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Sample records for a20 regulates period

  1. Theoretical analyses predict A20 regulates period of NF-kB oscillation

    Mengel, Benedicte; Jensen, Mogens H; Trusina, Ala

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of NF-kB is characterized by damped oscillations of the nuclear concentration with a time period of around 1-2 hours. The NF-kB network contains several feedback loops modulating the overall response of NF-kB activity. While IkBa is known to drive and IkBe is known to dampen the oscillations, the precise role of A20 negative feedback remains to be elucidated. Here we propose a model of the NF-kB system focusing on three negative feedback loops (IkBa, IkBe and A20) which capture the experimentally observed responses in wild-type and knockout cells. We find that A20, like IkBe, efficiently dampens the oscillations albeit through a distinct mechanism. In addition, however, we have discovered a new functional role of A20 by which it controls the oscillation period of nuclear NF-kB. The design based on three nested feedback loops allows independent control of period and amplitude decay in the oscillatory response. Based on these results we predict that adjusting the expression lev...

  2. EXPRESSION OF THE INFLAMMATORY REGULATOR A20 CORRELATES WITH LUNG FUNCTION IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS

    Kelly, Catriona; Williams, Mark; Elborn, Stuart; Ennis, Madeleine; Schock, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: A20 and TAX1BP1 interact to negatively regulate NF--driven inflammation. A20 expression is altered in F508del/F508delpatients. Here we explore the effect of CFTR and CFTR genotype on A20 andTAX1BP1expression. The relationship with lung function is also assessed.Methods: Primary Nasal Epithelial cells (NECs) from CF patients(F508del/F508del, n=8, R117H/F508del, n=6) and Controls (age-matched,n=8), and 16HBE14o- cells were investigated. A20 and TAX1BP1 geneexpression was d...

  3. A 20-year-old Chinese man with recurrent hypokalemic periodic paralysis and delayed diagnosis

    Naqi, Muniba; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Pant, Shradha; Shrestha, Rajesh; Tadros, Michael; Murukutla, Srujitha; Rothman, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Periodic paralysis in the setting of hypokalemia can be the result of several underlying conditions, requiring systematic evaluation. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP), a curable cause of hypokalemic periodic paralysis, can often be the first manifestation of thyrotoxicosis. Because the signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis can be subtle and clouded by the clinical distress of the patient, the diagnosis of the underlying metabolic disorder can be overlooked. The authors report a case of TPP ...

  4. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga, E-mail: thiagoveiga@cardiol.br; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Povoa, Thais Rolim [Faculdade de Educação Física - Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  5. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  6. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Thiago Veiga Jardim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students, of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample, of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men, followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05 were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05. Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05. Conclusion

  7. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    Tachibana, Keisuke, E-mail: nya@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Yamasaki, Daisuke [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ishimoto, Kenji [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Laboratory for System Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Doi, Takefumi [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, 1-6 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); The Center for Advanced Medical Engineering and Informatics, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2009-11-20

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  8. Analysis of the Indicence and Survival of Female Breast Cancer Patients in Beijing Over a 20-Year Period

    Qijun Wang; Weixing Zhu; Xiumei Xing; Chenxu Qu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide evidence for breast cancer prevention and control through epidemiological analysis of the incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients in Beijing.METHODS The female registration data in the Beijing urban area from 1982 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients were analyzed using routine and life-table statistical methods.RESULTS During the period of 1982 to 2001, there was a trend of an average annual increase of female breast cancer incidence of 4.6% in urban Beijing, and of 4.9% in the world-population standardized incidence.The epidemiological features of urban Beijing female breast cancer showed:(1)The incidence distribution of different age groups from 25 to 80 years elevated with two peaks at ages of 45~ and 70~ years; (2)There was an elevation in each age group over the last 20 years; (3)The incidence rate at ages of 35 to 64 reached 95.3/105, causing breast cancer to become the number one cancer in females. The changes in the survival rate showed the following: the 5-year observed survival rate (OSR)increased from 62.0% in 1982~1983 to 68.7% in 1987~1988, and the relative-survival rate (RSR) increased from 66.3% to 74.2%. The 10-year OSR and RSR in 1987~1988 were 60.3% and 65.1%, and at 15 years 57.5% and 61.3%, respectively. The mortality rate of breast cancer patients fluctuated from 8 to 10 per 105 population over the 20 years of study.CONCLUSION There is a trend of an annual increase in female breast cancer in Beijing. The 5-year survival is being improved gradually while the mortality remains stable. The results demonstrate that the principles of "early prevention, diagnosis and treatment" for breast cancer are effective in Beijing.

  9. Genetic relatedness of selected clinical Vibrio cholerae O139 isolates from the southern coastal area of China over a 20-year period.

    Li, B S; Xiao, Y; Wang, D C; Tan, H L; Ke, B X; He, D M; Ke, C W; Zhang, Y H

    2016-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae O139 emerged as a causative agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in India and Bangladesh, and was subsequently reported in China in 1993. The genetic relatedness and molecular characteristics of V. cholerae O139 in Guangdong Province, located in the southern coastal area of China, remains undetermined. In this study, we investigated 136 clinical V. cholerae O139 isolates from 1993 to 2013 in Guangdong. By conventional PCR, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for ctxB, ace and zot. Sequencing of the positive amplicons indicated 113 (91·7%) isolates possessed the El Tor allele of ctxB (genotype 3); seven carried the classical ctxB type (genotype 1) and three harboured a novel ctxB type (genotype 5). With respect to tcpA, 123 (90·4%) isolates were positive for the El Tor allele. In addition, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (with NotI digestion) differentiated the isolates into clusters A and B. Cluster A contained seven of the non-toxigenic isolates from 1998 to 2000; another six non-toxigenic isolates (from 1998 and 2007) and all of the toxigenic isolates formed cluster B. Our results suggest that over a 20-year period, the predominant O139 clinical isolates have maintained a relatively tight clonal structure, although some genetic variance and shift has occurred. Our data highlight the persistence of toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in clinical settings in the southern coastal area of China. PMID:27305977

  10. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  11. Does Cancer Literature Reflect Multidisciplinary Practice? A Systematic Review of Oncology Studies in the Medical Literature Over a 20-Year Period

    Holliday, Emma B. [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Ahmed, Awad A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Yoo, Stella K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Jagsi, Reshma [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hoffman, Karen E., E-mail: KHoffman1@mdanderson.org [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Quality cancer care is best delivered through a multidisciplinary approach requiring awareness of current evidence for all oncologic specialties. The highest impact journals often disseminate such information, so the distribution and characteristics of oncology studies by primary intervention (local therapies, systemic therapies, and targeted agents) were evaluated in 10 high-impact journals over a 20-year period. Methods and Materials: Articles published in 1994, 2004, and 2014 in New England Journal of Medicine, Lancet, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Annals of Oncology, Radiotherapy and Oncology, International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, Annals of Surgical Oncology, and European Journal of Surgical Oncology were identified. Included studies were prospectively conducted and evaluated a therapeutic intervention. Results: A total of 960 studies were included: 240 (25%) investigated local therapies, 551 (57.4%) investigated systemic therapies, and 169 (17.6%) investigated targeted therapies. More local therapy trials (n=185 [77.1%]) evaluated definitive, primary treatment than systemic (n=178 [32.3%]) or targeted therapy trials (n=38 [22.5%]; P<.001). Local therapy trials (n=16 [6.7%]) also had significantly lower rates of industry funding than systemic (n=207 [37.6%]) and targeted therapy trials (n=129 [76.3%]; P<.001). Targeted therapy trials represented 5 (2%), 38 (10.2%), and 126 (38%) of those published in 1994, 2004, and 2014, respectively (P<.001), and industry-funded 48 (18.9%), 122 (32.6%), and 182 (54.8%) trials, respectively (P<.001). Compared to publication of systemic therapy trial articles, articles investigating local therapy (odds ratio: 0.025 [95% confidence interval: 0.012-0.048]; P<.001) were less likely to be found in high-impact general medical journals. Conclusions: Fewer studies evaluating local therapies, such as surgery and radiation, are published in

  12. Relating periodicity of nucleosome organization and gene regulation

    Wan, Jun; Lin, Jimmy; Zack, Donald J.; Qian, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The relationship between nucleosome positioning and gene regulation is fundamental yet complex. Previous studies on genomic nucleosome positions have revealed a correlation between nucleosome occupancy on promoters and gene expression levels. Many of these studies focused on individual nucleosomes, especially those proximal to transcription start sites. To study the collective effect of multiple nucleosomes on the gene expression, we developed a mathematical approach based on auto...

  13. Evolution and regulation of cellular periodic processes: a role for paralogues

    Trachana, Kalliopi; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    paralogues. Thus, diverged temporal expression of paralogues seems to facilitate cellular orchestration under different periodic stimuli. Lineage-specific functional repertoires of periodic-associated paralogues imply that this mode of regulation might have evolved independently in several organisms....... performed the first systematic comparison in three organisms (Homo sapiens, Arabidopsis thaliana and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) by using public microarray data. We observed that although diurnal-regulated and ultradian-regulated genes are not generally cell-cycle-regulated, they tend to have cell-cycle-regulated...

  14. Changes in meltwater chemistry over a 20-year period following a thermal regime switch from polythermal to cold-based glaciation at Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard

    Nowak, Aga; Hodson, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Our long-term study gives a rare insight into meltwater hydrochemistry following the transition of Austre Brøggerbreen from polythermal to cold-based glaciation and its continued retreat. We find that the processes responsible for ion acquisition did not change throughout the period of records but became more productive. Two regimes before and after July/August 2000 were identified from changes in solute concentrations and pH. They resulted from increased chemical weathering occurring in ice-...

  15. Engineering study of a 20 MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Final report for the period ending October 1976

    1976-10-01

    The Research and Engineering Operation of Bechtel Corporation conducted an engineering study of a 20-MW lead--acid battery energy storage demonstration plant. Ten alternative designs were evaluated. Basically, the configurations proposed for the demonstration plants are those of the mature plants which would follow. The designs of the individual plants are based on the cell designs and the means used to house the cells. Initially, proposed cell designs from five manufacturers were considered. To conform with the level of effort allowed for this engineering study, two manufacturers' cells (one open-tank design and one sealed cell design) were selected by ERDA and Bechtel as being representative. These designs formed the basis for the detailed evaluation conducted in this study. The plant and battery configurations evaluated in the study are a large open-tank cell, configured in rows and housed in four buildings; a sealed cell, configured in a single layer of close packed rows in a single building; a sealed cell, configured in a three-tiered arrangement in a single building; and a sealed cell, configured with groups of cells housed in weatherproof modules and placed outdoors. Annual operating costs based on these mature plant costs show lead--acid load-leveling plants are generally not economically competitive with the alternatives when no consideration is given to their other possible benefits to the power system. However, application of credits (e.g., transmission line or spinning reserve credits) can make such plants economically competitive with gas turbine peaking units in specific situations. 46 figures, 25 tables. (RWR)

  16. Changes in meltwater chemistry over a 20-year period following a thermal regime switch from polythermal to cold-based glaciation at Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard

    Aga Nowak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term study gives a rare insight into meltwater hydrochemistry following the transition of Austre Brøggerbreen from polythermal to cold-based glaciation and its continued retreat. We find that the processes responsible for ion acquisition did not change throughout the period of records but became more productive. Two regimes before and after July/August 2000 were identified from changes in solute concentrations and pH. They resulted from increased chemical weathering occurring in ice-marginal and proglacial environments that have become progressively exposed by glacier retreat. Carbonate carbonation nearly doubled between 2000 and 2010, whilst increases in the weathering of silicate minerals were also marked. In addition, the end of ablation season chemistry was characterized by reactions in long residence time flow paths like those in subglacial environments, in spite of their absence in the watershed. Furthermore, the retreat of the glacier caused the sudden re-routing of meltwaters through its immediate forefield during 2009, which more than doubled crustal ion yields in this particular year and influenced chemical weathering in 2010 regardless of a low water flux. Such a “flush” of crustally derived ions can be meaningful for downstream terrestrial and marine ecosystems. We therefore find that, during glacier retreat, the recently exposed forefield is the most chemically active part of the watershed, making high rates of weathering possible, even when ice losses have caused a switch to cold-based conditions with no delayed subglacial drainage flowpaths. In addition, the drainage system reorganization events result in significant pCO2 depletion in an otherwise high pCO2 system.

  17. Periodization

    Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation litera...

  18. Regulating Critical Period Plasticity: Insight from the Visual System to Fear Circuitry for Therapeutic Interventions

    Elisa M. Nabel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Early temporary windows of heightened brain plasticity called critical periods developmentally sculpt neural circuits and contribute to adult behavior. Regulatory mechanisms of visual cortex development –the preeminent model of experience-dependent critical period plasticity- actively limit adult plasticity and have proved fruitful therapeutic targets to reopen plasticity and rewire faulty visual system connections later in life. Interestingly, these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in the regulation of plasticity in other functions beyond vision. Applying mechanistic understandings of critical period plasticity in the visual cortex to fear circuitry may provide a conceptual framework for developing novel therapeutic tools to mitigate aberrant fear responses in post traumatic stress disorder. In this review, we turn to the model of experience-dependent visual plasticity to provide novel insights for the mechanisms regulating plasticity in the fear system. Fear circuitry, particularly fear memory erasure, also undergoes age-related changes in experience-dependent plasticity. We consider the contributions of molecular brakes that halt visual critical period plasticity to circuitry underlying fear memory erasure. A major molecular brake in the visual cortex, perineuronal net formation, recently has been identified in the development of fear systems that are resilient to fear memory erasure. The roles of other molecular brakes, myelin-related Nogo receptor signaling and Lynx family proteins– endogenous inhibitors for nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, are explored in the context of fear memory plasticity. Such fear plasticity regulators, including epigenetic effects, provide promising targets for therapeutic interventions.

  19. O-Glycosylation Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Anti-Inflammatory Protein A20 to Accelerate Atherosclerosis in Diabetic ApoE-Null Mice

    Shrikhande, Gautam V.; Scali, Salvatore T.; Csizmadia, Eva; Matthey, Michaela; Arjoon, Roy; Patel, Rakesh; Maccariello, Elizabeth R.; Andersen, Nicholas D.; Monahan, Thomas; Studer, Peter; Padilha Guedes, Renata; Usheva, Anny; Da Silva, Cleide Gonsalves; Damrauer, Scott Michael; Putheti, Prabhakar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accelerated atherosclerosis is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a recognized independent risk factor for heightened atherogenesis in diabetes mellitus (DM). However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying glucose damage to the vasculature remains incomplete. Methodology/Principal Findings: High glucose and hyperglycemia reduced upregulation of the NF-κB inhibitory and atheroprotective protein A20 in human coronary endothel...

  20. Analysis of publications by the Nuclear Regulation Authority for the period 2000-2014

    This paper analyzes the publication habits by the Nuclear Regulation Authority (ARN) of Argentina for the period 2000-2014, through indicators of volume, typology, language and co authorship. It makes focus on publications in academic journals and characterizes them by publication country, language and access, and at the same time measures their impact and visibility through their classification in the SJR (SCImago Journal Rank) and their Impact Factor. Finally, it makes an introduction of Open Access journals in which the ARN has published, and briefly describes this method of dissemination. (authors)

  1. The Application of Billings for Fertility Regulation Method during the Period of Breastfeeding

    金碧华; 姜国珠; 潘琢如; 颜洁敏; 彭守静; 陆仁康

    1999-01-01

    In order to adopt Billings Method for fertility regulation during the period of breast-feeding,cervical mucus was observed and monitored in 61 breast-feeding mothers.Urine estrogen and/or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast feeding mothers.Observations on cervical mucus during 244 months were collected.The type of dry or no mucus was observed in 75.27% fully breast-feeding mothers.Constant unchanging mucus was ob-served in 69.39% partially breast-feeding mothers.Developmental changing mucus was observed in 79.25% of mothers bottle-feeding their infants.According to the record on cervical mucus within 6months postpartum,97.14% of the cervical mucus was consistent with normal menstrual cycles.Urine estrogen and /or pregnanediol were/was measured in 15 breast-feeding mothers.The level of estrogen in urine averaged 0.08 μmol/24 h in fully breast feeding mothers and 0.14 μmol/24 h in partially breast-feeding mothers.The peak level averaged 0.21 pmol/24 h in bottle-feeding mothers.The pregnanediol level was determined to confirm ovulation in bottle-feeding mothers.The average levels of cut off and the period of ovutation in 6bottle feeding mother were 7 μmol/24 h and 9 μmol/24 h respectively.Measurement of urine estrogen and pregnanediot level all matched with cervical mucus appearances.Conclusion: Billings Method is a simple,scientific method for contraception without side-effects during breast-feeding period.

  2. Fan-Shaped Body Neurons Are Involved in "Period"-Dependent Regulation of Long-Term Courtship Memory in "Drosophila"

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the "Drosophila" gene "period" ("per") also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of "per" in subsets of brain neurons enhance and…

  3. Dutch regulations for reduction of refrigerant emissions: experiences with a unique approach over the period 1993-1998

    Gerwen, R.J.M. van; Verwoerd, Mw. M.

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, a unique approach concerning the ozone depleting and global warming issues, with respect to refrigerants, operates since 1992. National mandatory regulations focus on leakage and emission reduction, instead of bans on production or specific applications. After a period of initial

  4. [Regulation of behavior in the period between the world wars: Robert Musil and Kurt Lewin].

    Innerhofer, Roland; Rothe, Katja

    2010-12-01

    The paper attempts to reconstruct the proto-cybernetic concept of regulation which emerged in early 20th century both in biology and psychology, and was critically reflected in literature. The basic premise is that Kurt Lewin's field-theoretical psychology played a crucial role in the development of behavioral self-regulation concepts. The goal is to show (1) that Lewin's early experiments and theories were based on the idea of a dynamic process of self-regulation determined by the actors and their personal motivation and interaction, (2) that this concept of self-regulation functioned as a camouflage for power-strategies that aimed to regulate and optimize the economic production and social reproduction processes, (3) that in Robert Musil's fragmentary, 'fringing' novel The Man without Qualities the attempt to optimize the social and economic behavior and to establish a homeostatic state proved to be a complete failure. As a notable result, this 'literary test' of behavioral self-regulation revealed the violence and imbalance of power inherent in this concept of self-regulation and its practical implementation. PMID:21469296

  5. Development of an analogue multiplexed regulation for periodic 1. order delayed processes

    The present note deals with the study regulations of the sampled type, for 1. order process with simple delay. In order to obtain a good stability in such regulations, together with acceptable performances, it is interesting to use polynomial type correctors acting directly on the sampled error signals. The active elements of these correctors can be shared by all the channels to be controlled. Furthermore, the determination of the correction parameters results from an optimal study of the system. In the second part is described the construction of a multiplexed regulation for diffusion ovens. (author)

  6. Investing without credible inter-period regulations. A bargaining approach with application to investments in natural resources

    A government's lack of credibility when promising future taxation and regulation of foreign direct investment is often regarded as an obstacle to foreign investment. As shown in this paper, the total lack of inter-period credibility may not necessarily prevent investments from taking place. Both the government and the investor can benefit from negotiating a series of short-lived agreements in which the investor obtains a share of the revenue generated from previous investments against the undertaking of making new investments. This assumes that intra-period agreements are respected by the parties

  7. Anti-Money Laundry regulation and Crime: A two-period model of money-in-the-utility-function

    Fanta, F; Mohsin, H

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a two period model with two types of money i.e. dirty and cleans (legal) money in utility function. Clean money is earned from working in legal sector and dirty from illegal sector. Our two-two period model reveals that an increase in labor wage in legal sector unambiguously decease the labor hours allocated for illegal sector by increasing the opportunity cost for illegal activities. However, the crime-reducing impact of anti-money laundry regulation and the probability of...

  8. REGULATION OF CONCEPTUS ADHESION BY ENDOMETRIAL CXC CHEMOKINES DURING THE IMPLANTATION PERIOD IN SHEEP

    To gain a better understanding of biochemical mechanisms of conceptus adhesion to the maternal endometrium in ruminant ungulates, the present study was performed to clarify roles of chemokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in the regulation of ovine blastocyst attachment to the endometri...

  9. Fan-shaped body neurons are involved in period-dependent regulation of long-term courtship memory in Drosophila

    Sakai, Takaomi; Inami, Show; Sato, Shoma; Kitamoto, Toshihiro

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its established function in the regulation of circadian rhythms, the Drosophila gene period (per) also plays an important role in processing long-term memory (LTM). Here, we used courtship conditioning as a learning paradigm and revealed that (1) overexpression and knocking down of per in subsets of brain neurons enhance and suppress LTM, respectively, and (2) suppression of synaptic transmission during memory retrieval in the same neuronal subsets leads to defective LTM. Furth...

  10. Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period

    Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M.; Durosko, Nicole E.; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, b...

  11. 77 FR 6038 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations; Comment Period Extension

    2012-02-07

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 19 RIN 1513-AB89 Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant... Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau is extending the comment period for Notice No. 124, Revisions to Distilled... Register on December 5, 2011. TTB is taking this action in response to a request from a distilled...

  12. Differential Regulation of the Period Genes in Striatal Regions following Cocaine Exposure

    Falcon, Edgardo; Ozburn, Angela; Mukherjee, Shibani; Roybal, Kole; McClung, Colleen A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that disruptions in circadian rhythms contribute to the pathophysiology of multiple psychiatric diseases, including drug addiction. In fact, a number of the genes involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms are also involved in modulating the reward value for drugs of abuse, like cocaine. Thus, we wanted to determine the effects of chronic cocaine on the expression of several circadian genes in the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) and Caudate Putamen (CP), regions of...

  13. Postnatal development of alveoli. Regulation and evidence for a critical period in rats.

    Massaro, D; Teich, N.; Maxwell, S.; Massaro, G D; Whitney, P

    1985-01-01

    In many species, including humans, pulmonary alveoli are formed after birth by septal subdivision of the large gas-exchange saccules present at birth. In rats septation occurs mainly between the 4th and 14th postnatal days (Burri, P. H. 1974. Anat. Rec. 180:77-98), but little is known about the regulation of this process. We found that dexamethasone (0.1 micrograms daily) given to rats from age 4 to 13 d markedly impaired saccule septation to at least age 60 d and also diminished the extent o...

  14. Period 2 regulates neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in the adult hippocampus

    Albrecht Urs; Maquet Pierre; Moonen Gustave; Nguyen Laurent; Vandenbosch Renaud; Beukelaers Pierre; Borgs Laurence; Belachew Shibeshih; Malgrange Brigitte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Newborn granule neurons are generated from proliferating neural stem/progenitor cells and integrated into mature synaptic networks in the adult dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Since light/dark variations of the mitotic index and DNA synthesis occur in many tissues, we wanted to unravel the role of the clock-controlled Period2 gene (mPer2) in timing cell cycle kinetics and neurogenesis in the adult DG. Results In contrast to the suprachiasmatic nucleus, we observed a non-...

  15. Regulation of Intertidal Microphytobenthos Photosynthesis Over a Diel Emersion Period Is Strongly Affected by Diatom Migration Patterns

    Cartaxana, Paulo; Cruz, Sónia; Gameiro, Carla; Kühl, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Changes in biomass and photosynthesis of a diatom-dominated microphytobenthos (MPB) intertidal community were studied over a diel emersion period using a combination of O2 and scalar irradiance microprofiling, variable chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence, and pigment analysis. The MPB biomass in the photic zone (0–0.5 mm) of the sediment exposed to low irradiance (150 μmol photons m-2 s-1) showed a >2-fold increase during the first hours of the emersion period, reaching >0.2 mg Chl a cm-3. Concentrations of Chl a started to decrease half-way through the emersion period, almost 2 h before tidal inundation. Similarly, O2 concentrations and volumetric gross photosynthesis in the photic zone increased during the first half of the emersion period and then decreased toward the timing of incoming tide/darkness. The results suggest that intertidal MPB community-level photosynthesis is mainly controlled by changes in the productive biomass of the photic zone determined by cell migration. A diel pattern in the photosynthesis vs. irradiance parameters α (photosynthetic efficiency at limiting irradiance) and ETRmax (photosynthetic capacity at saturating irradiance) was also observed, suggesting photoacclimation of MPB. Under high light exposure (2000 μmol photons m-2 s-1), lower α, ETRmax and sediment O2 concentrations were observed when cell migration was inhibited with the diatom motility inhibitor latrunculin A (Lat A), showing that migration is also used by MPB to maximize photosynthesis by reducing exposure to potentially photoinhibitory light levels. A higher de-epoxidation state in sediment treated with Lat A indicates that the involvement of the xanthophyll cycle in physiological photoprotection is more relevant in MPB when cells are inhibited from migrating. In the studied diatom-dominated MPB intertidal community, cell migration seems to be the key factor regulating photosynthesis over a diel emersion period and upon changes in light exposure.

  16. Downstream activation of NF-κB in the EDA-A1/EDAR signalling in Sjögren's syndrome and its regulation by the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20.

    Sisto, M; Barca, A; Lofrumento, D D; Lisi, S

    2016-05-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease and the second most common chronic systemic rheumatic disorder. Prevalence of primary SS in the general population has been estimated to be approximately 1-3%, whereas secondary SS has been observed in 10-20% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma. Despite this, its exact aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unexplored. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling mechanisms provide central controls in SS, but how these pathways intersect the pathological features of this disease is unclear. The ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 (tumour necrosis factor-α-induced protein 3, TNFAIP3) serves as a critical inhibitor on NF-κB signalling. In humans, polymorphisms in the A20 gene or a deregulated expression of A20 are often associated with several inflammatory disorders, including SS. Because A20 controls the ectodysplasin-A1 (EDA-A1)/ectodysplasin receptor (EDAR) signalling negatively, and the deletion of A20 results in excessive EDA1-induced NF-κB signalling, this work investigates the expression levels of EDA-A1 and EDAR in SS human salivary glands epithelial cells (SGEC) and evaluates the hypothesis that SS SGEC-specific deregulation of A20 results in excessive EDA1-induced NF-κB signalling in SS. Our approach, which combines the use of siRNA-mediated gene silencing and quantitative pathway analysis, was used to elucidate the role of the A20 target gene in intracellular EDA-A1/EDAR/NF-κB pathway in SS SGEC, holding significant promise for compound selection in drug discovery. PMID:26724675

  17. Oxytocin in the medial prefrontal cortex regulates maternal care, maternal aggression and anxiety during the postpartum period.

    Sabihi, Sara; Dong, Shirley M; Durosko, Nicole E; Leuner, Benedetta

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) acts on a widespread network of brain regions to regulate numerous behavioral adaptations during the postpartum period including maternal care, maternal aggression, and anxiety. In the present study, we examined whether this network also includes the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that bilateral infusion of a highly specific oxytocin receptor antagonist (OTR-A) into the prelimbic (PL) region of the mPFC increased anxiety-like behavior in postpartum, but not virgin, females. In addition, OTR blockade in the postpartum mPFC impaired maternal care behaviors and enhanced maternal aggression. Overall, these results suggest that OT in the mPFC modulates maternal care and aggression, as well as anxiety-like behavior, during the postpartum period. Although the relationship among these behaviors is complicated and further investigation is required to refine our understanding of OT actions in the maternal mPFC, these data nonetheless provide new insights into neural circuitry of OT-mediated postpartum behaviors. PMID:25147513

  18. Does the merger paradox exist even without any regulations? Evidence from Germany in the pre-1914 period

    Kling, Gerhard

    2006-01-01

    This paper measures the market response triggered by merger announcements in an environment without regulations and without a strong separation of ownership and control in Germany. Based on event study methods applied to daily data and regression analyses, I evaluate whether the merger paradox existed, and how firm size, the way of financing a merger, and industry factors influenced the success of acquirers. Hence, my study can shed some light on commonly believed explanations for the bad per...

  19. Using generalized linear models to estimate selectivity from short-term recoveries of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus: Effects of gear, fate, and regulation period

    Bacheler, N.M.; Hightower, J.E.; Burdick, S.M.; Paramore, L.M.; Buckel, J.A.; Pollock, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the selectivity patterns of various fishing gears is a critical component of fisheries stock assessment due to the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from most gears. We used short-term recoveries (n = 3587) of tagged red drum Sciaenops ocellatus to directly estimate age- and length-based selectivity patterns using generalized linear models. The most parsimonious models were selected using AIC, and standard deviations were estimated using simulations. Selectivity of red drum was dependent upon the regulation period in which the fish was caught, the gear used to catch the fish (i.e., hook-and-line, gill nets, pound nets), and the fate of the fish upon recovery (i.e., harvested or released); models including all first-order interactions between main effects outperformed models without interactions. Selectivity of harvested fish was generally dome-shaped and shifted toward larger, older fish in response to regulation changes. Selectivity of caught-and-released red drum was highest on the youngest and smallest fish in the early and middle regulation periods, but increased on larger, legal-sized fish in the late regulation period. These results suggest that catch-and-release mortality has consistently been high for small, young red drum, but has recently become more common in larger, older fish. This method of estimating selectivity from short-term tag recoveries is valuable because it is simpler than full tag-return models, and may be more robust because yearly fishing and natural mortality rates do not need to be modeled and estimated. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Transcriptional regulation of two conceptus interferon tau genes expressed in Japanese black cattle during peri-implantation period.

    Sakurai, Toshihiro; Nakagawa, So; Kim, Min-Su; Bai, Hanako; Bai, Rulan; Li, Junyou; Min, Kwan-Sik; Ideta, Atsushi; Aoyagi, Yoshito; Imakawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Interferon tau (IFNT), produced by the mononuclear trophectoderm, signals the process of maternal recognition of pregnancy in ruminants. However, its expression in vivo and its transcriptional regulation are not yet well characterized. Objectives of this study were to determine conceptus IFNT gene isoforms expressed in the bovine uterus and to identify differences in promoter sequences of IFNT genes that differ in their expression. RNA-seq data analysis of bovine conceptuses on days 17, 20, and 22 (day 0  =  day of estrus) detected the expression of two IFNT transcripts, IFNT1 and IFNTc1, which were indeed classified into the IFNT gene clade. RNA-seq and quantitative RT-PCR analyses also revealed that the expression levels of both IFNT mRNAs were highest on day 17, and then decreased on days 20 and 22. Bovine ear-derived fibroblast (EF) cells, a model system commonly used for bovine IFNT gene transcription study in this laboratory, were cotransfected with luciferase reporter constructs carrying upstream (positions -637 to +51) regions of IFNT1 or IFNTc1 gene and various transcription factor expression plasmids including CDX2, AP-1 (Jun) and ETS2. CDX2, either alone or with the other transcription factors, markedly increased luciferase activity. The upstream regions of IFNT1 and IFNTc1 loci were then serially deleted or point-mutated at potential CDX-, AP-1-, and ETS-binding sites. Compared to the wild-type constructs, deletion or mutation at CDX2 or ETS2 binding sites similarly reduced the luciferase activities of IFNT1- or IFNTc1-promoter constructs. However, with the AP-1 site mutated construct, IFNT1- and IFNTc1-reporters behaved differently. These results suggest that two forms of bovine conceptus IFNT genes are expressed in utero and their transcriptional regulations differ. PMID:24348910

  1. 17 CFR 240.13a-20 - Plain English presentation of specified information.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Plain English presentation of specified information. 240.13a-20 Section 240.13a-20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Other Reports § 240.13a-20 Plain English presentation...

  2. E2F1-mediated upregulation of p19INK4d determines its periodic expression during cell cycle and regulates cellular proliferation.

    Abel L Carcagno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A central aspect of development and disease is the control of cell proliferation through regulation of the mitotic cycle. Cell cycle progression and directionality requires an appropriate balance of positive and negative regulators whose expression must fluctuate in a coordinated manner. p19INK4d, a member of the INK4 family of CDK inhibitors, has a unique feature that distinguishes it from the remaining INK4 and makes it a likely candidate for contributing to the directionality of the cell cycle. p19INK4d mRNA and protein levels accumulate periodically during the cell cycle under normal conditions, a feature reminiscent of cyclins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate that p19INK4d is transcriptionally regulated by E2F1 through two response elements present in the p19INK4d promoter. Ablation of this regulation reduced p19 levels and restricted its expression during the cell cycle, reflecting the contribution of a transcriptional effect of E2F1 on p19 periodicity. The induction of p19INK4d is delayed during the cell cycle compared to that of cyclin E, temporally separating the induction of these proliferative and antiproliferative target genes. Specific inhibition of the E2F1-p19INK4d pathway using triplex-forming oligonucleotides that block E2F1 binding on p19 promoter, stimulated cell proliferation and increased the fraction of cells in S phase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results described here support a model of normal cell cycle progression in which, following phosphorylation of pRb, free E2F induces cyclin E, among other target genes. Once cyclinE/CDK2 takes over as the cell cycle driving kinase activity, the induction of p19 mediated by E2F1 leads to inhibition of the CDK4,6-containing complexes, bringing the G1 phase to an end. This regulatory mechanism constitutes a new negative feedback loop that terminates the G1 phase proliferative signal, contributing to the proper coordination of the cell

  3. Period1 gates the circadian modulation of memory-relevant signaling in mouse hippocampus by regulating the nuclear shuttling of the CREB kinase pP90RSK.

    Rawashdeh, Oliver; Jilg, Antje; Maronde, Erik; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Stehle, Jörg H

    2016-09-01

    Memory performance varies over a 24-h day/night cycle. While the detailed underlying mechanisms are yet unknown, recent evidence suggests that in the mouse hippocampus, rhythmic phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) are central to the circadian (~ 24 h) regulation of learning and memory. We recently identified the clock protein PERIOD1 (PER1) as a vehicle that translates information encoding time of day to hippocampal plasticity. We here elaborate how PER1 may gate the sensitivity of memory-relevant hippocampal signaling pathways. We found that in wild-type mice (WT), spatial learning triggers CREB phosphorylation only during the daytime, and that this effect depends on the presence of PER1. The time-of-day-dependent induction of CREB phosphorylation can be reproduced pharmacologically in acute hippocampal slices prepared from WT mice, but is absent in preparations made from Per1-knockout (Per1(-/-) ) mice. We showed that the PER1-dependent CREB phosphorylation is regulated downstream of MAPK. Stimulation of WT hippocampal neurons triggered the co-translocation of PER1 and the CREB kinase pP90RSK (pMAPK-activated ribosomal S6 kinase) into the nucleus. In hippocampal neurons from Per1(-/-) mice, however, pP90RSK remained perinuclear. A co-immunoprecipitation assay confirmed a high-affinity interaction between PER1 and pP90RSK. Knocking down endogenous PER1 in hippocampal cells inhibited adenylyl cyclase-dependent CREB activation. Taken together, the PER1-dependent modulation of cytoplasmic-to-nuclear signaling in the murine hippocampus provides a molecular explanation for how the circadian system potentially shapes a temporal framework for daytime-dependent memory performance, and adds a novel facet to the versatility of the clock gene protein PER1. We provide evidence that the circadian clock gene Period1 (Per1) regulates CREB phosphorylation in the mouse hippocampus

  4. The coevolutionary period of Wolbachia pipientis infecting Drosophila ananassae and its impact on the evolution of the host germline stem cell regulating genes.

    Choi, Jae Young; Aquadro, Charles F

    2014-09-01

    The endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect a wide range of arthropod species yet less is known about the coevolutionary history it has with its hosts. Evidence of highly identical W. pipientis strains in evolutionary divergent hosts suggests horizontal transfer between hosts. For example, Drosophila ananassae is infected with a W. pipientis strain that is nearly identical in sequence to a strain that infects both D. simulans and D. suzukii, suggesting recent horizontal transfer among these three species. However, it is unknown whether the W. pipientis strain had recently invaded all three species or a more complex infectious dynamic underlies the horizontal transfers. Here, we have examined the coevolutionary history of D. ananassae and its resident W. pipientis to infer its period of infection. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ananassae mitochondrial DNA and W. pipientis DNA sequence diversity revealed the current W. pipientis infection is not recent. In addition, we examined the population genetics and molecular evolution of several germline stem cell (GSC) regulating genes of D. ananassae. These studies reveal significant evidence of recent and long-term positive selection at stonewall in D. ananassae, whereas pumillio showed patterns of variation consistent with only recent positive selection. Previous studies had found evidence for adaptive evolution of two key germline differentiation genes, bag of marbles (bam) and benign gonial cell neoplasm (bgcn), in D. melanogaster and D. simulans and proposed that the adaptive evolution at these two genes was driven by arms race between the host GSC and W. pipientis. However, we did not find any statistical departures from a neutral model of evolution for bam and bgcn in D. ananassae despite our new evidence that this species has been infected with W. pipientis for a period longer than the most recent infection in D. melanogaster. In the end, analyzing the GSC regulating genes individually showed two

  5. A20 Deficiency in Lung Epithelial Cells Protects against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Maelfait, Jonathan; Roose, Kenny; Vereecke, Lars; Mc Guire, Conor; Sze, Mozes; Schuijs, Martijn; Willart, Monique; Ibanez, Lorena; Hammad, Hamida; LAMBRECHT, Bart; Beyaert, Rudi; Saelens, Xavier; Loo, Geert

    2016-01-01

    A20 negatively regulates multiple inflammatory signalling pathways. We here addressed the role of A20 in club cells (also known as Clara cells) of the bronchial epithelium in their response to influenza A virus infection. Club cells provide a niche for influenza virus replication, but little is known about the functions of these cells in antiviral immunity. Using airway epithelial cell-specific A20 knockout (A20(AEC-KO)) mice, we show that A20 in club cells critically controls innate immune r...

  6. Periodic functions with variable period

    Pryjmak, M. V

    2010-01-01

    The examples of rhythmical signals with variable period are considered. The definition of periodic function with the variable period is given as a model of such signals. The examples of such functions are given and their variable periods are written in the explicit form. The system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is considered and its orthogonality is proved. The generalized system of trigonometric functions with the variable period is also suggested; some conditions of it...

  7. A20 inhibits the motility of HCC cells induced by TNF-α.

    Wang, Xianteng; Ma, Chao; Zong, Zhaoyun; Xiao, Ying; Li, Na; Guo, Chun; Zhang, Lining; Shi, Yongyu

    2016-03-22

    Metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be facilitated by TNF-α, a prototypical inflammatory cytokine in the HCC microenvironment. A20 is a negative regulator of NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study we ask whether A20 plays a role in HCC metastasis. We found that A20 expression was downregulated in the invasive cells of microvascular invasions (MVI) compared with the noninvasive cells in 89 tissue samples from patients with HCC by immunochemistry methods. Overexpression of A20 in HCC cell lines inhibited their motility induced by TNF-α. Furthermore, the overexpression of A20 inhibited epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), FAK activation and RAC1 activity. By contrast, knockdown of A20 in one HCC cell line results in the converse. In addition, the overexpression of A20 restrained the formation of MVI in HCC xenograft in nude mice treated with TNF-α. All the results suggested that A20 functioned as a negative regulator in motility of HCC cells induced by TNF-α. PMID:26909601

  8. Description of a 20 Kilohertz power distribution system

    Hansen, I. G.

    1986-01-01

    A single phase, 440 VRMS, 20 kHz power distribution system with a regulated sinusoidal wave form is discussed. A single phase power system minimizes the wiring, sensing, and control complexities required in a multi-sourced redundantly distributed power system. The single phase addresses only the distribution link; mulitphase lower frequency inputs and outputs accommodation techniques are described. While the 440 V operating potential was initially selected for aircraft operating below 50,000 ft, this potential also appears suitable for space power systems. This voltage choice recognizes a reasonable upper limit for semiconductor ratings, yet will direct synthesis of 220 V, 3 power. A 20 kHz operating frequency was selected to be above the range of audibility, minimize the weight of reactive components, yet allow the construction of single power stages of 25 to 30 kW. The regulated sinusoidal distribution system has several advantages. With a regulated voltage, most ac/dc conversions involve rather simple transformer rectifier applications. A sinusoidal distribution system, when used in conjunction with zero crossing switching, represents a minimal source of EMI. The present state of 20 kHz power technology includes computer controls of voltage and/or frequency, low inductance cable, current limiting circuit protection, bi-directional power flow, and motor/generator operating using standard induction machines. A status update and description of each of these items and their significance is presented.

  9. A20 prevents chronic liver inflammation and cancer by protecting hepatocytes from death.

    Catrysse, L; Farhang Ghahremani, M; Vereecke, L; Youssef, S A; Mc Guire, C; Sze, M; Weber, A; Heikenwalder, M; de Bruin, A; Beyaert, R; van Loo, G

    2016-01-01

    An important regulator of inflammatory signalling is the ubiquitin-editing protein A20 that acts as a break on nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, but also exerts important cytoprotective functions. A20 knockout mice are cachectic and die prematurely due to excessive multi-organ inflammation. To establish the importance of A20 in liver homeostasis and pathology, we developed a novel mouse line lacking A20 specifically in liver parenchymal cells. These mice spontaneously develop chronic liver inflammation but no fibrosis or hepatocellular carcinomas, illustrating an important role for A20 in normal liver tissue homeostasis. Hepatocyte-specific A20 knockout mice show sustained NF-κB-dependent gene expression in the liver upon tumor necrosis factor (TNF) or lipopolysaccharide injection, as well as hepatocyte apoptosis and lethality upon challenge with sublethal doses of TNF, demonstrating an essential role for A20 in the protection of mice against acute liver failure. Finally, chronic liver inflammation and enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis in hepatocyte-specific A20 knockout mice was associated with increased susceptibility to chemically or high fat-diet-induced hepatocellular carcinoma development. Together, these studies establish A20 as a crucial hepatoprotective factor. PMID:27253414

  10. A20 Deficiency in Lung Epithelial Cells Protects against Influenza A Virus Infection

    Vereecke, Lars; Mc Guire, Conor; Sze, Mozes; Schuijs, Martijn J.; Willart, Monique; Itati Ibañez, Lorena; Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N.; Beyaert, Rudi; Saelens, Xavier; van Loo, Geert

    2016-01-01

    A20 negatively regulates multiple inflammatory signalling pathways. We here addressed the role of A20 in club cells (also known as Clara cells) of the bronchial epithelium in their response to influenza A virus infection. Club cells provide a niche for influenza virus replication, but little is known about the functions of these cells in antiviral immunity. Using airway epithelial cell-specific A20 knockout (A20AEC-KO) mice, we show that A20 in club cells critically controls innate immune responses upon TNF or double stranded RNA stimulation. Surprisingly, A20AEC-KO mice are better protected against influenza A virus challenge than their wild type littermates. This phenotype is not due to decreased viral replication. Instead host innate and adaptive immune responses and lung damage are reduced in A20AEC-KO mice. These attenuated responses correlate with a dampened cytotoxic T cell (CTL) response at later stages during infection, indicating that A20AEC-KO mice are better equipped to tolerate Influenza A virus infection. Expression of the chemokine CCL2 (also named MCP-1) is particularly suppressed in the lungs of A20AEC-KO mice during later stages of infection. When A20AEC-KO mice were treated with recombinant CCL2 the protective effect was abrogated demonstrating the crucial contribution of this chemokine to the protection of A20AEC-KO mice to Influenza A virus infection. Taken together, we propose a mechanism of action by which A20 expression in club cells controls inflammation and antiviral CTL responses in response to influenza virus infection. PMID:26815999

  11. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Alicia T R Acosta; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Us...

  12. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field

  13. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  14. Fat metabolism is regulated by altered gene expression oflipogenic enzymes and regulatory factors in liver and adiposetissue but not in semimembranosus muscle of pigs during thefattening period

    Duran-Montge, P; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte;

    2009-01-01

    It has been shown previously that lipid metabolism is regulated by fatty acids (FA) and that thyroid hormones are important regulators of energy metabolism. The effects of weight, dietary fat level and dietary FA profile on thyroid hormone levels and expression of lipogenic genes and tissue FA...... supplemented with approximately 10% fat of different origin and slaughtered at 100 kg BW. The supplemental fats were tallow, high-oleic sunflower oil, sunflower oil (SFO), linseed oil, fat blend (55% tallow, 35% sunflower oil, 10% linseed oil) and fish oil blend (40% fish oil, 60% linseed oil). In general, the...... hormones and genes encoding enzymes of fat synthesis in adipose tissue (acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACACA), fatty acid synthase and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD)) and the large differences in expression of lipogenic genes at different weights (60 and 100 kg BW), suggest a role for thyroid hormones and for T3...

  15. n-3 LC-PUFA deposition efficiency and appetite-regulating hormones are modulated by the dietary lipid source during rainbow trout grow-out and finishing periods.

    Francis, D S; Thanuthong, T; Senadheera, S P S D; Paolucci, M; Coccia, E; De Silva, S S; Turchini, G M

    2014-04-01

    Largely attributable to concerns surrounding sustainability, the utilisation of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich (n-3 LC-PUFA) fish oils in aquafeeds for farmed fish species is an increasingly concerning issue. Therefore, strategies to maximise the deposition efficiency of these key health beneficial fatty acids are being investigated. The present study examined the effects of four vegetable-based dietary lipid sources (linseed, olive, palm and sunflower oil) on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and the circulating blood plasma concentrations of the appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, during the grow-out and finishing phases in rainbow trout culture. Minimal detrimental effects were noted in fish performance; however, major modifications were apparent in tissue fatty acid compositions, which generally reflected that of the diet. These modifications diminished somewhat following the fish oil finishing phase, but longer-lasting effects remained evident. The fatty acid composition of the alternative oils was demonstrated to have a modulatory effect on the deposition efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA and on the key endocrine hormones involved in appetite regulation, growth and feed intake during both the grow-out and finishing phases. In particular, n-6 PUFA (sunflower oil diet) appeared to 'spare' the catabolism of n-3 LC-PUFA and, as such, resulted in the highest retention of these fatty acids, ultimately highlighting new nutritional approaches to maximise the maintenance of the qualitative benefits of fish oils when they are used in feeds for aquaculture species. PMID:24078221

  16. Molecular Basis for the Unique Deubiquitinating Activity of the NF-κB Inhibitor A20

    Lin, S.; Chung, J; Lamothe, B; Rajashankar, K; Lu, M; Lo, Y; Lam, A; Darnay, B; Wu, H

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) activation in tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and Toll-like receptor pathways requires Lys63-linked nondegradative polyubiquitination. A20 is a specific feedback inhibitor of NF-?B activation in these pathways that possesses dual ubiquitin-editing functions. While the N-terminal domain of A20 is a deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) for Lys63-linked polyubiquitinated signaling mediators such as TRAF6 and RIP, its C-terminal domain is a ubiquitin ligase (E3) for Lys48-linked degradative polyubiquitination of the same substrates. To elucidate the molecular basis for the DUB activity of A20, we determined its crystal structure and performed a series of biochemical and cell biological studies. The structure reveals the potential catalytic mechanism of A20, which may be significantly different from papain-like cysteine proteases. Ubiquitin can be docked onto a conserved A20 surface; this interaction exhibits charge complementarity and no steric clash. Surprisingly, A20 does not have specificity for Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains. Instead, it effectively removes Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains from TRAF6 without dissembling the chains themselves. Our studies suggest that A20 does not act as a general DUB but has the specificity for particular polyubiquitinated substrates to assure its fidelity in regulating NF-?B activation in the tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1, and Toll-like receptor pathways.

  17. Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

    Sugiyama, Mayu; Saitou, Takashi; Kurokawa, Hiroshi; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Imamura, Takeshi; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Iimura, Tadahiro

    2014-12-01

    In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1) fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1) notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of the

  18. Live imaging-based model selection reveals periodic regulation of the stochastic G1/S phase transition in vertebrate axial development.

    Mayu Sugiyama

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In multicellular organism development, a stochastic cellular response is observed, even when a population of cells is exposed to the same environmental conditions. Retrieving the spatiotemporal regulatory mode hidden in the heterogeneous cellular behavior is a challenging task. The G1/S transition observed in cell cycle progression is a highly stochastic process. By taking advantage of a fluorescence cell cycle indicator, Fucci technology, we aimed to unveil a hidden regulatory mode of cell cycle progression in developing zebrafish. Fluorescence live imaging of Cecyil, a zebrafish line genetically expressing Fucci, demonstrated that newly formed notochordal cells from the posterior tip of the embryonic mesoderm exhibited the red (G1 fluorescence signal in the developing notochord. Prior to their initial vacuolation, these cells showed a fluorescence color switch from red to green, indicating G1/S transitions. This G1/S transition did not occur in a synchronous manner, but rather exhibited a stochastic process, since a mixed population of red and green cells was always inserted between newly formed red (G1 notochordal cells and vacuolating green cells. We termed this mixed population of notochordal cells, the G1/S transition window. We first performed quantitative analyses of live imaging data and a numerical estimation of the probability of the G1/S transition, which demonstrated the existence of a posteriorly traveling regulatory wave of the G1/S transition window. To obtain a better understanding of this regulatory mode, we constructed a mathematical model and performed a model selection by comparing the results obtained from the models with those from the experimental data. Our analyses demonstrated that the stochastic G1/S transition window in the notochord travels posteriorly in a periodic fashion, with doubled the periodicity of the neighboring paraxial mesoderm segmentation. This approach may have implications for the characterization of

  19. 17 CFR 240.14a-20 - Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder approval of... § 240.14a-20 Shareholder approval of executive compensation of TARP recipients. If a solicitation is... shareholder vote to approve the compensation of executives, as disclosed pursuant to Item 402 of Regulation...

  20. Nandrolone-pretreatment enhances cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression and reverses heart contractile down-regulation in the post-stress period of acute-stressed rats.

    Penna, Claudia; Abbadessa, Giuliana; Mancardi, Daniele; Spaccamiglio, Angela; Racca, Silvia; Pagliaro, Pasquale

    2007-10-01

    To investigate whether nandrolone decanoate (ND)-pretreatment can modulate (1) beta-adrenoceptor expression and (2) myocardial contractility in response to beta-adrenoceptors stimulation with isoproterenol (ISO), in hearts of both normal and stressed rats. Rats were treated with 15 mg/(kgday) of Deca-Durabolin (ND, 1 ml i.m.) or with vehicle (oil) for 14 days. The day after the last injection, the dose-response to ISO (1 x 10(-8), 5 x 10(-8) and 10(-7)M), was studied in isolated rat hearts harvested from unstressed animals (unstressed+vehicle (control) or unstressed+ND) or from stressed animals (stressed+vehicle or stressed+ND): acute stress protocol consisted in restrain for 1h immediately before sacrifice. ND-pretreatment increased beta(2)-adrenoceptor expression. In baseline conditions all hearts had a similar left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and maximum rate of increase of LVDP (dP/dt(max)). In hearts of unstressed+vehicle or unstressed+ND, ISO caused a similar increase in LVDP (+90-100%) and dP/dt(max) (+120-150%). However, hearts of stressed+vehicle animals showed a marked depression of inotropic response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-8),-55% in LVDP response versus unstressed). Yet, in hearts of stressed+ND-animals the effect of stress was reversed, showing the highest response to ISO (i.e. for ISO 1 x 10(-7), +30% LVDP response versus unstressed). The ND-induced beta(2)-adrenoceptor overexpression does not affect ISO-response in unstressed animals. However, acute stress induces a down-regulation of ISO-response, which is reversed by ND-pretreatment. Since the physiological post-stress down-regulation of adrenergic-response is absent after nandrolone treatment, the heart may be exposed to a sympathetic over-stimulation. This might represent a risk for cardiovascular incidents in anabolic steroid addicts under stressing conditions. PMID:17611100

  1. Body condition score and plane of nutrition prepartum affect adipose tissue transcriptome regulators of metabolism and inflammation in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Kanwal, M; Bulgari, O; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving have challenged the management practice of increasing dietary energy density during the last ~3 wk prepartum. Despite our knowledge at the whole-animal level, the tissue-level mechanisms that are altered in response to feeding management prepartum remain unclear. Our hypothesis was that prepartum body condition score (BCS), in combination with feeding management, plays a central role in the peripartum changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: 2 prepartum BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale; BCS4, BCS5) obtained via differential feeding management during late-lactation, and 2 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75 and 125% of estimated requirements). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of targets related to fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, lipolysis), adipokine synthesis, and inflammation. Both prepartum BCS and feeding management had a significant effect on mRNA and miRNA expression throughout the peripartum period. Overfed BCS5 cows had the greatest prepartum expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an overall greater expression of leptin (LEP); BCS5 was also associated with greater overall adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), whereas overfeeding upregulated expression of proadipogenic miRNA. Higher postpartum expression of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in overfed BCS5 cows. Feed-restricted BCS4 cows had the highest overall interleukin 1 (IL1B) expression. Prepartum feed restriction

  2. Status of calcium regulating hormonal systems in delayed period in persons exposed to occupational exposure of low doses of ionizing radiations

    Purpose of study is consideration of endocrine system participation in development of calcium exchange disorders in persons exposed to action of low dose radiation . By radio- immune method in blood serum of 150 liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences the concentration the following hormones were determined: parathormone, T3, T4, TSH, cortisol, ACTH, testosteron, insulin. Content of these hormones have been studied in according to following radiation factors: value of absorbed doses of external irradiation, degree of radioactive contamination of zone and exposition duration. It was determined, that basically dishormone disorders development have been concerned with parathormone, cortisol, hormones of thyroid axis, and in some cases to ACTH and insulin. Liquidators' frequencies of normal and changed concentration of calcium regulating hormones are sited in tabular form. It was established, that examined persons in result hormone disorders have of decrease functions of pituitary glands (76.78 %), pancreas (55 %), thyroid gland (24.31 %) and sex glands (19.23 %) and simultaneously cases of increase functions of parathyroid gland (58.2 %), adrenal glands (52.32 %) and adeno-pituitary glands (17.39). It is concluded, that inter hormonal correlation disorders are accompanying with morphologic and functional futures of secretory activity changes

  3. A20 is critical for the induction of Pam3CSK4-tolerance in monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Jinyue Hu

    Full Text Available A20 functions to terminate Toll-like receptor (TLR-induced immune response, and play important roles in the induction of lipopolysacchride (LPS-tolerance. However, the molecular mechanism for Pam3CSK4-tolerance is uncertain. Here we report that TLR1/2 ligand Pam3CSK4 induced tolerance in monocytic THP-1 cells. The pre-treatment of THP-1 cells with Pam3CSK4 down-regulated the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by Pam3CSK4 re-stimulation. Pam3CSK4 pre-treatment also down-regulated the signaling transduction of JNK, p38 and NF-κB induced by Pam3CSK4 re-stimulation. The activation of TLR1/2 induced a rapid and robust up-regulation of A20, suggesting that A20 may contribute to the induction of Pam3CSK4-tolerance. This hypothesis was proved by the observation that the over-expression of A20 by gene transfer down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced inflammatory responses, and the down-regulation of A20 by RNA interference inhibited the induction of tolerance. Moreover, LPS induced a significant up-regulation of A20, which contributed to the induction of cross-tolerance between LPS and Pam3CSK4. A20 was also induced by the treatment of THP-1 cells with TNF-α and IL-1β. The pre-treatment with TNF-α and IL-1β partly down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced activation of MAPKs. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of GSK3 signaling down-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced A20 expression, up-regulated Pam3CSK4-induced inflammatory responses, and partly reversed Pam3CSK4 pre-treatment-induced tolerance, suggesting that GSK3 is involved in TLR1/2-induced tolerance by up-regulation of A20 expression. Taken together, these results indicated that A20 is a critical regulator for TLR1/2-induced pro-inflammatory responses.

  4. Plant growth regulators on the pre-harvest period of 'Pêra' oranges Reguladores vegetais aplicados na fase pré-colheita de laranjeira "Pêra"

    Isolina Maria Leite de Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the effects of auxins and gibberellins applied at pre-harvest on the quality of orange juice. Orange trees, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. 'Pêra' were sprayed in three applications, at 45-day intervals, with the following treatments: GA3 + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1 each; GA3 + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 12.5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA at 37.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 12.5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 25mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D at 37.5mg L-1, and a control. The treatments did not change juice quality, and showed no plant growth regulator residues 110 days after the last application in every case below 0.05mg L-1.Neste estudo, avaliou-se os efeitos de auxinas e giberelinas, combinados e aplicados em pré-colheita na qualidade interna de frutos de laranjeira "Pêra". Citrus sinensis Osbeck cultivar Pêra foram pulverizadas com três aplicações, em intervalos de 45 dias, com os seguintes tratamentos: GA3 + 2,4-D a 12,5mg L-1 de cada; GA3 + 2,4-D 25mg L-1; GA3 + 2,4-D 37,5mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 12,5mg L-1;GA3 + NAA 25mg L-1; GA3 + NAA 37,5mg L-1; NAA + 2,4-D 12,5mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 25mg L-1; NAA+2,4-D 37,5mg L-1 e testemunha (água. Os resultados mostraram que os tratamentos não prejudicaram a qualidade interna dos frutos. Além disso, os níveis de resíduo de reguladores vegetais no suco, ficaram abaixo de 0,05mg L-1, 110 dias após a última aplicação.

  5. Nuclear apoJ: A low dose radiation inducible regulator of cell death. Final report for period September 15, 1998 - September 14, 2001

    Aronow, Bruce J.

    2002-04-19

    we constructed through gene targeting to increasing levels of ionizing radiation from a Cesium source. Data gathered under the support of this grant application initially indicated that apoJ deficient animals were more resistant to radiation, but as we accumulated more and more data points and covered a tighter exposure range, the genotype-based differences became insignificant. However, the possibility existed that because mortality based radiation-resistance could be attributable to mechanism for which nuclear apoJ was not rate determining, we maintained a very large of colony of apoJ knockout and wildtype animals in both the C57/B16 and Cv129 strain backgrounds that were exposed to sub-lethal levels of ionizing radiation to monitor for the occurrence of tumors. These animals were allowed to fully recover and age normally in either germ free or normal animal housing. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between wildtype and apoJ knockout animals over a period that extended up to 30 months for individual animals. We recorded similar weight gain, a relatively low mortality rate, and a similar mixture and rate of sarcoma and adenocarcinomas after surviving the initial ionizing radiation exposures. Thus we conclude that apoJ gene function, which was totally eliminated by our gene targeting, did not influence radiation sensitivity or serve as a tumor suppressor in response to DNA damage.

  6. TNFAIP3 (A20) is a tumor suppressor gene in Hodgkin lymphoma and primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma

    Schmitz, Roland; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Bohle, Verena; Martin-Subero, Jose Ignacio; Hartmann, Sylvia; Mechtersheimer, Gunhild; Klapper, Wolfram; Vater, Inga; Giefing, Maciej; Gesk, Stefan; Stanelle, Jens; Siebert, Reiner; Küppers, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation and survival of Hodgkin and Reed/Sternberg (HRS) cells, the malignant cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), are dependent on constitutive activation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). NF-{kappa}B activation through various stimuli is negatively regulated by the zinc finger protein A20. To determine whether A20 contributes to the pathogenesis of cHL, we sequenced TNFAIP3, encoding A20, in HL cell lines and laser-microdissected HRS cells from cHL biopsies. We detected ...

  7. Influencia de la regulación regional en la eficiencia en el sector minorista (1999-2012 || Influence of regional regulation on efficiency in the retail sector in the period 1999-2012

    Gutiérrez Carmona, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la identificación de los factores explicativos de las diferencias de eficiencia en las empresas del sector minorista (CNAE-09 4711 en España, prestando especial atención a la regulación con el fin de vislumbrar la forma en que esta ha influido en el desempeño de las empresas a raíz de los cambios legislativos acaecidos en el periodo 1999-2012. Preliminarmente también se realiza una primera etapa de análisis donde se estudian los niveles y evolución de la eficiencia y productividad. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la eficiencia técnica media del sector para todo el periodo de estudio se cifra en el 65,9%, de manera que las empresas que operan en este podrían haber obtenido el mismo nivel de output con un ahorro potencial del 34% de los inputs. La escala a la que operan las compañías, alejada de su ́optimo, se constituye como el principal causante de la ineficiencia técnica. Respecto a la productividad total de los factores, experimentó un crecimiento medio en todo el periodo del 0,3%. En cuanto a los factores determinantes de la eficiencia, la regulación y el tamaño presentan una relación positiva y estadísticamente significativa. Igualmente la localización también influye sobre la eficiencia, mientras que la edad no se configura como factor determinante de la misma. || The main objective of this study is the identification of the explanatory factors on the differences in efficiency in the retail sector enterprises (CNAE-09 4711 in Spain, paying particular attention to the regulation in order to clarify the way in which this regulation has influenced the performance of the companies because of the legislative changes occurred in the 1999-2012 period. Moreover, a preliminary analysis is carried out to study levels and evolution of efficiency and productivity. The results show that the average technical efficiency for this retail sector in the period under study is estimated at 65

  8. Progress Report for DOE DE-FG03-98ER20317 ''Regulation of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS'' Current and Final Funding Period: September 1, 2002, to December 31, 2002

    Weigel, D.

    2003-03-11

    OAK-B135 Results obtained during this funding period: (1) Phylogenetic footprinting of AG regulatory sequences Sequences necessary and sufficient for AGAMOUS (AG) expression in the center of Arabidopsis flowers are located in the second intron, which is about 3 kb in size. This intron contains binding sites for two transcription factors, LEAFY (LFY) and WUSCHEL (WUS), which are direct activators of AG. We used the new method of phylogenetic shadowing to identify new regulatory elements. Among 29 Brassicaceae, several other motifs, but not the LFY and WUS binding sites previously identified, are largely invariant. Using reporter gene analyses, we tested six of these motifs and found that they are all functionally important for activity of AG regulatory sequences in A. thaliana. (2) Repression of AG by MADS box genes A candidate for repressing AG in the shoot apical meristem has been the MADS box gene FUL, since it is expressed in the shoot apical meristem and since an activated version (FUL:VP16) leads to ectopic AG expression in the shoot apical meristem. However, there is no ectopic AG expression in full single mutants. We therefore started to generate VP16 fusions of several other MADS box genes expressed in the shoot apical meristem, to determine which of these might be candidates for FUL redundant genes. We found that AGL6:VP16 has a similar phenotype as FUL:VP16, suggesting that AGL6 and FUL interact. We are now testing this hypothesis. (3) Two candidate AG regulators, WOW and ULA Because the phylogenetic footprinting project has identified several new candidate regulatory motifs, of which at least one (the CCAATCA motif) has rather strong effects, we had decided to put the analysis of WOW and ULA on hold, and to focus on using the newly identified motifs as tools. We conduct ed yeast one-hybrid screen with two of the conserved motifs, and identified several classes of transcription factors that can interact with them. One of these is encoded by the PAN gene

  9. A20 plays a critical role in the immunoregulatory function of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Dang, Rui-Jie; Yang, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Lei; Cui, Dian-Chao; Hong, Bangxing; Li, Ping; Lin, Qiuxia; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qi-Yu; Xiao, Fengjun; Mao, Ning; Wang, Changyong; Jiang, Xiao-Xia; Wen, Ning

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess an immunoregulatory capacity and are a therapeutic target for many inflammation-related diseases. However, the detailed mechanisms of MSC-mediated immunosuppression remain unclear. In this study, we provide new information to partly explain the molecular mechanisms of immunoregulation by MSCs. Specifically, we found that A20 expression was induced in MSCs by inflammatory cytokines. Knockdown of A20 in MSCs resulted in increased proliferation and reduced adipogenesis, and partly reversed the suppressive effect of MSCs on T cell proliferation in vitro and inhibited tumour growth in vivo. Mechanistic studies indicated that knockdown of A20 in MSCs inhibited activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, which potently promoted the production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-10. Collectively, these data reveal a crucial role of A20 in regulating the immunomodulatory activities of MSCs by controlling the expression of TNF-α and IL-10 in an inflammatory environment. These findings provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of various inflammatory-associated diseases, and are a new reference for the future development of treatments for such afflictions. PMID:27028905

  10. 围产期奶牛代谢与营养调控研究进展%Advances in Metabolic and Nutritional Regulation of Dairy Cows during the Transition Period

    秦彤; 王皓宇; 郝海生; 杜卫华; 朱化彬

    2013-01-01

    围产期是奶牛泌乳周期中最为关键的阶段,该阶段奶牛代谢的最大特点是能量摄入减少而需求增加从而导致能量负平衡.改善围产期奶牛的营养条件,最大限度地缓解能量负平衡,对于充分发挥奶牛的生产性能至关重要.本文综述了围产期奶牛的代谢特点以及营养调控研究进展,旨在为提高奶牛的生产性能和健康水平提供新的思路.%The transition period is the most critical stage for dairy cows. The decrease in DMI before parturition combined with gradually increasing energy demands in early lactation, which makes dairy cows go through some degree of negative energy balance (NEB) around calving. The nutritional management strategy of transition cows is essential to minimize the NEB and give full play to the cow genetic potential. In this paper, metabolic characteristics and nutritional regulation of the transition cows were reviewed, which provide new ideas for improving the performance and health of dairy cows.

  11. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Research: A 20-Year Content Analysis

    Worthington, Roger L.; Soth-McNett, Angela M.; Moreno, Matthew V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a 20-year content analysis of the entire field of empirical research on the multicultural counseling competencies (D. W. Sue et al., 1982). They conducted an exhaustive search for empirical research articles using PsycINFO, as well as complete reviews of the past 20 years of several journals (e.g., Journal of Counseling…

  12. A20 inhibits human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cells invasion via blocking nuclear factor-κB activation

    ZHANG Bin; GUAN Cheng-chao; CHEN Wan-tao; ZHANG Ping; YAN Ming; SHI Jiu-hui; QIN Chun-lin; YANG Qian

    2007-01-01

    Background A20, also known as tumor necrosis factor α induced protein 3 (TNFaip3), is a cytoplasmic zinc finger protein that inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity and prevents tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated programmed cell death. NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates expression of genes involved in cell proliferation,cell survival and anti-apoptosis. Several studies have implicated that the NF-κB signal pathway is associated with angiogenesis and clinico-pathological process of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary glands.Methods The ability of overexpression of A20 to influence the biological behavior and invasion of ACC cells was examined. The cells were stably transfected with full-length A20 cDNA. Stable gene transfer was verified by realtime-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis. The change of cell biological behavior was examined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) and NF-κB luciferase reporter assay and the invasion of the cells was examined by a Matrigel invasion chamber.Results pEGPFN3-A20 gene was stably transferred into ACC-2 cells and overexpressed. When cells were treated with TNFα, the NF-κB activity of ACC-2-A20 cells could be down-regulated about 46.32% in contrast to ACC-2-GFP cells (P<0.05). A20 potently inhibited growth of A20 transfectant ACC-2-A20 compared with control vector transfected groups and the ACC-2 empty control group (P<0.05). The ACC-2-A20 cells showed significantly reduced ability to invade through Matrigei-coated filters compared to ACC-2-GFP and ACC-2 cells. The inhibition rate was up to 71.05% (P<0.05).Conclusions A20 gene transfer is associated with decreased tumor invasion, in part via the down-regulation of NF-κB expression, providing evidence for a potential application of A20 in designing a treatment modality for salivary gland cancers such as ACC.

  13. How Frequent is Chronic Multiyear Delusional Activity and Recovery in Schizophrenia: A 20-Year Multi–follow-up

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine how frequent chronic multiyear delusional activity is in modern-day schizophrenia, we studied 200 patients over a 20-year period. We also studied the relation of delusions to hallucinations and thought disorder-disorganization, to work disability, and to later periods of global recovery and assessed several protective factors against delusional activity. The sample was assessed 6 times over 20 years and includes 43 patients with schizophrenia. Participants were evaluated at each ...

  14. [Evaluation of a 20 years' experience of colo-anal anastomoses. Indications, results and pitfalls].

    Hautefeuille, P; Saab, M; Valleur, P

    1991-01-01

    Seventy nine anastomoses were performed over a 20 year period. Indications included 68 rectal adenocarcinomas and 11 benign lesions. There was no operative mortality. Anastomotic leak was the main cause of morbidity: 12 clinical (15%) and 4 radiological leaks. The 5-year actuarial disease-free survival was 70%, 7 local recurrences (10%) were observed; 6 were Dukes C and 1 Dukes B. Functional results were assessed in 61 patients. They were considered to be excellent in 35 (57%), good in 24 (39%) and bad in 2 (4%). Six failures were noted: 3 technical, 1 oncologic and 2 functional. Pitfalls of coloanal anastomosis are discussed. PMID:2064292

  15. Respiratory disease in a cohort of 2,579 coal miners followed up over a 20-year period

    Montes, I.I.; Fernandez, G.R.; Reguero, J.; Mir, M.A.C.; Garcia-Ordas, E.; Martinez, J.L.A.; Gonzalez, C.M. [Hospital Central de Asturias, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-08-01

    Working in coal mines is a risk factor for pneumoconiosis and COPD. There still exist, however, doubts and debates about the risk involved in such work for tuberculosis and lung cancer. The aim of this study was to clarify some of these uncertainties through the study of a cohort group of 2579 coal mines. Ninety-nine workers (3.8%) developed round opacities (category 1) that were significantly related to the kind of work in a crude analysis (p = 0.045), with a greater frequency (7.3%) among rock workers, who have greater exposure to silica, and were almost significantly related to tobacco use (p = 0.092). These round opacities also show a significant relation to smoking, being more frequent (4.9%) among smokers, both in the crude analysis (p = 0.028) and in the multivariable analysis (p = 0.001) controlling for rock work. In 240 workers (12.7%), accelerated FEV1 decreases were observed with significant relations to tobacco use (p = 0.001) and rock work (p = 0.044). Pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in four cases, with an incidence of eight in 105 person-years. This rate falls within the limits expected for the region. No case of lung cancer was observed. In summary, the results showed the following: round opacities (category 1) were related to smoking and, probably, to rock work; accelerated FEV, decreases were related to rock work and tobacco consumption. There was no identified increase in tuberculosis or lung cancer in this cohort.

  16. Histological types and age distribution of lung cancer operated patients over a 20-year period: A pathohistological based study

    Stojšić Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignancy in Serbia. Objective. This is a retrospective analysis of lung cancer epidemiological changes regarding to its histological type and patients’ age of both genders. Data were based on surgically treated lung cancer patients from 1985 to 2005. Methods. Data were collected from 972 pathohistological reports of operated patients of both genders divided into age groups. Histological types of lung cancer were distributed in four major groups: squamous cell cancer (SCC, adenocarcinoma (AC, small cell cancer (SCLC and other rare histological types. Both genders together and separately were analysed. Chi-square with the level of significance p<0.05 and chi-square test for trends were used as statistical methods. Results. SCC predominated in both genders; in 44.7% females and 68.0% males. AC was less frequently diagnosed (21.8% than SCC (64.0% in both genders and all age groups. The most frequently operated patients were aged between 51 and 60 years (36.6% with SCC and AC predominance. Three patients with SCLC were operated in 61-70 age-group. In age-group up to 30 years, three (0.5% patients were operated on for SCC and other rare lung tumours, respectively. Predominance of other rare lung tumours was established in 51-60 age-group, 25% of patients of both genders. Conclusion. SCC is the most frequent histological type of lung cancer found in all age groups and in both genders of surgically treated patients.

  17. A 20 GHz circularly polarized, fan beam slot array antenna

    Weikle, D. C.

    1982-03-01

    An EHF waveguide slot array was developed for possible use as a receive-only paging antenna for ground mobile terminals. The design, fabrication, and measured performance of this antenna are presented. The antenna generates a circularly polarized fan beam that is narrow in azimuth and broad in elevation. When mechanically rotated in azimuth, it can receive a 20 GHz satellite transmission independent of mobile terminal direction. Azimuth plane sidelobe levels, which are typically <-40 dB from the main lobe, provide for discrimination against ground and airborne jammers.

  18. Characterization of bovine A20 gene: Expression mediated by NF-κB pathway in MDBK cells infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus-1.

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2016-05-01

    Cytokine production for immunological process is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. The NF-κB signaling pathway maintains immune homeostasis in the cell through the participation of molecules such as A20 (TNFAIP3), which is a key regulatory factor in the immune response, hematopoietic differentiation, and immunomodulation. Although A20 has been identified in mammals, and despite recent efforts to identify A20 members in other higher vertebrates, relatively little is known about the composition of this regulator in other classes of vertebrates, particularly for bovines. In this study, the genetic context of bovine A20 was explored and compared against homologous genes in the human, mouse, chicken, dog, and zebrafish chromosomes. Through in silico analysis, several regions of interest were found conserved between even phylogenetically distant species. Additionally, a protein-deduced sequence of bovine A20 evidenced many conserved domains in humans and mice. Furthermore, all potential amino acid residues implicated in the active site of A20 were conserved. Finally, bovine A20 mRNA expression as mediated by the bovine viral diarrhea virus and poly (I:C) was evaluated. These analyses evidenced a strong fold increase in A20 expression following virus exposure, a phenomenon blocked by a pharmacological NF-κB inhibitor (BAY 117085). Interestingly, A20 mRNA had a half-life of only 32min, likely due to adenylate- and uridylate-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region. Collectively, these data identify bovine A20 as a regulator of immune marker expression. Finally, this is the first report to find the bovine viral diarrhea virus modulating bovine A20 activation through the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26809100

  19. Performance of a 20-in. photoelectric lens image intensifier tube

    We have evaluated a 20-in. photoelectric lens image intensifier tube (PLI) to be mounted on the spherical focal surface of the Ashra light collectors, where Ashra stands for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower Detector, an unconventional optical collector complex that images air showers produced by very high energy cosmic-ray particles in a 42o-diameter field of view with a resolution of a few arcminutes. The PLI, the worlds largest image intensifier, has a very large effective photocathode area of 20-in. diameter and reduces an image size to less than 1-in. diameter using the electric lens effect. This enables us to use a solid-state imager to take focal surface images in the Ashra light collector. Thus, PLI is a key technology for the Ashra experiment to realize a much lower pixel cost in comparison with other experiments using photomultiplier arrays at the focal surface. In this paper we present the design and performance of the 20-in. PLI. - Highlights: → We have evaluated a 20-in. photoelectric lens image intensifier tube (PLI). → The PLI is the worlds largest image intensifier. → The PLI is mounted on the focal surface of the Ashra light collector. → Ashra stands for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower Detector. → The PLI is the key to realize all-sky survey with a few arcmin resolution in Ashra.

  20. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    ... two most common types of periodic paralyses are: Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is characterized by a fall in potassium levels ... chronic muscle weakness later in life. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis is ... than the hypokalemic form. Muscle spasms are common. Is there any ...

  1. Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Home For Patients Search FAQs Dysmenorrhea: ... Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods FAQ046, January 2015 PDF Format Dysmenorrhea: Painful Periods Gynecologic Problems What is dysmenorrhea? How ...

  2. Algebraically periodic translation surfaces

    Calta, Kariane; Smillie, John

    2007-01-01

    Algebraically periodic directions on translation surfaces were introduced by Calta in her study of genus two translation surfaces. We say that a translation surface with three or more algebraically periodic directions is an algebraically periodic surface. We show that for an algebraically periodic surface the slopes of the algebraically periodic directions are given by a number field which we call the periodic direction field. We show that translation surfaces with pseudo-Anosov automorphisms...

  3. Performance of a 20-in. photoelectric lens image intensifier tube

    Asaoka, Yoichi; 10.1016/j.nima.2011.05.036

    2011-01-01

    We have evaluated a 20-in. photoelectric lens image intensifier tube (PLI) to be mounted on the spherical focal surface of the Ashra light collectors, where Ashra stands for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower Detector, an unconventional optical collector complex that images air showers produced by very high energy cosmic-ray particles in a 42$^\\circ$-diameter field of view with a resolution of a few arcminutes. The PLI, the worlds largest image intensifier, has a very large effective photocathode area of 20-in. diameter and reduces an image size to less than 1-inch diameter using the electric lens effect. This enables us to use a solid-state imager to take focal surface images in the Ashra light collector. Thus, PLI is a key technology for the Ashra experiment to realize a much lower pixel cost in comparison with other experiments using photomultiplier arrays at the focal surface. In this paper we present the design and performance of the 20-in. PLI.

  4. 48 CFR 4.704 - Calculation of retention periods.

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of retention periods. 4.704 Section 4.704 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Contractor Records Retention 4.704 Calculation of retention periods. (a) The...

  5. 24 CFR 221.775 - Option period.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Option period. 221.775 Section 221.775 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.775 Option period. The mortgagee may exercise its option to assign within one year following...

  6. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  7. Conceptual Nuclear Design of a 20 MW Multipurpose Research Reactor

    A conceptual nuclear design of a 20 MW multi-purpose research reactor for Vietnam has been jointly done by the KAERI and the DNRI (VAEC). The AHR reference core in this report is a right water cooled and a heavy water reflected open-tank-in-pool type multipurpose research reactor with 20 MW. The rod type fuel of a dispersed U3Si2-Al with a density of 4.0 gU/cc is used as a fuel. The core consists of fourteen 36-element assemblies, four 18-element assemblies and has three in-core irradiation sites. The reflector tank filled with heavy water surrounds the core and provides rooms for various irradiation holes. Major analyses have been done for the relevant nuclear design parameters such as the neutron flux and power distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths, etc. For the analysis, the MCNP, MVP, and HELIOS codes were used by KAERI and DNRI (VAEC). The results by MCNP (KAERI) and MVP (DNRI) showed good agreements and can be summarized as followings. For a clean, unperturbed core condition such that the fuels are all fresh and there are no irradiation holes in the reflector region, the fast neutron flux (En≥1.0 MeV) reaches 1.47x1014 n/cm2s and the maximum thermal neutron flux (En≤0.625 eV) reaches 4.43x1014 n/cm2s in the core region. In the reflector region, the thermal neutron peak occurs about 28 cm far from the core center and the maximum thermal neutron flux is estimated to be 4.09x1014 n/cm2s. For the analysis of the equilibrium cycle core, the irradiation facilities in the reflector region were considered. The cycle length was estimated as 38 days long with a refueling scheme of replacing three 36-element fuel assemblies or replacing two 36-element and one 18-element fuel assemblies. The excess reactivity at a BOC was 103.4 mk, and 24.6 mk at a minimum was reserved at an EOC. The assembly average discharge burnup was 54.6% of initial U-235 loading. For the proposed fuel management scheme, the maximum peaking factor Fq was calculated as 2

  8. Periodic trajectories in TDHF

    A condition for the existence of a periodic TDHF trajectory of period T is derived. It takes a from very similar to the static H.F. equation and shows that associated to a periodic trajectory there is a static single particle hamiltonian which is a complicated functional of the time dependent density matrix. An explicit expansion for this functional is derived. It is shown that many properties of the static H.F. rest point are shared by periodic solutions. (Author)

  9. Conceptual Nuclear Design of a 20 MW Multipurpose Research Reactor

    Seo, Chul Gyo; Kim, Hak Sung; Park, Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Nghiem, Huynh Ton; Vinh, Le Vinh; Dang, Vo Doan Hai [Dalat Nuclear Research Reactor, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2007-08-15

    A conceptual nuclear design of a 20 MW multi-purpose research reactor for Vietnam has been jointly done by the KAERI and the DNRI (VAEC). The AHR reference core in this report is a right water cooled and a heavy water reflected open-tank-in-pool type multipurpose research reactor with 20 MW. The rod type fuel of a dispersed U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al with a density of 4.0 gU/cc is used as a fuel. The core consists of fourteen 36-element assemblies, four 18-element assemblies and has three in-core irradiation sites. The reflector tank filled with heavy water surrounds the core and provides rooms for various irradiation holes. Major analyses have been done for the relevant nuclear design parameters such as the neutron flux and power distributions, reactivity coefficients, control rod worths, etc. For the analysis, the MCNP, MVP, and HELIOS codes were used by KAERI and DNRI (VAEC). The results by MCNP (KAERI) and MVP (DNRI) showed good agreements and can be summarized as followings. For a clean, unperturbed core condition such that the fuels are all fresh and there are no irradiation holes in the reflector region, the fast neutron flux (E{sub n}{>=}1.0 MeV) reaches 1.47x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s and the maximum thermal neutron flux (E{sub n}{<=}0.625 eV) reaches 4.43x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s in the core region. In the reflector region, the thermal neutron peak occurs about 28 cm far from the core center and the maximum thermal neutron flux is estimated to be 4.09x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}s. For the analysis of the equilibrium cycle core, the irradiation facilities in the reflector region were considered. The cycle length was estimated as 38 days long with a refueling scheme of replacing three 36-element fuel assemblies or replacing two 36-element and one 18-element fuel assemblies. The excess reactivity at a BOC was 103.4 mk, and 24.6 mk at a minimum was reserved at an EOC. The assembly average discharge burnup was 54.6% of initial U-235 loading. For the proposed fuel management

  10. The Periodic Pyramid

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  11. Painful menstrual periods

    ... you sexually active? Do you use birth control? What type? When was your last menstrual period? Was the flow of your last menstrual period a normal amount for you? Do your periods tend ... with menstruation? What have you done to try to relieve the ...

  12. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  13. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  14. 24 CFR 203.261 - Calculation of periodic MIP.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of periodic MIP. 203.261 Section 203.261 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...-Periodic Payment § 203.261 Calculation of periodic MIP. The amount of any periodic MIP shall be...

  15. Periodicity of chaotic solutions

    Berezowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The scope of the paper is the analysis of the impact of flow reversal on the dynamics of cascades of reactors. Periodic and chaotic oscillations occur in the analyzed system. There is a dependence between the oscillation period of the state variable of the system without flow reversal and the recurrence period of windows of chaos in the steady-state diagram of the system with flow reversal.

  16. Crystallography without periodicity

    A condition of physics stability, applied to materials with sharp Bragg peaks, leads to rules for a unified approach to their classification that make no use of periodicity, applying equally well to either periodic or quasiperiodic materials. Three-dimensional geometric intuition is the primary analytical tool for extracting the classification from the rules. Recognizing that periodicity is not required to formulate crystallography removes the need for an algebraic formalization of that intuition in a higher dimensional superspace, where the material can be embedded in a periodic supercrystal. Selected examples illustrate the simplicity of the resulting description of ordinary crystals, quasicrystals, modulated crystals, intergrowth crystals, or modulated quasicrystals. (Author) 9 refs

  17. 14 CFR 331.13 - What is the eligible reimbursement period under this part?

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS PROCEDURES FOR REIMBURSEMENT OF GENERAL AVIATION... reimbursement. The first period is from September 11, 2001 until May 16, 2002. The second period is...

  18. Inconsistent Regulators: Evidence From Banking

    Sumit Agarwal; David Lucca; Amit Seru; Francesco Trebbi

    2012-01-01

    US state chartered commercial banks are supervised alternately by state and federal regulators. Each regulator supervises a given bank for a fixed time period according to a predetermined rotation schedule. We use unique data to examine differences between federal and state regulators for these banks. Federal regulators are significantly less lenient, downgrading supervisory ratings about twice as frequently as state supervisors. Under federal regulators, banks report higher nonperforming loa...

  19. Second Period Access Report

    Maisondieu, Christophe; Giebhardt, Jochen; Tetu, Amelie; Johnstone, Cameron; Healy, Mark

    The work described in this publication has received support from the European Community - Research Infrastructure Action under the FP7 “Capacities” Specific Programme through grant agreement number 262552, MaRINET. Project Periodic Report. 2nd Period: October 2012 – March 2014 inclusive....

  20. Historically defined autobiographical periods

    Brown, Norman R.; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Lee, Peter J.;

    2012-01-01

    The chapter reviews a research programme that has demonstrated the existence of historically defined autobiographical periods and identified the conditions that bring them about. Data from four samples of World War II-generation adults show that historically defined autobiographical periods endure...

  1. The Living Periodic Table

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  2. 革兰阴性杆菌节律性释放调控物质的研究%Study on regulation factor released periodically by the leather blue negative bacillus

    窦君; 刘俊康; 王娉; 徐启旺; 张富春

    2007-01-01

    目的 研究奇异变形杆菌(Proteus mirabilis, PM)波动生长过程中生物波调控因子(biological wave regulating factor, BRF)的节律性释放及作用.方法 应用MTT实验和激光共聚焦显微镜观察BRF对细菌代谢的影响;采用凝集抑制实验检测PM周期性释放BRF;原子力显微镜观察PM在潜-生序变化中BRF生成情况.结果 PM在波动生长过程中周期性释放BRF,潜生体可合成大量的BRF.BRF能提高细菌的代谢水平,促进细胞内pH值的变化.结论 PM的波动生长过程是细菌生长代谢的消长与环境平衡-远离平衡变化之间互为因果的动态过程,是与细菌自身调控物质BRF协同作用的结果.

  3. On some periodicity effects

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    . In each case, special attention is paid to eigenfrequencies and eigenmodes of a single periodicity cell with appropriate boundary conditions. The influence of the amount of periodicity cells in a finite compound structure on its eigenfrequency spectrum is analyzed. Several features common for the......The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim of...... the talk is to illustrate these issues in simple examples and to discuss possible applications and generalisations. First, the eigenfrequency spectra of finite periodic structures are compared with the location of stop-bands for their infinite counterparts for a hierarchy of four mathematical models...

  4. Deletion of the TNFAIP3/A20 gene detected by FICTION analysis in classical Hodgkin lymphoma

    The TNFAIP3 gene, which encodes a ubiquitin-modifying enzyme (A20) involved in the negative regulation of NF-κB signaling, is frequently inactivated by gene deletions/mutations in a variety of B-cell malignancies. However, the detection of this in primary Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) specimens is hampered by the scarcity of Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HR-S) cells even after enrichment by micro-dissection. We used anti-CD30 immunofluorescence with fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to evaluate the relative number of TNFAIP3/CEP6 double-positive signals in CD30-positive cells. From a total of 47 primary classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) specimens, 44 were evaluable. We found that the relative numbers of TNFAIP3/CD30 cells were distributed among three groups, corresponding to those having homozygous (11%), heterozygous (32%), and no (57%) deletions in TNFAIP3. This shows that TNFAIP3 deletions could be sensitively detected using our chosen methods. Comparing the results with mutation analysis, TNFAIP3 inactivation was shown to have escaped detection in many samples with homozygous deletions. This suggests that TNFAIP3 inactivation in primary cHL specimens might be more frequent than previously reported

  5. Conceptual design of a 20 Tesla pulsed solenoid for a laser solenoid fusion reactor

    Design considerations are described for a strip wound solenoid which is pulsed to 20 tesla while immersed in a 20 tesla bias field so as to achieve within the bore of the pulsed solenoid at net field sequence starting at 20 tesla and going first down to zero, then up to 40 tesla, and finally back to 20 tesla in a period of about 5 x 10-3 seconds. The important parameters of the solenoid, e.g., aperture, build, turns, stored and dissipated energy, field intensity and powering circuit, are given. A numerical example for a specific design is presented. Mechanical stresses in the solenoid and the subsequent choice of materials for coil construction are discussed. Although several possible design difficulties are not discussed in this preliminary report of a conceptual magnet design, such as uniformity of field, long-term stability of insulation under neutron bombardment and choice of structural materials of appropriate tensile strength and elasticity to withstand magnetic forces developed, these questions are addressed in detail in the complete design report and in part in reference one. Furthermore, the authors feel that the problems encountered in this conceptual design are surmountable and are not a hindrance to the construction of such a magnet system

  6. Life Course and Intergenerational Continuity of Intimate Partner Aggression and Physical Injury: A 20-Year Study.

    Knight, Kelly E; Menard, Scott; Simmons, Sara B; Bouffard, Leana A; Orsi, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine continuity of intimate partner aggression (IPA), which is defined as repeated annual involvement in IPA, across respondents' life course and into the next generation, where it may emerge among adult children. A national, longitudinal, and multigenerational sample of 1,401 individuals and their adult children is analyzed. Annual data on IPA severity and physical injury were collected by the National Youth Survey Family Study across a 20-year period from 1984 to 2004. Three hypotheses and biological sex differences are tested and effect sizes are estimated. First, findings reveal evidence for life course continuity (IPA is a strong predictor of subsequent IPA), but the overall trend decreases over time. Second, intergenerational continuity is documented (parents' IPA predicts adult children's IPA), but the effect is stronger for female than for male adult children. Third, results from combined and separate, more restrictive, measures of victimization and perpetration are nearly identical except in the intergenerational analyses. Fourth, evidence for continuity is not found when assessing physical injury alone. Together, these findings imply that some but not all forms of IPA are common, continuous, and intergenerational. Life course continuity appears stronger than intergenerational continuity. PMID:27076093

  7. Toward a 20 per cent wind power supply in Quebec by 2020 (10,000 MW)

    Canada has established high targets for future wind energy production. Quebec's target for 2015 is 4,000 MW. This presentation questioned the feasibility of meeting this target from both a technical and political point of view. The author cautioned that if the current energy strategy in Quebec is not updated, the wind industry will not have a future in the province for the next 20 years, primarily because hydroelectric power development will supply new demand for the period 2015 to 2025. This presentation included a series of graphs depicting historical sales and forecasts of electricity demand in Quebec; new nuclear, hydro and wind generation projects from 2015 to 2025; net electricity exports in Quebec; Hydro-Quebec expected supply and demand from 2005 to 2025 without any new wind power; and, the Hydro-Quebec generation mix anticipated for 2015 to 2025. Solutions for wind power after 2015 were presented. It was concluded that a 20 per cent wind power supply in Quebec by 2020 is feasible, particularly if the energy strategy in the province improves in terms of exports, electricity policies and new approaches for source comparison and choice. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  9. The Periodic Table CD.

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  10. Establishing contract periods

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  11. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  12. Market, Regulation, Market, Regulation

    Frankel, Christian; Galland, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the European Regulatory system which was settled both for opening the Single Market for products and ensuring the consumers' safety. It claims that the New Approach and Standardization, and the Global Approach to conformity assessment, which suppressed the last technical...... barriers to trade in Europe, realized the free movement of products by organizing progressively several orders of markets and regulation. Based on historical and institutional documents, on technical publications, and on interviews, this article relates how the European Commission and the Member States had...... alternatively recourse to markets and to regulations, at the three main levels of the New Approach Directives implementation. The article focuses also more specifically on the Medical Devices sector, not only because this New Approach sector has long been controversial in Europe, and has recently been concerned...

  13. The development of regulations

    In October 2002, The Act on Protection Against Ionising Radiation and Nuclear Safety which regulates all aspects of protection against ionising radiation and nuclear safety entered into force in Slovenia. The Slovenian government and its responsible ministries shall issue several governmental and ministerial regulations to support the above - mentioned act. The Slovenian Nuclear Safety Administration (SNSA) which acts within the Ministry of the Environment, Spatial Planing and Energy takes an active part in drafting the regulations which are defined in the act. Due to a very comprehensive and pretentious task, that is to be completed in a relatively short period of time, taking into consideration the involvement of stakeholders and all competent ministries, the SNSA within the Quality Management System developed a special procedure that insures the systematic approach to the preparation of regulations. The article will briefly represent the process that: defines the preparation, development, harmonisation, review, approval and issue of regulations and uniforms the format of developed regulations. (author)

  14. 49 CFR 232.611 - Periodic maintenance.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic maintenance. 232.611 Section 232.611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... maintenance. (a) In addition to the maintenance requirements contained in § 232.303(b) through (d), a...

  15. 17 CFR 290.2 - Periodic reports.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Periodic reports. 290.2 Section 290.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) Schedule A to Part 285 GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO SECTION 9(a) OF THE EUROPEAN BANK...

  16. 7 CFR 981.73 - Periodic reports.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Periodic reports. 981.73 Section 981.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... prescribed by the Board for use in redetermination of kernel weight and marketing policy considerations....

  17. Periodic solutions of periodically harvested lotka-volterra systems

    Hausrath, Alan R.; Manasevich, Raul F.

    2012-01-01

    We study a Lotka-Volterra system with periodic harvesting, find sufficient conditions for the existence of periodic solutions with the same period, and, under certain conditions, count the number of such periodic solutions.

  18. 20 CFR 220.170 - The trial work period.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The trial work period. 220.170 Section 220.170 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Trial Work Period and Reentitlement Period for Annuitants Disabled for Any...

  19. Periodic table of elements

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF)

  20. Periodic safety analyses

    The IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S8 devoted to 'Safety Aspects of Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants' indicates that operator of a NPP should establish a program for inspection of safe operation during construction, start-up and service life of the plant for obtaining data needed for estimating the life time of structures and components. At the same time the program should ensure that the safety margins are appropriate. Periodic safety analysis are an important part of the safety inspection program. Periodic safety reports is a method for testing the whole system or a part of the safety system following the precise criteria. Periodic safety analyses are not meant for qualification of the plant components. Separate analyses are devoted to: start-up, qualification of components and materials, and aging. All these analyses are described in this presentation. The last chapter describes the experience obtained for PWR-900 and PWR-1300 units from 1986-1989

  1. Periodic Chandrasekhar recursions

    Aknouche, Abdelhakim; Hamdi, Fayçal

    2007-01-01

    This paper extends the Chandrasekhar-type recursions due to Morf, Sidhu, and Kailath "Some new algorithms for recursive estimation in constant, linear, discrete-time systems, IEEE Trans. Autom. Control 19 (1974) 315-323" to the case of periodic time-varying state-space models. We show that the S-lagged increments of the one-step prediction error covariance satisfy certain recursions from which we derive some algorithms for linear least squares estimation for periodic state-space models. The p...

  2. Periodically kicked turbulence

    Lohse

    2000-10-01

    Periodically kicked turbulence is theoretically analyzed within a mean-field theory. For large enough kicking strength A and kicking frequency f the Reynolds number grows exponentially and then runs into some saturation. The saturation level Re(sat) can be calculated analytically; different regimes can be observed. For large enough Re we find Re(sat) approximately Af, but intermittency can modify this scaling law. We suggest an experimental realization of periodically kicked turbulence to study the different regimes we theoretically predict and thus to better understand the effect of forcing on fully developed turbulence. PMID:11089041

  3. Evidence for Phytochrome Regulation of Gibberellin A(20) 3beta-Hydroxylation in Shoots of Dwarf (lele) Pisum sativum L.

    Campell, B R; Bonner, B A

    1986-12-01

    The effect of light on the dwarfing allele, le, in Pisum sativum L. was tested as the growth response to gibberellins prior to or beyond the presumed block in the gibberellin biosynthetic pathway. The response to the substrate (GA(20)), the product (GA(1)), and a nonendogenous early precursor (steviol) was compared in plants bearing the normal Le and the deficient lele genotypes in plants made low in gibberellin content genetically (nana lines) or by paclobutrazol treatment to tall (cv Alaska) and dwarf (cv Progress) peas. Both genotypes responded to GA(1) under red irradiation and in darkness. The lele plants grew in response to GA(20) and steviol in darkness but showed a much smaller response when red irradiated. The Le plants responded to GA(20) and steviol in both light and darkness. The red effects on lele plants were largely reversible by far-red irradiation. It is concluded that the deficiency in 3beta-hydroxylation of GA(20) to GA(1) in genotype lele is due to a Pfr-induced blockage in the expression of that activity. PMID:16665165

  4. Treatment for periodic paralysis

    Sansone, [No Value; Meola, G.; Links, T. P.; Panzeri, M.; Rose, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Primary periodic paralyses are rare inherited muscle diseases characterised by episodes of flaccid weakness affecting one or more limbs, lasting several hours to several days, caused by mutations in skeletal muscle channel genes. Objectives The objective of this review was to systematical

  5. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  6. Periodic Table of Students.

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  7. Higher charge periodic monopoles

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    We consider singly periodic solutions to the SU(2) Bogomolny equations and use the Nahm transform to generate a class of monopoles of charge k>2, thereby extending known results for lower charge chains. Some simple scattering processes are presented and a comparison made with geodesic motion of monopoles in $\\mathbb{R}^3$.

  8. Ayurveda during Abbasid's period.

    Husain, S A; Subhaktha, P K

    2000-01-01

    This is a historical paper which deals with a brief account of Abbasid's period. In this article the existence of Ayurveda in Arab countries, arrival of Ayurvedic physicians to Baghdad, their eminence, authenticity and literary additions in medical field has been studied and presented. PMID:12578013

  9. Periodic paralysis complicating malaria.

    Senanayake, N; Wimalawansa, S J

    1981-01-01

    Episodic muscular weakness, commonly associated with alterations of serum potassium, is the cardinal feature of periodic paralysis. The combination of transient hyperkalaemia and rigors occurring during febrile episodes of malaria is suggested as the underlying cause which precipitated the muscular paralysis. Three patients with malaria who developed a similar paralysis during the paroxysms of fever are described to illustrate this.

  10. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  11. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  12. Direct transfer of A20 gene into pancreas protected mice from streptozotocin-induced diabetes

    Lu-yang YU; Bo LIN; Zhen-lin ZHANG; Li-he GUO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficiency of transfer of A20 gene into pancreas against STZ-induced diabetes. METHODS:PVP-plasmid mixture was directly transferred into the pancreatic parenchyma 2 d before STZ injection. The uptake of plasmid pcDNA3-LacZ or pcDNA3-A20 was detected by PCR and the expression of LacZ was confirmed by histological analysis with X-gal. A20 expression in the pancreas of pcDNA3-A20 transgenic mice was measured by RT-PCR and Westem blots. Urine amylase, NO generation, and histological examination were examined. RESULTS:Injection of PVP-plasmid mixture directly into the pancreatic parenchyma increased urine amylase concentration 16 h after operation and reversed it to nearly normal 36 h later. On d 33 LacZ expression could be found in spleen,duodenum, and islets. The development of diabetes was prevented by direct A20 gene transferring into the pancreas and A20-mediated protection was correlated with suppression of NO production. The insulitis was ameliorated in A20-treated mice. CONCLUSION: Injection of PVP-plasmid mixture directly into the pancreatic parenchyma led to target gene expression in islets. Direct transfer of A20 gene into the pancreas protected mice from STZ-induced diabetes.

  13. 29 CFR 783.47 - Off-duty periods.

    2010-07-01

    ... purpose. The fact that during such off-duty periods the employee is subject to call in case of emergency... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off-duty periods. 783.47 Section 783.47 Labor Regulations... EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Computation of Wages and Hours § 783.47 Off-duty periods. Off-duty periods include...

  14. The Regulation of Segmentation Clock Period in Zebrafish

    Herrgen, Leah

    2008-01-01

    Oscillations are present at many different levels of biological organization. The cell cycle that directs the division of individual cells, the regular depolarization of neurons in the sinu-atrial node which underlies the regular beating of the heart, the circadian rhythms that govern the daily activity cycles of virtually all organisms, and the clocks that make entire populations of fireflies flash on and off in unison feature as prominent examples of biological clocks. During development, b...

  15. Cells anticipate periodic events

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  16. Notes on Periodic Solitons

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2002-01-01

    We consider static solutions of the sine-Gordon theory defined on a cylinder, which can be either periodic or quasi-periodic in space. They are described by the different modes of a simple pendulum moving in an inverted effective potential and correspond to its libration or rotation. We review the decomposition of the solutions into an oscillatory sum of alternating kinks and anti-kinks or into a monotonic train of kinks, respectively, using properties of elliptic functions. The two sectors are naturally related to each other by a modular transformation, whereas the underlying spectral curve of the model can be used to express the energy of the static configurations in terms of contour integrals \\`a la Seiberg-Witten in either case. The stability properties are also examined by means of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, where we find that the unstable configurations are associated to singular superpotentials, thus allowing for negative modes in the spectrum of small fluctuations.

  17. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  18. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    Abbas, Haider; Kothari, Nikhil; Bogra, Jaishri

    2012-01-01

    Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is a rare genetic disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of skeletal muscle weakness with associated hypokalemia which is precipitated by stress, cold, carbohydrate load, infection, glucose infusion, hypothermia, metabolic alkalosis, anesthesia, and steroids. We encountered one such incidence of prolonged recovery after general anesthesia, which on further evaluation revealed a case of hypokalemic paralysis. The key to successful management of such a patien...

  19. Scattering of periodic solitons

    Cova, R.J. [Carleton University, School of Mathematics and Statistics, 1125 Colonel by Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Zakrzewski, W.J. [University of Durham, Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)]. e-mail: rcova@math.carleton.ca

    2004-07-01

    Through numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N = 3, 4) in the (2 + 1)-dimensional CP{sup 1} model with periodic boundary conditions. Solitons colliding from symmetrical configurations scatter at {pi}/ N, as observed in the usual model with standard boundary conditions. When the initial configurations are not symmetric the angles differ from {pi}/ N. We describe our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation. (Author) 11 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Broiler adaptation to post-hatching period

    Maiorka Alex

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the latest years more attention has been given to mechanisms for bird adaptation at post-hatching period by management of environmental conditions and formulations of diets offered during this period when digestive, immune, and thermo-regulating systems suffer slight changes. In post-hatching period, digestive system is anatomically complete, but its functionality is still immature in relation to adult birds. The chick immunity depends on maternal antibodies transferred to egg just before laying. In addition, variations within thermal comfort zone might affect initial development of chick. For example, high temperatures may induce hyperthermia with dehydration, while low temperatures may lead to hypothermia responsible by pulmonary hypertension syndrome. In conclusion, productivity might be enhanced when good conditions are offered to chicks during the period from last embryo development to first days after hatching.

  1. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  2. Periodic Mesoporous Organosilica Nanorice

    Mohanty Paritosh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMO with nanorice morphology was successfully synthesized by a template assisted sol–gel method using a chain-type precursor. The PMO is composed of D and T sites in the ratio 1:2. The obtained mesoporous nanorice has a surface area of 753 m2 g−1, one-dimensional channels, and a narrow pore size distribution centered at 4.3 nm. The nanorice particles have a length of ca. 600 nm and width of ca. 200 nm.

  3. Scattering of periodic solitons

    Cova, R J

    2003-01-01

    With the help of numerical simulations we study N-soliton scattering (N=3,4) in the (2+1)-dimensional CP^1 model with periodic boundary conditions. When the solitons are scattered from symmetrical configurations the scattering angles observed agree with the earlier \\pi/N predictions based on the model on R_2 with standard boundary conditions. When the boundary conditions are not symmetric the angles are different from \\pi/N. We present an explanation of our observed patterns based on a properly formulated geodesic approximation.

  4. Immunoregulatory effect of bifidobacteria strains in porcine intestinal epithelial cells through modulation of ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 expression.

    Yohsuke Tomosada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that evaluation of anti-inflammatory activities of lactic acid bacteria in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE cells is useful for selecting potentially immunobiotic strains. OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present study were: i to select potentially immunomodulatory bifidobacteria that beneficially modulate the Toll-like receptor (TLR-4-triggered inflammatory response in PIE cells and; ii to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of immunobiotics by evaluating the role of TLR2 and TLR negative regulators in the modulation of proinflammatory cytokine production and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathways in PIE cells. RESULTS: Bifidobacteria longum BB536 and B. breve M-16V strains significantly downregulated levels of interleukin (IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 and IL-6 in PIE cells challenged with heat-killed enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Moreover, BB536 and M-16V strains attenuated the proinflammatory response by modulating the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. In addition, our findings provide evidence for a key role for the ubiquitin-editing enzyme A20 in the anti-inflammatory effect of immunobiotic bifidobacteria in PIE cells. CONCLUSIONS: We show new data regarding the mechanism involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of immunobiotics. Several strains with immunoregulatory capabilities used a common mechanism to induce tolerance in PIE cells. Immunoregulatory strains interacted with TLR2, upregulated the expression of A20 in PIE cells, and beneficially modulated the subsequent TLR4 activation by reducing the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways and the production of proinflammatory cytokines. We also show that the combination of TLR2 activation and A20 induction can be used as biomarkers to screen and select potential immunoregulatory bifidobacteria strains.

  5. Ecosystem Development after Mangrove Wetland Creation: Plant-Soil Change across a 20-year Chronosequence

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland loss. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands is poorly understood. We compared a 20-yr chrono...

  6. Perioperative period: immunological modifications.

    Cardinale, F; Chinellato, I; Caimmi, S; Peroni, D G; Franceschini, F; Miraglia Del Giudice, M; Bernardini, R

    2011-01-01

    Surgical stress induces complex modifications in the hemodynamic, metabolic, neuro-hormonal and immune response of the individual. The magnitude of these alterations depends on preoperative events leading to surgery, the severity of surgical trauma, and also on post-operative/post-traumatic complications (multiple hit hypothesis). As in other conditions of tissue damage, surgery trauma is followed by an immune-inflammatory response, initiated at the site of injury by the innate immune system, followed by a compensatory anti-inflammatory (or immunosuppressive) response (CARS), involving mainly cells of the adaptive immune system, which predispose the host to septic complications. The up-regulated inflammatory response, together with a profound impairment of macrophage and cell-mediated immunity, appear to be the cause for patients' increased susceptibility in developing subsequent sepsis after major surgery. PMID:22014920

  7. Structural analysis of point mutations at the Vaccinia virus A20/D4 interface.

    Contesto-Richefeu, Céline; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Brazzolotto, Xavier; Burmeister, Wim P; Peyrefitte, Christophe N; Iseni, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    The Vaccinia virus polymerase holoenzyme is composed of three subunits: E9, the catalytic DNA polymerase subunit; D4, a uracil-DNA glycosylase; and A20, a protein with no known enzymatic activity. The D4/A20 heterodimer is the DNA polymerase cofactor, the function of which is essential for processive DNA synthesis. The recent crystal structure of D4 bound to the first 50 amino acids of A20 (D4/A201-50) revealed the importance of three residues, forming a cation-π interaction at the dimerization interface, for complex formation. These are Arg167 and Pro173 of D4 and Trp43 of A20. Here, the crystal structures of the three mutants D4-R167A/A201-50, D4-P173G/A201-50 and D4/A201-50-W43A are presented. The D4/A20 interface of the three structures has been analysed for atomic solvation parameters and cation-π interactions. This study confirms previous biochemical data and also points out the importance for stability of the restrained conformational space of Pro173. Moreover, these new structures will be useful for the design and rational improvement of known molecules targeting the D4/A20 interface. PMID:27599859

  8. Adiponectin induces A20 expression in adipose tissue to confer metabolic benefit.

    Hand, Laura E; Usan, Paola; Cooper, Garth J S; Xu, Lance Y; Ammori, Basil; Cunningham, Peter S; Aghamohammadzadeh, Reza; Soran, Handrean; Greenstein, Adam; Loudon, Andrew S I; Bechtold, David A; Ray, David W

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major risk factor for metabolic disease, with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation emerging as a key underlying pathology. We detail that mice lacking Reverbα exhibit enhanced fat storage without the predicted increased WAT inflammation or loss of insulin sensitivity. In contrast to most animal models of obesity and obese human patients, Reverbα(-/-) mice exhibit elevated serum adiponectin levels and increased adiponectin secretion from WAT explants in vitro, highlighting a potential anti-inflammatory role of this adipokine in hypertrophic WAT. Indeed, adiponectin was found to suppress primary macrophage responses to lipopolysaccharide and proinflammatory fatty acids, and this suppression depended on glycogen synthase kinase 3β activation and induction of A20. Attenuated inflammatory responses in Reverbα(-/-) WAT depots were associated with tonic elevation of A20 protein and ex vivo shown to depend on A20. We also demonstrate that adipose A20 expression in obese human subjects exhibits a negative correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, bariatric surgery-induced weight loss was accompanied by enhanced WAT A20 expression, which is positively correlated with increased serum adiponectin and improved metabolic and inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein. The findings identify A20 as a mediator of adiponectin anti-inflammatory action in WAT and a potential target for mitigating obesity-related pathology. PMID:25190567

  9. Periods and Superstring Amplitudes

    Stieberger, S

    2016-01-01

    Scattering amplitudes which describe the interaction of physical states play an important role in determining physical observables. In string theory the physical states are given by vibrations of open and closed strings and their interactions are described (at the leading order in perturbation theory) by a world-sheet given by the topology of a disk or sphere, respectively. Formally, for scattering of N strings this leads to N-3-dimensional iterated real integrals along the compactified real axis or N-3-dimensional complex sphere integrals, respectively. As a consequence the physical observables are described by periods on M_{0,N} - the moduli space of Riemann spheres of N ordered marked points. The mathematical structure of these string amplitudes share many recent advances in arithmetic algebraic geometry and number theory like multiple zeta values, single-valued multiple zeta values, Drinfeld, Deligne associators, Hopf algebra and Lie algebra structures related to Grothendiecks Galois theory. We review the...

  10. Periodic and limit-periodic discrete Schr\\"odinger operators

    Krueger, Helge

    2011-01-01

    The theory of discrete periodic and limit-periodic Schr\\"odinger operators is developed. In particular, the Floquet--Bloch decomposition is discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that an arbitrarily small potential can add a gap for even periods. In dimension two, it is shown that for coprime periods small potential terms don't add gaps thus proving a Bethe--Sommerfeld type statement. Furthermore limit-periodic potentials whose spectrum is an interval are constructed.

  11. Transition from non-periodic to periodic explosions.

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2015-12-13

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These non-chaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modelling soliton transmission lines. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations (or intermittency) leading to chaos (non-periodic explosions). PMID:26527807

  12. A Study on the Treatment of Gynecological Disease during the Post-menstruation Period through the Method of Regulating Menstru-ation Cycle Advocated by National TCM Master XIA Guicheng%国医大师夏桂成教授调周法经后期证治探析

    钱菁; 卢苏

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRAT:To treat the gynecological disease,national TCM master Xia Guicheng advocates the method of regulating menstru-ation cycle.He believes that kidney yin and essence are developing during the post-menstruation period which is of vital impor-tance to menstruation.The main methods of treatment of gynecological disease are nourishing yin and blood accompanied by reinforcing yang,and taking peaceful mind into value for its benefit for the production of kidney yin and tranquilizing mind.Ac-cording to the yin-yang waxing and waning circular motion cycle theory,post-menstruation period was divided into early,mid-dle,and terminal stages.On the basis of this stage-classification type,He put forward a body of methodologies for diagnosis and treatment:nourishing yin and blood and allowing patients to maintain calm minds during the early stage,nourishing yin to reinforcing yang and reinforcing yin from yang in the middle stage and regulating yin and yang at the terminal stage.%国医大师夏桂成教授倡导调周法治疗妇科疾病,认为经后期是肾阴天癸滋长的时期,对奠定月经物质基础至关重要。其治疗以滋阴养血,佐以助阳为主,并强调静能生水、宁心安神。根据阴阳消长转化圆运动周期理论,将经后期再分为初、中、末3个时期,提出了经后初期血中养阴、以静为主;经后中期滋阴助阳,静中有动;经后末期阴阳并调,动静结合的诊疗方法。

  13. Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review program

    The need for conducting a Periodic Safety Review for the Krsko NPP has been clearly recognized both by the NEK and the regulator (SNSA). The PSR would be highly desirable both in the light of current trends in safety oversight practices and because of many benefits it is capable to provide. On January 11, 2001 the SNSA issued a decision requesting the Krsko NPP to prepare a program and determine a schedule for the implementation of the program for 'Periodic Safety Review of NPP Krsko'. The program, which is required to be in accordance with the IAEA safety philosophy and with the EU practice, was submitted for the approval to the SNSA by the end of March 2001. The paper summarizes Krsko NPP Periodic Safety Review Program [1] including implemented SNSA and IAEA Expert Mission comments.(author)

  14. 20 CFR 220.36 - Period of disability.

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Period of disability. 220.36 Section 220.36... DISABILITY Disability Determinations Governed by the Regulations of the Social Security Administration § 220.36 Period of disability. (a) General. In order to receive an annuity based upon a disability,...

  15. 14 CFR Sec. 2-4 - Accounting period.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section 2-4... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this...

  16. On solving periodic Riccati equations

    Varga, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Numerically reliable algorithms to compute the periodic non-negative definite stabilizing solutions of the periodic differential Riccati equation (PRDE) and discrete-time periodic Riccati equation (DPRE) are proposed. For the numerical solution of PRDEs, a new multiple shooting-type algorithm is developed to compute the periodic solutions in an arbitrary number of time moments within one period by employing suitable discretizations of the continuous-time problems. In contrast to single shooti...

  17. TRIP6 antagonizes the recruitment of A20 and CYLD to TRAF6 to promote the LPA2 receptor-mediated TRAF6 activation

    Lin, Fang-Tsyr; Lin, Vivian Y; Lin, Victor TG; Lin, Weei-Chin

    2016-01-01

    The elevated lysophosphatidic acid signaling has been causally linked to cancer-associated inflammation and tumorigenesis through upregulation of nuclear factor-κB signaling. However, how this signaling event is regulated has not yet been fully understood. Here we demonstrate that TRIP6, an LPA2 receptor-interacting adaptor protein, functions as a positive regulator of nuclear factor-κB and JNK signaling through direct binding to and activation of the E3 ligase TRAF6. Upon lysophosphatidic acid stimulation, TRIP6 recruits TRAF6 to the LPA2 receptor and promotes lysophosphatidic acid-induced JNK and nuclear factor-κB activation in a TRAF6-dependent manner. TRIP6 antagonizes the recruitment of deubiquitinases A20 and CYLD to TRAF6, thus sustaining the E3 ligase activity of TRAF6 and augmenting lysophosphatidic acid-activated nuclear factor-κB signaling. In contrast, depletion of TRIP6 by TRIP6-specific shRNA or Cas9/sgRNA greatly enhances the association of TRAF6 with A20 and CYLD, and attenuates lysophosphatidic acid-induced muclear factor-κB and JNK/p38 activation in ovarian cancer cells. On the other hand, TRAF6 also regulates TRIP6 by facilitating its binding to nuclear factor-κB p65 and phosphorylation by c-Src. Together, TRIP6 cooperates with TRAF6 to regulate the LPA2 receptor signaling, which may ultimately contribute to chronic inflammation, apoptotic resistance and cell invasion.

  18. Mortality by treatment in patients ≥80 years of age with gastroesophageal cancer seen in a 20-year period at a single medical center

    Mason, James; Maldonado, Yolanda Munoz; Wong, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The treatment approach to patients 80 years of age and older with gastroesophageal cancer at Baylor Scott and White in Temple, Texas, has historically favored conservative measures in the form of palliation and observation. To evaluate this trend in practice, the administered treatments and subsequent patient outcomes of this group were retrospectively reviewed. The study group included all patients 80 years of age and older with a diagnosis of gastroesophageal cancer seen at our facility between 1991 and 2010. Of the 117 cases, 49% received none of the available treatment modalities. The median overall survival (OS) of patients who received treatment, however, was significantly longer than the OS of those who did not, regardless of modality. Specifically, surgical intervention offered an almost double median OS compared with no therapy (6.8 vs. 3.9 months, respectively; P = 0.02); chemotherapy, an almost 4-fold OS benefit (14.8 vs. 3.9 months; P = 0.03); and radiation therapy, a >3-fold OS benefit (11.1 vs. 3.5 months; P = 0.04). These results further substantiate chronological age as an inaccurate predictor of treatment benefit, and age alone should not dictate the administration or withholding of available treatment options. PMID:26130872

  19. Student Failures on First-Year Medical Basic Science Courses and the USMLE Step 1: A Retrospective Study over a 20-Year Period

    Burns, E. Robert; Garrett, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Correlates of achievement in the basic science years in medical school and on the Step 1 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE®), (Step 1) in relation to preadmission variables have been the subject of considerable study. Preadmissions variables such as the undergraduate grade point average (uGPA) and Medical College Admission…

  20. Telomerase Regulation

    Cifuentes-Rojas, Catherine; Dorothy E Shippen

    2011-01-01

    The intimate connection between telomerase regulation and human disease is now well established. The molecular basis for telomerase regulation is highly complex and entails multiple layers of control. While the major target of enzyme regulation is the catalytic subunit TERT, the RNA subunit of telomerase is also implicated in telomerase control. In addition, alterations in gene dosage and alternative isoforms of core telomerase components have been described. Finally, telomerase localization,...

  1. Radiation regulation

    The five main areas of radiation regulation considered are radiation exposure in the mining of uranium and other minerals, exposure in the use of uranium in nuclear reactors, risks in the transport of radioactive materials and hazards associated with the disposal of used materials. In Australia these problems are regulated by mines departments, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission and radiation control branches in state health departments. Each of these instutional areas of regulation is examined

  2. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  3. C-type period-doubling transition in nephron autoregulation

    Laugesen, Jakob Lund; Mosekilde, Erik; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The functional units of the kidney, called nephrons, utilize mechanisms that allow the individual nephron to regulate the incoming blood flow in response to fluctuations in the arterial pressure. This regulation tends to be unstable and to generate self-sustained oscillations, period-doubling bif......The functional units of the kidney, called nephrons, utilize mechanisms that allow the individual nephron to regulate the incoming blood flow in response to fluctuations in the arterial pressure. This regulation tends to be unstable and to generate self-sustained oscillations, period......-doubling bifurcations, mode-locking and other nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the tubular pressures and flows. Using a simplified nephron model, the paper examines how the regulatory mechanisms react to an external periodic variation in arterial pressure near a region of resonance with one of the internally generated...

  4. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  5. A new characterization of periodic oscillations in periodic difference equations

    Al-Salman, Ahmad [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Al-Khod (Oman); AlSharawi, Ziyad, E-mail: alsha1zm@alsharawi.info [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 36, PC 123, Al-Khod (Oman)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > A characterization of periodic solutions of periodic difference equations is given. > The periods are classified as multiples and non-multiples of the phase-period. > Non-multiples of the phase-period depend on the intersections between the maps. > A refinement of Sharkovsky's theorem for periodic difference equations is given. - Abstract: In this paper, we characterize periodic solutions of p-periodic difference equations. We classify the periods into multiples of p and nonmultiples of p. We show that the elements of the set of multiples of p follow the well-known Sharkovsky's ordering multiplied by p. On the other hand, we show that the elements of the set {Gamma}{sub p} of nonmultiples of p are independent in their existence. Moreover, we show the existence of a p-periodic difference equation with infinite {Gamma}{sub p}-set in which the maps are defined on a compact domain and agree exactly on a countable set. Based on the proposed classification, we give a refinement of Sharkovsky's theorem for periodic difference equations.

  6. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  7. Novel A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits carotid artery restenosis in a porcine model

    Zhou, Zhen-hua; Peng, Jing; Meng, Zhao-you; Chen, Lin; Huang, Jia-Lu; Huang, He-qing; Li, Li; Zeng, Wen; Wei, Yong; Zhu, Chu-Hong; Chen, Kang-Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid artery stenosis is a major risk factor for ischemic stroke. Although carotid angioplasty and stenting using an embolic protection device has been introduced as a less invasive carotid revascularization approach, in-stent restenosis limits its long-term efficacy and safety. The objective of this study was to test the anti-restenosis effects of local stent-mediated delivery of the A20 gene in a porcine carotid artery model. Materials and methods The pCDNA3.1EHA20 was firmly attached onto stents that had been collagen coated and treated with N-succinimidyl-3-(2-pyridyldithiol)propionate solution and anti-DNA immunoglobulin fixation. Anti-restenosis effects of modified vs control (the bare-metal stent and pCDNA3.1 void vector) stents were assessed by Western blot and scanning electron microscopy, as well as by morphological and inflammatory reaction analyses. Results Stent-delivered A20 gene was locally expressed in porcine carotids in association with significantly greater extent of re-endothelialization at day 14 and of neointimal hyperplasia inhibition at 3 months than stenting without A20 gene expression. Conclusion The A20-gene-eluting stent inhibits neointimal hyperplasia while promoting re-endothelialization and therefore constitutes a novel potential alternative to prevent restenosis while minimizing complications. PMID:27540277

  8. Periods and elementary real numbers

    Yoshinaga, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    The periods, introduced by Kontsevich and Zagier, form a class of complex numbers which contains all algebraic numbers and several transcendental quantities. Little has been known about qualitative properties of periods. In this paper, we compare the periods with hierarchy of real numbers induced from computational complexities. In particular we prove that periods can be effectively approximated by elementary rational Cauchy sequences. As an application, we exhibit a computable real number wh...

  9. A 20-year prospective study of mortality and causes of death among hospitalized opioid addicts in Oslo

    Haldorsen Tor

    2008-02-01

    of death among opioid addicts was significantly higher for all causes of death compared with the general population, implying a poor prognosis over a 20-year period for this young patient group.

  10. Periodic waves in nonlinear metamaterials

    Periodic waves are presented in this Letter. With symbolic computation, equations for monochromatic waves are studied, and analytic periodic waves are obtained. Factors affecting properties of periodic waves are analyzed. Nonlinear metamaterials, with the continuous distribution of the dielectric permittivity obtained, are different from the ones with the discrete distribution. -- Highlights: ► Equations for the monochromatic waves in transverse magnetic polarization have been studied. ► Analytic periodic waves for the equations have been obtained. ► Periodic waves are theoretically presented and studied in the nonlinear metamaterials.

  11. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    Sun, Ying

    2012-02-01

    This article proposes a nonparametric method for estimating the period and values of a periodic sequence when the data are evenly spaced in time. The period is estimated by a "leave-out-one-cycle" version of cross-validation (CV) and complements the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both theoretically and by simulation.We also propose a nonparametric test of the null hypothesis that the data have constantmean against the alternative that the sequence of means is periodic. Finally, our methodology is demonstrated on three well-known time series: the sunspots and lynx trapping data, and the El Niño series of sea surface temperatures. © 2012 American Statistical Association and the American Society for Quality.

  12. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    Lin, Wei; Chen, Tianping

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  13. Positive periodic solutions of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems

    Lin Wei [Laboratory of Nonlinear Mathematics Science, Institute of Mathematics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: weilin@fudan.edu.cn; Chen Tianping [Laboratory of Nonlinear Mathematics Science, Institute of Mathematics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: tchen@fudan.edu.cn

    2005-01-17

    In this Letter, for a general class of delayed periodic Lotka-Volterra systems, we prove some new results on the existence of positive periodic solutions by Schauder's fixed point theorem. The global asymptotical stability of positive periodic solutions is discussed further, and conditions for exponential convergence are given. The conditions we obtained are weaker than the previously known ones and can be easily reduced to several special cases.

  14. Fractional-period excitations in continuum periodic systems

    We investigate the generation of fractional-period states in continuum periodic systems. As an example, we consider a Bose-Einstein condensate confined in an optical-lattice potential. We show that when the potential is turned on nonadiabatically, the system explores a number of transient states whose periodicity is a fraction of that of the lattice. We illustrate the origin of fractional-period states analytically by treating them as resonant states of a parametrically forced Duffing oscillator and discuss their transient nature and potential observability

  15. NOISE REGULATION

    Cristina Voican; Constantin Stanescu

    2012-01-01

    Noise regulation includes statutes or guidelines relating to sound transmission established by national, state or provincial and municipal levels of government. After the watershed passage of the United States Noise Control Act of 1972, other local and state governments passed further regulations. Although the UK and Japan enacted national laws in 1960 and 1967 respectively, these laws were not at all comprehensive or fully enforceable as to address generally rising ambient noise, enforceable...

  16. Mirror energy difference and the structure of loosely bound proton-rich nuclei around A = 20

    Yuan, Cenxi; Xu, Furong; Suzuki, Toshio; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2014-01-01

    The properties of loosely bound proton-rich nuclei around A = 20 are investigated within the framework of nuclear shell model. In these nuclei, the strength of the effective interactions involving the loosely bound proton s1=2 orbit are significantly reduced in comparison with those in their mirror nuclei. We evaluate the reduction of the effective interaction by calculating the monopole-baseduniversal interaction (VMU) in the Woods-Saxon basis. The shell-model Hamiltonian in the sd shell, such as USD, can thus be modified to reproduce the binding energies and energy levels of the weakly bound proton-rich nuclei around A = 20. The effect of the reduction of the effective interaction on the structure and decay properties of these nuclei is also discussed.

  17. Left lung agenesis discovered by a spontaneous pneumothorax in a 20-year-old girl.

    Hentati, Abdessalem; Neifar, Chawki; Abid, Walid; M'saad, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Lung agenesis is a rare condition which prognosis widely depends on associated malformations. Clinical presentation is so variable and diagnosis is often made in childhood. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old girl who was admitted because of a spontaneous pneumothorax. Explorations concluded at a left lung agenesis, a hyperinflated right lung crossing the midline with a corresponding pneumothorax. There was no malformation else. This congenital condition and treatment for this rare presentation are discussed in detail. PMID:27051112

  18. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-01-01

    This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationsh...

  19. A 20 kV, 5 A, 1 ns Risetime Pulsed Electron Beam Source

    A 20 kV, 1 ns risetime pulsed electron beam source was developed using an extremely small gap (0.1 mm) diode driven by a sub-nanosecond risetime, 10 kV rectangular pulse generator. A beam current of 5 A was detected by using a fast response Faraday cup at a distance of 2 cm away from a grid anode. The shot to shot variation of the electron beam pulse was less than 10%

  20. Photolysis of Periodate and Periodic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    Sehested, Knud; Kläning, U. K.

    1978-01-01

    The photochemistry of periodate and periodic acid in aqueous solution was studied (i) by quantum yield measurements at low light intensity (ii) by flash photolysis, and (iii) by photolysis of glassy samples at 77 K. The photochemical studies were supplemented with pulse radiolysis studies of...

  1. From Periodic Properties to a Periodic Table Arrangement

    Besalú, Emili

    2013-01-01

    A periodic table is constructed from the consideration of periodic properties and the application of the principal components analysis technique. This procedure is useful for objects classification and data reduction and has been used in the field of chemistry for many applications, such as lanthanides, molecules, or conformers classification.…

  2. Repelling periodic points of given periods of rational functions

    CHANG; Jianming; FANG; Mingliang

    2006-01-01

    Let R(z) be a rational function of degree d ≥ 2. Then R(z) has at least one repelling periodic point of given period k ≥ 2, unless k = 4 and d=2, or k= 3 and d ≤ 3, or k=2 and d≤8. Examples show that all exceptional cases occur.

  3. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  4. Scaling limits of periodic monopoles

    Maldonado, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to explore the structure of singly periodic monopoles for different values of the size to period ratio. The transition between a chain of small monopoles and the approximately two dimensional chain of large monopoles takes us through a region with an unintuitive dependence on the periodic direction. The focus is mainly on the smooth SU(2) monopole of charge 2.

  5. Ap stars with variable periods

    Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Krtička, Jiří; Janík, Jan; Zejda, Miloslav; Henry, Gegory W.; Paunzen, Ernst; Žižňovský, Jozef; Zverko, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    The majority of magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars exhibit periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectroscopic variations that can be adequately modelled as a rigidly-rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures. Nevertheless, there is a small sample of diverse mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades while the shapes of their phase curves remain unchanged. Alternating period increases and decreases have been suspected in the hot CP stars CU Vir an...

  6. Holonomic systems for period mappings

    Chen, Jingyue, E-mail: jychen@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States); Huang, An, E-mail: anhuang@math.harvard.edu [Department of Mathematics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lian, Bong H., E-mail: lian@brandeis.edu [Department of Mathematics, Brandeis University, Waltham, MA 02454 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Period mappings were introduced in the sixties [4] to study variation of complex structures of families of algebraic varieties. The theory of tautological systems was introduced recently [7,8] to understand period integrals of algebraic manifolds. In this paper, we give an explicit construction of a tautological system for each component of a period mapping. We also show that the D-module associated with the tautological system gives rise to many interesting vanishing conditions for period integrals at certain special points of the parameter space.

  7. Circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, sleep, and neurobehavioral function in humans living on a 20-h day

    Wyatt, J. K.; Ritz-De Cecco, A.; Czeisler, C. A.; Dijk, D. J.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of homeostatic and circadian processes in the regulation of waking neurobehavioral functions and sleep was studied in six healthy young subjects. Subjects were scheduled to 15-24 repetitions of a 20-h rest/activity cycle, resulting in desynchrony between the sleep-wake cycle and the circadian rhythms of body temperature and melatonin. The circadian components of cognitive throughput, short-term memory, alertness, psychomotor vigilance, and sleep disruption were at peak levels near the temperature maximum, shortly before melatonin secretion onset. These measures exhibited their circadian nadir at or shortly after the temperature minimum, which in turn was shortly after the melatonin maximum. Neurobehavioral measures showed impairment toward the end of the 13-h 20-min scheduled wake episodes. This wake-dependent deterioration of neurobehavioral functions can be offset by the circadian drive for wakefulness, which peaks in the latter half of the habitual waking day during entrainment. The data demonstrate the exquisite sensitivity of many neurobehavioral functions to circadian phase and the accumulation of homeostatic drive for sleep.

  8. Few-cycle, Broadband, Mid-infrared Optical Parametric Oscillator Pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire Laser

    Kumar, Suddapalli Chaitanya; Ideguchi, Takuro; Yan, Ming; Holzner, Simon; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid

    2014-01-01

    We report a few-cycle, broadband, singly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO) for the mid-infrared based on MgO-doped periodically-poled LiNbO3 (MgO:PPLN), synchronously pumped by a 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser. By using crystal interaction lengths as short as 250 um, and careful dispersion management of input pump pulses and the OPO resonator, near-transform-limited, few-cycle idler pulses tunable across the mid-infrared have been generated, with as few as 3.7 optical cycles at 2682 nm. The OPO can be continuously tuned over 2179-3732 nm by cavity delay tuning, providing up to 33 mW of output power at 3723 nm. The idler spectra exhibit stable broadband profiles with bandwidths spaning over 422 nm (FWHM) recorded at 3732 nm. We investigate the effect of crystal length on spectral bandwidth and pulse duration at a fixed wavelength, confirming near-transform-limited idler pulses for all grating interaction lengths. By locking the repetition frequency of the pump laser to a radio-frequency reference, and with...

  9. Increases in Anthropogenic Gadolinium Anomalies and Rare Earth Element Concentrations in San Francisco Bay over a 20 Year Record.

    Hatje, Vanessa; Bruland, Kenneth W; Flegal, A Russell

    2016-04-19

    We evaluated both the spatial distribution of gadolinium (Gd) and other rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters collected in a transect of San Francisco Bay (SFB) and their temporal variations within the Bay over two decades. The REE were preconcentrated using the NOBIAS PA-1 resin prior to analysis by high-resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Measurements revealed a temporal increase in the Gd anomaly in SFB from the early 1990s to the present. The highest Gd anomalies were observed in the southern reach of SFB, which is surrounded by several hospitals and research centers that use Gd-based contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. Recent increases in that usage presumably contributed to the order of magnitude increase in anthropogenic Gd concentrations in SFB, from 8.27 to 112 pmol kg(-1) over the past two decades, and reach the northeast Pacific coastal waters. These measurements (i) show that "exotic" trace elements used in new high-tech applications, such as Gd, are emerging contaminants in San Francisco Bay and that anthropogenic Gd concentrations increased substantially over a 20 year period; (ii) substantiate proposals that REE may be used as tracers of wastewater discharges and hydrological processes; and (iii) suggest that new public policies and the development of more effective treatment technologies may be necessary to control sources and minimize future contamination by REE that are critical for the development of new technologies, which now overwhelm natural REE anomalies. PMID:26742888

  10. Dividend Policy in Regulated Firms

    rondi, laura; Cambini, Carlo; bremberger, francisca; GUGLER, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of different regulatory and ownership regimes on the dividend policy of regulated firms. Using a panel of 106 publicly traded European electric utilities in the period 1986-2010, we link payout and smoothing decisions to the implementation of different regulatory mechanisms (cost plus vs. incentive regulation) and to firm ownership (state vs. private). After controlling for the potential endogeneity of the regulatory mechanism, our results show that utilities subject to i...

  11. NORM regulations

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    The author reviews the question of regulation for naturally occuring radioactive material (NORM), and the factors that have made this a more prominent concern today. Past practices have been very relaxed, and have often involved very poor records, the involvment of contractors, and the disposition of contaminated equipment back into commercial service. The rationale behind the establishment of regulations is to provide worker protection, to exempt low risk materials, to aid in scrap recycling, to provide direction for remediation and to examine disposal options. The author reviews existing regulations at federal and state levels, impending legislation, and touches on the issue of site remediation and potential liabilities affecting the release of sites contaminated by NORM.

  12. Quasi-periodicity in relative quasi-periodic tori

    Fassò, Francesco; García-Naranjo, Luis C.; Giacobbe, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    At variance from the cases of relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits of dynamical systems with symmetry, the dynamics in relative quasi-periodic tori (namely, subsets of the phase space that project to an invariant torus of the reduced system on which the flow is quasi-periodic) is not yet completely understood. Even in the simplest situation of a free action of a compact and abelian connected group, the dynamics in a relative quasi-periodic torus is not necessarily quasi-periodic. It is known that quasi-periodicity of the unreduced dynamics is related to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, and sufficient conditions for it are virtually known only in a perturbation context. We provide a different, though equivalent, approach to this subject, based on the hypothesis of the existence of commuting, group-invariant lifts of a set of generators of the reduced torus. Under this hypothesis, which is shown to be equivalent to the reducibility of the reconstruction equation, we give a complete description of the structure of the relative quasi-periodic torus, which is a principal torus bundle whose fibers are tori of a dimension which exceeds that of the reduced torus by at most the rank of the group. The construction can always be done in such a way that these tori have minimal dimension and carry ergodic flow.

  13. Superconductivity and the periodic table

    Compiled data on superconducting transition temperature Tc for pure metals (including amorphous and high-pressure phases) from the first, second, and third long periods of the Periodic Table and for their analogous compounds show that a significant regularity exists in the relative values of Tc

  14. Beyond the periodic orbit theory

    Cvitanovic, Predrag; Hansen, Kim; Rolf, Juri; Vattay, Gabor

    1997-01-01

    The global constraints on chaotic dynamics induced by the analyticity of smooth flows are used to dispense with individual periodic orbits and derive infinite families of exact sum rules for several simple dynamical systems. The associated Fredholm determinants are of particularly simple polynomial form. The theory developed suggests an alternative to the conventional periodic orbit theory approach to determining eigenspectra of transfer operators.

  15. Periodicities in gamma ray bursts

    Gamma ray burst models based on magnetic neutron stars face a problem of account for the scarcity of observed periods. Both this scarcity and the typical period found when any is detected are explained if the neutron stars are accreting in binary systems

  16. NF-κB activation and zinc finger protein A20 expression in mature dendritic cells derived from liver allografts undergoing acute rejection

    Ming-Qing Xu; Wei Wang; Lan Xue; Lv-Nan Yan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of NF-κB activation and zinc finger protein A20 expression in the regulation of maturation of dendritic cells (DCs) derived from liver allografts undergoing acute rejection. METHODS: Sixty donor male SD rats and sixty recipient male LEW rats weighing 220-300 g were randomly divided into whole liver transplantation group and partial liver transplantation group. Allogeneic (SD rat to LEW rat) whole and 50 % partial liver transplantation were performed. DCs from liver grafts 0 hour and 4 days after transplantation were isolated and propagated in the presence of GM-CSF in vitro. Morphological characteristics and phenotypical features of DCs propagated for 10 days were analyzed by electron microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. NF-κB binding activity, IL-12p70 protein and zinc finger protein A20expression in these DCs were measured by EMSA and Western blotting, respectively. Histological grading of rejection was determined. RESULTS: Allogeneic whole liver grafts showed no signs of rejection on day 4 after the transplantation. In contrast,allogeneic partial liver grafts demonstrated moderate to severe rejection on day 4 after the transplantation. After propagation for 10 days in the presence of GM-CSF in vitro,DCs from allogeneic whole liver grafts exhibited features of immature DC with absence of CD40 surface expression,these DCs were found to exhibit detectable but very low level of NF-κB activity, IL-12 p70 protein and zinc finger protein A20 expression. Whereas, DCs from allogeneic partial liver graft 4 days after transplantation displayed features of mature DC, with high level of CD40 surface expression, and as a consequence, higher expression of IL-12p70 protein, higher activities of NF-κB and higher expression of zinc finger protein A20 compared with those of DCs from whole liver grafts (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that A20expression is up-regulated in response to NF-κB activation in mature DCs derived from

  17. Transition Period and Immunosuppression: Critical Period of Dairy Cattle Reproduction

    K. Simenew; M. Wondu

    2013-01-01

    This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, tra...

  18. Optical Periodicity Analysis of 3C 446 using Period04

    Fei Guo; Hao Jing Zhang

    2014-09-01

    All the data of the blazar 3C446 at 8, 4.8, 14 and 22 GHz, presented in publications from 1977 to 2006, have been compiled to generate light curves. The light curves show violent activity of 3C446. Using Period04 analysis method, we have found that there is a period of 7.2 yr, which is consistent with the results that we found using wavelet analysis method. We get the instability region as = 123.83.

  19. Left lung agenesis discovered by a spontaneous pneumothorax in a 20-year-old girl

    Abdessalem Hentati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung agenesis is a rare condition which prognosis widely depends on associated malformations. Clinical presentation is so variable and diagnosis is often made in childhood. Here, we present a case of a 20-year-old girl who was admitted because of a spontaneous pneumothorax. Explorations concluded at a left lung agenesis, a hyperinflated right lung crossing the midline with a corresponding pneumothorax. There was no malformation else. This congenital condition and treatment for this rare presentation are discussed in detail.

  20. A 20-Liter Test Stand with Gas Purification for Liquid Argon Research

    Li, Yichen; Tang, Wei; Joshi, Jyoti; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William; Rao, Triveni; Stewart, James; Tsang, Thomas; Zhang, Lige

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design of a 20-liter test stand constructed to study fundamental properties of liquid argon (LAr). This system utilizes a simple, cost-effective gas argon (GAr) purification to achieve ultra-high purity, which is necessary to study electron transport properties in LAr. An electron drift stack with up to 25 cm length is constructed to study electron drift, diffusion, and attachment at various electric fields. A gold photocathode and a pulsed laser are used as a bright electron source. The operational performance of this system is reported.

  1. Towards a 20th Century History of Relationships between Theatre and Neuroscience

    Gabriele Sofia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some preliminary reflections in view of a 20th century theatre-and-neuroscience history. Up to now, the history of the 20th century theatre has been too fragmentary and irregular, missing out on the subterranean links which, either directly or indirectly, bound different experiences. The article aims to put in evidence the recurrent problems of these encounters. The hypothesis of the essay concerns the possibility of gathering and grouping a great part of the relationships between theatre and neuroscience around four trajectories: the physiology of action, the physiology of emotions, ethology, and studies on the spectator’s perception.

  2. Novel heterozygous C243Y A20/TNFAIP3 gene mutation is responsible for chronic inflammation in autosomal-dominant Behçet's disease

    Shigemura, Tomonari; Kaneko, Naoe; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takeuchi, Yusuke; Nakano, Naoko; Masumoto, Junya; Agematsu, Kazunaga

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of uncertain aetiology, the existence of familial BD with autosomal-dominant traits suggests that a responsibility gene (or genes) exists. We investigated a Japanese family with a history of BD to search for pathogenic mutations underlying the biological mechanisms of BD. Methods 6 patients over 4 generations who had suffered from frequent oral ulcers, genital ulcers and erythaema nodosum-like lesions in the skin were assessed. Whole-exome sequencing was performed on genomic DNA, and cytokine production was determined from stimulated mononuclear cells. Inflammatory cytokine secretion and Nod2-mediated NF-κB activation were analysed using the transfected cells. Results By whole-exome sequencing, we identified a common heterozygous missense mutation in A20/TNFAIP3, a gene known to regulate NF-κB signalling, for which all affected family members carried a heterozygous C243Y mutation in the ovarian tumour domain. Mononuclear cells obtained from the proband and his mother produced large amounts of interleukin 1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-a) on stimulation as compared with those from normal controls. Although inflammatory cytokine secretion was suppressed by wild-type transfected cells, it was suppressed to a much lesser extent by mutated C243Y A20/TNFAIP3-transfected cells. In addition, impaired suppression of Nod2-mediated NF-κB activation by C243Y A20/TNFAIP3 was observed. Conclusions A C243Y mutation in A20/TNFAIP3 was likely responsible for increased production of human inflammatory cytokines by reduced suppression of NF-κB activation, and may have accounted for the autosomal-dominant Mendelian mode of BD transmission in this family. PMID:27175295

  3. Entanglement Entropy of Periodic Sublattices

    He, Temple; Vandoren, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We study the entanglement entropy (EE) of Gaussian systems on a lattice with periodic boundary conditions, both in the vacuum and at nonzero temperatures. By restricting the reduced subsystem to periodic sublattices, we can compute the entanglement spectrum and EE exactly. We illustrate this for a free (1+1)-dimensional massive scalar field at a fixed temperature. Consistent with previous literature, we demonstrate that for a sufficiently large periodic sublattice the EE grows extensively, even in the vacuum. Furthermore, the analytic expression for the EE allows us probe its behavior both in the massless limit and in the continuum limit at any temperature.

  4. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Raos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Croatian (Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882, whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev. Such enthusiastic views, however, did not help in analyzing the contribution of Mendeleev and other scientists to the discovery and development of the periodic table of the elements.

  5. A case study of real-world tailpipe emissions for school buses using a 20% biodiesel blend.

    Mazzoleni, Claudio; Kuhns, Hampden D; Moosmüller, Hans; Witt, Jay; Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Oliver Chang, M-C; Parthasarathy, Gayathri; Nathagoundenpalayam, Suresh Kumar K; Nikolich, George; Watson, John G

    2007-10-15

    Numerous laboratory studies report carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter emission reductions with a slight nitrogen oxides emission increase from engines operating with biodiesel and biodiesel blends as compared to using petroleum diesel. We conducted a field study on a fleet of school buses to evaluate the effects of biodiesel use on gaseous and particulate matter fuel-based emission factors under real-world conditions. The field experiment was carried out in two phases during winter 2004. In January (phase I), emissions from approximately 200 school buses operating on petroleum diesel were measured. Immediately after the end of the first phase measurement period, the buses were switched to a 20% biodiesel blend. Emission factors were measured again in March 2004 (phase II) and compared with the January emission factors. To measure gaseous emission factors we used a commercial gaseous remote sensor. Particulate matter emission factors were determined with a combination of the gaseous remote sensor, a Lidar (light detection and ranging), and transmissometer system developed at the Desert Research Institute of Reno, NV, U.S.A. Particulate matter emissions from school buses significantly increased (up to a factor of 1.8) after the switch from petroleum diesel to a 20% biodiesel blend. The fuel used during this campaign was provided by a local distributor and was independently analyzed at the end of the on-road experiment. The analysis found high concentrations of free glycerin and reduced flash points in the B 100 parent fuel. Both measures indicate improper separation and processing of the biodiesel product during production. The biodiesel fuels used in the school buses were not in compliance with the U.S.A. ASTM D6751 biodiesel standard that was finalized in December of 2001. The U.S.A. National Biodiesel Board has formed a voluntary National Biodiesel Accreditation Program for producers and marketers of biodiesel to ensure product quality and

  6. Pacer cell response to periodic Zeitgebers

    Beersma, D. G. M.; Broer, H. W.; Efstathiou, K.; Gargar, K. A.; Hoveijn, I.

    2011-09-01

    Almost all organisms show some kind of time periodicity in their behavior. In mammals, the neurons of the suprachiasmatic nucleus form a biological clock regulating the activity-inactivity cycle of the animal. The main question is how this clock is able to entrain to the natural 24 h light-dark cycle by which it is stimulated. Such a system is usually modeled as a collection of mutually coupled two-state (active-inactive) phase oscillators with an external stimulus (Zeitgeber). In this article however, we investigate the entrainment of a single pacer cell to the ensemble of other pacer cells. Moreover the stimulus of the ensemble is taken to be periodic. The pacer cell interacts with its environment by phase delay at the end of its activity interval and phase advance at the end of its inactivity interval. We develop a mathematical model for this system, naturally leading to a circle map depending on parameters like the intrinsic period and phase delay and advance. The existence of resonance tongues in a circle map shows that an individual pacer cell is able to synchronize with the ensemble. We furthermore show how the parameters in the model can be related to biological observable quantities. Finally we give several directions of further research.

  7. Operation of a 20 tesla on-axis tokamak toroidal field magnet

    The Center for Electromechanics at The University of Texas at Austin (CEM-UT) has designed, built, and is presently testing a 20 T on-axis, single turn, toroidal field (TF) coil. The Ignition Technology Demonstration (ITD) is a 0.06-scale IGNITEX (Texas Fusion Ignition Experiment) TF-coil experiment. The purpose of the ITD program is to demonstrate the operation of a 20 T, single turn, TF coil powered by homopolar generators (HPGs). This program is funded by the Advanced Technology Program and the Texas Atomic Energy Research Foundation. Scaling of the prototype 20 T TF coil was selected to be 0.06 on the basis of the maximum current capability of CEM-UT's 60 MJ HPG power supply, which has a rating of 9 MA at 100 V in a parallel configuration. Stresses and temperatures reached in the scale TF coil are representative of those that would be experienced in a full-scale IGNITEX TF coil with a 1.5 m major radius and a 5 s flat top current profile. The 60 MJ HPG system consists of six, 20 MJ, drum-type HPGs each capable of 1.5 MA at 100 V. Only 25% of the available system energy is used to drive the single turn TF coil to 20 T

  8. Toward a 20% Wind Electricity Supply in the United States: Preprint

    Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P.

    2007-05-01

    Since the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the Wind Powering America (WPA) program in 1999, installed wind power capacity in the United States has increased from 2,500 MW to more than 11,000 MW. In 1999, only four states had more than 100 MW of installed wind capacity; now 16 states have more than 100 MW installed. In addition to WPA's efforts to increase deployment, the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) is building a network of support across the country. In July 2005, AWEA launched the Wind Energy Works! Coalition, which is comprised of more than 70 organizations. In February 2006, the wind deployment vision was enhanced by President George W. Bush's Advanced Energy Initiative, which refers to a wind energy contribution of up to 20% of the electricity consumption of the United States. A 20% electricity contribution over the next 20 to 25 years represents 300 to 350 gigawatts (GW) of electricity. This paper provides a background of wind energy deployment in the United States and a history of the U.S. DOE's WPA program, as well as the program's approach to increasing deployment through removal of institutional and informational barriers to a 20% wind electricity future.

  9. Breakdown of the Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation for the A = 20 and 21 Multiplets

    Gallant, A T; Andreoiu, C; Bader, A; Chaudhuri, A; Chowdhury, U; Grossheim, A; Klawitter, R; Kwiatkowski, A A; Leach, K G; Lennarz, A; Macdonald, T D; Schultz, B E; Lassen, J; Heggen, H; Raeder, S; Teigelhöfer, A; Brown, B A; Magilligan, A; Holt, J D; Menéndez, J; Simonis, J; Schwenk, A; Dilling, J

    2014-01-01

    Using the Penning trap mass spectrometer TITAN, we performed the first direct mass measurements of 20,21Mg, isotopes that are the most proton-rich members of the A = 20 and A = 21 isospin multiplets. These measurements were possible through the use of a unique ion-guide laser ion source, a development that suppressed isobaric contamination by six orders of magnitude. Compared to the latest atomic mass evaluation, we find that the mass of 21Mg is in good agreement but that the mass of 20Mg deviates by 3{\\sigma}. These measurements reduce the uncertainties in the masses of 20,21Mg by 15 and 22 times, respectively, resulting in a significant departure from the expected behavior of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in both the A = 20 and A = 21 multiplets. This presents a challenge to shell model calculations using either the isospin non-conserving USDA/B Hamiltonians or isospin non-conserving interactions based on chiral two- and three-nucleon forces.

  10. Periodicities in photospheric magnetic flux

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic field plays an important role in solar structure and activity. In principle, the determination of magnetic flux would provide the best general-purpose index of solar activity. Currently, the periodicity studies corresponding to photospheric magnetic flux (PMF) are very few possibly due to the absence of a uniform flux sequence. In this paper, by using 383 NSO/Kitt Peak magnetic synoptic charts we reconstruct a flux sequence from February 1975 to August 2003 and perform a relatively systemic periodicity analysis with two methods of the Scargle periodogram and the Morlet wavelet transform. As a result, four periods are found at around 1050, 500, 300 and 160 days. We analyze these periods' temporal variabilities in detail and discuss their respective origins briefly.

  11. Modular forms and period polynomials

    Pasol, Vicentiu

    2012-01-01

    We study the space of period polynomials associated with modular forms for finite index subgroups of the modular group. For the full modular group, this space is endowed with a pairing, corresponding to the Petersson inner product on modular forms via a formula of Haberland, and with an action of Hecke operators, defined algebraically by Zagier. We extend Haberland's formula to arbitrary modular forms for finite index subgroups of the modular group, and we show that it conceals two stronger formulas. We extend the action of Hecke operators to \\Gamma_0(N) and \\Gamma_1(N), and we prove algebraically that the pairing on period polynomials appearing in Haberland's formula is Hecke equivariant. Two indefinite theta series identities follow from this proof. We give two ways of determining the extra relations satisfied by the even and odd parts of period polynomials associated with cusp forms, which are independent of the period relations.

  12. Periodicities in Aerosol Optical Depths

    Ramachandran, S; Verma, Amit; Panigrahi, Prasanta K

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the temporal and spatial variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD) over different geographic locations in India due to their important role in the earth-atmosphere radiation budget. The use of continuous wavelet transform pinpoints the spatio-temporal non-stationarity of the periodic variations in the AOD depending on local factors. The optimal time-frequency localization ability of Morlet wavelet accurately isolates the periodic features in the different frequency domains, to study the variations in the dominant periods due to local effects. The origin of the effects on the periodic modulations is then related to physical phenomena of regional nature, which throws considerable light on the observed variations in aerosol optical depths. We also find the phase relationship between different locations and to identify the possible correlations between different geographic locations and related environmental variations.

  13. The Periodic Table in Croatia

    Raos, N.

    2011-01-01

    The Croatian (Yugoslav) Academy of Sciences and Arts was the first academy to elect D. I. Mendeleev as its honorary member (1882), whereas the periodic table of the elements has been taught regularly at the Zagreb University since 1888. The early interest of Croatian chemists in the periodic table should be attributed primarily to their pan-Slavic attitude, particularly as proof that Slavic people were able to produce "their own Newtons" (M. V. Lomonosov and D. I. Mendeleev). Such enthusiasti...

  14. Cohort postponement and period measures

    Joshua R. Goldstein; Thomas Cassidy

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new class of models in which demographic behavior such as fertility is postponed by differing amounts depending only on cohort membership. We show how this model fits into a general framework of period and cohort postponement that includes the existing models in the literature, notably those of Bongaarts and Feeney and Kohler and Philipov. The cohort-based model shows the effects of cohort shifts on period fertility measures and provides an accompanying tempo-adjusted measure o...

  15. Prime numbers: periodicity, chaos, noise

    Bershadskii, A.

    2011-01-01

    Logarithmic gaps have been used in order to find a periodic component of the sequence of prime numbers, hidden by a random noise (stochastic or chaotic). The recovered period for the sequence of the first 10000 prime numbers is equal to 8\\pm1 (subject to the prime number theorem). For small and moderate values of the prime numbers (first 2000 prime numbers) this result has been directly checked using the twin prime killing method.

  16. Rotational periodicities in Saturn's magnetosphere

    Complete text of publication follows. A central question for Saturn's magnetospheric dynamics is the origin of periodicities close to the presumed rotational period of Saturn (∼10.8 h). Periodic oscillations are observed in the magnetic field, particles, Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) and more. We discuss the possibility that all periodicities are likely to have one common cause: periodic plasmoid release from the night side sector. The rapid magnetic field reconfigurations following the plasmoid release energize charged particles and create the large scale 'injections' that are clearly seen in energetic neutral atom (ENA) images observed by the INCA camera on board Cassini. We further show that the magnetic field oscillations and SKR can be explained by the currents driven by the injected and energized plasma pressure distribution drifting around Saturn. The evolution of these pressure-driven currents is consistent with the evolution of the SKR. To quantify the magnetic field oscillations we estimate the distribution and strength of the plasma pressure from Cassini/MIMI and CAPS observations of hot and cold plasma. An important constraint is the how the magnetospheric dynamics respond to variations in solar wind dynamic pressure (SWP). In order to quantify this constraint we use SWP measurements from when Cassini is in the solar wind as well as model propagated solar wind properties to investigate how periodicities vary as a function of SWP. We further speculate that the ultimate cause of the periodic plasmoid releases is an effect of the inherent stability of the cold plasma without the need of a longitudinal 'anomaly' tied to the planet's core or ionosphere.

  17. Antiapoptotic effect both in vivo and in vitro of A20 gene when transfected into rat hippocampal neurons

    Hong-sheng MIAO; Lu-yang YU; Guo-zhen HUI; Li-he GUO

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the antiapoptotic effect of the A20 gene in primary hippocampal neurons both in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Primary hippocampal neurons in embryonic day 18 (El 8) rats were transfected with the A20 gene by using the new Nucleofector electroporation transfection method. We then examined, whether A20 -neurons possessed anti-apoptotic abilities after TNF-α stimulation in vitro.A20-neurons and pcDNA3 -neurons were transplanted into the penumbra of the brains of rats that had been subjected to 90-min of ischemia induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Results: A20-neurons resisted TNF-α induced apoptosis in vitro. The apoptosis rate of neurons overexpressing A20(28.46%±3.87%) was lower than that in neurons transfected with pcDNA3(53.06%±5.36%). More A20-neurons survived in the penumbra both 3-d and 7-d after transplantation than did sham pcDNA3 neurons. Conclusion: The novel function of A20 may make it a potential targets for the gene therapy for neurological diseases.

  18. 7 CFR 1219.10 - Fiscal period or marketing year.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period or marketing year. 1219.10 Section 1219.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 7 CFR 1207.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1207.310 Section 1207.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 7 CFR 1210.310 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1210.310 Section 1210.310 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 7 CFR 1280.109 - Fiscal period and marketing year.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fiscal period and marketing year. 1280.109 Section 1280.109 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. Revalidation of the isobaric multiplet mass equation for the $A=20$ quintet

    Glassman, B E; Wrede, C; Allen, J; Bardayan, D W; Bennett, M B; Brown, B A; Chipps, K A; Febbraro, M; Fry, C; Hall, M R; Hall, O; Liddick, S N; O'Malley, P; Ong, W; Pain, S D; Schwartz, S B; Shidling, P; Sims, H; Thompson, P; Zhang, H

    2015-01-01

    An unexpected breakdown of the isobaric multiplet mass equation in the $A=20$, $T=2$ quintet was recently reported, presenting a challenge to modern theories of nuclear structure. In the present work, the excitation energy of the lowest $T = 2$ state in $^{20}$Na has been measured to be $6498.4 \\pm 0.2_{\\textrm{stat}} \\pm 0.4_{\\textrm{syst}}$ keV by using the superallowed $0^+ \\rightarrow 0^+$ beta decay of $^{20}$Mg to access it and an array of high-purity germanium detectors to detect its $\\gamma$-ray deexcitation. This value differs by 27 keV (1.9 standard deviations) from the recommended value of $6525 \\pm 14$ keV and is a factor of 28 more precise. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is shown to be revalidated when the new value is adopted.

  3. Interaction cross-sections and matter radii of A = 20 isobars

    High-energy interaction cross-sections of A=20 nuclei (20N, 20O, 20F, 20Ne, 20Na, 20Mg) on carbon were measured with accuracies of ∼1%. The nuclear matter rms radii derived from the measured cross-sections show an irregular dependence on isospin projection. The largest difference in radii, which amounts to approximately 0.2 fm, has been obtained for the mirror nuclei 20O and 20Mg. The influenc of nuclear deformation and binding energy on the radii is discussed. By evaluating the difference in rms radii of neutron and proton distributions, evidence has been found for the existence of a proton skin for 20Mg and of a neutron skin for 20N. (orig.)

  4. A 20-KW Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) at the Marine Corps Air Station, Kaneohe, Hawaii

    Pal, D.

    1983-01-01

    The wind turbine generator chosen for the evaluation was a horizontal-axis-propeller-downwind rotor driving a three-phase, self-excited alternator through a step-up gear box. The alternator is fed into the base power distribution system through a three-phase, line-communtated-synchronous inverter using SCRs. The site has moderate wind conditions with an annual average windspeed of 12 to 14 mph, and the WECS turbine has a relatively high (29 mph) rated windspeed. The 20-kW WECS systems was primarily designed to obtain operating experience with, and maintenance information on, a 20-kW-sized WECS. This report describes in detail the experience gained and lessons learned during the field evaluation.

  5. Drought periods during XXth century

    The drought problem always exists somewhere in the world so that the economy of some nation or nations is always being adversely influenced by this factor. Although drought is a natural component of the climate in arid and semi-arid areas, it can occur in areas, which normally receive adequate precipitation. Available hydro meteorological data indicate droughts have occurred through the last century in Bulgaria and they a part of the climatic cycle on the Balkan Peninsula. The precipitation distribution is one of the basic characteristics of the drought occurrence in a given region. However, the distributions of additional meteorological elements should be also taken into account in order to describe the degree of the climate dryness. For example, the distribution of air temperature is an especially important characteristic for drought classifications. The last years in Bulgaria were drier and warmer than the normals for the period of so-called 'current climate' (1961-1990). Precipitation was approximately 80-85 % less than the normals. Statistical methods were used in order to analyze the long-term variations of precipitation, air temperature. The long-term series of data were smoothed by averages and they were also approximated by means of a polynomial. These methods eliminate the random and short periodical fluctuations of the time series. The Spearman coefficient (r) and the Kendall coefficient (rl) were used in order to investigate the existence of eventual trends. Some quantitative criteria were also used for a comparison of the drought frequency and intensity between different regions and years. As a result of the conducted analysis, the investigated period can be divided to separate sub-periods with duration of 10-15 years. These years are characterized with different moisture conditions. Three periods can be determined during the 20 th century, which are characterized by longer and severe droughts, namely 1902-1913, 1942-1953 and 1982-1994. The drought

  6. RegulatING chromatin regulators

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors on...... the basis of reports describing their down-regulation and mislocalization in a variety of cancer types. In addition to their regulation by transcriptional mechanisms, understanding the range of PTMs (post-translational modifications) of INGs is important in understanding how ING functions are fine...... stresses. We also describe the ING PTMs that have been identified by several unbiased MS-based PTM enrichment techniques and subsequent proteomic analysis. Among the ING PTMs identified to date, a subset has been characterized for their biological significance and have been shown to affect processes...

  7. Periodic sedimentation of three particles in periodic boundary conditions

    Solutions of the equations of Stokesian dynamics for point particles are found for periodic boundary conditions with three particles per unit cell of a simple cubic lattice. Two particles per cell move with equal velocity, but three particles per cell usually lead to irregular motion. Special situations are of interest, where initially the distance vector of one pair is parallel to one of the horizontal axes of the cubic lattice and the members of this pair are at equal distance to the third particle. By symmetry the configuration keeps this character during the motion, and numerically the motion is found to be periodic. In our numerical work we have studied mostly the case where the initial triangle is horizontal and equilateral. We have shown that the periodic motion is neutrally stable for sizes of the initial triangle less than the critical size. Such stable solutions of the equations of Stokesian dynamics are of relevance to the theory of sedimentation. In these solutions the particles move coherently in a complicated fashion with the same mean sedimentation velocity and a periodic internal motion of the three-particle cluster. If initially the particles are sufficiently widely separated, but the motion is still stable, the mean sedimentation velocity is less than that of a single particle. In this case the solution describes a situation of hindered settling. If the initial triangle is too large, with the side length larger than the critical size, the two base particles team up with partners in neighboring cells, and we get separate motion of a base pair and a single particle with different mean vertical velocities and with periodic motions superimposed. The columns of horizontal pairs pass the columns of apex particles. The corresponding solutions are unstable. (author)

  8. Ap stars with variable periods

    Mikulášek, Zdeněk; Janík, Jan; Zejda, Miloslav; Henry, Gegory W; Paunzen, Ernst; Žižňovský, Jozef; Zverko, Juraj

    2013-01-01

    The majority of magnetic chemically peculiar (mCP) stars exhibit periodic light, magnetic, radio, and spectroscopic variations that can be adequately modelled as a rigidly-rotating main-sequence star with persistent surface structures. Nevertheless, there is a small sample of diverse mCP stars whose rotation periods vary on timescales of decades while the shapes of their phase curves remain unchanged. Alternating period increases and decreases have been suspected in the hot CP stars CU Vir and V901 Ori, while rotation in the moderately cool star BS Cir has been decelerating. These examples bring new insight into this theoretically unpredicted phenomenon. We discuss possible causes of such behaviour and propose that dynamic interactions between a thin, outer, magnetically-confined envelope braked by the stellar wind, and an inner faster-rotating stellar body are able to explain the observed rotational variability

  9. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  10. On composites with periodic structure

    Nemat-Nasser, S.; Iwakuma, T.; Hejazi, M.

    1982-01-01

    The overall moduli of a composite with an isotropic elastic matrix containing periodically distributed (anisotropic) inclusions or voids, can be expressed in terms of several infinite series which only depend on the geometry of the inclusions or voids, and hence can be computed once and for all for given geometries. For solids with periodic structures these infinite series play exactly the same role as does Eshelby's tensor for a single inclusion or void in an unbounded elastic medium. For spherical and circular-cylindrical geometries, the required infinite series are calculated and the results are tabulated. These are then used to estimate the overall elastic moduli when either the overall strains or the overall stresses are prescribed, obtaining the same results. These results are compared with other estimates and with experimental data. It is found that the model of composites with periodic structure yields estimates in excellent agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. Periodic orbits in arithmetical chaos

    Length spectra of periodic orbits are investigated for some chaotic dynamical systems whose quantum energy spectra show unexpected statistical properties and for which the notion of arithmetical chaos has been introduced recently. These systems are defined as the unconstrained motions of particles on two dimensional surfaces of constant negative curvature whose fundamental groups are given by number theoretical statements (arithmetic Fuchsian groups). It is shown that the mean multiplicity of lengths l of periodic orbits grows asymptotically like c x el/2/l, l → ∞. Moreover, the constant c (depending on the arithmetic group) is determined. (orig.)

  12. Periodic growth of bacterial colonies

    Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Ikeda, Takemasa; Shimada, Hirotoshi; Hiramatsu, Fumiko; Kobayashi, Naoki; Wakita, Jun-ichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Kurosu, Sayuri; Nakatsuchi, Michio; Matsuyama, Tohey; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    2005-06-01

    The formation of concentric ring colonies by bacterial species Bacillus subtilis and Proteus mirabilis has been investigated experimentally, focusing our attention on the dependence of local cell density upon the bacterial motility. It has been confirmed that these concentric ring colonies reflect the periodic change of the bacterial motility between motile cell state and immotile cell state. We conclude that this periodic change is macroscopically determined neither by biological factors (i.e., biological clock) nor by chemical factors (chemotaxis as inhibitor). And our experimental results strongly suggest that the essential factor for the change of the bacterial motility during concentric ring formation is the local cell density.

  13. Profit optimization during crisis periods

    Sorin BRICIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the authors’ attempt to identify a simple and effective calculation method for profit optimization in crisis periods. This method was identified based on the analysis of a representative sample of professionals working in both state-owned and private bakery companies in Romania. The article also presents methodological case studies for three bakery products aimed to highlight the changes in results according to changes of variables in the current business environment. The results obtained are presented and analysed by the authors. The article ends with the authors’ conclusions on the benefits of the Direct-Costing Method and profit optimisation in crisis periods.

  14. Periodic Monopoles from Spectral Curves

    Maldonado, R.

    2012-01-01

    We consider $\\text{SU}(2)$ Bogomolny equations on $\\mathbb{R}^2\\times\\hat{S}^1$ and use the spectral curve defined by the holonomy in the periodic direction to approximate the fields in the limit of large size to period ratio. Symmetries of the Nahm transform allow a study of the effective two dimensional dynamics, which is compared with known results on the full moduli space. The techniques are applied to systems of higher charge and higher rank gauge group, allowing a direct comparison to o...

  15. Availability of periodically tested systems

    There is at the present time a need in accurate models to asess the availability of periodically tested stand-by systems. This paper shows how to improve the well known 'saw-tooth curve' model in order to take into account various reliability parameters. A model is developed to assess the pointwise and the mean availabilities of periodically tested stand-by systems. Exact and approxination formulae are given. In addition, the model developed herein leads to optimize the test interval in order to minimize the mean unavailability. A safety diesel in a nuclear power plant is given as an example

  16. Oscillating Gene Expression Determines Competence for Periodic Arabidopsis Root Branching

    Moreno-Risueno, Miguel A.; Van Norman, Jaimie M.; Moreno, Antonio; Zhang, Jingyuan; Ahnert, Sebastian E.; Benfey, Philip N.

    2010-01-01

    Plants and animals produce modular developmental units in a periodic fashion. In plants, lateral roots form as repeating units along the root primary axis; however, the developmental mechanism regulating this process is unknown. We found that cyclic expression pulses of a reporter gene mark the position of future lateral roots by establishing prebranch sites and that prebranch site production and root bending are periodic. Microarray and promoter-luciferase studies revealed two sets of genes oscillating in opposite phases at the root tip. Genetic studies show that some oscillating transcriptional regulators are required for periodicity in one or both developmental processes. This molecular mechanism has characteristics that resemble molecular clock–driven activities in animal species. PMID:20829477

  17. Nuclear regulation

    Today, 112 nuclear power plants, 22 facilities that support these plants, 54 reactors used in research, and approximately 23,000 organizations hold licenses from either the Nuclear Regulator Commission or various states to use radioactive material; other facilities are operated by various government agencies. Eventually most of these facilities will be decommissioned, which involves removing the radioactive material and terminating the license. NRC needs to ensure that licensees appropriately decontaminate their facilities because, under current regulations, NRC cannot specifically require additional cleanup once it terminates a license. This paper presents a GAO report on NRC's decommissioning procedures. In two of eight cases GAO reviewed, NRC fully or partially released sites for unrestricted use where radioactive contamination was higher than its guidelines allowed; in the other cases, NRC's information was inadequate or incomplete. Further, NRC lacks information on the types and amounts of radioactive waste buried on-site. At five sites reviewed by GAO, groundwater has been found to be contaminated by radioactive waste

  18. Shanghai's Fashion During Republic Period

    卞向阳

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this research is to describe and analyze Shanghai's fashion during Republic Period. Shanghai's fashion during Republic Period plays a special role in fashion history of China and Shanghai history. In the paper, three aspects including the fashion centre of China as well as Far East, men's fashion and women's fashion in Shanghai are discussed. The style, textiles, color, decoration and combination of clothing are described. Many costumes from the Clothing Museum at Donghua University and private collections as well as some historical writings, photographs and publications are elucidated and corroborated to give a more detailed description about Shanghai's fashion during that period.Here are some tentative conclusions. Firstly, Shanghai had always been the fashion center in China even Far East during Republic Period. Modeng was the main reflection of Shanghai fashion. Secondly, the traditional clothing exerted less influence and was less widely used, some kinds and combinations were out of fashion gradually. The fashion was described to be highly stylized, exquisite and concise. Thirdly, the influence of Western Style was further greater. The fashion in Shanghai was almost synchronous with fashion of Paris. Some western clothing was directly used in daily life and the elements of Western Style had an increasingly wide utilization. Fourthly, the New Chinese Style whose representatives were Qipao and Zhongshan Zhuang appeared and popularized in Shanghai. The fashion of Qipao changed frequently. Finally, the fashion in Shanghai called Shanghai Style could be summarized fashionable, exquisite, rapidly changeable, which is harmonious of both ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign.

  19. 76 FR 297 - Periodic Reporting

    2011-01-04

    ... INFORMATION: Regulatory History, 75 FR 58449 (Sept. 24, 2010). On December 20, 2010, the Postal Service filed... ] estimated. The Postal Service proposes to rely primarily on data from the manual density table to estimate... 39 CFR Part 3050 Periodic Reporting AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of...

  20. Genius of the periodic table

    'Isn't it the work of a genius!' exclaimed Academician V.I. Spitsyn, USSR, a member of the Scientific Advisory Committee when talking to an Agency audience in January. His listeners shared his enthusiasm. Academician Spitsyn was referring to the first formulation a hundred years ago by Professor Dmitry I. Mendeleyev of the Periodic Law of Elements. (author)

  1. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  2. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  3. Long-period creep behaviour

    With a view to dimensioning and reliable determination of the service life of high-temperature components the following subjects are discussed: Creep data as criteria for materials selection; weld behaviour under creep stress; influence of the test atmosphere; influence of production process and initial structure; studies on creep behaviour extrapolation procedure; estimation of permissible operating periods. (orig./IHOE)

  4. 76 FR 52915 - Periodic Reporting

    2011-08-24

    ... informal rulemaking on proposed changes in certain analytical methods used in periodic reporting. The... Service filed a petition pursuant to 39 CFR 3050.11 requesting that the Commission initiate an informal... distribution activities would make it easier to distinguish shape-related work from mixed-shape work at...

  5. Portfolio Selection and Insurance Period

    Aoba, Nobuko

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines market risks, portfolio selection and period of insurance in a life insurance market. Date from many countries indicate that over ninety percent of bankruptcies of life insurers are due of failures in financial risk management. Financial risk management is therefore central. ...

  6. Model selection in periodic autoregressions

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis paper focuses on the issue of period autoagressive time series models (PAR) selection in practice. One aspect of model selection is the choice for the appropriate PAR order. This can be of interest for the valuation of economic models. Further, the appropriate PAR order is important

  7. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients in the...

  8. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets. PMID:22345253

  9. Transition Period and Immunosuppression: Critical Period of Dairy Cattle Reproduction

    K. Simenew

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This seminar study is prepared on the objectives of: revising important aspects of transition period of dairy cattle and highlighting some potential areas of research and challenges for the future. It has sufficiently been discussed that improved understanding of this frontier of the biology, immunology, nutrition and management of cows during the transition period will provide the largest gains in productivity and profitability of dairy farms. In the manuscript under each specific topic, transition cow program and reproductive performance, immunosuppressant effect of transition period, early predictors of disorders and major abnormalities are discussed in an informative way. Future potential areas of research and possible challenges are also indicated briefly. Finally, it is concluded that despite decades of research in the area of transition cow health and management the high incidence of health disorders around calving continues to negatively affect milk production and reproductive performance; and as recommendation, implementing a transition nutrition program with the help of nutritionists can help dairy herd avoid most of the costly problems and molecular level research studies should get due attention to further understand the situation and devise proper intervention techniques.

  10. A periodic pattern generator for dental diversity

    Streelman J Todd

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodic patterning of iterative structures is a fundamental process during embryonic organization and development. Studies have shown how gene networks are employed to pattern butterfly eyespots, fly bristles and vertebrate epithelial appendages such as teeth, feathers, hair and mammary glands. Despite knowledge of how these features are organized, little is known about how diversity in periodic patterning is generated in nature. We address this problem through the molecular analysis of oral jaw dental diversity in Lake Malawi cichlids, where closely related species exhibit from 1 to 20 rows of teeth, with total teeth counts ranging from around 10 to 700. Results We investigate the expression of conserved gene networks (involving bmp2, bmp4, eda, edar, fgf8, pax9, pitx2, runx2, shh and wnt7b known to pattern iterative structures and teeth in other vertebrates. We show that spatiotemporal variation in expression pattern reflects adult morphological diversity among three closely related Malawi cichlid species. Combinatorial epithelial expression of pitx2 and shh appears to govern the competence both of initial tooth sites and future tooth rows. Epithelial wnt7b and mesenchymal eda are expressed in the inter-germ and inter-row regions, and likely regulate the spacing of these shh-positive units. Finally, we used chemical knockdown to demonstrate the fundamental role of hedgehog signalling and initial placode formation in the organization of the periodically patterned cichlid dental programme. Conclusion Coordinated patterns of gene expression differ among Malawi species and prefigure the future-ordered distribution of functional teeth of specific size and spacing. This variation in gene expression among species occurs early in the developmental programme for dental patterning. These data show how a complex multi-rowed vertebrate dentition is organized and how developmental tinkering of conserved gene networks during iterative