crack data showed the alloy to have a high resistance to fatigue crack growth with underaging providing the optimum heat treatment for fatigue crack growth resistance. In general, this can be attributed to high levels of crack closure which resulted from the presence of extensive microstructurally related asperities.

  7. Creep properties of 7075 aluminium alloy under intermittent stressing

    AA-7075 aluminum alloys are being extensively used in aircraft structure and also as ultracentrifuge rotors. At times they are subjected to cyclic loading at high temperatures. We have investigated creep phenomena, under constant and intermittent stressing, of flow-turned AA-7075-T6 tubes of 1mm wall thickness using hydraulic pressure at 70 degree, maximum temperature to which a centrifuge rotor is usually subjected in operation. It has been concluded that AA-7075 under intermittent loading has lower creep rate than that at continuous loading due to the precipitation of G.P. Zones at a faster rate. These results are consistent with the theoretical expectations and are also in complete agreement with the observations made by other investigators on similar alloys. Such experiments can easily be used to forecast the life of an ultracentrifuge in uranium enrichment plant. (author)

  8. Dilatometer study of rapidly solidified aluminium-silicon based alloys

    Aluminum-Silicon alloys are sought in a large number of automotive and aerospace applications due to their low coefficient of thermal expansion and high wear resistance. The present study focused on structural transformations as a function of the temperature of rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al100-xSix (x = 12, 22 and 40) alloys. Different structures out of equilibrium have been obtained after casting in sand, graphite and copper moulds and by melt spinning. The retained Si content in supersaturated alpha Al and the precipitation of Si is discussed in the light of the dilatometer studies [1, 2, 3] complemented by metallographic microscopy, XRD and DSC [4] measurements. A Kissinger analysis was used to determine the activation energy for the precipitation of supersaturated Si content.

  9. Dilatometer study of rapidly solidified aluminium-silicon based alloys

    Varga, B [University TRANSILVANIA, B-dul Eroilor nr. 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania); Fazakas, E; Hargitai, H [Inst. for Materials Science and Technology, Bay Z. Foundation, Fehervari ut, 130., H-1116 Budapest (Hungary); Varga, L K, E-mail: varga@szfki.h

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-Silicon alloys are sought in a large number of automotive and aerospace applications due to their low coefficient of thermal expansion and high wear resistance. The present study focused on structural transformations as a function of the temperature of rapidly solidified hypereutectic Al{sub 100-x}Si{sub x} (x = 12, 22 and 40) alloys. Different structures out of equilibrium have been obtained after casting in sand, graphite and copper moulds and by melt spinning. The retained Si content in supersaturated alpha Al and the precipitation of Si is discussed in the light of the dilatometer studies [1, 2, 3] complemented by metallographic microscopy, XRD and DSC [4] measurements. A Kissinger analysis was used to determine the activation energy for the precipitation of supersaturated Si content.

  10. Premature Cracking of Dies for Aluminium Alloy Die-Casting

    Pawłowski B.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dwie identyczne matryce do ciśnieniowego odlewania stopów aluminium zostały przedwcześnie wycofane z eksploatacji z powodu wystąpienia na ich powierzchniach roboczych szeregu równoległych pęknięć. Kierunek propagacji pęknięć pokry w ał się z kierunkiem pasmowości mikrostrukturalnej a samo tworzenie się pęknięć było skutkiem niewłaściwej obróbki cieplnej matryc. Stwierdzono nieprawidłową orientację geometryczną matrycy wrzględem kierunku włókien struktury pierwotnej. Badania przy użyciu skaningowego mikroskopu elektronowego z wykorzystaniem techniki EDS wykazały, że przyczyną powstawania pęknięć matryc była nieprawidłową przeprowadzona obróbki cieplna matryc.

  11. Forming a lever preform made of aluminium alloy 2014

    Bulzak, T.; J. Tomczak; Z. Pater

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental analyses of forge rolling for producing a lever preform made of aluminum alloy 2014. The forge rolling process was performed in an oval-circle rolling system. To verify the technological assumptions made, a comprehensive numerical analysis by finite element method was first performed, followed by experimental tests. The investigation demonstrated a high agreement between the numerical results and those obtained experimentally unde...

  12. Galvanic corrosion of aluminium-copper model alloys

    Idrac, Jonathan; Mankowski, Georges; Thompson, George; Skeldon, Peter; Kihn, Yolande; Blanc, Christine

    2007-01-01

    Galvanic coupling between different ? and ? phase-containing model AlCu alloys, deposited by magnetron sputtering, has revealed that the anodic ? phase did not suffer corrosion and remained in the passive state in sulphate solution. Conversely, sulphate ions induced pitting of the cathodic ? phase. Pitting susceptibility of the cathode increased when the difference between the copper content of the anode and cathode increased. Similar observations were made for all the galvanic couples; furt...

  13. A hybrid aluminium alloy and its zoo of interacting nano-precipitates

    An alloy with aluminium as its base element is heat treated to form a multitude of precipitate phases known from different classes of industrial alloys: Al–Cu(–Mg), Al–Mg–Si–Cu, and Al–Zn–Mg. Nanometer-sized needle-shaped particles define the starting point of the phase nucleation, after which there is a split in the precipitation sequence into six phases of highly diverse compositions and morphologies. There are several unique effects of phases from different alloy systems being present in the same host lattice, of which we concentrate on two: the replacement of Ag by Zn on the Ω interface and the formation of combined plates of the θ′ and C phases. Using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we investigate the formation mechanisms, crystal structures and compositions of the precipitates. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An aluminium alloy composition in-between the 2/6/7xxx systems was investigated. • Six different phases from the three systems coexist in an over-aged state. • All phases with 〈001〉Al coherencies can nucleate on 6xxx needle precipitates. • Modified theta′ and omega interfaces are observed

  14. A hybrid aluminium alloy and its zoo of interacting nano-precipitates

    Wenner, Sigurd, E-mail: sigurd.wenner@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, NTNU, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Marioara, Calin Daniel; Andersen, Sigmund Jarle [Materials and Chemistry, SINTEF, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway); Ervik, Martin; Holmestad, Randi [Department of Physics, NTNU, Høgskoleringen 5, NO-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2015-08-15

    An alloy with aluminium as its base element is heat treated to form a multitude of precipitate phases known from different classes of industrial alloys: Al–Cu(–Mg), Al–Mg–Si–Cu, and Al–Zn–Mg. Nanometer-sized needle-shaped particles define the starting point of the phase nucleation, after which there is a split in the precipitation sequence into six phases of highly diverse compositions and morphologies. There are several unique effects of phases from different alloy systems being present in the same host lattice, of which we concentrate on two: the replacement of Ag by Zn on the Ω interface and the formation of combined plates of the θ′ and C phases. Using atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, we investigate the formation mechanisms, crystal structures and compositions of the precipitates. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • An aluminium alloy composition in-between the 2/6/7xxx systems was investigated. • Six different phases from the three systems coexist in an over-aged state. • All phases with 〈001〉{sub Al} coherencies can nucleate on 6xxx needle precipitates. • Modified theta′ and omega interfaces are observed.

  15. The solidification behavior of dilute aluminium-scandium alloys

    The solidification behavior of dilute Sc containing Al alloys has been investigated. In binary Al-Sc alloys, Sc additions greater than the eutectic composition (0.55 wt%) were found to produce a remarkable refinement in the grain size of aluminum castings, of two orders of magnitude, due to the formation of the primary Al3Sc intermetallic phase during solidification. The refinement in grain size only occurred in hypereutectic compositions and was shown to be far greater than can be achieved by conventional Al grain refiners. Grain refinement by the addition of Sc is accompanied by a change in growth morphology from dendritic, in the large unrefined grains, to fine spherical grains with a divorced eutectic appearing on the grain boundaries in the refined castings. Similar levels of refinement were observed in Al-Sc-Zr and Al-Cu-Sc alloys. In the latter, a change in the segregation behavior of Cu was observed, from a strongly interdendritic segregation pattern to a more homogeneous distribution. The supersaturated Al-Sc solid solution can decompose via a discontinuous precipitation reaction to form coherent rod-like precipitates of the L12 Al3Sc phase

  16. Anodic oxidation and dielectric behaviour of aluminium-niobium alloys

    The anodizing behaviour of sputtering-deposited Al-Nb alloys, containing 21, 31 and 44 at.% niobium, has been examined in 0.1 M ammonium pentaborate electrolyte with interest in the composition and the dielectric properties of the anodic oxides. RBS and TEM revealed amorphous oxides, containing units of Nb2O5 and Al2O3 in proportion to the alloy composition. Xenon marker experiments indicated their growth through migration of the Nb5+, Al3+ and O2- species, with cation transport numbers, in the range 0.31-0.35, and formation ratios, in the range 1.35-1.64 nm V-1, intermediate between those of anodic alumina and anodic niobia. Al3+ ions migrate slightly faster than Nb5+ ions, promoting a thin alumina layer at the film surface, although this layer is penetrated by fingers of the underlying niobium-containing oxide of relatively reduced ionic resistivity. The incorporation of units of Nb2O5 into anodic alumina increases the dielectric constant from about 9 to the range 11-22 for the investigated alloys

  17. A vertical type twin roll caster for an aluminium alloy clad strip

    T. Haga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: of this paper: Twin roll casters that can cast two layers and three layers clad strip of aluminium alloys were invented. One of the purposes of this paper is to report that the two layers and three layers clad strip could be cast by the twin roll caster of this study. The investigation of the characters of these casters and the clad strips was purpose of this paper, too. The connecting at the interface between the strips was most important in the casting of the clad strip. Therefore, the attention was paid on the conditions of the interface. Design/methodology/approach: A vertical type tandem twin roll caster and a twin roll caster equipped with a scraper were designed, assembled and tested. Castings of the two layers clad strip and the three layers clad strip directly from molten metal were tried using these twin roll casters. The connecting strength between strips was investigated by the continuous bending test and the cold rolling. The diffusion and re-melting at the interface was investigated by the SEM-EPMA.Findings: The twin roll casters invented in this study could cast the two layers and three layers clad strips directly from molten metal. These clad strips had clear interface between the strips. This means that the mixing of the two alloys did not occur at the interface. The diffusion of elements of the each strip into another strip did not occur at the interface. The connecting strength was enough to endure the peeling at the interface by continuous bending. The clad ratio could be controlled by the solidification length up to 10:1. Two layers clad strip assembled from Al-Mg alloy strip and another aluminium alloy strip could be cast without defect by the effect of the scraper. The three layers clad strip which base strip had lower melting point than that of the overlay strip could be cast.Practical implications: The three layers clad strip, which base strip is 3003 aluminium alloy and overlay strips are 4045 aluminium alloy, can be used for the brazing sheet of the radiator of the automobile. The twin roll caster of this paper could cast this type of clad strip. The process saving and the energy saving can be attain by the twin roll caster of this paper. The clad ratio between the base strip and the overlay strip was smaller than 10:1. Originality/value: The twin roll casters that could cast two and three layers clad strips were original invention. using the twin roll caster.

  18. Surface formation in direct chill (DC) casting of 6082 aluminium alloys

    Bayat, N.; Carlberg, T.

    2016-03-01

    Surface defects in aluminium billet production are a real problem for the subsequent extrusion procedure. Extrusion productivity can be influenced by the surface properties, which is defined as surface appearance, surface segregation zone depth and large Mg2Si and β-particles (Al5FeSi). In this research the surface formation during DC casting of 6082 aluminium billets produced by the air slip technology is studied. The surface microstructures of 6082 aluminium alloys with smooth and wavy surface appearances were investigated, including segregation zone depths and phase formation. The results were discussed based on the exudation of liquid metal through the mushy zone. The specific appearance of the wavy surface of 6082 alloys was correlated to how the oxide skin adheres to the underlying mushy zone and coupled to the dendritic coherency and surface tension of the skin. The occurrence of different phases at the very surface and in the layer just below was explained by variations in solidification directions and subsequent segregation patterns.

  19. Gating System Design for Casting thin Aluminium Alloy (Al-Si Plates

    Victor ANJO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main problems caused by improper gating are entrained aluminium oxide films, cuts and washes, low casting yield and entrapped gas. This study describes the design of a gating system to produce thin Aluminium cast alloy plates of different sizes and thicknesses of 4mm, 6mm, 8mm, and 10mm using the non-pressurized gating with ratio of 1:4:4 and green sand moulding technique. The gating design was based on the laws of fluid mechanics and empirical rules of gating for non ferrous metals. The equipments used for this experiment includes; a coal fired crucible furnace and an X-Ray machine. Materials used include; silica sand, clay, wood, glue and Aluminium alloy scraps. The experimental procedure involved: the gating design calculations, construction of wooden pattern and gating; using the wooden pattern and gating to produce the mould cavities and gating; melting, melt treatment and pouring of melt in the sand mould to produce the casting. The plate castings after removal from mould were visually examined for surface defects and after fettling and cleaning X-Ray radiography was used to find the internal soundness of the castings. From the results obtained in the experiment, it was found that there were no internal defects and quality castings were produced.

  20. Use of Waste Flyash in Fabrication of Aluminium Alloy Matrix Composite

    Ajit Kumar Senapati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Waste flyash from two different industries (named as type A and type B were utilized as reinforcement in fabricating aluminium alloy based matrix composites (AMC. The AMCs were fabricated by continuous stir-casting method in a bottom pouring furnace at 7000C. Casting was made in rectangular metal mould having dimension 250x20x45 mm3. Effect of adding different flyash contents were realized thorough various mechanical behaviour tests. For measuring mechanical properties such as Brinell hardness, impact strength, compression strength, tensile strength, and micro hardness of both the AMCs, samples were prepared as per the standards in the mechanical workshop. The flyash distributions in the AMCs were confirmed through microstructure examination conducted on image analyzer and scanning electron micrographs. Results revealed that there is a great effect of reinforcing different flyash in aluminium alloy matrix composites. Type B flyash gave more enhanced mechanical properties compared to type A flyash. Thus, selection of flyash for reinforcement was found one of the most important criteria for fabricating aluminium matrix composites.

  1. Study on optimal surface property of WC-Co cutting tool for aluminium alloy cutting

    Nizar, Mohd; Arimatsu, Naoya; Kawamitsu, Hiroshi; Takai, Kazuteru; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    The light weight property as well as high corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy has increased their demand especially in automobile industries. Aluminium alloy as a matter of fact has a low melting point and high ductility that severely adhere to the cutting tool surface and cause deterioration of chip evacuation. This problem often resulting in tools breakage. In this paper, in order to impart functions of anti-adhesion, we propose a technique by controlling the grinding marks micro texture on the tool surface by using the blast polishing treatment without any coating technologies. The results show that the tool which underwent polishing treatment reduces the cutting force as well as the aluminium adherence during the initial cutting process, and become worst as the process cutting continues. These results indicate that grinding mark texture improves the anti-adhesion by reducing the contact area during cutting and provide storage for the lubricant. In addition, too much polishing on the tool surface may remove these textures and resultantly worsen the tool performance.

  2. Effect of pulsed current welding on fatigue behaviour of high strength aluminium alloy joints

    High strength aluminium alloys (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys) have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of light weight structures requiring high strength-to weight ratio, such as transportable bridge girders, military vehicles, road tankers and railway transport systems. The preferred welding processes of high strength aluminium alloy are frequently gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process due to their comparatively easier applicability and better economy. Weld fusion zones typically exhibit coarse columnar grains because of the prevailing thermal conditions during weld metal solidification. This often results inferior weld mechanical properties and poor resistance to hot cracking. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to refine the fusion zone grains by applying pulsed current welding technique. Rolled plates of 6 mm thickness have been used as the base material for preparing single pass welded joints. Single V butt joint configuration has been prepared for joining the plates. The filler metal used for joining the plates is AA 5356 (Al-5Mg (wt%)) grade aluminium alloy. Four different welding techniques have been used to fabricate the joints and they are: (i) continuous current GTAW (CCGTAW), (ii) pulsed current GTAW (PCGTAW), (iii) continuous current GMAW (CCGMAW) and (iv) pulsed current GMAW (PCGMAW) processes. Argon (99.99% pure) has been used as the shielding gas. Fatigue properties of the welded joints have been evaluated by conducting fatigue test using rotary bending fatigue testing machine. Current pulsing leads to relatively finer and more equi-axed grain structure in gas tungsten arc (GTA) and gas metal arc (GMA) welds. In contrast, conventional continuous current welding resulted in predominantly columnar grain structures. Grain refinement is accompanied by an increase in fatigue life and endurance limit

  3. Tensile behavior of dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys

    The heat treatable aluminium alloy AA2024 is used extensively in the aircraft industry because of its high strength to weight ratio and good ductility. The non-heat treatable aluminium alloy AA5083 possesses medium strength and high ductility and used typically in structural applications, marine, and automotive industries. When compared to fusion welding processes, friction stir welding (FSW) process is an emerging solid state joining process which is best suitable for joining these alloys. The friction stir welding parameters such as tool pin profile, tool rotational speed, welding speed, and tool axial force influence the mechanical properties of the FS welded joints significantly. Dissimilar FS welded joints are fabricated using five different tool pin profiles. Central composite design with four parameters, five levels, and 31 runs is used to conduct the experiments and response surface method (RSM) is employed to develop the model. Mathematical regression models are developed to predict the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and tensile elongation (TE) of the dissimilar friction stir welded joints of aluminium alloys 2024-T6 and 5083-H321, and they are validated. The effects of the above process parameters and tool pin profile on tensile strength and tensile elongation of dissimilar friction stir welded joints are analysed in detail. Joints fabricated using Tapered Hexagon tool pin profile have the highest tensile strength and tensile elongation, whereas the Straight Cylinder tool pin profile have the lowest tensile strength and tensile elongation. The results are useful to have a better understanding of the effects of process parameters, to fabricate the joints with desired tensile properties, and to automate the FS welding process.

  4. Structural stability of the high-aluminium zinc alloys modified with Ti addition

    W.K. Krajewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is structural stability of the Zn-26 wt.% Al binary alloys doped with 2.2 wt.% Cu or 1.6 wt.% Ti addition. The structural stability of Zn-Al alloys with increased Al content is connected with stability of solid solution of zinc in aluminium ?', which is the main component of these alloys microstructure. Such a solution undergoes phase transformations which are accompanied, among others, by changes in dimensions and strength properties.The structural stability of the ZnAL26Cu2.2 and ZnAl26Ti1.6 alloys was investigated using XRD examinations during long term natural ageing after casting, as well as during long term natural ageing after super-saturation and quenching. On the basis of the performed examinations it was stated that small Ti addition to the binary ZnAl25 alloy, apart from structure refinement, accelerates decomposition of the primary ?' phase giving stable structure in a shorter period of time in comparison with the alloy without Ti addition. Addition of Ti in amount of 1.6 wt.%, totally replacing Cu, allows obtaining stable structure and dimensions and allows avoiding structural instability caused by the metastable ??CuZn4phase present in the ZnAl26Cu2.2 alloy.

  5. The study of iron carbon and aluminium magnesium alloys by internal friction at medium frequency

    Automatic internal friction measuring devices, their manufacture, and use in studying iron carbon and aluminium magnesium alloys are described. A brief review of the theory of internal friction in metals is given. A comparative study of various mechanical and electronic measuring devices is made. A flexing apparatus and a torsion balance, both permitting automatic measurements, are presented. Dilute carbon iron alloys were studied. The reorientation of the carbon and the precipitation kinetics were studied as a function of the purity-of the iron, the quenching rate and the ageing temperature. The results are interpreted in terms of the theories of Wert and Zener and then those of Damask, Danielson and Dienes. A systematic study was made of internal friction in Al Mg alloys at various frequencies with different magnesium contents, thermal treatments, and deformations. (author)

  6. The microstructure and precipitation kinetics of a cast aluminium alloy

    Ovono, D. Ovono [Laboratoire Roberval, University of Technology of Compiegne, 60205 Compiegne (France)]. E-mail: delavand.ovono-ovono@utc.fr; Guillot, I. [Centre d' Etudes de Chimie Metallurgie, UPR2801 CNRS, 94407 Vitry-sur-Seine (France); Massinon, D. [Fonderie Montupet, 60181 Nogent-sur-Oise (France)

    2006-08-15

    The microstructure of a cast Al-Si-Cu alloy was studied quantitatively in detail by a combination of differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, scanning tunnelling microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The kinetics of coarsening can be described by the classical ripening theory. The plot of the rate constant of coarsening and the temperature follows an Arrhenius behaviour with an activation energy of about 140.4 kJ/mol{sup -1}, which is approximately the activation energy for diffusion of Cu and/or Si in Al, indicating diffusion-controlled precipitate growth.

  7. Forming a lever preform made of aluminium alloy 2014

    T. Bulzak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical and experimental analyses of forge rolling for producing a lever preform made of aluminum alloy 2014. The forge rolling process was performed in an oval-circle rolling system. To verify the technological assumptions made, a comprehensive numerical analysis by finite element method was first performed, followed by experimental tests. The investigation demonstrated a high agreement between the numerical results and those obtained experimentally under real conditions. The numerical simulations allowed the determination of the distributions of strains, temperatures and normalized Cockcroft-Latham ductile fracture criterion.

  8. Contribution to the study of helium precipitation in an aluminium-lithium alloy

    In order to determine the swelling mechanisms we have studied the behaviour of helium in aluminium using transmission electron microscopy. The helium was introduced into the aluminium by irradiation of Al-Li6 alloys containing small amounts of lithium. The influence of various factors on the nucleation and the swelling of the bubbles has been studied, they are: - the helium concentration - the temperature - the number and the distribution of crystal defects in the metal. We have shown furthermore that the precipitation of rare-gas bubbles could in certain cases prevent the recrystallization of the metal as a result of a mechanism depending on the anchoring of the dislocations and grain boundaries by the bubbles. (authors)

  9. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H2O, and then in boiling water) and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    Reis, A. C.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price.

  11. Finite Element Analysis of Warpage in Laminated Aluminium Alloy Plates for Machining of Primary Aeronautic Parts

    The aim of this paper consists in presenting a method of simulating the warpage in 7xxx series aluminium alloy plates. To perform this simulation finite element software MSC.Patran and MSC.Marc were used. Another result of this analysis will be the influence on material residual stresses induced on the raw material during the rolling process upon the warpage of primary aeronautic parts, fabricated through machining (milling) at Embraer. The method used to determinate the aluminium plate residual stress was Layer Removal Test. The numerical algorithm Modified Flavenot Method was used to convert layer removal and beam deflection in stress level. With such information about the level and profile of residual stresses become possible, during the step that anticipate the manufacturing to incorporate these values in the finite-element approach for modelling warpage parts. Based on that warpage parameter surely the products are manufactured with low relative vulnerability propitiating competitiveness and price

  12. Fabrication of self-healing super-hydrophobic surfaces on aluminium alloy substrates

    Yang Wang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a method to fabricate a super-hydrophobic surface with a self-healing ability on an aluminium alloy substrate. The coatings are obtained by combining a two-step process (first, the substrate is immersed in a solution of HCl, HF and H2O, and then in boiling water and succeeding surface fluorination with a solution of poly(vinylidene-fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene and a fluoroalkyl silane. The morphological features and chemical composition were studied by scanning electron micrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The prepared super-hydrophobic aluminium surfaces showed hierarchical structures forming pores, petals and particles with a contact angle of 161° and a sliding angle of 3°.

  13. Determination of lattice orientation in aluminium alloy grains by low energy gallium ion-channelling

    Silk, Jonathan R. [Aerospace Metal Composites Ltd., RAE Road, Farnborough, GU14 6XE (United Kingdom); Dashwood, Richard J. [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chater, Richard J., E-mail: r.chater@imperial.ac.u [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Polished sections of a fine-grained aluminium, silicon carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy were prepared by sputtering using a low energy gallium ion source and column (FIB). The MMC had been processed by high temperature extrusion. Images of the polished surface were recorded using the ion-induced secondary electron emission. The metal matrix grains were distinguished by gallium ion-channelling contrast from the silicon carbide component. The variation of the contrast from the aluminium grains with tilt angle can be recorded and used to determine lattice orientation with the contrast from the silicon carbide (SiC) component as a reference. This method is rapid and suits site-specific investigations where classical methods of sample preparation fail.

  14. Determination of lattice orientation in aluminium alloy grains by low energy gallium ion-channelling

    Polished sections of a fine-grained aluminium, silicon carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy were prepared by sputtering using a low energy gallium ion source and column (FIB). The MMC had been processed by high temperature extrusion. Images of the polished surface were recorded using the ion-induced secondary electron emission. The metal matrix grains were distinguished by gallium ion-channelling contrast from the silicon carbide component. The variation of the contrast from the aluminium grains with tilt angle can be recorded and used to determine lattice orientation with the contrast from the silicon carbide (SiC) component as a reference. This method is rapid and suits site-specific investigations where classical methods of sample preparation fail.

  15. Boron doping of silicon using co-alloying with aluminium

    Loelgen, P.; Sinke, W.C.; Leguijt, C.; Weeber, A.W. (ECN Renewable Energy, Petten (Netherlands)); Alkemade, P.F.A. (Delft Institute for Microelectronics and Submicron Technology DIMES, Delft (Netherlands)); Verhoef, L.A. (R and S Renewable Energy Systems, Helmond (Netherlands))

    1994-10-01

    We present a new technique for boron (B) doping of silicon. In this paper we show that a B doping profile of more than 2 [mu]m thickness with a maximum active doping concentration of 3 x 10[sup 19] cm[sup -3] can be formed by a fast (<1 min) alloying process at a temperature of 850C. Thick-film aluminum is used to obtain an alloying and epitaxial regrowth process in accordance with the Al-Si phase diagram. The atomic concentration profile of the B and Al doped Si layer was determined by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. The active doping concentration was measured with an automatic electrochemical capacitance/voltage profiler. By the addition of B to the Al paste, the epitaxially regrown layer is doped with B and Al to the solid solubility of these elements in Si at the particular regrowth temperature. The applicability of this fast low temperature B doping process in Si solar cell processing is discussed. 2 figs., 10 refs.

  16. Electrochemical characteristics of a carbon fibre composite and the associated galvanic effects with aluminium alloys

    Liu, Z., E-mail: zuojia.liu@gmail.com; Curioni, M.; Jamshidi, P.; Walker, A.; Prengnell, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Skeldon, P.

    2014-09-30

    Highlights: • Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation in NaCl electrolyte. • The exposed carbon fibres on the side and front regions are responsible for a high cathodic current density. • The NaCl + CuSO{sub 4} electrolyte was used to investigate the cathodic polarization behaviour of the exposed carbon fibres. • Galvanic coupling behaviour between the composite and aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was measured in NaCl electrolyte. • The higher galvanic current density measured on AA1050 alloy introduced a higher dissolution rate than the AA7075-T6 alloy. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy matrix composite in 3.5% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl + 0.5 M CuSO{sub 4} electrolytes was examined by potentiodynamic polarisation, potentiostatic polarisation and scanning electron microscopy. Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (“front” and “side”) are a focus of the investigation. The large size of the exposed carbon fibres on the side region is responsible for a higher cathodic current density than the front region in the NaCl electrolyte. The deposition of copper on the front surface of composite confirmed that the significantly higher cathodic current resulted from the exposure of the fibres to the NaCl electrolyte. Galvanic coupling between the composite and individual aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was used to measure galvanic potentials and galvanic current densities. The highly alloyed AA7075-T6 alloy and its high population density of cathodic sites compared to the AA1050 acted to reduce the galvanic effect when coupled to the composite front or side regions.

  17. Electrochemical characteristics of a carbon fibre composite and the associated galvanic effects with aluminium alloys

    Highlights: Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (front and side) are a focus of the investigation in NaCl electrolyte. The exposed carbon fibres on the side and front regions are responsible for a high cathodic current density. The NaCl + CuSO4 electrolyte was used to investigate the cathodic polarization behaviour of the exposed carbon fibres. Galvanic coupling behaviour between the composite and aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was measured in NaCl electrolyte. The higher galvanic current density measured on AA1050 alloy introduced a higher dissolution rate than the AA7075-T6 alloy. - Abstract: The electrochemical behaviour of a carbon fibre reinforced epoxy matrix composite in 3.5% NaCl and 3.5% NaCl + 0.5 M CuSO4 electrolytes was examined by potentiodynamic polarisation, potentiostatic polarisation and scanning electron microscopy. Exposed carbon fibres on two defined regions (front and side) are a focus of the investigation. The large size of the exposed carbon fibres on the side region is responsible for a higher cathodic current density than the front region in the NaCl electrolyte. The deposition of copper on the front surface of composite confirmed that the significantly higher cathodic current resulted from the exposure of the fibres to the NaCl electrolyte. Galvanic coupling between the composite and individual aluminium alloys (AA7075-T6 and AA1050) was used to measure galvanic potentials and galvanic current densities. The highly alloyed AA7075-T6 alloy and its high population density of cathodic sites compared to the AA1050 acted to reduce the galvanic effect when coupled to the composite front or side regions

  18. The influence of artificial ageing on the corrosion behaviour of a 2050 aluminium--copper--lithium alloy

    Proton, Vincent; Alexis, Joël; Andrieu, Eric; Delfosse, Jérôme; Deschamps, Alexis; De Geuser, Frédéric; Lafont, Marie-Christine; Blanc, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The influence of artificial ageing on the corrosion behaviour of the recently developed 2050 Al–Cu–Li aluminium alloy in chloride-containing solutions was studied. Corrosion tests showed that artificial ageing changed the corrosion morphology of the alloy from intergranular to intragranular and decreased the corrosion potential of the alloy. Transmission electron microscopy observations combined with small-angle X-ray scattering measurements were used to establish a link between the distribut...

  19. Monitoring precipitation kinetics in heat treatable aluminium alloys using in-situ resistivity in Gleeble thermomechanical simulator

    Chobaut, Nicolas; Carron, Denis; Drezet, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    A conventional way to determine precipitation kinetics in heat treatable aluminium alloys is to monitor the associated solute loss by in-situ resistivity. A Gleeble machine is used to perform so called isothermal quenching (IQ) resistivity measurements. IQ consists in quenching the alloy down to a given temperature and holding it at this temperature. The results are validated against measurements performed with a classical four-points method using continuous current on the same alloy.

  20. Thermal capacity of A5 N aluminium and its alloys with silicon, copper and rare - earth metals

    Present article is devoted to thermal capacity of A5 N aluminium and its alloys with silicon, copper and rare - earth metals. The experimental studies of specific heat and heat - transfer coefficient of A5 N aluminum and its alloys with silicon, copper and rare-earth metals was conducted. It is revealed that process cooling of aluminum and its alloys has relaxational character. (author)

  1. Precipitation and plasticity couplings in a 7xxx aluminium alloy: application to thermomechanical treatments for distortion correction of aerospace component

    Fribourg, Guillaume

    2009-01-01

    7xxx aluminium alloys are high strength alloys mainly used for aerospace applications due to their high specific mechanical properties. Manufacturing these age-hardenable alloys involves complex thermomechanical treatments that develop the precipitation microstructure responsible for the mechanical properties. Undesirable long-range internal stresses are also produced during these treatments, and may induce severe distortions in the final products. Different thermomechanical processes: shot p...

  2. Corrosion Characteristics and Kinetics of Zircaloys and Aluminium Alloys

    Corrosion rate characterization of cladding materials has been done by dynamic method. The materials are zircaloy-2,zircaloy-4,AIMg2,and AIMgSi.The zircaloy alloys are characterized in the electrolytes of boric ion,iodide ion,lithium ion and cesium ion with a pH variation.The aluminum alloys are characterized in the cooling water of RSG-GAS reactor in different temperatures and Ph values .The results, show that corrosion product of iodine on zircaloy is not passivated, meanwhile the corrosion product of cesium undergoes passivation. However, the deposited substance in the surface of the specimens as indicated using WDX-SEM shows the same deposition rate.it is concluded therefore that iodine is diffused into the materials without getting resistance from the deposited substances on the surface. The effect of pH to corrosion rate of iodine on the zircaloy fluctuates meanwhile the cesium has the minimum corrosion rate at pH 7.5 At the concentration of 0.1 gram/1,cesium ion is more reactive than iodine but at higher concentration the reactivity becomes competitive . Furthermore , the interaction between zircaloy and boric ion at concentration of 300 ppm and lithium ion at 10 ppm shows an outstanding corrosion rate, i.e. 0.1 mpy. if both substances are mixed then the corrosion rate decreases drastically in the order of 10-2 mpy.The reason of such a decrease may be due to the formation of complexes of boron lithium on the electrode surface. The arrhenius activation energies for such reaction have been found to be 37629.322 joule/mole 0K for Al Mg2 and 41609.822 joule /mole 0K for AIMgSi ,respectively. This underlies the argument that AI Mg2 is more reactive than AI Mg Si besides , AI Mg2 is more reactive under acid condition meanwhile AI Mg Si more reactive under basic condition. Both alloys over come the minimum corrosion rate at the pH in between 4.7 to 7.5 and the level of the corrosion rate in the pH interval was outstanding

  3. Enhancement of wear and ballistic resistance of armour grade AA7075 aluminium alloy using friction stir processing

    I. Sudhakar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial applications of aluminium and its alloys are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Thermal spraying, laser surfacing, electron beam welding are the most widely used techniques to alter the surface morphology of base metal. Preliminary studies reveal that the coating and layering of aluminium alloys with ceramic particles enhance the ballistic resistance. Furthermore, among aluminium alloys, 7075 aluminium alloy exhibits high strength which can be compared to that of steels and has profound applications in the designing of lightweight fortification structures and integrated protection systems. Having limitations such as poor bond integrity, formation of detrimental phases and interfacial reaction between reinforcement and substrate using fusion route to deposit hard particles paves the way to adopt friction stir processing for fabricating surface composites using different sizes of boron carbide particles as reinforcement on armour grade 7075 aluminium alloy as matrix in the present investigation. Wear and ballistic tests were carried out to assess the performance of friction stir processed AA7075 alloy. Significant improvement in wear resistance of friction stir processed surface composites is attributed to the change in wear mechanism from abrasion to adhesion. It has also been observed that the surface metal matrix composites have shown better ballistic resistance compared to the substrate AA7075 alloy. Addition of solid lubricant MoS2 has reduced the depth of penetration of the projectile to half that of base metal AA7075 alloy. For the first time, the friction stir processing technique was successfully used to improve the wear and ballistic resistances of armour grade high strength AA7075 alloy.

  4. Microstructure refinement of commercial 7xxx aluminium alloys solidified by the electromagnetic vibration technique

    Li, M.; Tamura, T.; Omura, N.; Murakami, Y.; Tada, S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper examines the microstructure refinement of commercial 7xxx aluminium alloys solidified by the electromagnetic vibration technique (EMV) as a function of vibration frequency, f. The microstructure evolution reveals that at the low frequency of f = 62.5 Hz, the solidified microstructure is coarse and with the increase of vibration frequency to f = 500 Hz, the grain size becomes the finest and further increase of frequency to f = 2000 Hz results in coarsening of microstructures. The refinement mechanism is clarified when considering the significant difference in electrical resistivities of the solid and the liquid in mushy zone, in which both phases coexist and subject to vibration. The frequency-dependent refinement behaviour is revealed when the displacement of the mobile solid and sluggish liquid is taken into account during solidification. In contrast to 3xxx aluminium alloys, no giant compounds have been discerned in the present 7xxx alloy regardless of the solidification condition. The formation of crystalline twin is briefly discussed when considering the vibration condition.

  5. Evolution of texture and its influence on the failure of components in some aluminium alloys

    Narayanan Parameswaran, Ramesh; Satyam, Suwas; Parmeshwar Prasad, Sinha; Srinivasa, Ranganathan

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the evolution of crystallographic texture in three of the most important high strength aluminium alloys, viz., AA2219, AA7075 and AFNOR7020 in the cold rolled and artificially aged condition. Bulk texture results were obtained by plotting pole figures from X-ray diffraction results followed by Orientation Distribution Function (ODF) analysis and micro-textures were measured using EBSD. The results indicate that the deformation texture components Cu, Bs and S, which were also present in the starting materials, strengthen with increase in amount of deformation. On the other hand, recrystallization texture components Goss and Cube weaken. The Bs component is stronger in the deformation texture. This is attributed to the shear banding. In-service applications indicate that the as-processed AFNOR7020 alloy fails more frequently compared to the other high strength Al alloys used in the aerospace industry. Detailed study of deformation texture revealed that strong Brass (Bs) component could be associated to shear banding, which in turn could explain the frequent failures in AFNOR7020 alloy. The alloying elements in this alloy that could possibly influence the stacking fault energy of the material could be accounted for the strong Bs component in the texture.

  6. Determination of Homogenisation Parameter for Extrusion of Locally Produced Aluminium Alloys 6060

    Aluminium billet 6060 as a raw materials of extrusion industry has been produced and used locally in Indonesia. In order to determinate the homogenization parameter suitable for this local billet, microstructure characterization of this alloys is required. Microstructure characterization of the alloy have been done using metallography technique including measurement of the Mg2Si solvus and solidus temperatures using differential thermal analyzer (DTA). The results show that the Mg2Si and AlFeSi phases dominate the microstructure of the as-cast alloys. The Mg2Si solvus and solidus of the alloy are found around 540 oC and 605 oC, respectively. The conductivity measurement indicates that increasing the soaking time to 3 hours reduces the conductivity, meaning the number of alloying elements going into solid solution increases. The parameter of homogenization for extrusion of this alloy was decided to be = 595 oC/3 hour air cooling at which the transformation of β -AlFSi to α-ALFeSi ha taken place. (author)

  7. Selection of welding process to fabricate butt joints of high strength aluminium alloys using analytic hierarchic process

    Selection of welding process is an unstructured decision problem involving multiple attributes (factors). To provide decision support for the welding or design engineer, an all encompassing analysis of multiple attributes is necessary. The present paper reports a new procedure using an analytic hierarchic process (AHP) for the selection of a welding process to fabricate butt joints of high strength aluminium alloy of AA 7075 grade, based on the qualitative factors of welding processes, when the quantitative factors appear to be equal. The following three welding processes from arc welding family are generally used to fabricate high strength aluminium alloys: (i) gas metal arc welding (GMAW) (ii) gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), and (iii) plasma arc welding (PAW). Of the three available processes, the best process has been selected by doing qualitative analysis with the help of AHP and in the present case, for welding high strength aluminium alloy, the best process is GTAW

  8. Oxidation behavior of FeCr and FeCrY alloys coated with an aluminium based paint

    Marina Fuser Pillis

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A variety of metallic components rely on properties that are specific to the alloy and its surface. Coatings have been extensively used to protect metallic surfaces from the aggressive effects of the environment to which it is exposed. In this investigation, the high temperature oxidation behavior of a FeCr and a FeCrY alloy coated with an aluminium based paint has been studied. The objective was to form the more resistant alumina surface layer on an aluminium free alloy. Aluminium based paint coated and uncoated specimens of the two alloys were oxidized for up to 200 hours at 1000 C in air. The oxidized specimens were examined in a scanning electron microscope coupled to an energy dispersive system and the surfaces were analyzed by X ray diffraction analysis. The aluminium based paint coating increased the oxidation resistance of the alloys, mainly over extended periods. The FeCrY alloy coated with the Al based paint exhibited the highest oxidation resistance.

  9. CFD modelling of DC casting of aluminium alloys

    Casting and solidification of metals is a process in which transport phenomena as heat flow, mass flow and fluid flow are highly coupled. The major drive for casting modelling is to improve the insight how process parameters affect casting performance and a major part of current solidification modelling applications is used for the prevention of casting defects. Solidification modelling activities are dope at nearly all the size scales for the physical processes involved: nucleation, dendrite tip growth, liquid metal flow through a mushy semi-solid dendritic network, etc.. In this paper we will concentrate on the coupled fluid flow effects during DC casting. Compositional differences over the whole cross-section of an ingot, defined as macrosegregation, can have a significant impact on the properties of the finished product, in particular for strong alloy applications. There are several hypotheses possible to explain macrosegregation, although they all have in common the attributed effect of fluid flow. A reliable calculation of macrosegregation during the casting of alloys depends on the accurate modelling of the associated physical mechanisms. Besides that the particular microsegregation model (Scheil, lever-rule) is of importance, the relative movement of the liquid and solid phase inside the mushy zone controls the amount of macrosegregation. In solving the solute concentration equation, the accuracy of the velocity field is thus of great concern. From the literature on computational fluid dynamics, we also know that in high Peclet number flows, the incorrect treatment of the convection terms causes numerical diffusion, which can completely overshadow the actual physical diffusion. Throughout the history of CFD, a great number of differencing schemes for the convection term have been proposed in order to reduce the numerical diffusion. In the current research several of these schemes are examined on their ability to correctly predict macrosegregation in the DC casting of an Al-4.5 wt% Cu alloy. The occurrence of oxides in the form of films and inclusions can give major problems during aluminum casting and processing. Inclusions and films move together with the main flow in the metal distribution system and can cause problems when trapped in the solidifying aluminum. The level of oxides and inclusions in standard DC casting practices is controlled with the use of in-line filter boxes and degassing units. However, during the transfer from these metal treatment systems to the casting station pick up of inclusions and oxides can occur. In our simulations we try to assess quantitatively some of the upstream fluid flow effects in relation to the filling behavior of the DC mould cavity and the number of inclusions trapped in the launder system. Placing baffles in the launder therefore modifies the fluid flow. The location of these baffles is an important parameter in modifying the fluid flow behavior. Both the controlled filling of the mould as well as entrapment of inclusions can be achieved. Results of numerical simulations of fluid flow with discrete particles of different mass and distribution are given. The results show that relatively subtle changes in the flow control can change the flow of inclusions drastically. Refs. 2 (author)

  10. Direct chill and electromagnetic casting of aluminium alloys: Thermomechanical effects and solidification aspects

    Drezet, Jean-Marie

    2000-01-01

    The tolerances of semi-continuously cast products of aluminium alloys are very critical if the scalping of the ingot faces is to be minimised before rolling. In the steady state regime of casting, the dimensions of the section of the solidified ingot are lower than those of the mould in the Direct Chill Casting (DCC) or of the inductor in the Electromagnetic Casting (EMC). The contraction of the section, several percents, is larger than the value associated with the thermal contraction of the...

  11. SOLIDIFICATION CHARACTERISTIC OF TITANIUM CARBIDE PARTICULATE REINFORCED ALUMINIUM ALLOY MATRIX COMPOSITES

    N. FATCHURROHMAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research solidification characteristic of metal matrix composites consisted of titanium carbide particulate reinforced aluminium-11.8% silicon alloy matrix is performed. Vortex mixing and permanent casting method are used as the manufacturing method to produce the specimens. Temperature measurements during the casting process are captured and solidification graphs are plotted to represent the solidification characteristic. The results show, as volume fraction of particulate reinforcement is increased, solidification time is faster. Particulate reinforcement promotes rapid solidification which will support finer grain size of the casting specimen. Hardness test is performed and confirmed that hardness number increased as more particulate are added to the system.

  12. Effect of Welding Parameters on Metallurgical Properties of Friction Stir Welded Aluminium Alloy 6063-O

    Balachandar, K.; A. Varun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The effect of process parameters on metallurgical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy 6063-O was analysed in the present study. Samples were friction stir welded under tool rotational speed of 600, 800 and 1200 rpm and traversing speed of 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 mm sec-1, with an axial load of 8000 kg constant for all trials and the process parameters were optimized by using Taguchi orthogonal array. Optical microstructure analysis were carried out to define the metallurgical properti...

  13. Parametric study of friction stir spot welding of aluminium alloy 5754

    D. Klobčar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a parametric analysis of friction stir spot welding (FSSW of aluminium alloy 5754 in a lap joint. Experimental plan was done according to the response surface methodology (RSM, where tool rotation speed varied between 988 and 3511 rpm, plunge rate between 24,4 and 150 mm/min and dwell time between 1 and 3,5s. The plunge depth was held constant at 0,4 mm. The welds were tensile-shear tested and the microstructure was analysed. Mathematical models describing the relationship between welding parameters and spot strength, axial force and rotational moment were developed and the optimal FSSW parameters were found.

  14. Parametric study of friction stir spot welding of aluminium alloy 5754

    Klobčar, D.; Tušek, J.; Skumavc, A.; A. Smolej

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a parametric analysis of friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of aluminium alloy 5754 in a lap joint. Experimental plan was done according to the response surface methodology (RSM), where tool rotation speed varied between 988 and 3511 rpm, plunge rate between 24,4 and 150 mm/min and dwell time between 1 and 3,5s. The plunge depth was held constant at 0,4 mm. The welds were tensile-shear tested and the microstructure was analysed. Mathematical models describing the relationshi...

  15. Extraction-chromatographic determination of rare earths in alloys on the base of aluminium, containing scandium

    Extraction-chromatographic behaviour of rare earths, scandium and aluminium has been studied in extraction systems of tributylphosphate - HNO3 and di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid - HCl with the aim to choose the conditions of their separation. The chemical yield of scandium and terbium determined by the method of labelled atoms was for scandium of 90+-3% and for terbium of 88+-2%. The yield of rare earths lighter than terbium was less than 80%. While analyzing alloys containing yttrium, terbium or heavier rare earths, tributylphosphate should be used as extragent, and in case of rare earths lighter than terbium di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid should be used

  16. Strength evaluation of aluminium alloy bolt by nano-indentation hardness test

    A high strength aluminium alloy bolt (A7050, T7 temper treatment) has been developed by the authors. The bolt has a small grain size in the whole area of the bolt because of the large equivalent strain followed by thermo-mechanical treatment. As the bolt made of A7050 has a risk of stress corrosion cracking, to improve the stress corrosion cracking resistance, each grain should be strengthened inside. It has been confirmed that the nano-indentation at each grain inside increased with the increase of the equivalent strain by thermo-mechanical treatment processing (Authors)

  17. Influence of boron impurity in aluminium alloy construction material at criticality of RB reactor

    Evaluations of criticality benchmark cores of RB reactor are prepared in 1999-2001 for the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project. It was shown that the greatest contribution to uncertainty of the calculations and experimental data for criticality arose from uncertainty of contents of boron impurity in Yugoslav produced aluminium alloy (YuAl) of reactor construction material. Study of that particular issue was carried out in recent years and the results are shown in this paper with recommendation that new value for boron concentration in the YuAl material composition has to be used in criticality calculation, based on results of experimental and calculation evaluations. (author)

  18. A comparative assessment of crystallite size and lattice strain in differently cast A356 aluminium alloy

    Mishra, S. K.; Roy, H.; Lohar, A. K.; Samanta, S. K.; Tiwari, S.; Dutta, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this investigation, A356 aluminium alloy has been prepared by different routes viz. gravity casting, rheo pressure die casting (RPDC) and RPDC with T6 heat treatment. X-ray diffraction studies of these samples have been done in the scanning range of 20 - 90. X-ray peak broadening analysis has been used to estimate the crystallite size and lattice stain, in all the samples. The sample prepared by RPDC with T6 treatment has comparatively smaller crystallite size and lesser lattice strain than gravity cast and RPDC samples.

  19. Study of quality of nine aluminium alloys surfaces created using abrasive waterjet

    Klichová, Dagmar; Klich, Jiří; Gurková, Lucie

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ČR, v.v.i, 2015 - (Sitek, L.; Klichová, D.), s. 113-122 ISBN 978-80-86407-56-2. [Vodní paprsek 2015 - výzkum, vývoj, aplikace. Velké Losiny (CZ), 06.10.2015-08.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : surface roughness * abrasive waterjet * aluminium alloy Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools

  20. Some of the properties of plutonium and the aluminium-plutonium alloy

    1- Study of the physical properties of plutonium. 1) Study of the allotropy of plutonium. a) Thermal analysis: the apparatus used and the measurement technique are briefly described. The transition point temperatures and the corresponding heats of transformation have been determined. Finally, the results of the particular study of certain transition points are given. b) Dilatometry. The dilatometric analysis of the phase changes of plutonium has been carried out by means of the Chevenard dilatometer with photographic recording. The testing conditions (heating and cooling speeds, isotherm plateaux) have been varied in order to determine accurately the characteristics of each transition, particularly the ? ? ? transition on cooling. 2) Micrography of plutonium. For the accurate preparation of metallographic samples the electrolytic polishing must be rapid, which implies a mechanical polishing of excellent quality. Information is given on new attacking reagents which show the structure of the metal very clearly. 2- Study of aluminium-plutonium alloys. Comparative study of Al-Pu and Al-U alloys rich in aluminium. a) Thermal analysis. The liquids and fusion temperatures of the eutectic Al-XAl4, have been accurately determined. From the measurement of the heats of fusion the exact composition of the eutectic alloy has been determined. b) Thermal treatments. The eutectic coalescence kinetics have been studied by a micrographic method and by following the evolution of hardness. The results obtained show that the phenomenon is more rapid in Al-Pu alloys than in Al-U alloys. c) Micrographic study of the transition XAl3 ? XAl4. The peritectic reaction XAl3 + liq. ? XAl4 has been suppressed by quenching. The transformation of the XAl3 phase to the solid phase has been studied as well as the effect of small additions of silicon on the kinetics of this reaction. (author)

  1. Microstructure and properties of FSW joints of 2017A/6013 aluminium alloys sheets

    K. Mroczka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the studies was to analyse the structure and mechanical properties of FSW joints. Experiment were perform in order to study possibilities to join different aluminium alloys 2017A and 6013. The alloys differ one from the other with respect to chemical composition and mechanical properties especially, therefore the ability to perform the correct joints may be useful for special constructions.Design/methodology/approach: The joints were produced applying different parameters and temperatures. The microstructure was studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes. The mechanical properties are discussed with regard to microhardness profiles on the cross-sections of the joints.Findings: No cracks were found in the joints. Weld nuggets were formed in the 2017A alloy which was located on the advancing side during welding. Mixing process of the materials within the joints was observed as a formation of separate regions of the materials being joined. The hardness profiles showed sudden changes of hardness what correlates with structure observations. In the vicinity of the weld nugget higher dislocation density was observed. Lowering the temperature of sheets and welding with intensive cooling caused a decrease in size of the weld nugget.Research limitations/implications: In the further studies, tensile and bending tests are planned. Moreover, an attempt of explaining the influence of precipitates at the regions boundaries on the fracture process.Practical implications: Good quality of the joints can be stated on the basis of structure analysis. The chosen parameters of welding can be considered as proper ones.Originality/value: Comparison of the welding of the alloys2017A and 6013 are not common. The results of studies and conclusions presented in the paper are consecutive data complementing knowledge on FSW of the aluminium alloys. The applied welding parameters ensure good quality of joints with respect to the technology.

  2. Grain refinement efficiency of a new oxide-containing master alloy for aluminium casting alloys

    Sreekumar, VM; Babu, NH; Eskin, DG; Fan, ZY

    2014-01-01

    In this study, grain refinement efficiency of a new oxide master alloy based on MgAl2O4 was demonstrated on an A357 alloy. The grain size of the reference alloy was reduced by 50-60% with the addition of the master alloy and introduction of ultrasonic cavitation. A higher addition of master alloy was found to be not benificial in further reducing the grain size.

  3. The effects of temperature on the kinetics of aluminium evaporation from the Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    G. Siwiec; Mizera, J.; D. Jama; A. Szmal; Burdzik, R.

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, results of the study on temperature effects on the rate of aluminium evaporation from the Ti-6Al-4V alloy during smelting in a vacuum induction furnace are presented. During smelting at 1 973 – 2 023 K, 10 Pa and 100 Pa, up to 26 % reduction in the aluminium content in the alloy compared to the initial value is observed. The determined values of overall mass transport coefficient are 1,48∙10-5 m∙s sup>-1 – 1,95∙10 sup>-5m∙s sup>-1.

  4. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment...... with solution containing HNO3 caused dissolution of Cu and Si from the intermetallic particles in the aluminium substrate. The growth rate of oxide layer was observed to be a function of MnO4−and NO3−ions present in the aqueous solution. The NO3−ions exhibit higher affinity towards the intermetallic...... particles resulting in poor coverage by the steam generated oxide layer compared to the coating formed using MnO4−ions. Further, increase in the concentration of NO3−ions in the solution retards precipitation of the steam generated aluminium hydroxide layer....

  5. Preparation of aluminium-magnesium alloys and some valuable salts from used beverage cans.

    Rabah, Mahmoud A

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to recover standard aluminium-magnesium alloy(s) and some valuable salts from used beverage cans (UBCs). The suggested method updated the current recycling technology by augmenting removal of the coating paint, decreasing magnesium loss during melting process and improving hydrochloric acid leaching of the formed slag. Iron impurity present in the leaching solution, was removed by oxidation using oxygen gas or hydrogen peroxide and filtered as goethite. Results obtained revealed that a mixture of methyl ethyl ketone/dimethyl formamide entirely removes the paint coating at room temperature. The process compares favorably to the current methods involving firing or swell peeling. The coating decomposes to titanium dioxide by heating at 750 degrees C for 30 min. Standard compositions of Al-Mg alloys are formulated using secondary magnesium. The extent of recovery (R) of these alloy(s) is a function of the melting time and temperature and type of the flux. The maximum (R) value amounts to 94.4%. Sodium borate/chloride mix decreases magnesium loss to a minimum. The extent of leaching valuable salts from the slag increases with increasing the molarity, stoichiometric ratio and leaching temperature of the acid used. Removal of iron is a function of the potential of the oxidation process. Stannous chloride has been recovered from the recovered and dried salts by distillation at 700-750 degrees C. PMID:12623092

  6. B2-ordered iron-aluminium alloys strengthening. Influence of additions (Ni and B) and microstructure

    We study the effects of additions (Ni and B) and microstructure on the mechanical behaviour of 40 at. % Al iron-aluminium alloys. From a macroscopic point of view, we show that nickel reinforces FeAl alloys over the whole temperature range, but that it simultaneously leads to emphasize the room temperature brittleness of these alloys through a cleavage stress decrease. We confirm powder metallurgy grain refining interest to enhance yield stress as well as fracture resistance. We show that nickel-induced yield stress effect is additive to 'Hall-Petch' one. Also, we point out that the strengthening phenomena (nickel or grain size) cause the yield stress anomaly, which these alloys usually present, to be hidden. Through a dislocation structures analysis of deformed materials we precise that low temperature nickel-induced solid solution hardening (SSH) cannot be explained on the basis of classical SSH theories but more probably through nickel influence upon the Peierls stress. Moreover, we show that the APB tubes dragging model may be compatible with our microscopic and macroscopic results about the anomaly. Eventually, we put into relation a dynamic super-dislocations multiplication process observation (in situ transmission microscopy) with the nickel-containing alloys tendency to cleavage. (author)

  7. Application of emission spectrometer for analyses of alloying elements of aluminium alloy AlMgSi-1

    Analyses of trace elements (Si, Mn, Cu, Ti, Ni, Cr, Mg) in aluminium alloy AlMgSi-1 were carried out using Emission Spectrometer (OES) in accordance with ASTM testing methods. The analyses were performed after the instrument was calibrated by measuring a number of aluminium standards at various concentrations. The calibration curves obtained depicted the correlation between standard concentration versus intensity. From the evaluation of calibration curves using the least square method, data on linear working range, linear equation, regression coefficient and detection limit were obtained. The results showed satisfactory precision between the linear equation and the measurement data, indicated by the fact that the regression coefficient values (0.997 up to 0.999) were within the required working area (0.96). The measurement precision and accuracy were acquired from the measurement of standard materials, repeated 7 times, in which the concentrations were found to be in the linearity range. Chi square test at 95% confidence level showed that measurement precision was within the acceptable limit, whereas the measurement accuracy determined by comparing measurement results with referenced values was about 95% - 99.97%. Using the calibrated instrument, analyses on AlMgSi-1 alloyed samples were conducted. Most elements could be detected qualitatively. Among the quantitatively measured elements Si, Mn, Ti, Ni, Cr and Mg, only the concentration of Cr element could be determined accurately. (author)

  8. Comparison of corrosion behaviour of friction stir processed and laser melted AA 2219 aluminium alloy

    Highlights: → Poor corrosion resistance of AA 2219 can be improved by surface treatments. → FSP and LM leads to dissolution of second phase particles. → No literature available on comparison of corrosion behaviour after FSP and LM. → The study implies FSP is as good as LM in improving the corrosion resistance of AA 2219. -- Abstract: Dissolution of second phase particles (CuAl2) present in AA 2219 aluminium improves the corrosion resistance of the alloy. Two surface treatment techniques, viz., solid state friction stir processing and fusion based laser melting lead to the reduction in CuAl2 content and the effect of these processes on the corrosion behaviour of the alloy is compared in this study. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were carried out to compare corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance achieved by friction stir processing is comparable to that obtained by the laser melting technique.

  9. Effect of heat treatment on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion aluminium alloy

    Khamis, E. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Chemistry); El-Gamal, M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Material Science); El-Toukhy, A. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Material Science); Atea, M. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Material Science)

    1994-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the inhibition of acid corrosion of duralumin has been studied using gasometry, mass loss measurements and potentiodynamic technique. All the data reveal that the duralumin generally developed good corrosion resistance after heat treatment and the corrosion rate ranked as follows: Non treated > Naturally aged > quenched. This improvement in the corrosion resistance was attributed to the structural homogeneity of the heat-treated alloys. The presence of some selected aryl and alkyl triazoline derivatives at the threshold concentration of 5 x 10[sup -3] M indicate that these compounds retard the corrosion rate of duralumin and the extent of inhibition depends on the molecular structure of the inhibitors. Polarization curves show that the triazoline compounds act as mixed-type inhibitors affecting both the cathodic and anodic processes. Moreover, there is no noticeable difference in the degree by which the triazoline derivatives inhibit the corrosion of pure aluminium and heat treated duralumin alloy. (orig.)

  10. Triazole and thiazole derivatives as corrosion inhibitors for AA2024 aluminium alloy

    The 1,2,4-triazole, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, benzotriazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole were evaluated in the present work as corrosion inhibitors for protection of the 2024 aluminium alloy in neutral chloride solutions. The corrosion protection performance was investigated by means of DC polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the evolution of the Volta potential distribution and the surface topography during corrosion tests. The results show that all inhibitors under study confer corrosion protection to the AA2024 alloy forming a thin organic layer on the substrate surface. Benzotriazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole offer better corrosion protection in comparison with the other two. The inhibitors studied act decreasing the rate of both the anodic and cathodic processes. In the latter case the dealloying of the copper-reach particles is hindered, slowing down the oxygen reduction

  11. Corrosion protection of Mg/Al alloys by thermal sprayed aluminium coatings

    The protective features of thermal sprayed Al-coatings applied on AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D magnesium/aluminium alloys were evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution by electrochemical and gravimetric measurements. The changes in the morphology and corrosion behaviour of the Al-coatings induced by a cold-pressing post-treatment were also examined. The specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and low-angle X-ray diffraction. The as-sprayed Al-coatings revealed a high degree of porosity and poor corrosion protection, which resulted in galvanic acceleration of the corrosion of the magnesium substrates. The application of a cold-pressing post-treatment produced more compact Al-coatings with better bonding at the substrate/coating interface and higher corrosion resistance regardless of the nature of the magnesium alloy.

  12. The inhibition effect of mad Honey on corrosion of 2007-type aluminium alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution

    Husnu, Gerengi; Haydar, Goksu; Pawel, Slepski.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of mad honey on corrosion of 2007-type aluminium alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution was investigated by Tafel extrapolarisation (TP), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and dynamic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (DEIS). All the studied parameters exhibited good anti- [...] corrosive properties against corrosion of 2007-type aluminium alloy in the test solution; the corrosion rates decreased with the increase of the mad honey concentration. The surface morphology of the alloy was examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. The inhibitory adsorption processes of mad honey on the 2007-type aluminium alloy surfaces conformed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

  13. Microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system.

    Yang, S S; Lin, J Y; Lin, Y T

    1998-09-01

    To investigate the microbiologically induced corrosion of aluminum alloys in fuel-oil/aqueous system, aluminum alloys A356, AA 5052, AA 5083 and AA 6061 were chosen as the test alloys and Cladosporium and several fuel-oil contaminated microbes isolated in Taiwan were used as test organisms. Aluminum alloy AA 5083 in fuel-oil/aqueous system was the most susceptible material for microbial corrosion, then followed by aluminum alloys AA 5052 and A356, and AA 6061 was more resistant to microbial aggression. Mixed culture had high capability of corrosion, then followed by Penicillium sp. AM-F5, Fusarium sp. AM-F1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa AM-B5, Ps. fluorescens AM-B9, C. resinae ATCC 22712, Penicillium sp. AM-F2, Candida sp. AM-Y1 and Ps. aeruginosa AM-B11. From energy dispersive spectrometer analysis, aluminum and magnesium contents decreased in the corrosion area, while chlorine and sulfur contents increased. The major organic acid produced in fuel-oil/aqueous system was acetic acid, and the total organic acids content had a positive correlation with the degree of microbial corrosion. PMID:10496152

  14. Effect of the temperature and the chlorine pressure, over the aluminium chlorides obtained by direct chlorination of the 6061 alloy

    The aluminium chloride is synthesized by direct chlorination of aluminium, in agreement with the following reaction: Al(s) + 3/2 Cl2 AlCl3 (s,g).The present work focuses on the preparation of aluminium chlorides by two methods: (a) Chlorination of 6061 aluminium alloy with gaseous chlorine in sealed containers, filled with different pressures of gas, from 0.8 to 74 Kpa and in the range of temperature between 2000 and 5000C.(b) Chlorination of the same alloy in chlorine flow between 1500 and 4000C.In the sealed systems, the hexahydrated aluminium trichloride predominated over the anhydrous form. For pressures lower than 14 Kpa and temperatures under 2500C, the chloride didn't appear.The residues were rich in aluminium, chlorine and magnesium.In the other systems, the anhydrous chloride was found in the areas of the reactor of temperatures above 1000C, for all the thermal treatments. The waste was composed by CrCl3 and AlCl3.6H2O.The influence of the chlorine pressures and the heating temperature over the characteristics of the product, was studied.The characterization techniques were x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the evolution of the structure was followed by scanning electron microscopy

  15. Deep surface rolling for fatigue life enhancement of laser clad aircraft aluminium alloy

    Highlights: • Deep surface rolling as a post-repair enhancement technology was applied to the laser cladded 7075-T651 aluminium alloy specimens that simulated corrosion damage blend-out repair. • The residual stresses induced by the deep surface rolling process were measured. • The deep surface rolling process can introduce deep and high magnitude compressive residual stresses beyond the laser clad and substrate interface. • Spectrum fatigue test showed the fatigue life was significantly increased by deep surface rolling. - Abstract: Deep surface rolling can introduce deep compressive residual stresses into the surface of aircraft metallic structure to extend its fatigue life. To develop cost-effective aircraft structural repair technologies such as laser cladding, deep surface rolling was considered as an advanced post-repair surface enhancement technology. In this study, aluminium alloy 7075-T651 specimens with a blend-out region were first repaired using laser cladding technology. The surface of the laser cladding region was then treated by deep surface rolling. Fatigue testing was subsequently conducted for the laser clad, deep surface rolled and post-heat treated laser clad specimens. It was found that deep surface rolling can significantly improve the fatigue life in comparison with the laser clad baseline repair. In addition, three dimensional residual stresses were measured using neutron diffraction techniques. The results demonstrate that beneficial compressive residual stresses induced by deep surface rolling can reach considerable depths (more than 1.0 mm) below the laser clad surface

  16. Investigating the Acid Failure of Aluminium Alloy in 2 M Hydrochloric Acid Using Vernonia amygdalina

    Olugbenga A. Omotosho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The acid failure of aluminium alloy in 2 M hydrochloric acid solution in the presence of Vernonia amygdalina extract was investigated using gasometric technique. Aluminium alloy coupons of dimension 4 cm by 1 cm were immersed in test solutions of free acid and also those containing extract volumes of 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm3 at ambient temperature for 30 minutes. The volumes of hydrogen gas evolved as a result of the rate of reaction were recorded and analyzed. Analysis revealed that maximum inhibitor efficiency which corresponds to the lowest corrosion rate was obtained at optimum inhibitor volumes of 5 cm3, with reduction in the corrosion rate observed to follow in order of increasing extract volumes. Adsorption study revealed that Temkin isotherm best described the metal surface interaction with the extract phytochemicals, with 12 minutes becoming the best exposure time for the phytochemicals to adsorb to the metal surface at all volumes. Statistical modelling of the corrosion rate yielded an important relationship suitable for estimating corrosion rate values once volumes of the extract is known. Microstructural studies, showed an indirect relationship between crack growth rates and extract volumes, while consistency of the irregular intermetallic phases increases with increasing extract volumes.

  17. Different Cold Spray Deposition Strategies: Single- and Multi-layers to Repair Aluminium Alloy Components

    Rech, Silvano; Trentin, Andrea; Vezzù, Simone; Vedelago, Enrico; Legoux, Jean-Gabriel; Irissou, Eric

    2014-12-01

    Cold spraying is increasingly being used for reconstruction or repair of damaged aluminium alloy components, especially in the aviation industry. Both thin (<0.5 mm) and thick (up to 1 cm) coatings are necessary to achieve dimensional recovery of such components. Thin and above all thick coatings can be deposited in a single pass (single layer) or in several passes (multi-pass), resulting in different thermal and stress effects in the component and the coating itself. The thermal input, the amount and type of residual stresses and the porosity affect various characteristics such as adhesion, crack propagation and mechanical properties of the coating. In this study, two sets (single- and multi-pass) of aluminium alloy (AA6061) coatings with different thicknesses (0.5 mm to 2 mm) were deposited onto AA6061 substrates and compared using metallographic and fractographic analyses, four-point bending testing, residual stress analysis and Vickers microhardness indentation. Finally, the coating adhesion and cohesion were measured using the standard ASTM-C633 adhesion test and tubular coating tensile test. This study demonstrates that the single-layer strategy results in greater adhesion and lower porosity, while multilayer coatings have higher elastic modulus. Independent of the strategy, the compressive residual stress decreases as a function of coating thickness.

  18. Study on corrosion of LT-21 aluminium alloy samples hung in reactor

    The corrosion performance of LT-21 aluminium alloy samples hung in HWRR (heavy water research reactor) is studied. Heavy water quality in reactor has been maintained according to water quality standards, in which [Cl-]?0.1 x 10-6, [Cu2+]?0.05 x 10-6. Temperature of the heavy water is 5?90 degree C. The flow velocity is 0.06 ms-1. Heavy water was covered by helium. Exposure time of the samples, which were divided in five batches, hung in HWRR are about 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 a, respectively. Neutron fluence of the samples are 0.94 x 1021, 1.42 x 1021, 1.96 x 1021, 2.68 x 1021, 3.21 x 1021 ncm-2, respectively. General corrosion rate of LT-21 aluminium alloy?1 ?ma-1. Pitting corrosion was slight. The values of oxide film thickness on sample surface for five batches are 3.1, 5.7, 5.5, 10.0, 12.5, respectively

  19. The dispersion mechanism of TiB2 ceramic phase in molten aluminium and its alloys

    Titanium diboride (TiB2) ceramic particulates are dispersed in molten aluminium and its alloys for grain refining and for making cast metal-matrix composites. For producing cast MMC, the dispersion of the ceramic phase via in-situ aluminothermic reduction of K2TiF6 and KBF4 flux mixture with molten aluminium and, via the addition of exogenously formed TiB2 with the fluoride flux has been studied at 900C. In this article, the aspects of interfacial energy that govern the dispersion and agglomeration of TiB2 particulates are examined. The Gibbs-adsorption interface equation is particularly employed to define and to quantify the change in the surface energy as a function of the alloying element concentration and, consequently the effect of interfacial energy on the nucleation rate of TiB2 formed via metallothermic reduction reaction and the size of the ceramic phase is also explained. (Copyright (c) 1997 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Deep surface rolling for fatigue life enhancement of laser clad aircraft aluminium alloy

    Zhuang, W., E-mail: wyman.zhuang@dsto.defence.gov.au [Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer Street, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207 (Australia); Liu, Q.; Djugum, R.; Sharp, P.K. [Aerospace Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, 506 Lorimer Street, Fishermans Bend, Victoria 3207 (Australia); Paradowska, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW 2232 (Australia)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: Deep surface rolling as a post-repair enhancement technology was applied to the laser cladded 7075-T651 aluminium alloy specimens that simulated corrosion damage blend-out repair. The residual stresses induced by the deep surface rolling process were measured. The deep surface rolling process can introduce deep and high magnitude compressive residual stresses beyond the laser clad and substrate interface. Spectrum fatigue test showed the fatigue life was significantly increased by deep surface rolling. - Abstract: Deep surface rolling can introduce deep compressive residual stresses into the surface of aircraft metallic structure to extend its fatigue life. To develop cost-effective aircraft structural repair technologies such as laser cladding, deep surface rolling was considered as an advanced post-repair surface enhancement technology. In this study, aluminium alloy 7075-T651 specimens with a blend-out region were first repaired using laser cladding technology. The surface of the laser cladding region was then treated by deep surface rolling. Fatigue testing was subsequently conducted for the laser clad, deep surface rolled and post-heat treated laser clad specimens. It was found that deep surface rolling can significantly improve the fatigue life in comparison with the laser clad baseline repair. In addition, three dimensional residual stresses were measured using neutron diffraction techniques. The results demonstrate that beneficial compressive residual stresses induced by deep surface rolling can reach considerable depths (more than 1.0 mm) below the laser clad surface.

  1. Optimisation of the rivet joints of the CFRP composite material and aluminium alloy

    A. Czulak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The project included analysis of strain, cracking, and failure of riveted joints of plate elements madefrom the carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP and from the 6061 aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The modelled static tensile strength test carried out for the plates from CFRPand from the 6061 aluminium alloy joined with the steel rivet. Computer simulation was carried out with IDEASsoftware package employing the FEM.Findings: Simulations using the mesh with a bigger number of FEM elements do not yield better accuracy ofcalculations and do not improve convergence with the results of laboratory experiments. Only the calculationtime gets longer. Computer simulation has also show that the type of contacts employed between elementsaffects the results significantly.Research limitations/implications: For the composite materials, joints between materials and computersimulation examinations are planed.Practical implications: Results obtained for the mesh with 4 and 5 FEM elements are the closest to the resultsof laboratory experiments, which is confirmed by the strain plot. Simulations using the mesh with a biggernumber of FEM elements do not yield better accuracy of calculations and do not improve convergence with theresults of laboratory experiments. Only the calculation time gets longer. Computer simulation has show that thetype of contacts employed between elements affects the results significantly.Originality/value: The paper presents influence of fibre mesh closeness on convergence of the results with laboratorytests. Simulation results were collected and compared with the laboratory static tensile strength tests results.

  2. Casting and irradiation damage studies of 8001 series of Aluminium alloys for nuclear research reactor structural applications

    Application of materials in nuclear science and technology is one of the most important difficulties in nuclear industry because in these applications not only good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of materials should be considered but also the behavior of these structural materials under nuclear irradiation and degradation in their crystalline structure and hence change in final properties of materials are important. Investigation of the effect of nuclear radiation on metals and alloys used in nuclear industry made it possible to select the best materials for these applications and these days with more progress in nuclear industry more complicated research work have been undertaken. To perform experimental research to determine the nature and the extent of radiation damage in mechanical properties of alloys such as yield point, increase in shattering and reduction in ductility as well as reduction in toughness and impact resistance are the first step to evaluate the mechanical stability and effectiveness of alloys in nuclear reactor applications. With respect to their mechanical properties specification as well as resistance against corrosion Aluminium and its alloys have many applications in nuclear technologies. For fuel cladding, structural alloys for channels, pipes and reactor storage in service conditions with up to 200 deg C temperature aluminium alloys have many applications. In this research work casting of 8001 series aluminium alloys and thermomechanical treatment, preparation of standard tension test specimen and neutron irradiation with different doses and finally different mechanical testing to investigate the effects of radiation damage have been carried out and the results have presented

  3. Structure and mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy AMg6 after severe plastic deformation and annealing: 2. Mechanical properties

    The peculiarities of the mechanical behavior at the room temperature of the AMg6 industrial aluminium alloy with submicro- and microcrystalline structures, obtained through intensive plastic deformation (IPD) by the equichannel angular pressing and subsequent annealing, are considered. The effect of the structural state on the discontinuous fluidity and characteristics of the alloy static strength, including crack resistance, is analyzed. The conclusion is made, that IPD of the AMg6 alloy increased its tensile properties at the room temperature. The obtained data, however, present no basis for the conclusion on the IPD favorable effect on the alloy plasticity

  4. Microstructure, mechanical and corrosion behavior of high strength AA7075 aluminium alloy friction stir welds – Effect of post weld heat treatment

    P. Vijaya Kumar; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2015-01-01

    High strength aluminium alloy AA7075 (Al–Zn–Mg–Cu) is a precipitate hardenable alloy widely used in the aerospace, defense, marine and automobile industries. Use of the heat treatable aluminium alloys in all these sectors is ever-increasing owing to their excellent strength-to-weight ratio and reasonably good corrosion resistance. The shortage in corrosion resistance, however, usually poses negative concern about their reliability and lifetime when they service in the variable marine environm...

  5. Development of basket for transport/storage cask using square tube made of aluminium alloy containing neutron absorbing materials

    The basket of transport/storage cask must have a structural strength at any temperature expected during storage and transport condition, and must satisfy each function of sub-criticality and heat removal. It is also preferable to increase the number of fuel assemblies in the cask and to reduce the manufacturing cost. The use of aluminium alloy for the basket is preferable because of its high thermal conductivity in order to improve heat removal. Aluminium alloy is lightweight and it is more effective to improve the capacity. The conventional design of aluminium basket had a combination of square tubes, which have structural strength and heat removal function, and the neutron absorption material with high concentration of boron. The developed basket has square tube shape containing neutron absorption materials that has both functions of heat removal and sub-criticality. It is an effective way to improve the storage capacity of fuel assemblies and it is also easy to be assembled

  6. Effects of cobalt, aluminium and potassium-boron additions on the performance of titanium based alloy electrodes

    In this paper, we report the study on the effects of cobalt, aluminium, and potassium-boron additions on the performance of titanium based hydrogen storage alloy electrodes. (1) The cycle life of Ti2Ni electrodes increases significantly with cobalt addition. Charge/discharge cycle life measurements show that the specific capacity of Ti2Ni electrodes increases with cobalt addition, reaches a maximum at a cobalt content of 0.67 at. % (Ti2Ni0.98Co0.02), and then falls with further addition. (2) The cycle life of Ti2Ni electrodes greatly increases with increasing addition of aluminium. The specific capacity of the electrode severely decreases with increasing aluminium content. (3) Addition of potassium-boron to Ti2Ni hydrogen storage alloy is effective in increasing the specific capacity and the charge/discharge cycle life of the electrode

  7. Positron annihilation spectroscopy as a tool to develop self healing in aluminium alloys

    Positron lifetime and Doppler broadening spectroscopy have been applied to probe the free volume generation (vacancies, dislocations and nano-cracks) during plastic deformation of a commercial aluminium AA2024 (T3) alloy. Aim of the total program is to study how solute atoms can be driven to the areas where initial cracking may occur in order to prevent the failure of the specimen. The phenomenon of closing the nano-crack is called Self Healing, and can provide extra strength and ductility to the alloy under some loading conditions. Plastic deformation of over-aged aluminum alloy at room temperature increases the average positron lifetime from initial value of 190 ps to 203 ps. The low momentum parameter S increases in agreement with the increase of open volume defects. The elastic deformation of the sample does not have a recordable effect on the positron annihilation data. It is also shown that the induced damage does not recover after loading the sample, i.e. the AA2024 in the T3 state is non self healing material, as expected, providing important first state result in the research of self healing Al alloys. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Combined Kelvin probe force microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry for hydrogen detection in corroded 2024 aluminium alloy

    Larignon, Céline; Alexis, Joël; Andrieu, Eric; Lacroix, Loïc; Odemer, Grégory; Blanc, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The capability of Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM) to detect and locate hydrogen in corroded 2024 aluminium alloy was demonstrated. Hydrogen was introduced inside the 2024 alloy following a cyclic corrosion test consisting of cycles of immersion in 1 M NaCl solution followed by exposure to air at -20 °C. The combination of scanning electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and KFM demonstrated that the grain and subgrain boundaries were preferential pathways for the short-circui...

  9. Loss of aluminium during the process of Ti-Al-V alloy smelting in a vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace

    Blacha, L.; G. Siwiec; B. Oleksiak

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper, results of the study on changes in basic Ti-6Al-4V alloy component contents during smelting in the vacuum induction melting (VIM) furnace are presented. The experiments were performed at 5 – 1 000 Pa and 1 973–2 023 K. Assuming that the observed loss of aluminium from the alloy during smelting is the effect of evaporation, an additional thermodynamic analysis was performed aimed at determining evaporation coefficients.

  10. Influence of Tool Pin Profile on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded 6351 Aluminium Alloy

    N Srujana; O Umadevi; G.Venkateswarlu

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to study the effect of five tool pin profiles, namely straight, cylindrical, taper cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, square and triangular on the mechanical properties and microstructure of friction stir welded aluminium AA6351 alloy. The defect free FSW butt joints were produced on the alloy sheet at a constant rotational speed 900 rpm and traverse speed of 65mm/ min with different tool profiles. The results indicate that the triangular tool produced m...

  11. Loss of aluminium during the process of Ti-Al-V alloy smelting in a vacuum induction melting (VIM furnace

    L. Blacha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, results of the study on changes in basic Ti-6Al-4V alloy component contents during smelting in the vacuum induction melting (VIM furnace are presented. The experiments were performed at 5 – 1 000 Pa and 1 973–2 023 K. Assuming that the observed loss of aluminium from the alloy during smelting is the effect of evaporation, an additional thermodynamic analysis was performed aimed at determining evaporation coefficients.

  12. The effect of strain rate on the microstructure of 2519A aluminium alloy plate impacted at 573 K

    The effect of strain rate on the microstructure of 2519A aluminium alloy plate impacted at 573 K was characterized by optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Adiabatic shear lines, arc-like shearing bands and DRX grains due to the concentrated stress and heat were observed in impacted aluminum alloy plate. Highly regular dislocation networks due to dislocation climb and irregular dislocation networks pinned by the coarsened precipitates were obtained with the increasing strain rate.

  13. The effect of heat treatment on hardness and drye wear properties of a semisolid processed aluminium alloy

    Menargues Muoz, Sergi; Campillo Betbese, Manel; Baile Puig, Maria Teresa; Picas Barrachina, Josep Anton; Forn Alonso, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Semisolid AlSiMg casting alloys are attractive alternatives for automotive and aeronautical applications. In this work the effects of heat treatments on hardness and tribological properties of A356 aluminium alloy obtained by Sub-Liquidus Casting (SLC) were studied. The optimum heat treatment conditions, in which the material presents the maximum hardening and wear resistance values, were determined. Heat treatment conditions investigated included: A356 SLC as cast, T5 and T6. Furthermore, AC...

  14. DETERMINATION OF RATIONAL COMPOSITION AND CONCENTRATION OF SUPERFINE ALUMINIUM MODIFIER FOR MODIFYING OF THE ALLOY AK18 STRUCTURE

    V. Ju. Stetsenko; A. P Gutev

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that for reaching of maximal effect of mo­ difying of alloy AK18 structure it is necessary to use super­ fine aluminium modifier AlSi12Sb15Ti5 in the quantity of 0,1% of melt mass or AlSb5Ti3 at the quantity of 0,5%.

  15. Experimental and numerical analysis of in- and out- of plane constraint effects on fracture parameters: Aluminium alloy 2024

    Seitl, Stanislav; Hutař, Pavel; García, T.; Canteli, A.

    7 2013, č. 7 (2013), s. 53-64. ISSN 1802-680X Grant ostatní: Interní podpora AV ČR(CZ) M100411204 Keywords : LELM * stress intensity tensor * constraint * aluminium alloy * plane strain * plane stress Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  16. Alloy Designation, Processing, and Use of AA6XXX Series Aluminium Alloys

    Prantik Mukhopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    The strength-to-weight ratio offered by AA6XXX alloys and their enhanced mechanical properties have become crucial criteria for their use in light weight military vehicles, rockets, missiles, aircrafts, and cars, used for both defence and civil purpose. The focus of this review paper is to put together the latest knowledge available from various sources on alloy design, industrial processing, development of properties, and potential use of AA6XXX alloys. The direct chill (DC) cast AA6XXX wrou...

  17. Wear Behaviour of Zinc-Aluminium Alloys and the Bearings Produced from these Alloys

    SAVA?KAN, Temel; Gena?a PREK

    2000-01-01

    In this study, two ternary zinc-aluminum-copper and two quaternary zinc-aluminum-copper-silicon alloys were produced by permanent mould casting. The wear behaviour of these alloys were investigated with a pin-on-disc machine The wear behaviour of the journal bearings produced from these alloys was investigated with a bearing test rig. The wear resistance of zinc-aluminum based alloys was found to be higher than that of CuSn12 bronze. ?n addition, the bearings produced from the zinc-...

  18. Corrosion mechanisms of the AlFeNi aluminium alloy by water up to 250 deg

    Full text of publication follows: The AlFeNi aluminium alloy (1%Fe, 1%Ni, 1%Mg) will be used as nuclear fuel cladding in the Jules Horowitz research reactor. A better understanding of the corrosion mechanisms of this alloy in water is necessary to predict correctly the corrosion rate and the oxide thickness on the fuel plates. Corrosion tests in water at an average pH of 6.9 were hence performed on this alloy in static conditions at 70, 165 and 250 C, and in dynamic conditions at 70 C. The hydroxide film obtained on the samples corroded in autoclaves or at the slow flow rates is composed of two main layers: a dense and amorphous inner layer which grows by anionic diffusion and a porous crystalline outer layer which develops by cationic diffusion followed by a dissolution-precipitation process. The ratio of the amorphous oxide thickness to the corroded metal thickness decreases with corrosion time, thus indicating an increasing density of the amorphous oxide. Consequently, the diffusion through the inner oxide layer decreases drastically with corrosion time. The inner oxide thickness evolution is well described by a cationic diffusion model, with an apparent cationic diffusion coefficient decreasing exponentially with time. A comparison of the corrosion scales obtained in water and in vapour at 250 C showed that in the vapour, the outer precipitation oxide layer does not develop, and the inner oxide thickness is much lower. These results suggest that the anionic diffusion which controls the corrosion rate at the metal interface is coupled with the cationic diffusion and dissolution rate. The hydraulic conditions play therefore a dominant role in the corrosion rate. During dynamic experiments in once-through reactors at 70 C, the cationic release in the leaching water was measured at different times. Two leaching flow rates were used: 100 and 200 ml/h. After the first 3 hours, the aluminium and magnesium release follow a parabolic evolution, characteristic of a diffusion mechanism of these species. Because the magnesium does not precipitate in the outer oxide layer, its concentration in the water is much higher than that of the aluminium, and it is considered as a good tracer for the dissolution. It is shown that at 70 C, the apparent magnesium diffusion coefficient through the amorphous oxide increases with the flow rate. This apparent effect seems to be related to the flow rate dependence of the magnesium concentration at the water interface; indeed the cationic flux is proportional to the concentration gradient through the oxide scale

  19. Selected properties of the aluminium alloy base composites reinforced with intermetallic particles

    M. Adamiak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main aim of this work is to investigate two types of intermetallics TiAl and Ti3Al as reinforcement and their influence on selected properties and microstructure of aluminium matrix composites.Design/methodology/approach: Aluminium matrix composites were produced employing the atomised aluminium alloy AA6061 as metal matrix, when as reinforcement TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallics particles were used. The powders were cold pressed and then hot extruded. To evaluate the effect of mechanical milling two types of ball mills were used: a low energy (horizontal ball mill and a high energy one (eccentric ball mill. Reinforcement contents for both processes 5, 10, 15 % by weight. To determine hardness Vickers tests were performed. Microstructure observations were made by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy SEM.Findings: Based on the examinations carried out one can state that the mechanical milling can produce composites powders with homogenous distribution of reinforcement particles. The mechanically milled and extruded composites show finer and better distribution of reinforcement particles what leads to better mechanical properties of obtained products.Research limitations/implications: In order to evaluate with more detail the possibility of applying these composite materials at practical application, further investigations should be concentrated on the interface reaction of the matrix and reinforcing particles during elevated temperature exposition and their influence on mechanical properties.Practical implications: The composites materials produced by this way have shown significant improvement of the mechanical properties in comparision with matrix materials. Good properties of the composites make them suitable for various technical and industrial applications.Originality/value: It should be stressed that the materials as intermetallic compounds with outstanding mechanical properties and good thermal stability were developed making them a powerful material to be used in this kind of composites as the alternative for the reinforcements usually investigated and utilized to the composites materials production - alumina or silicon carbide.

  20. Characterisation of the anodic layers formed on 2024 aluminium alloy, in tetraborate electrolyte containing molybdate ions

    Anodic layer growth on 2024 aluminium alloy at 70 deg. C, under 40 V, during 60 min, in 50 g L-1 di-sodium tetraborate solution containing di-sodium molybdate from 0.1 to 0.5 M (pH 10) is examined. Anodising behaviours strongly depend on additive concentration. Development of anodic films is favoured with weak molybdate additions (0.4 M), anodising behaviour becomes complex with the formation of a blue molybdenum oxide at the cathode. The growth of aluminium oxide is hindered. As the anodic layers are thinner, the Mo(+VI) incorporation significantly decreases. These two configurations implicate different corrosion performances in 5% sodium chloride solution at 35 deg. C. As the alkaline anodic layer formed with 0.3 M molybdate species is the thickest and the Mo incorporation is the more pronounced, its corrosion resistance is the highest. The effect of morphology and composition of anodic films on pitting corrosion is also discussed

  1. Tribological Behaviour of W-DLC against an Aluminium Alloy Subjected to Lubricated Sliding

    S. Bhowmick

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Diamond like carbon (DLC coatings mitigate aluminium adhesion and reduce friction under the ambient conditions but their tribological behaviour under lubricated sliding need to be further investigated. In this study, tribological tests were performed to evaluate the friction and wear characteristics of W-DLC and H-DLC coatings sliding against an aluminium alloy (319 Al under unlubricated (40 % RH and lubricated sliding conditions. For unlubricated sliding, coefficient of friction (COF values of H-DLC and W-DLC were 0.15 and 0.20. A lower COF value of 0.11 was observed when W-DLC was tested using lubricant oil incorporating sulphur while the H-DLCs COF remained almost unchanged. The mechanisms responsible for the low friction of W-DLC observed during lubricated sliding were revealed by studying the compositions of the coating surfaces and the transfer layers formed on 319 Al. Micro-Raman spectroscopy indicated that the transfer layers formed during lubricated sliding of W-DLC incorporated tungsten disulphide (WS2.

  2. Mechanical alloying for fabrication of aluminium matrix composite powders with Ti-Al intermetallics reinforcement

    M. Adamiak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this work is to report the effect of the high energy milling processes, on fabrication ofaluminium matrix composite powders, reinforced with a homogeneous dispersion of the intermetallic Ti3Alreinforcing particles.Design/methodology/approach: MA process are considered as a method for producing composite metalpowders with a controlled fine microstructure. It occurs by the repeated fracturing and re-welding of powdersparticles mixture in a highly energetic ball mill.Findings: Mechanical alloying, applied for composite powder fabrication, improves the distribution of theTi3Al intermetallic reinforcing particles throughout the aluminium matrix, simultaneously reducing their size.Observed microstructural changes influence on the mechanical properties of powder particles.Research limitations/implications: Contributes to the knowledge on composite powders production via MA.Practical implications: Gives the answer to evolution of the powder production stages, during mechanicalalloying and theirs final properties.Originality/value: Broadening of the production routes for homogeneous particles reinforced aluminium matrixcomposites.

  3. Influence of friction stir welding parameters on properties of 2024 T3 aluminium alloy joints

    Eramah Abdsalam M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyse the process of friction stir welding (FSW of 3mm thick aluminium plates made of high strength aluminium alloy - 2024 T3, as well as to assess the mechanical properties of the produced joints. FSW is a modern procedure which enables joining of similar and dissimilar materials in the solid state, by the combined action of heat and mechanical work. This paper presents an analysis of the experimental results obtained by testing the butt welded joints. Tensile strength of the produced joints is assessed, as well as the distribution of hardness, micro-and macrostructure through the joints (in the base material, nugget, heat affected zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone. Different combinations of the tool rotation speed and the welding speed are used, and the dependence of the properties of the joints on these parameters of welding technology is determined. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34018 i br. TR 35006

  4. Radiographic and ultrasonic testings of welded joints of 6063 aluminium alloy

    A study on evaluation of weld defects in aluminium butt joints was made in a comparative way through the radiographic and ultrasonic testing. This work was conducted with pipes 5 IPS (6,35 mm thickness) of 6063 aluminium alloy, circumferential TIG welded, due to the difficulty on performing non-destructive testing with this schedule. It was concluded thta ultrasonic testing has adequate sensitivity when setting gain adjustment is made with aid of a reference curve constructed by using a Reference Block (among others studied) with 1,5 mm dia. Hole as reference reflector, and a 5 MHz angle beam search-unit. In this case the ultrasonic testing is more accurate than radiographic testing to detect planar defects like lack of fusion and lack of penetration. Defect sizing by ultrasonic methods employed were 6 and 20 dB drop methods. In spite of your observed limitations concerning the establishment of the real size of defects, the procedure applied was precise for locate and define the weld defects that where found in this study. (author)

  5. Electron microscopic study on interfacial characterization of electroless Ni-W-P plating on aluminium alloy

    The interface between electroless plating Ni-W-P deposit and aluminium alloy (Al) matrix at different temperature heated for 1 h was studied using transmission electron microscope. The results show that the interface between as-deposited Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is clear. There are no crack and cavity. The bonding of Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is in good condition. The Ni-W-P plating is nanocrystalline phase (5-6 nm) in diameter. After being heated at 200 deg. C for 1 h, the interface of Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is clear, without the appearance of the diffusion layer. There exist a diffusion layer and educts of intermetallic compounds of nickle and aluminium such as Al3Ni, Al3Ni2, NiAl, Ni5Al3 and so on between Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix after being heated at 400 deg. C for 1 h

  6. Electron microscopic study on interfacial characterization of electroless Ni W P plating on aluminium alloy

    Hu, Yong-jun; Xiong, Ling; Meng, Ji-long

    2007-03-01

    The interface between electroless plating Ni-W-P deposit and aluminium alloy (Al) matrix at different temperature heated for 1 h was studied using transmission electron microscope. The results show that the interface between as-deposited Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is clear. There are no crack and cavity. The bonding of Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is in good condition. The Ni-W-P plating is nanocrystalline phase (5-6 nm) in diameter. After being heated at 200 °C for 1 h, the interface of Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix is clear, without the appearance of the diffusion layer. There exist a diffusion layer and educts of intermetallic compounds of nickle and aluminium such as Al 3Ni, Al 3Ni 2, NiAl, Ni 5Al 3 and so on between Ni-W-P deposit and Al matrix after being heated at 400 °C for 1 h.

  7. Microstructural evolution of aluminium/Al–Ni–Sm glass forming alloy laminates obtained by Controlled Accumulative Roll Bonding

    Highlights: • Elaboration of a UFG material by controlled ARB of Al/glass forming alloy multilayers. • Effect of the crystalline or amorphous nature of the reinforcement on the formability. • Investigation of the thermo-mechanical stability of the metallic glass. - Abstract: The current work deals with the early steps of the unprecedented elaboration of aluminium/Al based glass forming alloy laminates by only accumulative rolling at room temperature. The Al1−(x+y)NixSmy metallic glass forming alloy was introduced either in its original amorphous state or after total crystallization. This change of atomic structure, and therefore of both thermal and thermo-mechanical stability and mechanical behaviour, is shown to govern at once the processing parameters, the uniformity of the laminates microstructure and the bond strength at the matrix-reinforcement interfaces. The potential of the process so as to synthesize composite materials with a stable ultrafine structure is finally outlined

  8. Protection against corrosion in marine environments of AA6060 aluminium alloy by cerium chlorides

    Lanthanide salts are being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to the classic systems based on chromates. The addition of small concentrations of cerium chloride to aerated aqueous 3.5% NaCl solution inhibits uniform and pitting corrosion processes of AA6060. Full immersion tests combined with different electrochemical techniques were involved to determine the protection degree and the inhibition character supplied by the cerium ion. Their microscopic and compositional features have been analyzed using SEM and EDS spectra. The results obtained show that the protective layer has heterogeneous composition. An alumina layer covers the aluminium matrix while dispersed cerium-rich islands deposited over the cathodic sites of the alloy. In the case of AA6060, ?-Al(Fe,Mn)Si acts as permanent cathodic sites.

  9. The influence of uniaxial prestrain on biaxial r-values in 7075-O aluminium alloy

    Biaxial test methods have been used to determine, not only yield behaviour under biaxial conditions, but also the strain response. This paper examines the influence of uniaxial prestrain upon the biaxial r-value by extending the disc compression test procedure proposed by Barlat et al. The extension involved the use of digital image measurements of in-plane strains. The material examined was a 7075-O condition aluminium alloy. The results of the experimental programme indicated that the biaxial r-value is unaffected by uniaxial prestrain. When using the disc compression test, the mode of deformation and therefore the biaxial r-value were found to be very sensitive to the prevailing friction conditions.

  10. Finite element modelling of deformation behaviour in incremental sheet forming of aluminium alloy

    Huang Tsung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to study the incremental sheet forming process of pyramidal shape. The material used is aluminium alloy 5052. The tool, a hemispherical ball-head with a diameter (d = 4 mm made of HSS tool steel, is used to press down on the sheet metal causing locally plastic deformation. The comparison between spiral tool path, spiral-step tool path and z-level tool path is carried out. Moreover, the final thickness distribution is investigated. The results indicate that the minimal thickness can be found on the corner of wall angle in SPIF process. Under the same step over, spiral-step tool path can obtain the deepest depth for pyramidal shape. The maximum formability for successful forming of the pyramidal shape with depth 60 mm is wall angles 65∘.

  11. Cyclic deformation behavior of deep rolled as-quenched aluminium alloy AA6110 at elevated temperatures

    Juijerm, P.; Altenberger, I. [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Emmy Noether Group

    2007-06-15

    The as-quenched (solution-heat-treated) aluminium wrought alloy AA6110 (Al-Mg-Si-Cu) was mechanically surface treated (deep rolled) at room temperature. The deep rolled as-quenched AA6110 was cyclically deformed at room and elevated temperatures up to 250 C using stress-controlled push-pull fatigue tests. Cyclic deformation behavior and Woehler curves of the deep rolled as-quenched AA6110 have been investigated and compared to the polished condition as a reference. The effect of static/dynamic precipitation occurring during fatigue at elevated temperatures was analyzed and discussed. The stability of residual stresses as well as work hardening at elevated temperature was investigated using X-ray diffraction methods. Finally, from the S/N data, a borderline describing the effectiveness of deep rolling for different loading combinations in a stress amplitude-temperature diagram was established. (orig.)

  12. Microstructure mapping in friction stir welds of 7449 aluminium alloy using SAXS

    This paper describes the microstructural response of an age-hardenable, high-strength 7449 aluminium alloy to friction stir welding. Plates in the naturally aged (T3) and over-aged (T79) conditions were welded using two weld tool translation speeds. Maps of precipitate volume fraction and size were obtained by spatially resolved small-angle X-ray scattering over a cross-section of the welded plate, complemented by direct observations made by transmission electron microscopy. The spatial variations of precipitate volume fraction and size were assessed quantitatively for the characteristic zones of the welds, and supported by complementary hardness measurements. The effect of initial microstructure and welding speed, in particular in the heat-affected and thermomechanically affected zones, is discussed

  13. Controlled grain size distribution and refinement of an EN AW-6082 aluminium alloy

    Lampke, Thomas; Dietrich, Dagmar; Nickel, Daniela [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. of Materials Science and Engineering; Bergmann, Markus [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Machine Tools and Production Processes; Zachaeus, Rene [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik (IWU), Chemnitz (Germany); Neugebauer, Reimund [Chemnitz Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Machine Tools and Production Processes; Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Umformtechnik (IWU), Chemnitz (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    An EN AW-6082 aluminium alloy was subjected to incremental deformation by a new process named gradation rolling. The process has been used to generate a grain size distribution in a rod-shaped billet. A grain size gradient ranging from coarse-grained in the billet core to ultrafine grained at the surface of the billet can be obtained. The grain size distribution has been confirmed by electron backscatter diffraction showing the grain refinement related to the true strain. The fibre texture of the base material has been transformed to a rolling texture in the surface region. This results in strain-hardening and grain-boundary strengthening in the surface region (130 HV0.5) as compared to the unchanged core material (110 HV0.5). (orig.)

  14. Plastic anisotropy of ultrafine grained aluminium alloys produced by accumulative roll bonding

    The plastic anisotropy of ultrafine grained aluminium alloys AA1050 and AA6016 produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) has been investigated by tensile deformation via the Lankford parameter. The average normal and planar anisotropies slightly increase (from 0.6 to 0.9) and decrease (from 0.6 to -0.7) as a function of ARB cycles, respectively. The global textures measured by neutron diffraction are used to simulate the Lankford and anisotropy parameters of the plates after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 ARB cycles with the help of the viscoplastic polycrystal self-consistent model. Simulation results are compared with those from experiment and discussed with regard to texture, strain rate sensitivity, grain shape and slip system activity.

  15. Plastic anisotropy of ultrafine grained aluminium alloys produced by accumulative roll bonding

    Beausir, B., E-mail: benoit.beausir@univ-metz.fr [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Scharnweber, J. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Jaschinski, J. [Institut fuer Leichtbau und Kunststofftechnik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Brokmeier, H.-G. [GKSS Forschungszentrum, Max-Planck-Strasse, D-21494 Geesthacht (Germany); Oertel, C.-G.; Skrotzki, W. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-05-25

    The plastic anisotropy of ultrafine grained aluminium alloys AA1050 and AA6016 produced by accumulative roll bonding (ARB) has been investigated by tensile deformation via the Lankford parameter. The average normal and planar anisotropies slightly increase (from 0.6 to 0.9) and decrease (from 0.6 to -0.7) as a function of ARB cycles, respectively. The global textures measured by neutron diffraction are used to simulate the Lankford and anisotropy parameters of the plates after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 ARB cycles with the help of the viscoplastic polycrystal self-consistent model. Simulation results are compared with those from experiment and discussed with regard to texture, strain rate sensitivity, grain shape and slip system activity.

  16. Cerium-based conversion coatings to improve the corrosion resistance of aluminium alloy 6061-T6

    Highlights: • Cerium-based conversion coatings. • Cerium salt sources assisted with hydrogen peroxide. • Protective properties of the conversion coating. - Abstract: Cerium-based conversion coatings were deposited on aluminium alloy 6061-T6 by immersion in two cerium salt sources (chloride- and nitrate-based) assisted with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The morphology and composition of the coatings were analysed using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Electrochemical measurements to assess corrosion behaviour were performed using free corrosion potential, polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy with a 3% NaCl solution. The influence of H2O2 on the generation of the coating was studied by cyclic voltammetry tests. The protective properties of the coating generated are heavily dependent upon the chelating effect, chaotropic anion, the pH and H2O2 content

  17. Analysis of the Capabilities of a Hyperbolic Constitutive Equation for Al-5083 Superplastic Aluminium Alloy

    Otegi, N.; Galdos, L.; Hurtado, I.; Leen, S. B.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the application of a hyperbolic, mechanisms-based constitutive equation set, modified to incorporate the effect of cavitation, to the prediction of the superplastic behaviour of a commercial Al-5083 superplastic aluminium alloy. The development of an algorithm for multi-stage identification of the complex set of constitutive parameters is presented and this approach is applied to characterise the constitutive behaviour of the Al-5083 at 500° C, based on constant strain-rate tensile test data. A large deformation, multiaxial formulation of the constitutive equation set is implemented and applied to finite element modelling of a bulge test forming process to characterise the cavitation evolution behaviour in the bulge test for different back pressure conditions.

  18. Analysis of the strain behaviour of a friction stir processed superplastic aluminium alloy

    Sorgente Donato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Superplastic forming is a well-established process by which very large, very complex shaped and also multi-sheets components can be manufactured in a single step. Combining this process with a suitable joining technique is of great industrial interest. In this work the strain behaviour of a friction stir processed aluminium alloy was investigated through free inflation tests. Principal parameters of the friction stir process were changed and free inflation tests were performed to assess the formability of the processed sheet. A strong influence of the friction stir process parameters was recorded on the formability of the processed material. Only a specified set of parameters assured a strain behaviour close to the one of the base material.

  19. Natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy

    Dong, Peng; Sun, Daqian; Li, Hongmei, E-mail: lihongmei@jlu.edu.cn

    2013-08-01

    By local thermal cycles and hardness measurements, supported by transmission electron microscopy, the post-weld natural aging behaviour of friction stir welded 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy was investigated. The results show that the softening in the nugget zone and thermo-mechanically affected zone immediately after welding is mainly caused by the high peak temperatures and rapid cooling rates, resulting in the original ?? precipitates dissolving and restraining re-precipitation. On the one hand, the hardness recovery in both microstructural zones during post-weld natural aging is attributed to the formation of clusters or GP zones depending on the natural aging time. On the other hand, the softening in the heat-affected zone after welding is due to the transformation of the ??? to ?? precipitates and the precipitation of Q?. Natural aging has little effect on the microstructure and hardness of the heat-affected zone. The mechanism of natural aging behaviour was discussed.

  20. Effect of ageing on the mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloy AA2009 reinforced with SIC particles

    A study of the mechanical behaviour of an aluminium matrix composite (AA2009) reinforced with 15 volume percent of SiC particles has been carried out. The ageing kinetic for this material has been evaluated at two different ageing temperatures (170 and 190 degree centigrade). The hardness peaks for the two different precipitation sequences existing in the matrix alloy have been identified. The mechanical behaviour of the composite was also evaluated for the different thermal conditions (as-received and aged). This research has been completed with the identification of the fracture mechanisms by means of observation with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) both of the fracture surface and transversal sections of them. In addition, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated composites has been used to determine the influence of the SiC particles on the distribution of strengthening phases precipitated in the matrix. (Author) 14 refs

  1. Mechanical spectroscopy of thermal stress relaxation in aluminium alloys reinforced with short alumina fibres

    Carreno-Morelli, E.; Schaller, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Genie Atomique; Urreta, S.E.

    1998-05-01

    The mechanical behaviour under low temperature thermal cycling of aluminium-based composites reinforced with short Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} SAFFIL fibres has been investigated by mechanical spectroscopy (mechanical loss and elastic shear modulus measurements). A mechanical loss maximum has been observed during cooling which originates in the relaxation of thermal stresses at the interfaces due to the differential thermal expansion between matrix and reinforcement. The maximum height increases with the volumetric fibre content. In addition, if the matrix strength is increased by the appropriated choice of alloy and thermal treatment, the maximum diminishes and shifts to lower temperatures. No damage accumulation at the interfaces has been detected during long period thermal cycling in the range 100 to 500 K. A description of the damping behaviour is made in terms of the development of microplastic zones which surround the fibres. (orig.) 9 refs.

  2. Microscopic Study of 5083-H321 Aluminium Alloy Under Fretting Fatigue Condition

    Eslamian, S.; Sahari, B. B.; Ali, Aidy; Mahdi, El-Sadiq; Hamouda, A. M.

    2011-02-01

    Fretting occurs where there is small amplitude oscillating motion between solid surfaces in contact. With even small loads or prolonged operation, fretting may lead to crack initiation followed by fretting fatigue. Its effect on fatigue is to speed up the nucleation of fatigue surface cracks and it can be extremely damaging. Fretting fatigue is a critical concern in aircraft structures and a widespread problem in naval structural components and is often the root cause of fatigue crack nucleation in machine components. In this investigation, fretting fatigue study is carried out using 5083-H321 marine/ aerospace aluminium alloy. The test rig and the experiments were designed with an emphasis to study the crack initiation behaviour in the fretted region using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fretting damage and its relationship to the fretting fatigue life are presented and discussed.

  3. Experimental characterisation and modelling of deformation- induced microstructure in an A6061 aluminium alloy

    Kreyca, J. F.; Falahati, A.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2016-03-01

    For industry, the mechanical properties of a material in form of flow curves are essential input data for finite element simulations. Current practice is to obtain flow curves experimentally and to apply fitting procedures to obtain constitutive equations that describe the material response to external loading as a function of temperature and strain rate. Unfortunately, the experimental procedure for characterizing flow curves is complex and expensive, which is why the prediction of flow-curves by computer modelling becomes increasingly important. In the present work, we introduce a state parameter based model that is capable of predicting the flow curves of an A6061 aluminium alloy in different heat-treatment conditions. The model is implemented in the thermo-kinetic software package MatCalc and takes into account precipitation kinetics, subgrain formation, dynamic recovery by spontaneous annihilation and dislocation climb. To validate the simulation results, a series of compression tests is performed on the thermo-mechanical simulator Gleeble 1500.

  4. Development of the electron beam welding of the aluminium alloy 6061-T6 for the Jules Horowitz reactor

    The aluminium alloy 6061-T6 has been selected for the construction of the Jules Horowitz's reactor vessel. This reactor vessel is pressurized and will be made through butt welding of ∼ 2 cm thick aluminium slabs. The electron beam welding process has been tested and qualified. It appears that this welding process allows: -) welding without pre-heating, -) vacuum welding, -) welding of 100% of the thickness in one passage, -) very low deforming welding process, -) very low density and very low volume of blow holes, -) weak ZAT (Thermal Affected Zones), and -) high reproducibility that permits automation. (A.C.)

  5. Flow and failure of an aluminium alloy from low to high temperature and strain rate

    Sancho Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy is presented in this paper. The study has been carried out to analyse the flow and failure of the aluminium alloy 7075-T73. An experimental study has been planned performing tests of un-notched and notched tensile specimens at low strain rates using a servo-hydraulic machine. High strain rate tests have been carried out using the same geometry in a Hopkinson Split Tensile Bar. The dynamic experiments at low temperature were performed using a cryogenic chamber, and the high temperature ones with a furnace, both incorporated to the Hopkinson bar. Testing temperatures ranged from − 50 ∘C to 100 ∘C and the strain rates from 10−4 s−1 to 600 s−1. The material behaviour was modelled using the Modified Johnson-Cook model and simulated using LS-DYNA. The results show that the Voce type of strain hardening is the most accurate for this material, while the traditional Johnson-Cook is not enough accurate to reproduce the necking of un-notched specimens. The failure criterion was obtained by means of the numerical simulations using the analysis of the stress triaxiality versus the strain to failure. The diameters at the failure time were measured using the images taken with an image camera, and the strain to failure was computed for un-notched and notched specimens. The numerical simulations show that the analysis of the evolution of the stress triaxiality is crucial to achieve accurate results. A material model using the Modified Johnson-Cook for flow and failure is proposed.

  6. Flow and failure of an aluminium alloy from low to high temperature and strain rate

    Sancho, Rafael; Cendón, David; Gálvez, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    The mechanical behaviour of an aluminium alloy is presented in this paper. The study has been carried out to analyse the flow and failure of the aluminium alloy 7075-T73. An experimental study has been planned performing tests of un-notched and notched tensile specimens at low strain rates using a servo-hydraulic machine. High strain rate tests have been carried out using the same geometry in a Hopkinson Split Tensile Bar. The dynamic experiments at low temperature were performed using a cryogenic chamber, and the high temperature ones with a furnace, both incorporated to the Hopkinson bar. Testing temperatures ranged from - 50 ∘C to 100 ∘C and the strain rates from 10-4 s-1 to 600 s-1. The material behaviour was modelled using the Modified Johnson-Cook model and simulated using LS-DYNA. The results show that the Voce type of strain hardening is the most accurate for this material, while the traditional Johnson-Cook is not enough accurate to reproduce the necking of un-notched specimens. The failure criterion was obtained by means of the numerical simulations using the analysis of the stress triaxiality versus the strain to failure. The diameters at the failure time were measured using the images taken with an image camera, and the strain to failure was computed for un-notched and notched specimens. The numerical simulations show that the analysis of the evolution of the stress triaxiality is crucial to achieve accurate results. A material model using the Modified Johnson-Cook for flow and failure is proposed.

  7. Corrosion of aluminium alloy test coupons in the TRIGA Mark III Research Reactor of Mexico

    The results of corrosion studies developed in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) are presented. The extent of corrosion of the aluminium alloy coupons exposed to the water of ININ TRIGA reactor pool was not significant. Few pits and oxides were observed on the coupon surfaces immersed for different times. This reduced extent of corrosion was similar to those on coupons exposed at other sites as per data obtained by visual inspection, metallographic analysis and image analysis. The water chemistry in the reactor pool was monitored throughout the duration of the project. The main parameters that influence the corrosion of Al alloy fuel cladding were measured. The conductivity of the water in the reactor pool was 1-3 ?S/cm, within recommended values to avoid corrosion. The chloride ion concentration was maintained below 1 ppm. Others ions (sulphates, calcium, nitrates) were also below 1 ppm. Another parameter that was measured was the amount of settled solids on coupon surfaces and their influence on corrosion. The sedimentation rate in the TRIGA Reactor pool was 17.66 ?g/cm2 and the sediment composition indicated iron oxides, aluminium-silicon compounds and some calcium carbonates. The sedimentation rate was similar in magnitude to that at other storage sites. However, the corrosion racks in the ININ TRIGA Reactor were exposed to high water flow rates, 1324.5 l/min. This high flow rate is considered to reduce the amount of deposited solids on coupon surfaces. The particles deposited on the coupon surfaces influenced pit initiation. (author)

  8. Microstructures in the 6060 aluminium alloy after various severe plastic deformation treatments

    This paper presents the results concerning the microstructural refinement of the industrial 6060 aluminium alloy processed by severe plastic deformation (SPD). The high level of plastic deformation was achieved using the three methods: hydrostatic extrusion (HE), equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) and extrusion torsion (ET), which differed in the dynamics of the loading, intensity and homogeneity of the plastic strain field. Microstructure analyses were performed before and after SPD deformation using a transmission (TEM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The refined microstructures were examined qualitatively and quantitatively by the stereological methods and computer image analyses. The microstructure of the industrial 6060 aluminium alloy after deformation was characterized by an average grain size of about 0.4 μm. The results show that the precipitates strongly affect the degree of refinement and the mechanism of microstructural transformations. During the SPD, the second phase particles break apart and homogenize. The HE method generates the largest increase of the volume fraction of the small primary particles. Moreover, the HE process is most effective in reducing the primary particle size. During HE and ECAE processes the second phase precipitates dissolve partially and change their shape. - Research Highlights: → SPD results in a significant increase in the density of the small primary particles. → SPD homogenizes the particle size distribution. → HE and ECAE processes bring nano-grains in the vicinity of the primary particles. → HE and ECAE processing results in the β' precipitates partial dissolutions. → During HE and ECAE processes the β' particles change their shape.

  9. Fracture mechanisms of aluminium alloy AA7075-T651 under various loading conditions

    The fracture behaviour of the aluminium alloy AA7075-T651 is investigated for quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions and different stress states. The fracture surfaces obtained in tensile tests on smooth and notched axisymmetric specimens and compression tests on cylindrical specimens are compared to the fracture surfaces that occur when a projectile, having either a blunt or an ogival nose shape, strikes a 20 mm thick plate of the aluminium alloy. The stress state in the impact tests is much more complex and the strain rate significantly higher than in the tensile and compression tests. Optical and scanning electron microscopes are used in the investigation. The fracture surface obtained in tests with smooth axisymmetric specimens indicates that the crack growth is partly intergranular along the grain boundaries or precipitation free zones and partly transgranular by void formation around fine and coarse intermetallic particles. When the stress triaxiality is increased through the introduction of a notch in the tensile specimen, delamination along the grain boundaries in the rolling plane is observed perpendicular to the primary crack. In through-thickness compression tests, the crack propagates within an intense shear band that has orientation about 45o with respect to the load axis. The primary failure modes of the target plate during impact were adiabatic shear banding when struck by a blunt projectile and ductile hole-enlargement when struck by an ogival projectile. Delamination and fragmentation of the plates occurred for both loading cases, but was stronger for the ogival projectile. The delamination in the rolling plane was attributed to intergranular fracture caused by tensile stresses occurring during the penetration event.

  10. Galvanic corrosion of rare earth modified AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys coupled to steel and aluminium alloys

    Mohedano, Marta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical and gravimetric measurements were used to examine the effects of neodymium and gadolinium additions on the galvanic corrosion behaviour of AM50 and AZ91D magnesium alloys coupled to A 570 Gr 36 carbon steel and AA2011-AA6082 aluminium alloys. Rare earth modified alloys showed Al2Nd/Al2Gd and Al-Mn-Nd/Al-Mn-Gd intermetallics, reduced area fraction of β-Mg17Al12 phase and increased corrosion resistance due to increased surface passivity and suppression of micro-galvanic couples. Neodymium and gadolinium additions improved the galvanic corrosion resistance of AM50 alloy, but were less effective in case of the AZ91D alloy. The AA6082 alloy was the most compatible material and the AA2011 alloy was the least compatible.Se emplearon medidas electroquímicas y gravimétricas para examinar el efecto de la adición de neodimio y gadolinio en el comportamiento a la corrosión galvánica de las aleaciones AM50 y AZ91D en contacto con acero al carbono A 570 Gr 36 y aleaciones de aluminio AA2011 y AA6082. Las aleaciones modificadas con tierras raras mostraron intermetálicos Al2Nd/Al2Gd y Al-Mn-Nd/Al-Mn-Gd, menor fracción de fase β-Mg17Al12 y un incremento de la resistencia a la corrosión debido al aumento de la pasividad de la superficie y a la eliminación de micro pares galvánicos. Las adiciones de neodimio y gadolinio mejoraron la resistencia a la corrosión galvánica de la aleación AM50, pero fueron menos efectivas en el caso de la aleación AZ91D. La aleación AA6082 fue el material más compatible y la aleación AA2011 el menos compatible.

  11. Simulation calculations for the positron annihilation in aluminium alloys for the study of the segregate formation

    Highly solid aluminium alloys owe their properties to small, finely distributed segregations of alloy atoms. For the better understanding of the temperature treatment, which is required in order to control the segregate formation, it is important, to determine informations on the first early stages from few atoms. In the positron-annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) positrons are trapped in the vacancies of a solid and yield at their annihilation with surrounding electrons informations from their direct environment. because the formation of segregates requires a diffusion of the extraneous atoms by means of the vacancies, the PAS represents one of the few examination methods, by which already the formation of smallest segregations can be observed. By the comparison of measurement quantities of the PAS with simulations for different possible arrangements of extraneous atoms around the vacancy the atomic environment of the vacancy can be identified. In order to make this possible also in aluminium alloys, in which the number of the possible defect types is relatively large, a good description of the measurement values by the simulation is especially important. In the framework of this thesis the program AB2D was developed, by which the Doppler shift of the annihilation radiation can be determined. Contrarily to already existing approaches here valence-electron wave functions are used, which were calculated with the program ABINIT. By this way the main uncertainty by the description of the valence electrons in atomic superposition is cancelled. Because ABINIT is based on pseudopotentials, the projector augmented-wave method is used in order to describe the higher momenta of the electrons near the nuclei more realistically. With AB2D simulations for vacancy-extraneous-atom complexes and segregation phases in the alloy systems Al-Cu, Al-Mg-Cu, and Al-Mg-Si were performed. A comparison with measurements on samples, which were only few minutes stored at room temperature, showed thereby that the formation of first segregations in the environment of the vacancies runs very much faster than hitherto assumed.

  12. Modelling of plastic flow localization and damage development in friction stir welded 6005A aluminium alloy using physics based strain hardening law

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Pardoen, Thomas; Tvergaard, Viggo; de Meester, Bruno; Simar, Aude

    Plastic flow localisation and ductile failure during tensile testing of friction stir welded aluminium spec- imens are investigated with a specific focus on modelling the local, finite strain, hardening response. In the experimental part, friction stir welds in a 6005A-T6 aluminium alloy were...

  13. Influences of post weld heat treatment on tensile properties of friction stir welded AA2519-T87 aluminium alloy joints

    Sabari, S. Sree; Balasubramanian, V.; Malarvizhi, S.; Reddy, G. Madusudhan

    2015-12-01

    AA 2519-T87 is an aluminium alloy that principally contains Cu as an alloying element and is a new grade of Al-Cu alloy system. This material is a potential candidate for light combat military vehicles. Fusion welding of this alloy leads to hot cracking, porosity and alloy segregation in the weld metal region. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a solid state joining process which can overcome the above mentioned problems. However, the FSW of age hardenable aluminium alloys results in poor tensile properties in the as-welded condition (AW). Hence, post weld heat treatment (PWHT) is used to enhance deteriorated tensile properties of FSW joints. In this work, the effect of PWHT, namely artificial ageing (AA) and solution treatment (ST) followed by ageing (STA) on the microstructure, tensile properties and microhardness were systematically investigated. The microstructural features of the weld joints were characterised using an optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The tensile strength and microhardness of the joints were correlated with the grain size, precipitate size, shape and its distribution. From the investigation, it was found that STA treatment is beneficial in enhancing the tensile strength of the FSW joints of AA2519-T87 alloy and this is mainly due to the presence of fine and densely distributed precipitates in the stir zone.

  14. High temperature oxidation of copper and copper aluminium alloys: Impact on furnace side wall cooling systems

    Plascencia Barrera, Gabriel

    The high temperature oxidation behaviours of copper and dilute Cu-Al alloys were investigated. Experiments were carried out by: (i) Oxidizing under various oxygen potentials at different temperatures using a combined TG-DTA apparatus. (ii) Oxidizing in a muffle furnace (in air) at different temperatures for extended periods of time. The oxidation mechanisms were evaluated based upon the kinetic data obtained as well as by X-ray diffraction and microscopical (SEM and optical) analyses. It was found that oxidation of copper strongly depends on the temperature. Two distinct mechanisms were encountered. Between 300 and 500C, the oxidation rate is controlled by lateral growth of the oxide on the metal surface, whereas between 600 and 1000C oxidation is controlled by lattice diffusion of copper ions through the oxide scale. On the other hand, the partial pressure of oxygen only has a small effect on the oxidation of copper. Alloy oxidation is also dependent on the temperature. As temperature increases, more aluminium is required to protect copper from being oxidized. It was shown that if the amount of oxygen that dissolves in the alloy exceeds the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, an internal oxidation layer will develop, leading to the formation of a tarnishing scale. On the other hand if the oxygen content in the alloy lies below the solubility limit of oxygen in copper, no oxidation products will form since a tight protective alumina layer will form on the alloy surface. Surface phenomena may affect the oxidation behaviour of dilute Cu-Al alloys. Immersion tests in molten copper matte and copper converting slag, using laboratory scale cooling elements with various copper based materials, were conducted. Results from these tests showed that alloying copper with 3 to 4 wt% Al decreases the oxidation rate of pure copper by 4 orders of magnitude; however due to a significant drop in thermal conductivity, the ability to extract heat is compromised, leading to possible failures. Composite coolers were also tested and although their thermal conductivity is limited, they still are able to extract heat at a considerable rate.

  15. Rheological Analysis of Semi-Solid A380.0 Aluminium Alloy / Analiza W?a?ciwo?ci Reologicznych Stopu Aluminium A380.0 W Stanie Sta?o-Ciek?ym

    Solek K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the rheological properties is crucial for the numerical modeling of technological processes. The main objective of this study was to conduct an analysis of the rheological properties of A380.0 (AlSi9Cu3(Fe aluminium alloy in the semi-solid state. The results could be used for identification of temperature range of the alloy, where thixoforming processes could be executed. Another purpose of the experimental work could be development of the mathematical models of the alloy apparent viscosity. The significant achievement of this particular study is an application of a viscometer which was specially designed for material tests executed at high temperatures, such as the measurement of liquid or semi-liquid aluminium viscosity. This paper presents the results of a rheological analysis of aluminium alloy.

  16. Influence of casting defects on the endurance limit of aluminium and magnesium cast alloys; Einfluss von Gussfehlern auf die Dauerfestigkeit von Aluminium- und Magnesiumgusslegierungen

    Fuchs, U.; Lipowsky, Hj.; Mayer, H.; Tschegg, S.; Zettl, B. [Institut fuer Meteorologie und Physik, Wien (Austria); Papakyriacou, M. [ARC Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen GmbH, Ranshofen (Austria); Stich, A. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2002-03-01

    The influence of porosity (voids and shrinkage) on the fatigue properties at very high numbers of cycles is shown for the alloys AZ91 hp, AM60 hp, AE42 hp, AS21 hp and AlSi9Cu3 produced by high pressure die casting. Fatigue tests performed with ultrasonic equipment up to 10{sup 9} cycles show that these alloys exhibit a fatigue limit. The mean endurance limits (50% failure probability) of the magnesium alloys are 8-50 MPa and of the aluminium alloy 75 MPa. Fatigue cracks initiate at porosity, and whether a specimen fractures or not depends on the stress amplitude and the area and the site of the defect. Regarding the cast defect as an initial crack, a critical stress intensity value (K{sub cr}) may be found to propagate a crack until final failure. K{sub cr} of the magnesium alloys is 0,80-1,05 MPa{radical}(m), and 1,80 MPa{radical}(m) was found for AlSi9Cu3. Using K{sub cr} it is possible to correlate the probability of different defect sizes and the failure probability at different stress amplitudes. Additionally, predictions of the influence of rare large casting defects on the endurance limit are possible. (orig.)

  17. Mechanical properties of a superplastic formed aluminium alloy; Mechanische Eigenschaften von umgeformtem AA5083. Pruefung von partiell pressverschweissten und bei schmelzpunktnahen Temperaturen bearbeiteten Werkstoffen

    Heine, B. [Fachhochschule Aalen (Germany). Materialkunde; Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Korrosions- und Verschleissschutz fuer Luft- und Raumfahrtanwendung

    2002-07-01

    Aluminium alloys represent one possibility to realize a light-weight automobile body. Beside this near-net-shape-forming-techniques are a further way to reduce production costs. One way to realize it is superplastic forming (SPF). Unfortunately because of specific alloying techniques and thermomechanical treatments the costs for superplastic-formable alloys are several times the prize of conventional alloys. Aim of a project was to apply conventional aluminium alloy and to optimize the configuration forming temperature and forming rate so that SPF-typical elongations without localized reduction of wall-thickness could be reached. Until now SPF-comparable fracture-elongations of roughly 170% could be achieved. Contents of the poster will be the influence of the sheet material, forming temperature and forming rate to strength and fracture elongation, the interpretation of these effects by using microstructural mechanisms as well as illustrations of structural parts produced by using a conventional aluminium alloy. (orig.)

  18. Reduction of porosity content generated during Nd:YAG laser welding of A356 and AA5083 aluminium alloys

    Porosity formation is greatly influenced in aluminium alloys by the low vaporisation point element (Mg, Zn) content, or by process instability such as key-hole closures that tend to entrap occluded gases during welding. Another important contribution comes from the hydrogen content, because of a very high solubility in molten aluminium that favours microporosity generation. In this paper, cw YAG laser welds on two aluminium alloys were carried out: a AA5083-O wrought alloy with a high Mg content (4.5%) and a A356 cast alloy with 7% Si and a cast oxide layer. The porosity content in laser beads was extensively studied, with the use of different experimental method (X-ray radiography+image analysis, tomography), in order to check the influence of mechanical surface preparation as well as process parameters (single or dual spot, different welding speeds). It was concluded that surface preparation as well as dual beam welding are adequate methods for reducing porosity formation tendency in laser assemblies

  19. Reduction of porosity content generated during Nd:YAG laser welding of A356 and AA5083 aluminium alloys

    Haboudou, A.; Peyre, P.; Vannes, A.B.; Peix, G

    2003-12-20

    Porosity formation is greatly influenced in aluminium alloys by the low vaporisation point element (Mg, Zn) content, or by process instability such as key-hole closures that tend to entrap occluded gases during welding. Another important contribution comes from the hydrogen content, because of a very high solubility in molten aluminium that favours microporosity generation. In this paper, cw YAG laser welds on two aluminium alloys were carried out: a AA5083-O wrought alloy with a high Mg content (4.5%) and a A356 cast alloy with 7% Si and a cast oxide layer. The porosity content in laser beads was extensively studied, with the use of different experimental method (X-ray radiography+image analysis, tomography), in order to check the influence of mechanical surface preparation as well as process parameters (single or dual spot, different welding speeds). It was concluded that surface preparation as well as dual beam welding are adequate methods for reducing porosity formation tendency in laser assemblies.

  20. Influence of neutron radiation on aluminium alloy SAV-1 corrosion contacting with stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti

    Results of contact corrosion stability experimental studies for low-doped aluminium alloy SAV-1 after operation in WWR-K nuclear reactor and long time storage in water pool are presented. Corrosion examinations have been carried out with application of chemical method for corrosion rate estimation on samples both non-irradiated and after irradiation by neutrons up to fluence 1.3·1022 neutron/cm2 (E>0.1 MeV) at the WWR-K reactor core. In the examination course regularities and peculiarities both origin and development of pitting corrosion in irradiated by fluences of aluminium alloy SAV-1 being in the contact with analogous material and with stainless steel 12Cr18Ni10Ti have been determined. It is shown, that in the case of close contact of these two samples from the SAV-1 alloy the corrosion rate is reducing, whereas at a contact with stainless steel the turn for corrosion damage of the aluminium alloy grows

  1. The use of Spark Plasma Sintering to fabricate a two-phase material from blended aluminium alloy scrap and gas atomized powder

    Paraskevas, Dimos; Vanmeensel, Kim; Vleugels, Jef; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Recently innovative solid state / 'meltless' recycling techniques have been developed and proposed for the consolidation of aluminium alloy scrap, aiming both at energy and material savings by eliminating the melting step. In this context, a powder metallurgy route is examined as a solid state recycling technique for the fabrication of a two-phase material via Spark Plasma Sintering. By mixing aluminium atomized powder and machining chips of the same alloy, a two-phase material was produced, ...

  2. Impact of M2-Hss Tool Pin Profile in Fsw Welded Joints On Mechanical Properties Of Aa7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy

    Venugopal S; Mahendran, G.

    2014-01-01

    Friction stir, “welding is a solid state joining process and is widely being considered for aluminium alloys. The main advantage of FSW is the material that is being welded undergoes only localized changes. The welding parameter and tool pin profile play a major role in deciding the weld quality. In this work an effort has been made to analyze microstructure of aluminium AA 7075-T6 alloy. Three different tool profiles (Taper Threaded, cylindrical and square) have been used to ...

  3. Microstructure and texture evolution during accumulative roll bonding of aluminium alloy AA5086

    Roy, Shibayan; Singh D, Satyaveer [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Suwas, Satyam, E-mail: satyamsuwas@materials.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, S.; Chattopadhyay, K. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} The alloy AA5086 was accumulatively roll-bonded up to 8 cycles. {yields} The layered microstructure contains both elongated and equiaxed grains ({approx}200-300 nm). {yields} Significant substructure formation inside layered microstructure leads to shear banding. {yields} Characteristic deformation texture evolution after ARB with individual texture bands. {yields} Anisotropic mechanical properties after ARB with improvement in strength but loss in ductility. - Abstract: In the present investigation, a strongly bonded strip of an aluminium-magnesium based alloy AA5086 is successfully produced through accumulative roll bonding (ARB). A maximum of up to eight passes has been used for the purpose. Microstructural characterization using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique indicates the formation of submicron sized ({approx}200-300 nm) subgrains inside the layered microstructure. The material is strongly textured where individual layers possess typical FCC rolling texture components. More than three times enhancement in 0.2% proof stress (PS) has been obtained after 8 passes due to grain refinement and strain hardening.

  4. Oxide growth on aluminium alloys in the presence of ammonium fluoborate

    The aim of this study as to determine the mechanisms involved in using ammonium fluoborate as a reducing atmosphere when preheating a high magnesium content aluminium alloy. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) has been the major technique used in the analysis of samples, it revealed significant reduction in both the diffusion of magnesium to the surface and the calculated oxide thickness in the presence of NH4BF4. At temperatures above 500 deg C in air, SEM images revealed depressions and voids due to incipient melting at various stages, around the grain boundaries. Grain boundaries effectively acted as pipes aiding the diffusion of magnesium to the surface. These results have been verified through compositional analysis with both RBS and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Results from NH4BF4 atmosphere preheat conditions showed significant improvements. It was verified experimentally that above 500 deg C , AA5182 alloys undergo incipient melting at the grain boundaries with magnesium diffusing through to the surface. 5 refs., 1 fig

  5. The formation of surface segregates during twin roll casting of aluminium alloys

    When a certain productivity/casting speed is exceeded during twin roll casting, surface segregations form in a number of aluminium alloys with wide freezing ranges. Such segregations limit the productivity as mechanical properties and surface quality suffer during and after subsequent rolling and forming. Simulation results obtained by a 2-D thermo-mechanical model for twin roll casting, AlStrip, have been combined with studies in scanning electron microscope SEM/microprobe to assess the responsible mechanisms for the formation of segregates. The proposed mechanism consists of a sequence of events, where the initial source for the segregation is the progressive enrichment of alloying elements in the interdendritic liquid during solidification (microsegregation). Under certain conditions, i.e. when the critical productivity/casting speed is exceeded, low-pressure zones develop in the surface regions. Due to this pressure distribution, the enriched liquid flows through the coherent solid network to the surface, where solidification and the subsequent formation of segregations take place

  6. Oxide growth on aluminium alloys in the presence of ammonium fluoborate

    Oliver, J.; Paterson, P.; Flavell, T. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia); Biddle, G. [Alcoa Rolled Products (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this study as to determine the mechanisms involved in using ammonium fluoborate as a reducing atmosphere when preheating a high magnesium content aluminium alloy. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) has been the major technique used in the analysis of samples, it revealed significant reduction in both the diffusion of magnesium to the surface and the calculated oxide thickness in the presence of NH{sub 4}BF{sub 4}. At temperatures above 500 deg C in air, SEM images revealed depressions and voids due to incipient melting at various stages, around the grain boundaries. Grain boundaries effectively acted as pipes aiding the diffusion of magnesium to the surface. These results have been verified through compositional analysis with both RBS and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Results from NH{sub 4}BF{sub 4} atmosphere preheat conditions showed significant improvements. It was verified experimentally that above 500 deg C , AA5182 alloys undergo incipient melting at the grain boundaries with magnesium diffusing through to the surface. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  7. Distribution of trace elements in a modified and grain refined aluminium-silicon hypoeutectic alloy.

    Faraji, M; Katgerman, L

    2010-08-01

    The influence of modifier and grain refiner on the nucleation process of a commercial hypoeutectic Al-Si foundry alloy (A356) was investigated using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis technique (EPMA). Filtering was used to improve the casting quality; however, it compromised the modification of silicon. Effect of filtering on strontium loss was also studied using the afore-mentioned techniques. EPMA was used to trace the modifying and grain refining agents inside matrix and eutectic Si. This was to help understanding mechanisms of nucleation and modification in this alloy. Using EPMA, the negative interaction of Sr and Al3TiB was closely examined. In modified structure, it was found that the maximum point of Sr concentration was in line with peak of silicon; however, in case of just 0.1wt% added Ti, the peak of Ti concentration was not in line with aluminium, (but it was close to Si peak). Furthermore, EPMA results showed that using filter during casting process lowered the strontium content, although produced a cleaner melt. PMID:20494588

  8. Effect of heat treatments on mechanical properties and damage evolution of thixoformed aluminium alloys

    In the present work, the effects of heat treatments on mechanical properties, microstructure evolution and damage resulting from plastic deformation of thixoformed A319 and A356 aluminium alloys, are studied. The thixoforming process can lead to the production of components that are characterized by very good mechanical properties and low porosity with a globular microstructure which is fine and uniform. The mechanical properties can be further improved through heat treatments such as T5 and T6. The prime factor influencing the damage in the alloys belonging to the Al-Si system is represented by decohesion of silicon particles resulting from the stress concentration at the particle-matrix interfaces. A statistical analysis of fractured particles after tensile tests in the as-cast and as-treated condition has been carried out in the present work; optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques have been used to characterize the microstructure and fracture surfaces of the specimens and the results are fully presented

  9. Constitutive modelling of creep-ageing behaviour of peak-aged aluminium alloy 7050

    Yang Yo-Lun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The creep-ageing behaviour of a peak-aged aluminium alloy 7050 was investigated under different stress levels at 174 ∘C for up to 8 h. Interrupted creep tests and tensile tests were performed to investigate the influences of creep-ageing time and applied stress on yield strength. The mechanical testing results indicate that the material exhibits an over-ageing behaviour which increases with the applied stress level during creep-ageing. As creep-ageing time approaches 8 h, the material's yield strength under different stress levels gradually converge, which suggests that the difference in mechanical properties under different stress conditions can be minimised. This feature can be advantageous in creep-age forming to the formed components such that uniformed mechanical properties across part area can be achieved. A set of constitutive equations was calibrated using the mechanical test results and the alloy-specific material constants were obtained. A good agreement is observed between the experimental and calibrated results.

  10. Vacuum brazing of aluminium metal matrix composite (55 vol.% SiC{sub p}/A356) using aluminium-based filler alloy

    Niu, Jitai, E-mail: niujitai@163.com [Harbin Institute of Technology (China); Zhengzhou University (China); Luo, Xiangwei; Tian, Hao [Zhengzhou University (China); Brnic, Josip [University of Rijka (Croatia)

    2012-11-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proper filler metal has been developed, especially for contents of Mg and Si. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pressure device has been designed for specimen in vacuum brazing process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The accurate measurement method for shear strength of lap joint has been found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The brazing temperature of 560 Degree-Sign C has been optimised. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The micro-mechanism has been discussed for SiC{sub p}/Al composites' brazing joint. - Abstract: Aluminium matrix composites with high volume fractions of SiC particles, as the reinforcements, are potentially suitable materials for electronic packaging. These composites, due to their poor weldability, however, have very limited applications. The microstructure and shear strengths of the bonds made in 55 vol.% SiC{sub p}/A356 composite, using an aluminium based filler alloy containing Cu, Si, Mg and Ni, were investigated in this paper. The brazing temperature had a clear effect on the bond integrity, and the samples brazed at 560 Degree-Sign C demonstrated good bonding between the filler alloy and the SiC particles. The maximum shear strength achieved in this work was 102 MPa.

  11. Mechanical properties of scandium-alloyed aluminium alloys and their welded joints at cryogenic temperatures

    The paper gives results of studies on mechanical properties, fatigue characteristics and fracture of alloys 1560, 01535, 01570 and 01571 and their welded joints over the temperature range from 293 to 20 K. Also included are microstructural and fracture surface analyses

  12. Oxidation of an aluminium-magnesium alloy in liquid state. Methodology of determination of mechanisms from not necessarily repeatable experiments

    This research thesis reports the study of the oxidation of an aluminium-5 pc magnesium alloy in its liquid state in an oxygen environment, using thermogravimetric analysis and that of magnesium in its solid state. In a first part, the author reports a thermodynamic and bibliographical study on magnesium transformation in its solid state (Mg/O2 and Mg/H2O systems, transformation with dry and humid synthetic air, oxidation inhibitors) and on Al-Mg alloy transformation in presence of oxygen (thermodynamic properties of aluminium-rich Al-Mg alloys, Al-Mg/O2/N2 and Al-Mg/O2/N2/H2O systems). The next parts address the selection of reaction systems for the different cases (oxidation of solid magnesium in oxygen, oxidation of the Al-Mg alloy in oxygen), the modelling of the formation of magnesia from solid magnesium and from the Al-Mg alloy, and the modelling of the liquid Al-Mg A5182 alloy oxidation in oxygen

  13. Aluminium and copper analysis in metallic alloys by neutron activation analysis from an 241 Am-Be source

    Aluminium and copper have been determined in aluminium alloys by the method of activation with neutrons from an 241 Am-Be source of intensity 9,8 x 106 n/s. The activity induced due to reactions 27 Al (n, γ)28 Al and 63 Cu (n, γ)64 Cu have been measured with a NaI (Tl) detector coupled to a single channel system. In order to obtain the samples and standards of about the same composition, the material to be irradiated was powdered. In view of low intensity of neutron source it was necessary to use samples of up to 50 g. A series of preliminary irradiations were carried out to ensure that the geometry for the irradiation and for the counting are reproducible. The results have been compared with those obtained by chemical methods. Assuming that the results obtained by chemical method is exact, a maximum relative error of 3,6% is obtained by this method. The method has a good reproducibility. The time needed for analysis of aluminium and copper are 18 min and 2 hours 40 minutes respectively. Four different samples were analysed. The average of five measurements for one of the samples was: 88.0% for aluminium and 10.0% for copper. The standard deviation and coefficient of variation were 0,8 and 1.0% for aluminium and 0,2 and 2.0% for copper. (author)

  14. The effects of mass transferin the liquid phase on the rate of aluminium evaporation from the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy

    Blacha, L.; Mizera, J.; P. Folęga

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, the rate of aluminium evaporation from the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy during smelting with the use of VIM method at 5 to 1 000 Pa and 1 973 to 2 023 K has been discussed. It has been observed that pressure reduction and temperature rise affect aluminium elimination from the alloy. Based on the determined values of overall mass transfer coefficients and mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase, it has been found that the resistance related to aluminium mass transfer in the li...

  15. The effects of mass transferin the liquid phase on the rate of aluminium evaporation from the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy

    L. Blacha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, the rate of aluminium evaporation from the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy during smelting with the use of VIM method at 5 to 1 000 Pa and 1 973 to 2 023 K has been discussed. It has been observed that pressure reduction and temperature rise affect aluminium elimination from the alloy. Based on the determined values of overall mass transfer coefficients and mass transfer coefficients in the liquid phase, it has been found that the resistance related to aluminium mass transfer in the liquid phase is about 8 % of the overall process resistance.

  16. Low Speed Laser Welding of Aluminium Alloys Using Single-Mode Fiber Lasers

    Tu, Jay; Paleocrassas, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, topics related to extending fiber laser welding of aluminium in the low speed range were discussed. General topics, such as the properties of aluminium and welding defects, review of high speed laser welding of aluminium, and fiber laser characteristics and optical setups for safety, were first reviewed. Recent research results on the modelling and validation of laser welding of aluminium, experimental characterization of low speed welding processes, and the instability pheno...

  17. Zirconium behaviour during electrorefining of actinide-zirconium alloy in molten LiCl-KCl on aluminium cathodes

    Meier, R.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Krachler, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.; Fanghänel, Th.

    2016-04-01

    A pyrochemical electrorefining process for the recovery of actinides from metallic nuclear fuel based on actinide-zirconium alloys (An-Zr) in a molten salt is being investigated. In this process actinides are group-selectively recovered on solid aluminium cathodes as An-Al alloys using a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at a temperature of 450 °C. In the present study the electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during electrorefining was investigated. The maximum amount of actinides that can be oxidised without anodic co-dissolution of zirconium was determined at a selected constant cathodic current density. The experiment consisted of three steps to assess the different stages of the electrorefining process, each of which employing a fresh aluminium cathode. The results indicate that almost a complete dissolution of the actinides without co-dissolution of zirconium is possible under the applied experimental conditions.

  18. Plastic behaviour and microstructure characterization high manganese aluminium alloyed steel for the automotive industry

    D. Kuc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Automotive industry constantly demands high-strength steels which are characterized by the energy absorption possibilities during a collision. Such materials may, in the future, replace the currently used conventional steels. The groups of steels which meet these criteria are the austenitic steels and austenitic-ferritic steels with high manganese content (15-30% and high aluminium content (1-9%. Design/methodology/approach: Susceptibility of steel to cracking at high temperatures was tested on Gleeble 3800 simulator: zero resistance temperature was determined (TZW, zero plasticity temperature was determined (TZP, plasticity reversal temperature was determined (TNP. Research was completed by determination of steel plasticity and stress applying in next stage the deformation of samples in temperature from 850 to 1175°C. This temperature range corresponding with the field of parameters of plastic processing. For samples after tension the ultimate tensile strength was determined (Rm together with contraction (Z. Character of fractures of stretched samples was tested with the use of scanning microscope Hitachi S-4200.Findings: The tests show that the tested steel is characterised by relatively lower temperatures in comparison with low-alloyed steels. Tested steel has high plasticity in temperature wear to temperature of plastic processing 1150-800°C.Practical implications: The obtained steel is characterised by beneficial properties which outbalance the austenitic steels type TWIP and may be applied in vehicle construction on elements connected with safety.Originality/value: Conducted simulation will be helpful by elaboration of technology of continuous casting and the choice of the right parameters for plastic processing of high-manganese steel with aluminium.

  19. Analysis of the tool plunge in friction stir welding - comparison of aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351

    Veljić Darko; Međo Bojan; Rakin Marko; Radosavljević Zoran; Bajić Nikola

    2016-01-01

    Temperature, plastic strain and heat generation during the plunge stage of the friction stir welding (FSW) of high-strength aluminium alloys 2024 T3 and 2024 T351 are considered in this work. The plunging of the tool into the material is done at different rotating speeds. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model for thermomechanical simulation is developed. It is based on arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation, and Johnson-Cook material law is used ...

  20. Effect of material thermo-viscoplastic modeling on the prediction of forming limit curves of aluminium alloy 5086

    Chu, XingRong,; Leotoing, Lionel; Guines, Dominique; Ragneau, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A solution to improve the formability of aluminium alloy sheets can consist in investigating warm forming processes. The optimization of forming process parameters needs a precise evaluation of material properties and sheet metal formability for actual operating environment. Based on the analytical M-K theory, a Finite Element (FE) M-K model was proposed to predict Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) at different temperatures and strain rates. The influences of initial imperfection value (f 0) and ma...

  1. Comparative Study of Aluminium Alloy Plate AA2014/7075 under the Effect of Butt Welding Process

    K.Rajasuthan2; S.Raja,

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical finite element analysis has been performed to assess the residual stress in the butt weld joints of aluminium Alloy AA2014/7075 plates by utilizing the commercial software package ABAQUS. This paper presents an efficient FE technique using equivalent load to precisely predict welding deformations and residual stresses in butt joints. The radial heat flux distribution is considered on the top surface of the weldment. Convective and radiative heat losses are ta...

  2. High-temperature mechanical properties of aluminium alloys reinforced with titanium diboride (TiB2) particles

    Oñoro Lopez, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of metal matrix composites were improved by the addition of reinforcements. The mechanical properties of particulate-reinforced metal-matrix composites based on aluminium alloys (6061 and 7015) at high temperatures were studied. Titanium diboride (TiB2) particles were used as the reinforcement. All the composites were produced by hot extrusion. The tensile properties and fracture characteristics of these materials were investigated at room temperature an...

  3. Insight of the interface of electroless Ni-P/SiC composite coating on aluminium alloy, LM24

    Franco, M.; Sha, W.; Tan, V.; Malinov, S.

    2015-01-01

    Electroless nickel composite coatings with silicon carbide, SiC, as reinforcing particles deposited with Ni–P onto aluminium alloy, LM24, having zincating as under layer were subjected to heat treatment using air furnace. The changes at the interface were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) to probe the chemistry changes upon heat treatment. Microhardness tester with various loads using both Knoop and Vickers indenters was used to study the ...

  4. Quench induced residual stress prediction in heat treatable 7xxx aluminium alloy thick plates using Gleeble interrupted quench tests

    Chobaut, N.; Carron, D.; Arsene, S.; Schloth, P.; Drezet, J. -M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a simple but realistic approach is presented to predict the as-quenched residual stress distribution in thick 7xxx aluminium alloy plates. Instead of modelling precipitation that occurs during quenching, a thermo-mechanical model is used whose parameters are identified using a limited number of tensile tests achieved after representative interrupted cooling paths in a Gleeble machine. The material behaviour law accounts for recovery at high temperature in a simple way and negle...

  5. ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL STRENGTH OF DISSIMILAR ALUMINIUM ALLOYS AA7075 AND AA2024 IN FRICTION STIR WELDING USING TAGUCHI'S TECHNIQUE

    D.Muruganandam; D.Raguraman; Sushil Lal Das

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental investigation of effects of geometrical parameters of friction stir welding of dissimilar Aluminium alloys and analysis of output responses such as tensile strength in the friction stir welding. Taguchi's Design of Experiment (DoE) is used to design the experimental array, based on which experiments were conducted. For four parameters and four levels of each parameter, L16Orthogonal array is selected. To evaluate the output quality characteristics Taguch...

  6. Evaluation of the performance of coated and uncoated carbide tools in drilling thick CFRP/aluminium alloy stacks

    MONTOYA, Maxime; CALAMAZ, Madalina; GEHIN, Daniel; GIROT, Franck

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to establish the wear mechanisms of coated and uncoated tungsten carbide drills when drilling carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP)/aluminium alloy (Al) stacks. During the drilling experiments, thrust forces were measured. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a numerical microscope, provided with a scanning device, were periodically used to analyse tool wear mechanisms and to measure wear progression of the tool cutting edges. For both coated and uncoated drills, abrasio...

  7. Evaluation of the mechanical properties and corrosion behaviour of coconut shell ash reinforced aluminium (6063 alloy composites

    Oluyemi O. DARAMOLA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium 6063/Coconut shell ash (CSAp composites having 3-12 weight percent (wt% coconut shell ash were fabricated by double stir-casting method. The microstructure, ultimate tensile strength, hardness values, density and corrosion behaviour in 0.3M H2SO4 and 3.5wt% NaCl solution of the composites were evaluated. The density of the composites exhibit a linear and proportional decreased as the percentage of coconut shell ash increases in the aluminium alloy. It implies that composites with lower weight component can be produced by adding CSAp. The microstructural analysis showed uniform distribution of coconut shell ash particles in the aluminium alloy matrix. Significant improvement in hardness and ultimate tensile strength values was noticeable as the wt% of the coconut shell ash increased in the alloy, although this occur at the expense of ductility of the composites as the modulus of elasticity of the composites decreases as the percentage of CSAp increases. Hence, this work has established that incorporation of coconut shell particles in aluminum matrix can lead to the production of low cost aluminum composites with improved hardness and tensile strength values.

  8. Aluminium EN AC-AlSi12 alloy matrix composite materials reinforced by Al2O3 porous preforms

    A. Nagel

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this work is to elaborate the method of manufacturing of composite materials based on porous ceramic preforms infiltrated by eutectic aluminium alloy.Design/methodology/approach: The material for investigations was fabricated by pressure infiltration method of ceramic porous preforms. The eutectic aluminium alloy EN AC – AlSi12 was use as a matrix while as reinforcement were used ceramic preforms fabricated by sintering of Al2O3 Alcoa CL 2500 powder with addition of pore forming agents as carbon fibres Sigrafil C10 M250 UNS manufactured by SGL Carbon Group company. The observations of the structure were made on the light microscope and in the scanning electron microscope. EDS and XRD analysis of obtained composite materials have been also made.Findings: The developed technology of manufacturing of composite materials with the pore ceramic Al2O3 infiltration ensures expected structure and can be used in practice.Practical implications: The composite materials made by the developed method can find application as the alternative material for elements fabricated from light metal matrix composite material reinforced with ceramic fibrous preforms.Originality/value: The obtained results show the possibility of manufacturing the composite materials by the pressure infiltration method of porous sintered framework based on the ceramic particles with liquid aluminium alloy.

  9. Simulating the galvanic coupling between S-Al2CuMg phase particles and the matrix of 2024 aerospace aluminium alloy

    Lacroix, Loïc; Blanc, Christine; Pébère, Nadine; Thompson, George; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Study of the corrosion behaviour of a magnetron sputtered Al–Cu/Al–Cu–Mg model alloy couple in sulphate solutions has been undertaken to gain insight into the galvanic coupling between the matrix and SAl2CuMg particles in the 2024 aluminium alloy (AA2024). Polarisation curves and local electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements (LEIS) were performed on the individual alloys and on the model alloy couple. SEM enabled correlation of electrochemical phenomena to the observed damage. The...

  10. Age-hardening characteristics of δ-alumina fibre reinforced aluminium-silicon LM-13 alloy metal matrix composites

    Akbulut, H; Durman, M.; F. Yilmaz

    1993-01-01

    Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) with an aluminium-silicon based LM-13 alloy and short-staple Saffil (δ-alumina) fibres with volume fractions of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 0.30 have been produced using a pressure liquid infiltration process. The standard T6 heat treatment procedure was applied to both the unreinforced matrix alloy and the composites, and the effect of the fibres on the age-hardening characteristics of the composites has been investigated by means of hardness measurements.

  11. MICROSTRUCTURAL CHARACTERISATION AND CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF TOP SURFACE OF TIG WELDED 2219−T87 ALUMINIUM ALLOY

    Venkatasubramanian, G.; A. Sheik Mideen; Abhay K Jha

    2013-01-01

    The microstructural characterisation and corrosion behaviour of top surface of tungsten inert gas (TIG) welded 2219−T87 aluminium alloy (AA2219–T87) in 0.6 M NaCl solution was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), potentiodynamic polarisation, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The optical microscopy and SEM analyses revealed that the welding of base metal (BM) with ER2319 filler alloy caused the formation of micro pores and micro cracks on the surf...

  12. Influence of surface lithium-aluminium alloy covering the anode of 3V lithium cells on their electric characteristics

    Reasons for the change in electric characteristics after a long shelf life of 3-volt lithium elements with (CF)-n, MnO2- and V2O5-cathodes and with anodes coated with lithium-aluminium alloy have been studied. It has been ascertained that in lithium elements with organic electrolyte the alloy on the anode promotes formation of gel-like reduced polymer solvent of the (AlOOLi)n type, which gives rise to increase in the electrolyte viscosity and decrease in electric capacity of the element during storage. 9 refs.; 4 tabs

  13. Comparative study of corrosion resistance of various aluminium alloys under water chemistry conditions of reactor MIR storage pool

    Aimed to reveal the regularities of corrosion behaviour for a number of aluminium alloys (1100, 6061, 6063, SAV-1) commonly used for research reactor fuel cans, the alloy specimens in the form of disk 3 mm thick, with diameters of 100 and 70 mm and a central orifice of 30 mm are placed into the aqueous medium of a spent fuel storage pool for long standing (up to 5 years). Disk of large and small diameters arranged in pairs are strung on a stainless steel 316 pipe using ceramic disks as spacers. Pairs of specimens consist as of similar so of dissimilar aluminium alloys. Two pairs have small disks of stainless steel 316. The results of specimens examination after 1.5 years of exposure are presented. It is stated that among the specimens of 100 mm diameter the least absolute gain in weight is obtained for a 6063 alloy/stainless steel 316 pair. A pair consisting of alloy 6061 only shows the least gain in weight among 70 mm diameter disks. It is marked that all data on gain in weight are described well by a parabolic curve. A preliminary conclusion is made that the main share of gain in weight is accounted for by contact surfaces

  14. Studies on partially melted zone in aluminium-copper alloy welds-effect of techniques and prior thermal temper

    Partially melted zone (PMZ) of aluminium alloy welds is an important region and requires careful attention. This is mainly because PMZ in these materials is weak link in the weldments and is significantly affected by welding parameters. Microstructure changes in PMZ are related not only to welding heat input and techniques, but also depend on the initial thermal history of alloy (for example, whether it is in T6 or T87 condition etc.). Interestingly, not many detailed studies were available in this respect. In the present work, effect of prior thermal temper and welding techniques mainly continuous and pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) on the PMZ behaviour of AA2219 alloy was studied. Susceptibility to liquation was found to be high in T6 temper of AA2219 alloy than in T87. Pulsed current technique was found to improve the resistance to the susceptibility to liquation in PMZ

  15. Experiment planning in the investigation of the heat-resistance of the iron-nickel-chromium-silicon-aluminium system alloys

    The general laws governing variation in the heat-resistance within the temperature range of 1100 to 1300 deg C, of alloys of iron-nickel-chromium-silicon-aluminium system have been examined depending on their composition. The heat resistance of the alloys was assessed after 500-hour holding according to an increase in the mass of cylindrical samples. Using the experimental data as the basis, the heat-resistant models were developed according to the composition of alloys. It has been established that the alloy containing 52.7% Ni; 22.4% Cr; 1.8% Si; 2.49% Al (the balance is iron), is best with regard to its heat resistance at a temperature of 1300 deg C

  16. Effects of surface treatment of aluminium alloy 1050 on the adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating

    Highlights: • Aluminium alloy 1050 was treated by zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating. • The surface morphology and surface free energy of the samples were obtained. • The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating was studied on the treated samples. • The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was enhanced on treated samples. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to investigate the effects of zirconium-based (Zr) conversion coating on the adhesion properties and corrosion resistance of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the aluminium alloy 1050 (AA1050). Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrum (EDS), atomic force microscope (AFM) and contact angle measuring device were employed in order to characterize the surface characteristics of the Zr treated AA1050 samples. The epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and Zr treated samples. The epoxy coating adhesion to the aluminium substrate was evaluated by pull-off test before and after 30 days immersion in 3.5% w/w NaCl solution. In addition, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests were employed to characterize the corrosion protection properties of the epoxy coating applied on the AA1050 samples. Results revealed that the surface treatment of AA1050 by zirconium conversion coating resulted in the increase of surface free energy and surface roughness. The dry and recovery (adhesion strength after 30 days immersion in the 3.5 wt% NaCl solution) adhesion strengths of the coatings applied on the Zr treated aluminium samples were greater than untreated sample. In addition, the adhesion loss of the coating applied on the Zr treated aluminium substrate was lower than other samples. Also, the results obtained from EIS and salt spray test clearly revealed that the Zr conversion coating could enhance the corrosion protective performance of the epoxy coating significantly

  17. Elastic and plastic properties of iron-aluminium alloys. Special problems raised by the brittleness of alloys of high aluminium content; Proprietes elastiques et plastiques des alliages fer-aluminium. Problemes particuliers poses par la fragilite des alliages a forte teneur en aluminium

    Mouturat, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    The present study embodies the results obtained with iron-aluminium alloys whose composition runs from 0 to nearly 50 atoms per cent aluminium. Conditions of elaboration and transformation have been studied successively, as well as the Young's modulus and the flow stress; the last chapter embodies, a study of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect in alloys of 40 atoms per cent of aluminium. I) The principal difficulty to clear up consisted in the intergranular brittleness of ordered alloys; this brittleness has been considerably reduced with appropriate conditions of elaboration and transformation. II) The studies upon the Young's modulus are in connection with iron-aluminium alloys; transformation temperatures are well shown up. The formation of covalent bonds on and after 25 atoms per cent show the highest values of the modulus. III) The analysis of variations of the flow stress according to the temperature show some connection with ordered structures, the existence of antiphase domains and the existence of sur-structure dislocations. IV) In the ordered Fe Al domain the kinetics of the Portevin-le-Chatelier effect could be explained by a mechanism of diffusion of vacancies. The role they play has been specified by the influence they exert upon the dislocations; this has led us to the inhomogeneous Rudman order; this inhomogeneous order could explain the shape of the traction curves. (author) [French] Cette etude comporte les resultats obtenus avec des alliages fer-aluminium dont la composition s'etend de 0 a pres de 50 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. Nous avons etudie successivement les conditions d'elaboration et de transformation, le module elastique et la limite elastique; un dernier chapitre est consacre a l'etude du phenomene Portevin-le-Chatelier dans les alliages a 40 atomes pour cent d'aluminium. I) La principale difficulte a resoudre residait dans la fragilite intergranulaire des alliages ordonnes; celle-ci a ete considerablement reduite par des conditions appropriees d'elaboration et de transformation. II) Les etudes de module d'elasticite sont en rapport avec les diagrammes fer-aluminium; les temperatures de transformation sont bien mises en evidence. La formation de liaisons covalentes a partir de 25 atomes pour cent se traduit par des valeurs plus elevees du module. III) L'analyse des variations de la limite elastique en fonction de la-temperature fait apparaitre certaines relations avec les structures ordonnees, la presence de domaines anti-phases et l'existence de dislocations de surstructure. IV) Dans le domaine Fe Al ordonne, la cinetique du phenomene Portevin-le- Chatelier reposerait sur un mecanisme de diffusion lacunaire; nous avons precise leur role par l'influence qu'elles ont sur les dislocations, ce qui nous a conduit a l'ordre inhomogene de Rudman qui pourrait expliquer les crochets observes sur les courbes de traction. (auteur)

  18. Processing and characterization of aluminium alloys or composites exhibiting low-temperature or high-rate superplasticity

    Wide applications of superplastic forming still face several problems, one is the high temperature that promotes grain growth, another is the low forming rate that makes economically inefficient. The current study is intended to develop a series of fabrication and thermomechanical processing, so as to result in materials possessing either low temperature superplasticity (LTSP) or high rate superplasticity (HRSP). The former has been achieved in the cast Al alloys, while the latter was accomplished in powder-metallurgy aluminium matrix composites. The aluminium alloys, after special thermomechanical processes, exhibited LTSP from 300 to 450 degree C with elongations varying from 300 to 700 %. The LTSP sheets after 700 % elongation at 350 degree C still possessed fine grains 3.7 μm size and narrow surface solute depletion zones 11 μm in with, resulting in a post-SP T6 strength of 500 MPa, significantly higher than that of the HTSP superplasticity alloys tested at 525 degree C or above. Meanwhile, it was found that LTSP materials may be transferred into HTSP materials simply by adding a preloading at 300-400 degree C for a small amount of work. As for the endeavor in making HRSP materials, 2024Al/SiC, 6061Al/SiC and Al/Al3Ti systems processed by powder metallurgy or mechanical alloying methods are under investigation. The average sizes of the reinforcing SiC or A13Ti particles, as well as the grain size are all around 1 μm. The aluminium composites have exhibited HRSP at 525-620 degree C and 10-2-10-1 s-l, with elongations varying from 150 to 350 %. This ultimate goal is to produce an alloy or composite exhibiting low temperature and high strain rate superplasticity (LT and HRSP). (author)

  19. Slow fatigue crack growth in aluminium and magnesium cast alloys in ambient air and in a vacuum; Langsames Ermuedungsrisswachstum in Aluminium- und Magnesiumgusslegierungen in Raumluft und in Vakuum

    Fuchs, U.; Mayer, H.; Tschegg, S.; Zettl, B. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Meteorologie und Geophysik; Lipowsky, Hj.; Stich, A. [Audi AG, Ingolstadt (Germany); Papakyriacou, M. [ARC Leichtmetallkompetenzzentrum Ranshofen GmbH, Ranshofen (Austria)

    2002-01-01

    The influence of ambient air on near threshold fatigue crack growth in the magnesium cast alloys AZ91 hp, AM60 hp and AS21 hp and in the aluminium cast alloy AlSi9Cu3 has been investigated. Fatigue crack growth properties at a cycling frequency of 20 kHz in ambient air and in a vacuum are significantly different. In a vacuum, the threshold stress intensity amplitude of the aluminium alloy is 30% higher than in ambient air, and the threshold values of the magnesium alloys in a vacuum are up to 85% higher than in ambient air. Moisture of ambient air is responsible for accelerated crack growth at growth rates below 1 - 3 x 10{sup -9} m/cycle (AlSi9Cu3) and 2 - 5 x 10{sup -8} m/cycle (magnesium alloys), respectively. In ambient air a minimum crack growth rate of 5 x 10{sup -11} - 2 x 10{sup -10} m/cycle was observed, whereas far lower minimum growth rates were found in a vacuum. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit beschaeftigt sich mit dem Einfluss des Umgebungsmediums Raumluft auf das sehr langsame Ermuedungsrisswachstum in den druckgegossenen Magnesiumlegierungen AZ91 hp, AM60 hp und AS21 hp und in der druckgegossenen Aluminiumlegierung AlSi9Cu3. Die bei einer Beanspruchungsfrequenz von 20 kHz gemessenen Rissausbreitungskurven in Raumluft und Vakuum unterscheiden sich im Schwellwertbereich deutlich. Der Schwellwert der Aluminiumlegierung liegt in Vakuum 30% hoeher als in Raumluft, und die Schwellwerte der Magnesiumlegierungen liegen bis zu 85% hoeher. Die in der Raumluft enthaltene Luftfeuchtigkeit ist massgeblich fuer die Beschleunigung des Risswachstums, wobei ein Einfluss bei AlSi9Cu3 bis zu Risswachstumsgeschwindigkeiten von 1 - 3 x 10{sup -9} m/Lastspiel und bei den Magnesiumlegierungen bis zu 2 - 5 x 10{sup -8} m/Lastspiel gefunden wird. In Raumluft wachsen Ermuedungsrisse mit einer Wachstumsgeschwindigkeit von mindestens 5 x 10{sup -11} - 2 x 10{sup -10} m/Lastspiel, waehrend in Vakuum auch wesentlich niedrigere Wachstumsraten gefunden wurden. (orig.)

  20. EVALUATION OF PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR WELDING FOR ALUMINIUM AA6351 ALLOY

    AHMED KHALID HUSSAIN

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is a solid state welding process in which the relative motion between the tool and the work piece produces heat which makes the material of two edges being joined by plastic atomicdiffusion. This method relies on the direct conversion of mechanical energy to thermal energy to form the weld without the application of heat from conventional source. The rotational speed of the tools, the axial pressure and welding speed and the (weld time are the principal variables that are controlled in order to provide the necessary combination of heat and pressure to form the weld. These parameters are adjusted so that the interface is heated into the plastic temperature range (plastic state where welding can take place. During the last stage of welding process, atomic diffusion occurs while the interfaces are in contact, allowing metallurgical bond to form between the two materials. The functional behaviour of the weldments is substantially determined by the nature of the weld strength characterized by the tensile strength, metallurgical behavior, surface roughness, weld hardness and micro hardness. In this project an attempt is made to determine and evaluate the influence of the process parameters of FSW on the weldments. The Vickers hardness, tensile strength and radiography are considered for investigation by varying tool speed, tool feed and maintaining onstant depth of penetration of weld. Experiments were conducted on AA6351 Aluminium alloy in a CNC Vertical Machining Centre. Theoutput factors are measured in UTM, Vickers hardness tester and Radiography equipment. Results show strong relation and robust comparison between the weldment strength and process parameters. Hence FSW process variable data base is to be developed for wide variety of metals and alloys for selection of optimum process parameters for efficient weld.