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Sample records for a2 receptor expression

  1. Gene expression and function of adenosine A(2A) receptor in the rat carotid body.

    Kobayashi, S; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    2000-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether rat carotid bodies express adenosine (Ado) A(2A) receptors and whether this receptor is involved in the cellular response to hypoxia. Our results demonstrate that rat carotid bodies express the A(2A) and A(2B) Ado receptor mRNAs but not the A(1) or A(3) receptor mRNAs as determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of the A(2A) receptor mRNA. Immunohistochemical studies further showed that the A(2A) receptor is expressed in the carotid body and that it is colocalized with tyrosine hydroxylase in type I cells. Whole cell voltage-clamp studies using isolated type I cells showed that Ado inhibited the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) currents and that this inhibition was abolished by the selective A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM-241385. Ca(2+) imaging studies using fura 2 revealed that exposure to severe hypoxia induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in type I cells and that extracellularly applied Ado significantly attenuated the hypoxia-induced elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). Taken together, our findings indicate that A(2A) receptors are present in type I cells and that activation of A(2A) receptors modulates Ca(2+) accumulation during hypoxia. This mechanism may play a role in regulating intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and cellular excitability during hypoxia. PMID:10926550

  2. Thyroid expression of an A2 adenosine receptor transgene induces thyroid hyperplasia and hyperthyroidism.

    Ledent, C; Dumont, J E; Vassart, G; Parmentier, M

    1992-02-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is the major intracellular second messenger of thyrotropin (TSH) action on thyroid cells. It stimulates growth as well as the function and differentiation of cultured thyrocytes. The adenosine A2 receptor, which activates adenylyl cyclase via coupling to the stimulating G protein (Gs), has been shown to promote constitutive activation of the cAMP cascade when transfected into various cell types. In order to test whether the A2 receptor was able to function similarly in vivo and to investigate the possible consequences of permanent adenylyl cyclase activation in thyroid cells, lines of transgenic mice were generated expressing the canine A2 adenosine receptor under control of the bovine thyroglobulin gene promoter. Thyroid-specific expression of the A2 adenosine receptor transgene promoted gland hyperplasia and severe hyperthyroidism causing premature death of the animals. The resulting goitre represents a model of hyperfunctioning adenomas: it demonstrates that constitutive activation of the cAMP cascade in such differentiated epithelial cells is sufficient to stimulate autonomous and uncontrolled function and growth. PMID:1371462

  3. Thyroid expression of an A2 adenosine receptor transgene induces thyroid hyperplasia and hyperthyroidism.

    Ledent, C; Dumont, J E; Vassart, G.; Parmentier, M

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is the major intracellular second messenger of thyrotropin (TSH) action on thyroid cells. It stimulates growth as well as the function and differentiation of cultured thyrocytes. The adenosine A2 receptor, which activates adenylyl cyclase via coupling to the stimulating G protein (Gs), has been shown to promote constitutive activation of the cAMP cascade when transfected into various cell types. In order to test whether the A2 receptor was able to function similarly in vivo ...

  4. Large-scale functional expression of WT and truncated human adenosine A2A receptor in Pichia pastoris bioreactor cultures

    Strange Philip G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The large-scale production of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs for functional and structural studies remains a challenge. Recent successes have been made in the expression of a range of GPCRs using Pichia pastoris as an expression host. P. pastoris has a number of advantages over other expression systems including ability to post-translationally modify expressed proteins, relative low cost for production and ability to grow to very high cell densities. Several previous studies have described the expression of GPCRs in P. pastoris using shaker flasks, which allow culturing of small volumes (500 ml with moderate cell densities (OD600 ~15. The use of bioreactors, which allow straightforward culturing of large volumes, together with optimal control of growth parameters including pH and dissolved oxygen to maximise cell densities and expression of the target receptors, are an attractive alternative. The aim of this study was to compare the levels of expression of the human Adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR in P. pastoris under control of a methanol-inducible promoter in both flask and bioreactor cultures. Results Bioreactor cultures yielded an approximately five times increase in cell density (OD600 ~75 compared to flask cultures prior to induction and a doubling in functional expression level per mg of membrane protein, representing a significant optimisation. Furthermore, analysis of a C-terminally truncated A2AR, terminating at residue V334 yielded the highest levels (200 pmol/mg so far reported for expression of this receptor in P. pastoris. This truncated form of the receptor was also revealed to be resistant to C-terminal degradation in contrast to the WT A2AR, and therefore more suitable for further functional and structural studies. Conclusion Large-scale expression of the A2AR in P. pastoris bioreactor cultures results in significant increases in functional expression compared to traditional flask cultures.

  5. High-level expression, purification and characterization of a constitutively active thromboxane A2 receptor polymorphic variant.

    Bing Xu

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs exhibit some level of basal signaling even in the absence of a bound agonist. This basal or constitutive signaling can have important pathophysiological roles. In the past few years, a number of high resolution crystal structures of GPCRs have been reported, including two crystal structures of constitutively active mutants (CAM of the dim-light receptor, rhodopsin. The structural characterizations of CAMs are impeded by the lack of proper expression systems. The thromboxane A2 receptor (TP is a GPCR that mediates vasoconstriction and promotes thrombosis in response to the binding of thromboxane. Here, we report on the expression and purification of a genetic variant and CAM in TP, namely A160T, using tetracycline-inducible HEK293S-TetR and HEK293S (GnTI¯-TetR cell lines. Expression of the TP and the A160T genes in these mammalian cell lines resulted in a 4-fold increase in expression to a level of 15.8 ±0.3 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors expressed in the HEK293S (GnTI(--TetR cell line showed homogeneous glycosylation. The functional yield of the receptors using a single step affinity purification was 45 µg/10⁶ cells. Temperature- dependent secondary structure changes of the purified TP and A160T receptors were characterized using circular dichroism (CD spectropolarimetry. The CD spectra shows that the loss of activity or thermal sensitivity that was previously observed for the A160T mutant, is not owing to large unfolding of the protein but rather to a more subtle effect. This is the first study to report on the successful high-level expression, purification, and biophysical characterization of a naturally occurring, diffusible ligand activated GPCR CAM.

  6. Up-regulation of thromboxane A2 receptor expression by lipid soluble smoking particles through post-transcriptional mechanisms

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    /ml for 24h) resulted in markedly elevated contractile responses to the Tx analog U46619, compared with the control DMSO. There was no increase in TP receptor mRNA expression, while the protein expression was significantly enhanced. This up-regulation was not affected by a general transcriptional...... pathways are not involved in TP receptor up-regulation. Study on TP receptor mRNA stability showed that during organ culture, the TP receptor mRNA was stable in both DMSO and DSP group, but the latter elicited a tendency to stabilize the TP receptor mRNA at higher level. Thus, post...

  7. Regulation of epithelial sodium channel a-subunit expression by adenosine receptor A2a in alveolar epithelial cells

    DENG Wang; WANG Dao-xin; ZHANG Wei; LI Chang-yi

    2011-01-01

    Background The amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channel a-subunit (a-ENaC) is an important factor for alveolar fluid clearance during acute lung injury. The relationship between adenosine receptor A2a (A2aAR) expressed in alveolar epithelial cells and aα-ENaC is poorly understood. We targeted the A2aAR in this study to investigate its role in the expression of αa-ENaC and in acute lung injury.Methods A549 cells were incubated with different concentrations of A2aAR agonist CGS-21680 and with 100 μmol/L CGS-21680 for various times. Rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) after CGS-21680 was injected. Animals were sacrificed and tissue was harvested for evaluation of lung injury by analysis of the lung wet-to-dry weight ratio, lung permeability and myeloperoxidase activity. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the mRNA and protein expression levels of α-ENaC in A549 cells and alveolar type II epithelial cells.Results Both mRNA and protein levels of α-ENaC were markedly higher from 4 hours to 24 hours after exposure to 100μmol/L CGS-21680. There were significant changes from 0.1 umol/L to 100 μmol/L CGS-21680, with a positive correlation between increased concentrations of CGS-21680 and expression of α-ENaC. Treatment with CGS-21680during LPS induced lung injury protected the lung and promoted α-ENaC expression in the alveolar epithelial cells.Conclusion Activation of A2aAR has a protective effect during the lung injury, which may be beneficial to the prognosis of acute lung injury.

  8. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity

  9. Activation of nuclear receptor NR5A2 increases Glut4 expression and glucose metabolism in muscle cells

    Bolado-Carrancio, A. [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain); Riancho, J.A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital U.M. Valdecilla-IDIVAL, University of Cantabria, RETICEF, Santander (Spain); Sainz, J. [Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology of Cantabria (IBBTEC), CSIC-University of Cantabria, Santander (Spain); Rodríguez-Rey, J.C., E-mail: rodriguj@unican.es [Department of Molecular Biology, University of Cantabria, IDIVAL, Santander (Spain)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • NR5A2 expression in C2C12 is associated with myotube differentiation. • DLPC induces an increase in GLUT4 levels and glucose uptake in C2C12 myotubes. • In high glucose conditions the activation of NR5A2 inhibits fatty acids oxidation. - Abstract: NR5A2 is a nuclear receptor which regulates the expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, pluripotency maintenance and cell differentiation. It has been recently shown that DLPC, a NR5A2 ligand, prevents liver steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity in mouse models of insulin resistance, an effect that has been associated with changes in glucose and fatty acids metabolism in liver. Because skeletal muscle is a major tissue in clearing glucose from blood, we studied the effect of the activation of NR5A2 on muscle metabolism by using cultures of C2C12, a mouse-derived cell line widely used as a model of skeletal muscle. Treatment of C2C12 with DLPC resulted in increased levels of expression of GLUT4 and also of several genes related to glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. These changes were accompanied by an increased glucose uptake. In addition, the activation of NR5A2 produced a reduction in the oxidation of fatty acids, an effect which disappeared in low-glucose conditions. Our results suggest that NR5A2, mostly by enhancing glucose uptake, switches muscle cells into a state of glucose preference. The increased use of glucose by muscle might constitute another mechanism by which NR5A2 improves blood glucose levels and restores insulin sensitivity.

  10. Role of Site-Specific N-Glycans Expressed on GluA2 in the Regulation of Cell Surface Expression of AMPA-Type Glutamate Receptors.

    Yusuke Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR, which is a tetrameric complex composed of four subunits (GluA1-4 with several combinations, mediates the majority of rapid excitatory synaptic transmissions in the nervous system. Cell surface expression levels of AMPAR modulate synaptic plasticity, which is considered one of the molecular bases for learning and memory formation. To date, a unique trisaccharide (HSO3-3GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-4GlcNAc, human natural killer-1 (HNK-1 carbohydrate, was found expressed specifically on N-linked glycans of GluA2 and regulated the cell surface expression of AMPAR and the spine maturation process. However, evidence that the HNK-1 epitope on N-glycans of GluA2 directly affects these phenomena is lacking. Moreover, it is thought that other N-glycans on GluA2 also have potential roles in the regulation of AMPAR functions. In the present study, using a series of mutants lacking potential N-glycosylation sites (N256, N370, N406, and N413 within GluA2, we demonstrated that the mutant lacking the N-glycan at N370 strongly suppressed the intracellular trafficking of GluA2 from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER in HEK293 cells. Cell surface expression of GluA1, which is a major subunit of AMPAR in neurons, was also suppressed by co-expression of the GluA2 N370S mutant. The N370S mutant and wild-type GluA2 were co-immunoprecipitated with GluA1, suggesting that N370S was properly associated with GluA1. Moreover, we found that N413 was the main potential site of the HNK-1 epitope that promoted the interaction of GluA2 with N-cadherin, resulting in enhanced cell surface expression of GluA2. The HNK-1 epitope on N-glycan at the N413 of GluA2 was also involved in the cell surface expression of GluA1. Thus, our data suggested that site-specific N-glycans on GluA2 regulate the intracellular trafficking and cell surface expression of AMPAR.

  11. Stimulation of expression for the adenosine A2A receptor gene by hypoxia in PC12 cells. A potential role in cell protection.

    Kobayashi, S; Millhorn, D E

    1999-07-16

    The purpose of this study was to examine the regulation of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) gene expression during hypoxia in pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that the A2AR mRNA level was substantially increased after a 3-h exposure to hypoxia (5% O2), which reached a peak at 12 h. Immunoblot analysis showed that the A2AR protein level was also increased during hypoxia. Inhibition of de novo protein synthesis blocked A2AR induction by hypoxia. In addition, removal of extracellular free Ca2+, chelation of intracellular free Ca2+, and pretreatment with protein kinase C inhibitors prevented A2AR induction by hypoxia. Moreover, depletion of protein kinase C activity by prolonged treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate significantly inhibited the hypoxic induction of A2AR. A2AR antagonists led to a significant enhancement of A2AR mRNA levels during hypoxia, whereas A2AR agonists caused down-regulation of A2AR expression during hypoxia. This suggests that A2AR regulates its own expression during hypoxia by feedback mechanisms. We further found that activation of A2AR enhances cell viability during hypoxia and also inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression in PC12 cells. Thus, increased expression of A2AR during hypoxia might protect cells against hypoxia and may act to inhibit hypoxia-induced angiogenic activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor. PMID:10400659

  12. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation of mouse macrophages by inducing the expression of DUSP1.

    Köröskényi, Krisztina; Kiss, Beáta; Szondy, Zsuzsa

    2016-07-01

    Adenosine is known to reduce inflammation by suppressing the activity of most immune cells. Previous studies have shown that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated mouse macrophages produce adenosine, and the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) signaling activated in an autocrine manner attenuates LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation. It has been suggested that A2AR signaling inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production through a unique cAMP-dependent, but PKA- and Epac-independent signaling pathway. However, the mechanism of inhibition was not identified so far. Here we report that LPS stimulation enhances A2AR expression in mouse bone marrow derived macrophages, and loss of A2ARs results in enhanced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory response. Loss of A2ARs in A2AR null macrophages did not alter the LPS-induced NF-κB activation, but an enhanced basal and LPS-induced phosphorylation of MAP kinases (especially that of JNKs) was detected in A2AR null cells. A2AR signaling did not alter the LPS-induced phosphorylation of their upstream kinases, but by regulating adenylate cyclase activity it enhanced the expression of dual specific phosphatase (DUSP)1, a negative regulator of MAP kinases. As a result, lower basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 mRNA and protein levels can be detected in A2AR null macrophages. Silencing of DUSP1 mRNA expression resulted in higher basal and LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine formation in wild type macrophages, but had no effect on that in A2AR null cells. Our data indicate that A2AR signaling regulates both basal and LPS-induced DUSP1 levels in macrophages via activating the adenylate cyclase pathway. PMID:27066978

  13. Effects of adenosine A2a receptor agonist and antagonist on cerebellar nuclear factor-kB expression preceded by MDMA toxicity

    Kermanian, Fatemeh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Pourheydar, Bagher; Samzadeh-Kermani, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Farzaneh; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adenosine is an endogenous purine nucleoside that has a neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. The amphetamine derivative (±)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) is a synthetic amphetamine analogue used recreationally to obtain an enhanced affiliated emotional response. MDMA is a potent monoaminergic neurotoxin with the potential of damage to brain neurons. The NF-kB family of proteins are ubiquitously expressed and are inducible transcription factors that regulate the expression of genes involved in disparate processes such as immunity and ingrowth, development and cell-death regulation. In this study we investigated the effects of the A2a adenosine receptor (A2a-R) agonist (CGS) and antagonist (SCH) on NF-kB expression after MDMA administration. Methods: Sixty three male Sprague–Dawley rats were injected to MDMA (10 and 20mg/kg) followed by intraperitoneal CGS (0.03 mg/kg) or SCH (0.03mg/kg) injection. The cerebellum were then removed forcresylviolet staining, western blot and RT- PCR analyses. MDMA significantly elevated NF-kB expression. Our results showed that MDMA increased the number of cerebellar dark neurons. Results: We observed that administration of CGS following MDMA, significantly elevated the NF-kB expression both at mRNA and protein levels. By contrast, administration of the A2a-R antagonist SCH resulted in a decrease in the NF-kB levels. Conclusion: These results indicated that, co-administration of A2a agonist (CGS) can protect against MDMA neurotoxic effects by increasing NF-kB expression levels; suggesting a potential application for protection against the neurotoxic effects observed in MDMA users. PMID:25678999

  14. Expression of Receptors for Tetanus Toxin and Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 by Pancreatic Islet Cells

    Eisenbarth, G. S.; Shimizu, K.; Bowring, M. A.; Wells, S.

    1982-08-01

    Studies of the reaction of antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin with pancreatic islet cells, islet cell tumors, and other human amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) tumors are described. By indirect immunofluorescence, antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin were shown to specifically bind to the plasma membrane of human, rat, chicken, and mouse islet cells. The binding of antibody A2B5 to the cell surface of living islet cells has allowed isolation of these cells from a suspension of pancreatic cells by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In studies designed to determine whether tetanus toxin and antibody A2B5 bound to the same surface antigen, A2B5 and tetanus toxin did not compete for binding to normal islet cells, a human islet cell tumor, or a rat islet cell tumor. In addition to binding to islet cell tumors, antibody A2B5 reacts with frozen sections, isolated cells, and cell lines of neural, neural crest, and APUD origin.

  15. Receptor crosstalk: haloperidol treatment enhances A2A adenosine receptor functioning in a transfected cell model

    Trincavelli, Maria Letizia; Cuboni, Serena; Catena Dell’Osso, Mario; Maggio, Roberto; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Novi, Francesca; Panighini, Anna; Daniele, Simona; Martini, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    A2A adenosine receptors are considered an excellent target for drug development in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. It is noteworthy that the responses evoked by A2A adenosine receptors are regulated by D2 dopamine receptor ligands. These two receptors are co-expressed at the level of the basal ganglia and interact to form functional heterodimers. In this context, possible changes in A2A adenosine receptor functional responses caused by the chronic blockade/activation of D2 dop...

  16. Monoallelic expression of olfactory receptors.

    Monahan, Kevin; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    The sense of smell collects vital information about the environment by detecting a multitude of chemical odorants. Breadth and sensitivity are provided by a huge number of chemosensory receptor proteins, including more than 1,400 olfactory receptors (ORs). Organizing the sensory information generated by these receptors so that it can be processed and evaluated by the central nervous system is a major challenge. This challenge is overcome by monogenic and monoallelic expression of OR genes. The single OR expressed by each olfactory sensory neuron determines the neuron's odor sensitivity and the axonal connections it will make to downstream neurons in the olfactory bulb. The expression of a single OR per neuron is accomplished by coupling a slow chromatin-mediated activation process to a fast negative-feedback signal that prevents activation of additional ORs. Singular OR activation is likely orchestrated by a network of interchromosomal enhancer interactions and large-scale changes in nuclear architecture. PMID:26359778

  17. Modulation of A2a receptor antagonist on D2 receptor internalization and ERK phosphorylation

    Huang, Li; Wu, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lin-yin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To explore the effects of heterodimerization of D2 receptor/A2a receptor (D2R/A2aR) on D2R internalization and D2R downstream signaling in primary cultured striatal neurons and HEK293 cells co-expressing A2aR and D2R in vitro. Methods: Primary cultured rat striatal neurons and HEK293 cells co-expressing A2aR and D2R were treated with A2aR- or D2R-specific agonists. D2R internalization was detected using a biotinylation assay and confocal microscopy. ERK, Src kinase and β-arrestin were me...

  18. Adenosine A2A receptors and A2A receptor heteromers as key players in striatal function

    Sergi eFerre

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A very significant density of adenosine adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs is present in the striatum, where they are preferentially localized postsynaptically in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs. In this localization A2ARs establish reciprocal antagonistic interactions with dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs. In one type of interaction, A2AR and D2R are forming heteromers and, by means of an allosteric interaction, A2AR counteracts D2R-mediated inhibitory modulation of the effects of NMDA receptor stimulation in the striato-pallidal neuron. This interaction is probably mostly responsible for the locomotor depressant and activating effects of A2AR agonist and antagonists, respectively. The second type of interaction involves A2AR and D2R that do not form heteromers and takes place at the level of adenylyl-cyclase (AC. Due to a strong tonic effect of endogenous dopamine on striatal D2R, this interaction keeps A2AR from signaling through AC. However, under conditions of dopamine depletion or with blockade of D2R, A2AR-mediated AC activation is unleashed with an increased gene expression and activity of the striato-pallidal neuron and with a consequent motor depression. This interaction is probably the main mechanism responsible for the locomotor depression induced by D2R antagonists. Finally, striatal A2ARs are also localized presynaptically, in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals that contact the striato-nigral MSN. These presynaptic A2ARs heteromerize with A1 receptors (A1Rs and their activation facilitates glutamate release. These three different types of A2ARs can be pharmacologically dissected by their ability to bind ligands with different affinity and can therefore provide selective targets for drug development in different basal ganglia disorders.

  19. Adenosine and the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, upregulate CD39 and CD73 expression through E2F-1 and CREB in regulatory T cells isolated from septic mice.

    Bao, Rui; Shui, Xianqi; Hou, Jiong; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yang, Tao

    2016-09-01

    The number of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) and the expression of ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1 (ENTPD1; also known as CD39) and 5'-ectonucleotidase (NT5E; also known as CD73) on the Treg cell surface are increased during sepsis. In this study, to determine the factors leading to the high expression of CD39 and CD73, and the regulation of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway in Treg cells under septic conditions, we constructed a mouse model of sepsis and separated the Treg cells using a flow cytometer. The Treg cells isolated from the peritoneal lavage and splenocytes of the mice were treated with adenosine or the specific adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS21680, and were transfected with specific siRNA targeting E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F-1) or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB), which are predicted transcription regulatory factors of CD39 or CD73. The regulatory relationships among these factors were then determined by western blot analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. In addition, changes in adenosine metabolism were measured in the treated cells. The results revealed that adenosine and CGS21680 significantly upregulated CD39 and CD73 expression (PTreg cell surface during sepsis. Adenosine and its A2receptor agonist served as the signal transducer factors of the CD39/CD73/adenosine pathway, accelerating adenosine generation. Our study may benefit further research on adenosine metabolism for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:27430240

  20. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    Shinji Kataoka

    Full Text Available In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3 on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate, but not anterior (fungiform, palate taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express Gα14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields.

  1. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1α mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei(Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, Bonn, D-53115, Germany); Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ...

  2. Hormone activation of baculovirus expressed progesterone receptors.

    Elliston, J F; Beekman, J M; Tsai, S Y; O'Malley, B W; Tsai, M J

    1992-03-15

    Human and chicken progesterone receptors (A form) were overproduced in a baculovirus expression system. These recombinant progesterone receptors were full-length bound progesterone specifically and were recognized by monoclonal antibodies, AB52 and PR22, specific for human and chicken progesterone receptor, respectively. In gel retardation studies, binding of recombinant human and chicken progesterone receptors to their progesterone response element (PRE) was specific and was enhanced in the presence of progesterone. Binding of human progesterone receptor to the PRE was also enhanced in the presence of the antiprogestin, RU486, but very little effect was observed in the presence of estradiol, dexamethasone, testosterone, and vitamin D. In our cell-free transcription system, human progesterone receptor induced transcription in a receptor-dependent and hormone-activable manner. Receptor-stimulated transcription required the presence of the PRE in the test template and could be specifically inhibited by excess PRE oligonucleotides. Furthermore, chicken progesterone receptor also induced in vitro transcription in a hormone-activable manner. These results demonstrate that steroid receptors overexpressed in a baculovirus expression system are functional and exhibit steroid-responsive binding and transcription. These observations support our present understanding of the mechanism of steroid receptor-regulated gene expression and provide a technological format for studies of the role of hormone and antihormone in altering gene expression. PMID:1544902

  3. Human Neuroepithelial Cells Express NMDA Receptors

    Cappell B

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract L-glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, binds to both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. In certain parts of the brain the BBB contains two normally impermeable barriers: 1 cerebral endothelial barrier and 2 cerebral epithelial barrier. Human cerebral endothelial cells express NMDA receptors; however, to date, human cerebral epithelial cells (neuroepithelial cells have not been shown to express NMDA receptor message or protein. In this study, human hypothalamic sections were examined for NMDA receptors (NMDAR expression via immunohistochemistry and murine neuroepithelial cell line (V1 were examined for NMDAR via RT-PCR and Western analysis. We found that human cerebral epithelium express protein and cultured mouse neuroepithelial cells express both mRNA and protein for the NMDA receptor. These findings may have important consequences for neuroepithelial responses during excitotoxicity and in disease.

  4. Highly expressed adenosine receptor A2B in mucosa dendritic cells is associated with enhanced pathogenicity of Crohn's disease%腺苷受体A2B亚型增加肠黏膜树突状细胞对Crohn's病的致病性

    赵嵘; 周树民; 左爱军

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究Crohn's病存在时其肠黏膜树突状细胞(dendritic cell,DC)中腺苷受体(ADOR) A2A及A2B的表达是否发生了变化,及对DC的功能产生了何种影响.方法 自不同来源的肠组织中分离肠黏膜DC(mucosa DC,mDC),real-time PCR测定ador-a2a及a2b基因的表达;放射性配体结合实验测定腺苷与mDC的结合能力及受体选择性.选择性激活mDC中的ADOR-A2A及A2B通路,以此DC刺激分离的CD4+细胞,ELISA测定细胞因子的分泌,荧光抗体染色及流式细胞仪分析检测CD4+细胞的分化.分离外周血单个核细胞(PBMC)诱导分化为树突状细胞(Mo-DC),以不同Toll样受体(TLR)的配体进行干预,测定ador-a2a及a2b基因的表达;选择性激活Mo-DC中的ADOR-A2B通路,检测其对CD4+细胞的刺激作用.结果 Crohn's病患者肠黏膜DC中ador-a2b基因的表达显著升高,该受体被激活后可刺激mDC分泌IL-1、IL-6及IL-12,并可促进CD4+细胞向Th1、Th17细胞的分化.TLR2的配体pam3csk4或TLR4的配体LPS可促进Mo-DC中ador-a2b基因的表达;该受体与LPS相协同显著增加Mo-DC的致病性.结论 Crohn's病肠黏膜DC中存在腺苷受体A2B亚型的高表达,该受体可增加mDC的致病功能且其在DC中的表达会受到某些Toll样受体通路的调节.%Objective To investigate the expression of adenosine receptor (ADOR) subtypes (A2A and A2B subtypes) in the mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) from patients with Crohn's disease and their pathogenic roles.Methods Mucosal DCs (mDCs) were isolated from resected intestine of patients with or without Crohn's disease.Some of the mDCs were cultured in vitro and others were used to extract RNA.The expression of ador-a2a and ador-a2b were detected by real-time qPCR.mDCs in culture were treated with selective ADOR-A2A and ADOR-A2B agonists (CGS 21680 and BAY 60-6583) and then the concentration of IL-1,IL-6 and IL-12 in the medium were measured by ELISA.The binding affinities of ADOR-A2A and ADOR-A2B to adenosine

  5. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-04-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine ((R)-AHPIA) into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling.

  6. Increased desensitization of dopamine D₂ receptor-mediated response in the ventral tegmental area in the absence of adenosine A(2A) receptors.

    Al-Hasani, R; Foster, J D; Metaxas, A; Ledent, C; Hourani, S M O; Kitchen, I; Chen, Y

    2011-09-01

    G-protein coupled receptors interact to provide additional regulatory mechanisms for neurotransmitter signaling. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are expressed at a high density in striatal neurons, where they closely interact with dopamine D₂ receptors and modulate effects of dopamine and responses to psychostimulants. A(2A) receptors are expressed at much lower densities in other forebrain neurons but play a more prominent yet opposing role to striatal receptors in response to psychostimulants in mice. It is, therefore, possible that A(2A) receptors expressed at low levels elsewhere in the brain may also regulate neurotransmitter systems and modulate neuronal functions. Dopamine D₂ receptors play an important role in autoinhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and dopamine release in other brain areas. Here, we examined the effect of A(2A) receptor deletion on D₂ receptor-mediated inhibition of neuronal firing in dopamine neurons in the VTA. Spontaneous activity of dopamine neurons was recorded in midbrain slices, and concentration-dependent effects of the dopamine D₂ receptor agonist, quinpirole, was compared between wild-type and A(2A) knockout mice. The potency of quinpirole applied in single concentrations and the expression of D₂ receptors were not altered in the VTA of the knockout mice. However, quinpirole applied in stepwise escalating concentrations caused significantly reduced maximal inhibition in A(2A) knockout mice, indicating an enhanced agonist-induced desensitization of D₂ receptors in the absence of A(2A) receptors. The A(2A) receptor agonist, CGS21680, did not exert any effect on dopamine neuron firing or response to quinpirole, revealing a novel non-pharmacological interaction between adenosine A(2A) receptors and dopaminergic neurotransmission in midbrain dopamine neurons. Altered D₂ receptor desensitization may result in changes in dopamine neuron firing rate and pattern and dopamine

  7. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Effects of the A2A Adenosine Receptor

    Gillian R. Milne; Palmer, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    The production of adenosine represents a critical endogenous mechanism for regulating immune and inflammatory responses during conditions of stress, injury, or infection. Adenosine exerts predominantly protective effects through activation of four 7-transmembrane receptor subtypes termed A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, of which the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AAR) is recognised as a major mediator of anti-inflammatory responses. The A2AAR is widely expressed on cells of the immune system and numerous in ...

  9. Sleep Disturbance Induced by Cocaine Abstinence Involving in A2A Receptor over-Expression in Rat Hypothalamus%可卡因戒断致大鼠睡眠结构失调涉及下丘脑腺苷A2A受体

    洪芬芳; 刘晓军; 贺长生; 杨树龙

    2012-01-01

    本实验于大鼠体内植入无线发射器,在可卡因用药前、停药第1(急性戒断)、第8(亚急性戒断)和第14 d(亚慢性戒断)记录自由活动大鼠脑电活动24 h.Western blot法检测腺苷受体在下丘脑和小脑组织表达水平,初步探索可卡因戒断致睡眠失调与腺苷受体之间的关系.结果发现可卡因停药第8d夜晚和白天,非快眼动(NREM)睡眠增加(P<0.05),快眼动(REM)睡眠下降(P<0.01);停药第14 d,NREM睡眠夜晚显著增加(P<0.01)而白天仅略加强,但白天和夜间REM睡眠均明显下降(P<0.01).可卡因戒断第8d和第14d下丘脑腺苷A2A受体表达明显增高(P<0.05),而腺苷A1受体在可卡因戒断仅第14 d降低(P<0.05),停药第1、第8和第14d腺苷A2B亚基表达变化不明显(P>0.05).而小脑腺苷A1、A2A和A2B受体表达均未见明显改变.这些证据提示亚急性和亚慢性可卡因戒断导致睡眠失调可能部分涉及大鼠下丘脑腺苷A2A受体过表达.%Adult rats were implanted with sleep-wake recording electrodes in our experiments. Polygraphic signs of undisturbed sleep-wake activities were recorded for 24 h before cocaine administration, cocaine withdrawal day 1 (a-cute), day 8 (subacute), and day 14 (subchronic). Western blot method was performed to examine the expression levels of adenosine receptor subtypes in hypothalamus and cerebellum. Non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was significantly increased during nighttime (P<0. 01) and daytime (P<0. 05) on withdrawal day 8. The increase of NREM sleep was significant during nighttime (P<0. 01) and slight during daytime on withdrawal day 14, whereas both daytime and nighttime rapid eye movement (REM) sleeps were reduced markedly (P<0. 01) on withdrawal day 8 and 14. In addition, A2A receptor level was significantly enhanced on cocaine withdrawal day 8 and day 14 (P< 0. 05), whereas A1 receptor level reduced markedly on withdrawal day 14 (P<0. 05). However, compared with that in the

  10. Identification of novel viral receptors with cell line expressing viral receptor-binding protein.

    Mei, Mei; Ye, Jianqiang; Qin, Aijian; Wang, Lin; Hu, Xuming; Qian, Kun; Shao, Hongxia

    2015-01-01

    The viral cell receptors and infection can be blocked by the expression of the viral receptor-binding protein. Thus, the viral cell receptor is an attractive target for anti-viral strategies, and the identification of viral cell receptor is critical for better understanding and controlling viral disease. As a model system for viral entry and anti-retroviral approaches, avian sarcoma/leukosis virus (ASLV, including the A-J ten subgroups) has been studied intensively and many milestone discoveries have been achieved based on work with ASLV. Here, we used a DF1 cell line expressed viral receptor-binding protein to efficiently identify chicken Annexin A2 (chANXA2) as a novel receptor for retrovirus ALV-J (avian leukosis virus subgroup J). Our data demonstrate that antibodies or siRNA to chANXA2 significantly inhibited ALV-J infection and replication, and over-expression of chANXA2 permitted the entry of ALV-J into its non-permissible cells. Our findings have not only identified chANXA2 as a novel biomarker for anti-ALV-J, but also demonstrated that cell lines with the expression of viral receptor-binding protein could be as efficient tools for isolating functional receptors to identify novel anti-viral targets. PMID:25604889

  11. Chemokine receptor expression by mast cells.

    Juremalm, Mikael; Nilsson, Gunnar

    2005-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the role of chemokines and their receptors in the determination of mast cell tissue localization and how chemokines regulate mast cell function. At least nine chemokine receptors (CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR3, CXCR4, CX3CR1, CCR1, CCR3, CCR4 and CCR5) have been described to be expressed by human mast cells of different origins. Seven chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL5, CXCL8, CXCL14, CX3CL1, CCL5 and CCL11) have been shown to act on some of these receptors and to induce mast cell migration. Mast cells have a unique expression pattern of CCR3, CXCR1 and CXCR2. These receptors are mainly expressed intracellularly on cytoplasmic membranes. Upon an allergic activation, CCR3 expression is increased on the cell surface and the cell becomes vulnerable for CCL11 treatment. Chemokines do not induce mast cell degranulation but CXCL14 causes secretion of de novo synthesized CXCL8. Because of the expression of CCR3, CCR5 and CXCR4 on mast cell progenitors, these cells are susceptible to HIV infection and mast cells might therefore be a persistent HIV reservoir in AIDS. In this review, we summarize the knowledge about chemokine receptor expression and function on mast cells. PMID:16107768

  12. Cannabinoid-receptor expression in human leukocytes.

    Bouaboula, M; Rinaldi, M; Carayon, P; Carillon, C; Delpech, B; Shire, D; Le Fur, G; Casellas, P

    1993-05-15

    Marijuana and many of its constituent cannabinoids influence the central nervous system (CNS), probably through the cannabinoid receptor, which has recently been cloned in rat and human. While numerous reports have also described effects of cannabinoids on the immune system, the observation of both mRNA and cannabinoid receptor has hitherto been exclusively confined to the brain, a reported detection in the testis being the sole example of its presence at the periphery. Here we report the expression of the cannabinoid receptor on human immune tissues using a highly sensitive polymerase-chain-reaction-based method for mRNA quantification. We show that, although present in a much lower abundance than in brain, cannabinoid receptor transcripts are found in human spleen, tonsils and peripheral blood leukocytes. The distribution pattern displays important variations of the mRNA level for the cannabinoid receptor among the main human blood cell subpopulations. The rank order of mRNA levels in these cells is B cells > natural killer cells > or = polymorphonuclear neutrophils > or = T8 cells > monocytes > T4 cells. Cannabinoid-receptor mRNA, which is also found in monocytic, as well as T and B leukemia cell lines but not in Jurkat cells, presents a great diversity of expression on these cells as well, B-cell lines expressing a much higher level than T-cell lines. The cannabinoid receptor PCR products from leukocytes and brain are identical both in size and sequence suggesting a strong similarity between central and peripheral cannabinoid receptors. The expression of this receptor was demonstrated on membranes of the myelomonocytic U937 cells using the synthetic cannabinoid [3H]CP-55940 as ligand. The Kd determined from Scatchard analysis was 0.1 nM and the Bmax for membranes was 525 fmol/mg protein. The demonstration of cannabinoid-receptor expression at both mRNA and protein levels on human leukocytes provides a molecular basis for cannabinoid action on these cells. PMID

  13. Tissue distribution and differential expression of melanocortin 1 receptor, a malignant melanoma marker

    Salazar-Onfray, F; López, M.; Lundqvist, A.; Aguirre, A.; Escobar, A; Serrano, A; Korenblit, C; PETERSSON,M; Chhajlani, V.; Larsson, O; Kiessling, R.

    2002-01-01

    The melanocortin 1 receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor, described to be expressed on melanomas and melanocytes. Subsequent RT–PCR studies demonstrated the presence of melanocortin 1 receptor mRNA in other tissues such as pituitary gland and testis. Previously, we have demonstrated that three HLA-A2 binding nonamer peptides derived from melanocortin 1 receptor can elicit peptide-specific CTL which can recognize target cells transfected with the melanocortin 1 receptor gene and MHC class I...

  14. Transitional cell carcinoma express vitamin D receptors

    Hermann, G G; Andersen, C B

    1997-01-01

    Recently, vitamin D analogues have shown antineoplastic effect in several diseases. Vitamin D analogues exert its effect by interacting with the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Studies of VDR in transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) have not been reported. The purpose of the present study was therefore.......05). Similarly, also tumor grade appeared to be related to the number of cells expressing the receptor. Normal urothlium also expressed VDR but only with low intensity. Our study shows that TCC cells possess the VDR receptor which may make them capable to respond to stimulation with vitamin D, but functional...... studies of vitamin D's effect on TCC cells in vitro are necessary before the efficacy of treatment with vitamin D analogues in TCC can be evaluated in patients....

  15. Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia

    Felicita Pedata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes. Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke.

  16. Androgen Receptor Is Expressed in Genital Warts

    Jiang Haiyang; Zhang Li; Fan Min; Yang Dexiu

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of androgen receptor(AR) in genital warts. Methods:The expressions of AR weredetected in 40 samples of genital warts from 28 males and 12 females and 9 normal foreskins by immunohistochemical stain S-Pmethod. The status of AR expression in wart and normal foreskin were compared. Results:The AR expression was revealed in all 40samples of genital wart and 9 samples of normal foreskin.There weren's any differences in AR expression between the genital wartsand normal foreskins. Conclusions:It' s supposed that androgens may play an important role in regulating the metabolism of GW andthe HPV might be one of viruses which addicts to the tissues expressing AR properly.

  17. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

    Fomina Alla F; Dadsetan Sepehr; Chen Huaiyang; Gong Qizhi

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic...

  18. The Role of The A2A Receptor in Cell Apoptosis Caused by MDMA

    Mansooreh Soleimani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ecstasy, also known as 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, is a psychoactive recreational hallucinogenic substance and a major worldwide recreational drug. There are neurotoxic effects observed in laboratory animals and humans following MDMA use. MDMA causes apoptosis in neurons of the central nervous system (CNS. Withdrawal signs are attenuated by treatment with the adenosine receptor (A2A receptor. This study reports the effects of glutamyl cysteine synthetase (GCS, as an A2A receptor agonist, and succinylcholine (SCH, as an A2A receptor antagonist, on Sprague Dawley rats, both in the presence and absence of MDMA.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we used seven groups of Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g each. Each group was treated with daily intraperitoneal (IP injections for a period of one week, as follows: i. MDMA (10 mg/kg; ii. GCS (0.3 mg/kg; iii. SCH (0.3 mg/kg; iv. GCS + SCH (0.3 mg/kg each; v. MDMA (10 mg/kg + GCS (0.3 mg/kg; vi. MDMA (10 mg/kg + SCH (0.3 mg/kg; and vi. normal saline (1 cc/kg as the sham group. Bax (apoptotic protein and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic protein expressions were evaluated by striatum using RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.Results: There was a significant increase in Bax protein expression in the MDMA+SCH group and a significant decrease in Bcl-2 protein expression in the MDMA+SCH group (p<0.05.Conclusion: A2A receptors have a role in the apoptotic effects of MDMA via the Bax and Bcl-2 pathways. An agonist of this receptor (GCS decreases the cytotoxcity of MDMA, while the antagonist of this receptor (SCH increases its cytotoxcity.

  19. Stimulation of adenosine receptors in the nucleus accumbens reverses the expression of cocaine sensitization and cross-sensitization to dopamine D2 receptors in rats

    Hobson, Benjamin D.; Merritt, Kathryn E.; Bachtell, Ryan K.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine receptors co-localize with dopamine receptors on medium spiny nucleus accumbens (NAc) neurons where they antagonize dopamine receptor activity. It remains unclear whether adenosine receptor stimulation in the NAc restores cocaine-induced enhancements in dopamine receptor sensitivity. The goal of these studies was to determine whether stimulating A1 or A2A receptors in the NAc reduces the expression of cocaine sensitization. Rats were sensitized with 7 daily treatments of cocaine (15...

  20. Cell adhesion and EGFR activation regulate EphA2 expression in cancer

    Larsen, Alice Bjerregaard; Stockhausen, Marie-Thérése; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard

    2010-01-01

    largely unknown. Here we show that the expression of EphA2 in in vitro cultured cells, is restricted to cells growing adherently and that adhesion-induced EphA2 expression is dependent upon activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and Src...... family kinases (SRC). Moreover, the results show that adhesion-induced EGFR activation and EphA2 expression is affected by interactions with extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins working as integrin ligands. Stimulation with the EphA2 ligand, ephrinA1 inhibited ERK phosphorylation and cancer cell viability....... These effects were however abolished by activation of the EGF-receptor ligand system favoring Ras/MAPK signaling and cell proliferation. Based on our results, we propose a regulatory mechanism where cell adhesion induces EGFR kinase activation and EphA2 expression; and where the effect of ephrinA1...

  1. The expression of the ACTH receptor

    L.L.K. Elias

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrenal glucocorticoid secretion is regulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH acting through a specific cell membrane receptor (ACTH-R. The ACTH-R is a member of the G protein superfamily-coupled receptors and belongs to the subfamily of melanocortin receptors. The ACTH-R is mainly expressed in the adrenocortical cells showing a restricted tissue specificity, although ACTH is recognized by the other four melanocortin receptors. The cloning of the ACTH-R was followed by the study of this gene in human diseases such as familial glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD and adrenocortical tumors. FGD is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by glucocorticoid deficiency, elevated plasma ACTH levels and preserved renin/aldosterone secretion. This disorder has been ascribed to an impaired adrenal responsiveness to ACTH due to a defective ACTH-R, a defect in intracellular signal transduction or an abnormality in adrenal cortical development. Mutations of the ACTH-R have been described in patients with FGD in segregation with the disease. The functional characterization of these mutations has been prevented by difficulties in expressing human ACTH-R in cells that lack endogenous melanocortin receptor activity. To overcome these difficulties we used Y6 cells, a mutant variant of the Y1 cell line, which possesses a non-expressed ACTH-R gene allowing the functional study without any background activity. Our results demonstrated that the several mutations of the ACTH-R found in FGD result in an impaired cAMP response or loss of sensitivity to ACTH stimulation. An ACTH-binding study showed an impairment of ligand binding with loss of the high affinity site in most of the mutations studied.

  2. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  3. Mechanisms of the adenosine A2A receptor-induced sensitization of esophageal C fibers.

    Brozmanova, M; Mazurova, L; Ru, F; Tatar, M; Hu, Y; Yu, S; Kollarik, M

    2016-02-01

    Clinical studies indicate that adenosine contributes to esophageal mechanical hypersensitivity in some patients with pain originating in the esophagus. We have previously reported that the esophageal vagal nodose C fibers express the adenosine A2A receptor. Here we addressed the hypothesis that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of esophageal C fibers by a mechanism involving transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1). Extracellular single fiber recordings of activity originating in C-fiber terminals were made in the ex vivo vagally innervated guinea pig esophagus. The adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680 induced robust, reversible sensitization of the response to esophageal distention (10-60 mmHg) in a concentration-dependent fashion (1-100 nM). At the half-maximally effective concentration (EC50: ≈3 nM), CGS21680 induced an approximately twofold increase in the mechanical response without causing an overt activation. This sensitization was abolished by the selective A2A antagonist SCH58261. The adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin mimicked while the nonselective protein kinase inhibitor H89 inhibited mechanical sensitization by CGS21680. CGS21680 did not enhance the response to the purinergic P2X receptor agonist α,β-methylene-ATP, indicating that CGS21680 does not nonspecifically sensitize to all stimuli. Mechanical sensitization by CGS21680 was abolished by pretreatment with two structurally different TRPA1 antagonists AP18 and HC030031. Single cell RT-PCR and whole cell patch-clamp studies in isolated esophagus-specific nodose neurons revealed the expression of TRPA1 in A2A-positive C-fiber neurons and demonstrated that CGS21682 potentiated TRPA1 currents evoked by allylisothiocyanate. We conclude that stimulation of the adenosine A2A receptor induces mechanical sensitization of nodose C fibers by a mechanism sensitive to TRPA1 antagonists indicating the involvement of TRPA1. PMID:26564719

  4. Evidence that the EphA2 receptor exacerbates ischemic brain injury.

    John Thundyil

    Full Text Available Ephrin (Eph signaling within the central nervous system is known to modulate axon guidance, synaptic plasticity, and to promote long-term potentiation. We investigated the potential involvement of EphA2 receptors in ischemic stroke-induced brain inflammation in a mouse model of focal stroke. Cerebral ischemia was induced in male C57Bl6/J wild-type (WT and EphA2-deficient (EphA2(-/- mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO; 60 min, followed by reperfusion (24 or 72 h. Brain infarction was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Neurological deficit scores and brain infarct volumes were significantly less in EphA2(-/- mice compared with WT controls. This protection by EphA2 deletion was associated with a comparative decrease in brain edema, blood-brain barrier damage, MMP-9 expression and leukocyte infiltration, and higher expression levels of the tight junction protein, zona occludens-1. Moreover, EphA2(-/- brains had significantly lower levels of the pro-apoptotic proteins, cleaved caspase-3 and BAX, and higher levels of the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 as compared to WT group. We confirmed that isolated WT cortical neurons express the EphA2 receptor and its ligands (ephrin-A1-A3. Furthermore, expression of all four proteins was increased in WT primary cortical neurons following 24 h of glucose deprivation, and in the brains of WT mice following stroke. Glucose deprivation induced less cell death in primary neurons from EphA2(-/- compared with WT mice. In conclusion, our data provide the first evidence that the EphA2 receptor directly contributes to blood-brain barrier damage and neuronal death following ischemic stroke.

  5. Ephrin A2 receptor targeting does not increase adenoviral pancreatic cancer transduction in vivo

    Michael A van Geer; Conny T Bakker; Naoya Koizumi; Hiroyuki Mizuguchi; John G Wesseling; Ronald PJ Oude Elferink; Piter J Bosma

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To generate an adenoviral vector specifically targeting the EphA2 receptor (EphA2R) highly expressed on pancreatic cancer cells in vivo.METHODS:YSA,a small peptide ligand that binds the EphA2R with high affinity,was inserted into the HI loop of the adenovirus serotype 5 fiber knob.To further increase the specificity of this vector,binding sites for native adenoviral receptors,the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) and integrin,were ablated from the viral capsid.The ablated retargeted adenoviral vector was produced on 293T cells.Specific targeting of this novel adenoviral vector to pancreatic cancer was investigated on established human pancreatic cancer cell lines.Upon demonstrating specific in vitro targeting,in vivo targeting to subcutaneous growing human pancreatic cancer was tested by intravenous and intraperitoneal administration of the ablated adenoviral vector.RESULTS:Ablation of native cellular binding sites reduced adenoviral transduction at least 100-fold.Insertion of the YSA peptide in the HI loop restored adenoviral transduction of EphA2R-expressing cells but not of cells lacking this receptor.YSA-mediated transduction was inhibited by addition of synthetic YSA peptide.The transduction specificity of the ablated retargeted vector towards human pancreatic cancer cells was enhanced almost 10-fold in vitro.In a subsequent in vivo study in a nude (nu/nu) mouse model however,no increased adenoviral targeting to subcutaneously growing human pancreas cancer nodules was seen upon injection into the tail vein,nor upon injection into the peritoneum.CONCLUSION:Targeting the EphA2 receptor increases specificity of adenoviral transduction of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro but fails to enhance pancreatic cancer transduction in vivo.

  6. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A;

    2013-01-01

    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated ...

  7. Recent developments in A2B adenosine receptor ligands.

    Kalla, Rao V; Zablocki, Jeff; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    A selective, high-affinity A(2B) adenosine receptor (AR) antagonist will be useful as a pharmacological tool to help determine the role of the A(2B)AR in inflammatory diseases and angiogenic diseases. Based on early A(2B)AR-selective ligands with nonoptimal pharmaceutical properties, such as 15 (MRS 1754: K(i)(hA(2B)) = 2 nM; K(i)(hA(1)) = 403 nM; K(i)(hA(2A)) = 503 NM, and K(i)(hA(3)) = 570 nM), several groups have discovered second-generation A(2B)AR ligands that are suitable for development. Scientists at CV Therapeutics have discovered the selective, high-affinity A(2B)AR antagonist 22, a 8-(4-pyrazolyl)-xanthine derivative, (CVT-6883, K(i)(hA(2B)) = 22 nM; K(i)(hA(1)) = 1,940 nM; K(i)(hA(2A)) = 3,280; and K(i)(hA(3)) = 1,070 nM). Compound 22 has demonstrated favorable pharmacokinetic (PK) properties (T(1/2) = 4 h and F > 35% rat), and it is a functional antagonist at the A(2B)AR(K (B) = 6 nM). In a mouse model of asthma, compound 22 demonstrated a dose-dependent efficacy supporting the role of the A(2B)AR in asthma. In two Phase I clinical trails, 22 (CVT-6883) was found to be safe, well tolerated, and suitable for once-daily dosing. Baraldi et al. have independently discovered a selective, high-affinity A(2B)AR antagonist, 30 (MRE2029F20), 8-(5-pyrazolyl)-xanthine (K(i)(hA(2B)) = 5.5 nM; K(i)(hA(1)) = 200 nM; K(i)(hA(2A), A(3)) > 1,000, that has been selected for development in conjunction with King Pharmaceuticals. Compound 30 has been demonstrated to be a functional antagonist of the A(2B)AR, and it has been radiolabeled for use in pharmacological studies. A third compound, 58 (LAS-38096), is a 2-aminopyrimidine derivative (discovered by the Almirall group) that has high A(2B)AR affinity and selectivity (K(i)(hA(2B)) = 17 nM; K(i)(hA(1)) > 1,000 nM; K(i)(hA(2A)) > 2,500; and K(i)(hA(3)) > 1,000 nM), and 58 has been moved into preclinical safety testing. A fourth selective, high-affinity A(2B)AR antagonist, 54 (OSIP339391 K(i))(hA(2B)) = 0.5 nM; K(i))(hA(1

  8. NCS-1 associates with adenosine A2A receptors and modulates receptor function

    Gemma eNavarro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signalling by local changes in intracellular calcium concentration is an established function of Calmodulin which is known to interact with many GPCRs. Less is known about the functional role of the closely related neuronal EF-hand Ca2+-sensor proteins that frequently associate with calmodulin targets with different functional outcome. In the present study we aimed to investigate if a target of calmodulin – the A2A adenosine receptor, is able to associate with two other neuronal calcium binding proteins, namely NCS-1 and caldendrin. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation experiments we show the existence of A2A - NCS-1 complexes in living cells whereas caldendrin did not associate with A2A receptors under the conditions tested. Interestingly, NCS-1 binding modulated downstream A2A receptor intracellular signalling in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Taken together this study provides further evidence that neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins play an important role in modulation of GPCR signalling.

  9. Human basophils express interleukin-4 receptors

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4), a multipotential lymphokine reputed to play an important role in the regulation of immune responses, interacts with a variety of hemopoietic target cells through specific cell surface membrane receptors. The present study was designed to investigate whether human basophils express IL-4 binding sites. For this purpose, basophils were enriched to homogeneity (93% and 98% purity, respectively) from the peripheral blood of two chronic granulocytic leukemia (CGL) donors using a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) and complement. Purified basophils bound 125I-radiolabeled recombinant human (rh) IL-4 in a specific manner. Quantitative binding studies and Scatchard plot analysis revealed the presence of a single class of high affinity IL-4 binding sites (280 +/- 40 sites per cell in donor 1 and 640 +/- 45 sites per cell in donor 2) with an apparent dissociation constant, kd, of 7.12 x 10(-11) +/- 2.29 x 10(-11) and 9.55 +/- 3.5 x 10(-11) mol/L, respectively. KU812-F, a human basophil precursor cell line, was found to express a single class of 810 to 1,500 high affinity IL-4 binding sites with a kd of 2.63 to 5.54 x 10(-10) mol/L. No change in the numbers or binding constants of IL-4 receptors was found after exposure of KU812-F cells to rhIL-3 (a potent activator of basophils) for 60 minutes. No effect of rhIL-4 on 3H-thymidine uptake, release or synthesis of histamine, or expression of basophil differentiation antigens (Bsp-1, CD11b, CD25, CD40, CD54) on primary human CGL basophils or KU812-F cells was observed

  10. Striatal pre- and postsynaptic profile of adenosine A(2A receptor antagonists.

    Marco Orru

    Full Text Available Striatal adenosine A(2A receptors (A(2ARs are highly expressed in medium spiny neurons (MSNs of the indirect efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with dopamine D(2 receptors (D(2Rs. A(2ARs are also localized presynaptically in cortico-striatal glutamatergic terminals contacting MSNs of the direct efferent pathway, where they heteromerize with adenosine A(1 receptors (A(1Rs. It has been hypothesized that postsynaptic A(2AR antagonists should be useful in Parkinson's disease, while presynaptic A(2AR antagonists could be beneficial in dyskinetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease, obsessive-compulsive disorders and drug addiction. The aim or this work was to determine whether selective A(2AR antagonists may be subdivided according to a preferential pre- versus postsynaptic mechanism of action. The potency at blocking the motor output and striatal glutamate release induced by cortical electrical stimulation and the potency at inducing locomotor activation were used as in vivo measures of pre- and postsynaptic activities, respectively. SCH-442416 and KW-6002 showed a significant preferential pre- and postsynaptic profile, respectively, while the other tested compounds (MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 showed no clear preference. Radioligand-binding experiments were performed in cells expressing A(2AR-D(2R and A(1R-A(2AR heteromers to determine possible differences in the affinity of these compounds for different A(2AR heteromers. Heteromerization played a key role in the presynaptic profile of SCH-442416, since it bound with much less affinity to A(2AR when co-expressed with D(2R than with A(1R. KW-6002 showed the best relative affinity for A(2AR co-expressed with D(2R than co-expressed with A(1R, which can at least partially explain the postsynaptic profile of this compound. Also, the in vitro pharmacological profile of MSX-2, SCH-420814, ZM-241385 and SCH-58261 was is in accordance with their mixed pre- and postsynaptic profile

  11. Hypothyroidism Affects D2 Receptor-mediated Breathing without altering D2 Receptor Expression

    Schlenker, Evelyn H; Rio, Rodrigo Del; Schultz, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Bromocriptine depressed ventilation in air and D2 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS) in male hypothyroid hamsters. Here we postulated that in age- matched hypothyroid female hamsters, the pattern of D2 receptor modulation of breathing and D2 receptor expression would differ from those reported in hypothyroid males. In females hypothyroidism did not affect D2 receptor protein levels in the NTS, carotid bodies or striatum. Bromocriptine, but not carmoxirole (a periphera...

  12. Restriction of Receptor Movement Alters Cellular Response: Physical Force Sensing by EphA2

    Salaita, Khalid; Nair, Pradeep M; Petit, Rebecca S; Neve, Richard M; Das, Debopriya; Gray, Joe W; Groves, Jay T

    2009-09-09

    Activation of the EphA2 receptor tyrosine kinase by ephrin-A1 ligands presented on apposed cell surfaces plays important roles in development and exhibits poorly understood functional alterations in cancer. We reconstituted this intermembrane signaling geometry between live EphA2-expressing human breast cancer cells and supported membranes displaying laterally mobile ephrin-A1. Receptor-ligand binding, clustering, and subsequent lateral transport within this junction were observed. EphA2 transport can be blocked by physical barriers nanofabricated onto the underlying substrate. This physical reorganization of EphA2 alters the cellular response to ephrin-A1, as observed by changes in cytoskeleton morphology and recruitment of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10. Quantitative analysis of receptor-ligand spatial organization across a library of 26 mammary epithelial cell lines reveals characteristic differences that strongly correlate with invasion potential. These observations reveal a mechanism for spatio-mechanical regulation of EphA2 signaling pathways.

  13. Alternative splicing of human and mouse NPFF2 receptor genes: Implications to receptor expression.

    Ankö, Minna-Liisa; Ostergård, Maria; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Panula, Pertti

    2006-12-22

    Alternative splicing has an important role in the tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. Here we report that similar to the human NPFF2 receptor, the mouse NPFF2 receptor is alternatively spliced. In human the presence of three alternatively spliced receptor variants were verified, whereas two NPFF2 receptor variants were identified in mouse. The alternative splicing affected the 5' untranslated region of the mouse receptor and the variants in mouse were differently distributed. The mouse NPFF system may also have species-specific features since the NPFF2 receptor mRNA expression differs from that reported for rat. PMID:17157836

  14. Selective adenosine A2A receptor agonists and antagonists protect against spinal cord injury through peripheral and central effects

    Esposito Emanuela

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Permanent functional deficits following spinal cord injury (SCI arise both from mechanical injury and from secondary tissue reactions involving inflammation. Enhanced release of adenosine and glutamate soon after SCI represents a component in the sequelae that may be responsible for resulting functional deficits. The role of adenosine A2A receptor in central ischemia/trauma is still to be elucidated. In our previous studies we have demonstrated that the adenosine A2A receptor-selective agonist CGS21680, systemically administered after SCI, protects from tissue damage, locomotor dysfunction and different inflammatory readouts. In this work we studied the effect of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261, systemically administered after SCI, on the same parameters. We investigated the hypothesis that the main action mechanism of agonists and antagonists is at peripheral or central sites. Methods Spinal trauma was induced by extradural compression of SC exposed via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy in mouse. Three drug-dosing protocols were utilized: a short-term systemic administration by intraperitoneal injection, a chronic administration via osmotic minipump, and direct injection into the spinal cord. Results SCH58261, systemically administered (0.01 mg/kg intraperitoneal. 1, 6 and 10 hours after SCI, reduced demyelination and levels of TNF-α, Fas-L, PAR, Bax expression and activation of JNK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK 24 hours after SCI. Chronic SCH58261 administration, by mini-osmotic pump delivery for 10 days, improved the neurological deficit up to 10 days after SCI. Adenosine A2A receptors are physiologically expressed in the spinal cord by astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes. Soon after SCI (24 hours, these receptors showed enhanced expression in neurons. Both the A2A agonist and antagonist, administered intraperitoneally, reduced expression of the A2A receptor, ruling out the possibility that the

  15. Adenosine inhibits neutrophil vascular endothelial growth factor release and transendothelial migration via A2B receptor activation.

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    The effects of adenosine on neutrophil (polymorphonuclear neutrophils; PMN)-directed changes in vascular permeability are poorly characterized. This study investigated whether adenosine modulates activated PMN vascular endothelial growth factor (vascular permeability factor; VEGF) release and transendothelial migration. PMN activated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha, 10 ng\\/mL) were incubated with adenosine and its receptor-specific analogues. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF. PMN transendothelial migration across human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers was assessed in vitro. Adhesion molecule receptor expression was assessed flow cytometrically. Adenosine and some of its receptor-specific analogues dose-dependently inhibited activated PMN VEGF release. The rank order of potency was consistent with the affinity profile of human A2B receptors. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was reversed by 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, an A2 receptor antagonist. Adenosine (100 microM) or the A2B receptor agonist 5\\'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA, 100 microM) significantly reduced PMN transendothelial migration. However, expression of activated PMN beta2 integrins and HUVEC ICAM-1 were not significantly altered by adenosine or NECA. Adenosine attenuates human PMN VEGF release and transendothelial migration via the A2B receptor. This provides a novel target for the modulation of PMN-directed vascular hyperpermeability in conditions such as the capillary leak syndrome.

  16. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in...

  17. Thyroid hormone receptor expression in cardiovascular disease and pharmacology

    Shahrara, Shiva

    1999-01-01

    The heart is a major target organ for thyroid hormone actions. Thyroid hormone exerts effects on the myocardium, which are mediated by specific nuclear receptors. The thyroid hormone receptors (TR) are members of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. These receptors regulate gene expression by binding to the promotor region of target genes as monomers, homodimers or heterodimers depending on the thyroid hormone response element (TRE) and the presence or absence of th...

  18. Expression of the endocannabinoid receptors in human fascial tissue.

    Fede, C; Albertin, G; Petrelli, L; Sfriso, M M; Biz, C; De Caro, R; Stecco, C

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors have been localized in the central and peripheral nervous system as well as on cells of the immune system, but recent studies on animal tissue gave evidence for the presence of cannabinoid receptors in different types of tissues. Their presence was supposed also in myofascial tissue, suggesting that the endocannabinoid system may help resolve myofascial trigger points and relieve symptoms of fibromyalgia. However, until now the expression of CB1 (cannabinoid receptor 1) and CB2 (cannabinoid receptor 2) in fasciae has not yet been established. Small samples of fascia were collected from volunteers patients during orthopedic surgery. For each sample were done a cell isolation, immunohistochemical investigation (CB1 and CB2 antibodies) and real time RT-PCR to detect the expression of CB1 and CB2. Both cannabinoid receptors are expressed in human fascia and in human fascial fibroblasts culture cells, although to a lesser extent than the control gene. We can assume that the expression of mRNA and protein of CB1 and CB2 receptors in fascial tissue are concentrated into the fibroblasts. This is the first demonstration that the fibroblasts of the muscular fasciae express CB1 and CB2. The presence of these receptors could help to provide a description of cannabinoid receptors distribution and to better explain the role of fasciae as pain generator and the efficacy of some fascial treatments. Indeed the endocannabinoid receptors of fascial fibroblasts can contribute to modulate the fascial fibrosis and inflammation. PMID:27349320

  19. Estrogen Receptor α Is Required for Maintaining Baseline Renin Expression.

    Lu, Ko-Ting; Keen, Henry L; Weatherford, Eric T; Sequeira-Lopez, Maria Luisa S; Gomez, R Ariel; Sigmund, Curt D

    2016-05-01

    Enzymatic cleavage of angiotensinogen by renin represents the critical rate-limiting step in the production of angiotensin II, but the mechanisms regulating the initial expression of the renin gene remain incomplete. The purpose of this study is to unravel the molecular mechanism controlling renin expression. We identified a subset of nuclear receptors that exhibited an expression pattern similar to renin by reanalyzing a publicly available microarray data set. Expression of some of these nuclear receptors was similarly regulated as renin in response to physiological cues, which are known to regulate renin. Among these, only estrogen receptor α (ERα) and hepatic nuclear factor α have no known function in regulating renin expression. We determined that ERα is essential for the maintenance of renin expression by transfection of small interfering RNAs targeting Esr1, the gene encoding ERα, in renin-expressing As4.1 cells. We also observed that previously characterized negative regulators of renin expression, Nr2f2 and vitamin D receptor, exhibited elevated expression in response to ERα inhibition. Therefore, we tested whether ERα regulates renin expression through an interaction with Nr2f2 and vitamin D receptor. Renin expression did not return to baseline when we concurrently suppressed both Esr1 and Nr2f2 or Esr1 and vitamin D receptor mRNAs, strongly suggesting that Esr1 regulates renin expression independent of Nr2f2 and vitamin D receptor. ERα directly binds to the hormone response element within the renin enhancer region. We conclude that ERα is a previously unknown regulator of renin that directly binds to the renin enhancer hormone response element sequence and is critical in maintaining renin expression in renin-expressing As4.1 cells. PMID:26928806

  20. 17beta-雌二醇通过beta受体和cAMP-ERK1/2级联调节仔猪睾丸支持细胞cyclinA2mRNA的表达%17-beta Estradiol Regulates the Expression of CyclinA2 mRNA of Cultured Immature Boar Sertoli Cells via Estrogen Receptor beta, cAMP-PKA and ERK1/2

    左敬; 甘瑞; 张国升; 张姣姣; 朱峰伟; 孙燕; 王鲜忠; 张家骅

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]The objective of this study was to identify whether 17beta-estradiol regulates the expression of eCyclinA2 mRNA via the estrogen receptor beta (ERbetβa) and the cAMP-PKA-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2)pathway.[Method]Cultured immature boar sertoli cells were treated with 10-9 mol·L-1 17beta-estradiol, and real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of cyclinA2 mRNA.[Result]Treatment with 17beta-estradiol increased the expression of cyclinA2 mRNA from 15 min to 90 min (P<0.05).The effects of 17beta-estradiol activity peaked at 30 min compared to the control cells (P<0.05).Combined treatment with ICI182780 and ERβ reduced the 17beta-estradiol-induced increase in the expression of cyclinA2 mRNA (P <0.05), but ERβ alone did not significantly affect these parameters (P<0.05).Both 17beta-estradiol and forskolin induced the abundance of cyclinA2 mRNA (P<0.05 for both).Combined treatment with Rp-cAMP, H-89 and U0126 reduced the 17beta -estradiol-induced expression of cyclinA2 mRNA (P <0.05 for all), but Rp-cAMP, H-89 and U0126 alone had no significant effect on the abundance of cyclinA2 mRNA, compared to the control group.[Conclusion]This study showed that 17beta-estradiol regulates the expression of cyclinA2 mRNA via the activation of ERβ, cAMP-PKA and ERK1/2.%[目的]确定雌激素是否通过雌激素受体以及在cAMP-细胞外调节的蛋白激酶(ERK1/2)调节培养条件下,未成熟仔猪睾丸支持细胞中cyclinA2 mRNA的表达.[方法]以培养的仔猪睾丸支持细胞为试验材料,通过添加雌激素受体抑制剂以及各种信号通路的抑制剂,应用实时荧光定量PCR检测cyclinA2 mRNA的相对表达量.[结果]17beta-雌二醇(10-9mol·L-1)以时间依赖的方式促进了cyclinA2 mRNA的表达(P0.05),但ICI 182780与ERbetaAnt,而不是ERalphaAnt抑制了17beta-雌二醇诱导的eyelinA2 mRNA的表达(P0.05).[结论]17beta-雌二醇主要通过Erbeta受体、影响cAMP的产生和ERK1/2激活,进而调节cyclinA

  1. AMPA receptor pHluorin-GluA2 reports NMDA receptor-induced intracellular acidification in hippocampal neurons

    Rathje, Mette; Fang, Huaqiang; Bachman, Julia L;

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor activation promotes endocytosis of AMPA receptors, which is an important mechanism underlying long-term synaptic depression. The pH-sensitive GFP variant pHluorin fused to the N terminus of GluA2 (pH-GluA2) has been used to assay NMDA-mediated AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling...... fluorescence recovery was eliminated in the presence of the NHE1 inhibitor zoniporide. Our results indicate that the pH-GluA2 recycling assay is an unreliable assay for studying AMPA receptor trafficking and also suggest a role for PICK1 in regulating intracellular pH via modulation of NHE activity....

  2. Group X Secretory Phospholipase A2 Enhances Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling in Macrophages

    Shridas, Preetha; Bailey, William M.; Talbott, Kayla R; Oslund, Rob C.; Gelb, Michael H; Webb, Nancy R.

    2011-01-01

    Secretory phospholipase A2’s (sPLA2) hydrolyze glycerophospholipids to liberate lysophospholipids and free fatty acids. Although Group X (GX) sPLA2 is recognized as the most potent mammalian sPLA2 in vitro, its precise physiological function(s) remain unclear. We recently reported that GX sPLA2 suppresses activation of the Liver X receptor (LXR) in macrophages, resulting in reduced expression of LXR-responsive genes including ABCA1 and ABCG1, and a consequent decrease in cellular cholesterol ...

  3. Dopamine receptor-mediated regulation of neuronal "clock" gene expression.

    Imbesi, M; Yildiz, S; Dirim Arslan, A; Sharma, R; Manev, H; Uz, T

    2009-01-23

    Using a transgenic mice model (i.e. "clock" knockouts), clock transcription factors have been suggested as critical regulators of dopaminergic behaviors induced by drugs of abuse. Moreover, it has been shown that systemic administration of psychostimulants, such as cocaine and methamphetamine regulates the striatal expression of clock genes. However, it is not known whether dopamine receptors mediate these regulatory effects of psychostimulants at the cellular level. Primary striatal neurons in culture express dopamine receptors as well as clock genes and have been successfully used in studying dopamine receptor functioning. Therefore, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors on neuronal clock gene expression in this model using specific receptor agonists. We found an inhibitory effect on the expression of mClock and mPer1 genes with the D2-class (i.e. D2/D3) receptor agonist quinpirole. We also found a generalized stimulatory effect on the expression of clock genes mPer1, mClock, mNPAS2 (neuronal PAS domain protein 2), and mBmal1 with the D1-class (i.e. D1) receptor agonist SKF38393. Further, we tested whether systemic administration of dopamine receptor agonists causes similar changes in striatal clock gene expression in vivo. We found quinpirole-induced alterations in mPER1 protein levels in the mouse striatum (i.e. rhythm shift). Collectively, our results indicate that the dopamine receptor system may mediate psychostimulant-induced changes in clock gene expression. Using striatal neurons in culture as a model, further research is needed to better understand how dopamine signaling modulates the expression dynamics of clock genes (i.e. intracellular signaling pathways) and thereby influences neuronal gene expression, neuronal transmission, and brain functioning. PMID:19017537

  4. A novel targeted system to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to EphA2-expressing cancer cells

    Wang, Si; Placzek, William J.; Stebbins, John L.; Mitra, Sayantan; Noberini, Roberta; Koolpe, Mitchell; Zhang, Ziming; Dahl, Russell; Pasquale, Elena B.; Pellecchia, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of anti-cancer drugs is often limited by their systemic toxicities and adverse side effects. We report that the EphA2 receptor is over-expressed preferentially in several human cancer cell lines compared to normal tissues and that an EphA2 targeting peptide (YSAYPDSVPMMS) can be effective in delivering anti-cancer agents to such tumors. Hence, we report on the synthesis and characterizations of a novel EphA2-targeting agent conjugated with the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel. We...

  5. The role of adenosine A2A receptors on neuromuscular transmission upon ageing

    Pousinha, Paula Isabel Antunes, 1978-

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Ciências Biomédicas (Neurociências), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Medicina, 2012 Adenosine is a neuromodulator with important actions in the nervous system. The activation of adenosine A2A receptors has been shown to modulate the action of other receptors. Considering that it was observed an interaction between adenosine A2A receptors and TrkB receptors in hippocampus, I hypothesized that the activation of A2A receptors could also facilitate BDNF actions on ne...

  6. Regulation of gonadotropin receptor gene expression

    A.P.N. Themmen (Axel); R. Kraaij (Robert); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe receptors for the gonadotropins differ from the other G protein-coupled receptors by having a large extracellular hormone-binding domain, encoded by nine or ten exons. Alternative splicing of the large pre-mRNA of approximately 100 kb can result in mRNA species that encode truncated

  7. Molecular expression of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Hajiahmadi, S; Panjehpour, M; Aghaei, M; Mousavi, S

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) have several physiological and pathological roles in cancer cell lines. The present study was carried out to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression profile and functional role of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The levels of mRNA and protein expression of A1, A2a, A2b and A3 adenosine receptors in the ovarian cancer cell lines were measured by Real-time PCR and western blotting. The functional roles of adenosine receptors were investigated through measurement of cAMP levels after agonist treatment. The mRNA and protein of all adenosine receptors subtypes were expressed in the ovarian cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 had the most mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, cAMP assay confirmed the functional role of A2b and A3 adenosine receptors. This findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 subtypes are most important adenosine receptors in humn ovarian cancer cell lines. This information provide a strong possibility into the relationship of A2b and A3 adenosine receptor and ovarian cancer. PMID:26430456

  8. Molecular expression of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 human ovarian cancer cell lines

    Hajiahmadi, S.; Panjehpour, M.; Aghaei, M.; Mousavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) have several physiological and pathological roles in cancer cell lines. The present study was carried out to evaluate the mRNA and protein expression profile and functional role of adenosine receptors in OVCAR-3, Caov-4 and SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The levels of mRNA and protein expression of A1, A2a, A2b and A3 adenosine receptors in the ovarian cancer cell lines were measured by Real-time PCR and western blotting. The functional roles of adenosine receptors were investigated through measurement of cAMP levels after agonist treatment. The mRNA and protein of all adenosine receptors subtypes were expressed in the ovarian cancer cell lines. Our findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 had the most mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, cAMP assay confirmed the functional role of A2b and A3 adenosine receptors. This findings demonstrated that A2b and A3 subtypes are most important adenosine receptors in humn ovarian cancer cell lines. This information provide a strong possibility into the relationship of A2b and A3 adenosine receptor and ovarian cancer. PMID:26430456

  9. Vitamin D3 receptor is highly expressed in Hodgkin's lymphoma

    Christoph, Renné; Benz, Alexander H; Hansmann, Martin L

    2012-01-01

    Background: Hodkin s lymphoma is one of the most frequent lymphoma in western world. Despite an overall good prognosis some patients suffer relapsing tumors which are difficult to cure. Over a long period Vitamin D has been shown to be a potential treatment for cancer. Vitamin D acts via the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear receptor, acting as an inducible transcription factor. We aimed to investigate the expression of vitamin D receptor as potential therapeutic target structure in Hodgkin s lym...

  10. Expression of Tas1 taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa

    Meyer, Dorke; Voigt, Anja; Widmayer, Patricia; Borth, Heike; Huebner, Sandra; Breit, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Gudermann, Thomas; Boekhoff, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background: During their transit through the female genital tract, sperm have to recognize and discriminate numerous chemical compounds. However, our current knowledge of the molecular identity of appropriate chemosensory receptor proteins in sperm is still rudimentary. Considering that members of the Tas1r family of taste receptors are able to discriminate between a broad diversity of hydrophilic chemosensory substances, the expression of taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa was examined...

  11. Blockage of A2A and A3 adenosine receptors decreases the desensitization of human GABAA receptors microtransplanted to Xenopus oocytes

    Roseti, Cristina; Palma, Eleonora; Martinello, Katiuscia; Fucile, Sergio; Morace, Roberta; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Gianpaolo; Arcella, Antonietta; Giangaspero, Felice; Aronica, Eleonora; Mascia, Addolorata; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Manfredi, Mario; Cristalli, Gloria; Lambertucci, Catia; Marucci, Gabriella; Volpini, Rosaria; Limatola, Cristina; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-01-01

    We previously found that the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine, acting through A2A and A3 adenosine receptors (ARs), alters the stability of currents (IGABA) generated by GABAA receptors expressed in the epileptic human mesial temporal lobe (MTLE). Here we examined whether ARs alter the stability (desensitization) of IGABA expressed in focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and in periglioma epileptic tissues. The experiments were performed with tissues from 23 patients, using voltage-clamp recordings in Xenopus oocytes microinjected with membranes isolated from human MTLE and FCD tissues or using patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in epileptic tissue slices. On repetitive activation, the epileptic GABAA receptors revealed instability, manifested by a large IGABA rundown, which in most of the oocytes (≈70%) was obviously impaired by the new A2A antagonists ANR82, ANR94, and ANR152. In most MTLE tissue-microtransplanted oocytes, a new A3 receptor antagonist (ANR235) significantly improved IGABA stability. Moreover, patch-clamped pyramidal neurons from human neocortical slices of periglioma epileptic tissues exhibited altered IGABA rundown on ANR94 treatment. Our findings indicate that antagonizing A2A and A3 receptors increases the IGABA stability in different epileptic tissues and suggest that adenosine derivatives may offer therapeutic opportunities in various forms of human epilepsy. PMID:19721003

  12. Dopamine receptor expression and function in corticotroph pituitary tumors

    Pivonello, Rosario; Lamberts, Steven; Ferone, Diego; De Herder, Wouter; Kros, Johan; Caro, M.L.; M. Arvigo; Annunziato, L; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Hofland, Leo

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe role of dopamine agonist treatment in corticotroph pituitary tumors is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate D(2) receptor expression in 20 corticotroph pituitary tumors and to correlate it to the in vitro effect of dopamine agonists on ACTH secretion and the in vivo effect of short-term cabergoline treatment on cortisol secretion. D(2) expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. A 50% or more decrease in daily urinary ...

  13. Organization and expression of canine olfactory receptor genes.

    Issel-Tarver, L; Rine, J

    1996-01-01

    Four members of the canine olfactory receptor gene family were characterized. The predicted proteins shared 40-64% identity with previously identified olfactory receptors. The four subfamilies identified in Southern hybridization experiments had as few as 2 and as many as 20 members. All four genes were expressed exclusively in olfactory epithelium. Expression of multiple members of the larger subfamilies was detected, suggesting that most if not all of the cross-hybridizing bands in genomic ...

  14. Thromboxane A2 receptor signaling promotes liver tissue repair after toxic injury through the enhancement of macrophage recruitment

    It is thought that thromboxane A2 (TxA2) contributes to the progression of inflammation during acute hepatic injury; however, it is still unknown whether TxA2 is involved in liver repair. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of TxA2 receptor (TP) signaling in liver injury and repair in response to toxic injury. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was used to induce liver injury in TP knockout (TP−/−) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. In WT mice, serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and the size of the necrotic area peaked at 24 and 48 h, respectively, and then declined. In TP−/− mice, the changes in ALT levels were similar to WT mice, but liver regeneration was impaired as evidenced by remained elevated levels of hepatic necrosis and by delayed hepatocyte proliferation, which was associated with the reduced expression of growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In TP−/− mice, the accumulation of hepatic CD11b+/F4/80+ macrophages in injured livers was attenuated, and the hepatic expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) and its receptor, the C―C chemokine receptor (CCR2), was reduced compared to WT. Additionally, the application of the TP receptor agonist, U-46619, enhanced the expression of MCP-1/CCL2 and CCR2 in peritoneal macrophages, which was associated with increased levels of IL-6, TNFα and HGF. These results suggested that TP receptor signaling facilitates liver recovery following CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity by affecting the expression of hepatotrophic growth factors, and through the recruitment of macrophages mediated by MCP-1/CCL2-CCR2 expression. -- Highlights: ► TP enhances liver regeneration by CCl4. ► TP accumulates macrophages. ► TP up-regulates MCP-1.

  15. Giant vesicles functionally expressing membrane receptors for an insect pheromone.

    Hamada, Satoshi; Tabuchi, Masashi; Toyota, Taro; Sakurai, Takeshi; Hosoi, Tomohiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Nakatani, Kei; Fujinami, Masanori; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-03-18

    To date, biochemical approaches to membrane receptors have been limited to the following methods: knockout or overexpression of membrane receptors by gene introduction and genome engineering or extraction of membrane receptor-surfactant complexes from innate cells and their introduction into model biomembranes. Here, we describe the development of a third method involving gene expression using cell-free in situ protein synthesis inside model biomembrane capsules. We verified this method by synthesizing olfactory receptors from the silkmoth Bombyx mori inside giant vesicles and found that they were excited in the presence of their ligand the Bombyx mori sex pheromone. PMID:24509495

  16. CONSTITUTIVE ANDROSTANE RECEPTOR DEPENDENT AND INDEPENDENT MODULATION OF CYP3A2, CYP1A2 BY PHENOBARBITAL AND FIBRATE IN RATS’ LIVER

    Zein Shaban Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP3A and CYP1A are major drug metabolizing enzymes in the liver. CYP3A enzymes have a major role in the metabolism of 30-40% of all used drugs. CYP1A2 is a key enzyme having an important role in the metabolic clearance of 5% of currently marketed drugs. CYP1A2 participates in the metabolic activation of chemical mutagens in cooked food, therefore its activity is suspected to be one of the possible risk factors determining the carcinogenicity of heterocyclic amines in human beings. In a previous report, we have reported the induction of CYP3A2 and the inhibition of CYP1A2 by Fibrate (CFA and proved CYP1A2 inhibition to be PPARα-dependent. CYP3A2 and CYP1A2 have been reported to be induced in the liver by Phenobarbital (PB while Fibrates was reported to induce CYP3A2. However the exact mechanism of the induction of CYP3A2 by CFA and PB and induction of CYP1A2 by PB has not been clarified yet whether it is through Constitutive Androstane Receptor (CAR or other receptor as PPARα or Pregnane X Receptor (PXR. We treated Wistar female rats (with normal expression of CAR protein and Wistar femal Kyoto rats (with low expression of CAR protein with PB and Clofibric Acid (CFA. PB caused a high CYP3A2 induction in Wistar female rats and a low induction in (WKY indicating that PB induced CYP3A2 in a CAR-dependent manner. Interestingly, PB treatment induced CYP1A2 in Wistar female rats and failed to induce it in (WKY indicating that the induction of CYP1A2 by PB to be CAR-dependent. Moreover CFA induced CYP3A2 protein similarly in both rat strains indicating that CYP3A2 induction by Fibrates is CAR-independent and most probably to be PXR or PPARα-dependent. For the best of our knowledge this is the first report that shows a clear evidence of the CAR-dependent induction of CYP1A2 and CYP3A2 by PB and the CAR-independent induction of CYP3A2 by fibrates.

  17. Vaccination with EphA2-derived T cell-epitopes promotes immunity against both EphA2-expressing and EphA2-negative tumors

    Hatano Manabu

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel tyrosine kinase receptor EphA2 is expressed at high levels in advanced and metastatic cancers. We examined whether vaccinations with synthetic mouse EphA2 (mEphA2-derived peptides that serve as T cell epitopes could induce protective and therapeutic anti-tumor immunity. Methods C57BL/6 mice received subcutaneous (s.c. vaccinations with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs pulsed with synthetic peptides recognized by CD8+ (mEphA2671–679, mEphA2682–689 and CD4+ (mEphA230–44 T cells. Splenocytes (SPCs were harvested from primed mice to assess the induction of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses against syngeneic glioma, sarcoma and melanoma cell lines. The ability of these vaccines to prevent or treat tumor (s.c. injected MCA205 sarcoma or B16 melanoma; i.v. injected B16-BL6 establishment/progression was then assessed. Results Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with mEphA2-derived peptides induced specific CTL responses in SPCs. Vaccination with mEPhA2 peptides, but not control ovalbumin (OVA peptides, prevented the establishment or prevented the growth of EphA2+ or EphA2-negative syngeneic tumors in both s.c. and lung metastasis models. Conclusions These data indicate that mEphA2 can serve as an attractive target against which to direct anti-tumor immunity. The ability of mEphA2 vaccines to impact EphA2-negative tumors such as the B16 melanoma may suggest that such beneficial immunity may be directed against alternative EphA2+ target cells, such as the tumor-associated vascular endothelial cells.

  18. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Carlos M. Carballosa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  19. Nucleus tractus solitarii A(2a) adenosine receptors inhibit cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of sympathetic outputs.

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2014-02-01

    Previously we have shown that stimulation of inhibitory A1 adenosine receptors located in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) evoked inhibition of renal, adrenal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Activation of facilitatory A2a adenosine receptors, which dominate over A1 receptors in the NTS, contrastingly alters baseline activity of regional sympathetic outputs: it decreases renal, increases adrenal and does not change lumbar nerve activity. Considering that NTS A2a receptors may facilitate release of inhibitory transmitters we hypothesized that A2a receptors will act in concert with A1 receptors differentially inhibiting regional sympathetic CCR responses (adrenal>lumbar>renal). In urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats (n=38) we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT3 receptor agonist, phenylbiguanide, (1-8μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation, blockade or combined blockade and stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors (microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 0.2-20pmol/50nl, ZM-241385 40pmol/100nl or ZM-241385+CGS-21680, respectively). We found that stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors uniformly inhibited the regional sympathetic and hemodynamic reflex responses and this effect was abolished by the selective blockade of NTS A2a receptors. This indicates that A2a receptor triggered inhibition of CCR responses and the contrasting shifts in baseline sympathetic activity are mediated via different mechanisms. These data implicate that stimulation of NTS A2a receptors triggers unknown inhibitory mechanism(s) which in turn inhibit transmission in the CCR pathway when adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hypotension. PMID:24216055

  20. Cloning, constitutive activity and expression profiling of two receptors related to relaxin receptors in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Van Hiel, Matthias B; Vandersmissen, Hans Peter; Proost, Paul; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2015-06-01

    Leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptors (LGRs) comprise a cluster of transmembrane proteins, characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular domain. This receptor group can be classified into three subtypes. Belonging to the subtype C LGRs are the mammalian relaxin receptors LGR7 (RXFP1) and LGR8 (RXFP2), which mediate important reproductive and other processes. We identified two related receptors in the genome of the fruit fly and cloned their open reading frames into an expression vector. Interestingly, dLGR3 demonstrated constitutive activity at very low doses of transfected plasmid, whereas dLGR4 did not show any basal activity. Both receptors exhibited a similar expression pattern during development, with relatively high transcript levels during the first larval stage. In addition, both receptors displayed higher expression in male adult flies as compared to female flies. Analysis of the tissue distribution of both receptor transcripts revealed a high expression of dLGR3 in the female fat body, while the expression of dLGR4 peaked in the midgut of both the wandering and adult stage. PMID:25064813

  1. Expression and functional effects of Eph receptor tyrosine kinase A family members on Langerhans like dendritic cells

    Finne Eivind

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Eph receptors are the largest receptor tyrosine kinase family. Several family members are expressed in hematopoietic cells. Previously, the expression of a member of this family, EphA2, was identified on dendritic like cells in tonsils. We therefore specifically examined the expression of EphA2 on in vitro generated dendritic cells. Results In this study, expression of the EphA2 receptor was identified on in vitro generated Langerhans like dendritic cells compared to in vitro generated dendritic cells. We show that ligand induced engagement of the EphA2 receptor leads to receptor autophosphorylation indicating a functional receptor signaling pathway in these cells. We also observe phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of distinct proteins following ligand activation of EphA receptors. In co-stimulation assays, receptor-ligand interaction reduces the capacity of the Langerhans like dendritic cells to stimulate resting CD4+ T cells. Conclusion Engagement of EphA receptor tyrosine kinases on Langerhans like dendritic cells induces signaling as shown by tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of distinct proteins. Furthermore this engagement renders the cells less capable of stimulating CD4+ T cells.

  2. sPLA2 IB induces human podocyte apoptosis via the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor

    Yangbin Pan; Jianxin Wan; Yipeng Liu,; Qian Yang; Wei Liang; Singhal, Pravin C; Saleem, Moin A.; Guohua Ding

    2014-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is expressed in podocytes in human glomeruli. Group IB secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2 IB), which is one of the ligands of the PLA2R, is more highly expressed in chronic renal failure patients than in controls. However, the roles of the PLA2R and sPLA2 IB in the pathogenesis of glomerular diseases are unknown. In the present study, we found that more podocyte apoptosis occurs in the kidneys of patients with higher PLA2R and serum sPLA2 IB levels....

  3. Expression of somatotropin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid in bovine tissues

    The somatotropin receptor mRNA is controlled by at least two different gene promoters that generate 2 two variants with different exon 1 sequences (1A and 1B). The location of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA within cattle tissues and, hence, the tissue specificity of the 1A and 1B promoters are unknown. In addition, the cDNA sequence of the 1B somatotropin receptor has not been determined. Our objective, therefore, was to sequence a cDNA for the 1B somatotropin receptor and to analyze bovine tissues for expression of 1A and 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA. Twenty adult tissues and six fetal tissues were collected at slaughter from each of four cows and two fetuses. Messenger RNA was analyzed using ribonuclease protection assays. The adult liver expressed both 1A and 1B mRNA. All other adult tissues expressed 1B mRNA but not 1A mRNA. The greatest amount of 1B mRNA was detected in liver and adipose (abdominal and subcutaneous) tissues. Other tissues had approximately one-half to one-tenth of the amount of 1B mRNA in the liver or adipose tissue. Fetal tissues (including fetal liver) expressed 1B mRNA and not 1A mRNA. Based on cDNA sequencing, the protein encoded by the 1A and 1B mRNA was nearly identical. We concluded that 1A somatotropin receptor mRNA is specific to adult bovine liver. Other adult and fetal bovine tissues expressed 1B somatotropin receptor mRNA with a predicted protein sequence that was similar to the 1A somatotropin receptor

  4. Role of nuclear receptor NR4A2 in gastrointestinal inflammation and cancers

    Yi-Fang Han; Guang-Wen Cao

    2012-01-01

    NR4A2 is a transcription factor belonging to the steroid orphan nuclear receptor superfamily.It was originally considered to be essential in the generation and maintenance of dopaminergic neurons,and associated with neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease.Recently,NR4A2 has been found to play a critical role in some inflammatory diseases and cancer.NR4A2 can be efficiently trans-activated by some proinflammatory cytokines,such as tumor necrosis factor-α,interleukin-1β,and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).The nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway serves as a principal regulator of inducible NR4A expression in immune cells.NR4A2 can trans-activate Foxp3,a hallmark specifically expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells,and plays a critical role in the differentiation,maintenance,and function of Treg cells.NR4A2 in T lymphocytes is pivotal for Treg cell induction and suppression of aberrant induction of Th1 under physiological and pathological conditions.High density of Foxp3+ Treg cells is significantly associated with gastrointestinal inflammation,tumor immune escape,and disease progression.NR4A2 is produced at high levels in CD133+ colorectal carcinoma (CRC) cells and significantly upregulated by cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 in a cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner in CRC cells.The cAMP/PKA signaling pathway is the common pathway of NR4A2-related inflammation and cancer.NR4A2 trans-activates osteopontin,a direct target of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway associated with CRC invasion,metastasis,and poor prognosis.Knockdown of endogenous NR4A2 expression attenuates VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation,migration and in vivo angiogenesis.Taken together,NR4A2 emerges as an important nuclear factor linking gastrointestinal inflammation and cancer,especially CRC,and should serve as a candidate therapeutic target for inflammation-related gastrointestinal cancer.

  5. Nuclear receptor NR5A2 controls neural stem cell fate decisions during development

    Stergiopoulos, Athanasios; Politis, Panagiotis K.

    2016-01-01

    The enormous complexity of mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is generated by highly synchronized actions of diverse factors and signalling molecules in neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). However, the molecular mechanisms that integrate extrinsic and intrinsic signals to control proliferation versus differentiation decisions of NSCs are not well-understood. Here we identify nuclear receptor NR5A2 as a central node in these regulatory networks and key player in neural development. Overexpression and loss-of-function experiments in primary NSCs and mouse embryos suggest that NR5A2 synchronizes cell-cycle exit with induction of neurogenesis and inhibition of astrogliogenesis by direct regulatory effects on Ink4/Arf locus, Prox1, a downstream target of proneural genes, as well as Notch1 and JAK/STAT signalling pathways. Upstream of NR5a2, proneural genes, as well as Notch1 and JAK/STAT pathways control NR5a2 endogenous expression. Collectively, these observations render NR5A2 a critical regulator of neural development and target gene for NSC-based treatments of CNS-related diseases. PMID:27447294

  6. Regulation of fibrinogen receptor expression on human platelets

    Platelet aggregation requires the binding of fibrinogen to specific receptors on the plasma membrane glycoprotein IIb-IIIa complex. Although the IIb-IIIa complex is identifiable on the surface of resting platelets, the fibrinogen receptor is expressed only after platelet activation. The authors have developed a monoclonal anti-IIb-IIIa antibody (PAC-1) that binds only to stimulated platelets and only in the presence of Ca. In order to better understand the steps leading to platelet aggregation, the authors used radiolabeled PAC-1 and fibrinogen to examine the effect of the α2-adrenergic agonist, epinephrine, on the expression and function of the fibrinogen receptor. The addition of epinephrine to unstirred platelets caused and immediate increase in PAC-1 and fibrinogen binding that was associated with platelet aggregation once the platelets were stirred. Even after prolonged incubation of the platelets with epinephrine, fibrinogen receptor expression could be reversed by adding EGTA, PGl2, or the α2-adrenergic antagonist, phentolamine. When unstirred platelets were exposed to epinephrine for more than 10 min, the extent of aggregation caused by subsequent stirring was decreased by 70%. Surprisingly, these desensitized platelets bound PAC-1 and fibrinogen normally, indicating that the loss of aggregation was not due to a decrease in fibrinogen receptor expression or function. These studies demonstrate that: (1) fibrinogen receptor expression is dependent on extracellular CA; (2) induction of the fibrinogen receptor by epinephrine requires the continued presence of the agonist; and (3) prolonged stimulation of the platelet by epinephrine can lead to a reduced aggregation response by a mechanism that does not involve a loss of either fibrinogen recepor expression or fibrinogen binding

  7. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer

    Biegner, Thorsten; Teriete, Peter; Hoefert, Sebastian; Krimmel, Michael; Munz, Adelheid; Reinert, Siegmar

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Material and Methods Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. Results ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. Conclusions ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC. Key words:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, hormone receptor. PMID:27475696

  8. A2B Adenosine Receptor Agonist Improves Erectile Function in Diabetic Rats.

    Wen, Jiaming; Wang, Bohan; Du, Chuanjun; Xu, Gang; Zhang, Zhewei; Li, Yi; Zhang, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is an important risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED). Recent studies have indicated that A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling is essential for penile erection. Thus, we hypothesize that diabetic ED may be attributed to impaired A2B adenosine signaling. To test this hypothesis, we generated diabetic rats by injecting streptozocin as animal model. After 12 weeks, immunohistochemistry staining was used to localize the expression of ADORA2B. Western Blot and quantitative PCR were employed to determine ADORA2B expression level. Intracavernosal pressure (ICP) measurement was used to evaluate erectile function. Diabetic rats received a single intravenous injection of BAY 60-6583, an ADORA2B agonist, or vehicle solution, at 60 min before the ICP measurement. The results showed that ADORA2B expressed in the nerve bundle, smooth muscle, and endothelium in penile tissue of control mice. Western Blot and quantitative PCR results indicated that the expression levels of ADORA2B protein and mRNA were significantly reduced in penile tissues of diabetic rats. Functional studies showed that the erectile response induced by electrical stimulation was remarkably decreased in diabetic rats, compared with age-matched control rats. However, at 60 min after BAY 60-6583 treatment, the erectile function was improved in diabetic rats, suggesting that enhancement of ADORA2B signaling may improve erectile function in diabetic ED. This preclinical study has revealed a previously unrecognized therapeutic possibility of BAY 60-6583 as an effective and mechanism-based drug to treat diabetic ED. In conclusion, we propose that impaired A2B adenosine signaling is one of the pathological mechanisms of diabetic ED. PMID:26447087

  9. The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is part of a p53–microRNA-34 network

    Beard, Jordan A.; Tenga, Alexa; Hills, Justin; Hoyer, Jessica D.; Cherian, Milu T.; Wang, Yong-Dong; Chen, Taosheng

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 2 (NR4A2) is an orphan nuclear receptor that is over-expressed in cancer and promotes cell proliferation, migration, transformation, and chemoresistance. Increased expression and function of NR4A2 have been attributed to various signaling pathways, but little is known about microRNA (miRNA) regulation of NR4A2 in cancer. To investigate the posttranscriptional regulation of NR4A2, we used a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) reporter screen and identified miR-34 as a putative regulator of NR4A2. By using computer predictions, we identified and confirmed an miRNA recognition element in the 3′ UTR of NR4A2 that was responsible for miR-34–mediated suppression. We next demonstrated that overexpression of exogenous miR-34 or activation of the p53 pathway, which regulates endogenous miR-34 expression, decreased NR4A2 expression. Consistent with previous reports, overexpression of NR4A2 blocked the induction of p53 target genes, including mir-34a. This was a phenotypic effect, as NR4A2 overexpression could rescue cells from p53-induced inhibition of proliferation. In summary, our results are the first characterization of a cancer-related miRNA capable of regulating NR4A2 and suggest a network and possible feedback mechanism involving p53, miR-34, and NR4A2. PMID:27121375

  10. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  11. Multiple melanocortin receptors are expressed in bone cells

    Zhong, Qing; Sridhar, Supriya; Ruan, Ling; Ding, Ke-Hong; Xie, Ding; Insogna, Karl; Kang, Baolin; Xu, Jianrui; Bollag, Roni J.; Isales, Carlos M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanocortin receptors belong to the seven transmembrane domain, G-protein coupled family of receptors. There are five members of this receptor family labeled MC1R-MC5R. These receptors are activated by fragments derived from a larger molecule, proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and include ACTH, alpha beta and gamma-MSH and beta-endorphin. Because of in vitro and in vivo data suggesting direct effects of these POMC molecules on bone and bone turnover, we examined bone and bone derived cells for the presence of the various members of the melanocortin receptor family. We report that the five known melanocortin receptors are expressed to varying degrees in osteoblast-like and osteoclastic cells. POMC fragments increased proliferation and expression of a variety of genes in osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, POMC mRNA was detected in osteoclastic cells. These data demonstrate that POMC-derived peptide hormones acting through high affinity melanocortin receptors have specific effects on bone cells. Thus, in addition to the indirect effects of POMC-derived hormones on bone turnover through their modulation of steroid hormone secretion, POMC fragments may have direct and specific effects on bone cell subpopulations.

  12. Dopamine receptor gene expression by enkephalin neurons in rat forebrain

    In situ hybridization experiments were performed with brain sections from normal, control and haloperidol-treated rats to identify and map the cells expressing the D2 dopamine receptor gene. D2 receptor mRNA was detected with radioactive or biotinylated oligonucleotide probes. D2 receptor mRNA was present in glandular cells of the pituitary intermediate lobe and in neurons of the substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, and forebrain, especially in caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and piriform cortex. Hybridization with D2 and preproenkephalin A probes in adjacent sections, as well as combined hybridization with the two probes in the same sections, demonstrated that all detectable enkephalin neurons in the striatum contained the D2 receptor mRNA. Large neurons in caudate putamen, which were unlabeled with the preproenkephalin A probe and which may have been cholinergic, also expressed the D2 receptor gene. Haloperidol treatment (14 or 21 days) provoked an increase in mRNA content for D2 receptor and preproenkephalin A in the striatum. This suggests that the increase in D2 receptor number observed after haloperidol treatment is due to increased activity of the D2 gene. These results indicate that in the striatum, the enkephalin neurons are direct targets for dopamine liberated from mesostriatal neurons

  13. Gene expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the tectofugal pathway of the pigeon.

    Atoji, Y

    2016-03-01

    The tectofugal pathway in birds consists of four stations, the retina, optic tectum, rotundal nucleus, and entopallium, and it conveys visual information via three ascending pathways. These pathways consist of retino-tectal, tecto-rotundal and rotundo-entopallial cells, all of which are glutamatergic. The present study examined the localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) to identify the target areas of glutamatergic projections in the tectofugal pathway in pigeons. Nine subunits of iGluRs were analyzed using in situ hybridization as follows: AMPA receptors (GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4), kainate receptors (GluK1, GluK2, and GluK4), and NMDA receptors (GluN1 and GluN2A). Hybridization signals of subunits showed various intensities in different cells. In the optic tectum, a strong to moderate expression was observed in layer 10 (GluA2, GluA3, GluK4, and GluN1) and layer 13 (GluA2, GluK4, GluN1, and GluN2A). The rotundal nucleus intensely expressed GluA3, GluA4, GluK1, and GluK4. In the entopallium, an intense to moderate expression of GluK1 and GluK4, and a moderate to weak expression of AMPA and NMDA receptors were observed. Furthermore, the parvocellular and magnocellular parts of the isthmic nuclei showed a strong expression of GluA2, GluA3, GluK4, and GluN1. The present findings demonstrate the expression of iGluRs in glutamatergic projection targets of the tectofugal pathway in birds and suggest a diversity of iGluRs in the transmission of visual information. PMID:26718600

  14. Recombinant expression of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

    Shaikh-Omar, Osama

    2007-01-01

    Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) mediates drug and toxin action. The AhR proteins have been characterised in several mammalian species, and are soluble proteins found in various tissues. The AhR is normally found in the cytoplasm in a complex with 90 KDa heat shock protein (hsp90) and cellular chaperones such as ARA9 (AIP or XAP2) and p23. However, there has not been a systematic analysis of the proteins which chaperone the AhR ligand-binding domain (LBD). This work investigates the interactio...

  15. The chicken progesterone receptor: sequence, expression and functional analysis.

    Gronemeyer, H; Turcotte, B; Quirin-Stricker, C; Bocquel, M T; Meyer, M E; Krozowski, Z; Jeltsch, J M; Lerouge, T; Garnier, J M; P. Chambon

    1987-01-01

    The complete mRNA sequence of the chicken progesterone receptor (cPR) has been determined. Expression of the cloned cDNA both in vivo and in vitro produces a protein that has the same apparent mol. wt on SDS--polyacrylamide gels as the 'natural' cPR form B (109 kd) as determined by immunoblotting and photoaffinity labelling. When expressed in HeLa or in Cos-1 cells the 'cloned' cPR displays hormone binding characteristics indistinguishable from the 'natural' receptor and, in the presence of p...

  16. Radiolabelled GLP-1 receptor antagonist binds to GLP-1 receptor-expressing human tissues

    Waser, Beatrice; Reubi, Jean Claude [University of Berne, Division of Cell Biology and Experimental Cancer Research, Institute of Pathology, PO Box 62, Berne (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    Radiolabelled glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists have recently been shown to successfully image benign insulinomas in patients. For the somatostatin receptor targeting of tumours, however, it was recently reported that antagonist tracers were superior to agonist tracers. The present study therefore evaluated various forms of the {sup 125}iodinated-Bolton-Hunter (BH)-exendin(9-39) antagonist tracer for the in vitro visualization of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in rats and humans and compared it with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. Receptor autoradiography studies with {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide agonist or {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) antagonist radioligands were performed in human and rat tissues. The antagonist {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) labelled at lysine 19 identifies all human and rat GLP-1 target tissues and GLP-1 receptor-expressing tumours. Binding is of high affinity and is comparable in all tested tissues in its binding properties with the agonist tracer {sup 125}I-GLP-1(7-36)amide. For comparison, {sup 125}I-BH-exendin(9-39) with the BH labelled at lysine 4 did identify the GLP-1 receptor in rat tissues but not in human tissues. The GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) labelled with {sup 125}I-BH at lysine 19 is an excellent GLP-1 radioligand that identifies human and rat GLP-1 receptors in normal and tumoural tissues. It may therefore be the molecular basis to develop suitable GLP-1 receptor antagonist radioligands for in vivo imaging of GLP-1 receptor-expressing tissues in patients. (orig.)

  17. Neurotrophin receptors expression and JNK pathway activation in human astrocytomas

    Neurotrophins are growth factors that regulate cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis in the nervous system. Their diverse actions are mediated through two different transmembrane – receptor signaling systems: Trk receptor tyrosine kinases (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and p75NTR neurotrophin receptor. Trk receptors promote cell survival and differentiation while p75NTR induces, in most cases, the activity of JNK-p53-Bax apoptosis pathway or suppresses intracellular survival signaling cascades. Robust Trk activation blocks p75NTR -induced apoptosis by suppressing the JNK-p53-Bax pathway. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the expression levels of neurotrophin receptors, Trks and p75NTR, and the activation of JNK pathway in human astrocytomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic brain tissue. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded serial sections from 33 supratentorial astrocytomas (5 diffuse fibrillary astrocytomas, WHO grade II; 6 anaplastic astrocytomas, WHO grade III; 22 glioblastomas multiforme, WHO grade IV) were immunostained following microwave pretreatment. Polyclonal antibodies against TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and monoclonal antibodies against p75NTR and phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were used. The labeling index (LI), defined as the percentage of positive (labeled) cells out of the total number of tumor cells counted, was determined. Moderate to strong, granular cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for TrkA, TrkB and TrkC receptors was detected in greater than or equal to 10% of tumor cells in the majority of tumors independently of grade; on the contrary, p75NTR receptor expression was found in a small percentage of tumor cells (~1%) in some tumors. The endothelium of tumor capillaries showed conspicuous immunoreactivity for TrkB receptor. Trk immunoreactivity seemed to be localized in some neurons and astrocytes in non-neoplastic tissue. Phosphorylated forms of JNK (pJNK) and c-Jun (pc-Jun) were significantly co-expressed in a tumor grade

  18. Deletion of the EphA2 receptor exacerbates myocardial injury and the progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy

    JitkaA. I.Virag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available EphrinA1-EphA-receptor signaling is protective during myocardial infarction (MI. The EphA2-receptor (EphA2-R potentially mediates cardiomyocyte survival. To determine the role of the EphA2-R in acute non-reperfused myocardial injury in vivo, infarct size, inflammatory cell density, NF-κB, p-AKT/Akt, and MMP-2 protein levels, and changes in ephrinA1/EphA2-R gene expression profile were assessed 4 days post-MI in B6129 wild-type (WT and EphA2-R-mutant (EphA2-R-M mice lacking a functional EphA2-R. Fibrosis, capillary density, morphometry of left ventricular chamber and infarct dimensions, and cardiac function also were measured 4 weeks post-MI to determine the extent of ventricular remodeling. EphA2-R-M infarct size and area of residual necrosis were 31.7% and 113% greater than WT hearts, respectively. Neutrophil and macrophage infiltration were increased by 46% and 84% in EphA2-R-M hearts compared with WT, respectively. NF-κB protein expression was 1.9-fold greater in EphA2-R-M hearts at baseline and 56% less NF-κB after infarction compared with WT. EphA6 gene expression was 2.5-fold higher at baseline and increased 9.8-fold 4 days post-MI in EphA2-R-M hearts compared with WT. EphrinA1 gene expression in EphA2-R-M hearts was unchanged at baseline and decreased by 42% 4 days post- MI compared with WT hearts. EphA2-R-M hearts had 66.7% less expression of total Akt protein and 59% less p-Akt protein than WT hearts post-MI. EphA2-R-M hearts 4 weeks post-MI had increased chamber dilation and interstitial fibrosis and decreased MMP-2 expression and capillary density compared with WT. In conclusion, the EphA2-R is necessary to appropriately modulate the inflammatory response and severity of early injury during acute MI, thereby influencing the progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

  19. Thromboxane A2 receptors are influenced by cell density in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells

    The influence of cell density on the binding characteristics of thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in culture were determined using (1S- (1α, 2β (5Z), 3a (1E, 3R*), 4α)) - (3- (3-hydroxy-4- (4'-iodophenoxy)-1-butyenyl)-7-oxabicyclo-(2.2.1)heptan-2yl)-5-heptenoic acid (125I-BOP). The Bmax for 125I-BOP was 5,430 ± 139 sites/cell (26.9 ± 5.7 fmoles/mg protein) for cells cultured in 1% fetal calf serum and 2,809 ± 830 sites/cell (13.1 ± 2.2 fmoles/mg protein) for cells cultured in 10% fetal calf serum. Cells were allowed to grow to varying densities and then harvested for assay. There was a negative correlation between the Bmax and the cell density per flask. The Kd for I-BOP did not significantly vary in any of the studies. The results demonstrate that cell density plays an important role in influencing the expression of vascular TXA2/PGH2 receptors

  20. Expression of somatostatin receptor genes and acetylcholine receptor development in rat skeletal muscle during postnatal development.

    Peng, M; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1998-05-01

    Our laboratory reported previously that somatostatin (SST) is transiently expressed in rat motoneurons during the first 14 days after birth. We investigated the possibility that the SST receptor (SSTR) is expressed in skeletal muscle. We found that two of the five subtypes of SSTR (SSTR3 and SSTR4) are expressed in skeletal muscle with a time course that correlates with the transient expression of SST in motoneurons. In addition, SSTR2A is expressed from birth to adulthood in skeletal muscle. Both SSTR2A and SSTR4 are also expressed in L6 cells, a skeletal muscle cell line. Somatostatin acting through its receptors has been shown to stimulate tyrosine phosphatase activity in a number of different tissues. We found that several proteins (50, 65, 90, 140, 180 and 200 kDa) exhibited a reduced degree of tyrosine phosphorylation following SST treatment. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity with sodium orthovanadate increased expression of the nicotinic acetyl-choline receptor (nAChR) epsilon subunit mRNA by three fold. Somatostatin reversed the elevated epsilon mRNA following orthovanadate treatment. These findings show that SSTR is expressed in skeletal muscle and that SST acting via the SSTR regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and expression of the epsilon subunit of the AChR in the rat skeletal muscle. PMID:9852305

  1. Characterization of urokinase receptor expression by human placental trophoblasts.

    Zini, J M; Murray, S C; Graham, C H; Lala, P K; Karikó, K; Barnathan, E S; Mazar, A; Henkin, J; Cines, D B; McCrae, K R

    1992-06-01

    The processes of implantation and placentation are both dependent on the invasion and remodeling of the uterine endometrium and vasculature by trophoblasts. Because the secretion and autocrine binding of urokinase (uPA) appears to be a common mechanism used by cells to facilitate plasmin-dependent tissue invasion, we measured the production of uPA and expression of uPA receptors by trophoblasts. Prourokinase bound specifically, reversibly, and with high affinity to cultured trophoblasts, via the uPA epidermal growth factor-like domain. Trophoblasts derived from two first-trimester placentae bound more prourokinase than cells isolated from term placentae. Furthermore, in vitro differentiation of cultured cytotrophoblasts into syncytiotrophoblasts was associated with diminished expression of urokinase receptors and a parallel decrease in the cellular content of uPA receptor mRNA. Trophoblasts also secreted prourokinase and plasminogen activator inhibitors types 1 and 2 (PAI-1 and PAI-2). Although prourokinase was secreted in amounts sufficient to endogenously saturate trophoblast uPA receptors, trophoblasts secreted greater amounts of PAI-1 and PAI-2 than uPA, and no net plasminogen activator activity was detected in trophoblast conditioned medium. In contrast, plasminogen added directly to cultured trophoblasts was readily converted to plasmin. Although the invasion and remodeling of uterine tissues by trophoblasts is a complex process dependent on several proteases of varying specificity, our findings suggest that the expression and modulation of urokinase receptors on the trophoblast cell surface may play an important role in this process. PMID:1316787

  2. Protocol for Heterologous Expression of Insect Odourant Receptors in Drosophila

    Gonzalez, Francisco; Witzgall, Peter; Walker, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Insect olfactory receptors (ORs) are tuned to volatile chemicals, they are expressed in the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), housed in sensilla on the antenna. The olfactory apparatus is under strong selection and ORs are tuned to vital chemical signals, mediating social communication, feeding and oviposition, and avoidance of predators and pathogens. An emerging technique to reliably and efficiently identify the key ligands of ORs is to express single ORs in heterologous cell sy...

  3. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in canine transitional cell carcinoma

    HANAZONO, Kiwamu; Fukumoto, Shinya; KAWAMURA, Yoshio; ENDO, Yoshifumi; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; IWANO, Hidetomo; UCHIDE, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), a urinary bladder tumor with high mortality, is encountered commonly in dogs. Whereas overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development of human urinary bladder cancer, information on EGFR expression in canine TCC is lacking. In this study, EGFR protein and mRNA expression in canine normal bladder (n=5), polypoid cystitis (n=5) and TCC (n=25) were examined by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction....

  4. Expression of Androgen Receptor Is Negatively Regulated By p53

    Fatouma Alimirah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of androgen receptor (AR in prostate cancer (PC is associated with transition to androgen independence. Because the progression of PC to advanced stages is often associated with the loss of p53 function, we tested whether the p53 could regulate the expression of AR gene. Here we report that p53 negatively regulates the expression of AR in prostate epithelial cells (PrECs. We found that in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells that express the wild-type p53 and AR and in human normal PrECs, the activation of p53 by genotoxic stress or by inhibition of p53 nuclear export downregulated the expression of AR. Furthermore, forced expression of p53 in LNCaP cells decreased the expression of AR. Conversely, knockdown of p53 expression in LNCaP cells increased the AR expression. Consistent with the negative regulation of AR expression by p53, the p53-null HCT116 cells expressed higher levels of AR compared with the isogenic HCT116 cells that express the wildtype p53. Moreover, we noted that in etoposide treated LNCaP cells p53 bound to the promoter region of the AR gene, which contains a potential p53 DNA-binding consensus sequence, in chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Together, our observations provide support for the idea that the loss of p53 function in prostate cancer cells contributes to increased expression of AR.

  5. Problem-Solving Test: Expression Cloning of the Erythropoietin Receptor

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2008-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: cytokines, cytokine receptors, cDNA library, cDNA synthesis, poly(A)[superscript +] RNA, primer, template, reverse transcriptase, restriction endonucleases, cohesive ends, expression vector, promoter, Shine-Dalgarno sequence, poly(A) signal, DNA helicase, DNA ligase, topoisomerases,…

  6. Gene Expression Control by Glucocorticoid Receptors during Innate Immune Responses

    André M. Xavier

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids (GCs are potent anti-inflammatory compounds that have been extensively used in clinical practice for several decades. GCs effects on inflammation are generally mediated through GC receptors (GRs. Signal transduction through these nuclear receptors leads to dramatic changes in gene expression programs in different cell types, typically due to GR binding to DNA or to transcription modulators. During the last decade the view of GCs as exclusive anti-inflammatory molecules has been challenged. GR negative interference in pro-inflammatory gene expression was a landmark in terms of molecular mechanisms that suppress immune activity. In fact, GR can induce varied inhibitory molecules, including a negative regulator of Toll-like receptors (TLRs pathway, or subject key transcription factors, such as NF-B and AP-1, to a repressor mechanism. In contrast, the expression of some acute-phase proteins (APPs and other players of innate immunity generally requires GR signaling. Consequently, GRs must operate context-dependent inhibitory, permissive or stimulatory effects on host defense signaling triggered by pathogens or tissue damage. This review aims to disclose how contradictory or comparable effects on inflammatory gene expression can depend on pharmacological approach (including selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators; SEGRMs, cell culture, animal treatment or transgenic strategies used as models. Although the current view of GR-signaling integrated many advances in the field, some answers to important questions remain elusive.

  7. Gene Expression Control by Glucocorticoid Receptors during Innate Immune Responses

    Xavier, Andre Machado; Anunciato, Aparecida Kataryna Olimpio; Rosenstock, Tatiana Rosado; Glezer, Isaias

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are potent anti-inflammatory compounds that have been extensively used in clinical practice for several decades. GC’s effects on inflammation are generally mediated through GC receptors (GRs). Signal transduction through these nuclear receptors leads to dramatic changes in gene expression programs in different cell types, typically due to GR binding to DNA or to transcription modulators. During the last decade, the view of GCs as exclusive anti-inflammatory molecules has been challenged. GR negative interference in pro-inflammatory gene expression was a landmark in terms of molecular mechanisms that suppress immune activity. In fact, GR can induce varied inhibitory molecules, including a negative regulator of Toll-like receptors pathway, or subject key transcription factors, such as NF-κB and AP-1, to a repressor mechanism. In contrast, the expression of some acute-phase proteins and other players of innate immunity generally requires GR signaling. Consequently, GRs must operate context-dependent inhibitory, permissive, or stimulatory effects on host defense signaling triggered by pathogens or tissue damage. This review aims to disclose how contradictory or comparable effects on inflammatory gene expression can depend on pharmacological approach (including selective GC receptor modulators; SEGRMs), cell culture, animal treatment, or transgenic strategies used as models. Although the current view of GR-signaling integrated many advances in the field, some answers to important questions remain elusive. PMID:27148162

  8. Expression of epidermal growth factor receptors in human endometrial carcinoma

    Nyholm, H C; Nielsen, Anette Lynge; Ottesen, B

    1993-01-01

    cell membranes, with a varying pattern in individual carcinomas. EGF-R expression was not correlated with histologic grade, surgical stage, or estrogen/progesterone receptor status evaluated immunohistochemically or biochemically in adjacent tissue sections of the tumor. Ten of 13 (77%) atrophic...

  9. Cytotoxic purine nucleoside analogues bind to A1, A2A and A3 adenosine receptors

    Jensen, Kyle; Johnson, L’Aurelle A.; Jacobson, Pamala A.; Kachler, Sonja; Kirstein, Mark N.; Lamba, Jatinder; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Fludarabine, clofarabine and cladribine are anti-cancer agents which are analogues of the purine nucleoside adenosine. These agents have been associated with cardiac and neurological toxicities. Because these agents are analogues of adenosine, they may act through adenosine receptors to elicit their toxic effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of cytotoxic nucleoside analogues to bind and activate adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3). Radioligand bindin...

  10. Evaluation of leptin receptor expression on buffalo leukocytes.

    De Matteis, Giovanna; Grandoni, Francesco; Scatà, Maria Carmela; Catizone, Angela; Reale, Anna; Crisà, Alessandra; Moioli, Bianca

    2016-09-01

    Experimental evidences support a direct role for leptin in immunity. Besides controlling food intake and energy expenditure, leptin was reported to be involved in the regulation of the immune system in ruminants. The aim of this work was to highlight the expression of leptin receptor (LEPR) on Bubalus bubalis immune cells using a multi-approach assessment: flow cytometry, confocal microscopy and gene expression analysis. Flow cytometric analysis of LEPR expression showed that peripheral blood monocytes were the predominant cells expressing LEPR. This result was corroborated by confocal microscopy and RT-PCR analysis. Moreover, among lymphocytes, LEPR was mainly expressed by B lymphocytes and Natural Killer cells. Evidence of LEPR expression on buffalo blood leukocytes showed to be a good indicator of the responsivity of these cells to leptin, so confirming the involvement of leptin in buffalo immune response. PMID:27436440

  11. Melanocortin 4 Receptor and Dopamine D2 Receptor Expression in Brain Areas Involved in Food Intake

    Yoon, Ye Ran; Baik, Ja-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background The melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is involved in the regulation of homeostatic energy balance by the hypothalamus. Recent reports showed that MC4R can also control the motivation for food in association with a brain reward system, such as dopamine. We investigated the expression levels of MC4R and the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), which is known to be related to food rewards, in both the hypothalamus and brain regions involved in food rewards. Methods We examined the expression leve...

  12. Immunological role of neuronal receptor vanilloid receptor 1 expressed on dendritic cells

    Basu, Sreyashi; Srivastava, Pramod

    2005-01-01

    Capsaicin (CP), the pungent component of chili pepper, acts on sensory neurons to convey the sensation of pain. The CP receptor, vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1), has been shown to be highly expressed by nociceptive neurons in dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia. We demonstrate here that the dendritic cell (DC), a key cell type of the vertebrate immune system, expresses VR1. Engagement of VR1 on immature DCs such as by treatment with CP leads to maturation of DCs as measured by up-regulation of anti...

  13. TSH-receptor-expressing fibrocytes and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    Smith, Terry J

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a vexing and undertreated ocular component of Graves disease in which orbital tissues undergo extensive remodelling. My colleagues and I have introduced the concept that fibrocytes expressing the haematopoietic cell antigen CD34 (CD34(+) fibrocytes), which are precursor cells of bone-marrow-derived monocyte lineage, express the TSH receptor (TSHR). These cells also produce several other proteins whose expression was traditionally thought to be restricted to the thyroid gland. TSHR-expressing fibrocytes in which the receptor is activated by its ligand generate extremely high levels of several inflammatory cytokines. Acting in concert with TSHR, the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) expressed by orbital fibroblasts and fibrocytes seems to be necessary for TSHR-dependent cytokine production, as anti-IGF-1R blocking antibodies attenuate these proinflammatory actions of TSH. Furthermore, circulating fibrocytes are highly abundant in patients with TAO and seem to infiltrate orbital connective tissues, where they might transition to CD34(+) fibroblasts. My research group has postulated that the infiltration of fibrocytes into the orbit, their unique biosynthetic repertoire and their proinflammatory and profibrotic phenotype account for the characteristic properties exhibited by orbital connective tissues that underlie susceptibility to TAO. These insights, which have emerged in the past few years, might be of use in therapeutically targeting pathogenic orbit-infiltrating fibrocytes selectively by utilizing novel biologic agents that interfere with TSHR and IGF-1R signalling. PMID:25560705

  14. The expression of nicotinic receptor alpha7 during cochlear development

    Rogers, Scott W.; Myers, Elizabeth J.; Gahring, Lorise C.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 expression was examined in the developing and adult auditory system using mice that were modified through homologous recombination to coexpress either GFP (alpha7GFP) or Cre (alpha7Cre), respectively. The expression of alpha7GFP is first detected at embryonic (E) day E13.5 in cells of the spiral prominence. By E14.5, sensory regions including the putative outer hair cells and Deiters' cells express alpha7GFP as do solitary efferent fibers. This pattern ...

  15. Expression of serotonin receptor genes in cranial ganglia.

    Maeda, Naohiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamamoto, Kurumi; Kurokawa, Azusa; Narukawa, Masataka; Ishimaru, Yoshiro; Misaka, Takumi; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko

    2016-03-23

    Taste cells release neurotransmitters to gustatory neurons to transmit chemical information they received. Sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells use ATP as a neurotransmitter. However, ATP release from sour taste cells has not been observed so far. Instead, they release serotonin when they are activated by sour/acid stimuli. Thus it is still controversial whether sour taste cells use ATP, serotonin, or both. By reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses, we revealed that of 14 serotonin receptor genes only 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B showed significant/clear signals in a subset of neurons of cranial sensory ganglia in which gustatory neurons reside. Double-fluorescent labeling analyses of ISH for serotonin receptor genes with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) in cranial sensory ganglia of pkd1l3-WGA mice whose sour neural pathway is visualized by the distribution of WGA originating from sour taste cells in the posterior region of the tongue revealed that WGA-positive cranial sensory neurons rarely express either of serotonin receptor gene. These results suggest that serotonin receptors expressed in cranial sensory neurons do not play any role as neurotransmitter receptor from sour taste cells. PMID:26854841

  16. Dopamine receptor expression and function in corticotroph pituitary tumors.

    Pivonello, Rosario; Ferone, Diego; de Herder, Wouter W; Kros, Johan M; De Caro, Maria Laura Del Basso; Arvigo, Marica; Annunziato, Lucio; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Hofland, Leo J; Lamberts, Steven W J

    2004-05-01

    The role of dopamine agonist treatment in corticotroph pituitary tumors is controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate D(2) receptor expression in 20 corticotroph pituitary tumors and to correlate it to the in vitro effect of dopamine agonists on ACTH secretion and the in vivo effect of short-term cabergoline treatment on cortisol secretion. D(2) expression was evaluated by receptor-ligand binding, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR. A 50% or more decrease in daily urinary cortisol levels was considered a significant clinical response. At receptor-ligand binding, specific binding of [(125)I]epidepride was found in 80% of cases. At immunohistochemistry, specific D(2) immunostaining was found in 75% of cases. D(2) expression was found in 83.3% of cases (D(2long) in 40%, D(2short) in 20%, and both in 40%) by RT-PCR. Significant in vitro inhibition of ACTH secretion was found in 100% of D(2)-positive cases, but not in 100% of D(2)-negative cases by either bromocriptine or cabergoline. A significant in vivo inhibition of cortisol secretion after 3-month cabergoline treatment was found in 60%, although a normalization of cortisol secretion was found in 40% of cases. All cabergoline-responsive cases were associated with D(2) expression, whereas all noncabergoline-responsive cases but one were not associated with D(2) expression. In conclusion, functional D(2) receptors were expressed in approximately 80% of corticotroph pituitary tumors. The effectiveness of cabergoline in normalizing cortisol secretion in 40% of cases supports its therapeutic use in the management of Cushing's disease. PMID:15126577

  17. Preladenant, a selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, is active in primate models of movement disorders.

    Hodgson, Robert A; Bedard, Paul J; Varty, Geoffrey B; Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Di Paolo, Therese; Grzelak, Michael E; Pond, Annamarie J; Hadjtahar, Abdallah; Belanger, Nancy; Gregoire, Laurent; Dare, Aurelie; Neustadt, Bernard R; Stamford, Andrew W; Hunter, John C

    2010-10-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Extrapyramidal Syndrome (EPS) are movement disorders that result from degeneration of the dopaminergic input to the striatum and chronic inhibition of striatal dopamine D(2) receptors by antipsychotics, respectively. Adenosine A(2A) receptors are selectively localized in the basal ganglia, primarily in the striatopallidal ("indirect") pathway, where they appear to operate in concert with D(2) receptors and have been suggested to drive striatopallidal output balance. In cases of dopaminergic hypofunction, A(2A) receptor activation contributes to the overdrive of the indirect pathway. A(2A) receptor antagonists, therefore, have the potential to restore this inhibitor imbalance. Consequently, A(2A) receptor antagonists have therapeutic potential in diseases of dopaminergic hypofunction such as PD and EPS. Targeting the A(2A) receptor may also be a way to avoid the issues associated with direct dopamine agonists. Recently, preladenant was identified as a potent and highly selective A(2A) receptor antagonist, and has produced a significant improvement in motor function in rodent models of PD. Here we investigate the effects of preladenant in two primate movement disorder models. In MPTP-treated cynomolgus monkeys, preladenant (1 or 3 mg/kg; PO) improved motor ability and did not evoke any dopaminergic-mediated dyskinetic or motor complications. In Cebus apella monkeys with a history of chronic haloperidol treatment, preladenant (0.3-3.0 mg/kg; PO) delayed the onset of EPS symptoms evoked by an acute haloperidol challenge. Collectively, these data support the use of preladenant for the treatment of PD and antipsychotic-induced movement disorders. PMID:20655910

  18. A2A adenosine receptor antagonism enhances synaptic and motor effects of cocaine via CB1 cannabinoid receptor activation.

    Alessandro Tozzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cocaine increases the level of endogenous dopamine (DA in the striatum by blocking the DA transporter. Endogenous DA modulates glutamatergic inputs to striatal neurons and this modulation influences motor activity. Since D2 DA and A2A-adenosine receptors (A2A-Rs have antagonistic effects on striatal neurons, drugs targeting adenosine receptors such as caffeine-like compounds, could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine. In this study, we analyzed the electrophysiological effects of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists in striatal slices and the motor effects produced by this pharmacological modulation in rodents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Concomitant administration of cocaine and A2A-Rs antagonists reduced glutamatergic synaptic transmission in striatal spiny neurons while these drugs failed to produce this effect when given in isolation. This inhibitory effect was dependent on the activation of D2-like receptors and the release of endocannabinoids since it was prevented by L-sulpiride and reduced by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Combined application of cocaine and A2A-R antagonists also reduced the firing frequency of striatal cholinergic interneurons suggesting that changes in cholinergic tone might contribute to this synaptic modulation. Finally, A2A-Rs antagonists, in the presence of a sub-threshold dose of cocaine, enhanced locomotion and, in line with the electrophysiological experiments, this enhanced activity required activation of D2-like and CB1 receptors. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides a possible synaptic mechanism explaining how caffeine-like compounds could enhance psychomotor stimulant effects of cocaine.

  19. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), such as endothelin ET(B), serotonin 5-HT(1B), and thromboxane A(2) TP receptors, in rat cerebral arteries. Studies show that these vasocontractile GPCR show alterations by lipid-soluble cigarette smoke particles via activation of mitogen-activated protein...... 5-carboxamidotryptamine, and TP receptor agonist U46619 were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of ET(B), 5-HT(1B), and TP receptors was studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Organ culture with WSS or DSS (25ng...... kept at plasma level of snus users (25ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist...

  20. Expression of serotonin receptors in human lower esophageal sphincter

    LI, HE-FEI; Liu, Jun-feng; Zhang, Ke; Feng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a neurotransmitter and vasoactive amine that is involved in the regulation of a large number of physiological functions. The wide variety of 5-HT-mediated functions is due to the existence of different classes of serotonergic receptors in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and nervous system. The aim of this study was to explore the expression of multiple types of 5-HT receptor (5-HT1AR, 5-HT2AR, 5-HT3AR, 5-HT4R, 5-HT5AR, 5-HT6R and 5-HT7R) in sling and clasp fibers from...

  1. Activation of the A2A adenosine G-protein-coupled receptor by conformational selection.

    Ye, Libin; Van Eps, Ned; Zimmer, Marco; Ernst, Oliver P; Prosser, R Scott

    2016-05-12

    Conformational selection and induced fit are two prevailing mechanisms to explain the molecular basis for ligand-based activation of receptors. G-protein-coupled receptors are the largest class of cell surface receptors and are important drug targets. A molecular understanding of their activation mechanism is critical for drug discovery and design. However, direct evidence that addresses how agonist binding leads to the formation of an active receptor state is scarce. Here we use (19)F nuclear magnetic resonance to quantify the conformational landscape occupied by the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), a prototypical class A G-protein-coupled receptor. We find an ensemble of four states in equilibrium: (1) two inactive states in millisecond exchange, consistent with a formed (state S1) and a broken (state S2) salt bridge (known as 'ionic lock') between transmembrane helices 3 and 6; and (2) two active states, S3 and S3', as identified by binding of a G-protein-derived peptide. In contrast to a recent study of the β2-adrenergic receptor, the present approach allowed identification of a second active state for A2AR. Addition of inverse agonist (ZM241385) increases the population of the inactive states, while full agonists (UK432097 or NECA) stabilize the active state, S3', in a manner consistent with conformational selection. In contrast, partial agonist (LUF5834) and an allosteric modulator (HMA) exclusively increase the population of the S3 state. Thus, partial agonism is achieved here by conformational selection of a distinct active state which we predict will have compromised coupling to the G protein. Direct observation of the conformational equilibria of ligand-dependent G-protein-coupled receptor and deduction of the underlying mechanisms of receptor activation will have wide-reaching implications for our understanding of the function of G-protein-coupled receptor in health and disease. PMID:27144352

  2. Unique expression pattern of the three insulin receptor family members in the rat mammary gland

    Hvid, Henning; Klopfleisch, Robert; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Hansen, Bo F.; Thorup, Inger; Jensen, Henrik Elvang; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    mammary gland. Using laser micro-dissection, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of IR (insulin receptor), IGF-1R (IGF-1 receptor), IRR (insulin receptor-related receptor), ERα (estrogen receptor alpha), ERβ (estrogen receptor beta) and PR (progesteron receptor) in...... young, virgin, female Sprague-Dawley rats and compared to expression in reference organs. The mammary gland displayed the highest expression of IRR and IGF-1R. In contrast, low expression of IR transcripts was observed in the mammary gland tissue with expression of the IR-A isoform being 5-fold higher...... than the expression of the IR-B. By immunohistochemistry, expression of IR and IGF-1R was detected in all mammary gland epithelial cells. Expression of ERα and PR was comparable between mammary gland and ovary, whereas expression of ERβ was lower in mammary gland than in the ovary. Finally, expression...

  3. Adenosine A2A Receptor and IL-10 in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Beatrice Arosio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine suppresses immune responses through the A2A receptor (A2AR. This study investigated the interleukin 10 (IL-10 genetic profile and the expression of A2AR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Alzheimer disease (AD, and age-matched controls to verify, if they may help distinguish different forms of cognitive decline. We analyzed the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in 41 subjects with AD, 10 with amnestic MCI (a-MCI, 49 with multiple cognitive domain MCI (mcd-MCI, and 46 controls. There was a significant linear increase in A2AR mRNA levels and A2AR density from mcd-MCI to a-MCI, with intermediate levels being found in AD. The IL-10 AA genotype frequency was 67% in a-MCI, 46% in AD, 35% in mcd-MCI, and 20% in controls. These data suggest that the assessment of the IL-10 genotype and the expression of A2AR in PBMCs may be a valuable means of differentiating between a-MCI and mcd-MCI.

  4. Expression of urokinase receptors by human trophoblast. A histochemical and ultrastructural analysis

    Multhaupt, H A; Mazar, A; Cines, D B;

    1994-01-01

    vivo has not been examined. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy were used to characterize the expression of urokinase receptors by villous and extravillous trophoblast at several points in gestation. RESULTS: Urokinase receptors were expressed in a polarized fashion...

  5. Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells in Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Nguyen, Austin Huy; Koenck, Carleigh; Quirk, Shannon K; Lim, Victoria M; Mitkov, Mario V; Trowbridge, Ryan M; Hunter, William J; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2015-10-01

    The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the progression of melanoma, the prototypical immunologic cutaneous malignancy. The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family of innate immune receptors modulates inflammatory and innate immune signaling. It has been investigated in various neoplastic diseases, but not in melanoma. This study examines the expression of TREM-1 (a proinflammatory amplifier) and TREM-2 (an anti-inflammatory modulator and phagocytic promoter) in human cutaneous melanoma and surrounding tissue. Indirect immunofluorescence staining was performed on skin biopsies from 10 melanoma patients and staining intensity was semiquantitatively scored. Expression of TREM-1 and TREM-2 was higher in keratinocytes than melanoma tissue (TREM-1: p < 0.01; TREM-2: p < 0.01). Whereas TREM-2 was the dominant isoform expressed in normal keratinocytes, TREM-1 expression predominated in melanoma tissue (TREM-1 to TREM-2 ratio: keratinocytes = 0.78; melanoma = 2.08; p < 0.01). The increased TREM ratio in melanoma tissue could give rise to a proinflammatory and protumor state of the microenvironment. This evidence may be suggestive of a TREM-1/TREM-2 paradigm in which relative levels dictate inflammatory and immune states, rather than absolute expression of one or the other. Further investigation regarding this paradigm is warranted and could carry prognostic or therapeutic value in treatment for melanoma. PMID:26184544

  6. Kallikrein and kinin receptor expression in inflammation and cancer.

    Bhoola, K; Ramsaroop, R; Plendl, J; Cassim, B; Dlamini, Z; Naicker, S

    2001-01-01

    The kallikrein family of serine proteases has been investigated in many inflammatory disorders as molecular mapping, gene characterisation and cloning of kinin receptor genes have unfolded experimentally. In the molecular events of the inflammatory response the kallikrein cascade plays a significant role, since it is considered to initiate and maintain systemic inflammatory responses and immune-modulated disorders. A primary event is the chemotactic attraction of neutrophils which deliver the kallikrein-kinin cascade to sites of cellular injury and carcinogenic transformation of cells. The present study establishes the casual involvement of the kallikrein cascade in infection, inflammatory joint disease, acute transplant rejection, renal glomerular diseases, angiogenesis and carcinoma. We provide strong evidence for new or enhanced expression of kinin B1 receptors in inflammation, and additionally the induction of kallikrein genes in angiogenesis and carcinoma. The results provide insights into possible roles of kallikrein inhibitors and kinin receptor antagonists. PMID:11258677

  7. Aberrant methylation of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor gene in leukemic cells

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) plays a crucial role in several signaling pathways and may act as tumor-suppressor. This study examined the expression and methylation of the PLA2R1 gene in Jurkat and U937 leukemic cell lines and its methylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia. Sites of methylation of the PLA2R1 locus were identified by sequencing bisulfite-modified DNA fragments. Methylation specific-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis was then carried out to quantify PLA2R1 methylation at 5-CpG sites identified with differences in methylation between healthy control subjects and leukemic patients using sequencing of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA. Expression of PLA2R1 was found to be completely down-regulated in Jurkat and U937 cells, accompanied by complete methylation of PLA2R1 promoter and down-stream regions; PLA2R1 was re-expressed after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine. MS-HRM analysis of the PLA2R1 locus in patients with different types of leukemia indicated an average methylation of 28.9% ± 17.8%, compared to less than 9% in control subjects. In MDS patients the extent of PLA2R1 methylation significantly increased with disease risk. Furthermore, measurements of PLA2R1 methylation appeared useful for predicting responsiveness to the methyltransferase inhibitor, azacitidine, as a pre-emptive treatment to avoid hematological relapse in patients with high-risk MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. The study shows for the first time that PLA2R1 gene sequences are a target of hypermethylation in leukemia, which may have pathophysiological relevance for disease evolution in MDS and leukemogenesis

  8. Aberrant methylation of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor gene in leukemic cells

    Menschikowski Mario

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1 plays a crucial role in several signaling pathways and may act as tumor-suppressor. This study examined the expression and methylation of the PLA2R1 gene in Jurkat and U937 leukemic cell lines and its methylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS or acute leukemia. Methods Sites of methylation of the PLA2R1 locus were identified by sequencing bisulfite-modified DNA fragments. Methylation specific-high resolution melting (MS-HRM analysis was then carried out to quantify PLA2R1 methylation at 5`-CpG sites identified with differences in methylation between healthy control subjects and leukemic patients using sequencing of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA. Results Expression of PLA2R1 was found to be completely down-regulated in Jurkat and U937 cells, accompanied by complete methylation of PLA2R1 promoter and down-stream regions; PLA2R1 was re-expressed after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine. MS-HRM analysis of the PLA2R1 locus in patients with different types of leukemia indicated an average methylation of 28.9% ± 17.8%, compared to less than 9% in control subjects. In MDS patients the extent of PLA2R1 methylation significantly increased with disease risk. Furthermore, measurements of PLA2R1 methylation appeared useful for predicting responsiveness to the methyltransferase inhibitor, azacitidine, as a pre-emptive treatment to avoid hematological relapse in patients with high-risk MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions The study shows for the first time that PLA2R1 gene sequences are a target of hypermethylation in leukemia, which may have pathophysiological relevance for disease evolution in MDS and leukemogenesis.

  9. Vitamin D Receptor, Retinoid X Receptor, Ki-67, Survivin, and Ezrin Expression in Canine Osteosarcoma

    John Davies

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OS is an aggressive malignant bone tumor. Prognosis is primarily determined by clinical parameters. Vitamin D has been postulated as a novel therapeutic option for many malignancies. Upon activation, vitamin D receptors (VDRs combine with retinoid receptor (RXR forming a heterodimer initiating a cascade of events. Vitamin D's antineoplastic activity and its mechanism of action in OS remain to be clearly established. Expression of VDR, RXR, Ki-67, survivin, and ezrin was studied in 33 archived, canine OS specimens. VDR, RXR, survivin, and ezrin were expressed in the majority of cases. There was no statistically significant difference in VDR expression in relationship with tumor grade, type, or locations or animal breed, age, and/or sex. No significant association (p=0.316 between tumor grade and Ki-67 expression was found; in particular, no difference in Ki-67 expression between grades 2 and 3 OSs was found, while a negative correlation was noted between Ki-67 and VDR expression (ρ=−0.466, a positive correlation between survivin and RXR expression was found (p=0.374. A significant relationship exists between VDR and RXR expression in OSs and proliferative/apoptosis markers. These results establish a foundation for elucidating mechanisms by which vitamin D induces antineoplastic activity in OS.

  10. Overexpressed Ly-6A.2 mediates cell-cell adhesion by binding a ligand expressed on lymphoid cells.

    Bamezai, A; Rock, K L

    1995-01-01

    The Ly-6 locus encodes several cell surface proteins whose functions are unknown. Although it is hypothesized that these proteins may be receptors, there is no direct evidence that they bind a ligand. Herein we present evidence that Ly-6A.2, a Ly-6 protein expressed on T lymphocytes, binds a ligand expressed on normal thymocytes and splenic B and T cells. We find that transgenic thymocytes that overexpress Ly-6A.2 spontaneously aggregate in culture. This homotypic adhesion requires the overex...

  11. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Jenny-Maria Jönsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER, progesterone (PR, and androgen (AR receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test. ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer.

  12. Involvement of adenosine A2A receptors in depression and anxiety.

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-01-01

    When administered to normal healthy patients, a nonselective adenosine A1/A2A antagonist, caffeine, tended to improve anxiety and depression at low doses and to exacerbate anxiety at high doses. Caffeine also appears to enhance anxiety-related symptoms in patients with panic disorder, and A2A receptor-deficient mice have been reported to exhibit higher anxiety-like behaviors, as well as a lower incidence of depression-like behaviors. Some selective A2A antagonists were reported to ameliorate anxiety-like behaviors in rodents, while others did not affect these behaviors. In addition, most A2A antagonists showed inhibitory effects on depression-like behaviors. The mechanisms underlying the relationship between A2A receptor antagonists and anxiety and depression remain unclear at the present time, although many studies have produced hypotheses. Given that a selective A2A receptor antagonist has recently become available for use in humans, research on the role of A2A receptors in the treatment of mental illness should progress in the near future. PMID:25175973

  13. Parathyroid hormone decreases renal vitamin D receptor expression in vivo

    Healy, Kevin D.; Vanhooke, Janeen L.; Prahl, Jean M.; DeLuca, Hector F.

    2005-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a nuclear transcription factor responsible for mediating the biological activities of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3]. Renal and parathyroid gland VDR content is an important factor in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D metabolism, and the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. In these tissues, VDR expression is highly regulated by the calcium and vitamin D status. Although 1,25(OH)2D3 up-regulates VDR expression, hypocalcemia ...

  14. Chemokine receptor expression by inflammatory T cells in EAE

    Jyothi Thyagabhavan Mony

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines direct cellular infiltration to tissues, and their receptors and signaling pathways represent targets for therapy in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS. The chemokine CCL20 is expressed in choroid plexus, a site of entry of T cells to the central nervous system (CNS. The CCL20 receptor CCR6 has been reported to be selectively expressed by CD4+ T cells that produce the cytokine IL-17 (Th17 cells. Th17 cells and interferon-gamma (IFNγ-producing Th1 cells are implicated in induction of MS and its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. We have assessed whether CCR6 identifies specific inflammatory T cell subsets in EAE. Our approach was to induce EAE, and then examine chemokine receptor expression by cytokine-producing T cells sorted from CNS at peak disease. About 7% of CNS-infiltrating CD4+ T cells produced IFNγ in flow cytometric cytokine assays, whereas less than 1% produced IL-17. About 7.7% of CD4+ T cells produced both cytokines. CCR6 was expressed by Th1, Th1+17 and by Th17 cells, but not by CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cells expressed CXCR3, which was also expressed by CD4+ T cells, with no correlation to cytokine profile. Messenger RNA for IFNγ, IL-17A, and the Th1 and Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and RORγt was detected in both CCR6+ and CXCR3+ CD4+ T cells. IFNγ, but not IL-17A mRNA expression was detected in CD8+ T cells in CNS. CCR6 and CD4 were co-localized in spinal cord infiltrates by double immunofluorescence. Consistent with flow cytometry data some but not all CD4+ T cells expressed CCR6 within infiltrates. CD4-negative CCR6+ cells included macrophage/microglial cells. Thus we have for the first time directly studied CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the CNS of mice with peak EAE, and determined IFNγ and IL17 expression by cells expressing CCR6 and CXCR3. We show that neither CCR6 or CXCR3 align with CD4 T cell subsets, and Th1 or mixed Th1+17 predominate in EAE.

  15. Pharmacophore Distance Mapping and Docking Study of Some Benzimidazole Analogs as A2A Receptor Antagonists

    Santosh P. Ghatol

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular adenosine regulates a wide range of functions in higher organisms, in which the effects are mediated by a family of four class A (rhodopsin-like GPCRs, a, adenosine receptors known as A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. A2A antagonists, either alone or in combination with dopamine agonists, can have a role in the treatment of neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease. The concept of a pharmacophore is widely used in modern drug design and it is generally defined as the 3D arrangement of certain features in the ligand that are responsible for its activity against a particular protein target. Docking involves, the process of fitting the ligand into receptor, and the compounds which fit in them properly are assumed to be active for that receptor and it gives corresponding docking scores.

  16. Spatiotemporal expression of Nogo-66 receptor after focal cerebral ischemia

    Yue Cao; Ya-xian Dong; Jie Xu; Guo-liang Chu; Zhi-hua Yang; Yan-ming Liu

    2016-01-01

    NgR, the receptor for the neurite outgrowth inhibitor Nogo-66, plays a critical role in the plasticity and regeneration of the nervous system after injury such as ischemic stroke. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to investigate the regional expression of NgR in rat brain following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). NgR protein expression was not observed in the center of the lesion, but was elevated in the marginal zone compared with control and sham-operated rats. The cerebral cortex and hippocampus (CA1, CA2, and CA3) showed the greatest expression of NgR. Furthermore, NgR expression was higher in the ipsilesional hemisphere than on the control side in the same coronal section. Although time-dependent changes in NgR expression across brain regions had their own characteristics, the overall trend complied with the following rules: NgR expression changes with time showed two peaks and one trough; the ifrst peak in expression appeared between 1 and 3 days after MCAO; expression declined at 5 days; and the second peak occurred at 28 days.

  17. Muscle Plasticity and β2-Adrenergic Receptors: Adaptive Responses of β2-Adrenergic Receptor Expression to Muscle Hypertrophy and Atrophy

    Shogo Sato; Ken Shirato; Kaoru Tachiyashiki; Kazuhiko Imaizumi

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the functional roles of β2-adrenergic receptors in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy as well as the adaptive responses of β2-adrenergic receptor expression to anabolic and catabolic conditions. β2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation using anabolic drugs increases muscle mass by promoting muscle protein synthesis and/or attenuating protein degradation. These effects are prevented ...

  18. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    E. Teodorov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The periaqueductal gray (PAG has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05 because a lower percentage of kappa group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05 and lactating female rats (P < 0.01, with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in

  19. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  20. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    Teodorov, E. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferrari, M.F.R. [Departamento de Genética e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fior-Chadi, D.R. [Departamento de Fisiologia, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Camarini, R. [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felício, L.F. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  1. Identification of NR4A2 as a transcriptional activator of IL-8 expression in human inflammatory arthritis.

    Aherne, Carol M

    2009-10-01

    Expression of the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A2 is controlled by pro-inflammatory mediators, suggesting that NR4A2 may contribute to pathological processes in the inflammatory lesion. This study identifies the chemoattractant protein, interleukin 8 (IL-8\\/CXCL8), as a molecular target of NR4A2 in human inflammatory arthritis and examines the mechanism through which NR4A2 modulates IL-8 expression. In TNF-alpha-activated human synoviocyte cells, enhanced expression of IL-8 mRNA and protein correspond to temporal changes in NR4A2 transcription and nuclear distribution. Ectopic expression of NR4A2 leads to robust changes in endogenous IL-8 mRNA levels and co-treatment with TNF-alpha results in significant (p<0.001) secretion of IL-8 protein. Transcriptional effects of NR4A2 on the human IL-8 promoter are enhanced in the presence of TNF-alpha, suggesting molecular crosstalk between TNF-alpha signalling and NR4A2. A dominant negative IkappaB kinase antagonizes the combined effects of NR4A2 and TNF-alpha on IL-8 promoter activity. Co-expression of NR4A2 and the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB enhances IL-8 transcription and functional studies indicate that transactivation occurs independently of NR4A2 binding to DNA or heterodimerization with additional nuclear receptors. The IL-8 minimal promoter region is sufficient to support NR4A2 and NF-kappaB\\/p65 co-operative activity and NR4A2 can interact with NF-kappaB\\/p65 on a 39bp sequence within this region. In patients treated with methotrexate for active inflammatory arthritis, a reduction in NR4A2 synovial tissue levels correlate significantly (n=10, r=0.73, p=0.002) with changes in IL-8 expression. Collectively, these data delineate an important role for NR4A2 in modulating IL-8 expression and reveal novel transcriptional responses to TNF-alpha in human inflammatory joint disease.

  2. Activation of the adenosine A2A receptor attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and is associated with increased intracellular calcium levels.

    Liu, Yumei; Zou, Haifeng; Zhao, Ping; Sun, Bo; Wang, Jinghua; Kong, Qingfei; Mu, Lili; Zhao, Sihan; Wang, Guangyou; Wang, Dandan; Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Jiaying; Yin, Pengqi; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Xiuli; Li, Hulun

    2016-08-25

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common autoimmune disease that inevitably causes inflammatory nerve demyelination. However, an effective approach to prevent its course is still lacking and urgently needed. Recently, the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) has emerged as a novel inflammation regulator. Manipulation of A2AR activity may suppress the MS process and protect against nerve damage. To test this hypothesis, we treated murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for MS, with the selective A2AR agonist, CGS21680 (CGS). We evaluated the effects of CGS on the pathological features of EAE progression, including CNS cellular infiltration, inflammatory cytokine expression, lymphocyte proliferation, and cell surface markers. Treatment with CGS significantly suppressed specific lymphocyte proliferation, reduced infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, and attenuated the expression of inflammatory cytokines, which in turn inhibited the EAE progression. For the first time, we demonstrate that CGS can increase the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in murine lymphocytes, which may be the mechanism underlying the suppressive effects of CGS-induced A2AR activation on EAE progression. Our findings strongly suggest that A2AR is a potential therapeutic target for MS and provide insight into the mechanism of action of A2AR agonists, which may offer a therapeutic option for this disease. PMID:27217214

  3. Hepatic Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Attenuates Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Expression.

    Girer, Nathaniel G; Murray, Iain A; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Perdew, Gary H

    2016-07-15

    The Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in many physiological processes. Several studies indicate that AHR is also involved in energy homeostasis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is an important regulator of the fasting and feeding responses. When administered to various genetic and diet-induced mouse models of obesity, FGF21 can attenuate obesity-associated morbidities. Here, we explore the role of AHR in hepatic Fgf21 expression through the use of a conditional, hepatocyte-targeted AHR knock-out mouse model (Cre(Alb)Ahr(Fx/Fx)). Compared with the congenic parental strain (Ahr(Fx/Fx)), non-fasted Cre(Alb)Ahr(Fx/Fx) mice exhibit a 4-fold increase in hepatic Fgf21 expression, as well as elevated expression of the FGF21-target gene Igfbp1 Furthermore, in vivo agonist activation of AHR reduces hepatic Fgf21 expression during a fast. The Fgf21 promoter contains several putative dioxin response elements (DREs). Using EMSA, we demonstrate that the AHR-ARNT heterodimer binds to a specific DRE that overlaps binding sequences for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), and cAMP response element-binding protein, hepatocyte specific (CREBH). In addition, we reveal that agonist-activated AHR impairs PPARα-, ChREBP-, and CREBH-mediated promoter activity in Hepa-1 cells. Accordingly, agonist treatment in Hepa-1 cells ablates potent ER stress-driven Fgf21 expression, and pre-treatment with AHR antagonist blocks this effect. Finally, we show that pre-treatment of primary human hepatocytes with AHR agonist diminishes PPARα-, glucose-, and ER stress-driven induction of FGF21 expression, indicating the effect is not mouse-specific. Together, our data show that AHR contributes to hepatic energy homeostasis, partly through the regulation of FGF21 expression and signaling. PMID:27226639

  4. Toll-Like Receptor Gene Expression during Trichinella spiralis Infection.

    Kim, Sin; Park, Mi Kyung; Yu, Hak Sun

    2015-08-01

    In Trichinella spiralis infection, type 2 helper T (Th2) cell-related and regulatory T (Treg) cell-related immune responses are the most important immune events. In order to clarify which Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely associated with these responses, we analyzed the expression of mouse TLR genes in the small intestine and muscle tissue during T. spiralis infection. In addition, the expression of several chemokine- and cytokine-encoding genes, which are related to Th2 and Treg cell mediated immune responses, were analyzed in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/TIR-associated proteins (TIRAP) and Toll receptor-associated activator of interferons (TRIF) adapter protein deficient and wild type (WT) mice. The results showed significantly increased TLR4 and TLR9 gene expression in the small intestine after 2 weeks of T. spiralis infection. In the muscle, TLR1, TLR2, TLR5, and TLR9 gene expression significantly increased after 4 weeks of infection. Only the expression of the TLR4 and TLR9 genes was significantly elevated in WT MEF cells after treatment with excretory-secretory (ES) proteins. Gene expression for Th2 chemokine genes were highly enhanced by ES proteins in WT MEF cells, while this elevation was slightly reduced in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells, and quite substantially decreased in TRIF(-/-) MEF cells. In contrast, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels were not elevated in MyD88/TIRAP(-/-) MEF cells. In conclusion, we suggest that TLR4 and TLR9 might be closely linked to Th2 cell and Treg cell mediated immune responses, although additional data are needed to convincingly prove this observation. PMID:26323841

  5. An Expression Refinement Process Ensures Singular Odorant Receptor Gene Choice.

    Abdus-Saboor, Ishmail; Al Nufal, Mohammed J; Agha, Maha V; Ruinart de Brimont, Marion; Fleischmann, Alexander; Shykind, Benjamin M

    2016-04-25

    Odorant receptor (OR) gene choice in mammals is a paradigmatic example of monogenic and monoallelic transcriptional selection, in which each olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) chooses to express one OR allele from over 1,000 encoded in the genome [1-3]. This process, critical for generation of the circuit from nose to brain [4-6], is thought to occur in two steps: a slow initial phase that randomly activates a single OR allele, followed by a rapid feedback that halts subsequent expression [7-14]. Inherent in this model is a finite failure rate wherein multiple OR alleles may be activated prior to feedback suppression [15, 16]. Confronted with more than one receptor, the neuron would need to activate a refinement mechanism to eliminate multigenic OR expression and resolve unique neuronal identity [16], critical to the generation of the circuit from nose to olfactory bulb. Here we used a genetic approach in mice to reveal a new facet of OR regulation that corrects adventitious activation of multiple OR alleles, restoring monogenic OR expression and unique neuronal identity. Using the tetM71tg model system, in which the M71 OR is expressed in >95% of mature OSNs and potently suppresses the expression of the endogenous OR repertoire [10], we provide clear evidence of a post-selection refinement (PSR) process that winnows down the number of ORs. We further demonstrate that PSR efficiency is linked to OR expression level, suggesting an underlying competitive process and shedding light on OR gene switching and the fundamental mechanism of singular OR choice. PMID:27040780

  6. NMDA receptor subunit expression and PAR2 receptor activation in colospinal afferent neurons (CANs during inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity

    Caudle Robert M

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral hypersensitivity is a clinical observation made when diagnosing patients with functional bowel disorders. The cause of visceral hypersensitivity is unknown but is thought to be attributed to inflammation. Previously we demonstrated that a unique set of enteric neurons, colospinal afferent neurons (CANs, co-localize with the NR1 and NR2D subunits of the NMDA receptor as well as with the PAR2 receptor. The aim of this study was to determine if NMDA and PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs contribute to visceral hypersensitivity following inflammation. Recently, work has suggested that dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons expressing the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1 receptor mediate inflammation induced visceral hypersensitivity. Therefore, in order to study CAN involvement in visceral hypersensitivity, DRG neurons expressing the TRPV1 receptor were lesioned with resiniferatoxin (RTX prior to inflammation and behavioural testing. Results CANs do not express the TRPV1 receptor; therefore, they survive following RTX injection. RTX treatment resulted in a significant decrease in TRPV1 expressing neurons in the colon and immunohistochemical analysis revealed no change in peptide or receptor expression in CANs following RTX lesioning as compared to control data. Behavioral studies determined that both inflamed non-RTX and RTX animals showed a decrease in balloon pressure threshold as compared to controls. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the NR1 cassettes, N1 and C1, of the NMDA receptor on CANs were up-regulated following inflammation. Furthermore, inflammation resulted in the activation of the PAR2 receptors expressed on CANs. Conclusion Our data show that inflammation causes an up-regulation of the NMDA receptor and the activation of the PAR2 receptor expressed on CANs. These changes are associated with a decrease in balloon pressure in response to colorectal distension in non-RTX and RTX lesioned

  7. Prevalence of androgen receptors in invasive breast carcinoma and its relation with estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her2/neu expression

    Background and aims: Although Breast carcinoma had many targeted bio markers for its treatment, however, it is a heterogeneous disease with different outcomes and need new markers especially for the triple negative group when estrogen receptor, progesterone receptors and Her2/ neu are negative. Androgen receptor is a new target with unclear role. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of androgen receptors in invasive breast cancer and tries to elucidate its relation to some well recognized clinico pathological and immunohistochemical markers. Materials and methods: One hundred and fifty cases of invasive breast carcinoma were evaluated for type, grade and stage and studied immunohistochemically for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, Her2/neu and androgen expression. Androgen receptor expression was correlated with histopathological factors and the three studied markers separately then the studied cases were classified into three groups according to estrogen, progesterone receptor and Her2/neu expression and correlated with androgen receptor expression. Results: Androgen receptor was expressed in 71% of breast cancer cases. Its expression is associated significantly with both the stage and the grade. Also it was significantly associated with estrogen receptor and Her2/neu expression. It was expressed in a significant number of triple negative breast carcinoma, in Her2/neu positive cases and in estrogen negative cases which indicate that androgen receptor could be a new target for the treatment of these groups. Conclusions: Although the impact of androgen receptor on breast cancer outcomes had not been clearly established, this result may provide evidence that androgen receptor is a good prognostic and predictive marker.

  8. Regulation of gene expression in ovarian cancer cells by luteinizing hormone receptor expression and activation

    Since a substantial percentage of ovarian cancers express gonadotropin receptors and are responsive to the relatively high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins during the postmenopausal years, it has been suggested that receptor activation may contribute to the etiology and/or progression of the neoplasm. The goal of the present study was to develop a cell model to determine the impact of luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor (LHR) expression and LH-mediated LHR activation on gene expression and thus obtain insights into the mechanism of gonadotropin action on ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) carcinoma cells. The human ovarian cancer cell line, SKOV-3, was stably transfected to express functional LHR and incubated with LH for various periods of time (0-20 hours). Transcriptomic profiling was performed on these cells to identify LHR expression/activation-dependent changes in gene expression levels and pathways by microarray and qRT-PCR analyses. Through comparative analysis on the LHR-transfected SKOV-3 cells exposed to LH, we observed the differential expression of 1,783 genes in response to LH treatment, among which five significant families were enriched, including those of growth factors, translation regulators, transporters, G-protein coupled receptors, and ligand-dependent nuclear receptors. The most highly induced early and intermediate responses were found to occupy a network impacting transcriptional regulation, cell growth, apoptosis, and multiple signaling transductions, giving indications of LH-induced apoptosis and cell growth inhibition through the significant changes in, for example, tumor necrosis factor, Jun and many others, supportive of the observed cell growth reduction in in vitro assays. However, other observations, e.g. the substantial up-regulation of the genes encoding the endothelin-1 subtype A receptor, stromal cell-derived factor 1, and insulin-like growth factor II, all of which are potential therapeutic targets, may reflect a positive

  9. NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via a GABAergic mechanism.

    Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine is a powerful central neuromodulator acting via opposing A1 (inhibitor) and A2a (activator) receptors. However, in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), both adenosine receptor subtypes attenuate cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) sympathoinhibition of renal, adrenal, and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and attenuate reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Adenosine A1 receptors inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the CCR pathway, whereas adenosine A2a receptors most likely facilitate release of an unknown inhibitory neurotransmitter, which, in turn, inhibits the CCR. We hypothesized that adenosine A2a receptors inhibit the CCR via facilitation of GABA release in the NTS. In urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 51), we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of the 5-HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (1-8 μg/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors [microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 (20 pmol/50 nl)] preceded by blockade of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the NTS [bicuculline (10 pmol/100 nl) or SCH-50911 (1 nmol/100 nl)]. Blockade of GABAA receptors virtually abolished adenosine A2a receptor-mediated inhibition of the CCR. GABAB receptors had much weaker but significant effects. These effects were similar for the different sympathetic outputs. We conclude that stimulation of NTS adenosine A2a receptors inhibits CCR-evoked hemodynamic and regional sympathetic reflex responses via a GABA-ergic mechanism. PMID:25910812

  10. Molecular Cooperativity Governs Diverse and Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression

    Xing, Jianhua; Tian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hang; Sannerud, Jens

    Multiple-objective optimization is common in biological systems. In the mammalian olfactory system, each sensory neuron stochastically expresses only one out of up to thousands of olfactory receptor (OR) gene alleles; at organism level the types of expressed ORs need to be maximized. The molecular mechanism of this Nobel-Prize winning puzzle remains unresolved after decades of extensive studies. Existing models focus only on monoallele activation, and cannot explain recent observations in mutants, especially the reduced global diversity of expressed ORs in G9a/GLP knockouts. In this work we integrated existing information on OR expression, and proposed an evolutionarily optimized three-layer regulation mechanism, which includes zonal segregation, epigenetic and enhancer competition coupled to a negative feedback loop. This model not only recapitulates monoallelic OR expression, but also elucidates how the olfactory system maximizes and maintains the diversity of OR expression. The model is validated by several experimental results, and particularly underscores cooperativity and synergy as a general design principle of multi-objective optimization in biology. The work is supported by the NIGMS/DMS Mathematical Biology program.

  11. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 ± 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors

  12. Simvastatin enhances bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II expression

    Statins confer therapeutic benefits in systemic and pulmonary vascular diseases. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptors serve essential signaling functions in cardiovascular development and skeletal morphogenesis. Mutations in BMP receptor type II (BMPR2) are associated with human familial and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and pathologic neointimal proliferation of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells within small pulmonary arteries. In severe experimental pulmonary hypertension, simvastatin reversed disease and conferred a 100% survival advantage. Here, modulation of BMPR2 gene expression by simvastatin is characterized in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T, pulmonary artery smooth muscle, and lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVECs). A 1.4 kb BMPR2 promoter containing Egr-1 binding sites confers reporter gene activation in 293T cells which is partially inhibited by simvastatin. Simvastatin enhances steady-state BMPR2 mRNA and protein expression in HLMVEC, through posttranscriptional mRNA stabilization. Simvastatin induction of BMPR2 expression may improve BMP-BMPR2 signaling thereby enhancing endothelial differentiation and function

  13. Cloning and expression profile of ionotropic receptors in the parasitoid wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Wang, Shan-Ning; Peng, Yong; Lu, Zi-Yun; Dhiloo, Khalid Hussain; Zheng, Yao; Shan, Shuang; Li, Rui-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Guo, Yu-Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Ionotropic receptors (IRs) mainly detect the acids and amines having great importance in many insect species, representing an ancient olfactory receptor family in insects. In the present work, we performed RNAseq of Microplitis mediator antennae and identified seventeen IRs. Full-length MmedIRs were cloned and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the Hymenoptera IRs revealed that ten MmedIR genes encoded "antennal IRs" and seven encoded "divergent IRs". Among the IR25a orthologous groups, two genes, MmedIR25a.1 and MmedIR25a.2, were found in M. mediator. Gene structure analysis of MmedIR25a revealed a tandem duplication of IR25a in M. mediator. The tissue distribution and development specific expression of the MmedIR genes suggested that these genes showed a broad expression profile. Quantitative gene expression analysis showed that most of the genes are highly enriched in adult antennae, indicating the candidate chemosensory function of this family in parasitic wasps. Using immunocytochemistry, we confirmed that one co-receptor, MmedIR8a, was expressed in the olfactory sensory neurons. Our data will supply fundamental information for functional analysis of the IRs in parasitoid wasp chemoreception. PMID:27208597

  14. The mouse lp(A3)/Edg7 lysophosphatidic acid receptor gene: genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and expression pattern.

    Contos, J J; Chun, J

    2001-04-18

    The extracellular signaling molecule, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), mediates proliferative and morphological effects on cells and has been proposed to be involved in several biological processes including neuronal development, wound healing, and cancer progression. Three mammalian G protein-coupled receptors, encoded by genes designated lp (lysophospholipid) receptor or edg (endothelial differentiation gene), mediate the effects of LPA, activating similar (e.g. Ca(2+) release) as well as distinct (neurite retraction) responses. To understand the evolution and function of LPA receptor genes, we characterized lp(A3)/Edg7 in mouse and human and compared the expression pattern with the other two known LPA receptor genes (lp(A1)/Edg2 and lp(A2)/Edg4non-mutant). We found mouse and human lp(A3) to have nearly identical three-exon genomic structures, with introns upstream of the coding region for transmembrane domain (TMD) I and within the coding region for TMD VI. This structure is similar to lp(A1) and lp(A2), indicating a common ancestral gene with two introns. We localized mouse lp(A3) to distal Chromosome 3 near the varitint waddler (Va) gene, in a region syntenic with the human lp(A3) chromosomal location (1p22.3-31.1). We found highest expression levels of each of the three LPA receptor genes in adult mouse testes, relatively high expression levels of lp(A2) and lp(A3) in kidney, and moderate expression of lp(A2) and lp(A3) in lung. All lp(A) transcripts were expressed during brain development, with lp(A1) and lp(A2) transcripts expressed during the embryonic neurogenic period, and lp(A3) transcript during the early postnatal period. Our results indicate both overlapping as well as distinct functions of lp(A1), lp(A2), and lp(A3). PMID:11313151

  15. Deregulated Fcγ receptor expression in patients with CIDP

    Quast, Isaak; Cueni, Flavio; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Tackenberg, Björn; Lünemann, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the expression of activating and inhibitory Fc-gamma receptors (FcγRs) before and during clinically effective therapy with IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Methods: Peripheral blood leukocyte subsets, including classical CD14highCD16− and nonclassical inflammatory CD14lowCD16+ monocytes as well as naive CD19+CD27− and memory CD19+CD27+ B cells, were obtained at baseline and monitored at 2 and 4–8 weeks a...

  16. Expression of Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist in Human Cornea

    Heur, Martin; Shyam S. Chaurasia; Wilson, Steven E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to confirm the expression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra) in the human cornea. Four samples of human ex vivo corneal epithelium were obtained from patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy. RT-PCR was performed using mRNA isolated from the corneal epithelium and oligo-dT primers. PCR was performed on the cDNA products using primers specific for human IL-1Ra. The PCR products were subcloned and sequenced. Human cornea sections were prepared fr...

  17. The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Uses its C-Terminus to Regulate the A2B Adenosine Receptor.

    Watson, Michael J; Lee, Shernita L; Marklew, Abigail J; Gilmore, Rodney C; Gentzsch, Martina; Sassano, Maria F; Gray, Michael A; Tarran, Robert

    2016-01-01

    CFTR is an apical membrane anion channel that regulates fluid homeostasis in many organs including the airways, colon, pancreas and sweat glands. In cystic fibrosis, CFTR dysfunction causes significant morbidity/mortality. Whilst CFTR's function as an ion channel has been well described, its ability to regulate other proteins is less understood. We have previously shown that plasma membrane CFTR increases the surface density of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR), but not of the β2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR), leading to an enhanced, adenosine-induced cAMP response in the presence of CFTR. In this study, we have found that the C-terminal PDZ-domain of both A2BR and CFTR were crucial for this interaction, and that replacing the C-terminus of A2BR with that of β2AR removed this CFTR-dependency. This observation extended to intact epithelia and disruption of the actin cytoskeleton prevented A2BR-induced but not β2AR-induced airway surface liquid (ASL) secretion. We also found that CFTR expression altered the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and PDZ-binding proteins in both HEK293T cells and in well-differentiated human bronchial epithelia. Furthermore, removal of CFTR's PDZ binding motif (ΔTRL) prevented actin rearrangement, suggesting that CFTR insertion in the plasma membrane results in local reorganization of actin, PDZ binding proteins and certain GPCRs. PMID:27278076

  18. Overexpression of adenosine A2A receptors in rats: effects on depression, locomotion and anxiety

    Joana E Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR] and aged-matched wild-types (WT of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley were studied. The forced swimming test (FST, sucrose preference test (SPT and the open-field test (OFT were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress and Alzheimer’s disease.

  19. Androgen receptor transcriptionally regulates μ-opioid receptor expression in rat trigeminal ganglia.

    Lee, Ki Seok; Zhang, Youping; Asgar, Jamila; Auh, Q-Schick; Chung, Man-Kyo; Ro, Jin Y

    2016-09-01

    The involvement of testosterone in pain, inflammation, and analgesia has been reported, but the role of androgen receptor (AR), a steroid receptor for testosterone, is not well understood. We have previously shown that peripheral inflammation upregulates μ-opioid receptor (MOR) in rat trigeminal ganglia (TG) in a testosterone-dependent manner. In this study, we hypothesized that testosterone regulates MOR expression via transcriptional activities of AR in TG. We first examined whether AR is co-expressed with MOR in TG neurons. Our immunohistochemical experiment revealed that AR staining is detected in neurons of all sizes in TG and that a subset of AR is expressed in MOR as well as in TRPV1-positive neurons. We identified the promoter region of the rat MOR gene contains putative AR binding sites. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that AR directly binds to these sites in TG extracts. We confirmed with luciferase reporter assay that AR activated the MOR promoter in response to androgens in a human neuroblastoma cell line (5H-5YSY). These data demonstrated that AR functions as a transcriptional regulator of the MOR gene activity. Finally, we showed that flutamide, a specific AR antagonist, prevents complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced upregulation of MOR mRNA in TG, and that flutamide dose-dependently blocks the efficacy of DAMGO, a specific MOR agonist, on CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Our results expand the knowledge regarding the role of androgens and their receptor in pain and analgesia and have important clinical implications, particularly for inflammatory pain patients with low or compromised plasma testosterone levels. PMID:27320211

  20. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S. R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z L; Urade, Y; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus a...

  1. Ionotropic glutamate receptor expression in human white matter.

    Christensen, Pia Crone; Samadi-Bahrami, Zahra; Pavlov, Vlady; Stys, Peter K; Moore, G R Wayne

    2016-09-01

    Glutamate is the key excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS). Its role in human grey matter transmission is well understood, but this is less clear in white matter (WM). Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluR) are found on both neuronal cell bodies and glia as well as on myelinated axons in rodents, and rodent WM tissue is capable of glutamate release. Thus, rodent WM expresses many of the components of the traditional grey matter neuron-to-neuron synapse, but to date this has not been shown for human WM. We demonstrate the presence of iGluRs in human WM by immunofluorescence employing high-resolution spectral confocal imaging. We found that the obligatory N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunit GluN1 and the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA4 co-localized with myelin, oligodendroglial cell bodies and processes. Additionally, GluA4 colocalized with axons, often in distinct clusters. These findings may explain why human WM is vulnerable to excitotoxic events following acute insults such as stroke and traumatic brain injury and in more chronic inflammatory conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS). Further exploration of human WM glutamate signalling could pave the way for developing future therapies modulating the glutamate-mediated damage in these and other CNS disorders. PMID:27443784

  2. Expression of CysLT2 receptors in asthma lung, and their possible role in bronchoconstriction

    Tomohiko Sekioka

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: CysLT2 receptors were expressed in lung specimens isolated from asthma subjects. Activation of CysLT2 receptors may contribute to antigen-induced bronchoconstriction in certain asthma population.

  3. Toll-like receptor 2 ligands regulate monocyte Fcγ receptor expression and function.

    Shah, Prexy; Fatehchand, Kavin; Patel, Hemal; Fang, Huiqing; Justiniano, Steven E; Mo, Xiaokui; Jarjoura, David; Tridandapani, Susheela; Butchar, Jonathan P

    2013-04-26

    Fcγ receptor (FcγR) clustering on monocytes/macrophages results in phagocytosis and inflammatory cytokine production, which serve to eliminate antibody-opsonized targets and activate neighboring immune cells. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which recognizes a range of both bacterial and fungal components, elicits strong proinflammatory responses in these cells when stimulated by ligands, either natural or synthetic. Thus, we explored the possibility that TLR2 agonists could strengthen FcγR activity within the context of antibody therapy. Human peripheral blood monocytes treated with the TLR2 agonist Pam2CSK4 showed significantly enhanced FcγR-mediated cytokine production as well as phagocytic ability. An examination of the molecular mechanism behind this enhancement revealed increased expression of both FcγRIIa and the common γ subunit following Pam2CSK4 treatment. Interestingly however, expression of the inhibitory receptor FcγRIIb was also modestly increased. Further investigation revealed that Pam2CSK4 also dramatically decreased the expression of SHIP, the major mediator of FcγRIIb inhibitory activity. Using a murine Her2/neu solid tumor model of antibody therapy, we found that Pam2CSK4 significantly enhanced the ability of anti-Her2 antibody to reduce the rate of tumor growth. To verify that the FcγR enhancement was not unique to the diacylated Pam2CSK4, we also tested Pam3CSK4, a related triacylated TLR2 agonist. Results showed significant enhancement in FcγR function and expression. Taken together, these findings indicate that TLR2 activation can positively modulate FcγR and suggest that TLR2 agonists should be considered for testing as adjuvants for antitumor antibody therapy. PMID:23504312

  4. Transparent expression of the A2 condensate's renormalization

    We give a more transparent understanding of the vacuum expectation value of the renormalized local operator A2 by relating it to the gluon propagator integrated over the momentum. The quadratically divergent perturbative contribution is subtracted and the remainder, dominantly due to the O(1/p2) correction to the perturbative propagator at large p2 is logarithmically divergent. This provides a transparent derivation of the fact that this O(1/p2) term is related to the vacuum expectation value of the local A2 operator and confirms a previous claim based on the operator product expansion (OPE) of the gluon propagator. At leading logarithms the agreement is quantitative, with a standard running factor, between the local A2 condensate renormalized as described above and the one renormalized in the OPE context. This result supports the claim that the BRST invariant Landau-gauge A2 condensate might play an important role in describing the QCD vacuum

  5. Heterogeneous expression of Drosophila gustatory receptors in enteroendocrine cells.

    Jeong-Ho Park

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is emerging as a major site of chemosensation in mammalian studies. Enteroendocrine cells are chemosensory cells in the gut which produce regulatory peptides in response to luminal contents to regulate gut physiology, food intake, and glucose homeostasis, among other possible functions. Increasing evidence shows that mammalian taste receptors and taste signaling molecules are expressed in enteroendocrine cells in the gut. Invertebrate models such as Drosophila can provide a simple and genetically tractable system to study the chemosensory functions of enteroendocrine cells in vivo. To establish Drosophila enteroendocrine cells as a model for studying gut chemosensation, we used the GAL4/UAS system to examine the expression of all 68 Gustatory receptors (Grs in the intestine. We find that 12 Gr-GAL4 drivers label subsets of enteroendocrine cells in the midgut, and examine colocalization of these drivers with the regulatory peptides neuropeptide F (NPF, locustatachykinin (LTK, and diuretic hormone 31 (DH31. RT-PCR analysis provides additional evidence for the presence of Gr transcripts in the gut. Our results suggest that the Drosophila Grs have chemosensory roles in the intestine to regulate physiological functions such as food uptake, nutrient absorption, or sugar homeostasis.

  6. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snus and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), such as endothelin ETB, serotonin 5-HT1B, and thromboxane A2 TP receptors, in rat cerebral arteries. Studies show that these vasocontractile GPCR show alterations by lipid-soluble cigarette smoke particles via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24 h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine was kept at plasma level of snus users (25 ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250 ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ETB receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT1B receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, and TP receptor agonist U46619 were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of ETB, 5-HT1B, and TP receptors was studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Organ culture with WSS or DSS (25 ng nicotine/ml) lowered the 5-HT1B receptor-mediated contraction. Furthermore, DSS shifted the TP receptor-mediated contraction curve left-wards with a stronger contraction. High dose of nicotine (250 ng nicotine/ml) increased the ETB receptor-mediated contraction. The combined 5-HT1B and 5-HT2A receptor-mediated contraction was increased, and both the 5-CT and TxA2 induced contractions were left-ward shifted by WSS, DSS, or nicotine (250 ng nicotine/ml). Only the DSS group showed that the

  7. Altered expression of epidermal growth factor receptor and estrogen receptor in MCF-7 cells after single and repeated radiation exposures

    This study focuses on the characterization of expression modulation of two critical growth regulatory genes, estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor-receptor, in malignant mammary epithelial cells in response to single and repeated ionizing radiation exposures. MCF-7 cells were used for single radiation exposure (2-50 Gy) experiments and MCF-IR-3 cells, generated by exposure to cumulative doses of 60 Gy in 2 Gy fractions, respectively, were used to study the effects of repeated exposures. Steady-state messenger ribonucleic acid levels for estrogen receptor, epidermal growth factor-receptor, and transforming growth factor-α were determined by ribonucleic acid protection experiments. Estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor-receptor protein expression was quantitated by competitive binding studies with 3H-estradiol and 125I-EGF. MCF-IR-3 cells showed a permanent three-fold down-regulation of the estrogen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein, while epidermal growth factor-receptor was upregulated about nine-fold. Epidermal growth factor-receptor was substantially up-regulated in MCF-7 cells, at both the mRNA and protein levels, within 24 h of a single 2 Gy exposures, while there was a two-fold concomitant increase in transforming growth factor-α messenger ribonucleic acid expression. A decrease in estrogen receptor messenger ribonucleic acid and protein was suggested only after higher doses of single radiation exposures. The inverse expression of estrogen receptor and epidermal growth factor-receptor established for estrogen receptor-positive malignant mammary epithelial cells is maintained in MCF-7 cells after single and repeated exposures, suggesting that radiation acts through common regulatory circuits and may modulate the cellular phenotype. 40 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Kesha Rana; Nicole KL Lee; Jeffrey D Zajac; Helen E MacLean

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor(AR)‑regulated genes ininvitroandinvivomodels. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factormyogenin was signiifcantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity(ARΔZF2) versus wildtype mice, demonstrating thatmyogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligaseFbxo32 was repressed by 12h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, andc‑Myc expression was decreased in testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7, p57Kip2, Igf2 andcalcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all butp57Kip2was also decreased in testosterone‑treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase‑mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  9. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha in preimplantation mice embryos

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) in preimplantation mice embryos.Methods:Mice zygotes were collected from superovulated Kunming mice and cultured in vitro.Embryos at different developmental stages were collected at 0,24,36,48,72 and 96hours after cultivation.The expression of ERα in early mice embryos was detected by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemistry.Results:The expression of ERα mRNA was detected in all of the examined embryonic stages.The relative amount of ERα mRNA showed no significant difference between 1-cell stage embryos and 4-cell stage embryos (P>0.05).However,the relative level of ERα mRNA significantly decreased (P<0.05) at 2-cell stage and was the lowest at this stage.Over 2-cell stage,the ERα mRNA relative level would increase and achieve the peak level at blastocyst stage.The location of immunocytochemistry showed that ERα immunopositive cells could be firstly detected at 8-cell stage,after which they are consistently detected until blastocyst stage.In addition,the intensity of ERα positive staining was higher at blastocyst stage compared with that at 8-cell stage and morula stage.Conclusion:ERα is expressed in preimplantation mice embryos in a temporal and spatial pattern and may be involved in regulating the development of early mice embryos,which probably plays crucial roles in early embryonic development.

  10. Expression of androgen receptor target genes in skeletal muscle

    Kesha Rana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the mechanisms of the anabolic actions of androgens in skeletal muscle by investigating potential androgen receptor (AR-regulated genes in in vitro and in vivo models. The expression of the myogenic regulatory factor myogenin was significantly decreased in skeletal muscle from testosterone-treated orchidectomized male mice compared to control orchidectomized males, and was increased in muscle from male AR knockout mice that lacked DNA binding activity (ARΔZF2 versus wildtype mice, demonstrating that myogenin is repressed by the androgen/AR pathway. The ubiquitin ligase Fbxo32 was repressed by 12 h dihydrotestosterone treatment in human skeletal muscle cell myoblasts, and c-Myc expression was decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle, and increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle. The expression of a group of genes that regulate the transition from myoblast proliferation to differentiation, Tceal7 , p57 Kip2, Igf2 and calcineurin Aa, was increased in AR∆ZF2 muscle, and the expression of all but p57 Kip2 was also decreased in testosterone-treated orchidectomized male muscle compared to control orchidectomized male muscle. We conclude that in males, androgens act via the AR in part to promote peak muscle mass by maintaining myoblasts in the proliferative state and delaying the transition to differentiation during muscle growth and development, and by suppressing ubiquitin ligase-mediated atrophy pathways to preserve muscle mass in adult muscle.

  11. Characterization of Mouse Striatal Precursor Cell Lines Expressing Functional Dopamine Receptors

    Araki, Kiyomi Y.; Fujimura, Satoshi; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Bhide, Pradeep G

    2006-01-01

    Dopamine and its receptors appear in the developing brain early in the embryonic period and dopamine receptor activation influences proliferation and differentiation of neuroepithelial precursor cells. Since dopamine D1 and D2 receptor activation produces opposing effects on precursor cell activity, dopamine's overall effects may correlate with relative numbers and activity of each receptor subtype on the precursor cells. Dopamine receptor expression and activity in individual precursor cells...

  12. A transparent expression of the A^2-Condensate's renormalisation

    Boucaud, P; Le Yaouanc, A; Leroy, J P; Micheli, J; Moutarde, H; Pène, O; Rodríguez-Quintero, J; Boucaud, Ph.

    2003-01-01

    We give a more transparent understanding of the vacuum expectation value of the renormalised local operator A^2 by relating it to the gluon propagator integrated over the momentum. The quadratically divergent perturbative contribution is subtracted and the remainder, dominantly due to the O(1/p^2) correction to the perturbative propagator at large p^2 is logarithmically divergent. This provides a transparent derivation of the fact that this O(1/p^2) term is related to the vacuum expectation value of the local A^2 operator and confirms a previous claim based on the operator product expansion (OPE) of the gluon propagator. At leading logarithms the agreement is quantitative, with a standard running factor, between the local A^2 condensate renormalised as described above and the one renormalised in the OPE context.

  13. Expression of estrogen receptor β in human colorectal cancer

    Li-Qun Xie; Jie-Ping Yu; He-Sheng Luo

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β in Chinese colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients.METHODS: Erβ expression in CRC was investigated by immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 40 CRCs, 10 colonic adenomas,and 10 normal colon mucosa biopsies. The percentage of positive cells was recorded, mRNA expression of Erα and Erβ in 12 CRC tissues and paired normal colon tissues were detected by RT-PCR.RESULTS: Positive ER immunoreactivity was present in part of normal epithelium of biopsy (2/10), adenomas (3/10),and the sections of CRC tissue, most of them were nuclear positive. In CRCs, nuclear Erβ immunoreactivity was detected in over 10% of the cancer cells in 57.5% of the cases and was always associated with cytoplasmic immunoreactivity.There was no statistical significance between Erβ positive and negative groups in regard to depth of invasion and nodal metastases. Of the 12 CRC tissues and paired normal colon tissues, the expression rate of Erα mRNA in CRC tissue and corresponding normal colon tissue was 25% and 16.6%,respectively. Erβ mRNA was expressed in 83.3% CRC tissue and 91.7% paired normal colon tissue, respectively. Therewas no significant difference in Erβ mRNA level between CRC tissues and paired normal colon tissues.CONCLUSION: A large number of CRCs are positive for Erβ, which can also be detected in normal colonic epithelia.There is a different localization of Erβ immunoreactivity among normal colon mucosae, adenomas and CRCs. Erαand Erβ mRNA can be detected both in CRC tissue and in corresponding normal colon tissue. A post-transcriptional mechanism may account for the decrease of Erβ protein expression in CRC tissues.

  14. Adenosine modulates hypoxia-induced responses in rat PC12 cells via the A2A receptor.

    Kobayashi, S; Conforti, L; Pun, R Y; Millhorn, D E

    1998-04-01

    1. The present study was undertaken to determine the role of adenosine in mediating the cellular responses to hypoxia in rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells, an oxygen-sensitive clonal cell line. 2. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies revealed that PC12 cells express adenosine deaminase (the first catalysing enzyme of adenosine degradation) and the A2A and A2B adenosine receptors, but not the A1 or A3 adenosine receptors. 3. Whole-cell current- and voltage-clamp experiments showed that adenosine attenuated the hypoxia-induced membrane depolarization. The hypoxia-induced suppression of the voltage-sensitive potassium current (IK(V)) was markedly reduced by adenosine. Furthermore, extracellularly applied adenosine increased the peak amplitudes of IK(V) in a concentration-dependent manner. This increase was blocked by pretreatment not only with a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT), but also with a selective A2A receptor antagonist, ZM241385. 4. Ca2+ imaging studies using fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester (fura-2 AM) revealed that the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ during hypoxic exposure was attenuated significantly by adenosine. Voltage-clamp studies showed that adenosine inhibited the voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents (ICa) in a concentration-dependent fashion. This inhibition was also abolished by both 8-PT and ZM241385. 5. The modulation of both IK(V) and ICa by adenosine was prevented by intracellular application of an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), PKA inhibitor fragment (6-22) amide. In addition, the effect of adenosine on either IK(V) or ICa was absent in PKA-deficient PC12 cells. 6. These results indicate that the modulatory effects of adenosine on the hypoxia-induced membrane responses of PC12 cells are likely to be mediated via activation of the A2A receptor, and that the PKA pathway is required for these modulatory actions. We propose that this modulation serves to regulate membrane excitability in

  15. Expression of tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand receptor in glioblastoma

    Dongling Gao; Zhongwei Zhao; Hongxin Zhang; Lan Zhang; Kuisheng Chen; Yunhan Zhang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Receptors for tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) include death receptor 4, death receptor 5, decoy receptor 1, and decoy receptor 2. Activation of death receptor 4 and 5 selectively kills tumor cells.OBJECTIVE: To detect TRAIL receptor expression in glioblastoma by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR and to compare this expression to that in normal brain tissue.DESIGN: Observational analysis.SETTING: Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University; Henan Tumor Pathology Key Laboratory.PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-five patients (17 males and 8 females) who received glioblastoma resection were selected from the Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, between September 2003 to June 2004. All glioblastoma samples were diagnosed pathologically. Twenty patients (12 males and 8 females) with craniocerebral injury who received normal brain tissue resection were selected in the same time period. There were no significant differences in sex and age between glioblastoma patients or between craniocerebral injury patients (P>0.05). All patients and appropriate relatives provided informed consent, and this study was approved by the local research ethics committee.METHODS: Polyclonal antibody against TRAIL receptors and an immunohistochemical kit (batch number: 200502) were purchased from Boster Company, Wuhan. Immunohistochemistry: Expression of death receptor 4, death receptor 5, decoy receptor 1, and decoy receptor 2 were observed in both glioblastoma and normal brain tissue. The experiment was performed according to the kit instructions, and positive staining was brown-yellow. Assessment: There were no positive signals (-); weakly positive signals, positive cells75% (++++). Evaluation: Expression levels of TRAIL receptors were estimated in both normal brain tissue and glioblastoma. Expression of decoy receptor 1 and decoy receptor 2 mRNA in glioblastoma were detected by reverse transcription polymerase

  16. A Subset of Mouse Colonic Goblet Cells Expresses the Bitter Taste Receptor Tas2r131

    Simone Prandi; Marta Bromke; Sandra Hübner; Anja Voigt; Ulrich Boehm; Wolfgang Meyerhof; Maik Behrens

    2013-01-01

    The concept that gut nutrient sensing involves taste receptors has been fueled by recent reports associating the expression of taste receptors and taste-associated signaling molecules in the gut and in gut-derived cell lines with physiological responses induced by known taste stimuli. However, for bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs), direct evidence for their functional role in gut physiology is scarce and their cellular expression pattern remained unknown. We therefore investigated Tas2r express...

  17. Bombesin family receptor and ligand gene expression in human colorectal cancer and normal mucosa

    Chave, H S; Gough, A C; Palmer, K.; Preston, S. R.; Primrose, J N

    1999-01-01

    Bombesin-like peptides and their receptors are widely distributed throughout the gut and are potential mitogens for a number of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. We have analysed the expression of bombesin-like peptides and their receptor subtypes in normal and neoplastic colorectal tissue. Expression was analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using receptor and ligand subtype-specific primers and then expression localized by in situ hybridization (ISH) with ribopro...

  18. Mouse neutrophils express functional umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3

    Lee, NaHye; Jung, Young Su; Lee, Ha Young; Kang, NaNa; Park, Yoo Jung; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bahk, Young Yil; Koo, JaeHyung; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in the initiation of innate immunity against infection and injury. Although many different types of G-protein coupled receptors are functionally expressed in neutrophils, no reports have demonstrated functional expression of umami taste receptor in these cells. We observed that mouse neutrophils express the umami taste receptor T1R1/T1R3 through RNA sequencing and quantitative RT-PCR analysis. Stimulation of mouse neutrophils with L-alanine or L-serine, whic...

  19. Novel dimeric DOTA-coupled peptidic Y1-receptor antagonists for targeting of neuropeptide Y receptor-expressing cancers

    Chatenet, David; Cescato, Renzo; Waser, Beatrice; Erchegyi, Judit; Jean E Rivier; Reubi, Jean Claude

    2011-01-01

    Background Several peptide hormone receptors were identified that are specifically over-expressed on the cell surface of certain human tumors. For example, high incidence and density of the Y1 subtype of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors are found in breast tumors. Recently, we demonstrated that the use of potent radiolabeled somatostatin or bombesin receptor antagonists considerably improved the sensitivity of in vivo imaging when compared to agonists. We report here on the first DOTA-coupled p...

  20. Adenosine and a selective A2a receptor agonist regadenoson used in myocardial stress test

    Adenosine pharmacological myocardial stress test has been widely used in clinic. However, the side effects related with adenosine administration has been an issue of controversy. Current Phase Ⅲ study of regadenoson, a selective A2a receptor agonist, reveals its potential to substitute adenosine as a new agent for pharmacological myocardial stress test. This review briefs adenosine and regadenoson and their clinical utilities in myocardial stress test. (authors)

  1. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar;

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of β-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT...... that adenosine-A2A signalling plays an unexpected physiological role in sympathetic BAT activation and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. Those findings reveal new possibilities for developing novel obesity therapies....

  2. Cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha expression in breast cancer is associated with EGFR expression and correlates with an adverse prognosis in luminal tumours.

    Caiazza, F

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The eicosanoid signalling pathway promotes the progression of malignancies through the production of proliferative prostaglandins (PGs). Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) activity provides the substrate for cyclooxygenase-dependent PG release, and we have previously found that cPLA(2)alpha expression correlated with EGFR\\/HER2 over-expression in a small number of breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: The importance of differential cPLA(2)alpha activity in clinical breast cancer was established by relating the expression of cPLA(2)alpha in tissue samples from breast cancer patients, and two microarray-based gene expression datasets to different clinicopathological and therapeutic parameters. RESULTS: High cPLA(2)alpha mRNA expression correlated with clinical parameters of poor prognosis, which are characteristic of highly invasive tumours of the HER2-positive and basal-like subtype, including low oestrogen receptor expression and high EGFR expression. High cPLA(2)alpha expression decreased overall survival in patients with luminal cancers, and correlated with a reduced effect of tamoxifen treatment. The cPLA(2)alpha expression was an independent predictive parameter of poor response to endocrine therapy in the first 5 years of follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study shows a role of cPLA(2)alpha in luminal breast cancer progression, in which the enzyme could represent a novel therapeutic target and a predictive marker.

  3. Combined Contribution of Endothelial Relaxing Autacoides in the Rat Femoral Artery Response to CPCA: An Adenosine A2 Receptor Agonist

    Miroslav Radenković; Marko Stojanović; Radmila Janković; Mirko Topalović; Milica Stojiljković

    2012-01-01

    We examined the contribution of endothelial relaxing factors and potassium channels in actions of CPCA, potent adenosine A2 receptor agonist, on isolated intact male rat femoral artery (FA). CPCA produced concentration-dependent relaxation of FA, which was notably, but not completely, reduced after endothelial denudation. DPCPX, A1 receptor antagonist, had no significant effect, while SCH 58261 (A2A receptor antagonist) notably reduced CPCA-evoked effect. Pharmacological inhibition of nitric ...

  4. Expression pattern of mda-7/IL-24 receptors in liver cancer cell lines

    Hong Zhu; Zhi-Bin Yang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mda-7/IL-24 receptor belongs to the typeⅡ cytokine receptor family, and its two heterodimeric receptors are IL-22R1/IL-20R2 and IL-20R1/IL-20R2. Mda-7/IL-24 receptor expression in liver cancer cell lines has not yet been described. This information may be helpful for further clinical gene therapy. METHODS: With normal skin total RNA as template, the cDNA sequences of IL-20R1, IL-20R2 and IL-22R were ampliifed by RT-PCR. Total RNA was extracted from cultured liver cancer cell lines and a normal liver cell line, then detected by northern blotting, and the expression of mda-7/IL-24 receptors was analyzed. RESULTS: PLC/PRF/5 and SMMC-7721 expressed IL-20R1;BEL-7402, Hep3B, HepG2, and PLC/PRF/5 expressed IL-20R2; and HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 expressed IL-22R. Only HepG2 expressed the IL-22R/IL-20R2 receptor complex. PLC/PRF/5 completely expressed both heterodimeric receptors. Huh-7, QGY-7701 and WRL-68 did not express the IL-24 receptor. CONCLUSION: Complete mda-7/IL-24 receptors are seldom expressed in liver cancer cell lines.

  5. Expression of histamine H4 receptor in human epidermal tissues and attenuation of experimental pruritus using H4 receptor antagonist.

    Yamaura, Katsunori; Oda, Manabu; Suwa, Eriko; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sato, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2009-10-01

    Many medicines exist which can cause pruritus (itching) as "serious adverse events." Many severe pruritic conditions respond poorly to histamine H1 receptor antagonists; there is no generally accepted antipruritic treatment. Recently described histamine H4 receptors are expressed in haematopoietic cells and have been linked to the pathology of allergy and asthma. We previously reported their expression in human dermal fibroblasts; in this study we have investigated H4 receptor expression in human epidermal tissue and found it to be greater in keratinocytes in the epidermal upper layer than in the lower layer. We have also investigated the effect of histamine H4 receptor antagonists on histamine H1 receptor antagonist-resistant pruritus using a mouse model. Scratching behavior was induced by histamine (300 nmol) or substance P (100 nmol) injected intradermally into the rostral part of the back of each mouse. Fexofenadine, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist, reduced scratching induced by histamine but not by substance P, whereas JNJ7777120, a histamine H4 receptor antagonist, significantly reduced both histamine- and substance P-induced scratching. These results suggest that H4 receptor antagonists may be useful for treatment of H1 receptor antagonist-resistant pruritus. PMID:19652466

  6. Myoglobin expression in prostate cancer is correlated to androgen receptor expression and markers of tumor hypoxia.

    Meller, Sebastian; Bicker, Anne; Montani, Matteo; Ikenberg, Kristian; Rostamzadeh, Babak; Sailer, Verena; Wild, Peter; Dietrich, Dimo; Uhl, Barbara; Sulser, Tullio; Moch, Holger; Gorr, Thomas A; Stephan, Carsten; Jung, Klaus; Hankeln, Thomas; Kristiansen, Glen

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies identified unexpected expression and transcriptional complexity of the hemoprotein myoglobin (MB) in human breast cancer but its role in prostate cancer is still unclear. Expression of MB was immunohistochemically analyzed in three independent cohorts of radical prostatectomy specimens (n = 409, n = 625, and n = 237). MB expression data were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and molecular parameters of androgen and hypoxia signaling. Expression levels of novel tumor-associated MB transcript variants and the VEGF gene as a hypoxia marker were analyzed using qRT-PCR. Fifty-three percent of the prostate cancer cases were MB positive and significantly correlated with androgen receptor (AR) expression (p < 0.001). The positive correlation with CAIX (p < 0.001) and FASN (p = 0.008) as well as the paralleled increased expression of the tumor-associated MB transcript variants and VEGF suggest that hypoxia participates in MB expression regulation. Analogous to breast cancer, MB expression in prostate cancer is associated with steroid hormone signaling and markers of hypoxia. Further studies must elucidate the novel functional roles of MB in human carcinomas, which probably extend beyond its classic intramuscular function in oxygen storage. PMID:25172328

  7. Genetic variation in 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter expression causes adaptive changes in 5-HT4 receptor levels

    Jennings, Katie Ann; Licht, Cecilie Löe; Bruce, Aynsley;

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation in 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) expression is a key risk factor for psychiatric disorder and has been linked to changes in the expression of certain 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study investigated the effect of variation in 5-HTT expression on 5-HT4 receptor levels in both 5-HTT kno......). Together, these findings suggest that variation in 5-HTT expression causes adaptive changes in 5-HT4 receptor levels which are directly linked to alterations in 5-HT availability.......Genetic variation in 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) expression is a key risk factor for psychiatric disorder and has been linked to changes in the expression of certain 5-HT receptor subtypes. This study investigated the effect of variation in 5-HTT expression on 5-HT4 receptor levels in both 5-HTT...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE OLFACTORY RECEPTORS EXPRESSED IN HUMAN SPERMATOZOA

    Caroline eFlegel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of external cues is fundamental for human spermatozoa to locate the oocyte in the female reproductive tract. This task requires a specific chemoreceptor repertoire that is expressed on the surface of human spermatozoa, which is not fully identified to date. Olfactory receptors (ORs are candidate molecules and have been attributed to be involved in sperm chemotaxis and chemokinesis, indicating an important role in mammalian spermatozoa. An increasing importance has been suggested for spermatozoal RNA, which led us to investigate the expression of all 387 OR genes. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of OR transcripts in human spermatozoa of several individuals by RNA-Seq. We detected 91 different transcripts in the spermatozoa samples that could be aligned to annotated OR genes. Using stranded mRNA-Seq, we detected a class of these putative OR transcripts in an antisense orientation, indicating a different function, rather than coding for a functional OR protein. Nevertheless, we were able to detect OR proteins in various compartments of human spermatozoa, indicating distinct functions in human sperm. A panel of various OR ligands induced Ca2+ signals in human spermatozoa, which could be inhibited by mibefradil. This study indicated that a variety of ORs are expressed at the mRNA and protein level in human spermatozoa and demonstrates that ORs are involved in the physiological processes.

  9. Steroid hormone receptor expression in ovarian cancer: progesterone receptor B as prognostic marker for patient survival

    There is partially conflicting evidence on the influence of the steroid hormones estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) on the development of ovarian cancer (OC). The aim of this study was to assess the expression of the receptor isoforms ER-α/-β and PR-A/-B in OC tissue and to analyze its impact on clinical and pathological features and patient outcome. 155 OC patients were included who had been diagnosed and treated between 1990 and 2002. Patient characteristics, histology and follow-up data were available. ER-α/-β and PR-A/-B expression were determined by immunohistochemistry. OC tissue was positive for ER-α/-β in 31.4% and 60.1% and PR-A/-B in 36.2% and 33.8%, respectively. We identified significant differences in ER-β expression related to the histological subtype (p=0.041), stage (p=0.002) and grade (p=0.011) as well as PR-A and tumor stage (p=0.03). Interestingly, median receptor expression for ER-α and PR-A/-B was significantly higher in G1 vs. G2 OC. Kaplan Meier analysis revealed a good prognosis for ER-α positive (p=0.039) and PR-B positive (p<0.001) OC. In contrast, ER-β negative OC had a favorable outcome (p=0.049). Besides tumor grade and stage, Cox-regression analysis showed PR-B to be an independent prognostic marker for patient survival (p=0.009, 95% CI 0.251-0.823, HR 0.455). ER-α/-β and PR-A/-B are frequently expressed in OC with a certain variability relating to histological subtype, grade and stage. Univariate analysis indicated a favorable outcome for ER-α positive and PR-B positive OC, while multivariate analysis showed PR-B to be the only independent prognostic marker for patient survival. In conclusion, ER and PR receptors may be useful targets for a more individualized OC therapy

  10. A complex pattern of chemokine receptor expression is seen in osteosarcoma

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent bone tumor in childhood and adolescence. Patients with primary metastatic disease have a poor prognosis. It is therefore important to better characterize the biology of this tumor to define new prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for tailored therapy. Chemokines and their receptors have been shown to be involved in the development and progression of malignant tumors. They are thought to be active participants in the biology of osteosarcoma. The function of specific chemokines and their receptors is strongly associated with the biological context and microenvironment of their expression. In this report we characterized the expression of a series of chemokine receptors in the complex environment that defines osteosarcoma. The overall level of chemokine receptor mRNA expression was determined using TaqMan RT-PCR of microdissected archival patient biopsy samples. Expression was then verified at the protein level by immunohistochemistry using a series of receptor specific antibody reagents to elucidate the cellular association of expression. Expression at the RNA level was found for most of the tested receptors. CCR1 expression was found on infiltrating mononuclear and polynuclear giant cells in the tumor. Cells associated with the lining of intratumoral vessels were shown to express CCR4. Infiltrating mononuclear cells and tumor cells both showed expression of the receptor CCR5, while CCR7 was predominantly expressed by the mononuclear infiltrate. CCR10 was only very rarely detected in few scattered infiltrating cells. Our data elucidate for the first time the cellular context of chemokine receptor expression in osteosarcoma. This is an important issue for better understanding potential chemokine/chemokine receptor function in the complex biologic processes that underlie the development and progression of osteosarcoma. Our data support the suggested involvement of chemokines and their receptors in diverse aspects of the biology

  11. Increased expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in stimulated muscle.

    O'Reilly, Clare; Pette, Dirk; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2003-01-10

    Chronic low-frequency stimulation has been used as a model for investigating responses of skeletal muscle fibres to enhanced neuromuscular activity under conditions of maximum activation. Fast-to-slow isoform shifting of markers of the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the contractile apparatus demonstrated successful fibre transitions prior to studying the effect of chronic electro-stimulation on the expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Comparative immunoblotting revealed that the alpha- and delta-subunits of the receptor were increased in 10-78 day stimulated specimens, while an associated component of the surface utrophin-glycoprotein complex, beta-dystroglycan, was not drastically changed in stimulated fast skeletal muscle. Previous studies have shown that electro-stimulation induces degeneration of fast glycolytic fibres, trans-differentiation leading to fast-to-slow fibre transitions and activation of muscle precursor cells. In analogy, our results indicate a molecular modification of the central functional unit of the post-synaptic muscle surface within existing neuromuscular junctions and/or during remodelling of nerve-muscle contacts. PMID:12504123

  12. Expression of estrogen receptor and estrogen receptor messenger RNA in gastric carcinoma tissues

    Xin-Han Zhao; Shan-Zhi Gu; Shan-Xi Liu; Bo-Rong Pan

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study estrogen receptor (ER) and estrogen receptor messenger RNA (ERmRNA) expression in gastric carcinoma tissues and to investigate their association with the pathologic types of gastric carcinoma.METHODS: The expression of ER and ERmRNA in gastric carcinoma tissues (15 males and 15 females, 42-70 years old) was detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, respectively.RESULTS: The positive rate of ER (immunohistochemistry)was 33.3% in males and 46.7% in females. In Borrmann Ⅳ gastric carcinoma ER positive rate was greater than that in other pathologic types, and in poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma the positive rates were greater than those in other histological types of both males and females (P<0.05). The ER was more highly expressed in diffused gastric carcinoma than in non-diffused gastric carcinoma (P<0.05). The ER positive rate was also related to regional lymph nodes metastases (P<0.05), and was significantly higher in females above 55 years old, and higher in males under 55 years old (P<0.05). The ERmRNA (in situ hybridization) positive rate was 73.3% in males and 86.7% in females. The ERmRNA positive rates were almost the same in Borrmann Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅳ gastric carcinoma (P>0.05). ERmRNA was expressed in all tubular adenocarcinoma, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and signet ring cell carcinoma (P<0.05). The ERmRNA positive rate was related to both regional lymph nodes metastases and gastric carcinoma growth patterns, and was higher in both sexes above 55 years old but without statistical significance (P>0.05). The positive rate of ERmRNA expression by in situ hybridization was higher than that of ER expression by immunohistochemistry (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: ERmRNA expression is related to the pathological behaviors of gastric carcinoma, which might help to predict the prognosis and predict the effectiveness of endocrine therapy for gastric carcinoma.

  13. The Orphan Nuclear Receptor ERRγ Regulates Hepatic CB1 Receptor-Mediated Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Gene Expression

    Jung, Yoon Seok; Lee, Ji-Min; Kim, Don-Kyu; Lee, Yong-Soo; Kim, Ki-Sun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Jina; Lee, Myung-Shik; Lee, In-Kyu; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Sung Jin; Jeong, Won-Il; Lee, Chul-Ho; Harris, Robert A.; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a stress inducible hepatokine, is synthesized in the liver and plays important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism of hepatic cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression is largely unknown. Results Activation of the hepatic CB1 receptor by arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a CB1 receptor selective agonist, significantly increased FGF21 gene expression. Overexpression of estrogen-related receptor (ERR) γ increased FGF21 gene expression and secretion both in hepatocytes and mice, whereas knockdown of ERRγ decreased ACEA-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Moreover, ERRγ, but not ERRα and ERRβ, induced FGF21 gene promoter activity. In addition, deletion and mutation analysis of the FGF21 promoter identified a putative ERRγ-binding motif (AGGTGC, a near-consensus response element). A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed direct binding of ERRγ to the FGF21 gene promoter. Finally, GSK5182, an ERRγ inverse agonist, significantly inhibited hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated FGF21 gene expression and secretion. Conclusion Based on our data, we conclude that ERRγ plays a key role in hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated induction of FGF21 gene expression and secretion. PMID:27455076

  14. Expression of the transferrin receptor gene during the process of mononuclear phagocyte maturation

    The expression of transferrin receptors by blood monocytes, human alveolar macrophages, and in vitro matured macrophages was evaluated by immunofluorescence, radioligand binding, and Northern analysis, using the monoclonal anti-human transferrin receptor antibody OKT9, [125I]-labeled human transferrin and a [32P]-labeled human transferrin receptor cDNA probe, respectively. By immunofluorescence, the majority of alveolar macrophages expressed transferrin receptors (86 +/- 3%). The radioligand binding assay demonstrated the affinity constant (K/sub a/) of the alveolar macrophage transferrin receptor was 4.4 +/- 0.7 x 108 M-1, and the number of receptors per cell was 4.4 +/- 1.2 x 104. In marked contrast, transferrin receptors were not present on the surface or in the cytoplasm of blood monocytes, the precursors of the alveolar macrophages. However, when monocytes were cultured in vitro and allowed to mature, > 80% expressed transferrin receptors by day 6, and the receptors could be detected by day 3. Consistent with these observations, a transferrin receptor mRNA with a molecular size of 4.9 kb was demonstrated in alveolar macrophages and in vitro matured macrophages but not in blood monocytes. Thus, although blood monocytes do not express the transferrin receptor gene, it is expressed by mature macrophages, an event that probably occurs relatively early in the process of monocyte differentiation to macrophages

  15. A strategy using NMR peptide structures of thromboxane A2 receptor as templates to construct ligand-recognition pocket of prostacyclin receptor

    Ruan Ke-He

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Prostacyclin receptor (IP and thromboxane A2 receptor (TP belong to rhodopsin-type G protein-coupling receptors and respectively bind to prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 derived from arachidonic acid. Recently, we have determined the extracellular loop (eLP structures of the human TP receptor by 2-D 1H NMR spectroscopy using constrained peptides mimicking the individual eLP segments. The studies have identified the segment along with several residues in the eLP domains important to ligand recognition, as well as proposed a ligand recognition pocket for the TP receptor. Results: The IP receptor shares a similar primary structure in the eLPs with those of the TP receptor. Forty percent residues in the second eLPs of the receptors are identical, which is the major region involved in forming the ligand recognition pocket in the TP receptor. Based on the high homology score, the eLP domains of the IP receptor were constructed by the homology modeling approach using the NMR structures of the TP eLPs as templates, and then configured to the seven transmembrane (TM domains model constructed using the crystal structure of the bovine rhodopsin as a template. A NMR structure of iloprost was docked into the modeled IP ligand recognition pocket. After dynamic studies, the segments and residues involved in the IP ligand recognition were proposed. A key residue, Arg173 involved in the ligand recognition for the IP receptor, as predicted from the modeling, was confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusion: A 3-D model of the human IP receptor was constructed by homology modeling using the crystal structure of bovine rhodopsin TM domains and the NMR structures of the synthetic constrained peptides of the eLP domains of the TP receptor as templates. This strategy can be applied to molecular modeling and the prediction of ligand recognition pockets for other prostanoid receptors.

  16. Receptor Expression in Rat Skeletal Muscle Cell Cultures

    Young, Ronald B.

    1996-01-01

    One on the most persistent problems with long-term space flight is atrophy of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscle is unique as a tissue in the body in that its ability to undergo atrophy or hypertrophy is controlled exclusively by cues from the extracellular environment. The mechanism of communication between muscle cells and their environment is through a group of membrane-bound and soluble receptors, each of which carries out unique, but often interrelated, functions. The primary receptors include acetyl choline receptors, beta-adrenergic receptors, glucocorticoid receptors, insulin receptors, growth hormone (i.e., somatotropin) receptors, insulin-like growth factor receptors, and steroid receptors. This project has been initiated to develop an integrated approach toward muscle atrophy and hypertrophy that takes into account information on the populations of the entire group of receptors (and their respective hormone concentrations), and it is hypothesized that this information can form the basis for a predictive computer model for muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. The conceptual basis for this project is illustrated in the figure below. The individual receptors are shown as membrane-bound, with the exception of the glucocorticoid receptor which is a soluble intracellular receptor. Each of these receptors has an extracellular signalling component (e.g., innervation, glucocorticoids, epinephrine, etc.), and following the interaction of the extracellular component with the receptor itself, an intracellular signal is generated. Each of these intracellular signals is unique in its own way; however, they are often interrelated.

  17. Expression of leptin and leptin receptor isoforms in the human stomach

    Mix, H; Widjaja, A.; Jandl, O.; Cornberg, M.; Kaul, A.; GOKE, M; Beil, W.; Kuske, M; Brabant, G.; Manns, M; Wagner, S.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Leptin is an important regulator of food intake and energy expenditure. Initially it was thought to be expressed exclusively in and secreted by adipocytes. Recently, leptin expression was also noted in other tissues, including rat gastric mucosa. Information on leptin and leptin receptor expression in the human stomach is lacking.
AIM—To investigate expression of leptin and its corresponding receptors in human gastric epithelial cells.
METHODS—Fundic and antral gastric mucosal biop...

  18. Identification and characterization of a putative human platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 receptor

    The thromboxane A2 (TXA2) analog, 9,11-dimethylmethano-11,12-methano-16-(3-iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)-13,14-dihydro-13-aza-15αβ-omega-tetranor TXA2 (I-PTA-OH) was characterized as a competitive antagonist of TXA2 mimetic-induced platelet aggregation, with a K/sub d/ of 190 nM in platelet rich plasma. This antagonism was specific for the putative thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptor, since I-PTA-OH had no inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation stimulated by agonists which act independently of TXA2/PGH2, and did not inhibit platelet TXA2 synthesis. [125I]-PTA-OH binding to a particulate fraction from human platelets was saturable, displaceable, and linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of equilibrium binding revealed a single class of high affinity binding sites, with a K/sub d/ of 30 +/- 4 nM and a B/sub max/ of 1.8 +/- 0.3 pmol/mg protein. Kinetic analysis yielded a k1 of 1.35 x 106 M-1 x min-1 and a k√1 of 0.032 min-1, K/sub d/ = k√1/k1 = 24 nM. The subcellular localization of the putative TXA2/PGH2 receptor was determined using [125I]-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. [125I]-PTA-OH binding as a marker for the receptor. [125I]-PTA-OH binding, was coenriched with markers for plasma membranes and dense tubular system; but not with markers for cytoplasmic constituents, mitochondria, or granules

  19. Association of carcinoma breast: grade and estrogen progesterone receptor expression

    To determine the association between histological grade of tumour and estrogen progesterone receptors (ER/PR) expression in unselected invasive carcinoma of breast in Malaysian patients. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Advanced Medical and Dental Institute and Hospital, Kepala Batas, from year 2002 to 2007. Methodology: Ethical approval from Ministry of Health of Malaysia was obtained. Retrospective case records of patients presented between 2002- 2007 were reviewed for obtaining information on grade of tumour and expression of ER/PR in unselected carcinoma of breast patients. Records with missing data were discarded. Results: Out of 195 cases evaluated, 42 cases of grade-I tumour were recorded of which 08 (19%) tested positive for ER and 34 (81%) tested negative, 86 cases represented grade-II tumour of which 33 (38%) tested positive for ER and 53 (62%) were negative for ER, while out of 67 grade-III tumours 22 (33%) were positive for ER receptors while 45 (67%) were negative, (x/sup 2/ statistic (df) 4.831, p=0.089). For PR, 192 cases were evaluated and data was missing for 3 cases on PR status. Grade-I tumour consisted of 39 cases of which PR +ve represented 07 (17.94%) and 32 (82.05) cases PR -ve; 86 cases were of grade-II of which 31 (36.04%) were PR +ve and 55 (63.95%) PR -ve. Sixty seven cases of grade-III tumour of which 19 (28.35%) were PR +ve and 48 (71.64) were PR -ve (X/sup 2/ statistic (df): 4.297; p=0.117). Conclusion: ER/PR positivity trend was highest for grade-II tumours compared to grade-I and grade-III tumours. In general ER positivity was more with grade-II and grade-III tumours compared to grade I tumours. Although results did not reach statistical significance but there was a trend towards ER/PR positivity in grade-II and III tumours. So far, studies from South East Asia reported ER/PR expression more with low grade tumours. (author)

  20. Expression of Growth Hormone Receptors by Lymphocyte subpopulations in the Human tonsil

    Olivier Thellin; Bernard Coumans; Willy Zorzi; Ross Barnard; Georges Hennen; Ernst Heinen; Ahmed Igout

    1998-01-01

    The ability of human tonsillar lymphoid cells to express growth hormone receptor (hGH-N-R) was analyzed by flow cytometry. FITC-coupled recombinant human growth hormone (hGH-N) was used to reveal the receptors, in combination with phenotype markers. Unlike T cells, tonsillar B cells constitutively express the hGH-N receptor. Quiescent cells separated from activated cells by Percoll-gradient centrifugation bear fewer receptors than activated ones. Activated T cells express hGH-N-R, but the typ...

  1. Modulation of adenosine A(2A) receptor function by interacting proteins. New targets for Huntington’s disease

    Bakešová, Jana

    2012-01-01

    [eng] In this dissertation we studied the pharmacological and functional consequences of adenosine A2A receptor interaction with other proteins, as other neurotransmitter receptores localized in the human brain and an important enzyme regulating the extracellular concentration of adenosine, the ecto-ADA (adenosine desaminase). The first aim of this thesis was to study the molecular and functional interaction of A(2A)Rwith ADA. We found out that A(2A)Racted as a membrane anchoring protein of A...

  2. Adenosine A2A receptor binding profile of two antagonists, ST1535 and KW6002: consideration on the presence of atypical adenosine A2A binding sites

    Teresa Riccioni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine A2A receptors seem to exist in typical (more in striatum and atypical (more in hippocampus and cortex subtypes. In the present study, we investigated the affinity of two adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, ST1535 [2 butyl -9-methyl-8-(2H-1,2,3-triazol 2-yl-9H-purin-6-xylamine] and KW6002 [(E-1,3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,dione] to the “typical” and “atypical” A2A binding sites. Affinity was determined by radioligand competition experiments in membranes from rat striatum and hippocampus. Displacement of the adenosine analog [3H]CGS21680 [2-p-(2-carboxyethylphenethyl-amino-5’-N-ethylcarbox-amidoadenosine] was evaluated in the absence or in the presence of either CSC [8-(3-chlorostyryl-caffeine], an adenosine A2A antagonist that pharmacologically isolates atypical binding sites, or DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist that pharmacologically isolates typical binding site. ZM241385 [84-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl [1,2,4]-triazol[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-yl amino]ethyl phenol] and SCH58261 [(5-amino-7-(β-phenylethyl-2-(8-furylpyrazolo(4,3-e-1,2,4-triazolo(1,5-c pyrimidine], two other adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, which were reported to differently bind to atypical and typical A2A receptors, were used as reference compounds. ST1535, KW6002, ZM241385 and SCH58261 displaced [3H]CGS21680 with higher affinity in striatum than in hippocampus. In hippocampus, no typical adenosine A2A binding was detected, and ST1535 was the only compound that occupied atypical A2A adenosine receptors. Present data are explained in terms of heteromeric association among adenosine A2A, A2B and A1 receptors, rather than with the presence of atypical A2A receptor subtype.

  3. Chemokine receptor expression on B cells and effect of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Roed, Hanne; Sellebjerg, Finn

    We investigated the B-cell expression of chemokine receptors CXCR3, CXCR5 and CCR5 in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients in relapse of multiple sclerosis (MS) and in neurological controls. Chemokine receptor expression was also studied in interferon-beta-treated patients with r...

  4. Heterologously expressed serotonin 1A receptors couple to muscarinic K+ channels in heart

    Karschin, A; Ho, B Y; Labarca, C; Elroy-Stein, O; Moss, B; Davidson, N.; Lester, H A

    1991-01-01

    In cardiac atrial cells, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors activate a K+ current directly via a guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein). Serotonin type 1A receptors may activate a similar pathway in hippocampal neurons. To develop a system in which receptor/G protein/K+ channel coupling can be experimentally manipulated, we have used a highly efficient recombinant vaccinia virus vector system to express human serotonin 1A receptors in primary cultures of rat atrial myocytes. The expre...

  5. Expression and function profiling of orphan nuclear receptors using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenesis.

    Nemoz-Gaillard, Eric; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Tsai, Sophia Y.

    2003-01-01

    The long term goal of the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) resides in unraveling the physiological and pathological functions of nuclear receptors (NRs) at the molecular, biochemical and cellular levels. This multi-oriented task requires complementary approaches in order to determine the specific function(s) and precise expression and receptor activity patterns for each individual conventional or orphan receptor. To attain this objective, we have chose to turn to technologies recently...

  6. Stratum-Specific Expression of Human Transferrin Receptor Increases Iron in Mouse Epidermis

    Milstone, Leonard M.; Brian D. Adams; Zhou, Jing; Sanchez, Victoria L. Bruegel; Shofner, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    Epidermal desquamation accounts for 20% of the body's iron loss each day. Yet, little is known about how iron content in epidermis is regulated. To test the importance of the transferrin receptor in regulating iron content in epidermis, we created transgenic mice that have stratum-specific expression of the human transferrin receptor. The keratin 14 promoter targeted the receptor primarily to basal, proliferating keratinocytes; the involucrin (Inv) promoter targeted the receptor to suprabasal...

  7. Excitatory amino acid neurotoxicity and modulation of glutamate receptor expression in organotypic brain slice cultures

    Zimmer, J; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Jakobsen, B; Noraberg, J

    2000-01-01

    -induced excitotoxicity and KA-glutamate receptor subunit mRNA expression after long-term exposure to low, non-toxic doses of KA and NBQX. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures, combined with standardized procedures for quantitation of cell damage and receptor subunit changes is of great potential use for...... studies of excitotoxic, glutamate receptor-induced neuronal cell death, receptor modulation and related neuroprotection....

  8. Folate Receptor Alpha Expression in Lung Cancer: Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance

    O'Shannessy, Daniel J.; Yu, Gordon; Smale, Robert; Fu, Yao-Shi; Singhal, Sunil; Thiel, Robert P.; Somers, Elizabeth B; Vachani, Anil

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of targeted therapies directed towards folate receptor alpha, with several such agents in late stage clinical development, the sensitive and robust detection of folate receptor alpha in tissues is of importance relative to patient selection and perhaps prognosis and prediction of response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the expression of folate receptor alpha in non-small cell lung cancer specimens to determine its frequency of expression and its potential for p...

  9. Comparison of albumin receptors expressed on bovine and human group G streptococci.

    Raeder, R; Otten, R. A.; Boyle, M D

    1991-01-01

    The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G streptococci was extracted and affinity purified. The protein was characterized for species reactivity, and monospecific antibodies were prepared to the purified receptor. The bovine group G albumin receptor was compared functionally, antigenically, and for DNA homology with the albumin-binding protein expressed by human group G streptococci. In agreement with previous reports, the albumin-binding activity of human strains was mediated by a uni...

  10. Substance P receptor binding sites are expressed by glia in vivo after neuronal injury

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that glia can express functional receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters. To determine whether similar neurotransmitter receptors are also expressed by glia in vivo, the authors examined the glial scar in the transected optic nerve of the albino rabbit by quantitative receptor autoradiography. Receptor binding sites for radiolabeled calcitonin gene-related peptide, cholecystokinin, galanin, glutamate, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were examined. Specific receptor binding sites for each of these neurotransmitters were identified in the rabbit forebrain but were not detected in the normal optic nerve or tract. In the transected optic nerve and tract, only receptor binding sites for substance P were expressed at detectable levels. The density of substance P receptor binding sites observed in this glial scar is among the highest observed in the rabbit forebrain. Ligand displacement and saturation experiments indicate that the substance P receptor binding site expressed by the glial scar has pharmacological characteristics similar to those of substance P receptors in the rabbit striatum, rat brain, and rat and canine gut. The present study demonstrates that glial cells in vivo express high concentrations of substance P receptor binding sites after transection of retinal ganglion cell axons. Because substance P has been shown to regulate inflammatory and immune responses in peripheral tissues, substance P may also, by analogy, be involved in regulating the glial response to injury in the central nervous system

  11. Annexin A2 is a natural extrahepatic inhibitor of the PCSK9-induced LDL receptor degradation.

    Nabil G Seidah

    Full Text Available Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (PCSK9 enhances the degradation of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR. Deletion of PCSK9, and loss-of-function mutants in humans result in lower levels of circulating LDL-cholesterol and a strong protection against coronary heart disease. Accordingly, the quest for PCSK9 inhibitors has major clinical implications. We have previously identified annexin A2 (AnxA2 as an endogenous binding partner and functional inhibitor of PCSK9. Herein, we studied the relevance of AnxA2 in PCSK9 inhibition and lipid metabolism in vivo. Plasma analyses of AnxA2(-/- mice revealed: i a ∼1.4-fold increase in LDL-cholesterol without significant changes in VLDLs or HDLs, and ii a ∼2-fold increase in circulating PCSK9 levels. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry of AnxA2(-/- tissues revealed that the LDLR was decreased by ∼50% in extrahepatic tissues, such as adrenals and colon. We also show that AnxA2-derived synthetic peptides block the PCSK9≡LDLR interaction in vitro, and adenoviral overexpression of AnxA2 in mouse liver increases LDLR protein levels in vivo. These results suggest that AnxA2 acts as an endogenous regulator of LDLR degradation, mostly in extrahepatic tissues. Finally, we identified an AnxA2 coding polymorphism, V98L, that correlates with lower circulating levels of PCSK9 thereby extending our results on the physiological role of AnxA2 in humans.

  12. Expression of glucocorticoid and progesterone nuclear receptor genes in archival breast cancer tissue

    Previous studies in our laboratory have shown associations of specific nuclear receptor gene variants with sporadic breast cancer. In order to investigate these findings further, we conducted the present study to determine whether expression levels of the progesterone and glucocorticoid nuclear receptor genes vary in different breast cancer grades. RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded archival breast tumour tissue and converted into cDNA. Sample cDNA underwent PCR using labelled primers to enable quantitation of mRNA expression. Expression data were normalized against the 18S ribosomal gene multiplex and analyzed using analysis of variance. Analysis of variance indicated a variable level of expression of both genes with regard to breast cancer grade (P = 0.00033 for glucocorticoid receptor and P = 0.023 for progesterone receptor). Statistical analysis indicated that expression of the progesterone nuclear receptor is elevated in late grade breast cancer tissue

  13. Regulation of vitamin D receptor expression by retinoic acid receptor alpha in acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Marchwicka, Aleksandra; Cebrat, Małgorzata; Łaszkiewicz, Agnieszka; Śnieżewski, Łukasz; Brown, Geoffrey; Marcinkowska, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by an accumulation of malignant immature myeloid precursors. A very promising way to treat AML is differentiation therapy using either all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D), or the use of both these differentiation-inducing agents. However, the effect of combination treatment varies in different AML cell lines, and this is due to ATRA either down- or up-regulating transcription of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the cells examined. The mechanism of transcriptional regulation of VDR in response to ATRA has not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) is responsible for regulating VDR transcription in AML cells. We have shown that a VDR transcriptional variant, originating in exon 1a, is regulated by RARα agonists in AML cells. Moreover, in cells with a high basal level of RARα protein, the VDR gene is transcriptionally repressed as long as RARα agonist is absent. In these cells down-regulation of the level of RARα leads to increased expression of VDR. We consider that our findings provide a mechanistic background to explain the different outcomes from treating AML cell lines with a combination of ATRA and 1,25D. PMID:26969398

  14. Functional enhancement of AT1R potency in the presence of the TPαR is revealed by a comprehensive 7TM receptor co-expression screen.

    Jonas Tind Hansen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional cross-talk between seven transmembrane (7TM receptors can dramatically alter their pharmacological properties, both in vitro and in vivo. This represents an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics that potentially target more specific biological effects while causing fewer adverse events. Although several studies convincingly have established the existence of 7TM receptor cross-talk, little is known about the frequencey and biological significance of this phenomenon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To evaluate the extent of synergism in 7TM receptor signaling, we took a comprehensive approach and co-expressed 123 different 7TM receptors together with the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R and analyzed how each receptor affected the angiotensin II (AngII response. To monitor the effect we used integrative receptor activation/signaling assay called Receptor Selection and Amplification Technology (R-SAT. In this screen the thromboxane A2α receptor (TPαR was the only receptor which significantly enhanced the AngII-mediated response. The TPαR-mediated enhancement of AngII signaling was significantly reduced when a signaling deficient receptor mutant (TPαR R130V was co-expressed instead of the wild-type TPαR, and was completely blocked both by TPαR antagonists and COX inhibitors inhibiting formation of thromboxane A2 (TXA2. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found a functional enhancement of AT1R only when co-expressed with TPαR, but not with 122 other 7TM receptors. In addition, the TPαR must be functionally active, indicating the AT1R enhancement is mediated by a paracrine mechanism. Since we only found one receptor enhancing AT1R potency, our results suggest that functional augmentation through 7TM receptor cross-talk is a rare event that may require specific conditions to occur.

  15. Expression profile and prognostic role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer

    Increasing interest has been devoted to the expression and possible role of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer, but most of these findings are controversial. In the present study, the expression profile of sex hormone receptors in gastric cancer and their clinicopathological and prognostic value were determined in a large Chinese cohort. The mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), estrogen receptor beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), and androgen receptor (AR) in primary gastric tumors and corresponding adjacent normal tissues from 60 and 866 Chinese gastric cancer patients was detected by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry method, respectively. The expression profile of the four receptors was compared and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics were assessed by using Chi-square test. The prognostic value of the four receptors in gastric cancer was evaluated by using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. The presence of ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR in both gastric tumors and normal tissues was confirmed but their expression levels were extremely low except for the predominance of ERβ. The four receptors were expressed independently and showed a decreased expression pattern in gastric tumors compared to adjacent normal tissues. The positive expression of the four receptors all correlated with high tumor grade and intestinal type, and ERα and AR were also associated with early TNM stage and thereby a favorable outcome. However, ERα and AR were not independent prognostic factors for gastric cancer when multivariate survival analysis was performed. Our findings indicate that the sex hormone receptors may be partly involved in gastric carcinogenesis but their clinicopathological and prognostic significance in gastric cancer appears to be limited

  16. Role of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor expression in eosinophils of patients with allergic rhinitis, and effect of topical nasal steroid treatment on this receptor expression.

    Mackle, T

    2008-12-01

    Recent research has indicated that sphingosine 1-phosphate plays a role in allergy. This study examined the effect of allergen challenge on the expression of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors on the eosinophils of allergic rhinitis patients, and the effect of steroid treatment on this expression.

  17. Interactions between N-Ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor and GluA2 contribute to effects of glucocorticoid hormones on AMPA receptor function in the rodent hippocampus.

    Xiong, Hui; Cassé, Frédéric; Zhou, Ming; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Joels, Marian; Martin, Stéphane; Krugers, Harm J

    2016-07-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones, via activation of their receptors, promote memory consolidation, but the exact underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We examined how corticosterone regulates AMPA receptor (AMPAR) availability in the synapse, which is important for synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Peptides which specifically block the interaction between N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Factor (NSF) and the AMPAR-subunit GluA2 prevented the increase in synaptic transmission and surface expression of AMPARs known to occur after corticosterone application to hippocampal neurons. Combining a live imaging Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) approach with the use of the pH-sensitive GFP-AMPAR tagging revealed that this NSF/GluA2 interaction was also essential for the increase of the mobile fraction and reduction of the diffusion of AMPARs after treating hippocampal neurons with corticosterone. We conclude that the interaction between NSF and GluA2 contributes to the effects of corticosterone on AMPAR function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26766634

  18. Endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 regulate endothelin receptor expression in rat coronary arteries

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Kilic, Semsi; Edvinsson, Lars

    2015-01-01

    . Organ culture significantly up-regulated ETB receptors and down-regulated ETA receptor expression. Co-incubation with ET-1 (1 nM) or ET-3 (100 nM) induced further down-regulation of the ETA receptor mRNA, while the function and protein level of ETA remained unchanged. ET-3 (100 nM) further up-regulated......In ischaemic hearts, endothelin (ET) levels are increased, and vasoconstrictor responses to ET-1 are greatly enhanced. We previously reported that ETB receptors are up-regulated in the smooth muscle layer of coronary arteries after myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion and that the MEK-ERK1/2 signalling...... pathway is involved in ETB receptor up-regulation. Whether ETs are directly involved in receptor regulation has not been determined. We suggest that ET-1 and ET-3 alter the expression/activity of ET receptors in coronary vascular smooth muscle cells. Vasoconstrictor responses were studied in endothelium...

  19. Computational study of the binding modes of caffeine to the adenosine A2A receptor.

    Liu, Yuli; Burger, Steven K; Ayers, Paul W; Vöhringer-Martinez, Esteban

    2011-12-01

    Using the recently solved crystal structure of the human adenosine A(2A) receptor, we applied MM/PBSA to compare the binding modes of caffeine with those of the high-affinity selective antagonist ZM241385. MD simulations were performed in the environment of the lipid membrane bilayer. Four low-energy binding modes of caffeine-A(2A) were found, all of which had similar energies. Assuming an equal contribution of each binding mode of caffeine, the computed binding free energy difference between caffeine and ZM241385 is -2.4 kcal/mol, which compares favorably with the experimental value, -3.6 kcal/mol. The configurational entropy contribution of -0.9 kcal/mol from multiple binding modes of caffeine helps explain how a small molecule like caffeine can compete with a significantly larger molecule, ZM241385, which can form many more interactions with the receptor. We also performed residue-wise energy decomposition and found that Phe168, Leu249, and Ile274 contribute most significantly to the binding modes of caffeine and ZM241385. PMID:21970461

  20. Genetic blockade of adenosine A2A receptors induces cognitive impairments and anatomical changes related to psychotic symptoms in mice.

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder with a presumed neurodevelopmental origin, and no effective treatment. Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with genetic, environmental and neurochemical etiology. The main theories on the pathophysiology of this disorder include alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in limbic and cortical areas of the brain. Early hypotheses also suggested that nucleoside adenosine is a putative affected neurotransmitter system, and clinical evidence suggests that adenosine adjuvants improve treatment outcomes, especially in poorly responsive patients. Hence, it is important to elucidate the role of the neuromodulator adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) subtypes are expressed in brain areas controlling motivational responses and cognition, including striatum, and in lower levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize A2AR knockout (KO) mice with complete and specific inactivation of A2AR, as an animal model for schizophrenia. We performed behavioral, anatomical and neurochemical studies to assess psychotic-like symptoms in adult male and female KO and wild-type (WT) littermates. Our results show impairments in inhibitory responses and sensory gating in A2AR KO animals. Hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and MK-801 was reduced in KO animals when compared to WT littermates. Moreover, A2AR KO animals show motor disturbances, social and cognitive alterations. Finally, behavioral impairments were associated with enlargement of brain lateral ventricles and decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus. These data highlight the role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provide new possibilities for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia. PMID:27133030

  1. Vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1) expression and function in the vasculature of the rat

    Tóth Attila (1971-) (molekuláris biológus); Czikora Ágnes (1982-) (molekuláris biológus); Pásztorné Tóth Enikő (1966-) (laboratóriumi analitikus); Dienes Beatrix (1972-) (élettanász, molekuláris biológus); Bai Péter (1976-) (biokémikus); Csernoch László (1961-) (élettanász); Rutkai Ibolya (1985-) (molekuláris biológus); Csató Viktória (1986-) (molekuláris biológus); Mányiné Siket Ivetta (1962-) (laborasszisztens); Pórszász Róbert (1965-) (farmakológus, klinikai farmakológus); Édes István (1952-) (kardiológus); Papp Zoltán (1959-) (fizikus); Boczán Judit (1972-) (neurológus)

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels are emerging in vascular biology. In particular, the expression of the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) was reported in vascular smooth muscle cells. This study characterized the arteriolar TRPV1 function and expression in the rat. TRPV1 mRNA was expressed in various vascular beds. Six commercially available antibodies were tested for TRPV1 specificity. Two of them were specific (immunostaining was abolished by blocking peptides) for neuronal TRPV1...

  2. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves' patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves' disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs

  3. The assay of thyrotropin receptor antibodies with human TSH/LH-CG chimeric receptor expressed on chinese hamster ovary cells

    Yi, Ka Hee; Kim, Chang Min [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    TSH/LH-CG chimera cDNA is transfected to CHO-K1 cell to obtain the chimeric receptor expressed on the cell surface. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurements are determined using chimeric receptors and under these conditions activity of TSAb and TSBAb in the sera of the Graves` patients. The results obtained are compared to those of TSAb assays using FRTL5 cells CHO-TSHR cells which have wild type human TSH receptor. The transfection procedure of chimeric receptor gene to CHO-K1 cells are on going. The optimal conditions for TSAb and TSBAb measurement using chimeric receptor will be determined after success of transfection procedure. If this study is successfully completed, not only the heterogeneity of Graves. IgG but also pathogenesis of Graves` disease will be elucidated. (author). 25 refs.

  4. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... lung cancer cell lines express the EGF receptor....... demonstrated that the cells bound between 3 and 52 fmol/mg protein with a KD ranging from 0.5 x 10(-10) to 2.7 x 10(-10) M. EGF binding to the receptor was confirmed by affinity-labeling EGF to the EGF receptor. The cross-linked complex had a M(r) of 170,000-180,000. Northern blotting showed the expression of...

  5. Association of estrogen receptor-α and progesterone receptor A expression with hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: role of the host microenvironment

    Montero Girard, Guadalupe; Silvia I. Vanzulli; Cerliani, Juan Pablo; Bottino, María Cecilia; Bolado, Julieta; Vela, Jorge; Becu-Villalobos, Damasia; Benavides, Fernando; Gutkind, Silvio; Patel, Vyomesh; Molinolo, Alfredo; Lanari, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) induces estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and progesterone receptor (PR)-positive ductal invasive mammary carcinomas in BALB/c mice. We sought to reproduce this MPA cancer model in C57BL/6 mice because of their widespread use in genetic engineering. Within this experimental setting, we studied the carcinogenic effects of MPA, the morphologic changes in mammary glands that are induced by MPA and progesterone, and the levels of ER and PR expression i...

  6. Expression of functional growth hormone receptor in a mouse L cell line infected with recombinant vaccinia virus

    Strous, G J; van Kerkhof, P; Verheijen, C; Rossen, J W; Liou, W; Slot, J W; Roelen, C A; Schwartz, A L

    1994-01-01

    The growth hormone receptor is a member of a large family of receptors including the receptors for prolactin and interleukins. Upon binding to one molecule of growth hormone two growth hormone receptor polypeptides dimerize. We have expressed the rabbit growth hormone receptor DNA in transfected mou

  7. Amplification of neuromuscular transmission by methylprednisolone involves activation of presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors and redistribution of synaptic vesicles.

    Oliveira, L; Costa, A C; Noronha-Matos, J B; Silva, I; Cavalcante, W L G; Timóteo, M A; Corrado, A P; Dal Belo, C A; Ambiel, C R; Alves-do-Prado, W; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms underlying improvement of neuromuscular transmission deficits by glucocorticoids are still a matter of debate despite these compounds have been used for decades in the treatment of autoimmune myasthenic syndromes. Besides their immunosuppressive action, corticosteroids may directly facilitate transmitter release during high-frequency motor nerve activity. This effect coincides with the predominant adenosine A2A receptor tonus, which coordinates the interplay with other receptors (e.g. muscarinic) on motor nerve endings to sustain acetylcholine (ACh) release that is required to overcome tetanic neuromuscular depression in myasthenics. Using myographic recordings, measurements of evoked [(3)H]ACh release and real-time video microscopy with the FM4-64 fluorescent dye, results show that tonic activation of facilitatory A2A receptors by endogenous adenosine accumulated during 50 Hz bursts delivered to the rat phrenic nerve is essential for methylprednisolone (0.3 mM)-induced transmitter release facilitation, because its effect was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385 (10 nM). Concurrent activation of the positive feedback loop operated by pirenzepine-sensitive muscarinic M1 autoreceptors may also play a role, whereas the corticosteroid action is restrained by the activation of co-expressed inhibitory M2 and A1 receptors blocked by methoctramine (0.1 μM) and DPCPX (2.5 nM), respectively. Inhibition of FM4-64 loading (endocytosis) by methylprednisolone following a brief tetanic stimulus (50 Hz for 5 s) suggests that it may negatively modulate synaptic vesicle turnover, thus increasing the release probability of newly recycled vesicles. Interestingly, bulk endocytosis was rehabilitated when methylprednisolone was co-applied with ZM241385. Data suggest that amplification of neuromuscular transmission by methylprednisolone may involve activation of presynaptic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptors by endogenous adenosine leading to synaptic

  8. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Expression in Muscle Cells

    Young, Ronald B.; Bridge, K.; Vaughn, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    beta-adrenergic receptor (bAR) agonists presumably exert their physiological action on skeletal muscle cells through the bAR. Since the signal generated by the bAR is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in primary chicken muscle cell cultures to determine if artificial elevation of intracellular cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter the population of bAR expressed on the surface of muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were employed for the experiments because muscle cells have attained a steady state with respect to muscle protein metabolism at this stage. Cells were treated with 0-10 uM forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the 1, 2, and 3 day treatment intervals, the concentration of cAMP and the bAR population were measured. Receptor population was measured in intact muscle cell cultures as the difference between total binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 and non-specific binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 in the presence of 1 uM propranolol. Intracellular cAMP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of forskolin also led to an increase in (beta)AR population, with a maximum increase of approximately 50% at 10 uM. This increase in (beta)AR population was apparent after only 1 day of treatment, and the pattern of increase was maintained for all 3 days of the treatment period. Thus, increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP leads to up-regulation of (beta)AR population. Clenbuterol and isoproterenol gave similar effects on bAR population. The effect of forskolin on the quantity and apparent synthesis rate of the heavy chain of myosin (mhc) were also investigated. A maximum increase of 50% in the quantity of mhc was observed at 0.2 UM forskolin, but higher concentrations of forskolin reduced the quantity of mhc back to control levels.

  9. Graft versus host disease: New insights into A2A receptor agonist therapy

    Karlie R. Jones

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic transplantation can cure many disorders, including sickle cell disease, chronic granulomatous disease (CGD, severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and many types of cancers. However, there are several associated risks that can result in severe immunological reactions and, in some cases, death. Much of this morbidity is related to graft versus host disease (GVHD [1]. GVHD is an immune mediated reaction in which donor T cells recognize the host as antigenically foreign, causing donor T cells to expand and attack host tissues. The current method of treating recent transplant patients with immunosuppressants to prevent this reaction has met with only partial success, emphasizing a need for new methods of GVHD treatment and prevention. Recently, a novel strategy has emerged targeting adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR through the use of adenosine agonists. These agonists have been shown in vitro to increase the TGFβ-induced generation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs and in vivo to improve weight gain and mortality as well as inhibit the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in GVHD murine models [2,3]. Positive results involving A2AR agonists in vitro and in vivo are promising, suggesting that A2AR agonists should be a part of the management of clinical GvHD.

  10. Relationship between expression of somatostatin receptors subtype 2 mRNA and estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    曾希志; 姚榛祥

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To observe the expression of somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2) mRNA, and investigate the relationship between the expression of SSTR2 mRNA and the expressions of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ERs and PRs) in benign and malignant breast tissues.Methods Samples from a total of 23 breast carcinomas, 16 mammary hyperplasias, and 9 mammary fibroadenomas were analyzed. SSTR2 mRNA expression was examined by in situ hybridization using multiphase oligoprobes. ER and PR expressions were detected by immunohistochemical staining. A computerized image analysis system was utilized to estimate the relative content of SSTR2 mRNA.Results The rate of expression (87.0%) and relative content (0.47) of SSTR2 mRNA in breast cancer were higher than those in benign breast tissue (64%,0.26) (P<0.05). SSTR2 mRNA expression was closely correlated with ER and PR expressions in breast cancer (P<0.05). SSTR2 mRNA was also positively correlated with ER expression in benign breast tissues.Conclusions SSTR2 mRNA expression is higher or in benign breast tissues than in malignant ones. There is a significant positive correlation between SSTR2 mRNA and ER and PR expressions. Combined antiestrogen and somatostatin analogue in treatment of ER-positive breast cancers should be further investigated.

  11. DMPD: G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17456803 G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macropha...2007 Apr 24. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signali...ng in macrophages. PubmedID 17456803 Title G-protein-coupled receptor expression,

  12. Comparative study of histamine H4 receptor expression in human dermal fibroblasts.

    Ikawa, Yoshiko; Shiba, Kayoko; Ohki, Emi; Mutoh, Nanami; Suzuki, Masahiko; Sato, Hiromi; Ueno, Koichi

    2008-10-01

    The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) is the newest receptor identified of four histamine receptors. Its expression in numerous immune and inflammatory organs has been implicated in relation to immune systems and allergic diseases. In the present study, we demonstrate the expression of H4R in human dermal fibroblasts and investigate changes in its expression level when stimulated by histamine, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), dexamethasone and indomethacin. Histamine and PMA showed no effects on H4R expression. LPS and indomethacin up-regulated H4R mRNA expression, and 20 microM dexamethasone increased H4R protein levels. These results indicate a good prospective for this new receptor in the development of effective treatments of inflammatory diseases and pruritus or for the appropriate prevention of toxicities. PMID:18827451

  13. Expression of mammalian beta-adrenergic receptors in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Xenopus laevis oocytes are a useful transcription and expression system for DNA and RNA, respectively. Total cellular RNA was extracted from mouse lymphoma S49 cells and poly(A)+mRNA prepared by affinity chromatography of RNA on oligo(dT) cellulose. The membranes of S49 cells contain beta-adrenergic receptors that display pharmacological characteristics of beta2-subtype. Xenopus laevis oocytes were injected with 50 ng of mRNA/oocyte. Expression of beta-adrenergic receptors in oocytes incubated for 30 hr after microinjection was assessed in membranes by radioligand binding using [3H] dihydroalprenolol. The injected oocytes displayed 0.34 fmol receptor/oocyte as compared to 0.02 fmol receptor/oocyte in the control oocytes. The affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors in injected oocytes for this radioligand was 2 nM, a value similar to the affinity of beta-adrenergic receptors for DHA in S49 cell membranes. The potency of beta-adrenergic agonists in competing for DHA binding to oocytes membranes was isoproterenol > epinephrine > norepineprine, indicating that the expressed beta-adrenergic receptors were of the beta2-subtype. The K/sub I/ of these agonists for the beta-adrenergic receptor in oocyte membranes was 0.03, 0.15 and 1.2 μM, respectively. The role of post-translational modification in dictating receptor subtype is analyzed using mRNA of beta1- as well as beta2-adrenergic receptors

  14. Plasticity in D1-like receptor expression is associated with different components of cognitive processes.

    Christina Herold

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1-like receptors consist of D1 (D1A and D5 (D1B receptors and play a key role in working memory. However, their possibly differential contribution to working memory is unclear. We combined a working memory training protocol with a stepwise increase of cognitive subcomponents and real-time RT-PCR analysis of dopamine receptor expression in pigeons to identify molecular changes that accompany training of isolated cognitive subfunctions. In birds, the D1-like receptor family is extended and consists of the D1A, D1B, and D1D receptors. Our data show that D1B receptor plasticity follows a training that includes active mental maintenance of information, whereas D1A and D1D receptor plasticity in addition accompanies learning of stimulus-response associations. Plasticity of D1-like receptors plays no role for processes like response selection and stimulus discrimination. None of the tasks altered D2 receptor expression. Our study shows that different cognitive components of working memory training have distinguishable effects on D1-like receptor expression.

  15. Enhanced expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) in lung cancer

    Jala Venkatakrishna Rao; Radde Brandie N; Haribabu Bodduluri; Klinge Carolyn M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) was reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E2), tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and promotes activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in breast, endometrial and thyroid cancer cells. Although lung adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), the expression of GPER in lung cancer has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of GPER in...

  16. Expression of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance

    李清怀

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the expression of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance.Methods Seventy-four patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma treated in our department from January 2009 to January 2011were selected as the observation group,and 28 patients with nodular goiter were selected as the control group.Expression of TSH receptor in the two groups were detected by immunohistochemistry.Results The positive rate of TSH receptor expression in the observation group was55.4 (41/74) ,significantly lower than that of the control

  17. Expression Profiles of Neuropeptides, Neurotransmitters, and Their Receptors in Human Keratocytes In Vitro and In Situ.

    Marta Słoniecka

    Full Text Available Keratocytes, the quiescent cells of the corneal stroma, play a crucial role in corneal wound healing. Neuropeptides and neurotransmitters are usually associated with neuronal signaling, but have recently been shown to be produced also by non-neuronal cells and to be involved in many cellular processes. The aim of this study was to assess the endogenous intracellular and secreted levels of the neuropeptides substance P (SP and neurokinin A (NKA, and of the neurotransmitters acetylcholine (ACh, catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and glutamate, as well as the expression profiles of their receptors, in human primary keratocytes in vitro and in keratocytes of human corneal tissue sections in situ. Cultured keratocytes expressed genes encoding for SP and NKA, and for catecholamine and glutamate synthesizing enzymes, as well as genes for neuropeptide, adrenergic and ACh (muscarinic receptors. Keratocytes in culture produced SP, NKA, catecholamines, ACh, and glutamate, and expressed neurokinin-1 and -2 receptors (NK-1R and NK-2R, dopamine receptor D2, muscarinic ACh receptors, and NDMAR1 glutamate receptor. Human corneal sections expressed SP, NKA, NK-1R, NK-2R, receptor D2, choline acetyl transferase (ChAT, M3, M4 and M5 muscarinic ACh receptors, glutamate, and NMDAR1, but not catecholamine synthesizing enzyme or the α1 and β2 adrenoreceptors, nor M1 receptor. In addition, expression profiles assumed significant differences between keratocytes from the peripheral cornea as compared to those from the central cornea, as well as differences between keratocytes cultured under various serum concentrations. In conclusion, human keratocytes express an array of neuropeptides and neurotransmitters. The cells furthermore express receptors for neuropeptides/neurotransmitters, which suggests that they are susceptible to stimulation by these substances in the cornea, whether of neuronal or non-neuronal origin. As it has been shown that

  18. Notch Signaling Activation in Cervical Cancer Cells Induces Cell Growth Arrest with the Involvement of the Nuclear Receptor NR4A2

    Sun, Lichun; Liu, Mingqiu; Sun, Guang-Chun; Yang, Xu; Qian, Qingqing; Feng, Shuyu; Mackey, L. Vienna; Coy, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a second leading cancer death in women world-wide, with most cases in less developed countries. Notch signaling is highly conserved with its involvement in many cancers. In the present study, we established stable cervical cell lines with Notch activation and inactivation and found that Notch activation played a suppressive role in cervical cancer cells. Meanwhile, the transient overexpression of the active intracellular domain of all four Notch receptors (ICN1, 2, 3, and 4) also induced the suppression of cervical cancer Hela cell growth. ICN1 also induced cell cycle arrest at phase G1. Notch1 signaling activation affected the expression of serial genes, especially the genes associated with cAMP signaling, with an increase of genes like THBS1, VCL, p63, c-Myc and SCG2, a decrease of genes like NR4A2, PCK2 and BCL-2. Particularly, The nuclear receptor NR4A2 was observed to induce cell proliferation via MTT assay and reduce cell apoptosis via FACS assay. Furthermore, NR4A2's activation could reverse ICN1-induced suppression of cell growth while erasing ICN1-induced increase of tumor suppressor p63. These findings support that Notch signaling mediates cervical cancer cell growth suppression with the involvement of nuclear receptor NR4A2. Notably, Notch/NR4A2/p63 signaling cascade possibly is a new signling pathway undisclosed. PMID:27471554

  19. Cannabinoid, melanocortin and opioid receptor expression on DRD1 and DRD2 subpopulations in rat striatum

    Ralph J Oude-Ophuis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The striatum harbors two neuronal populations that enable action selection. One population represents the striatonigral pathway, expresses the dopamine receptor D1 (DRD1 and promotes the execution of motor programs, while the other population represents the striatopallidal pathway, expresses the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2 and suppresses voluntary activity. The two populations integrate distinct sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional information streams and their combined activity enables the selection of adaptive behaviors. Characterization of these populations is critical to the understanding of their role in action selection, because it aids the identification of the molecular mechanisms that separate them. To that end, we used fluorescent in-situ hybridization to quantify the percentage of striatal cells that (coexpress dopaminergic receptors and receptors of the cannabinoid, melanocortin or opioid neurotransmitters systems. Our main findings are that the cannabinoid 1 receptor is equally expressed on both populations with a gradient from dorsal to ventral striatum, that the opioid receptors have a preference for expression with either the DRD1 or DRD2 and that the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R is predominantly expressed in ventral parts of the striatum. In addition, we find that the level of MC4R expression determines its localization to either the DRD1 or the DRD2 population. Thereby, we provide insight into the sensitivity of the two dopaminoceptive populations to these neurotransmitters and progress the understanding of the mechanisms that enable action selection.

  20. Effects of chemotherapy agents on Sphingosine-1-Phosphate receptors expression in MCF-7 mammary cancer cells.

    Ghosal, P; Sukocheva, O A; Wang, T; Mayne, G C; Watson, D I; Hussey, D J

    2016-07-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive sphingolipid involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and cancer progression. Increased expression of S1P receptors has been detected in advanced breast tumours with poor prognosis suggesting that S1P receptors might control tumour response to chemotherapy. However, it remains unclear how the levels of S1P receptor expression are influenced by chemotherapy agents. Western immunoblotting, PCR analysis and fluorescent microscopy techniques were used in this study to analyze expression patterns of S1P receptors 2 and 3 (S1P2/S1P3) in MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells treated by Tamoxifen (TAM) and/or Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). We found that TAM/MPA induce downregulation of S1P3 receptors, but stimulate expression of S1P2. According to cell viability and caspase activity analyses, as expected, TAM activated apoptosis. We also detected TAM/MPA-induced autophagy marked by formation of macroautophagosomes and increased level of Beclin 1. Combined application of TAM and MPA resulted in synergistic apoptosis- and autophagy-stimulating effects. Assessed by fluorescent microscopy with autophagosome marker LAMP-2, changes in S1P receptor expression coincided with activation of autophagy, suggestively, directing breast cancer cells towards death. Further studies are warranted to explore the utility of manipulation of S1P2 and S1P3 receptor expression as a novel treatment approach. PMID:27261597

  1. Expression of IL-4/IL-13 receptors in differentiating human airway epithelial cells.

    White, Steven R; Martin, Linda D; Stern, Randi; Laxman, Bharathi; Marroquin, Bertha A

    2010-11-01

    IL-4 and IL-13 elicit several important responses in airway epithelium including chemokine secretion and mucous secretion that may contribute to airway inflammation, cell migration, and differentiation. These cytokines have overlapping but not identical effector profiles likely due to shared subunits in their receptor complexes. These receptors are variably described in epithelial cells, and the relative expression, localization, and function of these receptors in differentiated and repairing epithelial cells are not clear. We examined IL-4/IL-13 receptor expression and localization in primary airway epithelial cells collected from normal human lungs and grown under conditions yielding both undifferentiated and differentiated cells inclusive of basal, goblet, and ciliated cell phenotypes. Gene expression of the IL-4Rα, IL-2Rγc, IL-13Rα1, and IL-13Rα2 receptor subunits increased with differentiation, but different patterns of localization and protein abundance were seen for each subunit based on both differentiation and the cell subtypes present. Increased expression of receptor subunits observed in more differentiated cells was associated with more substantial functional responses to IL-4 stimulation including increased eotaxin-3 expression and accelerated migration after injury. We demonstrate substantial differences in IL-4/IL-13 receptor subunit expression and responsiveness to IL-4 based on the extent of airway epithelial cell differentiation and suggest that these differences may have functional consequences in airway inflammation. PMID:20729386

  2. Phospholipase A2 receptor positive membranous nephropathy long after living donor kidney transplantation between identical twins.

    Saito, Hisako; Hamasaki, Yoshifumi; Tojo, Akihiro; Shintani, Yukako; Shimizu, Akira; Nangaku, Masaomi

    2015-07-01

    Although membranous nephropathy (MN) is a commonly observed cause of post-transplant glomerulonephritis, distinguishing de novo from recurrent MN in kidney allograft is often difficult. Phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) staining is useful for diagnosing recurrent MN in allografts similarly to idiopathic MN in native kidney. No specific treatment strategy has been established for MN, especially when accompanied with HCV infection in kidney transplant recipients. This report describes a 66-year-old man who was diagnosed as having PLA2R positive membranous nephropathy accompanied with already-known IgA nephropathy and HCV infection 26 years after kidney transplantation conducted between identical twins. PLA2R was detected along capillary loops, implying that this patient is affected by the same pathogenic mechanism as idiopathic MN, not secondary MN associated with other disorders such as HCV infection. The patient successfully achieved clinical remission after steroid therapy. PMID:26031599

  3. Purinergic receptors expressed in human skeletal muscle fibres

    Bornø, A; Ploug, Thorkil; Bune, L T;

    2012-01-01

    distribution of purinergic receptors in skeletal muscle fibres. We speculate that the intracellular localization of purinergic receptors may reflect a role in regulation of muscle metabolism; further studies are nevertheless needed to determine the function of the purinergic system in skeletal muscle cells.......Purinergic receptors are present in most tissues and thought to be involved in various signalling pathways, including neural signalling, cell metabolism and local regulation of the microcirculation in skeletal muscles. The present study aims to determine the distribution and intracellular content...... of purinergic receptors in skeletal muscle fibres in patients with type 2 diabetes and age-matched controls. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis were obtained from six type 2 diabetic patients and seven age-matched controls. Purinergic receptors were analysed using light and confocal microscopy...

  4. Expression of D2 dopamine receptor mRNA in the arterial chemoreceptor afferent pathway.

    Czyzyk-Krzeska, M F; Lawson, E E; Millhorn, D E

    1992-11-01

    Dopamine is a major neurotransmitter in the arterial chemoreceptor pathway. In the present study we wished to determine if messenger RNAs for dopamine D1 and D2 receptor are expressed in carotid body (type I cells), in sensory neurons of the petrosal ganglion which innervate the carotid body and in sympathetic neurons of the superior cervical ganglion. We failed to detect D1 receptor mRNA in any of these tissues. However, we found that D2 receptor mRNA was expressed by dopaminergic carotid body type I cells. D2 receptor mRNA was also found in petrosal ganglion neurons that innervated the carotid sinus and carotid body. In addition, a large number of sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the superior cervical ganglion expressed D2 receptor mRNA. PMID:1362730

  5. Expression and localization of the omega-3 fatty acid receptor GPR120 in human term placenta

    Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I.; Gaccioli, Francesca; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids can function as signaling molecules, acting through receptors in the cytosol or on the cell surface. G-Protein Receptor (GPR)120 is a membrane-bound receptor mediating anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects of the omega-3 fatty acid docohexaenoic acid (DHA). GPR120 dysfunction is associated with obesity in humans. Cellular localization of GPR120 and the influence of maternal obesity on GPR120 protein expression in the placenta are unknown. Herein we demonstrate that GPR...

  6. Role of desensitization and subunit expression for kainate receptor-mediated neurotoxicity in murine neocortical cultures

    Jensen, J B; Schousboe, A; Pickering, D S;

    1999-01-01

    The neurotoxic actions of kainate and domoate were studied in cultured murine neocortical neurons at various days in culture and found to be developmentally regulated involving three components of neurotoxicity: (1) toxicity via indirect activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, (2) to...... produced by kainate receptors in mature cultures. Examining the subunit expression of the kainate receptor subunits GluR6/7 and KA2 did, however, not reveal any major change during development of the cultures....

  7. Calreticulin chaperones regulate functional expression of vomeronasal type 2 pheromone receptors

    Dey, Sandeepa; Matsunami, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    A variety of social behaviors like intermale aggression, fear, and mating rituals are important for sustenance of a species. In mice, these behaviors have been implicated to be mediated by peptide pheromones that are sensed by a class of G protein-coupled receptors, vomeronasal receptor type 2 (V2Rs), expressed in the pheromone detecting vomeronasal organ. Matching V2Rs with their cognate ligands is required to learn what receptors the biologically relevant pheromones are acting on. However, ...

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor expression during the process of fracture healing

    CHU Tong-wei; LIU Yu-gang; WANG Zheng-guo; ZHU Pei-fang; LIU Da-wei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the expression regularity of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) during the process of fracture healing, and the type of VEGF receptor expressed in the vascular endothelial cells of the fracture site.Methods: The fracture model was made in the middle part of left radius in 35 rabbits. The specimens from the fracture site were harvested at 8, 24, 72 hours and 1, 3, 5, 8 weeks, and then fixed, decalcified, and sectioned frozenly to detect the expression of VEGF and its receptor at the fracture site by in situ hybridization and immunochemical assays. Results: VEGF mRNA and VEGF expression was detected in many kinds of cells at the fracture site during 8hours to 8 weeks after fracture. Flt1 receptor of VEGF was found in the vascular endothelial cells at the fracture site during 8 hours to 8 weeks after fracture, and strong expression of flk1 receptor was detected from 3 days to 3 weeks after fracture. Conclusions: The expression of VEGF and flt1 receptor appears during the whole course of fracture healing, especially from 1 to 3 weeks. Flk1 receptor is highly expressed in a definite period after fracture. VEGF is proved to be involved in the vascular reconstruction and fracture healing.

  9. CD46 Measles Virus Receptor Polymorphisms Influence Receptor Protein Expression and Primary Measles Vaccine Responses in Naive Australian Children

    Clifford, Holly D.; Hayden, Catherine M.; Khoo, Siew-Kim; Zhang, Guicheng; Le Souëf, Peter N.; Richmond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of measles vaccines, infants continue to die from measles. Measles vaccine responses vary between individuals, and poor immunogenicity is likely to preclude protection against measles. CD46 is a ubiquitously expressed specific receptor for vaccine strains of measles virus. CD46 polymorphisms have not been functionally investigated but may affect CD46 protein expression, which in turn may mediate primary measles antibody responses in infants. In a cohort of children ag...

  10. Functional coupling between heterologously expressed dopamine D(2) receptors and KCNQ channels

    Ljungstrom, Trine; Grunnet, Morten; Jensen, Bo Skaaning;

    2003-01-01

    Activation of KCNQ potassium channels by stimulation of co-expressed dopamine D(2) receptors was studied electrophysiologically in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in mammalian cells. To address the specificity of the interaction between D(2)-like receptors and KCNQ channels, combinations of KCNQ1......-5 channels and D(2)-like receptors (D(2L), D(3), and D(4)) were investigated in Xenopus oocytes. Activation of either receptor with the selective D(2)-like receptor agonist quinpirole (100 nM) stimulated all the KCNQ currents, independently of the subunit combination, indicating a common pathway of receptor......-channel interaction. The KCNQ4 current was investigated in further detail and was increased by 19.9+/-1.6% ( n=20) by D(2L) receptor stimulation. The effect could be mimicked by injection of GTPgammaS and prevented by injection of Bordetella pertussis toxin, indicating that channel stimulation was mediated via a G...

  11. Reduced expression of epidermal growth factor receptor related protein in gastric cancer

    Moon, W. S.; Tarnawski, A S; Chai, J.; Yang, J. T.; Majumdar, A.P.N.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The recently cloned epidermal growth factor receptor related protein (ERRP) has been proposed to be a negative regulator of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Because of the causal involvement of EGFR and its ligands in gastric cancer growth, we investigated expression of ERRP and cell proliferation in human gastric cancer.

  12. Viral Engineering of Chimeric Antigen Receptor Expression on Murine and Human T Lymphocytes.

    Hammill, Joanne A; Afsahi, Arya; Bramson, Jonathan L; Helsen, Christopher W

    2016-01-01

    The adoptive transfer of a bolus of tumor-specific T lymphocytes into cancer patients is a promising therapeutic strategy. In one approach, tumor specificity is conferred upon T cells via engineering expression of exogenous receptors, such as chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). Here, we describe the generation and production of both murine and human CAR-engineered T lymphocytes using retroviruses. PMID:27581020

  13. Cloning and expression of the human N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR3A

    Eriksson, Maria; Nilsson, Anna; Froelich-Fabre, Susanne;

    2002-01-01

    Native N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are heteromeric assemblies of four or five subunits. The NMDA receptor subunits, NR1, NR2A, NR2B, NR2C, and NR2D have been cloned in several species, including man. The NR3A subunit, which in rodents is predominantly expressed during early development,...

  14. Low density lipoprotein induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive endothelin type B receptor expression

    Xu, Cang-Bao; Zheng, Jian-Pu; Zhang, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    Vasoconstrictive endothelin type B (ET(B)) receptors promote vasospasm and ischemic cerebro- and cardiovascular diseases. The present study was designed to examine if low density lipoprotein (LDL) induces upregulation of vasoconstrictive ET(B) receptor expression and if extracellular signal...

  15. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte;

    2005-01-01

    The erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) is expressed in the brain and erythropoietin (EPO) has been shown to have neurotrophic and neuroprotective functions in the central nervous system and in the retina. These findings may be applied to the inner ear, pending EPO receptor presence. Accordingly, this...

  16. Effect of Curcumin on the Gene Expression of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptors

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the molecular mechanisms and effective target ponits of lipid-lowering drug, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, and study the effect of curcumin on the expression of low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors in macrophages in mice. Methods: Macrophages in mice were treated with curcumin, which was purified from the ethanolly extraction of Rhizoma Curcumae Longae for 24 h. The LDL receptors expressed in the macrophages were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and assay of Dil labeled LDL uptake by flow cytometer. Results: It was found for the first time that 10 μmol/L-50μmol/L curcumin could obviously up-regulate the expression of LDL receptor in macrophages in mice, and a dose-effect relationship was demonstrated. Conclusion: One of the lipid-lowering mechanisms of traditional Chinese medicine, Rhizoma Curcumae Longae, was completed by the effect of curcumin through the up-regulation of the expression of LDL receptor.

  17. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK)

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A-/- mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A-/- mice was higher than that of SR-A+/+ mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A-/- mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  18. Class A scavenger receptor promotes osteoclast differentiation via the enhanced expression of receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B (RANK)

    Takemura, Kenichi [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sakashita, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Lei, XiaoFeng; Ohnishi, Koji [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Suzuki, Hiroshi [National Research Center for Protozoan Diseases, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido (Japan); Kodama, Tatsuhiko [Department of Molecular Biology and Medicine, Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Mizuta, Hiroshi [Department of Orthopaedic and Neuro-Musculoskeletal Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Takeya, Motohiro, E-mail: takeya@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Cell Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, 1-1-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Osteoclasts originate from bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, and their differentiation depends on macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator nuclear factor kappa B (RANK) ligand. Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is one of the principal functional molecules of macrophages, and its level of expression declines during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of SR-A in osteoclastogenesis, we examined pathological changes in femoral bone and the expression levels of osteoclastogenesis-related molecules in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. The femoral osseous density of SR-A{sup -/-} mice was higher than that of SR-A{sup +/+} mice, and the number of multinucleated osteoclasts was significantly decreased. An in vitro differentiation assay revealed that the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived progenitor cells is impaired in SR-A{sup -/-} mice. Elimination of SR-A did not alter the expression level of the M-CSF receptor, c-fms; however, the expression levels of RANK and RANK-related osteoclast-differentiation molecules such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) significantly decreased. Furthermore, acetylated low-density lipoprotein (AcLDL), an SR-A ligand, significantly increased the expression level of RANK and MITF during osteoclast differentiation. These data indicate that SR-A promotes osteoclastogenesis via augmentation of the expression level of RANK and its related molecules.

  19. Upregulation of neurokinin-1 receptor expression in the lungs of patients with sarcoidosis.

    O'Connor, Terence M

    2012-02-03

    Substance P (SP) is a proinflammatory neuropeptide that is secreted by sensory nerves and inflammatory cells. Increased levels of SP are found in sarcoid bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. SP acts by binding to the neurokinin-1 receptor and increases secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in many cell types. We sought to determine neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis compared with normal controls. Neurokinin-1 receptor messenger RNA and protein expression were below the limits of detection by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers (n = 9) or patients with stage 1 or 2 pulmonary sarcoidosis (n = 10), but were detected in 1\\/9 bronchoalveolar lavage cells of controls compared with 8\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.012) and 2\\/9 biopsies of controls compared with 9\\/10 patients with sarcoidosis (p = 0.013). Immunohistochemistry localized upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression to bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, and sarcoid granulomas. The patient in whom neurokinin-1 receptor was not detected was taking corticosteroids. Incubation of the type II alveolar and bronchial epithelial cell lines A549 and SK-LU 1 with dexamethasone downregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression. Upregulated neurokinin-1 receptor expression in patients with sarcoidosis may potentiate substance P-induced proinflammatory cytokine production in patients with sarcoidosis.

  20. Vitamin-D receptor agonist calcitriol reduces calcification in vitro through selective upregulation of SLC20A2 but not SLC20A1 or XPR1

    Keasey, M. P.; Lemos, R. R.; Hagg, T.; Oliveira, J. R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency (hypovitaminosis D) causes osteomalacia and poor long bone mineralization. In apparent contrast, hypovitaminosis D has been reported in patients with primary brain calcifications (“Fahr’s disease”). We evaluated the expression of two phosphate transporters which we have found to be associated with primary brain calcification (SLC20A2, whose promoter has a predicted vitamin D receptor binding site, and XPR1), and one unassociated (SLC20A1), in an in vitro model of calcification. Expression of all three genes was significantly decreased in calcifying human bone osteosarcoma (SaOs-2) cells. Further, we confirmed that vitamin D (calcitriol) reduced calcification as measured by Alizarin Red staining. Cells incubated with calcitriol under calcifying conditions specifically maintained expression of the phosphate transporter SLC20A2 at higher levels relative to controls, by RT-qPCR. Neither SLC20A1 nor XPR1 were affected by calcitriol treatment and remained suppressed. Critically, knockdown of SLC20A2 gene and protein with CRISPR technology in SaOs2 cells significantly ablated vitamin D mediated inhibition of calcification. This study elucidates the mechanistic importance of SLC20A2 in suppressing the calcification process. It also suggests that vitamin D might be used to regulate SLC20A2 gene expression, as well as reduce brain calcification which occurs in Fahr’s disease and normal aging. PMID:27184385

  1. Mannose receptor expression specifically reveals perivascular macrophages in normal, injured, and diseased mouse brain

    Galea, Ian; Palin, Karine; Newman, Tracey A; van Rooijen, Nico; Perry, V. Hugh; Boche, Delphine

    2005-01-01

    Perivascular macrophages are believed to have a significant role in inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). They express a number of different receptors that point toward functions in both innate immunity, through pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition, phagocytosis, and cytokine responsiveness, and acquired immunity, through antigen presentation and co-stimulation. We are interested in the receptors that are differentially expressed by perivascular macrophages and microg...

  2. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptor in human pancreatic carcinomas.

    Ohta, T.(Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan); Yamamoto, M.; Numata, M; Iseki, S.; Tsukioka, Y.; Miyashita, T; Kayahara, M.; Nagakawa, T.; Miyazaki, I.; Nishikawa, K.; Yoshitake, Y

    1995-01-01

    We examined the expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and FGF receptor by immunohistochemistry in 32 human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Mild to marked basic FGF immunoreactivity was noted in 19 (59.4%) of the 32 tumours examined, and 30 (93.3%) of the tumours exhibited a cytoplasmic staining pattern against FGF receptor. The tumours were divided into two groups according to the proportion of positively stained tumour cells: a low expression group (positive cells < 25%) and ...

  3. Physiological characterization of formyl peptide receptor expressing cells in the mouse vomeronasal organ

    Ackels, Tobias; Von Der Weid, Benoît; Rodriguez, Ivan; Spehr, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various neurophysiological properties of both V1R- and V2R-expressing neurons have been described using genetically engineered mouse models, ...

  4. Physiological characterization of formyl peptide receptor expressing cells in the mouse vomeronasal organ

    Tobias Ackels; Ivan Rodriguez

    2014-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs / V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various neurophysiological properties of both V1R- and V2R-expressing neurons have been described using genetically engineered mouse models...

  5. Juvenile stress enhances anxiety and alters corticosteroid receptor expression in adulthood

    Brydges, Nichola M.; Jin, Rowen; Seckl, Jonathan,; Holmes, Megan C; Drake, Amanda J.; Hall, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundExposure to stress in early life is correlated with the development of anxiety disorders in adulthood. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, but an imbalance in corticosteroid receptor (CR) expression in the limbic system, particularly the hippocampus, has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. However, little is known about how prepubertal stress in the so called “juvenile” period might alter the expression of these receptors.AimsTherefore, the aim of t...

  6. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells.

    Hayashi, M; Inagaki, A; Novak, I; Matsuda, H

    2016-07-01

    Adenosine modulates a wide variety of biological processes via adenosine receptors. In the exocrine pancreas, adenosine regulates transepithelial anion secretion in duct cells and is considered to play a role in acini-to-duct signaling. To identify the functional adenosine receptors and Cl(-) channels important for anion secretion, we herein performed experiments on Capan-1, a human pancreatic duct cell line, using open-circuit Ussing chamber and gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp techniques. The luminal addition of adenosine increased the negative transepithelial potential difference (V te) in Capan-1 monolayers with a half-maximal effective concentration value of approximately 10 μM, which corresponded to the value obtained on whole-cell Cl(-) currents in Capan-1 single cells. The effects of adenosine on V te, an equivalent short-circuit current (I sc), and whole-cell Cl(-) currents were inhibited by CFTRinh-172, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channel inhibitor. The adenosine A2B receptor agonist, BAY 60-6583, increased I sc and whole-cell Cl(-) currents through CFTR Cl(-) channels, whereas the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, had negligible effects. The A2B receptor antagonist, PSB 603, inhibited the response of I sc to adenosine. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the A2A and A2B receptors colocalized with Ezrin in the luminal membranes of Capan-1 monolayers and in rat pancreatic ducts. Adenosine elicited the whole-cell Cl(-) currents in guinea pig duct cells. These results demonstrate that luminal adenosine regulates anion secretion by activating CFTR Cl(-) channels via adenosine A2B receptors on the luminal membranes of Capan-1 cells. The present study endorses that purinergic signaling is important in the regulation of pancreatic secretion. PMID:26965147

  7. Role of a ubiquitously expressed receptor in the vertebrate olfactory system.

    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd; Ngai, John

    2013-09-18

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the "one receptor, one neuron" rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the present study, we characterized the properties of a C family G-protein-coupled receptor that, unlike most other odorant receptors, is expressed in a large population of microvillous sensory neurons in the zebrafish olfactory epithelium and the mouse vomeronasal organ. We found that this receptor, OlfCc1 in zebrafish and its murine ortholog Vmn2r1, is a calcium-dependent, low-sensitivity receptor specific for the hydrophobic amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine. Loss-of-function experiments in zebrafish embryos demonstrate that OlfCc1 is required for olfactory responses to a diverse mixture of polar, nonpolar, acidic, and basic amino acids. OlfCc1 was also found to promote localization of other OlfC receptor family members to the plasma membrane in heterologous cells. Together, these results suggest that the broadly expressed OlfCc1 is required for amino acid detection by the olfactory system and suggest that it plays a role in the function and/or intracellular trafficking of other olfactory and vomeronasal receptors with which it is coexpressed. PMID:24048853

  8. Oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK induces expression of the growth-promoting receptor ICOS

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, HongYi; Kantekure, Kanchan; Paterson, Jennifer C.; Liu, Xiaobin; Schaffer, Andreas; Paulos, Chrystal; Milone, Michael C.; Ødum, Niels; Turner, Suzanne; Marafioti, Teresa; Wasik, Mariusz A.

    2011-01-01

    protein. Stimulation of the ICOS receptor with anti-ICOS antibody or ICOS ligand-expressing B cells markedly enhanced proliferation of the ALK(+) TCL cells. These results demonstrate that NPM-ALK, acting through STAT3 as the gene transcriptional activator, induces the expression of ICOS, a cell growth......Here we report that T-cell lymphoma cells carrying the NPM-ALK fusion protein (ALK(+) TCL) frequently express the cell-stimulatory receptor ICOS. ICOS expression in ALK(+) TCL is moderate and strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK induces ICOS expression via...... STAT3, which triggers the transcriptional activity of the ICOS gene promoter. In addition, STAT3 suppresses the expression of miR-219 that, in turn, selectively inhibits ICOS expression. ALK(+) TCL cell lines display extensive DNA methylation of the CpG island located within intron 1, the putative...

  9. Correlation of Nr4a2 expression with the neuron progenitors in adult zebrafish brain.

    Chen, Sheng; Luo, Guang Rui; Li, Ting; Liu, Ting Xi; Le, Weidong

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study showed that although Nr4a2b transcripts have little co-localization with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the posterior tuberculum area, knockdown of Nr4a2 caused a decrease in the number of TH-positive (TH(+)) neurons in the posterior tuberculum area. It suggests that Nr4a2 expression in the progenitors may play an important role in regulating differentiation rather than survival of TH(+) progenitors in the posterior tuberculum area during early zebrafish embryogenesis. In this study, we determined the correlation between TH and Nr4a2 in adult zebrafish brain and found that Nr4a2b was co-localized with the spindle-shaped TH(+) cells in the posterior tuberculum area and some small round TH(+) cells in the pretectum area, but not with large pear-shaped TH(+) cells in adult zebrafish diencephalon. In the pretectum area, Nr4a2(+) cells were localized next to the dorsal side of TH(+) cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that Nr4a2 was co-expressed with nestin in the progenitors of pretectum area and caudal periventricular hypothalamic zones with a lateral symmetry pattern beside the diencephalic ventricle. Co-expression of Nr4a2 and nestin in these areas was remarkably declined with aging. These findings indicate that Nr4a2 is expressed in the neuronal progenitors and plays a crucial role in the differentiation process of dopamine neuron from the stem cell. The change in Nr4a2 expression with aging suggests its possible association with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23842887

  10. A simple, quick and high-yield preparation of the human thromboxane A2 receptor in full size for structural studies1

    Ruan, Ke-He; Cervantes, Vanessa; Wu, Jiaxin

    2008-01-01

    Human thromboxane A2 receptor (TP), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is one of the most promising targets for developing the next generation of anti-thrombosis and hypertension drugs. However, obtaining a sufficient amount of the full sized and active membrane protein has been the major obstacle for structural elucidation that reveals the molecular mechanisms of the receptor activation and drug designs. Here we report an approach for the simple, quick, and high-yield preparation of the purified and active full sized TP in an amount suitable for structural studies. Glycosylated human TP was highly expressed in Sf-9 cells using an optimized baculovirus (BV) expression system. The active receptor was extracted and solubilized by several different detergents for comparison, and was finally purified to a single band at a nearly perfect ratio of 1:0.9 ± 0.05 (ligand:receptor molecule) in ligand binding using a Ni-column with a relatively low yield. However, a high-yield purification (milligram quantity) of the TP protein, from a modulate scale of transfected Sf-9 cell culture, has been achieved by quick and simple purification steps, which include DNA-digestion, DM detergent-extraction, centrifugation and FPLC-purification. The purity and quantity of the purified TP, using the high-yield approach, was suitable for protein structural studies as evidenced by SDS-PAGE, Western blot analyses, ligand binding assays, and a feasibility test using high-resolution 1D and 2D 1H NMR spectroscopic analyses. These studies provide a basis for the high-yield expression and purification of the GPCR for the structural and functional characterization using biophysics approaches. PMID:18529068

  11. Pharmacologic antagonism of thromboxane A2 receptors by trimetoquinol analogs in vitro and in vivo

    Although (-)-(S)-trimetoquinol [1-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-benzyl)- 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline; TMQ] is recognized as a potent bronchodilator, (+)-(R)-TMQ is a selective antagonist of human platelet aggregation and serotonin secretion induced by thromboxane A2 (TXA2) agonists. To confirm the pharmacological actions of TMQ analogs, the interaction of the drugs with TXA2 receptors was examined in human platelets and in a mouse sudden death model. The inhibitory potencies of TMQ analogs (pIC50 values) for displacement of [3H]SQ 29,548 binding to platelets showed excellent correlation with the respective pIC50 (-log IC50) values for U46619-induced aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) and serotonin secretion (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01) in human platelet-rich plasma and for whole blood aggregation (r = 0.99, P less than 0.01). In each system, the rank order of inhibitory potencies was rac-iodoTMQ greater than or equal to (+)-(R)-TMQ greater than rac-TMQ much greater than (-)-(S)-TMQ. Antithrombotic effects of TMQ analogs were evaluated in a mouse sudden death model. In vivo antithrombotic potencies of these compounds were consistent with the in vitro potencies as TXA2 receptor antagonists in platelet systems. Administration of rac-iodoTMQ, (+)-(R)-TMQ and rac-TMQ 15 min before the injection of U46619 (800 micrograms/kg, iv) protected mice against U46619-induced sudden death. On the other hand, (-)-(S)-TMQ did not protect animals against death. Protection of U46619-induced cardiopulmonary thrombosis by TMQ analogs was seen at doses of 3-100 mg/kg

  12. Prostaglandin A2 enhances cellular insulin sensitivity via a mechanism that involves the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3.

    Zhu, X; Walton, R G; Tian, L; Luo, N; Ho, S-R; Fu, Y; Garvey, W T

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that members of the NR4A family of orphan nuclear receptors can augment insulin's ability to stimulate glucose transport in adipocytes. In the current study, we endeavored to test for an insulin-sensitizing effect in muscle cells and to identify a potential transactivator. Lentiviral constructs were used to engineer both hyperexpression and shRNA silencing of NR4A3 in C2C12 myocytes. The NR4A3 hyper-expression construct led to a significant increase in glucose transport rates in the presence of maximal insulin while the NR4A3 knock-down exhibited a significant reduction in insulin-stimulated glucose transport rates. Consistently, insulin-mediated AKT phosphorylation was increased by NR4A3 hyperexpression and decreased following shRNA NR4A3 suppression. Then, we examined effects of prostaglandin A2 (PGA2) on insulin action and NR4A3 transactivation. PGA2 augmented insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in C2C12 myocytes and AKT phosphorylation after 12-h treatment, without significant effects on basal transport or basal AKT phosphorylation. More importantly, we demonstrated that PGA2 led to a greater improvement in insulin-stimulated glucose rates in NR4A3 overexpressing C2C12 myocytes, when compared with Lac-Z controls stimulated with insulin and PGA2. Moreover, the sensitizing effect of PGA2 was significantly diminished in NR4A3 knockdown myocytes compared to scramble controls. These results show for the first time that: (i) PGA2 augments insulin action in myocytes as manifested by enhanced stimulation of glucose transport and AKT phosphorylation; and (ii) the insulin sensitizing effect is dependent upon the orphan nuclear receptor NR4A3. PMID:23104421

  13. Differential expression of the Wnt putative receptors Frizzled during mouse somitogenesis.

    Borello, U; Buffa, V; Sonnino, C; Melchionna, R; Vivarelli, E; Cossu, G

    1999-12-01

    The expression of eight murine Frizzled (1,3-9) genes was studied during mouse somitogenesis, in order to correlate the Wnt-dependent activation of myogenesis with the expression of specific Frizzled putative receptors. Frizzled 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9 have specific expression in the forming and differentiating somites. The genes analyzed have a complex and partly overlapping pattern of expression in other regions of the embryo. PMID:10559494

  14. Expression cloning of a cDNA encoding the bovine histamine H1 receptor.

    Yamashita, M; Fukui, H; Sugama, K; Horio, Y; Ito, S.; Mizuguchi, H.; Wada, H

    1991-01-01

    A functional cDNA clone for the histamine H1 receptor was isolated from a cDNA library of bovine adrenal medulla by a combination of molecular cloning in an expression vector and electrophysiological assay in Xenopus oocytes. The H1 receptor cDNA encodes a protein of 491 amino acids (Mr 55,954) with seven putative transmembrane domains, illustrating the similarity to other receptors that couple with guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (G protein-coupled receptors). The sequence hom...

  15. Molecular cloning of a new bombesin receptor subtype expressed in uterus during pregnancy

    Gorboulev, Valentin; Akhundova, Aida; Büchner, Hubert; Fahrenholz, Falk

    2011-01-01

    The homology screening approach has been used to clone a new member of the guanine-nucleotidebinding-protein-coupled receptor superfamily from guinea pig uterus. The cloned cDNA encodes a 399-amino-acid protein and shows the highest amino acid similarity to members of the bombesin receptor family; 52% and 47% similarity to the gastrin-releasing-peptide (GRP) receptor and the neuromedin-B receptor, respectively. Bindingexperiments with the stably transfected LLC-PK1 cell line expressing the ne...

  16. Membrane omega-3 fatty acids modulate the oligomerisation kinetics of adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors

    Guixà-González, Ramon; Javanainen, Matti; Gómez-Soler, Maricel; Cordobilla, Begoña; Domingo, Joan Carles; Sanz, Ferran; Pastor, Manuel; Ciruela, Francisco; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Selent, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Membrane levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an essential omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 PUFA), are decreased in common neuropsychiatric disorders. DHA modulates key cell membrane properties like fluidity, thereby affecting the behaviour of transmembrane proteins like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors, which have special relevance for major neuropsychiatric disorders have recently been shown to form dimers or higher order oligomers, and evidence suggests that DHA levels affect GPCR function by modulating oligomerisation. In this study, we assessed the effect of membrane DHA content on the formation of a class of protein complexes with particular relevance for brain disease: adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptor oligomers. Using extensive multiscale computer modelling, we find a marked propensity of DHA for interaction with both A2A and D2 receptors, which leads to an increased rate of receptor oligomerisation. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) experiments performed on living cells suggest that this DHA effect on the oligomerisation of A2A and D2 receptors is purely kinetic. This work reveals for the first time that membrane ω-3 PUFAs play a key role in GPCR oligomerisation kinetics, which may have important implications for neuropsychiatric conditions like schizophrenia or Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Memory consolidation and amnesia modify 5-HT6 receptors expression in rat brain: an autoradiographic study.

    Meneses, A; Manuel-Apolinar, L; Castillo, C; Castillo, E

    2007-03-12

    Traditionally, the search for memory circuits has been centered on examinations of amnesic and AD patients, cerebral lesions and, neuroimaging. A complementary alternative might be the use of autoradiography with radioligands. Indeed, ex vivo autoradiographic studies offer the advantage to detect functionally active receptors altered by pharmacological tools and memory formation. Hence, herein the 5-HT(6) receptor antagonist SB-399885 and the amnesic drugs scopolamine or dizocilpine were used to manipulate memory consolidation and 5-HT(6) receptors expression was determined by using [(3)H]-SB-258585. Thus, memory consolidation was impaired in scopolamine and dizocilpine treated groups relative to control vehicle but improved it in SB-399885-treated animals. SB-399885 improved memory consolidation seems to be associated with decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in 15 out 17 brain areas. Scopolamine or dizocilpine decreased 5-HT(6) receptors expression in nine different brain areas and increased it in CA3 hippocampus or other eight areas, respectively. In brain areas thought to be in charge of procedural memory such basal ganglia (i.e., nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, and fundus striate) data showed that relative to control animals amnesic groups showed diminished (scopolamine) or augmented (dizocilpine) 5-HT(6) receptor expression. SB-399885 showing improved memory displayed an intermediate expression in these same brain regions. A similar intermediate expression occurs with regard to amygdala, septum, and some cortical areas in charge of explicit memory storage. However, relative to control group amnesic and SB-399885 rats in the hippocampus, region where explicit memory is formed, showed a complex 5-HT(6) receptors expression. In conclusion, these results indicate neural circuits underlying the effects of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists in autoshaping task and offer some general clues about cognitive processes in general. PMID:17267053

  18. Expression of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in the reproductive system of male mice.

    Marciniak, Marcin; Chruścicka, Barbara; Lech, Tomasz; Burnat, Grzegorz; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Although the presence of metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in the central nervous system is well documented, they have recently been found in peripheral and non-neuronal tissues. In the present study we investigated the expression of group III mGlu receptors in the reproductive system of male mice. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed the presence of mGlu6, mGlu7 and mGlu8 (but not mGlu4) receptor transcripts in testes and epididymides from adult mice. In addition, expression of mGlu6 (Grm6) and mGlu8 receptor (Grm8) mRNA was detected in spermatozoa isolated from the vas deferens. The vas deferens was found to contain only mGlu7 receptor (Grm7) mRNA, which was particularly intense in 21-day-old male mice. In penile homogenates, only the mGlu7 receptor signal was detected. Genetic ablation of the mGlu7 receptor in males led to fertility disorders manifested by decreased insemination capability as well as deterioration of sperm parameters, particularly sperm motility, vitality, sperm membrane integrity and morphology, with a simultaneous increase in sperm concentration. These results indicate that constitutively expressed mGlu receptors in the male reproductive system may play an important role in ejaculation and/or erection processes, as well as in the formation and maturation of spermatozoa. PMID:25066043

  19. Expression and Purification of Functional Ligand-binding Domains of T1R3 Taste Receptors

    Nie,Y.; Hobbs, J.; Vigues, S.; Olson, W.; Conn, G.; Munger, S.

    2006-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors, including odor, taste, and vomeronasal receptors, comprise the largest group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the mammalian genome. However, little is known about the molecular determinants that are critical for the detection and discrimination of ligands by most of these receptors. This dearth of understanding is due in part to difficulties in preparing functional receptors suitable for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Here we describe in detail two strategies for the expression and purification of the ligand-binding domain of T1R taste receptors, which are constituents of the sweet and umami taste receptors. These class C GPCRs contain a large extracellular N-terminal domain (NTD) that is the site of interaction with most ligands and that is amenable to expression as a separate polypeptide in heterologous cells. The NTD of mouse T1R3 was expressed as two distinct fusion proteins in Escherichia coli and purified by column chromatography. Spectroscopic analysis of the purified NTD proteins shows them to be properly folded and capable of binding ligands. This methodology should not only facilitate the characterization of T1R ligand interactions but may also be useful for dissecting the function of other class C GPCRs such as the large family of orphan V2R vomeronasal receptors.

  20. Neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of parkinson's disease and its dependence on adenosine A2A receptors.

    Xu, K; Di Luca, D G; Orrú, M; Xu, Y; Chen, J-F; Schwarzschild, M A

    2016-05-13

    Considerable epidemiological and laboratory data have suggested that caffeine, a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, may protect against the underlying neurodegeneration of parkinson's disease (PD). Although both caffeine and more specific antagonists of the A2A subtype of adenosine receptor (A2AR) have been found to confer protection in animal models of PD, the dependence of caffeine's neuroprotective effects on the A2AR is not known. To definitively determine its A2AR dependence, the effect of caffeine on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6 tetra-hydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity was compared in wild-type (WT) and A2AR gene global knockout (A2A KO) mice, as well as in central nervous system (CNS) cell type-specific (conditional) A2AR knockout (cKO) mice that lack the receptor either in postnatal forebrain neurons or in astrocytes. In WT and in heterozygous A2AR KO mice caffeine pretreatment (25mg/kgip) significantly attenuated MPTP-induced depletion of striatal dopamine. By contrast in homozygous A2AR global KO mice caffeine had no effect on MPTP toxicity. In forebrain neuron A2AR cKO mice, caffeine lost its locomotor stimulant effect, whereas its neuroprotective effect was mostly preserved. In astrocytic A2AR cKO mice, both caffeine's locomotor stimulant and protective properties were undiminished. Taken together, these results indicate that neuroprotection by caffeine in the MPTP model of PD relies on the A2AR, although the specific cellular localization of these receptors remains to be determined. PMID:26905951

  1. mRNA expression of dopamine receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes of computer game addicts.

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Zarei, Seyed Zeinolabedin; Sadat-Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat; Eghbali, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Excessive playing of computer games like some other behaviors could lead to addiction. Addictive behaviors may induce their reinforcing effects through stimulation of the brain dopaminergic mesolimbic pathway. The status of dopamine receptors in the brain may be parallel to their homologous receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Here, we have investigated the mRNA expression of dopamine D3, D4 and D5 receptors in PBLs of computer game addicts (n = 20) in comparison to normal subjects (n = 20), using a real-time PCR method. The results showed that the expression level of D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts were not statistically different from the control group. However, the expression of the mRNA of D5 dopamine receptor was significantly down-regulated in PBLs of computer game addicts and reached 0.42 the amount of the control group. It is concluded that unlike with drug addiction, the expression levels of the D3 and D4 dopamine receptors in computer game addicts are not altered compared to the control group. However, reduced level of the D5 dopamine receptor in computer game addicts may serve as a peripheral marker in studies where the confounding effects of abused drugs are unwanted. PMID:25967984

  2. Expression of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in human lung cells

    Schuller Hildegard M

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We and others have shown that one of the mechanisms of growth regulation of small cell lung cancer cell lines and cultured pulmonary neuroendocrine cells is by the binding of agonists to the α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In addition, we have shown that the nicotine-derived carcinogenic nitrosamine, 4(methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK, is a high affinity agonist for the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. In the present study, our goal was to determine the extent of α7 mRNA and protein expression in the human lung. Methods Experiments were done using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, a nuclease protection assay and western blotting using membrane proteins. Results We detected mRNA for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 receptor in seven small cell lung cancer (SCLC cell lines, in two pulmonary adenocarcinoma cell lines, in cultured normal human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC, one carcinoid cell line, three squamous cell lines and tissue samples from nine patients with various types of lung cancer. A nuclease protection assay showed prominent levels of α7 in the NCI-H82 SCLC cell line while α7 was not detected in SAEC, suggesting that α7 mRNA levels may be higher in SCLC compared to normal cells. Using a specific antibody to the α7 nicotinic receptor, protein expression of α7 was determined. All SCLC cell lines except NCI-H187 expressed protein for the α7 receptor. In the non-SCLC cells and normal cells that express the α7 nAChR mRNA, only in SAEC, A549 and NCI-H226 was expression of the α7 nicotinic receptor protein shown. When NCI-H69 SCLC cell line was exposed to 100 pm NNK, protein expression of the α7 receptor was increased at 60 and 150 min. Conclusion Expression of mRNA for the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α7 seems to be ubiquitously expressed in all human lung cancer cell lines tested (except for NCI-H441 as well as normal

  3. A subset of mouse colonic goblet cells expresses the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131.

    Simone Prandi

    Full Text Available The concept that gut nutrient sensing involves taste receptors has been fueled by recent reports associating the expression of taste receptors and taste-associated signaling molecules in the gut and in gut-derived cell lines with physiological responses induced by known taste stimuli. However, for bitter taste receptors (Tas2rs, direct evidence for their functional role in gut physiology is scarce and their cellular expression pattern remained unknown. We therefore investigated Tas2r expression in mice. RT-PCR experiments assessed the presence of mRNA for Tas2rs and taste signaling molecules in the gut. A gene-targeted mouse strain was established to visualize and identify cell types expressing the bitter receptor Tas2r131. Messenger RNA for various Tas2rs and taste signaling molecules were detected by RT-PCR in the gut. Using our knock-in mouse strain we demonstrate that a subset of colonic goblet cells express Tas2r131. Cells that express this receptor are absent in the upper gut and do not correspond to enteroendocrine and brush cells. Expression in colonic goblet cells is consistent with a role of Tas2rs in defense mechanisms against potentially harmful xenobiotics.

  4. Selenoprotein W controls epidermal growth factor receptor surface expression, activation and degradation via receptor ubiquitination

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) is the founding member of the ErbB family of growth factor receptors that modulate a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways controlling growth, proliferation and differentiation. Selenoprotein W (SEPW1) is a diet-regulated, highly conserved...

  5. Vitamin D3 receptor is highly expressed in Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Renné Christoph

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hodgkin lymphoma (HL is one of the most frequent lymphoma in the western world. Despite a good overall prognosis, some patients suffer relapsing tumors which are difficult to cure. Over a long period Vitamin D has been shown to be a potential treatment for cancer. Vitamin D acts via the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear receptor, acting as an inducible transcription factor. We aimed to investigate the expression of vitamin D receptor as a possible diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target in HL as well as in B-cell derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL. Methods We used a panel of 193 formalin fixed tissues of lymphoma cases consisting of 55 cases of HL and 138 cases on several B-NHL entities. Results Vitamin D receptor is strongly expressed in tumor cells of HL, regardless of the sub entity with an overall positivity of 80% of all HL cases. In contrast, only about 17% of the analyzed origin-NHL showed positivity for vitamin D receptor. The detection of nuclear localization of vitamin D receptor in the tumor cells of HL suggests activated status of the vitamin D receptor. Conclusions Our study suggests VDR as a specific marker for tumor cells of HL, but not of B-NHL subtypes. Further, the observed nuclear localization suggests an activated receptor status in tumor cells of HL. Further investigations of mutational status and functional studies may shed some light in functional relevance of vitamin D receptor signaling in HL.

  6. Characterization of a thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human kidney and other tissues

    A cDNA encoding a specific form of thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human liver, kidney, placenta, and brain was isolated from a human kidney library. Identical clones were found in human placenta and HepG2 cDNA libraries. The cDNA encodes a 490-amino acid protein. When expressed and translated in vitro, the protein products binds triiodothyronine with K/sub a/ of 2.3 /times/ 109 M/sup /minus/1/. This protein, designated human thyroid hormone receptor type α2 (hTRα2), has the same domain structure as other members of the v-erbA-related superfamily of receptor genes. It is similar to thyroid hormone receptor type α described in chicken and rat and less similar to human thyroid hormone receptor type β (formerly referred to as c-erbAβ) from placenta. However, it is distinguished from these receptors by an extension of the C-terminal hormone binding domain making it 80 amino acids longer than rat thyroid hormone receptor type α1. Different sizes of mRNA found in liver and kidney suggest that there may be tissue-specific processing of the primary transcript of this gene. Identification of human thyroid hormone receptor type α2 indicates that two or more forms of thyroid hormone receptor exist in human tissues and may explain the normal variation in thyroid hormone responsiveness of various organs and the selective tissue abnormalities found in the thyroid hormone resistance syndromes

  7. Vitamin D3 receptor is highly expressed in Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is one of the most frequent lymphoma in the western world. Despite a good overall prognosis, some patients suffer relapsing tumors which are difficult to cure. Over a long period Vitamin D has been shown to be a potential treatment for cancer. Vitamin D acts via the vitamin D receptor, a nuclear receptor, acting as an inducible transcription factor. We aimed to investigate the expression of vitamin D receptor as a possible diagnostic marker and potential therapeutic target in HL as well as in B-cell derived non-Hodgkin lymphoma (B-NHL). We used a panel of 193 formalin fixed tissues of lymphoma cases consisting of 55 cases of HL and 138 cases on several B-NHL entities. Vitamin D receptor is strongly expressed in tumor cells of HL, regardless of the sub entity with an overall positivity of 80% of all HL cases. In contrast, only about 17% of the analyzed origin-NHL showed positivity for vitamin D receptor. The detection of nuclear localization of vitamin D receptor in the tumor cells of HL suggests activated status of the vitamin D receptor. Our study suggests VDR as a specific marker for tumor cells of HL, but not of B-NHL subtypes. Further, the observed nuclear localization suggests an activated receptor status in tumor cells of HL. Further investigations of mutational status and functional studies may shed some light in functional relevance of vitamin D receptor signaling in HL

  8. Activation of Adenosine Receptor A2A Increases HSC Proliferation and Inhibits Death and Senescence by Down-regulation of p53 and Rb

    Md. Kaimul eAhsan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: During fibrosis hepatic stellate cells (HSC undergo activation, proliferation and senescence but the regulation of these important processes is poorly understood. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2A is known to be present on HSC, and its activation results in liver fibrosis. In this study, we tested if A2A has a role in the regulation of HSC proliferation, apoptosis, senescence, and the relevant molecular mechanism.Methods: The ability of adenosine to regulate p53 and Rb protein levels, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence was tested in the human HSC cell line LX-2 and rat primary HSC.Results: Adenosine receptor activation down-regulates p53 and Rb protein levels, increases BrdU incorporation and increases cell survival in LX-2 cells and in primary rat HSC. These effects of NECA were reproduced by an adenosine A2A receptor specific agonist (CGS21680 and blocked by a specific antagonist (ZM241385. By day twenty-one of culture primary rat HSC entered senescence and expressed -gal which was significantly inhibited by NECA. Furthermore, NECA induced down regulation of p53 and Rb and Rac1, and decreased phosphorylation of p44-42 MAP Kinase in LX-2 cells and primary rat HSC. These effects were reproduced by the cAMP analog 8-Bromo-cAMP, and the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin, and were blocked by PKA inhibitors.Conclusions: These results demonstrate that A2A receptor regulates a number of HSC fate decisions and induces greater HSC proliferation, reduces apoptosis and senescence by decreasing p53 and Rb through cAMP-PKA/Rac1/p38 MAPK pathway. This provides a mechanism for adenosine induced HSC regulation and liver fibrosis.

  9. Striatal adenosine A2A receptor-mediated positron emission tomographic imaging in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats using [18F]-MRS5425

    Introduction: A2A receptors are expressed in the basal ganglia, specifically in striatopallidal GABAergic neurons in the striatum (caudate-putamen). This brain region undergoes degeneration of presynaptic dopamine projections and depletion of dopamine in Parkinson's disease. We developed an 18F-labeled A2A analog radiotracer ([18F]-MRS5425) for A2A receptor imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). We hypothesized that this tracer could image A2A receptor changes in the rat model for Parkinson's disease, which is created following unilateral injection of the monoaminergic toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the substantia nigra. Methods: [18F]-MRS5425 was injected intravenously in anesthetized rats, and PET imaging data were collected. Image-derived percentage injected doses per gram (%ID/g) in regions of interest was measured in the striatum of normal rats and in rats unilaterally lesioned with 6-OHDA after intravenous administration of saline (baseline), D2 agonist quinpirole (1.0 mg/kg) or D2 antagonist raclopride (6.0 mg/kg). Results: Baseline %ID/g reached a maximum at 90 s and maintained plateau for 3.5 min, and then declined slowly thereafter. In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, %ID/g was significantly higher in the lesioned side compared to the intact side, and the baseline total %ID/g (data from both hemispheres were combined) was significantly higher compared to quinpirole stimulation starting from 4.5 min until the end of acquisition at 30 min. Raclopride did not produce any change in uptake compared to baseline or between the hemispheres. Conclusion: Thus, increase of A2A receptor-mediated uptake of radioactive MRS5425 could be a superior molecular target for Parkinson's imaging.

  10. PKC and MAPK signalling pathways regulate vascular endothelin receptor expression

    Nilsson, David; Wackenfors, Angelica; Gustafsson, Lotta; Ugander, Martin; Ingemansson, Richard; Edvinsson, Lars; Malmsjö, Malin

    immunofluorescence techniques. Sarafotoxin 6c and endothelin ET-1 were used to examine the endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptor effects. The involvement of PKC and MAPK in the receptor regulation was examined by culture in the presence of antagonists. Organ culture resulted in increased sarafotoxin 6c and endothelin......-1 contractions, endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptor immunofluorescence staining intensities and endothelin ET(B), but not ET(A), receptor mRNA levels. The general PKC inhibitors, bisindolylmaleimide I (10 microM) or Ro-32-0432 (10 microM), inhibited these effects. Also, the increase in sarafotoxin 6......c contraction, endothelin ET(B) receptor and mRNA levels and endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) immunofluorescence staining intensities were inhibited by MAPK inhibitors for extracellular signal related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), PD98059 (10 microM), C-jun terminal kinase (JNK), SP600125 (10 microM), but not...

  11. Substantial expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor type I in human uveal melanoma

    Schally, Andrew V.; Block, Norman L; Dezso, Balazs; Olah, Gabor; Rozsa, Bernadett; Fodor, Klara; Buglyo, Armin; Gardi, Janos; Berta, Andras; Halmos, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with a very high mortality rate due to frequent liver metastases. Consequently, the therapy of uveal melanoma remains a major clinical challenge and new treatment approaches are needed. For improving diagnosis and designing a rational and effective therapy, it is essential to elucidate molecular characteristics of this malignancy. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate as a potential therapeutic target the expression of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor in human uveal melanoma. The expression of LHRH ligand and LHRH receptor transcript forms was studied in 39 human uveal melanoma specimens by RT-PCR using gene specific primers. The binding charachteristics of receptors for LHRH on 10 samples were determined by ligand competition assays. The presence of LHRH receptor protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The expression of mRNA for type I LHRH receptor was detected in 18 of 39 (46%) of tissue specimens. mRNA for LHRH-I ligand could be detected in 27 of 39 (69%) of the samples. Seven of 10 samples investigated showed high affinity LHRH-I receptors. The specific presence of full length LHRH receptor protein was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A high percentage of uveal melanomas express mRNA and protein for type-I LHRH receptors. Our results support the merit of further investigation of LHRH receptors in human ophthalmological tumors. Since diverse analogs of LHRH are in clinical trials or are already used for the treatment of various cancers, these analogs could be considered for the LHRH receptor-based treatment of uveal melanoma. PMID:24077773

  12. Expression of growth factor receptors and targeting of EGFR in cholangiocarcinoma cell lines

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) is a malignant neoplasm of the bile ducts or the gallbladder. Targeting of growth factor receptors showed therapeutic potential in palliative settings for many solid tumors. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of seven growth factor receptors in CC cell lines and to assess the effect of blocking the EGFR receptor in vitro. Expression of EGFR (epithelial growth factor receptor), HGFR (hepatocyte growth factor receptor) IGF1R (insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor), IGF2R (insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor) and VEGFR1-3 (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3) were examined in four human CC cell lines (EGI-1, HuH28, OZ and TFK-1). The effect of the anti-EGFR-antibody cetuximab on cell growth and apoptosis was studied and cell lines were examined for KRAS mutations. EGFR, HGFR and IGFR1 were present in all four cell lines tested. IGFR2 expression was confirmed in EGI-1 and TFK-1. No growth-inhibitory effect was found in EGI-1 cells after incubation with cetuximab. Cetuximab dose-dependently inhibited growth in TFK-1. Increased apoptosis was only seen in TFK-1 cells at the highest cetuximab dose tested (1 mg/ml), with no dose-response-relationship at lower concentrations. In EGI-1 a heterozygous KRAS mutation was found in codon 12 (c.35G>A; p.G12D). HuH28, OZ and TFK-1 lacked KRAS mutation. CC cell lines express a pattern of different growth receptors in vitro. Growth factor inhibitor treatment could be affected from the KRAS genotype in CC. The expression of EGFR itself does not allow prognoses on growth inhibition by cetuximab

  13. Expression of transcobalamin II receptors by human leukemia K562 and HL-60 cells

    Plasma membrane receptors for the serum cobalamin-binding protein transcobalamin II (TCII) were identified on human leukemia K562 and HL-60 cells using immunoaffinity-purified human TCII labeled with [57Co]cyanocobalamin. The Bmax values for TCII receptors on proliferating K562 and HL-60 cells were 4,500 and 2,700 per cell, respectively. Corresponding dissociation constants (kd) were 8.0 x 10(-11) mol/L and 9.0 x 10(-11) mol/L. Rabbit TCII also bound to K562 and HL-60 cells but with slightly reduced affinities. Calcium was required for the binding of transcobalamin II to K562 cells. Brief treatment of these cells with trypsin resulted in almost total loss of surface binding activity. After removal of trypsin, surface receptors for TCII slowly reappeared, reaching pretrypsin treatment densities only after 24 hours. Reappearance of receptors was blocked by cycloheximide. TCII receptor densities on K562 and HL-60 cells correlated inversely with the concentration of cobalamin in the culture medium. This suggests that intracellular stores of cobalamin may affect the expression of transcobalamin receptors. Nonproliferating stationary-phase K562 cells had low TCII receptor densities. However, the density of TCII receptors increased substantially when cells were subcultured in fresh medium. Up-regulation of receptor expression coincided with increased 3H-thymidine incorporation, which preceded the resumption of cellular proliferation as measured by cell density. In the presence of cytosine arabinoside, which induces erythroid differentiation, K562 cells down-regulated expression of TCII receptors. When HL-60 cells were subcultured in fresh medium containing dimethysulfoxide to induce granulocytic differentiation, the up-regulation of TCII receptors was suppressed. This event occurred well before a diminution of 3H-thymidine incorporation and cessation of proliferation

  14. Regulation of interferon receptor expression in human blood lymphocytes in vitro and during interferon therapy

    Interferons (IFN) elicit antiviral and antineoplastic activities by binding to specific receptors on the cell surface. The binding characteristics of IFN to human lymphocytes were studied using IFN alpha 2 labeled with 125I to high specific activity. The specific binding curves generated were analyzed by the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard to determine receptor numbers. The number of receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and tonsillar B-lymphocytes (TBL) from normal individuals were 505 +/- 293 (n = 10) and 393 +/- 147 (n = 3) respectively. When these cells were preincubated in vitro with unlabeled IFN alpha 2, the receptor number decreased to 82 +/- 45 and 61 +/- 16 respectively. Receptor binding activities recovered gradually over a period of 72 h when the cells were incubated in IFN-free medium. This recovery of receptors could be blocked by the addition of actinomycin D to the incubation medium. A similar decrease in receptor expression was observed in vivo in PBL from patients being treated daily with 5 X 10(6) units/m2 per d of IFN alpha 2 by subcutaneous injection, for acute lymphoblastic leukemia or papilloma virus infections. Receptor numbers in PBL in vivo were further reduced concurrent with the progression of IFN therapy. Thus, the reduction in IFN receptor expression observed in vitro can be demonstrated in vivo. These studies indicate that monitoring IFN receptor expression in vivo can provide information regarding the availability of IFN receptors at the cell surface for the mediation of IFN actions during the course of IFN therapy

  15. Endothelin ETA and ETB receptor expression in the human trigeminal ganglion

    Uddman, Rolf; Tajti, Janos; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Sundler, Frank; Uddman, Erik; Edvinsson, Lars

    2006-01-01

    study was designed to investigate the presence of these two receptors in the human trigeminal ganglion. METHODS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to show the presence of mRNA encoding ETA and ETB receptors in the human trigeminal ganglion. To localize the protein...... immunocytochemistry with antibodies against the endothelin receptors was used. RESULTS: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed mRNA for both receptor subtypes in the human trigeminal ganglion. Immunocytochemistry revealed numerous cell bodies containing the ETA and the ETB receptor...... proteins. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of ETA and ETB receptors in the human trigeminal ganglion suggests a role for endothelin in autonomic and sensory neural transmission....

  16. A novel extracellular Hsp90 mediated co-receptor function for LRP1 regulates EphA2 dependent glioblastoma cell invasion.

    Udhayakumar Gopal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extracellular Hsp90 protein (eHsp90 potentiates cancer cell motility and invasion through a poorly understood mechanism involving ligand mediated function with its cognate receptor LRP1. Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM represents one of the most aggressive and lethal brain cancers. The receptor tyrosine kinase EphA2 is overexpressed in the majority of GBM specimens and is a critical mediator of GBM invasiveness through its AKT dependent activation of EphA2 at S897 (P-EphA2(S897. We explored whether eHsp90 may confer invasive properties to GBM via regulation of EphA2 mediated signaling. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that eHsp90 signaling is essential for sustaining AKT activation, P-EphA2(S897, lamellipodia formation, and concomitant GBM cell motility and invasion. Furthermore, eHsp90 promotes the recruitment of LRP1 to EphA2 in an AKT dependent manner. A finding supported by biochemical methodology and the dual expression of LRP1 and P-EphA2(S897 in primary and recurrent GBM tumor specimens. Moreover, hypoxia mediated facilitation of GBM motility and invasion is dependent upon eHsp90-LRP1 signaling. Hypoxia dramatically elevated surface expression of both eHsp90 and LRP1, concomitant with eHsp90 dependent activation of src, AKT, and EphA2. SIGNIFICANCE: We herein demonstrate a novel crosstalk mechanism involving eHsp90-LRP1 dependent regulation of EphA2 function. We highlight a dual role for eHsp90 in transducing signaling via LRP1, and in facilitating LRP1 co-receptor function for EphA2. Taken together, our results demonstrate activation of the eHsp90-LRP1 signaling axis as an obligate step in the initiation and maintenance of AKT signaling and EphA2 activation, thereby implicating this pathway as an integral component contributing to the aggressive nature of GBM.

  17. Influence of Gα protein subtype and expression level on receptor phenotypes generated from calcitonin receptor and RAMP interaction

    Full text: The calcitonin receptor (CTR) is a class II G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Co-expression of CTR with receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) 1, 2 or 3 yields multiple amylin receptor phenotypes that vary in pharmacology dependent upon CTR isoform and cellular background. In COS-7 cells, co-expression of hCTRI1- with either RAMP1 or-3 generates amylin receptors (125I-rat amylin binding = 482 fmol/106 cells), while RAMP2 (85 fmol/106 cells) has no significant effect. To examine the potential role of Gα subtype and expression level in RAMP modulation of CTR, individual Gα subtypes (Gαs, Gαo, Gαi, or Gαq) were cloned either 5' or 3' of hCTRI1- in the pCIN bicistronic vector. Cells transfected with these constructs express Gα and CTR, in either a higher or lower Gα:hCTR stoichiometry, depending on the relative position of their cloning. In COS-7 cells, augmented Gαs:hCTRI1- potentiated the RAMP2 interaction with hCTR to yield an amylin receptor (125I-rat amylin binding = 604 fmol/106 cells). Increased amylin binding in the presence of higher Gαs was accompanied by enhanced potency of rat amylin (EC50 = ∼ 1 nM υ 80 nM for hCTR+RAMP1 only) in stimulating cAMP production. Strikingly, enhanced expression of Gα1, or Gαo (but not Gαs or Gαq) resulted in a significant loss of 125I-salmon CT binding (423 fmol/106 cells compared with 26,900 fmol/1066 cells when hCTR is overexpressed relative to Gαi, or Gαo), both in the presence and absence of RAMPs, while amylin binding in the presence of RAMPs was maintained. Transfection of Gαi or Gαo, but not Gαs, into CHO-K1 cells that express an endogenous CTR also led to lower 125I-sCT binding. The data suggest that Gα protein subtype and level can have profound effects on CTR phenotypes. These findings may have implications for other GPCRs as well. Copyright (2001) Australasian Society of Clinical and Experimental Pharmacologists and Toxicologists

  18. Hormone receptor and ERBB2 status in gene expression profiles of human breast tumor samples.

    Anna Dvorkin-Gheva

    Full Text Available The occurrence of large publically available repositories of human breast tumor gene expression profiles provides an important resource to discover new breast cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. For example, knowledge of the expression of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors (ER and PR, and that of the ERBB2 in breast tumor samples enables choice of therapies for the breast cancer patients that express these proteins. Identifying new biomarkers and therapeutic agents affecting the activity of signaling pathways regulated by the hormone receptors or ERBB2 might be accelerated by knowledge of their expression levels in large gene expression profiling data sets. Unfortunately, the status of these receptors is not invariably reported in public databases of breast tumor gene expression profiles. Attempts have been made to employ a single probe set to identify ER, PR and ERBB2 status, but the specificity or sensitivity of their prediction is low. We enquired whether estimation of ER, PR and ERBB2 status of profiled tumor samples could be improved by using multiple probe sets representing these three genes and others with related expression.We used 8 independent datasets of human breast tumor samples to define gene expression signatures comprising 24, 51 and 14 genes predictive of ER, PR and ERBB2 status respectively. These signatures, as demonstrated by sensitivity and specificity measures, reliably identified hormone receptor and ERBB2 expression in breast tumors that had been previously determined using protein and DNA based assays. Our findings demonstrate that gene signatures can be identified which reliably predict the expression status of the estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors and that of ERBB2 in publically available gene expression profiles of breast tumor samples. Using these signatures to query transcript profiles of breast tumor specimens may enable discovery of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets for

  19. Notch receptor expression in neurogenic regions of the adult zebrafish brain.

    Vanessa de Oliveira-Carlos

    Full Text Available The adult zebrash brain has a remarkable constitutive neurogenic capacity. The regulation and maintenance of its adult neurogenic niches are poorly understood. In mammals, Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance both in embryonic and adult CNS. To better understand how Notch signaling is involved in stem cell maintenance during adult neurogenesis in zebrafish we analysed Notch receptor expression in five neurogenic zones of the adult zebrafish brain. Combining proliferation and glial markers we identified several subsets of Notch receptor expressing cells. We found that 90 [Formula: see text] of proliferating radial glia express notch1a, notch1b and notch3. In contrast, the proliferating non-glial populations of the dorsal telencephalon and hypothalamus rarely express notch3 and about half express notch1a/1b. In the non-proliferating radial glia notch3 is the predominant receptor throughout the brain. In the ventral telencephalon and in the mitotic area of the optic tectum, where cells have neuroepithelial properties, notch1a/1b/3 are expressed in most proliferating cells. However, in the cerebellar niche, although progenitors also have neuroepithelial properties, only notch1a/1b are expressed in a high number of PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. In this region notch3 expression is mostly in Bergmann glia and at low levels in few PCNA [Formula: see text] cells. Additionally, we found that in the proliferation zone of the ventral telencephalon, Notch receptors display an apical high to basal low gradient of expression. Notch receptors are also expressed in subpopulations of oligodendrocytes, neurons and endothelial cells. We suggest that the partial regional heterogeneity observed for Notch expression in progenitor cells might be related to the cellular diversity present in each of these neurogenic niches.

  20. Oestrogen and progesterone receptor expression in subtypes of canine mammary tumours in intact and ovariectomised dogs.

    Mainenti, M; Rasotto, R; Carnier, P; Zappulli, V

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate as a potential prognostic indicator the relationship between histological subtype of canine mammary tumours (CMTs) and oestrogen-α (ORα) and progesterone (PR) receptor expression. Using immunohistochemistry, receptor expression in neoplastic epithelial cells was assessed in 12 different subtypes in 113 CMTs (34 benign, 79 malignant) and 101 surrounding normal tissues. Sixty-eight and 45 CMTs were from intact and ovariectomised bitches, respectively. Histological subtype strongly influenced ORα/PR expression: simple and complex adenomas as well as simple tubular carcinomas exhibited the greatest expression, whereas immunohistochemical labelling for these receptors was weakest in carcinoma and malignant myoepitheliomas, as well as in solid/anaplastic carcinomas and comedocarcinomas. Receptor expression was generally higher in benign relative to malignant neoplasms, and in the latter it was significantly lower in ovariectomised vs. intact bitches. Lymphatic invasion, mitotic index, nodule diameter, and tumour grade were significantly associated with ORα/PR expression. Although not found to be an independent prognostic indicator, tumours from dogs with <10% cells with ORα/PR expression had a poorer prognosis. Lymphatic invasion, the state of the margins of excision, and mitotic index were found to be independent prognostic indicators. Overall, the results suggest that differences in histological subtype and whether or not a bitch has been ovariectomised should be considered when evaluating the significance of ORα and PR expression in CMTs. PMID:24980810

  1. Characterization of the Prostaglandin H2 Mimic: Binding to the Purified Human Thromboxane A2 Receptor in Solution†

    Ruan, Ke-He; Wijaya, Cori; Cervantes, Vanessa; Wu, Jiaxin

    2008-01-01

    For decades, the binding of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to multiple target proteins of unrelated protein structures which mediate diverse biological functions has remained a real mystery in the field of eicosanoid biology. Here, we report that the structure of a PGH2 mimic, U46619, bound to the purified human TP, was determined and compared with that of its conformation bound to the COX-downstream synthases, prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) and thromboxane A2 synthase (TXAS). Active human TP protein, glycosylated and in full length, was expressed in Sf-9 cells using a baculovirus (BV) expression system and then purified to near homogeneity. The binding of U46619 to the purified receptor in a nonionic detergent-mimicked lipid environment was characterized by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The conformational change of U46619, upon binding to the active TP, was evidenced by the significant perturbation of the chemical shifts of its protons at H3 and H4 in a concentration-dependent manner. The detailed conformational changes and 3D structure of U46619 from the free form to the TP-bound form were further solved by 2D 1H NMR experiments using a transferred NOE (trNOE) technique. The distances between the protons of H11 and H18, H11 and H19, H15 and H18, and H15 and H19 in U46619 were shorter following their binding to the TP in solution – down to within 5 Å, which were different than that of the U46619 bound to PGIS and U44069 (another PGH2 mimic) bound to TXAS. These shorter distances led to further separation of the U46619 α and ω chains, forming a unique “rectangular” shape. This enabled the molecule to fit into the ligand-binding site pocket of a TP model, in which homology modeling was used for the transmembrane (TM) domain, and NMR structures were used for the extramembrane loops. The proton perturbations and 3D conformations in the TP-bound U46619 were different with that of the PGH2 mimics bound to PGIS and TXAS. The studies indicated that PGH2 can adopt

  2. THE CORRELATIONS OF RETINOIC ACID RECEPTOR-α AND ESTROGEN RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINES AND TUMORS

    余黎明; 邵志敏; 蔡三军; 韩企夏; 沈镇宙

    1998-01-01

    Retinoic acid receptor-α(RAR α) plays a major role in the growth inhibitory effect of retinoic acid on human breast cancer ceils, may be it could serve as an indicator to guide the treatment and prevent of breast cancer with retinoic acid in ciiinc. All previous researchs were based on observing the changes ofRAR a mRAN expression. In this study, the expression of RAR a in human breast cell lines was studied by Northern Blot, Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry in mRNA level and protein level. Results showed that RAR a protein expression was correlated with RAR a mRNA expression. RAR α mRNA expression was higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive human breast cancer cell lines than in ER-negative ones. So was RAR α protein expression. Both RAR α mRNA amd RAR α protein expression were associated with ER status. The expression of RAR α and the relationship between RAR α and ER status were also determined by immunohistochemistry in 58 human primary breast cancer tumors. 37 (63.8%) tumors were ER-positive and of these 28 (75. 7%) were also RAR α -positive. The coexpression of ER and RAR α was statistleally significant (P<0. 01, by X2 contingency analysis), It was reported that RAR α expression in cultured breast cancer ceils was regulated by estrogen acting via the ER. Our study demonstrated that RAR α expression may be modulated in breast cancer in vivo by estrogen via ER.

  3. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 12; Express/T-160 Project Express A2 and A3 Sensors Operations Procedures Document

    Dunning, John (Technical Monitor); Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 deg. E. and 11 deg. W respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  4. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites. Part 11; Express/T-160E Project Express A2 and A3 Data Agreement Document

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.; Dunning, John (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80deg E. and 11deg W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3-99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  5. Periplasmic expression of soluble single chain T cell receptors is rescued by the chaperone FkpA

    Bogen Bjarne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient expression systems exist for antibody (Ab molecules, which allow for characterization of large numbers of individual Ab variants. In contrast, such expression systems have been lacking for soluble T cell receptors (TCRs. Attempts to generate bacterial systems have generally resulted in low yields and material which is prone to aggregation and proteolysis. Here we present an optimized periplasmic bacterial expression system for soluble single chain (sc TCRs. Results The effect of 1 over-expression of the periplasmic chaperon FkpA, 2 culture conditions and 3 molecular design was investigated. Elevated levels of FkpA allowed periplasmic soluble scTCR expression, presumably by preventing premature aggregation and inclusion body formation. Periplasmic expression enables disulphide bond formation, which is a prerequisite for the scTCR to reach its correct fold. It also enables quick and easy recovery of correctly folded protein without the need for time-consuming downstream processing. Expression without IPTG induction further improved the periplasmic expression yield, while addition of sucrose to the growth medium showed little effect. Shaker flask yield of mg levels of active purified material was obtained. The Vαβ domain orientation was far superior to the Vβα domain orientation regarding monomeric yield of functionally folded molecules. Conclusion The general expression regime presented here allows for rapid production of soluble scTCRs and is applicable for 1 high yield recovery sufficient for biophysical characterization and 2 high throughput screening of such molecules following molecular engineering.

  6. Prenatal Oxycodone Exposure Alters CNS Endothelin Receptor Expression in Neonatal Rats.

    Devarapalli, M; Leonard, M; Briyal, S; Stefanov, G; Puppala, B L; Schweig, L; Gulati, A

    2016-05-01

    Prenatal opioid exposure such as oxycodone is linked to significant adverse effects on the developing brain. Endothelin (ET) and its receptors are involved in normal development of the central nervous system. Opioid tolerance and withdrawal are mediated through ET receptors. It is possible that adverse effect of oxycodone on the developing brain is mediated through ET receptors. We evaluated brain ETA and ETB receptor expression during postnatal development in rats with prenatal oxycodone exposure. Timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either oxycodone or placebo throughout gestation. After birth, male rat pups were sacrificed on postnatal day (PND) 1, 7, 14 or 28. Brain ETA and ETB receptor expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Oxycodone pups compared to placebo demonstrated congenital malformations of the face, mouth, and vertebrae at the time of birth [4/69 (5.7%) vs. 0/60 (0%); respectively] and intrauterine growth retardation [10/69 (15%) vs. 2/60 (3.3%); respectively]. On PND 28, oxycodone pups compared to placebo had lower body and kidney weight. ETA receptor expression in the oxycodone group was significantly higher compared to placebo on PND 1 (p=0.035), but was similar on PND 7, 14, or 28. ETB receptor expression decreased in oxycodone compared to placebo on PND 1 and 7 (p=0.001); and increased on PND 28 (p=0.002), but was similar on PND 14. Oxycodone-exposed rat pups had lower birth weight and postnatal weight gain and greater congenital malformations. ETB receptor expression is altered in the brain of oxycodone-treated rat pups indicating a possible delay in CNS development. PMID:26676852

  7. Identification of neurons that express ghrelin receptors in autonomic pathways originating from the spinal cord.

    Furness, John B; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Hunne, Billie; Hirayama, Haruko; Callaghan, Brid P; Lomax, Alan E; Brock, James A

    2012-06-01

    Functional studies have shown that subsets of autonomic preganglionic neurons respond to ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics and in situ hybridisation has revealed receptor gene expression in the cell bodies of some preganglionic neurons. Our present goal has been to determine which preganglionic neurons express ghrelin receptors by using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter for the ghrelin receptor (also called growth hormone secretagogue receptor). The retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected into target organs of reporter mice under anaesthesia to identify specific functional subsets of postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Cryo-sections were immunohistochemically stained by using anti-EGFP and antibodies to neuronal markers. EGFP was detected in nerve terminal varicosities in all sympathetic chain, prevertebral and pelvic ganglia and in the adrenal medulla. Non-varicose fibres associated with the ganglia were also immunoreactive. No postganglionic cell bodies contained EGFP. In sympathetic chain ganglia, most neurons were surrounded by EGFP-positive terminals. In the stellate ganglion, neurons with choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity, some being sudomotor neurons, lacked surrounding ghrelin-receptor-expressing terminals, although these terminals were found around other neurons. In the superior cervical ganglion, the ghrelin receptor terminals innervated subgroups of neurons including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neurons that projected to the anterior chamber of the eye. However, large NPY-negative neurons projecting to the acini of the submaxillary gland were not innervated by EGFP-positive varicosities. In the celiaco-superior mesenteric ganglion, almost all neurons were surrounded by positive terminals but the VIP-immunoreactive terminals of intestinofugal neurons were EGFP-negative. The pelvic ganglia contained groups of neurons without ghrelin receptor terminal innervation and other groups with

  8. Synthesis and Preliminary Evaluation of a 2-Oxoquinoline Carboxylic Acid Derivative for PET Imaging the Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptor

    Linjing Mu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoid receptor subtype 2 (CB2 has been shown to be up-regulated in activated microglia and therefore plays an important role in neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. The CB2 receptor is therefore considered as a very promising target for therapeutic approaches as well as for imaging. A promising 2-oxoquinoline derivative designated KP23 was synthesized and radiolabeled and its potential as a ligand for PET imaging the CB2 receptor was evaluated. [11C]KP23 was obtained in 10%–25% radiochemical yield (decay corrected and 99% radiochemical purity. It showed high stability in phosphate buffer, rat and mouse plasma. In vitro autoradiography of rat and mouse spleen slices, as spleen expresses a high physiological expression of CB2 receptors, demonstrated that [11C]KP23 exhibits specific binding towards CB2. High spleen uptake of [11C]KP23 was observed in dynamic in vivo PET studies with Wistar rats. In conclusion, [11C]KP23 showed promising in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Further evaluation with diseased animal model which has higher CB2 expression levels in the brain is warranted.

  9. Expression of Adiponectin Receptors in Human Placenta and Its Possible Implication in Gestational Diabetes

    Naglaa F. Al Husseini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Similar to obese patients and type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectin levels are reduced in former Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM patients and are lower in GDM women during late pregnancy compared with pregnant control subjects matched for BMI. Diabetic insult at later stages in gestation, such as may occur in gestational diabetes, will foremost lead to short-term changes in a variety of molecules for key functions including gene expression in the placenta. Approach: In this study we assessed the expression of adiponectin receptors in human placenta to identify the site (s of expression and to clarify the effect of gestational diabetes in this expression. This study was carried on 10 normoglycemic pregnant women and 20 GDM women. The placental tissue was collected immediately after delivery and tissue biopsies were taken from both fetal and maternal sides of each placenta. One step-RT-PCR for ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 was done by Real Time PCR using Syber Green technique. Relative quantification of mRNA of the ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 genes was measured using ABI7900 Real Time machine. Results: Both types of Adiponectin Receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 are expressed in human placenta. ADIPOR1 is more highly expressed than ADIPOR2 in both fetal and maternal sides of GDM cases and normal pregnant women. ADIPOR1 mRNA expression was significantly up regulated in GDM women compared to normal pregnant women, whereas no significant difference in the expression of ADIPOR2 was detected between the two groups. There was no evidence of maternal-fetal side difference in the expression of adiponectin receptors in GDM cases but in normal pregnant women there is a statistically significant difference between both sides in the expression of both ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2. Conclusion: We concluded that adiponectin plays an important role in mediation the glucose metabolism in fetal tissues through its receptors, mainly Adiponectin Receptor 1 (ADIPOR1.

  10. Localization and regulation of dopamine receptor D4 expression in the adult and developing rat retina

    Klitten, Laura L; Rath, Martin F; Coon, Steven L;

    2008-01-01

    in the photoreceptors via Drd4 receptors located on the cell membrane of these cells. In this study, we show by semiquantitative in situ hybridization a prominent day/night variation in Drd4 expression in the retina of the Sprague-Dawley rat with a peak during the nighttime. Drd4 expression is seen...... in all retinal layers but the nocturnal increase is confined to the photoreceptors. Retinal Drd4 expression is not affected by removal of the sympathetic input to the eye, but triiodothyronine treatment induces Drd4 expression in the photoreceptors. In a developmental series, we show that the...... expression of Drd4 is restricted to postnatal stages with a peak at postnatal day 12. The high Drd4 expression in the rat retinal photoreceptors during the night supports physiological and pharmacologic evidence that the Drd4 receptor is involved in the dopaminergic inhibition of melatonin synthesis upon...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Virtual Screening Approaches in the Search for Novel EphA2 Receptor Antagonists

    Donatella Callegari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The EphA2 receptor and its ephrin-A1 ligand form a key cell communication system, which has been found overexpressed in many cancer types and involved in tumor growth. Recent medicinal chemistry efforts have identified bile acid derivatives as low micromolar binders of the EphA2 receptor. However, these compounds suffer from poor physicochemical properties, hampering their use in vivo. The identification of compounds able to disrupt the EphA2-ephrin-A1 complex lacking the bile acid scaffold may lead to new pharmacological tools suitable for in vivo studies. To identify the most promising virtual screening (VS protocol aimed at finding novel EphA2 antagonists, we investigated the ability of both ligand-based and structure-based approaches to retrieve known EphA2 antagonists from libraries of decoys with similar molecular properties. While ligand-based VSs were conducted using UniPR129 and ephrin-A1 ligand as reference structures, structure-based VSs were performed with Glide, using the X-ray structure of the EphA2 receptor/ephrin-A1 complex. A comparison of enrichment factors showed that ligand-based approaches outperformed the structure-based ones, suggesting ligand-based methods using the G-H loop of ephrin-A1 ligand as template as the most promising protocols to search for novel EphA2 antagonists.

  12. Co-expressed peptide receptors in breast cancer as a molecular basis for in vivo multireceptor tumour targeting

    Breast cancers can express different types of peptide receptors such as somatostatin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and NPY(Y1) receptors. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate which is the most appropriate peptide receptor or peptide receptor combination for in vivo diagnostic and therapeutic targeting of breast cancers. Seventy-seven primary breast cancers and 15 breast cancer lymph node metastases were investigated in vitro for their expression of somatostatin, VPAC1, GRP and NPY(Y1) receptors using in vitro receptor autoradiography on successive tissue sections with 125I-[Tyr3]-octreotide, 125I-VIP, 125I-[Tyr4]-bombesin and 125I-[Leu31,Pro34]-PYY respectively. This study identified two groups of tumours: a group of 68 tumours (88%) with at least one receptor expressed at high density (>2,000 dpm/mg tissue) that may provide a strong predictive value for successful in vivo targeting, and a group of nine tumours (12%) with no receptors or only a low density of them (1) receptors, 25 (37%) expressed VPAC1 receptors and 14 (21%) expressed somatostatin receptors. Mean density was 9,819±530 dpm/mg tissue for GRP receptors, 9,135±579 dpm/mg for NPY(Y1) receptors, 4,337±528 dpm/mg for somatostatin receptors and 3,437±306 dpm/mg for VPAC1 receptors. It is of note that tumours expressing NPY(Y1) or GRP receptors, or both, were found in 63/68 (93%) cases. Lymph node metastases showed a similar receptor profile to the corresponding primary tumour. This in vitro study strongly suggests that the combination of radiolabelled GRP and Y1 analogues should allow targeting of breast carcinomas and their lymph node metastases for in vivo peptide receptor scintigraphy and radiotherapy. (orig.)

  13. Modulation of interleukin 2 receptor expression on normal human lymphocytes by thymic hormones.

    Sztein, M B; Serrate, S A; Goldstein, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The expression of interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R) is a critical step leading to normal lymphocyte proliferation. Since thymosin fraction 5 (TF5), a thymic hormone preparation, enhances lymphoproliferative responses of human cells, we examined the effects of TF5 on the expression of IL-2R on mitogen-stimulated human lymphocytes. TF5 significantly increased the percentage and antigen density of cells expressing IL-2R after stimulation with an optimal concentration of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) wh...

  14. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 expression in mycosis fungoides

    Pedersen, Ida Holst; Willerslev-Olsen, Andreas; Vetter-Kauczok, Claudia; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Lauenborg, Britt; Kopp, Katharina Luise; Geisler, Carsten; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Zhang, Qian; Wasik, Mariusz A; Dabelsteen, Sally; Andersen, Anders Woetmann; Becker, Jurgen C; Odum, Niels

    2012-01-01

    induced during tumor formation in vivo in a xenograft mouse model of MF. In conclusion, malignant and stromal cells express high levels of VEGFR-3 in all stages of MF. Moreover, malignant T cells trigger enhanced VEGF-C expression in fibroblasts, suggesting that cross-talk between tumor and stromal cells...

  15. Hook-up of GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α for cholinergic muscarinic receptor-dependent LTD in the hippocampus

    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanism underlying muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-dependent LTD (mAChR-LTD in the hippocampus is less studied. In a recent study, a novel mechanism is described. The induction of mAChR-LTD required the activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP, and the expression was mediated by AMPA receptor endocytosis via interactions between GluA2, GRIP and liprin-α. The hook-up of these proteins may result in the recruitment of leukocyte common antigen-related receptor (LAR, a PTP that is known to be involved in AMPA receptor trafficking. Interestingly, the similar molecular interaction cannot be applied to mGluR-LTD, despite the fact that the same G-protein involved in LTD is activated by both mAChR and mGluR. This discovery provides key molecular insights for cholinergic dependent cognitive function, and mAChR-LTD can serve as a useful cellular model for studying the roles of cholinergic mechanism in learning and memory.

  16. Expression of the Wnt Receptor Frizzled-4 in the Human Enteric Nervous System of Infants

    Nothelfer, Katharina; Obermayr, Florian; Belz, Nadine; Reinartz, Ellen; Bareiss, Petra M.; Bühring, Hans-Jörg; Beschorner, Rudi; Just, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The Wnt signalling pathway plays a crucial role in the development of the nervous system. This signalling cascade is initiated upon binding of the secreted Wnt ligand to a member of the family of frizzled receptors. In the present study, we analysed the presence of frizzled-4 in the enteric nervous system of human infants. Frizzled-4 could be identified by immunohistochemistry in a subpopulation of enteric neuronal and glial cells in the small and large intestine. Detection of frizzled-4 in the tunica muscularis by RT-PCR confirmed this receptor's expression on the mRNA level. Interestingly, we observed distinct cell populations that co-expressed frizzled-4 with the intermediate filament protein nestin and the neurotrophin receptor p75NTR, which have been reported to be expressed in neural progenitor cells. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 60% of p75NTR positive cells of the tunica muscularis were positive for frizzled-4. Additionally, in pathological samples of Hirschsprung's disease, the expression of this Wnt receptor correlated with the number of myenteric ganglion cells and decreased from normoganglionic to aganglionic areas of large intestine. The expression pattern of frizzled-4 indicates that this Wnt receptor could be involved in postnatal development and/or function of the enteric nervous system. PMID:26697080

  17. TRPV1 Receptor in Expression of Opioid-induced hyperalgesia

    Vardanyan, Anna; Wang, Ruizhong; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ossipov, Michael H.; Lai, Josephine; Porreca, Frank; King, Tamara

    2008-01-01

    Opiates are currently the mainstay for treatment of moderate to severe pain. However, prolonged administration of opiates has been reported to elicit hyperalgesia in animals and examples of opiate-induced hyperalgesia have been reported in humans as well. In spite of the potential clinical significance of such opiate-induced actions, the mechanisms of opiate-induced hypersensitivity remain unknown. The TRPV1 receptor, a molecular sensor of noxious heat, acts as an integrator of multiple forms...

  18. Structure, characterization, and expression of the rat oxytocin receptor gene.

    1995-01-01

    The multiple hormonal and neurotransmitter functions of the nonapeptide oxytocin are mediated by specific oxytocin receptors (OTRs). In most target tissues, the number of OTRs is strongly regulated. Specifically, in the uterus, a dramatic OTR upregulation precedes the onset of parturition. To study the molecular mechanisms underlying OTR regulation, we have isolated and characterized recombinant bacteriophage lambda EMBL3 genomic clones containing the rat OTR gene, using sequence information ...

  19. Thermodynamics and structural analysis of positive allosteric modulation of the ionotropic glutamate receptor GluA2

    Krintel, Christian; Frydenvang, Karla; Olsen, Lars; Kristensen, Maria T; de Barrios, Oriol; Naur, Peter; Francotte, Pierre; Pirotte, Bernard; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm

    2012-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of the ionotropic glutamate receptor-2 (GluA2) are promising compounds for the treatment of cognitive disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's disease. These modulators bind within the dimer interface of the ligand-binding domain and stabilize the agonist-bound conformation slow...

  20. Synthesis and Properties of a New Water-Soluble Prodrug of the Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonist MSX-2

    Christa E. Müller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The compound L-valine-3-{8-[(E-2-[3-methoxyphenylethenyl]-7-methyl-1-propargylxanthine-3-yl}propyl ester hydrochloride (MSX-4 was synthesized as an aminoacid ester prodrug of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-2. It was found to bestable in artificial gastric acid, but readily cleaved by pig liver esterase.

  1. Differential expression of postsynaptic NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the flinders sensitive line rat model of depression.

    Treccani, Giulia; Gaarn du Jardin, Kristian; Wegener, Gregers; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup

    2016-11-01

    Glutamatergic abnormalities have recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, and the ionotropic glutamate receptors in particular have been suggested as possible underlying molecular determinants. The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats constitute a validated model of depression with dysfunctional regulation of glutamate transmission relatively to their control strain Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). To gain insight into how signaling through glutamate receptors may be altered in the FSL rats, we investigated the expression and phosphorylation of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in an enriched postsynaptic fraction of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Compared to the hippocampal postsynaptic fractions of FRL rats, FSL rats exhibited decreased and increased levels of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, respectively, causing a lower ratio of GluN2A/GluN2B. The GluA2/GluA3 AMPA receptor subunit ratio was significantly decreased while the expression of the individual GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 subunits were unaltered including phosphorylation levels of GluA1 at S831 and S845. There were no changes in the prefrontal cortex. These results support altered expression of postsynaptic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus of FSL rats, which may contribute to the depressive-like phenotype of these rats. PMID:27262028

  2. Prostaglandin E2 stimulates Fas ligand expression via the EP1 receptor in colon cancer cells.

    O'Callaghan, G

    2012-02-03

    Fas ligand (FasL\\/CD95L) is a member of the tumour necrosis factor superfamily that triggers apoptosis following crosslinking of the Fas receptor. Despite studies strongly implicating tumour-expressed FasL as a major inhibitor of the anti-tumour immune response, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate FasL expression in tumours. In this study, we show that the cyclooxygenase (COX) signalling pathway, and in particular prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), plays a role in the upregulation of FasL expression in colon cancer. Suppression of either COX-2 or COX-1 by RNA interference in HCA-7 and HT29 colon tumour cells reduced FasL expression at both the mRNA and protein level. Conversely, stimulation with PGE(2) increased FasL expression and these cells showed increased cytotoxicity against Fas-sensitive Jurkat T cells. Prostaglandin E(2)-induced FasL expression was mediated by signalling via the EP1 receptor. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis using serial sections of human colon adenocarcinomas revealed a strong positive correlation between COX-2 and FasL (r=0.722; P<0.0001) expression, and between EP1 receptor and FasL (r=0.740; P<0.0001) expression, in the tumour cells. Thus, these findings indicate that PGE(2) positively regulates FasL expression in colon tumour cells, adding another pro-neoplastic activity to PGE(2).

  3. A novel, highly regulated, rapidly inducible system for the expression of chicken progesterone receptor, cPRA, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Poletti, A; Weigel, N L; McDonnell, D P; Schrader, W T; O'Malley, B W; Conneely, O M

    1992-05-01

    A rapidly inducible and tightly regulated system for the expression of protein in yeast is based on a chimeric promoter constructed of two copies of a vitellogenin-estrogen-response element (ERE) which are inserted upstream from the promoter of the yeast gene encoding iso-1-cytochrome c. The chimeric promoter was inserted in a yeast expression plasmid upstream from the coding sequence of ubiquitin fused in frame to a cDNA encoding the full-length chicken progesterone receptor A (cPRA). The resultant plasmid (YEpA2) was co-transformed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a plasmid which encodes the human estrogen receptor. Estradiol (E2)-induced transactivation of the chimeric promoter results in transcription of the cPRA gene from YEpA2, and synthesis of cPRA. The fusion protein, ubiquitin-cPRA, is rapidly cleaved in vivo to produce cPRA. Analysis of samples by Western immunoblot shows that cPRA is almost undetectable in the absence of E2, and that treatment with 50 nM E2 results in a 500-1000-fold induction of cPRA (0.06-0.3% of the total protein) after 1 h. The plasmid-expressed soluble receptor is stable and demonstrates the correct affinity for its ligand. We have prepared yeast extracts using enzymatic digestion of the cell wall with oxalyticase followed by hypotonic shock. This has resulted in a dramatic increase in the % of receptor which binds hormone compared to previous studies which used mechanical disruption techniques. The cPRA is biologically active since it activates transcription of a co-transformed reporter gene containing its response element.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1316867

  4. GABAA receptor subunit gene expression in human prefrontal cortex: comparison of schizophrenics and controls

    Akbarian, S.; Huntsman, M. M.; Kim, J. J.; Tafazzoli, A.; Potkin, S. G.; Bunney, W. E. Jr; Jones, E. G.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics is hypoactive and displays changes related to inhibitory, GABAergic neurons, and GABAergic synapses. These changes include decreased levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme for GABA synthesis, upregulation of muscimol binding, and downregulation of benzodiazepine binding to GABAA receptors. Studies in the visual cortex of nonhuman primates have demonstrated that gene expression for GAD and for several GABAA receptor subunit polypeptides is under control of neuronal activity, raising the possibility that similar mechanisms in the hypoactive prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics may explain the abnormalities in GAD and in GABAA receptor regulation. In the present study, which is the first of its type on human cerebral cortex, levels of mRNAs for six GABAA receptor subunits (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 5, beta 1, beta 2, gamma 2) and their laminar expression patterns were analyzed in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics and matched controls, using in situ hybridization histochemistry and densitometry. Three types of laminar expression pattern were observed: mRNAs for the alpha 1, beta 2, and gamma 2 subunits, which are the predominant receptor subunits expressed in the mature cortex, were expressed at comparatively high levels by cells of all six cortical layers, but most intensely by cells in lower layer III and layer IV. mRNAs for the alpha 2, alpha 5, and beta 1 subunits were expressed at lower levels; alpha 2 and beta 1 were expressed predominantly by cells in layers II, III, and IV; alpha 5 was expressed predominantly in layers IV, V, and VI. There were no significant changes in overall mRNA levels for any of the receptor subunits in the prefrontal cortex of schizophrenics, and the laminar expression pattern of all six receptor subunit mRNAs did not differ between schizophrenics and controls. Because gene expression for GABAA receptor subunits is not consistently altered in the prefrontal cortex of

  5. Expressions of Hippocampal Mineralocorticoid Receptor (MR) and Glucocorticoid Receptor (GR) in the Single-Prolonged Stress-Rats

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a stress-related mental disorder caused by traumatic experience. Single-prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the animal models proposed for PTSD. Rats exposed to SPS showed enhanced inhibition of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which has been reliably reproduced in patients with PTSD. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus regulate HPA axis by glucocorticoid negative feedback. Abnormalities in negative feedback are found in PTSD, suggesting that GR and MR might be involved in the pathophysiology of these disorders. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemistry and western blotting to examine the changes in hippocampal MR- and GR-expression after SPS. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased MR- and GR-immunoreactivity (ir) in the CA1 of hippocampus in SPS animals. Change in GR sub-distribution was also observed, where GR-ir was shifted from nucleus to cytoplasm in SPS rats. Western blotting showed that SPS induced significantly decreased MR- and GR-protein in the whole hippocampus, although the degree of decreased expression of both receptors was different. Meanwhile, we also found the MR/GR ratio decreased in SPS rats. In general, SPS induced down-regulation of MR- and GR-expression. These findings suggest that MR and GR play critical roles in affecting hippocampal function. Changes in MR/GR ratio may be relevant for behavioral syndrome in PTSD

  6. Androgen receptor and miRNA-126* axis controls follicle-stimulating hormone receptor expression in porcine ovarian granulosa cells.

    Du, Xing; Li, Qiqi; Pan, Zengxiang; Li, Qifa

    2016-08-01

    Androgen, which acts via the androgen receptor (AR), plays crucial roles in mammalian ovarian function. Recent studies showed that androgen/AR signaling regulates follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in follicles; however, the detailed mechanism underlying this regulation remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that AR and miR-126* cooperate to inhibit FSHR expression and function in pig follicular granulosa cells (pGCs). In pGCs, overexpression of AR decreased, whereas knockdown increased, FSHR mRNA and protein expression; however, neither manipulation affected FSHR promoter activity. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we found that the FSHR gene is a direct target of miR-126*, which inhibits FSHR expression and increases the rate of AR-induced apoptosis in pGCs. Collectively, our data show for the first time that the AR/miR-126* axis exerts synergetic effects in the regulation of FSHR expression and apoptosis in pGCs. Our findings thus define a novel pathway, AR/miR-126*/FSHR, that regulates mammalian GC functions. PMID:27222597

  7. Binding studies using Pichia pastoris expressed human aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator proteins.

    Zheng, Yujuan; Xie, Jinghang; Huang, Xin; Dong, Jin; Park, Miki S; Chan, William K

    2016-06-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a transcription factor which activates gene transcription by binding to its corresponding enhancer as the heterodimer, which is consisted of AHR and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Human AHR can be rather difficult to study, when compared among the AHR of other species, since it is relatively unstable and less sensitive to some ligands in vitro. Overexpression of human AHR has been limited to the baculovirus expression, which is costly and tedious due to the need of repetitive baculovirus production. Here we explored whether we could generate abundant amounts of human AHR and ARNT in a better overexpression system for functional study. We observed that human AHR and ARNT can be expressed in Pichia pastoris with yields that are comparable to the baculovirus system only if their cDNAs are optimized for Pichia expression. Fusion with a c-myc tag at their C-termini seems to increase the expression yield. These Pichia expressed proteins can effectively heterodimerize and form the ternary AHR/ARNT/enhancer complex in the presence of β-naphthoflavone or kynurenine. Limited proteolysis using thermolysin can be used to study the heterodimerization of these human AHR and ARNT proteins. PMID:26923060

  8. Characterization of a novel Eph receptor tyrosine kinase, EphA10, expressed in testis.

    Aasheim, Hans-Christian; Patzke, Sebastian; Hjorthaug, Hanne Sagsveen; Finne, Eivind Farmen

    2005-05-25

    In mammals, 14 members of the Eph receptor tyrosine kinase family have been described so far. Here we present a not yet described member of this family denoted EphA10. We report the identification of three putative EphA10 isoforms: one soluble and two transmembrane isoforms. One of the latter isoforms lacked the sterile alpha motif commonly found in Eph receptors. The gene encoding EphA10 is located on chromosome 1p34 and expression studies show that EphA10 mRNA is mainly expressed in testis. Binding studies to ephrin ligands suggests that this receptor belongs to the EphA subclass of Eph receptors binding mainly to ephrin-A ligands. PMID:15777695

  9. Hall Effect Thruster Interactions Data From the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 Satellites

    Sitnikova, N.; Volkov, D.; Maximov, I.; Petrusevich, V.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    This 12-part report documents the data obtained from various sensor measurements taken aboard the Russian Express-A2 and Express-A3 spacecraft in Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). These GEO communications satellites, which were designed and built by NPO Prikladnoy Mekhaniki (NPO PM) of Zheleznogorsk, Russia, utilize Hall thruster propulsion systems for north-south and east-west stationkeeping and as of June 2002, were still operating at 80 E. and 11 W., respectively. Express-A2 was launched on March 12, 2000, while Express-A3 was launched on June 24, 2000. The diagnostic equipment from which these data were taken includes electric field strength sensors, ion current and energy sensors, and pressure sensors. The diagnostics and the Hall thruster propulsion systems are described in detail along with lists of tabular data from those diagnostics and propulsion system and other satellite systems. Space Power, Inc., now part of Pratt & Whitney's Chemical Systems Division, under contract NAS3 99151 to the NASA Glenn Research Center, obtained these data over several periods from March 12, 2000, through September 30, 2001. Each of the 12 individual reports describe, in detail, the propulsion systems as well as the diagnostic sensors utilized. Finally, parts 11 and 12 include the requirements to which NPO PM prepared and delivered these data.

  10. A Functionally Superior Second-Generation Vector Expressing an Aurora Kinase-A-Specific T-Cell Receptor for Anti-Leukaemia Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    Casey, Nicholas Paul; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Kazushi; Okamoto, Sachiko; Mineno, Junichi; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Shiku, Hiroshi; Yasukawa, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Aurora Kinase A is a cancer-associated protein normally involved in the regulation of mitosis. Being over-expressed in a range of cancers, it is a suitable target for cell-based immunotherapy. Gene transfer of T-cell receptor sequences cognisant of HLA-A*0201-restricted Aurora Kinase A antigen has previously been shown to transfer specific immunoreactivity against the target peptide in a Human Lymphocyte Antigen-restricted manner. While T cell receptor gene-transfer has great potential in overcoming the difficulties of isolating and expanding tumour-reactive lymphocytes from a patient's own cells, one hurdle is potential mispairing and competition between exogenous and endogenous T cell receptor chains. We have used a retroviral vector design bearing a short-interfering RNA that downregulates endogenous T cell receptor chains, without affecting expression of the transgenic T cell receptor sequences. The T cell receptor expression cassette also includes a 2A self-cleaving peptide, resulting in equimolar expression of the T cell receptor alpha and beta chains, further enhancing formation of the desired T cell receptor. Via a simple, modular cloning method, we have cloned the alpha and beta chains of the anti-Aurora Kinase A-reactive T cell receptor into this 'siTCR' vector. We then compared the activity of this vector against the original, 'conventional' vector across a panel of assays. T cell receptors expressed from the siTCR-vector retained the cytotoxic functionality of the original vector, with evidence of reduced off-target reactivity. The rate of expression of correctly-formed T cell receptors was superior using the siTCR design, and this was achieved at lower vector copy numbers. Maintaining T cell receptor efficacy with a reduced vector copy number reduces the risk of genotoxicity. The siTCR design also reduces the risk of mispairing and cross-reactivity, while increasing the functional titre. Such improvements in the safety of T cell receptor gene

  11. A Functionally Superior Second-Generation Vector Expressing an Aurora Kinase-A-Specific T-Cell Receptor for Anti-Leukaemia Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    Nicholas Paul Casey

    Full Text Available Aurora Kinase A is a cancer-associated protein normally involved in the regulation of mitosis. Being over-expressed in a range of cancers, it is a suitable target for cell-based immunotherapy. Gene transfer of T-cell receptor sequences cognisant of HLA-A*0201-restricted Aurora Kinase A antigen has previously been shown to transfer specific immunoreactivity against the target peptide in a Human Lymphocyte Antigen-restricted manner. While T cell receptor gene-transfer has great potential in overcoming the difficulties of isolating and expanding tumour-reactive lymphocytes from a patient's own cells, one hurdle is potential mispairing and competition between exogenous and endogenous T cell receptor chains. We have used a retroviral vector design bearing a short-interfering RNA that downregulates endogenous T cell receptor chains, without affecting expression of the transgenic T cell receptor sequences. The T cell receptor expression cassette also includes a 2A self-cleaving peptide, resulting in equimolar expression of the T cell receptor alpha and beta chains, further enhancing formation of the desired T cell receptor. Via a simple, modular cloning method, we have cloned the alpha and beta chains of the anti-Aurora Kinase A-reactive T cell receptor into this 'siTCR' vector. We then compared the activity of this vector against the original, 'conventional' vector across a panel of assays. T cell receptors expressed from the siTCR-vector retained the cytotoxic functionality of the original vector, with evidence of reduced off-target reactivity. The rate of expression of correctly-formed T cell receptors was superior using the siTCR design, and this was achieved at lower vector copy numbers. Maintaining T cell receptor efficacy with a reduced vector copy number reduces the risk of genotoxicity. The siTCR design also reduces the risk of mispairing and cross-reactivity, while increasing the functional titre. Such improvements in the safety of T cell

  12. Altered endothelin receptor expression and affinity in spontaneously hypertensive rat cerebral and coronary arteries

    Cao, Lei; Cao, Yong-Xiao; Xu, Cang-Bao;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension is associated with arterial hyperreactivity, and endothelin (ET) receptors are involved in vascular pathogenesis. The present study was performed to examine the hypothesis that ET receptors were altered in cerebral and coronary arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats...... (SHR). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cerebral and coronary arteries were removed from SHR. Vascular contraction was recorded using a sensitive myograph system. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to quantify mRNA and protein expression of receptors and essential MAPK pathway molecules. The...... results demonstrated that both ETA and ETB receptor-mediated contractile responses in SHR cerebral arteries were shifted to the left in a nonparallel manner with increased maximum contraction compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. In SHR coronary arteries, the ETA receptor-mediated contraction curve was...

  13. Expression of c-kit receptor and its autophosphorylation in immature rat type A spermatogonia.

    Dym, M; Jia, M C; Dirami, G; Price, J M; Rabin, S J; Mocchetti, I; Ravindranath, N

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the expression and activation of the c-kit receptor, a specific receptor for kit ligand (stem cell factor, steel factor), in rat type A spermatogonia. Testes were obtained from 9-day-old rats, decapsulated, and then subjected to sequential enzymatic digestion. The mixture of testicular cell types was then separated by sedimentation velocity at unit gravity. The isolated type A spermatogonia were characterized by light and electron microscopy. They exhibited spherical nuclei containing several nucleoli and associated chromatin clumps and organelles generally in a perinuclear location similar to that found in the in vivo 9-day-old testis. The synthesis of the c-kit receptor by the spermatogonia was established by hybridization of total RNA with a specific cDNA for mouse c-kit receptor. Two mRNA transcripts migrating at 4.8 kb and 12 kb were observed. Localization of the c-kit receptor in the isolated cells was determined by immunocytochemistry using an antibody to c-kit protein. Specific staining for c-kit receptor was observed in the cytoplasm of the isolated type A spermatogonia. Furthermore, the presence of the c-kit receptor protein in the spermatogonia was confirmed by Western blot analysis using the same antibody. The antibody recognized the c-kit receptor at approximately 160 kDa. In an attempt to determine whether this receptor has a functional significance, we examined the effect of kit ligand on the phosphorylation of the c-kit receptor. The c-kit receptor appeared to be constitutively autophosphorylated on tyrosine at low basal levels, and upon stimulation with kit ligand, the amount of phosphorylated protein increased significantly. These observations indicate that kit ligand induces autophosphorylation of the c-kit receptor, which may lead to the activation of other cellular target proteins responsible for spermatogonial proliferation and/or differentiation. PMID:7536046

  14. Increased expression of bronchial epithelial transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 channels in severe asthma

    McGarvey, Lorcan P.; Butler, Claire A; Stokesberry, Susan; Polley, Liam; McQuaid, Stephen; Abdullah, Hani'ah; Ashraf, Sadaf; McGahon, Mary K; Curtis, Tim M; Arron, Joe; Choy, David; Warke, Tim J.; Bradding, Peter; Ennis, Madeleine; Zholos, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The airway epithelium is exposed to a range of physical and chemical irritants in the environment that are known to trigger asthma. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels play a central role in sensory responses to noxious physical and chemical stimuli. Recent genetic evidence suggests an involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), one member of the vanilloid subfamily of TRP channels, in the pathophysiology of asthma. The functional expression of ...

  15. Bile Acids Induce Cdx2 Expression Through the Farnesoid X Receptor in Gastric Epithelial Cells

    Xu, Yingji; Watanabe, Toshio; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Machida, Hirohisa; Okazaki, Hirotoshi; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Kenji; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Oshitani, Nobuhide; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies showed that the reflux of bile into the stomach contributes to the induction of intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and gastric carcinogenesis. Caudal-type homeobox 2 (Cdx2) plays a key role in the exhibition of intestinal phenotypes by regulating the expression of intestine-specific genes such as goblet-specific gene mucin 2 (MUC2). We investigated the involvement of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a nuclear receptor for bile acids, in the chenodeoxycholic ...

  16. Somatostatin and Somatostatin Receptor Gene Expression in Dominant and Subordinate Males of an African Cichlid Fish

    Trainor, Brian C.; Hofmann, Hans A.

    2007-01-01

    Somatostatin is a neuropeptide best known for its inhibitory effects on growth hormone secretion and has recently been implicated in the control of social behavior. Several somatostatin receptor subtypes have been identified in vertebrates, but the functional basis for this diversity is still unclear. Here we investigate the expression levels of the somatostatin prepropeptide and two of its receptors, sstR2, and sstR3, in the brains of socially dominant and subordinate A. burtoni males using ...

  17. Expression Levels of Estrogen Receptor β Are Modulated by Components of the Molecular Clock▿

    Cai, Wen; Rambaud, Juliette; Teboul, Michèle; Masse, Ingrid; Benoit, Gerard; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Delaunay, Franck; Laudet, Vincent; Pongratz, Ingemar

    2007-01-01

    Circadian regulation of gene expression plays a major role in health and disease. The precise role of the circadian system remains to be clarified, but it is known that circadian proteins generate physiological rhythms in organisms by regulating clock-controlled target genes. The estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is, together with ERα, a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and a key mediator of estrogen action. Interestingly, recent studies show that disturbed circadian rhythmicity in human...

  18. A Comparative Review of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Expression and Functionality in Different Animal Species

    Vaure, Céline; Liu, Yuanqing

    2014-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) belong to the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) family, a key component of the innate immune system. TLRs detect invading pathogens and initiate an immediate immune response to them, followed by a long-lasting adaptive immune response. Activation of TLRs leads to the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines and the expression of co-stimulatory molecules. TLR4 specifically recognizes bacterial lipopolysaccharide, along with several other components of ...

  19. Glucocorticoid and Mineralocorticoid Receptor Expression in the Human Hippocampus in Major Depressive Disorder

    Medina, Adriana; Seasholtz, Audrey F.; Sharma, Vikram; Burke, Sharon; Bunney, William,; Myers, Richard M.; Schatzberg, Alan,; Akil, Huda; Watson, Stanley J.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 50% of mood disorder patients exhibit hypercortisolism. Cortisol normally exerts its functions in the CNS via binding to mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR). Both MR and GR are highly expressed in human hippocampus and several studies have suggested that alterations in the levels of MR or GR within this region may contribute to the dysregulation in major depressive disorder (MDD). Studies have also shown functional heterogeneity across the hippocam...

  20. Construction and Stable Expression of a Truncated Human Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Ror1 (Ror1-ECD)

    Forouzesh, Flora; Tabarian, Samira Shakeri; Emami, Shaghayegh; Tehrani, Mahmood-Jeddi; Hadavi, Reza; Rabbani, Hodjattallah

    2012-01-01

    Expression of receptor tyrosine kinase Ror1 in a wide variety of cancers has emerged as a new era focusing on targeting this receptor in cancer therapy. Our preliminary results indicate the presence of a truncated transcript of Ror1 in tumor cells. The truncated Ror1 encompasses extracellular and transmembrane domains, lacking catalytic kinase domain (Ror1-ECD). As enzyme activity is highly dependent on the catalytic domain, we were wondering how this transcript and its encoded protein could ...

  1. Role of serotonergic signaling in GABAA receptor phosphorylation and functional expression

    Vithlani, M.

    2009-01-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid type-A (GABAA) receptors are heteropentameric ligand-gated chloride channels that mediate the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain. Emerging evidence indicates that their functional expression is subject to dynamic modulation by phosphorylation. However, the cell signaling molecules responsible for regulating GABAA receptor phosphorylation and thus the efficacy of neuronal inhibition remain to be identified. The β subunits are of particular interest in this co...

  2. Progesterone receptor expression in the brain of the socially monogamous and paternal male prairie vole

    Williams, Brittany; Northcutt, Katharine V.; Rusanowsky, Rebecca D.; Mennella, Thomas A.; Lonstein, Joseph S.; Quadros-Mennella, Princy S.

    2013-01-01

    Differences in the social organization and behavior of male mammals are attributable to species differences in neurochemistry, including differential expression of steroid hormone receptors. However, the distribution of progestin receptors (PR) in a socially monogamous and spontaneously parental male rodent has never been examined. Here we determined if PR exists and is regulated by testicular hormones in forebrain sites traditionally influencing socioreproductive behaviors in male prairie vo...

  3. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25), IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc), γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Rα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old. PMID:26375984

  4. GABA Acts as a Ligand Chaperone in the Early Secretory Pathway to Promote Cell Surface Expression of GABAA Receptors

    Eshaq, Randa S.; Stahl, Letha D.; Stone, Randolph; Smith, Sheryl S.; Robinson, Lucy C.; Leidenheimer, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain. The fast inhibitory effect of GABA is mediated through the GABAA receptor, a postsynaptic ligand-gated chloride channel. We propose that GABA can act as a ligand chaperone in the early secretory pathway to facilitate GABAA receptor cell surface expression. Forty-two hrs of GABA treatment increased the surface expression of recombinant receptors expressed in HEK 293 cells, an effect accompanied by an increase in GA...

  5. Age-related alterations in innate immune receptor expression and ability of macrophages to respond to pathogen challenge in vitro

    Liang, Shuang; Domon, Hisanori; Hosur, Kavita B.; WANG Min; Hajishengallis, George

    2009-01-01

    The impact of ageing in innate immunity is poorly understood. Studies in the mouse model have described altered innate immune functions in aged macrophages, although these were not generally linked to altered expression of receptors or regulatory molecules. Moreover, the influence of ageing in the expression of these molecules has not been systematically examined. We investigated age-dependent expression differences in selected Toll-like and other pattern-recognition receptors, receptors invo...

  6. Complex Control of GABA(A) Receptor Subunit mRNA Expression: Variation, Covariation, and Genetic Regulation

    Mulligan, Megan K.; Wang, Xusheng; Adler, Adrienne L.; Mozhui, Khyobeni; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    GABA type-A receptors are essential for fast inhibitory neurotransmission and are critical in brain function. Surprisingly, expression of receptor subunits is highly variable among individuals, but the cause and impact of this fluctuation remains unknown. We have studied sources of variation for all 19 receptor subunits using massive expression data sets collected across multiple brain regions and platforms in mice and humans. Expression of Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabrb2, Gabrb3, and Gabrg2 is highly...

  7. Cell Cycle-dependent Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β Is a Mechanism for Variable Hormone SensitivityD⃞

    Maruvada, Padma; Dmitrieva, Natalia I.; East-Palmer, Joyce; Yen, Paul M.

    2004-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are ligand-regulatable transcription factors. Currently, little is known about the expression of TRs or other nuclear hormone receptors during the cell cycle. We thus developed a stable expression system to express green fluorescent protein-TRβ in HeLa cells under tetracycline regulation, and studied TR expression during the cell cycle by laser scanning cytometry. Only ∼9-15% of the nonsynchronized cell population expressed TR because the majority of cells were...

  8. Two members of a distinct subfamily of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors differentially expressed in rat brain.

    Erlander, M G; Lovenberg, T W; Baron, B M; de Lecea, L; Danielson, P E; Racke, M; Slone, A L; Siegel, B W; Foye, P. E.; Cannon, K

    1993-01-01

    We report two serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors, MR22 and REC17, that belong to the G-protein-associated receptor superfamily. MR22 and REC17 are 371 and 357 amino acids long, respectively, as deduced from nucleotide sequence and share 68% mutual amino acid identity and 30-35% identity with known catecholamine and 5-HT receptors. Saturable binding of 125I-labeled (+)-lysergic acid diethylamide to transiently expressed MR22 in COS-M6 cells was inhibited by ergotamine > methiothep...

  9. Isoflavones enhance interleukin-17 gene expression via retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ

    Highlights: • Nuclear receptors, RORα and RORγ, are key regulators of Th17 cell differentiation. • Isoflavones have RORα/γ agonistic activities. • Isoflavones enhance the interaction of RORα/γ with co-activator. • These compounds enhance the expression of Il17a mRNA in mouse EL4 cells. • Dietary isoflavones can act as modulators of Il17a expression via RORα/γ. - Abstract: The retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptors α and γ (RORα and RORγ), are key regulators of helper T (Th)17 cell differentiation, which is involved in the innate immune system and autoimmune disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of isoflavones on RORα/γ activity and the gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17, which mediates the function of Th17 cells. In doxycycline-inducible CHO stable cell lines, we found that four isoflavones, biochanin A (BA), genistein, formononetin, and daidzein, enhanced RORα- or RORγ-mediated transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. In an activation assay of the Il17a promoter using Jurkat cells, these compounds enhanced the RORα- or RORγ-mediated activation of the Il17a promoter at concentrations of 1 × 10−6 M to 1 × 10−5 M. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, the four isoflavones enhanced the interaction between the RORα- or RORγ-ligand binding domain and the co-activator LXXLL peptide in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, these isoflavones potently enhanced Il17a mRNA expression in mouse T lymphoma EL4 cells treated with phorbol myristate acetate and ionomycin, but showed slight enhancement of Il17a gene expression in RORα/γ-knockdown EL4 cells. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting assays also revealed that BA enhanced the interaction between RORγt and SRC-1, which is a co-activator for nuclear receptors. Taken together, these results suggest that the isoflavones have the ability to enhance IL-17 gene expression by stabilizing the interactions between RORα/γ and co-activators. This also

  10. The interleukin-1 type I receptor is expressed in human hypothalamus.

    Hammond, E A; Smart, D; Toulmond, S; Suman-Chauhan, N; Hughes, J; Hall, M D

    1999-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that interleukin-1 (IL-1) acts directly on the central nervous system, probably within the hypothalamus, causing effects such as fever, activation of the immune response and sickness behaviour. IL-1 has also been shown to be involved in the aetiology of several neuronal diseases, including neurodegeneration, stroke and Alzheimer's disease. However, the question as to whether the full-length type I IL-1 receptor (IL-1RI) is expressed in the human hypothalamus has yet to be addressed. Using the polymerase chain reaction, we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding the human hypothalamic IL-1RI from human hypothalamic cDNA. The DNA sequence of the human hypothalamic receptor was identical to that of the human fibroblast IL-1RI. The IL-1RI receptor protein was detected in astrocytes of normal human hypothalamic brain sections using immunocytochemical techniques. To ascertain that the cloned receptor was functional, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were transfected with a plasmid vector containing the IL-1RI coding region. IL-1RI-mediated-signal transduction was assessed by microphysiometry and activation of p38 MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase. We report the first demonstration that both the type I IL-1 transcript and the protein are expressed in the human hypothalamus. The receptor was expressed in a stable CHO cell line, providing a tool with which to embark on a thorough analysis of the signalling mechanisms mediated by IL-1 via this receptor. PMID:10468509

  11. Expression of the rat muscarinic receptor gene m3 in Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Voith, G; Kramm, H; Zündorf, I; Winkler, T; Dingermann, T

    1998-10-01

    We functionally expressed the rat muscarinic m3 receptor (rm3) in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum under the control of the homologous discoidin I gamma promoter. Cells transfected with the authentic rm3 receptor gene expressed about 100 functional receptor molecules per cell, corresponding to a Bmax for [3H]-NMS of 36 +/- 9 fmol/mg of protein in isolated membranes. Genetic fusion of the Dictyostelium contact site A (csA) leader peptide to the amino terminus of rm3 increased the receptor expression by about 17-fold. Remarkable, in [3H]-NMS ligand binding experiments performed with whole cells no characteristic saturable binding was observed and there was no significant difference in [3H]-NMS binding to whole cells of rm3 and csA/rm3 transformants. The recombinant rm3 receptor showed an about 10-fold higher affinity to the M3-selective antagonist p-F-HHSiD compared to the M2-selective antagonist AQ-RA 741, suggesting that membranes derived from transgenic D. discoideum cells may be useful for the search of new subtype-specific muscarinic receptor ligands. PMID:9812338

  12. Expression of Dihydropyridine and Ryanodine Receptors in Type IIA Fibers of Rat Skeletal Muscle

    In this study, the fiber type specificity of dihydropyridine receptors (DHPRs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs) in different rat limb muscles was investigated. Western blot and histochemical analyses provided for the first time evidence that the expression of both receptors correlates to a specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition. We observed a significant (p=0.01) correlation between DHP as well as Ry receptor density and the expression of MHC IIa (correlation factor r=0.674 and r=0.645, respectively) in one slow-twitch, postural muscle (m. soleus), one mixed, fast-twitch muscle (m. gastrocnemius) and two fast-twitch muscles (m. rectus femoris, m. extensor digitorum longus). The highest DHP and Ry receptor density was found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (0.058±0.0060 and 0.057±0.0158 ODu, respectively). As expected, the highest relative percentage of MHC IIa was also found in the white part of m. rectus femoris (70.0±7.77%). Furthermore, histochemical experiments revealed that the IIA fibers stained most strongly for the fluorophore-conjugated receptor blockers. Our data clearly suggest that the expression of DHPRs and RyRs follows a fiber type-specific pattern, indicating an important role for these proteins in the maintenance of an effective Ca2+ cycle in the fast contracting fiber type IIA

  13. In vivo evaluation of [11C]preladenant positron emission tomography for quantification of adenosine A2A receptors in the rat brain

    Zhou, Xiaoyun; Khanapur, Shivashankar; de Jong, Johan R; Willemsen, Antoon T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi Ajo; Elsinga, Philip H; de Vries, Erik Fj

    2016-01-01

    [(11)C]Preladenant was developed as a novel adenosine A2A receptor positron emission tomography radioligand. The present study aims to evaluate the suitability of [(11)C]preladenant positron emission tomography for the quantification of striatal A2A receptor density and the assessment of striatal A2

  14. Expression and function of androgen receptor coactivator p44/Mep50/WDR77 in ovarian cancer.

    Martin Ligr

    Full Text Available Hormones, including estrogen and progesterone, and their receptors play an important role in the development and progression of ovarian carcinoma. Androgen, its receptor and coactivators have also been implicated in these processes. p44/Mep50/WDR77 was identified as a subunit of the methylosome complex and lately characterized as a steroid receptor coactivator that enhances androgen receptor as well as estrogen receptor-mediated transcriptional activity in a ligand-dependent manner. We previously described distinct expression and function of p44 in prostate, testis, and breast cancers. In this report, we examined the expression and function of p44 in ovarian cancer. In contrast to findings in prostate and testicular cancer and similar to breast cancer, p44 shows strong cytoplasmic localization in morphologically normal ovarian surface and fallopian tube epithelia, while nuclear p44 is observed in invasive ovarian carcinoma. We observed that p44 can serve as a coactivator of both androgen receptor (AR and estrogen receptor (ER in ovarian cells. Further, overexpression of nuclear-localized p44 stimulates proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer cells in the presence of estrogen or androgen. These findings strongly suggest that p44 plays a role in mediating the effects of hormones during ovarian tumorigenesis.

  15. Expressão do gene da leptina e seu receptor Ob-Rb no parênquima mamário de novilhas leiteiras Leptin and leptin receptor Ob-Rb gene expression in mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers

    Betina Joyce Lew

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos de uma dieta de alto nível de energia e proteína combinada com a aplicação de bST no perfil de expressão dos genes da leptina e de seu receptor Ob-Rb no parênquima mamário de novilhas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas amostras de parênquima mamário de 32 novilhas holandesas distribuídas aleatoriamente em quatro tratamentos (n=8: dieta com alto ou baixo teor de energia e proteína combinada ou não com a aplicação de bST. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com arranjo de tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2 × 2. A extração do RNA total das amostras de tecido foi feita e o nível de expressão gênica foi analisado por qRT-PCR utilizando-se o gene da glicuronidase β como controle, pelo método 2-ΔΔCt. Animais que receberam a dieta com alto conteúdo de energia e proteína apresentaram maior expressão de mRNA de leptina, com aumento de 56%, e menor expressão de mRNA do receptor Ob-Rb, com redução de 18%. Por outro lado, a aplicação de bST resultou em diminuição da expressão do mRNA de leptina e do receptor Ob-Rb em 74% e 23%, respectivamente. Não houve interação entre dieta e aplicação de bST. O aumento na expressão de leptina pode explicar, ao menos em parte, os efeitos negativos da dieta de alta energia e proteína, oferecida no período pré-púbere, sobre a produção de leite de novilhas leiteiras.The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a diet with high level of energy and protein, combined with bST injections, on leptin and leptin-receptor (Ob-Rb gene expression profile in the mammary parenchyma of dairy heifers. Mammary parenchyma samples from 32 Holstein heifers, randomly assigned to one of four treatments (n=8, were utilized: high or low energy and protein diet, with or without bST injection. The experiment was designed in randomized blocks and arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Total RNA was extracted from tissue samples

  16. Expression of prostaglandin receptors in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters.

    Singh, Namita; Prasad, Priya; Singh, Laishram Chandreshwar; Das, Banashree; Rastogi, Sangita

    2016-06-01

    A study was undertaken to quantify the expression of prostaglandin (PG) receptors and find the effect of gestational age on expression of PG receptor genes in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected recurrent spontaneous aborters (RSA). Endometrial curettage tissue (ECT) was collected from 130 RSA (Group I) and 100 age-matched controls (Group II) at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi (India). PCR was performed for diagnosis of C. trachomatis cryptic plasmid; mRNA expression of PG receptor genes was assessed by real-time PCR (q-PCR), while serum progesterone/estrogen levels were determined by respective commercial kits. Data were evaluated statistically. A total of 15.4 % RSA (GroupI) were diagnosed as C. trachomatis-positive (200 bp), whereas controls were uninfected. q-PCR showed significant upregulation (PRSA, mean serum progesterone level was significantly low (PRSA. PMID:27028620

  17. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase expression by the farnesoid X receptor

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) functions as an important junction in intermediary metabolism by influencing the utilization of fat versus carbohydrate as a source of fuel. Activation of PDC is achieved by phosphatases, whereas, inactivation is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). The expression of PDK4 is highly regulated by the glucocorticoid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. We demonstrate that the farnesoid X receptor (FXR; NR1H4), which regulates a variety of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism, also regulates the expression of PDK4. Treatment of rat hepatoma cells as well as human primary hepatocytes with FXR agonists stimulates the expression of PDK4 to levels comparable to those obtained with glucocorticoids. In addition, treatment of mice with an FXR agonist significantly increased hepatic PDK4 expression, while concomitantly decreasing plasma triglyceride levels. Thus, activation of FXR may suppress glycolysis and enhance oxidation of fatty acids via inactivation of the PDC by increasing PDK4 expression

  18. Cloning, expression and pharmacological characterization of rabbit adenosine A1 and A3 receptors.

    Hill, R J; Oleynek, J J; Hoth, C F; Kiron, M A; Weng, W; Wester, R T; Tracey, W R; Knight, D R; Buchholz, R A; Kennedy, S P

    1997-01-01

    The role of adenosine A1 and A3 receptors in mediating cardioprotection has been studied predominantly in rabbits, yet the pharmacological characteristics of rabbit adenosine A1 and A3 receptor subtypes are unknown. Thus, the rabbit adenosine A3 receptor was cloned and expressed, and its pharmacology was compared with that of cloned adenosine A1 receptors. Stable transfection of rabbit A1 or A3 cDNAs in Chinese hamster ovary-K1 cells resulted in high levels of expression of each of the receptors, as demonstrated by high-affinity binding of the A1/A3 adenosine receptor agonist N6-(4-amino-3-[125I]iodobenzyl)adenosine (125I-ABA). For both receptors, binding of 125I-ABA was inhibited by the GTP analog 5'-guanylimidodiphosphate, and forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was inhibited by the adenosine receptor agonist (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine. The rank orders of potency of adenosine receptor agonists for inhibition of 125I-ABA binding were as follows: rabbit A1, N6-cyclopentyladenosine = (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine > N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > or = I-ABA > or = N6-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine > > N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide > N6-(4-amino-3-benzyl)adenosine; rabbit A3, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide > or = I-ABA > > N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine > N6-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine = N6-cyclopentyladenosine = (R)-phenylisopropyladenosine > N6-(4-amino-3-benzyl)adenosine. The adenosine receptor antagonist rank orders were as follow: rabbit A1, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine > 1,3- dipropyl-8-(4-acrylate)phenylxanthine > or = xanthine amine congener > > 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline; rabbit A3, xanthine amine congener > 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-acrylate)phenylxanthine > or = 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine > > 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline. These observations confirm the identity of the expressed proteins as A1 and A3 receptors. The results will facilitate further in-depth studies of the roles of A1 and A3 receptors in

  19. Use of adenovirus vector expressing the mouse full estrogen receptor alpha gene to infect mouse primary neurons

    Xiao HU; Lei Lou; Jun Yuan; Xing Wan; Jianyi Wang; Xinyue Qin

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen plays important regulatory and protective roles in the central nervous system through estrogen receptor a mediation.Previous studies applied eukaryotic expression and lentiviral vectors carrying estrogen receptor a to clarify the undedying mechanisms,in the present study,an adenovirus vector expressing the mouse full estrogen receptor a gene was constructed to identify biological characteristics of estrogen receptor a recombinant adenovirus infecting nerve cells.Primary cultured mouse nerve cells were first infected with estrogen receptor a recombinant adenovirus at various multiplicities of infection,followed by 100 multiplicity of infection.Results showed overexpression of estrogen receptor a mRNA and protein in the infected nerve cells.Estrogen receptor a recombinant adenovirus at 100 multiplicity of infection successfully infected neurons and upregulated estrogen receptor a mRNA and protein expression.

  20. Glutamate Receptor Interacting Protein 1 Regulates CD4(+) CTLA-4 Expression and Transplant Rejection.

    Modjeski, K L; Levy, S C; Ture, S K; Field, D J; Shi, G; Ko, K; Zhu, Q; Morrell, C N

    2016-05-01

    PDZ domains are common 80- to 90-amino-acid regions named after the first three proteins discovered to share these domains: postsynaptic density 95, discs large, and zonula occludens. PDZ domain-containing proteins typically interact with the C-terminus of membrane receptors. Glutamate receptor interacting protein 1 (GRIP1), a seven-PDZ domain protein scaffold, regulates glutamate receptor surface expression and trafficking in neurons. We have found that human and mouse T cells also express GRIP1. T cell-specific GRIP1(-/-) mice >11 weeks old had prolonged cardiac allograft survival. Compared with wild-type T cells, in vitro stimulated GRIP1(-/-) T cells had decreased expression of activation markers and increased apoptotic surface marker expression. Surface expression of the strong T cell inhibitory molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) was increased on GRIP1(-/-) T cells from mice >11 weeks old. CTLA-4 increases with T cell stimulation and its surface expression on GRIP1(-/-) T cells remained high after stimulation was removed, indicating a possible internalization defect in GRIP1-deficient T cells. CTLA-4-blocking antibody treatment following heart transplantation led to complete rejection in T cell GRIP1(-/-) mice, indicating that increased CTLA-4 surface expression contributed to the extended graft survival. Our data indicate that GRIP1 regulates T cell activation by regulating CTLA-4 surface expression. PMID:26601915

  1. EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR IN DIFFERENT SALIVARY ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA CELL LINES

    MA Jie; ZONG Zhi-hong; WANG Zhao-yuan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor, a receptor tyrosine protein kinase, in the subcellular fractions of human salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma cell lines SACC-83 and SACC-LM. Methods: Low metastatic and high metastatic cells of the adenoid cystic carcinoma, SACC-83 and SACC-LM, were cultured. Their subcellular fractions were extracted. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor was detected with Western blot method, and the results of protein expression were quantitatively analyzed by FluorChem V2.0 software. Results: The results of Western blot analysis indicated that, EGFR expression on the membrane of SACC-83 cells was significantly higher than that of SACC-LM cells, but its expression in cytoplasm was significantly less in the former than the later (P<0.01). In SACC-83 cell line, EGFR was over-expressed in membrane (P<0.01), but in SACC-LM cell line, EGFR was over-expressed in cytoplasm (P<0.01). Conclusion: The results suggest that the obtaining of metastasis ability is related to the high expression of EGFR protein in cytoplasm, so the molecular targeting therapy to EGFR may be an ideal treatment for the invasion and metastasis of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  2. Expression of anti-Mullerian hormone receptor on the appendix testis in connection with urological disorders

    Kornél Kistamás; Olga Ruzsnavszky; Andrea Telek; Lívia Kosztka; Ilona Kovács; Beatrix Dienes; László Csernoch

    2013-01-01

    The female internal sex organs develop from the paramesonephric (Mullerian) duct.In male embryos,the regression of the Mullerian duct is caused by the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH),which plays an important role in the process of testicular descent.The physiological remnant of the Mullerian duct in males is the appendix testis (AT).In our previous study,we presented evidence for the decreased incidence of AT in cryptorchidism with intraoperative surgery.In this report,the expression of the anti-Mullerian hormone receptor type 2 (AMHR2),the specific receptor of AMH,on the AT was investigated in connection with different urological disorders,such as hernia inguinalis,torsion of AT,cysta epididymis,varicocele,hydrocele testis and various forms of undescended testis.The correlation between the age of the patients and the expression of the AMHR2 was also examined.Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the receptor's mRNA and protein levels,respectively.We demonstrate that AMHR2 is expressed in the ATs.Additionally,the presence of this receptor was proven at the mRNA and protein levels.The expression pattern of the receptor correlated with neither the examined urological disorders nor the age of the patients;therefore,the function of the AT remains obscure.

  3. Orexin receptor expression in human adipose tissue: effects of orexin-A and orexin-B.

    Digby, J E; Chen, J; Tang, J Y; Lehnert, H; Matthews, R N; Randeva, H S

    2006-10-01

    Orexin-A and orexin-B, via their receptors orexin-1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin-2 receptor (OX2R) have been shown to play a role in the regulation of feeding, body weight, and energy expenditure. Adipose tissue also contributes significantly to the maintenance of body weight by interacting with a complex array of bioactive peptides; however, there are no data as yet on the expression of orexin components in adipose tissue. We, therefore, analyzed the expression of OX1R and OX2R in human adipose tissue and determined functional responses to orexin-A and orexin-B. OX1R and OX2R mRNA expression was detected in subcutaneous (s.c.) and omental adipose tissue and in isolated adipocytes. Protein for OX1R and OX2R was also detected in whole adipose tissue sections and lysates. Treatment with orexin-A, and orexin-B (100 nM, 24 h) resulted in a significant increase in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma-2 mRNA expression in s.c. adipose tissue (P B treatment (P < 0.05). Glycerol release from omental adipose tissue was also significantly reduced with orexin-A treatment (P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate for the first time the presence of functional orexin receptors in human adipose tissue and suggest a role for orexins in adipose tissue metabolism and adipogenesis. PMID:17065396

  4. Effect of Dexamethasone on Expression of Glucocorticoid Receptor in Human Monocyte Cell Line THP-1

    2006-01-01

    The effect of dexamethasone with differentconcentrations and different stimulating periods on the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRα, GRβ) protein was investigated in human monocyte cell line THP-1. The cultured human monocyte line THP-1 cells were stimulated by dexamethasone with different concentrations and different periods. The expression of GRα and GRβ protein was detected by Western blotting. The results showed that the expression of GRα and GRβ was detected in the THP-1 cells. The quantity of GRα expression was reduced by dexamethasone under the same concentration with the prolongation of the stimulating periods. The quantity of GRβ expression was increased by dexamethasone treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. It was concluded that dexamethasone stimulation time-dependently reduced the GRα expression in THP-1 cells. Dexamethasone stimulation time- and dose-dependently increased the GRβ expression in THP1 cells. The expression of GRα and GRβ was regulated by glucocorticoid.

  5. Identification and expression of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa

    Shifeng Li; Yunbin Zhang; Haixiong Liu; Yuanchang Yan; Yiping Li

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and GABAB receptors are involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction induced by progesterone or GABA. Here,we report the presence of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa.Full-length complementary DNA encoding the ρ1,ρ2 and ρ3 subunits of GABAc receptor were cloned from rat testis;their sequences are identical to those of rat GABAc receptor in retina.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that during the development of rat testis,the transcript levels of the ρ1 and ρ2 subunits showed little change,while the expression of ρ3 was gradually up-regulated.Immunofluorescence analysis using an anti-ρ1 antibody revealed that GABAc receptor exists on the elongated spermatid and sperm.Using a chlortetracycline assay,we found that N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside, a GABAc receptor agonist,triggered rat sperm acrosome reaction;whereas(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid,a GABAc receptor antagonist, inhibited the ability of N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside to induce acrosome reaction.These results suggested that GABAc receptors are also involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction.

  6. Carotid body AT4 receptor expression and its upregulation in chronic hypoxia

    Fung, Man-Lung; Lam, Siu-Yin; Wong, Tung-Po; Tjong, Yung-Wui; Leung, Po-Sing

    2007-01-01

    Hypoxia regulates the local expression of angiotensin-generating system in the rat carotid body and the me-tabolite angiotensin IV (Ang IV) may be involved in the modulation of carotid body function. We tested the hypothesis that Ang IV-binding angiotensin AT(4) receptors play a role in the adaptive change of the carotid body in hypoxia. The expression and localization of Ang IV-binding sites and AT(4) receptors in the rat carotid bodies were studied with histochemistry. Specific fluorescein-...

  7. High-throughput Microarray Detection of Vomeronasal Receptor Gene Expression in Rodents

    FlorenciaMarcucci

    2010-01-01

    We performed comprehensive data mining to explore the vomeronasal receptor (V1R & V2R) repertoires in mouse and rat using the mm5 and rn3 genome, respectively. This bioinformatic analysis was followed by investigation of gene expression using a custom designed high-density oligonucleotide array containing all of these receptors and other selected genes of interest. This array enabled us to detect the specific expression of V1R and V2Rs which were previously identified solely based on computa...

  8. High-Throughput Microarray Detection of Vomeronasal Receptor Gene Expression in Rodents

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Marcucci, Florencia; Firestein, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    We performed comprehensive data mining to explore the vomeronasal receptor (V1R and V2R) repertoires in mouse and rat using the mm5 and rn3 genome, respectively. This bioinformatic analysis was followed by investigation of gene expression using a custom designed high-density oligonucleotide array containing all of these receptors and other selected genes of interest. This array enabled us to detect the specific expression of V1R and V2Rs which were previously identified solely based on comput...

  9. Activation of A2b adenosine receptor regulates ovarian cancer cell growth: involvement of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3.

    Hajiahmadi, Sima; Panjehpour, Mojtaba; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Shabani, Mahdi

    2015-08-01

    A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR) acts as a potent regulator of cell growth in various cell lines. The present study was designed to understand the controlling mechanism of A2bAR agonist (NECA)-induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting assays were used to evaluate the gene and protein expression profiles of A2bAR, respectively. MTT assay was used to study the cell proliferation effect of A2bAR agonist (NECA). Detection of apoptosis was conducted using annexin V-FITC/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins analysis. The mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM) was analyzed by employing JC-1 prob. The mRNA and protein expression levels of A2bAR in ovarian cancer cells were detected. NECA significantly reduced cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in OVCAR-3 and Caov-4 cell lines. The growth inhibition effect of NECA was related to the induction of cell apoptosis, which was manifested by annexin V-FITC staining, activation of caspase-3, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potentials (ΔΨm). In addition, downregulation of the regulatory protein Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax protein by NECA were also observed. These findings demonstrated that NECA induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial signaling pathway. Thus, A2bAR agonists may be a potential agent for induction of apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25877700

  10. Chronic hypoxia reduces adenosine A2A receptor-mediated inhibition of calcium current in rat PC12 cells via downregulation of protein kinase A.

    Kobayashi, S; Beitner-Johnson, D; Conforti, L; Millhorn, D E

    1998-10-15

    1. Adenosine has been shown to decrease Ca2+ current (ICa) and attenuate the hypoxia-induced enhancement of intracellular free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) in oxygen-sensitive rat phaeochromocytoma (PC12) cells. These effects are mediated via the adenosine A2A receptor and protein kinase A (PKA). The current study was undertaken to determine the effects of adenosine on Ca2+ current and hypoxia-induced change in [Ca2+]i during chronic hypoxia. 2. Whole cell patch-clamp studies revealed that the effect of adenosine on ICa was significantly reduced when PC12 cells were exposed to hypoxia (10 % O2) for 24 and 48 h. 3. Ca2+ imaging studies using fura-2 revealed that the anoxia-induced increase in [Ca2+]i was significantly enhanced when PC12 cells were exposed to 10 % O2 for up to 48 h. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of adenosine on anoxia-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i was significantly blunted in PC12 cells exposed to hypoxia for 48 h. 4. Northern blot analysis revealed that mRNA for the A2A receptor, which is the only adenosine receptor subtype expressed in PC12 cells, was significantly upregulated by hypoxia. Radioligand binding analysis with [3H]CGS21680, a selective A2A receptor ligand, showed that the number of adenosine A2A receptor binding sites was similarly increased during exposure to 10% O2 for 48 h. 5. PKA enzyme activity was significantly inhibited when PC12 cells were exposed to 10% O2 for 24 and 48 h. However, we found that hypoxia failed to induce change in adenosine- and forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase enzyme activity. Chronic hypoxia also did not alter the immunoreactivity level of the G protein Gsalpha, an effector of the A2 signalling pathway. 6. Whole cell patch-clamp analysis showed that the effect of 8-bromo-cAMP, an activator of PKA, on ICa was significantly attenuated during 48 h exposure to 10% O2.7. We conclude therefore that the reduced effect of adenosine on ICa and [Ca2+]i in PC12 cells exposed to chronic hypoxia is due to hypoxia

  11. Cardiac gene expression data and in silico analysis provide novel insights into human and mouse taste receptor gene regulation.

    Foster, Simon R; Porrello, Enzo R; Stefani, Maurizio; Smith, Nicola J; Molenaar, Peter; dos Remedios, Cristobal G; Thomas, Walter G; Ramialison, Mirana

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are the principal mediators of the sweet, umami, bitter, and fat taste qualities in mammals. Intriguingly, the taste receptors are also expressed outside of the oral cavity, including in the gut, airways, brain, and heart, where they have additional functions and contribute to disease. However, there is little known about the mechanisms governing the transcriptional regulation of taste receptor genes. Following our recent delineation of taste receptors in the heart, we investigated the genomic loci encoding for taste receptors to gain insight into the regulatory mechanisms that drive their expression in the heart. Gene expression analyses of healthy and diseased human and mouse hearts showed coordinated expression for a subset of chromosomally clustered taste receptors. This chromosomal clustering mirrored the cardiac expression profile, suggesting that a common gene regulatory block may control the taste receptor locus. We identified unique domains with strong regulatory potential in the vicinity of taste receptor genes. We also performed de novo motif enrichment in the proximal promoter regions and found several overrepresented DNA motifs in cardiac taste receptor gene promoters corresponding to ubiquitous and cardiac-specific transcription factor binding sites. Thus, combining cardiac gene expression data with bioinformatic analyses, this study has provided insights into the noncoding regulatory landscape for taste GPCRs. These findings also have broader relevance for the study of taste GPCRs outside of the classical gustatory system, where understanding the mechanisms controlling the expression of these receptors may have implications for future therapeutic development. PMID:25986534

  12. Increased angiotensin II AT(1) receptor expression in paraventricular nucleus and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stimulation in AT(2) receptor gene disrupted mice.

    Armando, Inés; Terrón, José A; Falcón-Neri, Alicia; Takeshi, Ito; Häuser, Walter; Inagami, Tadashi; Saavedra, Juan M

    2002-09-01

    Angiotensin II AT(2) receptor gene-disrupted mice have increased blood pressure and response to angiotensin II, behavioral alterations, greater response to stress, and increased adrenal AT(1) receptors. We studied hypothalamic AT(1) receptor binding and mRNA by receptor autoradiography and in situ hybridization, adrenal catecholamines by HPLC, adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA by in situ hybridization and pituitary and adrenal hormones by RIA in AT(2) receptor-gene disrupted mice and wild-type controls. To confirm the role of adrenal AT(1) receptors, we treated wild-type C57 BL/6J mice with the AT(1) antagonist candesartan for 2 weeks, and measured adrenal hormones, catecholamines and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA. In the absence of AT(2) receptor transcription, we found increased AT(1) receptor binding in brain areas involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and the median eminence, and increased adrenal catecholamine synthesis as shown by higher adrenomedullary tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and higher adrenal dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine levels when compared to wild-type mice. In addition, in AT(2) receptor gene-disrupted mice there were higher plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone levels and lower adrenal aldosterone content when compared to wild-type controls. Conversely, AT(1) receptor inhibition in CB57 BL/6J mice reduced adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA and catecholamine content and increased adrenal aldosterone content. These results can help to explain the enhanced response of AT(2) receptor gene-disrupted mice to exogenous angiotensin II, support the hypothesis of cross-talk between AT(1) and AT(2) receptors, indicate that the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis parallels the AT(1) receptor expression, and suggest that expression of AT(1) receptors can be dependent on AT(2) receptor expression. Our results provide an explanation for the increased

  13. Yeast two-hybrid screening of proteins interacting with plasmin receptor subunit: C-terminal fragment of annexin A2

    Qun LI; Yves LAUMONNIER; Tatiana SYROVETS; Thomas SIMMET

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To identify proteins that interact with the C-terminal fragment of annexin A2 (A21C),generated by plasmin cleavage of the plasmin receptor,a heterotetramer (AA2t) containing annexin A2.Methods:The gene that encodes the A21C fragment was obtained from PCR-amplifled cDNA isolated from human monocytes,and was ligated into the pBTM116 vector using a DNA ligation kit.The resultant plasmid (pBTM116-A21C) was sequenced with an ABI PRISM 310 Genetic Analyzer.The expression of an A21C bait protein fused with a LexA-DNA binding domain (BD) was determined using Western blot analysis.The identification of proteins that interact with A21C and are encoded in a human monocyte cDNA library was performed using yeast two-hybrid screening.The DNA sequences of the relevant cDNAs were determined using an ABI PRISM BigDye terminator cycle sequencing ready reaction kit.Nucleotide sequence databases were searched for homologous sequences using BLAST search analysis (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov).Confirmation of the interaction between the protein LexA-A21C and each of cathepsin S and SNX17 was conducted using a small-scale yeast transformation and X-gal assay.Results:The yeast transformed with plasmids encoding the bait proteins were screened with a human monocyte cDNA library by reconstituting full-length transcription factors containing the GAL4-active domain (GAL4-AD) as the prey in a yeast two-hybrid approach.After screening 1×107 clones,23 independent β-Gal-positive clones were identified.Sequence analysis and a database search revealed that 15 of these positive clones matched eight different proteins (SNX17,ProCathepsin S,RPS2,ZBTB4,OGDH,CCDC32,PAPD4,and actin which was already known to interact with annexin A2).Conclusion:A21C A21C interacts with various proteins to form protein complexes,which may contribute to the molecular mechanism of monocyte activation induced by plasmin.The yeast two-hybrid system is an efficient approach for investigating protein interactions.

  14. Adenosine A(2A receptors measured with [C]TMSX PET in the striata of Parkinson's disease patients.

    Masahiro Mishina

    Full Text Available Adenosine A(2A receptors (A2ARs are thought to interact negatively with the dopamine D(2 receptor (D2R, so selective A2AR antagonists have attracted attention as novel treatments for Parkinson's disease (PD. However, no information about the receptor in living patients with PD is available. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between A2ARs and the dopaminergic system in the striata of drug-naïve PD patients and PD patients with dyskinesia, and alteration of these receptors after antiparkinsonian therapy. We measured binding ability of striatal A2ARs using positron emission tomography (PET with [7-methyl-(11C]-(E-8-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl-1,3,7-trimethylxanthine ([(11C]TMSX in nine drug-naïve patients with PD, seven PD patients with mild dyskinesia and six elderly control subjects using PET. The patients and eight normal control subjects were also examined for binding ability of dopamine transporters and D2Rs. Seven of the drug-naïve patients underwent a second series of PET scans following therapy. We found that the distribution volume ratio of A2ARs in the putamen were larger in the dyskinesic patients than in the control subjects (p<0.05, Tukey-Kramer post hoc test. In the drug-naïve patients, the binding ability of the A2ARs in the putamen, but not in the head of caudate nucleus, was significantly lower on the more affected side than on the less affected side (p<0.05, paired t-test. In addition, the A2ARs were significantly increased after antiparkinsonian therapy in the bilateral putamen of the drug-naïve patients (p<0.05, paired t-test but not in the bilateral head of caudate nucleus. Our study demonstrated that the A2ARs in the putamen were increased in the PD patients with dyskinesia, and also suggest that the A2ARs in the putamen compensate for the asymmetrical decrease of dopamine in drug-naïve PD patients and that antiparkinsonian therapy increases the A2ARs in the putamen. The A2ARs may play an

  15. Expression and purification of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, a key enzyme involved in atherosclerosis

    Fu-jun ZHANG; Mao-jun CAI; Jing-kang SHEN; Yi-ping WANG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To express and purify lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), and to establish a screening model for Lp-PLA2 inhibitors using the expressed Lp-PLA2. Methods: We cloned the full-length cDNA of Lp-PLA2 from differentiated THP-1 cells, and subcloned the cDNA into the baculovirus transfer vector pFastBacl. In addition, we introduced an N-terminal Kozak sequence for highlevel translation initiation and a C-terminal sequence of 6 histidine residues for purification. The fusion enzyme was expressed in Sf9 insect cells and purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. Recombinant Lp-PLA2 activity was measured using [3H]PAF as a substrate, and we examined the enzyme activity of recombinant Lp-PLA2 pretreated with the known Lp-PLA2 inhibitor SB435495. Results: We successfully cloned the full-length Lp-PLA2 gene from differentiated THP-1 cells. The fusion enzyme was expressed in Sf9 insect cells at a high level and purified efficiently through a 2-step procedure. The recombinant Lp-PLA2 activity was measured using [3H]PAF as a substrate, and proved to be enzymatically active. Lp-PLA2 inhibitor SB435495 produced a good inhibition curve for inhibition of recombinant Lp-PLA2 with an IC50 of 57±1 μmol/L. Conclusion: We expressed and purified Lp-PLA2 at a high level in insect cell-baculovirus expression system. The yield ratio was much greater than that obtained from human plasma and we established a screening model for Lp-PLA2 inhibitors using the expressed Lp-PLA2.

  16. Increase of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion

    YAN Chun-fang; YU Xue-wen; JIN Hui; LI Xu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein expression level in decidua andconcentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in serum in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion,threatened abortion, and compare the levels with healthy pregnant women. Methods: Thirty-seven women with unexplainedearly spontaneous abortion, 27 women with threatened abortion, and 34 healthy pregnant women undergoing artificial abortionof pregnancy at 6 - 10 weeks of gestation were selected. Decidual samples were collected when women were undergoing arti-ficial abortion, and blood samples were collected at the same time. The level of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 indecidua was detected by flow cytometer, and the concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in sera was mea-sured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ercentages of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1positive decidual cells were 16.42 ± 7.10 Mean ± SD for women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion and 13.14 ±6.30 for healthy pregnant women ( P < 0.05). Serum oncentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was signifi-cantly higher in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion than in healthy pregnant women and in women withthreatened abortion, and no difference was found between healthy pregnant women and women with threatened abortion.Conclusion: Women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion present significantly higher expression of tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1 than healthy pregnant women, suggesting that over-expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 may cont-ribute to the development of early spontaneous abortion.

  17. Expression of chemokine receptors on peripheral blood lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica

    Nomura Fumio

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of different chemokine receptors in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS has been extensively investigated; however, little is known about the difference in the role of chemokine receptors between the pathogenesis of neuromyelitis optica (NMO and MS. Therefore, we examined the expression of chemokine receptors on peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL in MS and NMO. Methods We used flow cytometry to analyse lymphocyte subsets in 12 patients with relapsing NMO, 24 with relapsing-remitting MS during relapse, 3 with NMO and 5 with MS during remission. Results Compared with healthy controls (HC, the percentage of lymphocytes in white blood cells was significantly lower in NMO and MS patients. The percentage of T cells expressing CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD45RO+ was higher, while that of CD4+CC chemokine receptor (CCR3+ (T helper 2, Th2 was significantly lower in MS patients than in HC. The ratios of CD4+CXC chemokine receptors (CXCR3+/CD4+CCR3+ (Th1/Th2 and CD8+CXCR3+/CD8+CCR4+ (T cytotoxic 1, Tc1/Tc2 were higher in MS patients than in HC. The percentage of CD8+CXCR3+ T cell (Tc1 and CD4+CXCR3+ T cell (Th1 decreased significantly during remission in MS patients (P 0.05. No significant differences were identified in the expression of the chemokine receptors on PBL in NMO patients compared with MS patients and HC. Conclusions Th1 dominance of chemokine receptors on blood T cells and the correlation between CXCR3+ T cell (Th1 and Tc1 and disease activity in MS patients were confirmed by analysing chemokines receptors on PBL. In contrast, deviation in the Th1/Th2 balance was not observed in NMO patients.

  18. The caffeine-binding adenosine A2A receptor induces age-like HPA-axis dysfunction by targeting glucocorticoid receptor function.

    Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Valadas, Jorge S; Gomes, Rui; Temido-Ferreira, Mariana; Shmidt, Tatiana; Baqi, Younis; Buée, Luc; Müller, Christa E; Hamdane, Malika; Outeiro, Tiago F; Bader, Michael; Meijsing, Sebastiaan H; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh; Blum, David; Lopes, Luísa V

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine is associated with procognitive effects in humans by counteracting overactivation of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), which is upregulated in the human forebrain of aged and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. We have previously shown that an anti-A2AR therapy reverts age-like memory deficits, by reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback and corticosterone circadian levels. These observations suggest that A2AR over-activation and glucocorticoid dysfunction are key events in age-related hippocampal deficits; but their direct connection has never been explored. We now show that inducing A2AR overexpression in an aging-like profile is sufficient to trigger HPA-axis dysfunction, namely loss of plasmatic corticosterone circadian oscillation, and promotes reduction of GR hippocampal levels. The synaptic plasticity and memory deficits triggered by GR in the hippocampus are amplified by A2AR over-activation and were rescued by anti-A2AR therapy; finally, we demonstrate that A2AR act on GR nuclear translocation and GR-dependent transcriptional regulation. We provide the first demonstration that A2AR is a major regulator of GR function and that this functional interconnection may be a trigger to age-related memory deficits. This supports the idea that the procognitive effects of A2AR antagonists, namely caffeine, on Alzheimer's and age-related cognitive impairments may rely on its ability to modulate GR actions. PMID:27510168

  19. GABAA receptor B subunit expression in the superior frontal cortex of human alcoholics

    Full text: Changes in GABAA receptor pharmacology can be ascribed to alterations in expression of specific GABAA receptor subunits. Ethanol is known to be a potent agonist of the GABAA receptor. Chronic abuse of alcohol in humans results in damage of selective brain regions such as the superior frontal cortex (SFC), leading to neuronal cell loss. Studies in our laboratory 1 and elsewhere 2 have shown differences in expression of a number of GABAA receptor subunits in chronic human alcoholism. This suggests that alterations in GABAA receptor composition may be involved in the pathogenesis of alcoholic brain damage. We analysed the expression of the β1 ,β2 and β3 isoforms of the GABAA receptor by a competitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique, which utilised an internal standard (IS) for quantitation. 35 S-dATP was incorporated to enable visualisation of the PCR products. Human brain tissue was obtained at autopsy and stored in 0.32 M sucrose at -80 deg C. Total RNA was extracted from pathologically susceptible and spared regions, SFC and motor cortex respectively,of 22 control and 22 alcoholic patients. 1 μg of total RNA from each sample was co-amplified with 0.5 pg of IS and a ratio determined. A standard consisting of known amounts of β1 cRNA titrated against 0.5 pg of IS enabled a standard curve to be generated for quantitation of each unknown sample. The samples were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the dried gel exposed to a phosphorimager screen. Data analysis was performed using the ImageQuant program. Initial results indicate that there is a reduction in expression of all the β transcripts in alcoholics when compared with controls, which supports the hypothesis that the GABAA receptor is altered by alcohol abuse. Supported by NHMRC. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  20. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces

    Tang, Yanjuan; Zhang, Shaolian; Wen, Qingqing; Huang, Hongxing; Yang, Peihui, E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • EGF-cytosensor was used for evaluating EGFR expression level on cell surfaces. • CdSQDs and EGF were coated on magnetic beads (MBs) for ECL-probe. • Good sensitivity was achieved due to the signal amplification of ECL-probe. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4 × 10{sup 6} cells mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 40 cells mL{sup −1} was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35 × 10{sup 5} with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening.

  1. A sensitive electrochemiluminescence cytosensor for quantitative evaluation of epidermal growth factor receptor expressed on cell surfaces

    Highlights: • EGF-cytosensor was used for evaluating EGFR expression level on cell surfaces. • CdSQDs and EGF were coated on magnetic beads (MBs) for ECL-probe. • Good sensitivity was achieved due to the signal amplification of ECL-probe. - Abstract: A sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for evaluating the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression level on cell surfaces was designed by integrating the specific recognition of EGFR expressed on MCF-7 cell surfaces with an epidermal growth factor (EGF)-funtionalized CdS quantum dots (CdSQDs)-capped magnetic bead (MB) probe. The high sensitivity of ECL probe of EGF-funtionalized CdSQD-capped-MB was used for competitive recognition with EGFR expressed on cell surfaces with recombinant EGFR protein. The changes of ECL intensity depended on both the cell number and the expression level of EGFR receptor on cell surfaces. A wide linear response to cells ranging from 80 to 4 × 106 cells mL−1 with a detection limit of 40 cells mL−1 was obtained. The EGF-cytosensor was used to evaluate EGFR expression levels on MCF-7 cells, and the average number of EGFR receptor on single MCF-7 cells was 1.35 × 105 with the relative standard deviation of 4.3%. This strategy was further used for in-situ and real-time evaluating EGFR receptor expressed on cell surfaces in response to drugs stimulation at different concentration and incubation time. The proposed method provided potential applications in the detection of receptors on cancer cells and anticancer drugs screening

  2. Prefrontal cortical-striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity.

    Simon, Nicholas W; Beas, Blanca S; Montgomery, Karienn S; Haberman, Rebecca P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Setlow, Barry

    2013-06-01

    Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

  3. Prefrontal cortical–striatal dopamine receptor mRNA expression predicts distinct forms of impulsivity

    Simon, Nicholas W.; Beas, Blanca S.; Montgomery, Karienn S.; Haberman, Rebecca P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Setlow, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Variation in dopamine receptor levels has been associated with different facets of impulsivity. To further delineate the neural substrates underlying impulsive action (inability to withhold a prepotent motor response) and impulsive choice (delay aversion), we characterised rats in the Differential Reinforcement of Low Rates of Responding task and a delay discounting task. We also measured performance on an effort-based discounting task. We then assessed D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression in subregions of the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens using in situ hybridisation, and compared these data with behavioral performance. Expression of D1 and D2 receptor mRNA in distinct brain regions was predictive of impulsive action. A dissociation within the nucleus accumbens was observed between subregions and receptor subtypes; higher D1 mRNA expression in the shell predicted greater impulsive action, whereas lower D2 mRNA expression in the core predicted greater impulsive action. We also observed a negative correlation between impulsive action and D2 mRNA expression in the prelimbic cortex. Interestingly, a similar relationship was present between impulsive choice and prelimbic cortex D2 mRNA, despite the fact that behavioral indices of impulsive action and impulsive choice were uncorrelated. Finally, we found that both high D1 mRNA expression in the insular cortex and low D2 mRNA expression in the infralimbic cortex were associated with willingness to exert effort for rewards. Notably, dopamine receptor mRNA in these regions was not associated with either facet of impulsivity. The data presented here provide novel molecular and neuroanatomical distinctions between different forms of impulsivity, as well as effort-based decision-making. PMID:23510331

  4. Regulation of retinoid X receptor gamma expression by fed state in mouse liver

    Park, Sangkyu, E-mail: 49park@cku.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Catholic Kwandong University, Gangneung 210-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoo Jeong [Division of Metabolic Disease, Center for Biomedical Sciences, National Institute of Health Korea, Osong 361-709 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Hee [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Genetic Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-woo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Integrated Genomic Research Center for Metabolic Regulation, Institute of Genetic Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Brain Korea 21 PLUS Project for Medical Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-27

    Glucose metabolism is balanced by glycolysis and gluconeogenesis with precise control in the liver. The expression of genes related to glucose metabolism is regulated primarily by glucose and insulin at transcriptional level. Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating the gene expression of glucose metabolism at transcriptional level. Some of these nuclear receptors form heterodimers with RXRs to bind to their specific regulatory elements on the target promoters. To date, three isotypes of RXRs have been identified; RXRα, RXRβ and RXRγ. However, their involvement in the interactions with other nuclear receptors in the liver remains unclear. In this study, we found RXRγ is rapidly induced after feeding in the mouse liver, indicating a potential role of RXRγ in controlling glucose or lipid metabolism in the fasting–feeding cycle. In addition, RXRγ expression was upregulated by glucose in primary hepatocytes. This implies that glucose metabolism governed by RXRγ in conjunction with other nuclear receptors. The luciferase reporter assay showed that RXRγ as well as RXRα increased SREBP-1c promoter activity in hepatocytes. These results suggest that RXRγ may play an important role in tight control of glucose metabolism in the fasting–feeding cycle. - Highlights: • Refeeding increases the RXRγ expression level in mouse liver. • RXRγ expression is induced by high glucose condition in primary hepatocytes. • RXRγ and LXRα have synergistic effect on SREBP-1c promoter activity. • RXRγ binds to LXRE(-299/-280) located within SREBP-1c promoter region and interacts with LXRα.

  5. Regulation of retinoid X receptor gamma expression by fed state in mouse liver

    Glucose metabolism is balanced by glycolysis and gluconeogenesis with precise control in the liver. The expression of genes related to glucose metabolism is regulated primarily by glucose and insulin at transcriptional level. Nuclear receptors play important roles in regulating the gene expression of glucose metabolism at transcriptional level. Some of these nuclear receptors form heterodimers with RXRs to bind to their specific regulatory elements on the target promoters. To date, three isotypes of RXRs have been identified; RXRα, RXRβ and RXRγ. However, their involvement in the interactions with other nuclear receptors in the liver remains unclear. In this study, we found RXRγ is rapidly induced after feeding in the mouse liver, indicating a potential role of RXRγ in controlling glucose or lipid metabolism in the fasting–feeding cycle. In addition, RXRγ expression was upregulated by glucose in primary hepatocytes. This implies that glucose metabolism governed by RXRγ in conjunction with other nuclear receptors. The luciferase reporter assay showed that RXRγ as well as RXRα increased SREBP-1c promoter activity in hepatocytes. These results suggest that RXRγ may play an important role in tight control of glucose metabolism in the fasting–feeding cycle. - Highlights: • Refeeding increases the RXRγ expression level in mouse liver. • RXRγ expression is induced by high glucose condition in primary hepatocytes. • RXRγ and LXRα have synergistic effect on SREBP-1c promoter activity. • RXRγ binds to LXRE(-299/-280) located within SREBP-1c promoter region and interacts with LXRα

  6. Structural and functional analysis of the C-terminus of Galphaq in complex with the human thromboxane A2 receptor provides evidence of constitutive activity.

    Chillar, Annirudha; Wu, Jiaxin; Cervantes, Vanessa; Ruan, Ke-He

    2010-08-01

    The human thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)) receptor (TP) is known to mediate platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction. The receptor predominantly interacts with the Gq protein, thereby activating phospholipase C and increasing the intracellular calcium level. In this study, we synthesized a 15-residue peptide corresponding to the C-terminal domain of the Gq protein alpha subunit (Galphaq-Ct peptide) and characterized its interaction with recombinant TP purified from a baculovirus expression system in the presence and absence of an agonist using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopic studies. With fluorescence binding assays, we demonstrated that the Galphaq-Ct peptide was bound to TP, in the absence of the agonist, with a K(d) value of approximately 17 muM. Interestingly, upon addition of the agonist, U46619, the Galphaq-Ct peptide's binding affinity for this activated TP was reduced, thereby increasing the K(d) value to approximately 240 muM. NMR experiments demonstrated that the TP-bound Galphaq-Ct peptide shows a different affinity and conformation, in the absence and presence of the agonist, U46619. This suggested there is the possibility of ligand-free constitutive TP signaling through Galpha binding. Thus, an HEK293 cell line that stably expresses human TP and lacks the ability to produce TXA(2) was created by gene transfer and G418 selection. In comparison with the control cells, the stable cell line showed significant Galpha-mediated ligand-free calcium signaling. The study indicates a promising new outlook for the examination of prostanoid receptor-G-protein interactions in greater detail using integrated NMR spectroscopy, the purified receptor, and the stable cell line. PMID:20590159

  7. Prostate-specific antigen and hormone receptor expression in male and female breast carcinoma

    Cohen Cynthia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate carcinoma is among the most common solid tumors to secondarily involve the male breast. Prostate specific antigen (PSA and prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP are expressed in benign and malignant prostatic tissue, and immunohistochemical staining for these markers is often used to confirm the prostatic origin of metastatic carcinoma. PSA expression has been reported in male and female breast carcinoma and in gynecomastia, raising concerns about the utility of PSA for differentiating prostate carcinoma metastasis to the male breast from primary breast carcinoma. This study examined the frequency of PSA, PSAP, and hormone receptor expression in male breast carcinoma (MBC, female breast carcinoma (FBC, and gynecomastia. Methods Immunohistochemical staining for PSA, PSAP, AR, ER, and PR was performed on tissue microarrays representing six cases of gynecomastia, thirty MBC, and fifty-six FBC. Results PSA was positive in two of fifty-six FBC (3.7%, focally positive in one of thirty MBC (3.3%, and negative in the five examined cases of gynecomastia. PSAP expression was absent in MBC, FBC, and gynecomastia. Hormone receptor expression was similar in males and females (AR 74.1% in MBC vs. 67.9% in FBC, p = 0.62; ER 85.2% vs. 68.5%, p = 0.18; and PR 51.9% vs. 48.2%, p = 0.82. Conclusions PSA and PSAP are useful markers to distinguish primary breast carcinoma from prostate carcinoma metastatic to the male breast. Although PSA expression appeared to correlate with hormone receptor expression, the incidence of PSA expression in our population was too low to draw significant conclusions about an association between PSA expression and hormone receptor status in breast lesions.

  8. The A2'N mutation of the RDL gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor conferring fipronil resistance in Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Nakao, Toshifumi; Kawase, Ayumi; Kinoshita, Ayako; Abe, Reiko; Hama, Masako; Kawahara, Nobuyuki; Hirase, Kangetsu

    2011-04-01

    The planthopper Laodelphax striatellus (Fallén) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a serious insect pest of rice, Oryza sativa L., and has developed resistance to fipronil in Japan. Sequence analysis of L. striatellus RDL gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor subunit (LS-RDL) genes from a fipronil-resistant population and a fipronil-susceptible strain identified the A2'N mutation (index number for M2 membrane-spanning region), that was previously implicated in fipronil resistance in the planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Nineteen of 21 fipronil-resistant L. striatellus individuals were genotyped as heterozygous for the A2'N mutation, suggesting that this mutation is associated with fipronil resistance and that most fipronil-resistant L. striatellus express wild-type and A2'N mutant LS-RDL simultaneously. To confirm the role of the A2'N mutation of LS-RDL, Drosophila Mel-2 cells were transfected with wild-type and A2'N mutant LS-RDL genes, either individually or together. A membrane potential assay showed that fipronil had no inhibitory effect at 10 microM on cells transfected with the A2'N mutant LS-RDL gene with or without the wild-type LS-RDL gene. By contrast, the IC50 value of fipronil for wild-type LS-RDL homomers was 14 nM. These results suggest that the A2'N mutation of the RDL GABA receptor subunit confers fipronil resistance in L. striatellus as well as S. furcifera. PMID:21510217

  9. Cocaine self-administration differentially affects allosteric A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interactions in the striatum. Relevance for cocaine use disorder.

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Pomierny, Bartosz; Wydra, Karolina; Zaniewska, Magdalena; Filip, Malgorzata; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-05-01

    In the current study behavioral and biochemical experiments were performed to study changes in the allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the ventral and dorsal striatum after cocaine self-administration versus corresponding yoked saline control. By using ex vivo [(3)H]-raclopride/quinpirole competition experiments, the effects of the A2AR agonist CGS 21680 (100nM) on the KiH and KiL values of the D2-like receptor (D2-likeR) were determined. One major result was a significant reduction in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state observed with CGS 21680 after cocaine self-administration in the ventral striatum compared with the yoked saline group. The results therefore support the hypothesis that A2AR agonists can at least in part counteract the motivational actions of cocaine. This action is mediated via the D2-likeR by targeting the A2AR protomer of A2AR-D2-likeR heteroreceptor complexes in the ventral striatum, which leads to the reduction of D2-likeR protomer recognition through the allosteric receptor-receptor interaction. In contrast, in the dorsal striatum the CGS 21680-induced antagonistic modulation in the D2-likeR agonist high affinity state was abolished after cocaine self-administration versus the yoked saline group probably due to a local dysfunction/disruption of the A2AR-D2-likeR heteroreceptor complexes. Such a change in the dorsal striatum in cocaine self-administration can contribute to the development of either locomotor sensitization, habit-forming learning and/or the compulsive drug seeking by enhanced D2-likeR protomer signaling. Potential differences in the composition and stoichiometry of the A2AR-D2R heteroreceptor complexes, including differential recruitment of sigma 1 receptor, in the ventral and dorsal striatum may explain the differential regional changes observed in the A2A-D2-likeR interactions after cocaine self-administration. PMID:26987369

  10. Ovarian steroids regulate tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression in the mouse uterus

    Patak Eva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse uterus, pregnancy is accompanied by changes in tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression and in the uterotonic effects of endogenous tachykinins. In this study we have investigated whether changes in tachykinin expression and responses are a result of changes in ovarian steroid levels. Methods We quantified the mRNAs of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in uteri from ovariectomized mice and studied their regulation in response to estrogen and progesterone using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Early (3 h and late (24 h responses to estrogen were evaluated and the participation of the estrogen receptors (ER, ERalpha and ERbeta, was analyzed by treating mice with propylpyrazole triol, a selective ERalpha agonist, or diarylpropionitrile, a selective agonist of ERbeta. Results All genes encoding tachykinins (Tac1, Tac2 and Tac4 and tachykinin receptors (Tacr1, Tacr2 and Tacr3 were expressed in uteri from ovariectomized mice. Estrogen increased Tac1 and Tacr1 mRNA after 3 h and decreased Tac1 and Tac4 expression after 24 h. Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNA levels were decreased by estrogen at both 3 and 24 h. Most effects of estrogen were also observed in animals treated with propylpyrazole triol. Progesterone treatment increased the levels of Tac2. Conclusion These results show that the expression of tachykinins and their receptors in the mouse uterus is tightly and differentially regulated by ovarian steroids. Estrogen effects are mainly mediated by ERalpha supporting an essential role for this estrogen receptor in the regulation of the tachykinergic system in the mouse uterus.

  11. Undifferentiated embryonic stem cells express ionotropic glutamate receptor mRNAs

    Svenja Pachernegg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs do not only mediate the majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the vertebrate CNS, but also modulate pre- and postnatal neurogenesis. Most of the studies on the developmental role of iGluRs are performed on neural progenitors and neural stem cells. We took a step back in our study by examining the role of iGluRs in the earliest possible cell type, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, by looking at the mRNA expression of the major iGluR subfamilies in undifferentiated mouse ESCs. For that, we used two distinct murine ES cell lines, 46C ESCs and J1 ESCs. Regarding 46C ESCs, we found transcripts of kainate receptors (GluK2 to GluK5, AMPA receptors (GluA1, GluA3, and GluA4, and NMDA receptors (GluN1, and GluN2A to GluN2D. Analysis of 46C-derived cells of later developmental stages, namely neuroepithelial precursor cells (NEPs and neural stem cells (NSCs, revealed that the mRNA expression of KARs is significantly upregulated in NEPs and, subsequently, downregulated in NSCs. However, we could not detect any protein expression of any of the KAR subunits present on the mRNA level either in ESCs, NEPs, or NSCs. Regarding AMPARs and NMDARs, GluN2A is weakly expressed at the protein level only in NSCs. Matching our findings for GluRs, all three cell types were found to weakly express pre- and postsynaptic markers of glutamatergic synapses only at the mRNA level. Finally, we performed patch-clamp recordings of 46C ESCs and could not detect any current upon iGluR agonist application. Similar to 46C ESCs, J1 ESCs express kainate receptors (GluK2 to GluK5, AMPA receptors (GluA3, and NMDA receptors (GluN1, and GluN2A to GluN2D at the mRNA level, but these transcripts are not translated into receptor proteins either. Thus, we conclude that ESCs do not contain functional iGluRs, although they do express an almost complete set of iGluR subunit mRNAs.

  12. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) dependent expression of biologically relevant IL-2 receptors: uncoupling of anti-T3 induced receptor expression with cyclosporin

    Human peripheral blood T cell expression of IL-2 receptors (IL-2R), detected by both immunocytofluorometry and 125I-IL-2 binding, was studied using lymphocytes stimulated with monoclonal anti-T3 antibodies (Leu-4, OKT3). Lymphocytes, isolated from healthy individuals, were prescreened and classified as Leu-4 responders or non-responders according to 72 h 3H-thymidine incorporation experiments. Leu-4 non-responder lymphocytes, though capable of normal IL-2R expression and IL-2 secretion when cultured with OKT3 (IgG2a), expressed little to no IL-2R nor secreted IL-2 when stimulated with Leu-4 (IgG1). In addition, the amount of IL-2 secreted by Leu-4 stimulated, Leu-4 responder cells, was one-third- to one-fifth of that detected when OKT3 was used as the stimulant. The addition of recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) to a Leu-4 stimulated, Leu-4 non-responder lymphocyte culture, resulted in the expression of IL-2R and cellular proliferation, indicating that IL-2 upregulated its biologically relevant receptor. As expected, cyclosporin-A (CSA) inhibited the secretion of IL-2 and subsequent proliferation of Leu-4 stimulated, Leu-4 responder cells. Unexpectedly, however, the expression of IL-2R was also blocked. Exogenous rIL-2 partially reversed the effect of CSA on IL-2R expression and proliferation. The results indicate that IL-2 may provide an additional, required signal for optimal IL-2R expression

  13. Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death

    Porter, Holly A., E-mail: hport001@umaryland.edu [Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, 800 West Baltimore Street, Room 318, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Molecular Medicine Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Carey, Gregory B., E-mail: gcarey@som.umaryland.edu [Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, 800 West Baltimore Street, Room 318, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Keegan, Achsah D., E-mail: akeegan@som.umaryland.edu [Center for Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases, 800 West Baltimore Street, Room 318, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Molecular Medicine Program, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The adapters IRS1 and IRS2 link growth factor receptors to downstream signaling pathways that regulate proliferation and survival. Both suppress factor-withdrawal-induced apoptosis and have been implicated in cancer progression. However, recent studies suggest IRS1 and IRS2 mediate differential functions in cancer pathogenesis. IRS1 promoted breast cancer proliferation, while IRS2 promoted metastasis. The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. When IRS2 was expressed with IRS1, the cells no longer showed enhanced sensitivity. Expression of IRS1 did not alter the expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins; however, 32D-IRS1 cells expressed higher levels of Annexin A2. In 32D-IRS1 cells, IRS1 and Annexin A2 were both located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. We also found that IRS1 coprecipitated with Annexin A2, while IRS2 did not. Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IRS1 enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This sensitivity is abrogated by the expression of IRS2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expressing IRS1 in 32D cells increased levels of Annexin A2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both IRS1 and Annexin A2 were located in cytoplasmic and membrane fractions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decreasing Annexin A2 in 32D-IRS1 cells abated their sensitivity to chemotherapy.

  14. Expression and nuclear translocation of glucocorticoid receptors in type 2 taste receptor cells

    Parker, M. Rockwell; Feng, Dianna; Chamuris, Brianna; Margolskee, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Stress increases the secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs), potent steroid hormones that exert their effects on numerous target tissues by acting through glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). GC signaling significantly affects ingestive behavior and taste preferences in humans and rodent models, but far less is known about the hormonal modulation of the peripheral sensory system that detects and assesses nutrient content of foods. A previous study linked restraint stress in rats to diminished expressi...

  15. Expression of amygdala mineralocorticoid receptor and glucocorticoid receptor in the single-prolonged stress rats

    Han, Fang; Ding, Jinlan; Shi, Yuxiu

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxious disorder associated with low levels of corticosterone and enhanced negative feedback of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. Previous studies showed that the amygdala not only has an excitatory effect on the HPA axis but also plays a key role in fear-related behaviors. Coticosterone exert actions through binding to the mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which are abundant in the amygdala. In our pre...

  16. Brain aromatase (Cyp19A2) and estrogen receptors, in larvae and adult pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis: Neuroanatomical and functional relations

    Strobl-Mazzulla, P. H.; Lethimonier, C.; Gueguen, M.M.; Karube, M.; Fernandino, J.I.; Yoshizaki, G.; Patino, R.; Strussmann, C.A.; Kah, O.; Somoza, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    Although estrogens exert many functions on vertebrate brains, there is little information on the relationship between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of two estrogen receptors, ?? and ??, in pejerrey. Both receptors' mRNAs largely overlap and were predominantly expressed in the brain, pituitary, liver, and gonads. Also brain aromatase and estrogen receptors were up-regulated in the brain of estradiol-treated males. In situ hybridization was performed to study in more detail, the distribution of the two receptors in comparison with brain aromatase mRNA in the brain of adult pejerrey. The estrogen receptors' mRNAs exhibited distinct but partially overlapping patterns of expression in the preoptic area and the mediobasal hypothalamus, as well as in the pituitary gland. Moreover, the estrogen receptor ??, but not ??, were found to be expressed in cells lining the preoptic recess, similarly as observed for brain aromatase. Finally, it was shown that the onset expression of brain aromatase and both estrogen receptors in the head of larvae preceded the morphological differentiation of the gonads. Because pejerrey sex differentiation is strongly influenced by temperature, brain aromatase expression was measured during the temperature-sensitive window and was found to be significantly higher at male-promoting temperature. Taken together these results suggest close neuroanatomical and functional relationships between brain aromatase and estrogen receptors, probably involved in the sexual differentiation of the brain and raising interesting questions on the origin (central or peripheral) of the brain aromatase substrate. ?? 2008 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Gene cloning, expression, purification and characterization of lipoprotein- associated phospholipase A2 in Pichia pastoris

    Fu-junZHANG; Yi-pingWANG

    2005-01-01

    AIM To express and purify Lipoprotein -associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2), and to establish a screening model for Lp-PLA2 inhibitors through the recombinant Lp-PLA2. METHODS The full-length gene of Lp-PLA2 was cloned from the differentiated THP-1 cells by RT-PCR and PCR. The Lp-PLA2 gene was subcloned into the Pichia expression vector pPIC9 and introduced a sequence encoding a C-terminal stretch of six histidine residues at the same time. The recombinant plasmid was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by spheroplasting and the gene was then integrated into the GS115 genome. Lp- PLA2 was expressed in the yeast strain GS115 by inducing with 0.5% methanol.

  18. Do cysteine residues regulate transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) channel protein expression?

    Thilo, Florian; Liu, Ying; Krueger, Katharina;

    2012-01-01

    The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed that patie......The regulation of calcium influx through transient receptor potential canonical type 6 channel is mandatory for the activity of human monocytes. We submit the first evidence that cysteine residues of homocysteine or acetylcysteine affect TRPC6 expression in human monocytes. We observed...... that patients with chronic renal failure had significantly elevated homocysteine levels and TRPC6 mRNA expression levels in monocytes compared to control subjects. We further observed that administration of homocysteine or acetylcysteine significantly increased TRPC6 channel protein expression compared...

  19. Up-regulation of interleukin 4/B-cell stimulatory factor 1 receptor expression

    The expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptors on resting T and B lymphocytes was enhanced 4- to 8-fold by IL-4 stimulation of these cells. Other agents such as lipopolysaccharide and anti-IgM for B cells and concanvalain A for T cells also caused increased IL-4 receptor expression, although to a somewhat smaller degree than IL-4. Using a newly developed flow cytometric analysis based on the binding of biotinylated IL-4 and phycoerythrin-streptavidin, it was observed that receptor up-regulation in a T-cell population treated with IL-4 was a feature of the majority of the T cells. Analysis of IL-4 by cross-linkage of 125I-labeled IL-4 to IL-4 receptor with disuccinimidyl suberate indicated that the IL-4 IL-4 receptor complex was the same size in the resting and up-regulated cells, implying that the same receptor species found in resting cells was up-regulated in response IL-4

  20. Molecular cloning and expression of an additional epidermal growth factor receptor-related gene

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor α (TGF-α), and amphiregulin are structurally and functionally related growth regulatory proteins. These secreted polypeptides all bind to the 170-kDa cell-surface EGF receptor, activating its intrinsic kinase activity. However, amphiregulin exhibits different activities than EGF and TGF-α in a number of biological assays. Amphiregulin only partially competes with EGF for binding EGF receptor, and amphiregulin does not induce anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney cells (NRK) in the presence of TGF-β. Amphiregulin also appears to abrogate the stimulatory effect of TGF-α on the growth of several aggressive epithelial carcinomas that over-express EGF receptor. These findings suggest that amphiregulin may interact with a separate receptor in certain cell types. Here the authors report the cloning of another member of the human EGF receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which were named HER3/ERRB3. The cDNA was isolated from a human carcinoma cell line, and its 6-kilobase transcript was identified in various human tissues. They have generated peptide-specific antisera that recognizes the 160-kDa HER3 protein when transiently expressed in COS cells. These reagents will allow us to determine whether HER3 binds amphiregulin or other growth regulatory proteins and what role HER3 protein plays in the regulation of cell growth

  1. The putative AKH receptor of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, and its expression.

    Ziegler, R; Isoe, J; Moore, W; Riehle, M A; Wells, M A

    2011-01-01

    Adipokinetic hormones are peptide hormones that mobilize lipids and/or carbohydrates for flight in adult insects and activate glycogen Phosphorylase in larvae during starvation and during molt. We previously examined the functional roles of adipokinetic hormone in Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). Here we report the cloning of the full-length cDNA encoding the putative adipokinetic hormone receptor from the fat body of M. sexta. The sequence analysis shows that the deduced amino acid sequence shares common motifs of G protein-coupled receptors, by having seven hydrophobic transmembrane segments. We examined the mRNA expression pattern of the adipokinetic hormone receptor by quantitative Real-Time PCR in fat body during development and in different tissues and found the strongest expression in fat body of larvae two days after molt to the fifth instar. We discuss these results in relation to some of our earlier results. We also compare the M. sexta adipokinetic hormone receptor with the known adipokinetic hormone receptors of other insects and with gonadotropin releasing hormone-like receptors of invertebrates. PMID:21529255

  2. Prognostic significance of annexin A2 and annexin A4 expression in patients with cervical cancer

    Choi, Chel Hun; Chung, Joon-Yong; Chung, Eun Joo; Sears, John D.; Lee, Jeong-Won; Bae, Duk-Soo; Hewitt, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The annexins (ANXs) have diverse roles in tumor development and progression, however, their clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been elucidated. The present study was to investigate the clinical significance of annexin A2 (ANXA2) and annexin A4 (ANXA4) expression in cervical cancer. Methods ANXA2 and ANXA4 immunohistochemical staining were performed on a cervical cancer tissue microarray consisting of 46 normal cervical epithelium samples and 336 cervical cancer cases ...

  3. Post-transcriptional regulation of dopamine D1 receptor expression in caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized mice.

    Tobón, Krishna E; Catuzzi, Jennifer E; Cote, Samantha R; Sonaike, Adenike; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2015-07-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor is centrally involved in mediating the effects of cocaine and is essential for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Changes in D1 receptor expression have been reported in various models of cocaine addiction; however, the mechanisms that mediate these changes in D1 receptor expression are not well understood. Using preadolescent drd1a-EGFP mice and a binge cocaine treatment protocol we demonstrate that the D1 receptor is post-transcriptionally regulated in the caudate-putamen of cocaine-sensitized animal. While cocaine-sensitized mice express high levels of steady-state D1 receptor mRNA, the expression of D1 receptor protein is not elevated. We determined that the post-transcriptional regulation of D1 receptor mRNA is rapidly attenuated and D1 receptor protein levels increase within 30 min when the sensitized mice are challenged with cocaine. The rapid increase in D1 receptor protein levels requires de novo protein synthesis and correlates with the cocaine-induced hyperlocomotor activity in the cocaine-sensitized mice. The increase in D1 receptor protein levels in the caudate-putamen inversely correlated with the levels of microRNA 142-3p and 382, both of which regulate D1 receptor protein expression. The levels of these two microRNAs decreased significantly within 5 min of cocaine challenge in sensitized mice. The results provide novel insights into the previously unknown rapid kinetics of D1 receptor protein expression which occurs in a time scale that is comparable to the expression of immediate early genes. Furthermore, the results suggest a potential novel role for inherently labile microRNAs in regulating the rapid expression of D1 receptor protein in cocaine-sensitized animals. PMID:25900179

  4. Sequential expression of cyclooxygenase-2, glutamate receptor-2, and platelet activating factor receptor in rat hippocampal neurons after fluid percussion injury

    Zhiqiang Li; Qingming Shu; Lingzhi Li; Maolin Ge; Yongliang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury causes gene expression changes in different brain regions. Occurrence and development of traumatic brain injury are closely related, involving expression of three factors, namely cyclooxygenase-2, glutamate receptor-2, and platelet activating factor receptor. However, little is known about the correlation of these three factors and brain neuronal injury. In this study, primary cultured rat hippocampal neurons were subjected to fluid percussion injury according to Scott’s method, with some modifications. RT-PCR and semi-quantitative immunocytochemical staining was used to measure the expression levels of cyclooxygenase-2, glutamate receptor-2, and platelet activating factor receptor. Our results found that cycloox-ygenase-2 expression were firstly increased post-injury, and then decreased. Both mRNA and protein expression levels reached peaks at 8 and 12 hours post-injury, respectively. Similar sequential changes in glutamate receptor 2 were observed, with highest levels mRNA and pro-tein expression at 8 and 12 hours post-injury respectively. On the contrary, the expressions of platelet activating factor receptor were firstly decreased post-injury, and then increased. Both mRNA and protein expression levels reached the lowest levels at 8 and 12 hours post-injury, respectively. Totally, our findings suggest that these three factors are involved in occurrence and development of hippocampal neuronal injury.

  5. Caffeine acts through neuronal adenosine A2A receptors to prevent mood and memory dysfunction triggered by chronic stress.

    Kaster, Manuella P; Machado, Nuno J; Silva, Henrique B; Nunes, Ana; Ardais, Ana Paula; Santana, Magda; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O; Chen, Jiang Fan; Tomé, Ângelo R; Agostinho, Paula; Canas, Paula M; Cunha, Rodrigo A

    2015-06-23

    The consumption of caffeine (an adenosine receptor antagonist) correlates inversely with depression and memory deterioration, and adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonists emerge as candidate therapeutic targets because they control aberrant synaptic plasticity and afford neuroprotection. Therefore we tested the ability of A2AR to control the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical modifications caused by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), which alters hippocampal circuits, dampens mood and memory performance, and enhances susceptibility to depression. CUS for 3 wk in adult mice induced anxiogenic and helpless-like behavior and decreased memory performance. These behavioral changes were accompanied by synaptic alterations, typified by a decrease in synaptic plasticity and a reduced density of synaptic proteins (synaptosomal-associated protein 25, syntaxin, and vesicular glutamate transporter type 1), together with an increased density of A2AR in glutamatergic terminals in the hippocampus. Except for anxiety, for which results were mixed, CUS-induced behavioral and synaptic alterations were prevented by (i) caffeine (1 g/L in the drinking water, starting 3 wk before and continued throughout CUS); (ii) the selective A2AR antagonist KW6002 (3 mg/kg, p.o.); (iii) global A2AR deletion; and (iv) selective A2AR deletion in forebrain neurons. Notably, A2AR blockade was not only prophylactic but also therapeutically efficacious, because a 3-wk treatment with the A2AR antagonist SCH58261 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the mood and synaptic dysfunction caused by CUS. These results herald a key role for synaptic A2AR in the control of chronic stress-induced modifications and suggest A2AR as candidate targets to alleviate the consequences of chronic stress on brain function. PMID:26056314

  6. The expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in human skin: the relationship with epidermal cell differentiation.

    Stoebner, P E; Carayon, P; Penarier, G; Fréchin, N; Barnéon, G; Casellas, P; Cano, J P; Meynadier, J; Meunier, L

    1999-06-01

    The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is a protein of mitochondrial outer membranes utilizing porphyrins as endogenous ligands. PBR is part of a heteromeric receptor complex involved in the formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores and in the early events of apoptosis. PBR may function as an oxygen-dependent signal generator; recent data indicate that these receptors may preserve the mitochondria of haematopoietic cell lines from damage caused by oxygen radicals. To identify PBRs in human skin, we used a specific monoclonal antibody directed against the C-terminus fragment of the human receptor. PBR immunoreactivity was found in keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, hair follicles and dermal vascular endothelial cells. Interestingly, confocal microscopic examination of skin sections revealed that PBR expression was strongly upregulated in the superficial differentiated layers of the epidermis. Ultrastructurally, PBRs were distributed throughout the cytoplasm but were selectively expressed on the mitochondrial membranes of epidermal cells. The elevated level of PBRs in the spinous layer was not associated with an increased number of mitochondria nor with an increased amount of mRNA as assessed by in situ hybridization on microautoradiographed skin sections. The present work provides, for the first time, evidence of PBR immunoreactivity in human skin. This mitochondrial receptor may modulate apoptosis in the epidermis; its increased expression in differentiated epidermal layers may represent a novel mechanism of natural skin protection against free radical damage generated by ultraviolet exposure. PMID:10354064

  7. Calyx and dimorphic neurons of mouse Scarpa's ganglion express histamine H3 receptors

    Zucca Gianpiero

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histamine-related drugs are commonly used in the treatment of vertigo and related vestibular disorders. The site of action of these drugs however has not been elucidated yet. Recent works on amphibians showed that histamine H3 receptor antagonists, e.g. betahistine, inhibit the afferent discharge recorded from the vestibular nerve. To assess the expression of H3 histamine receptors in vestibular neurons, we performed mRNA RT-PCR and immunofluorescence experiments in mouse Scarpa's ganglia. Results RT-PCR analysis showed the presence of H3 receptor mRNA in mouse ganglia tissue. H3 protein expression was found in vestibular neurons characterized by large and roundish soma, which labeled for calretinin and calbindin. Conclusion The present results are consistent with calyx and dimorphic, but not bouton, afferent vestibular neurons expressing H3 receptors. This study provides a molecular substrate for the effects of histamine-related antivertigo drugs acting on (or binding to H3 receptors, and suggest a potential target for the treatment of vestibular disorders of peripheral origin.

  8. Kokumi substances, enhancers of basic tastes, induce responses in calcium-sensing receptor expressing taste cells.

    Yutaka Maruyama

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR is a receptor for kokumi substances, which enhance the intensities of salty, sweet and umami tastes. Furthermore, we found that several γ-glutamyl peptides, which are CaSR agonists, are kokumi substances. In this study, we elucidated the receptor cells for kokumi substances, and their physiological properties. For this purpose, we used Calcium Green-1 loaded mouse taste cells in lingual tissue slices and confocal microscopy. Kokumi substances, applied focally around taste pores, induced an increase in the intracellular Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+](i in a subset of taste cells. These responses were inhibited by pretreatment with the CaSR inhibitor, NPS2143. However, the kokumi substance-induced responses did not require extracellular Ca(2+. CaSR-expressing taste cells are a different subset of cells from the T1R3-expressing umami or sweet taste receptor cells. These observations indicate that CaSR-expressing taste cells are the primary detectors of kokumi substances, and that they are an independent population from the influenced basic taste receptor cells, at least in the case of sweet and umami.

  9. Growth hormone action in rat insulinoma cells expressing truncated growth hormone receptors

    Møldrup, Annette; Allevato, G; Dyrberg, Thomas;

    1991-01-01

    Transfection of the insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell line RIN-5AH with a full length cDNA of the rat hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor (GH-R1-638) augments the GH-responsive insulin synthesis in these cells. Using this functional system we analyzed the effect of COOH-terminal truncation of...... the GH receptor. Two mutated cDNAs encoding truncated GH receptors, GH-R1-294 and GH-R1-454, respectively, were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and transfected into the RIN cells. Both receptor mutants were expressed on the cell surface and displayed normal GH binding affinity. Whereas GH-R1......-638 had a molecular mass of about 110 kDa, GH-R1-294 and GH-R1-454 showed molecular masses of 49 and 80 kDa, respectively. Cells expressing GH-R1-454 internalized GH to a similar extent as cells transfected with the full length receptor and the parent cell line, but GH-R1-294-expressing cells showed a...

  10. Two unrelated putative membrane-bound progestin receptors, progesterone membrane receptor component 1 (PGMRC1 and membrane progestin receptor (mPR beta, are expressed in the rainbow trout oocyte and exhibit similar ovarian expression patterns

    Fostier Alexis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In lower vertebrates, steroid-induced oocyte maturation is considered to involve membrane-bound progestin receptors. Two totally distinct classes of putative membrane-bound progestin receptors have been reported in vertebrates. A first class of receptors, now termed progesterone membrane receptor component (PGMRC; subtypes 1 and 2 has been studied since 1996 but never studied in a fish species nor in the oocyte of any animal species. A second class of receptors, termed membrane progestin receptors (mPR; subtypes alpha, beta and gamma, was recently described in vertebrates and implicated in the progestin-initiated induction of oocyte maturation in fish. Methods In the present study, we report the characterization of the full coding sequence of rainbow trout PGMRC1 and mPR beta cDNAs, their tissue distribution, their ovarian expression profiles during oogenesis, their hormonal regulation in the full grown ovary and the in situ localization of PGMRC1 mRNA in the ovary. Results Our results clearly show, for the first time in any animal species, that rainbow trout PGMRC1 mRNA is present in the oocyte and has a strong expression in ovarian tissue. In addition, we show that both mPR beta and PGMRC1, two members of distinct membrane-bound progestin receptor classes, exhibit highly similar ovarian expression profiles during the reproductive cycle with maximum levels during vitellogenesis and a down-expression during late vitellogenesis. In addition, the mRNA abundance of both genes is not increased after in vitro hormonal stimulation of full grown follicles by maturation inducing hormones. Conclusion Together, our findings suggest that PGMRC1 is a new possible participant in the progestin-induced oocyte maturation in fish. However, its participation in the process of oocyte maturation, which remains to be confirmed, would occur at post-transcriptional levels.

  11. ( sup 3 H)CGS 21680, a selective A2 adenosine receptor agonist directly labels A2 receptors in rat brain

    Jarvis, M.F.; Schulz, R.; Hutchison, A.J.; Do, U.H.; Sills, M.A.; Williams, M. (CIBA-GEIGY Corporation, Summit, NJ (USA))

    1989-12-01

    In the present study, the binding of a highly A2-selective agonist radioligand, (3H)CGS 21680 (2-(p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino)-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine) is described. (3H)CGS 21680 specific binding to rat striatal membranes was saturable, reversible and dependent upon protein concentration. Saturation studies revealed that (3H)CGS 21680 bound with high affinity (Kd = 15.5 nM) and limited capacity (apparent Bmax = 375 fmol/mg of protein) to a single class of recognition sites. Estimates of ligand affinity (16 nM) determined from association and dissociation kinetic experiments were in close agreement with the results from the saturation studies. (3H)CGS 21680 binding was greatest in striatal membranes with negligible specific binding obtained in rat cortical membranes. Adenosine agonists ligands competed for the binding of 5 nM (3H)CGS 21680 to striatal membranes with the following order of activity; CGS 21680 = 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine greater than 2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV-1808) = 5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine = 2-chloroadenosine greater than R-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than N6-cyclohexyladenosine greater than N6cyclopentyltheophylline greater than S-phenylisopropyladenosine. The nonxanthine adenosine antagonist, CGS 15943A, was the most active compound in inhibiting the binding of (3H)CGS 21680. Other adenosine antagonists inhibited binding in the following order; xanthine amine congener = 1,3-dipropyl-8-(2-amino-4-chloro)phenylxanthine greater than 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine greater than 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine greater than 8-phenyltheophylline greater than 8-cyclopentyltheophylline = xanthine carboxylic acid congener greater than 8-parasulfophenyltheophylline greater than theophylline greater than caffeine.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Joseph, Boby K.; Sundaram, Devipriyaa B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-1R) plays critical roles in cancer development, proliferation, motility and survival. IGF-1R over expression is frequently found in various tumours and is often associated with an aggressive phenotype. Hence, the aim of the present study was to examine the expression of IGF-1R in normal oral mucosa, fibroepithelial polyps, dysplastic oral mucosa and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinomas. Materials and methods: A 3-layered s...

  13. Hypothalamic oxytocin attenuates CRF expression via GABA(A) receptors in rats.

    Bülbül, Mehmet; Babygirija, Reji; Cerjak, Diana; Yoshimoto, Sazu; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2011-04-28

    Centrally released oxytocin (OXT) has anxiolytic and anti-stress effects. Delayed gastric emptying (GE) induced by acute restraint stress (ARS) for 90 min is completely restored following 5 consecutive days of chronic homotypic restraint stress (CHS), via up-regulating hypothalamic OXT expression in rats. However, the mechanism behind the restoration of delayed GE following CHS remains unclear. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-projecting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) have been shown to inhibit corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) synthesis via GABA(A) receptors. We hypothesized that GABA(A) receptors are involved in mediating the inhibitory effect of OXT on CRF expression in the PVN, which in turn restores delayed GE following CHS. OXT (0.5 μg) and selective GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline methiodide (BMI) (100 ng), were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv). Solid GE was measured under non-stressed (NS), ARS and CHS conditions. Expression of CRF mRNA in the PVN was evaluated by real time RT-PCR. Neither OXT nor BMI changed GE and CRF mRNA expression under NS conditions. Delayed GE and increased CRF mRNA expression induced by ARS were restored by icv-injection of OXT. The effects of OXT on delayed GE and increased CRF mRNA expression in ARS were abolished by icv-injection of BMI. Following CHS, delayed GE was completely restored in saline (icv)-injected rats, whereas daily injection of BMI (icv) attenuated the restoration of delayed GE. Daily injection of BMI (icv) significantly increased CRF mRNA expression following CHS. It is suggested that central OXT inhibits ARS-induced CRF mRNA expression via GABA(A) receptors in the PVN. GABAergic system is also involved in OXT-mediated adaptation response of delayed GE under CHS conditions. PMID:21382355

  14. Gene Expression of Leptin and Long Leptin Receptor Isoform in Endometriosis: A Case-Control Study

    Andrea Prestes Nácul; Sheila Bunecker Lecke; Maria Isabel Edelweiss; Débora Martinho Morsch; Poli Mara Spritzer

    2013-01-01

    In this study, leptin/BMI ratio in serum and peritoneal fluid and gene expression of leptin and long form leptin receptor (OB-RL) were assessed in eutopic and ectopic endometria of women with endometriosis and controls. Increased serum leptin/BMI ratio was found in endometriosis patients. Leptin and OB-RL gene expression was significantly higher in ectopic versus eutopic endometrium of patients and controls. A positive, significant correlation was observed between leptin and OB-RL transcripts...

  15. Expression of oestrogen and progesterone receptors in gastric cancer: a flow cytometric study

    Karat, D; Brotherick, I; Shenton, B. K.; Scott, D.; Raimes, S. A.; S. M. Griffin

    1999-01-01

    Increased expression of oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors have been reported in gastric adenocarcinoma, although results have been variable. Immunohistochemical staining methodologies, in particular in the detection of ER, have been inconsistent with many tumours being classified ER-negative. In this study we have used flow cytometry to quantify expression of ER and PR in gastric adenocarcinoma and examine their relationships with established prognostic indicators. Cytokeratin-po...

  16. Expression of Toll-like receptors 7-10 in human fallopian tubes

    Nasrin Ghasemi; Fatemehsadat Amjadi; Ensieh Salehi; Mojgan Shakeri; Abbas Aflatoonian; Reza Aflatoonian

    2014-01-01

    Background: The human female reproductive tract (FRT) is constantly deal with the invading pathogens. Recognition of these pathogens is attributed to the family of Toll like receptors (TLR) as a major part of the innate immune system. We and others have previously revealed that TLRs1-6 express in the female reproductive tract. However, more studies should be done to detect TLRs 7-10 in the female reproductive tract, especially in the fallopian tubes. Objective: To examine the expression of TL...

  17. Serotonin Transporter and Receptor Expression in Osteocytic MLO-Y4 Cells

    BLIZIOTES, M.; ESHLEMAN, A.; BURT-PICHAT, B.; Zhang, X.-W.; Hashimoto, J; WIREN, K.; C. Chenu

    2006-01-01

    Neurotransmitter regulation of bone metabolism has been a subject of increasing interest and investigation. We reported previously that osteoblastic cells express a functional serotonin (5-HT) signal transduction system, with mechanisms for responding to and regulating uptake of 5-HT. The clonal murine osteocytic cell line, MLO-Y4, demonstrates expression of the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), and the 5-HT1A, and 5-HT2A receptors by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. Immunohistochemistr...

  18. Unexpected Novel Relational Links Uncovered by Extensive Developmental Profiling of Nuclear Receptor Expression

    Bertrand, Stéphanie; Thisse, Bernard; Tavares, Raquel; Sachs, Laurent; Chaumot, Arnaud; Bardet, Pierre-Luc; Escriva, Hector; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Marchand, Oriane; Safi, Rachid; Thisse, Christine; Laudet, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are transcription factors that are implicated in several biological processes such as embryonic development, homeostasis, and metabolic diseases. To study the role of NRs in development, it is critically important to know when and where individual genes are expressed. Although systematic expression studies using reverse transcriptase PCR and/or DNA microarrays have been performed in classical model systems such as Drosophila and mouse, no systematic atlas describing NR...

  19. Expression of the neurotrophin receptor TrkC is linked to a favorable outcome in medulloblastoma.

    Segal, R. A.; Goumnerova, L C; Kwon, Y. K.; Stiles, C D; Pomeroy, S. L.

    1994-01-01

    Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, has a variable prognosis. Although half of the children and young adults with the disease survive longer than 10 years after diagnosis, the others relapse and die despite identical therapy. We have examined the expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in medulloblastoma samples snap frozen in the operating room to preserve RNA integrity. All tumors (n = 12) were found to express mRNA encoding neurotrophin 3 and its re...

  20. Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human CD34+ bone marrow cells.

    Paczkowska, E; Piecyk, K; Luczkowska, K; Kotowski, M; Roginska, D; Pius-Sadowska, E; Oronowicz, K; Ostrowski, M; Machalinski, B

    2016-02-01

    Bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells have the ability to secrete growth factors, cytokines, and chemotactic factors. We sought to better characterize this population and to investigate whether human BM CD34+ cells express neurotrophins (NTs) and their relevant receptors. We also compared their expression levels with BM nucleated cells (NCs). BM CD34+ cells were evaluated with respect to the expression levels of neurotrophins using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescent staining, and Western blotting. Next, the expression of specific (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and non-specific (p75NTR) neurotrophin receptors was detected by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining in BM CD34+ cells. Using qRT- PCR, we show that even in the absence of inducing factors, CD34+ cells spontaneously express neurotrophins such as NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4. In addition, the NT expression levels in BM CD34+ cells are considerably higher than in NCs. Furthermore, we confirmed intracellular NT expression in BM CD34+ cells at the protein level using immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting. Using qRT-PCR, we found that immunomagnetically separated BM CD34+ cells spontaneously express high-affinity neurotrophin receptors (TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC) and the low-affinity receptor p75NTR at higher levels than NCs. Immunomagnetic CD34+ cell separation enables for the rapid and gentle sorting of stem/progenitor cells (SPCs) to prepare specific cell types for use in research and clinical applications. Our study suggests that BM CD34+ cells have the potential to support trophic factors for neural tissue and could contribute towards the protection and regeneration of neural cells. PMID:27010904

  1. Induction of Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes Specific to Malignant Glioma Using T2 Cells Pulsed with HLA-A2-restricted Interleukin-13 Receptor α2 Peptide in vitro

    2007-01-01

    Interleukin-13 receptor α2 (IL-13Rα2) is a glioma-restricted cell-surface epitope not otherwise detected within the central nervous system. The present study is a report of a novel approach of targeting malignant glioma with IL-13Rα2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) induced from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors by multiple stimulations with human leukocyte antigen(HLA)-A2-restricted IL-13Rα2345-353 peptide-pulsed T2 cells. The induced CTL showed specific lysis against T2 cells pulsed with the peptide and HLA-A2+ glioma cells expressing IL-13Rα2345-353, while HLA-A2 glioma cell lines that express IL-13Rα2345-353 could not be recognized by CTL. The peptide-specific activity was inhibited by anti-HLA class Ⅰ monoclonal antibody. These results suggest that the induced CTL specific for IL-13Rα2345-353 peptide could be a potential target of specific immunotherapy for HLA-A2 patients with malignant glioma.

  2. Expression of taste receptors in Solitary Chemosensory Cells of rodent airways

    Sbarbati Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal taste buds or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs. The SCC population lies in the nasal respiratory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and larynx, as well as deeper in the airway. The objective of this study is to map the distribution of SCCs within the airways and to determine the elements of the chemosensory transduction cascade expressed in these SCCs. Methods We utilized a combination of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (rtPCR and in situ hybridization on rats and transgenic mice where the Tas1R3 or TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. Results Epithelial SCCs specialized for chemoreception are distributed throughout much of the respiratory tree of rodents. These cells express elements of the taste transduction cascade, including Tas1R and Tas2R receptor molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2 and TrpM5. The Tas2R bitter taste receptors are present throughout the entire respiratory tract. In contrast, the Tas1R sweet/umami taste receptors are expressed by numerous SCCs in the nasal cavity, but decrease in prevalence in the trachea, and are absent in the lower airways. Conclusions Elements of the taste transduction cascade including taste receptors are expressed by SCCs distributed throughout the airways. In the nasal cavity, SCCs, expressing Tas1R and Tas2R taste receptors, mediate detection of irritants and foreign substances which trigger trigeminally-mediated protective airway reflexes. Lower in the respiratory tract, similar chemosensory cells are not related to the trigeminal nerve but may still trigger local epithelial responses to irritants. In total, SCCs should be considered chemoreceptor cells that help in preventing damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled irritants and

  3. Characterization of dopamine D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the mouse hippocampus.

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Longueville, Sophie; De Bundel, Dimitri; Perroy, Julie; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2012-12-01

    The hippocampal formation is part of an anatomical system critically involved in learning and memory. Increasing evidence suggests that dopamine plays an important role in learning and memory as well as in several forms of synaptic plasticity. However, the precise identification of neuronal populations expressing D1 or D2 dopamine receptors within the hippocampus is still lacking. To clarify this issue, we used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1 or D2 receptors. In Drd1a-EGFP mice, sparse GFP-expressing neurons were detected among glutamatergic projecting neurons of the granular layer of the dentate gyrus and GABAergic interneurons located in the hilus. A dense immunofluorescence was observed in the outer and medial part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus as well as in the inner part of the molecular layer of CA1 corresponding to the terminals of pyramidal neurons of the entorhinal cortex defining the perforant and the temporo-ammonic pathway respectively. Finally, scattered D1 receptor-expressing neurons were also identified as GABAergic interneurons in the CA3/CA1 fields of the hippocampus. In Drd2-EGFP transgenic mice, GFP was exclusively detected in the glutamatergic mossy cells located in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. This pattern was confirmed in Drd2-Cre mice crossed with NLS-LacZ-Tau(mGFP) :LoxP and RCE:LoxP reporter lines. Our results demonstrate that D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons are strictly segregated in the mouse hippocampus. By clarifying the identity of D1 and D2 receptor-expressing neurons in the hippocampus, this study establishes a basis for future investigations aiming at elucidating their roles in the hippocampal network. PMID:22777829

  4. Eph receptors and ephrin class B ligands are expressed at tissue boundaries in Hydra vulgaris.

    Tischer, Susanne; Reineck, Mona; Söding, Johannes; Münder, Sandra; Böttger, Angelika

    2013-01-01

    Eph receptors and ephrins are important players in axon guidance, cell sorting and boundary formation. Both the receptors and the ligands are integrated transmembrane proteins and signalling is bidirectional. The prevalent outcome of signal transduction is repulsion of adjacent cells or cell populations. Eph/ephrins have been identified in all multicellular animals from human to sponge, their functions however appear to have been altered during evolution. Here we have identified four Eph receptors and three class B ligands in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, indicating that those are the evolutionary older ones. In situ hybridisation experiments revealed a striking complementarity of expression of receptors and ligands in tentacles and in developing buds. This suggests that the original function of ephrin signalling may have been in epithelial cell adhesion and the formation of tissue boundaries. PMID:24307295

  5. Progress in the discovery of selective, high affinity A2B adenosine receptor antagonists as clinical candidates

    Kalla, Rao V.; Zablocki, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The selective, high affinity A2B adenosine receptor (AdoR) antagonists that were synthesized by several research groups should aid in determining the role of the A2B AdoR in inflammatory diseases like asthma or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and angiogenic diseases like diabetic retinopathy or cancer. CV Therapeutics scientists discovered the selective, high affinity A2B AdoR antagonist 10, a 8-(4-pyrazolyl)-xanthine derivative [CVT-6883, Ki(hA2B) = 22 nM; Ki(hA1) = 1,940 nM; Ki(hA2A) = 3,280; and...

  6. Angiotensin II receptor mRNA expression and vasoconstriction in human coronary arteries

    Wackenfors, Angelica; Pantev, Emil; Emilson, Malin;

    2004-01-01

    -induced vasoconstriction diminished with increasing age in patients with heart failure (r(2)=0.31, P<0.05). Also, the AT(1) receptor mRNA expression levels decreased with increasing age in patients with heart failure (r(2)=0.74, P<0.05), while no such correlation could be shown in the control group (r(2)=0.04, P......=n.s.). The AT(2) receptor mRNA expression levels did not correlate with age in patients with heart failure or controls. In conclusion, the diminished angiotensin II vasoconstriction with age in heart failure patients is most likely due to a lower density of AT(1) receptors and may result from a longer period...

  7. Expression of HIV receptors, alternate receptors and co-receptors on tonsillar epithelium: implications for HIV binding and primary oral infection

    Maher Diane M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary HIV infection can develop from exposure to HIV in the oral cavity. In previous studies, we have documented rapid and extensive binding of HIV virions in seminal plasma to intact mucosal surfaces of the palatine tonsil and also found that virions readily penetrated beneath the tissue surfaces. As one approach to understand the molecular interactions that support HIV virion binding to human mucosal surfaces, we have examined the distribution of the primary HIV receptor CD4, the alternate HIV receptors heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HS and galactosyl ceramide (GalCer and the co-receptors CXCR4 and CCR5 in palatine tonsil. Results Only HS was widely expressed on the surface of stratified squamous epithelium. In contrast, HS, GalCer, CXCR4 and CCR5 were all expressed on the reticulated epithelium lining the tonsillar crypts. We have observed extensive variability, both across tissue sections from any tonsil and between tonsils, in the distribution of epithelial cells expressing either CXCR4 or CCR5 in the basal and suprabasal layers of stratified epithelium. The general expression patterns of CXCR4, CCR5 and HS were similar in palatine tonsil from children and adults (age range 3–20. We have also noted the presence of small clusters of lymphocytes, including CD4+ T cells within stratified epithelium and located precisely at the mucosal surfaces. CD4+ T cells in these locations would be immediately accessible to HIV virions. Conclusion In total, the likelihood of oral HIV transmission will be determined by macro and micro tissue architecture, cell surface expression patterns of key molecules that may bind HIV and the specific properties of the infectious inoculum.

  8. Localization and regulation of the human very low density lipoprotein/apolipoprotein-E receptor: trophoblast expression predicts a role for the receptor in placental lipid transport.

    Wittmaack, F M; Gåfvels, M E; Bronner, M; Matsuo, H; McCrae, K R; Tomaszewski, J E; Robinson, S L; Strickland, D K; Strauss, J F

    1995-01-01

    The very low density lipoprotein/apolipoprotein-E receptor (VLDLR) is the newest member of the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family. Very little is known about VLDLR localization and regulation. Immunohistochemical analysis of human placenta with a specific polyclonal antibody detected VLDLR in syncytiotrophoblast and intermediate trophoblast cells. VLDLR transcripts were also localized in these cells by in situ hybridization histochemistry. In addition, VLDLR messenger RNA (mRNA) was detected in villous core endothelial cells and cells appearing to be Hofbauer cells. Northern blot analysis of placenta revealed a 2.6-fold increase in VLDLR mRNA at term compared to that in the first trimester. The regulation of VLDLR expression was studied in JEG-3 and BeWo choriocarcinoma cells, two trophoblast-derived cell lines. Treatment of these cells with 8-bromo-cAMP caused a profound suppression of VLDLR message, whereas LDLR transcripts were increased. Incubation of JEG-3 cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol did not lead to sterol negative feedback on VLDLR gene expression, unlike LDLR mRNA, which declined markedly. Insulin (200 mg/L) up-regulated VLDLR message in JEG-3 cells 2-fold, as did the fibrate hypolipidemic drug, clofibric acid. We conclude that 1) VLDLR is expressed in human placental trophoblast cells in a pattern consistent with a role in placental lipid transport; 2) VLDLR expression is high at term relative to that in the first trimester; and 3) the trophoblast VLDLR is subject to down-regulation by cAMP and up-regulation by insulin and fibrate hypolipidemic drugs. PMID:7828550

  9. Human macrophage scavenger receptors: Primary structure, expression, and localization in atherosclerotic lesions

    Two types of cDNAs for human macrophage scavenger receptors were cloned from a cDNA library derived from the phorbol ester-treated human monocytic cell line THP-1. The type I and type II human scavenger receptors encoded by these cDNAs are homologous (73% and 71% amino acid identity) to their previously characterized bovine counterparts and consist of six domains: cytoplasmic (I), membrane-spanning (II), spacer (III), α-helical coiled-coil (IV), collagen-like (V), and a type-specific C-terminal (VI). The receptor gene is located on human chromosome 8. The human receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells mediated endocytosis of modified low density lipoproteins. Two mRNAs, 4.0 and 3.2 kilobases, have been detected in human liver, placenta, and brain. Immunohistochemical studies using an anti-peptide antibody which recognizes human scavenger receptors indicated the presence of the scavenger receptors in the macrophages of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting the involvement of scavenger receptors in atherogenesis

  10. TREM-2 Receptor Expression Increases with 25(OHD Vitamin Serum Levels in Patients with Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Maria Bucova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TREM-1 and TREM-2 molecules are members of the TREM transmembrane glycoproteins. In our previous study we identified increased expressions of TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptors in pulmonary sarcoidosis (PS. Only a few studies concerning the association between vitamin D and TREM receptor expression can be found. The aim of our current study was to determine the association between the levels of an inactive form of 25(OHD vitamin and TREM-1 and TREM-2 receptor expressions. We have detected low levels of 25(OHD vitamin in 79% of PS patients. Only 21% of patients had normal serum level of 25(OHD vitamin with values clustered within the low-normal range. The most striking findings were the increased TREM-2 expressions on myeloid cells surfaces in BALF of PS patients with normal 25(OHD vitamin serum levels compared with those with its decreased levels. The total number of TREM-2 positive cells was 5.7 times higher and the percentage of TREM-2 positive cells was also significantly increased in BALF of PS patients with normal compared to PS patients with low 25(OHD vitamin serum levels. A significant correlation between total TREM-2 expression and vitamin D levels has been detected too. However, we have not detected similar differences in TREM-1expression and 25(OHD vitamin serum levels.

  11. Efficient silkworm expression of human GPCR (nociceptin receptor) by a Bombyx mori bacmid DNA system

    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently expressed by a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). We recently established a novel BEVS using the bacmid system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which is directly applicable for protein expression in silkworms. Here, we report the first example of GPCR expression in silkworms by the simple injection of BmNPV bacmid DNA. Human nociceptin receptor, an inhibitory GPCR, and its fusion protein with inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (Giα) were both successfully expressed in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae as well as in the BmNPV viral fraction. Its yield was much higher than that from Sf9 cells. The microsomal fractions including the nociceptin receptor fusion, which are easily prepared by only centrifugation steps, exhibited [35S]GTPγS-binding activity upon specific stimulation by nociceptin. Therefore, this rapid method is easy-to-use and has a high expression level, and thus will be an important tool for human GPCR production.

  12. Clinical significance of the leptin and leptin receptor expressions in prostate tissues

    Jung Hoon Kim; Shin Young Lee; Soon Chul Myung; Young Sun Kim; Tae-Hyoung Kim; Mi Kyung Kim

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the expression of leptin and leptin receptor in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (Pca), and to investigate whether they are associated with the development and progression of Pca. Methods:Immunohistochemical staining was performed to examine the expression of leptin and leptin receptor in BPH and Pca.Pca was divided into three groups: localized Pca, locally advanced Pca and metastatic Pca. The positive staining was identified and the percentage of the positive staining was graded. We also assessed the relationship between both the Gleason score and body mass index (BMI) and Pca. Results: The percentage of the leptin expression in Pca was significantly higher than that in BPH (P < 0.01). For the Pca group, the expressed levels of leptin showed a considerable correlation with localized Pca and metastatic Pca (P < 0.05). Leptin receptor, however, did not reveal a definite difference between BPH and Pca. The expression of leptin indicated a significant difference between well-differen-tiated Pca (Gleason score < 6) and poorly differentiated Pca (Gleason score 8-10) (P < 0.05), The relation between the leptin expression level in Pca and the BMI was not remarkable (P = 0.447). Conclusion: Our results suggest that leptin might have a promoting effect on the carcinogenesis and progression of Pca.

  13. Efficient silkworm expression of human GPCR (nociceptin receptor) by a Bombyx mori bacmid DNA system

    Kajikawa, Mizuho; Sasaki, Kaori [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Wakimoto, Yoshitaro; Toyooka, Masaru [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Motohashi, Tomoko; Shimojima, Tsukasa [National Institute of Genetics, 1111 Yata, Mishima, Shizuoka 411-8540 (Japan); Takeda, Shigeki [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Graduate School of Engineering, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Park, Enoch Y. [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Integrated Bioscience Section, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Oya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan); Maenaka, Katsumi, E-mail: kmaenaka-umin@umin.net [Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2009-07-31

    Guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) coupled receptors (GPCRs) are frequently expressed by a baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS). We recently established a novel BEVS using the bacmid system of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), which is directly applicable for protein expression in silkworms. Here, we report the first example of GPCR expression in silkworms by the simple injection of BmNPV bacmid DNA. Human nociceptin receptor, an inhibitory GPCR, and its fusion protein with inhibitory G protein alpha subunit (G{sub i}{alpha}) were both successfully expressed in the fat bodies of silkworm larvae as well as in the BmNPV viral fraction. Its yield was much higher than that from Sf9 cells. The microsomal fractions including the nociceptin receptor fusion, which are easily prepared by only centrifugation steps, exhibited [{sup 35}S]GTP{gamma}S-binding activity upon specific stimulation by nociceptin. Therefore, this rapid method is easy-to-use and has a high expression level, and thus will be an important tool for human GPCR production.

  14. Combinatorial activation and repression by seven transcription factors specify Drosophila odorant receptor expression.

    Shadi Jafari

    Full Text Available The mechanism that specifies olfactory sensory neurons to express only one odorant receptor (OR from a large repertoire is critical for odor discrimination but poorly understood. Here, we describe the first comprehensive analysis of OR expression regulation in Drosophila. A systematic, RNAi-mediated knock down of most of the predicted transcription factors identified an essential function of acj6, E93, Fer1, onecut, sim, xbp1, and zf30c in the regulation of more than 30 ORs. These regulatory factors are differentially expressed in antennal sensory neuron classes and specifically required for the adult expression of ORs. A systematic analysis reveals not only that combinations of these seven factors are necessary for receptor gene expression but also a prominent role for transcriptional repression in preventing ectopic receptor expression. Such regulation is supported by bioinformatics and OR promoter analyses, which uncovered a common promoter structure with distal repressive and proximal activating regions. Thus, our data provide insight into how combinatorial activation and repression can allow a small number of transcription factors to specify a large repertoire of neuron classes in the olfactory system.

  15. Human neural progenitors express functional lysophospholipid receptors that regulate cell growth and morphology

    Callihan Phillip

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysophospholipids regulate the morphology and growth of neurons, neural cell lines, and neural progenitors. A stable human neural progenitor cell line is not currently available in which to study the role of lysophospholipids in human neural development. We recently established a stable, adherent human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial (hES-NEP cell line which recapitulates morphological and phenotypic features of neural progenitor cells isolated from fetal tissue. The goal of this study was to determine if hES-NEP cells express functional lysophospholipid receptors, and if activation of these receptors mediates cellular responses critical for neural development. Results Our results demonstrate that Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptors are functionally expressed in hES-NEP cells and are coupled to multiple cellular signaling pathways. We have shown that transcript levels for S1P1 receptor increased significantly in the transition from embryonic stem cell to hES-NEP. hES-NEP cells express LPA and S1P receptors coupled to Gi/o G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase and to Gq-like phospholipase C activity. LPA and S1P also induce p44/42 ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in these cells and stimulate cell proliferation via Gi/o coupled receptors in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR- and ERK-dependent pathway. In contrast, LPA and S1P stimulate transient cell rounding and aggregation that is independent of EGFR and ERK, but dependent on the Rho effector p160 ROCK. Conclusion Thus, lysophospholipids regulate neural progenitor growth and morphology through distinct mechanisms. These findings establish human ES cell-derived NEP cells as a model system for studying the role of lysophospholipids in neural progenitors.

  16. Adenoviruses Using the Cancer Marker EphA2 as a Receptor In Vitro and In Vivo by Genetic Ligand Insertion into Different Capsid Scaffolds

    Behr, Michael; Kaufmann, Johanna K.; Ketzer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Sarah; Mück-Häusl, Martin; Okun, Pamela M.; Petersen, Gabriele; Neipel, Frank; Hassel, Jessica C.; Ehrhardt, Anja; Enk, Alexander H.; Nettelbeck, Dirk M.

    2014-01-01

    Adenoviral gene therapy and oncolysis would critically benefit from targeted cell entry by genetically modified capsids. This requires both the ablation of native adenovirus tropism and the identification of ligands that remain functional in virus context. Here, we establish cell type-specific entry of HAdV-5-based vectors by genetic ligand insertion into a chimeric fiber with shaft and knob domains of the short HAdV-41 fiber (Ad5T/41sSK). This fiber format was reported to ablate transduction in vitro and biodistribution to the liver in vivo. We show that the YSA peptide, binding to the pan-cancer marker EphA2, can be inserted into three positions of the chimeric fiber, resulting in strong transduction of EphA2-positive but not EphA2-negative cells of human melanoma biopsies and of tumor xenografts after intratumoral injection. Transduction was blocked by soluble YSA peptide and restored for EphA2-negative cells after recombinant EphA2 expression. The YSA peptide could also be inserted into three positions of a CAR binding-ablated HAdV-5 fiber enabling specific transduction; however, the Ad5T/41sSK format was superior in vivo. In conclusion, we establish an adenovirus capsid facilitating functional insertion of targeting peptides and a novel adenovirus using the tumor marker EphA2 as receptor with high potential for cancer gene therapy and viral oncolysis. PMID:24760010

  17. Adenoviruses using the cancer marker EphA2 as a receptor in vitro and in vivo by genetic ligand insertion into different capsid scaffolds.

    Michael Behr

    Full Text Available Adenoviral gene therapy and oncolysis would critically benefit from targeted cell entry by genetically modified capsids. This requires both the ablation of native adenovirus tropism and the identification of ligands that remain functional in virus context. Here, we establish cell type-specific entry of HAdV-5-based vectors by genetic ligand insertion into a chimeric fiber with shaft and knob domains of the short HAdV-41 fiber (Ad5T/41sSK. This fiber format was reported to ablate transduction in vitro and biodistribution to the liver in vivo. We show that the YSA peptide, binding to the pan-cancer marker EphA2, can be inserted into three positions of the chimeric fiber, resulting in strong transduction of EphA2-positive but not EphA2-negative cells of human melanoma biopsies and of tumor xenografts after intratumoral injection. Transduction was blocked by soluble YSA peptide and restored for EphA2-negative cells after recombinant EphA2 expression. The YSA peptide could also be inserted into three positions of a CAR binding-ablated HAdV-5 fiber enabling specific transduction; however, the Ad5T/41sSK format was superior in vivo. In conclusion, we establish an adenovirus capsid facilitating functional insertion of targeting peptides and a novel adenovirus using the tumor marker EphA2 as receptor with high potential for cancer gene therapy and viral oncolysis.

  18. Stilbenes inhibit androgen receptor expression in 22Rv1 castrate-resistant prostate cancer cells

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Importantly, AR continues to be expressed in advanced stages of castrate-resistant PCa (CRPC), where it can have ligand- independent activity. Identification of naturally occurring s...

  19. Preclinical evaluation of radiolabeled DOTA-derivatized cyclic minigastrin analogs for targeting cholecystokinin receptor expressing malignancies.

    Guggenberg, E. von; Rangger, C.; Sosabowski, J.; Laverman, P.; Reubi, J.C.; Virgolini, I.J.; Decristoforo, C.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Targeting of cholecystokinin receptor expressing malignancies such as medullary thyroid carcinoma is currently limited by low in vivo stability of radioligands. To increase the stability, we have developed and preclinically evaluated two cyclic 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraa

  20. Limited impact on glucose homeostasis of leptin receptor deletion from insulin- or proglucagon-expressing cells

    Helen Soedling

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions/interpretation: The use here of a highly selective Cre recombinase indicates that leptin signalling plays a relatively minor, age- and sex-dependent role in the control of β cell function in the mouse. No in vivo role for leptin receptors on α cells, nor in other proglucagon-expressing cells, was detected in this study.

  1. High glucose-induced oxidative stress increases transient receptor potential channel expression in human monocytes

    Wuensch, Tilo; Thilo, Florian; Krueger, Katharina; Scholze, Alexandra; Ristow, Michael; Tepel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel-induced cation influx activates human monocytes, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high glucose-induced oxidative stress on TRP channel expression in human monocytes....

  2. Expression of the growth hormone receptor gene in insulin producing cells

    Møldrup, Annette; Billestrup, N; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    1990-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) plays a dual role in glucose homeostasis. On the one hand, it exerts an insulin antagonistic effect on the peripheral tissue, on the other hand, it stimulates insulin biosynthesis and beta-cell proliferation. The expression of GH-receptors on the rat insulinoma cell line RIN-5...

  3. Expression of glucocorticoid receptors α and ß in steroid sensitive and steroid insensitive interstitial lung diseases

    Pujols, L; Xaubet, A.; Ramirez, J.; Mullol, J; Roca-Ferrer, J; Torrego, A; Cidlowski, J.; Picado, C

    2004-01-01

    Background: Sensitivity to glucocorticoids may be related to the concentration of glucocorticoid receptors α (GRα) and ß (GRß). A study was undertaken to assess GRα and GRß expression in steroid insensitive interstitial lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)) and steroid sensitive interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis and cryptogenic organising pneumonia (COP)).

  4. Intra-uterine Growth Restriction Downregulates the Hepatic Toll Like Receptor-4 Expression and Function

    Ozlem Equils; Sapna Singh; Semra Karaburun; Daning Lu; Manikkavasagar Thamotharan; Devaskar, Sherin U.

    2005-01-01

    Maternal starvation is a significant cause of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in the world and increases the risk of infection in the neonate. We examined the effect of maternal starvation on Toll like receptor (TLR)4 expression in hepatic, splenic and intestinal tissues obtained from the adult IUGR offspring of prenatal calorie restricted rats. The hepatic TLR4 protein concentration was undetectable in the...

  5. Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1: a biomarker for bacterial meningitis

    R.M. Determann; M. Weisfelt; J. de Gans; A. van der Ende; M.J. Schultz; D. van de Beek

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1) in CSF can serve as a biomarker for the presence of bacterial meningitis and outcome in patients with this disease. Design: Retrospective study of diagnostic accuracy. Setting and patients: CSF was coll

  6. INCREASED EXPRESSION OF RECEPTORS FOR OREXIGENIC FACTORS IN NODOSE GANGLION OF DIET-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    The vagal afferent pathway is important in short-term regulation of food intake and decreased activation of this neural pathway with long-term ingestion of a high fat diet may contribute to hyperphagic weight gain. We test the hypothesis that expression of genes encoding receptors for orexigenic fac...

  7. Prolonged expression of the c-kit receptor in germ cells of intersex fetal testes

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Jørgensen, N; Müller, Jørn;

    1996-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor Kit encoded by the c-kit proto-oncogene are crucial for the development and migration of primordial germ cells in rodents. The expression of Kit has been examined immunohistochemically in gonads obtained from five specimens of fetal tissues with intersex co...

  8. Expression of FSH receptor in ovary tissue of rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome

    Objective: To investigate the expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein in ovary tissue in rats with letrozole-induced polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and to provide experimental data for the model application. Methods: Forty rats were randomly divided into two groups (n=20), in PCOS model group letrozole was administered once daily during 21 d, and in control group without any treatment. The gonadal hormone concentrations in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay, the histologic changes in ovaries were observed by HE staining, the expression of FSH receptor gene in ovary tissue was detected by realtime -PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results: Compared with control group, estradiol (E2) and progesterone in model group showed a considerable reduction (P0.05). Compared with control group, the ovaries from model group showed high incidence of subcapsular ovarian cyst and capsular thickening and decreased number of corpora lute a. The expressions of FSH receptor mRNA and protein were significantly higher in model group than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The expression of FSH receptor gene in letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries is similar with that of PCOS women, the rat model is proved to be an ideal PCOS animal model to study the pathophysiology of PCOS. (authors)

  9. HIGH GLUCOSE INDUCES TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN HUMAN MONOCYTES: MECHANISM OF ACTIVATION

    Objective: Hyperglycemia induced inflammation is central in diabetes complications and monocytes are important in orchestrating these effects. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in innate immune responses as well as inflammation. However, there is a paucity of data examining the expression a...

  10. Enhanced expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) in lung cancer

    G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) was reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E2), tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and promotes activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in breast, endometrial and thyroid cancer cells. Although lung adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), the expression of GPER in lung cancer has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of GPER in lung cancer. The expression patterns of GPER in various lung cancer lines and lung tumors were investigated using standard quantitative real time PCR (at mRNA levels), Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods (at protein levels). The expression of GPER was scored and the pairwise comparisons (cancer vs adjacent tissues as well as cancer vs normal lung tissues) were performed. Analysis by real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed a significantly higher expression of GPER at both mRNA and protein levels in human non small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC) lines relative to immortalized normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). The virally immortalized human small airway epithelial cell line HPL1D showed higher expression than HBECs and similar expression to NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections of murine lung adenomas as well as human lung adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and non-small cell lung carcinomas showed consistently higher expression of GPER in the tumor relative to the surrounding non-tumor tissue. The results from this study demonstrate increased GPER expression in lung cancer cells and tumors compared to normal lung. Further evaluation of the function and regulation of GPER will be necessary to determine if GPER is a marker of lung cancer progression

  11. Enhanced expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30 in lung cancer

    Jala Venkatakrishna Rao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30 was reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E2, tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant and promotes activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-mediated signaling in breast, endometrial and thyroid cancer cells. Although lung adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ, the expression of GPER in lung cancer has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of GPER in lung cancer. Methods The expression patterns of GPER in various lung cancer lines and lung tumors were investigated using standard quantitative real time PCR (at mRNA levels, Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC methods (at protein levels. The expression of GPER was scored and the pairwise comparisons (cancer vs adjacent tissues as well as cancer vs normal lung tissues were performed. Results Analysis by real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed a significantly higher expression of GPER at both mRNA and protein levels in human non small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC lines relative to immortalized normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs. The virally immortalized human small airway epithelial cell line HPL1D showed higher expression than HBECs and similar expression to NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections of murine lung adenomas as well as human lung adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and non-small cell lung carcinomas showed consistently higher expression of GPER in the tumor relative to the surrounding non-tumor tissue. Conclusion The results from this study demonstrate increased GPER expression in lung cancer cells and tumors compared to normal lung. Further evaluation of the function and regulation of GPER will be necessary to determine if GPER is a marker of lung cancer progression.

  12. UVB increases urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) expression.

    Marschall, C; Lengyel, E; Nobutoh, T; Braungart, E; Douwes, K; Simon, A; Magdolen, V; Reuning, U; Degitz, K

    1999-07-01

    Keratinocytes synthesize and secrete urokinase-type plasminogen activator, which binds to its specific receptor on keratinocytes. When bound to urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator proteolytically converts surface bound plasminogen to plasmin, which in turn cleaves many extracellular components leading to pericellular proteolysis. The activation of the urokinase system has been observed during re-epithelialization of skin wounds and in lesions of the autoimmune blistering skin disease pemphigus. As pemphigus is photoinducible, we investigated the effect of ultraviolet B on urokinase-type plasminogen activator and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor expression in the epidermal keratinocyte cell line A431. Ultraviolet B increased cellular and secreted urokinase-type plasminogen activator protein (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor cell surface expression (flow cytometry) 24 h postirradiation. Northern blot analysis indicated that ultraviolet B increased urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor mRNA. Compared with a more rapid mRNA induction by epidermal growth factor (maximal after 4 h) the ultraviolet B response was maximal after 24 h and prolonged up to 36 h. The mRNA induction was not dependent on protein synthesis as judged by cycloheximide incubation. Ultraviolet B did not influence urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor mRNA stability (actinomycin D incubation). A transiently transfected chloramphenicol acetyltransferase-reporter construct containing a -398/+51 urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor promoter fragment was activated when cells were exposed to ultraviolet B. This induction was almost completely abolished by mutating a -182/-176 AP-1 binding sequence. Ultraviolet B increased the binding capacity at this AP-1 motif in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. These data identify a distinct transcriptional mechanism by which

  13. Distinct Roles for the A2B Adenosine Receptor in Acute and Chronic Stages of Bleomycin-Induced Lung Injury

    Yang ZHOU; Schneider, Daniel J.; Morschl, Eva; Song, Ling; Pedroza, Mesias; Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Le, Thuy.; Sun, Chun-Xiao; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine is an extracellular signaling molecule that is generated in response to cell injury where it orchestrates tissue protection and repair. Whereas adenosine is best known for promoting anti-inflammatory activities during acute injury responses, prolonged elevations can enhance destructive tissue remodeling processes associated with chronic disease states. The generation of adenosine and the subsequent activation of the adenosine 2B receptor (A2BR) is an important processes in the regul...

  14. A2A adenosine receptor-mediated increase in coronary flow in hyperlipidemic APOE–knockout mice

    Teng, Bunyen

    2011-01-01

    Bunyen Teng, S Jamal MustafaDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology and Center for Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sciences, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USAAbstract: Adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation is predominantly A2A adenosine receptor (AR)-mediated, whereas A1 AR is known to negatively modulate the coronary flow (CF). However, the coronary responses to adenosine in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis are not well understood. Using hyperlipidemic/atherosclerotic apolip...

  15. Expression and function of TNF and IL-1 receptors on human regulatory T cells.

    Frances Mercer

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs suppress immune activation and are critical in preventing autoimmune diseases. While the ability of Tregs to inhibit proliferation of other T cells is well established, it is not yet clear whether Tregs also modulate inflammatory cytokines during an immune response. Here, we show that the expression of inflammatory cytokine receptors IL-1R1 and TNFR2 were higher on resting mature Tregs compared to naïve or memory T cells. While upon activation through the T cell receptor (TCR, expression of IL-1R1 and TNFR2 were upregulated on all T cell subsets, IL-1R1 maintained significantly higher expression on activated Tregs as compared to other T cell subsets. The decoy receptor for IL-1 (IL-1R2 was not expressed by any of the resting T cells but was rapidly upregulated and preferentially expressed upon TCR-stimulation on Tregs. In addition, we found that Tregs also expressed high levels of mRNA for IL-1 antagonist, IL-1RA. TCR-stimulation of naïve T cells in the presence of TGFbeta, which induces FOXP3 expression, however did not result in upregulation of IL-1R1 or IL-1R2. In addition, ectopic expression of FOXP3 in non-Tregs, while causing significant upregulation of IL-1R1 and IL-1R2, did not achieve the levels seen in bona fide Tregs. We also determined that resting human Tregs expressing IL-1R1 did not have higher suppressive capacity compared to IL-1R1- Tregs, suggesting that IL-1R1 does not discriminate suppressive resting Tregs in healthy individuals. Functionally, activated human Tregs displayed a capacity to neutralize IL-1beta, which suggests a physiological significance for the expression of IL-1 decoy receptor on Tregs. In conclusion, our findings that human Tregs preferentially express receptors for TNF and IL-1 suggest a potential function in sensing and dampening local inflammation.

  16. Expression of murine Fc receptors for IgG.

    Schreiber, R E; Buku, A; Unkeless, J C

    1990-06-15

    There are two distinct genes that encode murine low affinity Fc gamma RII, murine Fc gamma RII alpha, and murine Fc gamma RII beta, which are transcribed in specific cell lineages. Fc gamma RII alpha transcripts are present in macrophages, NK cells, and mesangial cells; Fc gamma RII beta transcripts are expressed in Fc gamma R-bearing B cells, T cells, and macrophages. We have devised a sandwich ELISA to quantify the expression of Fc gamma RII alpha protein. The ELISA is specific for Fc gamma RII alpha, and does not detect the closely related Fc gamma RII beta protein. Upon stimulation with IFN-gamma the Fc gamma RII beta- macrophage cell line J774a expressed a twelvefold enhanced level of Fc gamma RII alpha protein. Peritoneal macrophages synthesized varying amounts of Fc gamma RII alpha. High levels of Fc gamma RII alpha were observed in resident and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages, but no Fc gamma RII alpha was detected in Bacillus Calmette Guérin-elicited macrophages. J774a cells stimulated with rIL-6 bound approximately twice as much anti-Fc gamma RII mAb 2.4G2 IgG as did unstimulated controls. However, the Fc gamma RII alpha-specific ELISA showed no change in the amount of Fc gamma RII alpha expressed. A probe encompassing the extracellular coding sequence of Fc gamma RII beta hybridized to two distinct transcripts that were elevated in rIL-6-stimulated J774a cells. One of these transcripts had the same mobility in electrophoresis as Fc gamma RII alpha mRNA and hybridized to an Fc gamma RII alpha-specific probe, whereas the other transcript was larger and did not hybridize to probes specific for either Fc gamma RII alpha or Fc gamma RII beta. Moreover, we confirmed, with an Fc gamma RII beta-specific probe, that J774a cells do not make Fc gamma RII beta mRNA. Thus, the larger transcript appears to encode a novel Fc gamma RII. We suggest that the increased level of binding of the anti-Fc gamma RII mAb 2.4G2 to rIL-6-induced cells represents

  17. Identification of an MRAP-Independent Melanocortin-2 Receptor: Functional Expression of the Cartilaginous Fish, Callorhinchus milii, Melanocortin-2 Receptor in CHO Cells

    Reinick, Christina L.; Liang, Liang; Angleson, Joseph K.; Dores, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the genome of the cartilaginous fish, Callorhynchus milii (elephant shark), encodes a melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R) ortholog. Expression of the elephant shark mc2r cDNA in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells revealed that trafficking to the plasma membrane and functional activation of the receptor do not require coexpression with an exogenous melanocortin receptor-2 accessory protein (mrap) cDNA. Ligand selectivity studies indicated that elephant shark MC2R-...

  18. Transient expression of functional serotonin 5-HT3 receptors by glutamatergic granule cells in the early postnatal mouse cerebellum

    M. Oostland; J. Sellmeijer; J.A. van Hooft

    2011-01-01

    The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor is the only ligand-gated ion channel activated by serotonin and is expressed by GABAergic interneurons in many brain regions, including the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Furthermore, 5-HT3 receptors are expressed by glutamatergic Cajal-Retzius cells in the cerebral c

  19. Expression and functional analysis of genes encoding cytokinin receptor-like histidine kinase in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Yanhong; Guo, Baojian; Kabir, Muhammad Rezaul; Yao, Yingyin; Peng, Huiru; Xie, Chaojie; Zhang, Yirong; Sun, Qixin; Ni, Zhongfu

    2014-08-01

    Cytokinin signaling is vital for plant growth and development which function via the two-component system (TCS). As one of the key component of TCS, transmembrane histidine kinases (HK) are encoded by a small gene family in plants. In this study, we focused on expression and functional analysis of cytokinin receptor-like HK genes (ZmHK) in maize. Firstly, bioinformatics analysis revealed that seven cloned ZmHK genes have different expression patterns during maize development. Secondly, ectopic expression by CaMV35S promoter in Arabidopsis further revealed that functional differentiation exists among these seven members. Among them, the ZmHK1a2-OX transgenic line has the lowest germination rate in the dark, ZmHK1-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX can delay leaf senescence, and seed size of ZmHK1-OX, ZmHK1a2-OX, ZmHK2-OX, ZmHK3b-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX was obviously reduced as compared to wild type. Additionally, ZmHK genes play opposite roles in shoot and root development; all ZmHK-OX transgenic lines display obvious shorter root length and reduced number of lateral roots, but enhanced shoot development compared with the wild type. Most notably, Arabidopsis response regulator ARR5 gene was up-regulated in ZmHK1-OX, ZmHK1a2-OX, ZmHK2-OX, ZmHK3b-OX and ZmHK2a2-OX as compared to wild type. Although the causal link between ZmHK genes and cytokinin signaling pathway is still an area to be further elucidated, these findings reflected that the diversification of ZmHK genes expression patterns and functions occurred in the course of maize evolution, indicating that some ZmHK genes might play different roles during maize development. PMID:24585212

  20. Prostaglandins from Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α/Cyclooxygenase-1 Pathway and Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases Regulate Gene Expression in Candida albicans-infected Macrophages.

    Yun, Bogeon; Lee, HeeJung; Jayaraja, Sabarirajan; Suram, Saritha; Murphy, Robert C; Leslie, Christina C

    2016-03-25

    InCandida albicans-infected resident peritoneal macrophages, activation of group IVA cytosolic phospholipase A2(cPLA2α) by calcium- and mitogen-activated protein kinases triggers the rapid production of prostaglandins I2and E2through cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and regulates gene expression by increasing cAMP. InC. albicans-infected cPLA2α(-/-)or COX-1(-/-)macrophages, expression ofIl10,Nr4a2, andPtgs2was lower, and expression ofTnfα was higher, than in wild type macrophages. Expression was reconstituted with 8-bromo-cAMP, the PKA activator 6-benzoyl-cAMP, and agonists for prostaglandin receptors IP, EP2, and EP4 in infected but not uninfected cPLA2α(-/-)or COX-1(-/-)macrophages. InC. albicans-infected cPLA2α(+/+)macrophages, COX-2 expression was blocked by IP, EP2, and EP4 receptor antagonists, indicating a role for both prostaglandin I2and E2 Activation of ERKs and p38, but not JNKs, byC. albicansacted synergistically with prostaglandins to induce expression ofIl10,Nr4a2, andPtgs2. Tnfα expression required activation of ERKs and p38 but was suppressed by cAMP. Results using cAMP analogues that activate PKA or Epacs suggested that cAMP regulates gene expression through PKA. However, phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB), the cAMP-regulated transcription factor involved inIl10,Nr4a2,Ptgs2, andTnfα expression, was not mediated by cAMP/PKA because it was similar inC. albicans-infected wild type and cPLA2α(-/-)or COX-1(-/-)macrophages. CREB phosphorylation was blocked by p38 inhibitors and induced by the p38 activator anisomycin but not by the PKA activator 6-benzoyl-cAMP. Therefore, MAPK activation inC. albicans-infected macrophages plays a dual role by promoting the cPLA2α/prostaglandin/cAMP/PKA pathway and CREB phosphorylation that coordinately regulate immediate early gene expression. PMID:26841868

  1. The androgen receptor: Functional structure and expression in transplanted human prostate tumors and prostate tumor cell lines

    Trapman, Jan; Ris-Stalpers, Carolyn; Korput, J. A G M; Kuiper, George; Faber, P.W.; Romijn, Johannes; Mulder, Eppo; Brinkmann, Albert

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The growth of the majority of prostate tumors is androgen-dependent, for which the presence of a functional androgen receptor is a prerequisite. Tumor growth can be inhibited by blockade of androgen receptor action. However, this inhibition is transient. To study the role of the androgen receptor in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate tumor cell growth, androgen receptor mRNA expression was monitored in six different human prostate tumor cell lines an...

  2. Impairment of Bilirubin Clearance and Intestinal Interleukin-6 Expression in Bile Duct-Ligated Vitamin D Receptor Null Mice

    Ishizawa, Michiyasu; Ogura, Michitaka; Kato, Shigeaki; Makishima, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) mediates the physiological and pharmacological actions of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in bone and calcium metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation, and immunity. VDR also responds to secondary bile acids and belongs to the NR1I subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which regulates expression of xenobiotic metabolism genes. When compared to knockout mouse investigations of the other NR1I nuclear receptors, pregnane X receptor and constitutive androsta...

  3. Over-expression of DSCAM and COL6A2 cooperatively generates congenital heart defects.

    Tamar R Grossman

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant current challenge in human genetics is the identification of interacting genetic loci mediating complex polygenic disorders. One of the best characterized polygenic diseases is Down syndrome (DS, which results from an extra copy of part or all of chromosome 21. A short interval near the distal tip of chromosome 21 contributes to congenital heart defects (CHD, and a variety of indirect genetic evidence suggests that multiple candidate genes in this region may contribute to this phenotype. We devised a tiered genetic approach to identify interacting CHD candidate genes. We first used the well vetted Drosophila heart as an assay to identify interacting CHD candidate genes by expressing them alone and in all possible pairwise combinations and testing for effects on rhythmicity or heart failure following stress. This comprehensive analysis identified DSCAM and COL6A2 as the most strongly interacting pair of genes. We then over-expressed these two genes alone or in combination in the mouse heart. While over-expression of either gene alone did not affect viability and had little or no effect on heart physiology or morphology, co-expression of the two genes resulted in ≈50% mortality and severe physiological and morphological defects, including atrial septal defects and cardiac hypertrophy. Cooperative interactions between DSCAM and COL6A2 were also observed in the H9C2 cardiac cell line and transcriptional analysis of this interaction points to genes involved in adhesion and cardiac hypertrophy. Our success in defining a cooperative interaction between DSCAM and COL6A2 suggests that the multi-tiered genetic approach we have taken involving human mapping data, comprehensive combinatorial screening in Drosophila, and validation in vivo in mice and in mammalian cells lines should be applicable to identifying specific loci mediating a broad variety of other polygenic disorders.

  4. Structural analysis of the positive AMPA receptor modulators CX516 and Me-CX516 in complex with the GluA2 ligand-binding domain

    Krintel, Christian; Harpsøe, Kasper; Zachariassen, Linda G; Peters, Dan; Frydenvang, Karla; Pickering, Darryl S; Gajhede, Michael; Kastrup, Jette S

    Positive allosteric modulators of the ionotropic glutamate receptor A2 (GluA2) can serve as lead compounds for the development of cognitive enhancers. Several benzamide-type (S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor modulators such as aniracetam, CX516 and CX61...

  5. High-throughput Microarray Detection of Vomeronasal Receptor Gene Expression in Rodents

    Xiaohong Zhang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We performed comprehensive data mining to explore the vomeronasal receptor (V1R & V2R repertoires in mouse and rat using the mm5 and rn3 genome, respectively. This bioinformatic analysis was followed by investigation of gene expression using a custom designed high-density oligonucleotide array containing all of these receptors and other selected genes of interest. This array enabled us to detect the specific expression of V1R and V2Rs which were previously identified solely based on computational prediction from gene sequence data, thereby establishing that these genes are indeed part of the vomeronasal system, especially the V2Rs. 168 V1Rs and 98 V2Rs were detected to be highly enriched in mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO, and 108 V1Rs and 87 V2Rs in rat VNO. We monitored the expression profile of mouse VR genes in other non-VNO tissues with the result that some VR genes were re-designated as VR-like genes based on their non-olfactory expression pattern. Temporal expression profiles for mouse VR genes were characterized and their patterns were classified, revealing the developmental dynamics of these so-called pheromone receptors. We found numerous patterns of temporal expression which indicate possible behavior-related functions. The uneven composition of VR genes in certain patterns suggests a functional differentiation between the two types of VR genes. We found the coherence between VR genes and transcription factors in terms of their temporal expression patterns. In situ hybridization experiments were performed to evaluate the cell number change over time for selected receptor genes.

  6. Elucidating the role of the A2A adenosine receptor in neurodegeneration using neurons derived from Huntington's disease iPSCs.

    Chiu, Feng-Lan; Lin, Jun-Tasi; Chuang, Ching-Yu; Chien, Ting; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Hsiao, Han-Yun; Lin, Yow-Sien; Chern, Yijuang; Kuo, Hung-Chih

    2015-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant degenerative disease caused by a cytosine-adenine-guanine trinucleotide expansion in the Huntingtin (htt) gene. The most vulnerable brain areas to mutant HTT-evoked toxicity are the striatum and cortex. In spite of the extensive efforts that have been devoted to the characterization of HD pathogenesis, no disease-modifying therapy for HD is currently available. The A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) is widely distributed in the brain, with the highest level observed in the striatum. We previously reported that stimulation of the A2AR triggers an anti-apoptotic effect in a rat neuron-like cell line (PC12). Using a transgenic mouse model (R6/2) of HD, we demonstrated that A2AR-selective agonists effectively ameliorate several major symptoms of HD. In the present study, we show that human iPSCs can be successfully induced to differentiate into DARPP32-positive, GABAergic neurons which express the A2AR in a similar manner to striatal medium spiny neurons. When compared with those derived from control subjects (CON-iPSCs), these HD-iPSC-derived neurons exhibited a higher DNA damage response, based on the observed expression of γH2AX and elevated oxidative stress. This is a critical observation, because oxidative damage and abnormal DNA damage/repair have been reported in HD patients. Most importantly, stimulation of the A2AR using selective agonists reduced DNA damage and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in HD-iPSC-derived neurons through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway. These findings support our hypothesis that human neurons derived from diseased iPSCs might serve as an important platform to investigate the beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of A2AR drugs. PMID:26264576

  7. Potential clinical relevance of Eph receptors and ephrin ligands expressed in prostate carcinoma cell lines.

    Fox, Brian P; Tabone, Christopher J; Kandpal, Raj P

    2006-04-21

    The family of Eph and ephrin receptors is involved in a variety of functions in normal cells, and the alterations in their expression profiles have been observed in several cancers. We have compared the transcripts for Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in cell lines established from normal prostate epithelium and several carcinoma cell lines isolated from prostate tumors of varying degree of metastasis. These cell lines included NPTX, CTPX, LNCaP, DU145, PC-3, and PC-3ML. The cell lines displayed characteristic pattern of expression for specific Eph receptors and ephrin ligands, thus allowing identification of Eph receptor signatures for a particular cell line. The sensitivity of these transcripts to genome methylation is also investigated by treating the cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The comparison of expression profiles revealed that normal prostate and primary prostate tumor cell lines differ in the expression of EphA3, EphB3, and ephrin A3 that are over-expressed in normal prostate. Furthermore, the transcript levels for EphA1 decrease progressively from normal prostate to primary prostate tumor cell line and metastatic tumor cells. A converse relationship was observed for ephrin B2. The treatment of cells with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine revealed the sensitivity of EphA3, EphA10, EphB3, and EphB6 to methylation status of genomic DNA. The utility of methylation specific PCR to identify prostate tumor cells and the importance of specific Eph receptors and ephrin ligands in initiation and progression of prostate tumor are discussed. PMID:16516143

  8. Dopamine inhibits somatolactin gene expression in tilapia pituitary cells through the dopamine D2 receptors.

    Jiang, Quan; Lian, Anji; He, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter in the central nervous system of vertebrates and possesses key hypophysiotropic functions. Early studies have shown that DA has a potent inhibitory effect on somatolactin (SL) release in fish. However, the mechanisms responsible for DA inhibition of SL gene expression are largely unknown. To this end, tilapia DA type-1 (D1) and type-2 (D2) receptor transcripts were examined in the neurointermediate lobe (NIL) of the tilapia pituitary by real-time PCR. In tilapia, DA not only was effective in inhibiting SL mRNA levels in vivo and in vitro, but also could abolish pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)- and salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (sGnRH)-stimulated SL gene expression at the pituitary level. In parallel studies, the specific D2 receptor agonists quinpirole and bromocriptine could mimic the DA-inhibited SL gene expression. Furthermore, the D2 receptor antagonists domperidone and (-)-sulpiride could abolish the SL response to DA or the D2 agonist quinpirole, whereas D1 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and SKF83566 were not effective in this respect. In primary cultures of tilapia NIL cells, D2 agonist quinpirole-inhibited cAMP production could be blocked by co-treatment with the D2 antagonist domperidone and the ability of forskolin to increase cAMP production was also inhibited by quinpirole. Using a pharmacological approach, the AC/cAMP pathway was shown to be involved in quinpirole-inhibited SL mRNA expression. These results provide evidence that DA can directly inhibit SL gene expression at the tilapia pituitary level via D2 receptor through the AC/cAMP-dependent mechanism. PMID:26970582

  9. Expression of ionotropic receptors in terrestrial hermit crab’s olfactory sensory neurons

    Ewald Grosse-Wilde

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Coenobitidae are one out of at least five crustacean lineages which independently succeeded in the transition from water to land. This change in lifestyle required adaptation of the peripheral olfactory organs, the antennules, in order to sense chemical cues in the new terrestrial habitat. Hermit crab olfactory aesthetascs are arranged in a field on the distal segment of the antennular flagellum. Aesthetascs house approximately 300 dendrites with their cell bodies arranged in spindle-like complexes of ca. 150 cell bodies each. While the aesthetascs of aquatic crustaceans have been shown to be the place of odor uptake and previous studies identified ionotropic receptors (IRs as the putative chemosensory receptors expressed in decapod antennules, the expression of IRs besides the IR co-receptors IR25a and IR93a in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs has not been documented yet. Our goal was to reveal the expression and distribution pattern of non-co-receptor IRs in OSNs of Coenobita clypeatus, a terrestrial hermit crab, with RNA in situ hybridization. We expanded our previously published RNAseq dataset, and revealed 22 novel IR candidates in the Coenobita antennules. We then used RNA probes directed against three different IRs to visualize their expression within the OSN cell body complexes. Furthermore we aimed to characterize ligand spectra of single aesthetascs by recording local field potentials and responses from individual dendrites. This also allowed comparison to functional data from insect OSNs expressing antennal IRs. We show that this orphan receptor subgroup with presumably non-olfactory function in insects is likely the basis of olfaction in terrestrial hermit crabs.

  10. Expansion of microsatellite in the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene linked to increased receptor expression and less aggressive thyroid cancer

    Onda, Masamitsu; Li, Daisy; Suzuki, Shinichi;

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the length of the THRA1 microsatellite, which resides in a noncoding portion of the thyroid hormone receptor-alpha1 gene, affects receptor expression and is linked to clinicopathological parameters in thyroid cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:...

  11. Estrogen and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) protection against cell death in estrogen receptor alpha and beta expressing U2OS cells

    Kallio, Anu; Guo, Tao; Lamminen, Elisa; Seppänen, Jani; Kangas, Lauri; Väänänen, H Kalervo; Härkönen, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    Estrogen and the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) protection against cell death in estrogen receptor alpha and beta expressing U2OS cells SWEDEN (Kallio, Anu) SWEDEN Received: 2007-12-01 Revised: 2008-03-12 Accepted: 2008-03-12

  12. Changes in epidermal growth factor receptor expression during chemotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as cetuximab, may potentially improve outcome in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with high EGFR expression. The EGFR expression may be heterogeneously distributed within tumors, and small biopsies may thus...... not accurately reveal the EGFR expression. In addition, EGFR expression may also change during chemotherapy. The current study investigates the magnitude of these two issues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EGFR expression in diagnostic biopsies and resection specimen was compared in 53 NSCLC patients stage T1......-4N0-1M0 treated with surgery without preceding chemotherapy (OP group), and 65 NSCLC patients stage T1-3N0-2M0 (NAC group) treated with preoperative carboplatin and paclitaxel in order to evaluate the discordance of EGFR expression between samples. RESULTS: Discordance between tumors dichotomized...

  13. Tumour necrosis factor receptor gene expression and shedding in human whole lung tissue and pulmonary epithelium

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) at the gene and surface level, and its shedding in human lung tissue and a pulmonary epithelial cell line, A549. Levels of gene expression of TNF-R were evaluated by Northern blot analysis. Human lung issue expressed both type I and type II TNF-R gene, while A549 cells expressed only type I TNF-R gene. Phorbol ester upregulated and TNF-α down-regulated the TNF-R gene expression in A549 cells. Consistent with these modulations of TNF-R gene expression, 125I-TNF binding capacities were increased with phorbol ester stimulation and decreased with TNF stimulation after 24 h in A549 cells. The shedding of TNF-R from A549 cells was investigated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for soluble type I TNF-R. Not only lung tissues but also A549 cells spontaneously released soluble type I TNF-R into the culture medium. Both phorbol ester and TNF stimulation accelerated the shedding of soluble TNF-R from A549 cells. These results suggest that type I TNF-R gene expression and shedding of soluble TNF-R are differentially regulated in A549 cells. We conclude that tumour necrosis factor receptor surface expression is regulated, at least in part, at the gene expression level and shedding of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor is modulated by inflammatory mediators, such as tumour necrosis factor in A549 cells. (au) 39 refs

  14. A 2:1 receptor/C60 complex as a nanosized universal joint.

    Yanney, Michael; Fronczek, Frank R; Sygula, Andrzej

    2015-09-14

    Buckycatcher II, a C51 H24 hydrocarbon with two corannulene pincers on a dibenzonorbornadiene tether, exhibits an affinity toward C60 in organic solvents that is dramatically higher than the original buckycatcher C60 H28 and other corannulene-based molecular receptors for fullerenes. In addition to the formation of an usual 1:1 C60 @catcher inclusion complex, a trimeric C60 @(catcher)2 assembly is detected in solutions and in the solid state. X-ray structure determination reveals a remarkable "universal joint" solvent-free crystal arrangement of the trimer, with a single fullerene cage wrapped by four corannulene subunits of two cooperating catcher receptors. PMID:26352025

  15. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular are not...... transcription 5) phosphorylation was measured by Western blot analysis as an index of GHR signalling; cell proliferation was evaluated by [H3]-thymidine incorporation and glycoprotein hormone production analysed by radioimmunoassay (RIA). RESULTS: All adenomas investigated expressed the GHR, but there was no...... detection of STAT5 phosphorylation. Overall, GH and IGF-I administration did not significantly stimulate cell proliferation in vitro, although some individual adenomas exhibited a proliferative response to various extents. GH also did not significantly influence glycoprotein hormone secretion in vitro...

  16. Polo-like kinase 2 gene expression is regulated by the orphan nuclear receptor estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRγ)

    Estrogen receptor-related receptor gamma (ERRγ) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of transcriptional activators. To date, the target genes and physiological functions of ERRγ are not well understood. In the current study, we identify that Plk2 is a novel target of ERRγ. Northern blot analysis showed that overexpression of ERRγ induced Plk2 expression in cancer cell lines. ERRγ activated the Plk2 gene promoter, and deletion and mutational analysis of the Plk2 promoter revealed that the ERRγ-response region is located between nucleotides (nt) -2327 and -2229 and -441 and -432 (relative to the transcriptional start site at +1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis demonstrated that ERRγ binds directly to the Plk2 promoter. Overexpression of ERRγ in the presence of the mitotic inhibitor nocodazole significantly decreased apoptosis, and induced S-phase cell cycle progression through the induction of Plk2 expression. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Plk2 is a novel target of ERRγ, and suggest that this interaction is crucial for cancer cell proliferation

  17. Receptors for B cell stimulatory factor 2. Quantitation, specificity, distribution, and regulation of their expression

    Taga, T.; Kawanishi, Y.; Hardy, R.R.; Hirano, T.; Kishimoto, T.

    1987-10-01

    B cell stimulatory factor 2 receptors (BSF-2-R) were studied using radioiodinated recombinant BSF-2 with a specific activity of 6.16 X 10(13) cpm/g. Kinetic studies showed that binding of /sup 125/I-BSF-2 to CESS cells reached maximum level within 150 min at 0 degrees C. There was a single class of receptors with high affinity (Kd 3.4 X 10(-10) M) on CESS, and the number of receptors was 2700 per cell. Binding of /sup 125/I-BSF-2 to CESS was competitively inhibited by unlabeled BSF-2 but not by IL-1, IL-2, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, and G-CSF, indicating the presence of the receptors specific for BSF-2. EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (CESS, SKW6-CL4, LCL13, and LCL14) expressed BSF-2-R, whereas Burkitt's lines did not. EBV or EBNA2 did not induce the expression of the receptors on Burkitt's cells. The plasma cell lines (ARH-77 and U266) expressed BSF-2-R, fitting the function of BSF-2 as plasma cell growth factor. Several other cell lines, the histiocytic line U937, the promyelocytic line HL60, the astrocytoma line U373 and the glioblastoma line SK-MG-4, in which BSF-2 was inducible with IL-1 or TPA, displayed BSF-2-R with Kd in the range of 1.3-6.4 X 10(-10) M, suggesting the autocrine mechanism in BSF-2 function. The four T cell lines (CEM, HSB, Jurkat, and OM 1) did not express a detectable number of receptors, but normal resting T cells expressed 100-1000 receptors per cell. BSF-2-R were not present on normal resting B cells but expressed on activated B cells with a Kd of 3.6-5.0 X 10(-10) M, fitting the function of BSF-2, which acts on B cells at the final maturation stage to induce immunoglobulin production.

  18. Expression and therapeutic targeting of dopamine receptor-1 (D1R) in breast cancer.

    Borcherding, D C; Tong, W; Hugo, E R; Barnard, D F; Fox, S; LaSance, K; Shaughnessy, E; Ben-Jonathan, N

    2016-06-16

    Patients with advanced breast cancer often fail to respond to treatment, creating a need to develop novel biomarkers and effective therapeutics. Dopamine (DA) is a catecholamine that binds to five G protein-coupled receptors. We discovered expression of DA type-1 receptors (D1Rs) in breast cancer, thereby identifying these receptors as novel therapeutic targets in this disease. Strong to moderate immunoreactive D1R expression was found in 30% of 751 primary breast carcinomas, and was associated with larger tumors, higher tumor grades, node metastasis and shorter patient survival. DA and D1R agonists, signaling through the cGMP/protein kinase G (PKG) pathway, suppressed cell viability, inhibited invasion and induced apoptosis in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Fenoldopam, a peripheral D1R agonist that does not penetrate the brain, dramatically suppressed tumor growth in two mouse models with D1R-expressing xenografts by increasing both necrosis and apoptosis. D1R-expressing primary tumors and metastases in mice were detected by fluorescence imaging. In conclusion, D1R overexpression is associated with advanced breast cancer and poor prognosis. Activation of the D1R/cGMP/PKG pathway induces apoptosis in vitro and causes tumor shrinkage in vivo. Fenoldopam, which is FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved to treat renal hypertension, could be repurposed as a novel therapeutic agent for patients with D1R-expressing tumors. PMID:26477316

  19. Clone and expression of human transferrin receptor gene: a marker gene for magnetic resonance imaging

    Objective: To clone human transferrin receptor (hTfR) gene and construct expression vector producing recombination protein. Methods: Human transferrin receptor gene cDNA was amplified by RT-PCR from human embryonic liver and lung tissue. Recombinant pcDNA3-hTfR and pEGFP-Cl-hTfR plasmids were constructed and confirmed by DNA sequencing. These plasmids were stably transfected into the HEK293 cells. The protein expression in vitro was confirmed by Western Blot. The efficiency of expression and the location of hTfR were also investigated by fluorescence microscopy and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Results: The full length cDNA of hTfR gene (2332 bp) was cloned and sequenced. The hTfR (190 000) was overexpressed in transfected HEK293 cells by Western blot analysis. Fluorescence micrographs displayed that the hTfR was expressed at high level and located predominantly in the cell surface. Conclusions: Human transferrin receptor (hTfR) gene has been successfully cloned and obtained high-level expression in HEK293 cells, and the recombination protein of hTfR distributed predominantly in the cell membrane. (authors)

  20. Neurotrophins and Neurotrophin Receptors mRNAs Expression in Pancreatic Islets and Insulinoma Cell Lines

    Bonini P

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It is worth noting that islets and betaTC6-F7 cells share a common pattern of expression of neurotrophins and neurotrophin receptors. Recently, several studies have hypothesized a role for nerve growth factor in pancreatic development and maturation, suggesting that nerve growth factor may be a survival factor for pancreatic beta-cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the pattern of expression of neurotrophins and their relative receptors both in rat pancreatic islets and in a wide panel of insulinoma cell lines. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed on ribonucleic acids extracted from these cells. RESULTS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, as well as neurotrophins 3 and 4, are expressed both in islets and in all insulinoma cells, while nerve growth factor is expressed only in islets, betaTC6-F7 cells and, at a low level, in RIN 1046-38 cells. Receptors protein tyrosine kinase A and C are ubiquitously expressed both in islets and insulinoma cells. Tyrosine kinase B is absent in HIT-T15 cells. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that betaTC6-F7 cells are a suitable model for studying the role of neurotrophins in the survival of beta-cells.

  1. Effect of reducing hypothalamic ghrelin receptor gene expression on energy balance

    Shrestha, Yogendra B.; Wickwire, Kathie; Giraudo, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Central and peripheral injections of Ghrelin potently stimulates food intake via its receptor, GHSR1a expressed in the brain. In this study, we explored the role of GHSR1a in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) by reducing their gene expression using the RNA interference (R