WorldWideScience

Sample records for a-bomb survivors

  1. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  2. Hyperparathyroidism among A-bomb survivors

    One thousand and thirty men and 2229 women, including A-bomb survivors, have underwent serum routine examinations from August 1986 through December 1987 at Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Hyperparathyroidism was detected in 3 men and 12 women. On the basis of the DS86 system, this cohort was divided into four groups, with the purpose of examining the relationship between atomic bombing and hyperparathyroidism. There were significant differences between exposure doses and the incidence of hyperparathyroidism (0.3% in the 0-9 mGy group vs 1.7% in the ≥1000 mGy group for women; 0.4% in the 10-499 mGy group vs 1.1% in the ≥1000 mGy group for men). Higher serum levels of calcium were significantly associated with exposure doses in both men and women. A similar tendency was observed when patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. Serum levels of phosphorus did not show any significant correlation with the bombing, although these were slightly lower in the ≥1000 mGy group. (N.K)

  3. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and ≥3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.)

  4. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Mental health status of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    The most survivors of disaster usually recover with few or no lasting effects on their mental health. However, in some portions of survivors, distress lasts long. The atomic bomb detonated to Nagasaki in August 1945 instantaneously destroyed almost all areas of the city, resulting in a total of ca. 73,884 deaths by the end of 1945 and about 74,909 injured people. Since the A-bomb survivors reached over 60 years of age, their mental health as well as physical health has become of great concern. Some studies on their mental health conditions have been carried out in Japan. I give an outline about a precedent study on mental health of the A-bomb survivors in this report. The mental health studies of the A-bomb survivors who paid attention to a being bombed experience, stigmatization, long-term outcome, recovery are necessary. The improvement of wide appropriate support system for the A-bomb survivors is expected in future. (author)

  6. Tendency of socio-psychological aftereffects on aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors home

    Psychosomatic status at the time of A-bomb explosion, behavior and impression immediately after the explosion, aftereffects on life, and mental changes were sought through interview for 80 aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivor home by psychiatric social workers. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Satisfaction in life of elder A-bomb survivors

    1500 A-bomb survivor aged more than 65 are sampled and the questionnaire was performed by mailing. 1329 (88.6 %) responded and 937 from the age less than 80 were statistically anylized. Fairly good satisfaction was felt on their daily life, including dwelling, income, work, health and family. (J.P.N.)

  8. Study of biochemical examination among A-bomb survivors

    Biochemical findings were compared in 1003 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤1900 m from the hypocenter and 1003 age- and sex-matched A-bomb survivors exposed at ≥3,000 m. Mean and abnormal values for lung function, such as total protein, GOT and GPT, did not differ in two groups of both men and women. However, mean values of both total cholesterol and neutral fat were significantly higher in the ≤1900m group than in the ≥3000 m group, irrespective of sex. Similarly, the ≤1900 m group had a significantly higher incidence of abnormal values for these items than the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  9. Mortality of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    A data base of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki has been maintained at Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute at Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The data base include personal histories, records of health checks and cause of death. We have published the mortality of non-cancerous disease of A-bomb survivors using old dose estimation system, T65D, elsewhere. The mortality of non-cancerous disease was lower than controls for a dose range 50-99 cGy in male. We reanalyzed the mortality of non-cancerous disease using new dose estimation system, ABS93D. It's result was lower than controls for a dose range 31-40cGy in male. We compared the results of A-bomb survivors in our database with those or LSS's population, RERF. (1) Radiation dose for survivors in Nagasaki have been estimated by Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). To study the mortality rates of A-bomb survivors for the period of 1971 through 1994, we selected 2,743 persons (dose estimate available) and age-matched 8,229 persons as control who were alive in 1971. (2) Another population is Life Span Study by Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF). RERF opened the data from 1950 to 1985. The data on deaths are stratified by city, sex, age radiation dose, the observed period and cause of death, yielding 3,640 strata. (1) The study resulted in that males exposed to 31-40cGy showed lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than that of control. (2) Relative risk of mortality from all causes is lower than controls for a dose range 6-19cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. Relative risk of mortality from non-cancerous disease is significantly lower than controls for a dose range 6-49cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. But result of adjusted for city is no difference. (author)

  10. Leukemia among a-bomb survivors living in Hiroshima city, 1971-1978

    The death from leukemia among Hiroshima citizens from 1971 to 1978 was investigated. The total number of dead citizens was 241, and 64 of them were a-bomb survivors. Thirty-seven of a-bomb survivors were exposed to a-bomb within 2 km from hypocenter. Seventy-seven of remaining 177 citizens were born after the explosion of a-bomb, but they were not children of a-bomb survivors exposed directly to a-bomb. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed near the hypocenter was 1.67 (within 2 km) - 2.51 (within 1.5 km) times that of those exposed far from the hypocenter. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed within 1.5 km was significantly high. The death risk from leukemia was significantly high in women. The estimated exposure dose was over 1 rad in 25 of abovementioned 37 a-bomb survivors, and it was over 10 rad in 21 and over 100 rad in 10 of 25. Seven of 10 a-bomb survivors exposed over 100 rad were women. The age at the exposure was under 10 years in 1, teens in 1, twenties in 2, and over thirty in 6. The type of leukemia was acute in 8 and chronic in 2. Both types were myelogenous leukemia. Five of these 10 a-bomb survivors died after 1976. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Chromosome survey for children of A-bomb survivors

    To investigate chromosomes from children of A-bomb survivors, cytogenetic survey has been started in 1967 by the ABCC and completed in 1985 by the succeeding RERF. This paper is designed to overview the cytogenetic survey and to discuss the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation. A cohort of 16,298 children of A-bomb survivors, which were collected from mortality survey population in 1974, was enrolled in this survey and was divided into two groups: the proximally exposed group (n=8,322, whose parents exposed to estimated doses of 0.01 Gy or more within 2,000 m from the hypocenter) and the distally exposed group (n=7,976, those exposed to 0.005 Gy or less far from 2,500 m or not in the city). Three chromosomal aberrations were identified: sex chromosome aberrations consisting mainly of XYY, XXY, and mosaic; structural abnormality of autosomes consisting mainly of translocation and inversion; and trisomy of autosomes. Overall, the incidence of chromosomal aberrations was higher in the distally exposed group (6.39%) than the proximally exposed group (5.17%). According to the type of chromosomal aberrations, the incidences of both sex chromosomes and structural abnormality of autosomes were slightly higher in the distally exposed group (0.30% and 0.34%) than the proximally exposed group (0.23% and 0.28%). Trisomy of autosomes was identified in only one child in the proximally exposed group. These findings failed to demonstrate the rationale for the cytogenetic effects of A-bomb radiation; however, cytogenetic risk of radiation has not been denied completely. (N.K.)

  12. Medical examination of A-bomb survivors on Nagasaki A-bomb Casualty

    Medical examination of A-bomb survivors was described and discussed on history, time change of examinee number, action for subjects not examined, change of prevalence, cancer examination, examination for the second generation, and education and enlightenment. Free examination of the survivors was begun in 1953 and the present casualty was made in 1958 on the law for medical care for the survivors. Systematic examination started from 1967 and the examination for the 2nd generation, from 1974. Cancer examination was from 1988. The number of the survivors was the maximum of 82,439 in 1974 and decreased to 61,388 in 1994, when the actual number of examinees, which being rather settled recently, was 32,294 and their average age was 64 y. The examination is done by tour or at the Center. Subjects receive the information of the examination twice by mail. Hematopoietic diseases like anemia, hepatic ones, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, renal impairment and others (mostly hyperlipidemia) are increasing recently. The number of examinees for cancer is increasing. Lung cancer is examined by the direct roentgenography, gastric cancer by transillumination, and other cancers like myeloma, those in large bowel, uterus and mammary gland, by the respective suitable methods. Health education and enlightenment have been conceivably effective. (H.O.)

  13. A-bomb survivors: reassessment of the radiation hazard.

    Stewart, A M; Kneale, G W

    1999-01-01

    Newly released data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation on the survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombing allow a reassessment of radiation hazards. It appears that deaths from marrow damage (such as aplastic anaemia) continued after 1950. The Life Span Study cohort appears biased in favour of persons with high immunological competence, the result of infants and the elderly being more likely to die before 1950 than young adults. A study of survivors of in utero exposures suggests that embryos are more sensitive to the lethal effects of radiation than more mature foetuses. Current estimates of cancer risks from radiation may only apply to young adults with high immunological competence; young children and the elderly may be at greater risk. PMID:10218002

  14. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing

    It has been thought that A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing were exposed to residual A-bomb radiation both externally and internally (through inhalation, food, drink or skin). This paper summarizes the data on estimated radiation doses in A-bomb survivors who entered Hiroshima within 3 days after A-bombing based on the chromosome staining analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood taken from A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 40 A-bomb survivors; according to a stay period and a history of medical irradiation, they were divided into four: group A with a long stay, group B with a long stay + medical irradiation, group C with a short stay, and group D with a short stay + medical irradiation. A mean estimated radiation dose was 4.8 rad (one rad or less to 13.5 rad) in group A, 13.9 rad (one rad or less to 71.2 rad) in group B, one rad or less in group C, and 1.9 rad (one rad or less to 21.2 rad) in group D. The highest rate of chromosomal aberrations was 3.1% in group B, followed by 2.1% in group A, 0.83% in group D, and 0.73% in group C. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was coincident with the duration of stay in the city. Furthermore, medical irradiation seemed to have contributed to the additional effects of A-bomb radiation. (N.K.)

  15. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect.

    Schöllnberger, H; Ozasa, K; Neff, F; Kaiser, J C

    2015-09-01

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose-responses. PMID:25948837

  16. Cardiovascular disease mortality of A-bomb survivors and the healthy survivor selection effect

    The latest A-bomb survivor data for cardiovascular diseases are analysed to investigate whether in the first years after the bombings the baseline rates of proximal survivors were markedly different compared with those of the distal survivors. This phenomenon relates to a healthy survivor selection effect. This question is important for the decision whether to include or exclude the early years of follow-up when analysing the biological effects from acute low and high dose exposures following the nuclear weapons explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The present study shows that for cerebrovascular diseases and heart diseases the baseline rates are not significantly different in the first two decades of follow-up. Thus, for these two detrimental health outcomes, there is no need to exclude distal survivors and the first decades of follow-up time when investigating the shapes of the related dose- responses. (authors)

  17. The current mortality rates of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki-city

    The purpose of the paper is to describe and investigate the death rate of about 110,000 A-Bomb survivors who have been registered in Nagasaki-city since 1957. There were 7,780 deaths among the A-Bomb survivors during 1970 -- 76 from which the age-specific death rates are calculated and compared with those of non-exposed controls in Nagasaki-city. The results are as follows: (1) The age-specific death rates by all causes of A-Bomb survivors are lower than those of the controls. (2) The age-specific death rates by the cerebrovascular disease (ICD 430 - 438) are also lower in A-Bomb survivors than in others. (3) The age-specific death rates by all malignant neoplasms are nearly the same between A-Bomb survivors and the controls. It is strongly suggested from these results that, although there may still exist a number of A-Bomb survivors having been suffered from the late effects of radiation, financial or medical aid supplied by the ministry and other organizations have done good work in advancing the health care of A-Bomb survivors. (author)

  18. Outline on populations of Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and sex ratio in their children

    On the basis of file delivered together with A-bomb surrivor's health Cards in Nagasaki, statistical management was performed on a mass of A-bomb survivors. The number of A-bomb survivors in a mass was 97,032. A family investigation by census registration was performed on 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group (the distance from the center of explosion recorded on cards was within 1.5 km) and 2,791 of its control group. As to 2,547 of A-bomb survivor group, each exposure place was determined, the distance from the center of explosion was measured again, and exposure dose was presumed. The mean exposure dose of A-bomb survivor group was 577 rad in male, and 681 rad in female. By adding A-bomb survivor group to the control group, 4,452 pairs of marriage were confirmed by census registration, and the number of their children was 10,073. With respect to changes of sex ratio, in case of exposed mother, it was expected theoretically that the number of male would decrease together with an decrease of dose, but an opposite change was recognized in a result of the investigation. A result in case of exposed father showed an increase of the male number although not significantly and a change towards the expected direction. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Cancer risk estimation from the A-bomb survivors

    Generalizations regarding radiogenic cancer risks from the A-bomb survivor data of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation involve a large number of well-identified uncertainties and approximations. These include extrapolation to low doses and dose rates, projections in time, sampling variation, the quality of the data, extrapolation to other populations, and the use of simplifying conventions. This paper discusses some of these issues, with emphasis on the first three. Results are given regarding the maximum 'linear-quadratic' curvature consistent with these data, taking into account uncertainties in individual exposure estimates. Discussion is given regarding use of relative risk models and projection of lifetime risks, emphasizing results for those who were old enough at exposure to have been followed up for a major part of their lives by now, and stressing the speculative aspects of conclusions about those exposed as children. Combining these results, and brief discussion of other uncertainties itemized above, comment is made on the evolution of risk estimates over the past 15 years. (author)

  20. Secular trends of blood pressure in A-bomb survivors

    There has been controversy about whether or not radiation exposure plays a major role in advancing age. To preliminarily study this relationship, a statistical analysis was made on blood pressure measurements in a cohort of A-bomb survivors for Adult Health Study carried out during a 22-year period from 1958 through 1980. Systolic blood pressure increased with advancing age in both men and women between 30 and 80 years. During the years 1974 through 1980, it tended to increase in both men and women aged in their thirties and fourties. Diastolic blood pressure for men increased between the ages of 30 and 60 years, and decreased between the ages of 60 and 80 years. It tended to increase from year to year for men. For women, it decreased prior to the 1970's, and thereafter, tended to increase. The parameters, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse pressure, were independent of exposure doses in the subgroups according to age or sex. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Statistical studies on cause of death among a-bomb survivors from 1970 to 1976 in Nagasaki City

    The death rate from malignant neoplasms in a-bomb survivors was higher than that in Japan through the whole period from 1970 to 1976. The death rate from malignant neoplasms was also high in a-bomb survivors in their thirties and fortieth exposed to a-bomb near the hypocenter. Seven thousand, five hundred and twenty-eight a-bomb survivors investigated this time were quivalent to 90% of all 8,334 a-bomb survivors who died during the period from 1970 to 1976. Therefore, the result obtained from this investigation seemed to indicate the cause of death correctly. Remaining 10% are now under investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Studies on the effects on progeny of A-bomb survivors

    With the aim of identifying the delayed effects of A-bomb radiation, the Twin Control Study was undertaken using different population samples. In medical and physical examinations comprising 49 A-bomb exposed twins, no relation was seen between distance from the hypocenter and the development of specific diseases, such as HLA-related disease, or Ig values. Epidemiological analyses of the data from 536 twin pairs born to A-bomb survivors showed no relation between disase incidence and distance from the hypocenter. Questionnaire data, which were analyzed from 347 respondents (66 %) of 523 A-bomb survivors and from 553 respondents (62 %) of 888 twins or their siblings in the F1 generation, provided no consistent tendency for health condition. In analysing data from 41 A-bomb exposed twin pairs and from 13 twin pairs and their 26 siblings in the F1 generation, there was no consistent trend for the natural history of diseases. Examinations on immune status in 25 subjects, including A-bomb survivors and their children, revealed abnormal T4/T8 ratios in survivors exposed at ≤ 2,000 m from the hypocenter, suggesting the possibility of occult immunodeficiency. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Survey on the frequency of somatic mutations in A-bomb survivors

    Several methods have recently been established for quantitatively detecting somatic cell mutations on a specific locus using human blood cells. These methods have enabled the biological estimation of A-bomb radiation doses in surveys on somatic cell mutations. This paper outlines HPRT, GPA, and TCR assays used to measure somatic cell mutations, focusing on the outcome in A-bomb survivors. HPRT assay is based on colony formation with interleukin-2. The frequency of HPRT mutant cells was significantly increased with advancing age in A-bomb survivors and was positively correlated with the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes. There was also a significantly positive correlation between HPRT mutant cell frequencies and DS86 estimated doses, although the slope was slow. In GPA assay, flow cytometric measurements of fluorescence-labeled erythrocytes are used to detect somatic cell mutations. There was a positive correlation between GPA mutant cell frequencies and age in A-bomb survivors. The GPA mutant cell frequencies showed much more positive correlation with lymphocyte chromosomal aberration frequencies than the HPRT mutant cell frequencies. When anti-CD3 antibody and anti-CD4 antibody are labeled with different fluorescences and are analyzed by using flow cytometry, TCR mutant cells having CD3-4+ can be detected. When the frequency of TCR mutant cells was examined in 342 A-bomb survivors, it did not correlate with radiation doses. This implies that TCR assay may be unadequate for biological estimation of A-bomb radiation doses throughout a lifetime of A-bomb survivors, because TCR mutant cells seems to be unable to live for a long time due to national selection. (N.K.)

  4. Research on the nutritive actual conditions in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima, (2)

    Dietary life of A-bomb female-survivors, together with their social and economical conditions, was investigated. As regards social and economical conditions, the rate of those who had job but no purpose to live for, and lived by themselves was high in survivors who lived near the explosive site (Group A). As food habits, a high intake of bean-curds, bean paste, and fruits was significantly noticed in survivors who lived far from the explosive site (Group B), and that of fish-paste goods was found in the group A survivors. The group A survivors prefered processed foodstuffs. Nutritive analysis showed that in the group A survivors, their food did not contained sufficient Ca, Fe, and vitamin A. They had poor variety of foods and unbalanced diet. The group B survivors had preference for more kinds of foods than the other and also had appetite stronger than the other. (Ueda, J.)

  5. Study on the multiple cancer in A-bomb survivors

    Autopsy data from cohort studies performed on A-bomb victims revealed that the incidence rate of multiple cancer was 7.8% (193 of 2,472 cancer A-bomb victims), being higher than that (5.8%) found from the tumor registry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Multiple cancer occurred more frequently in women than in men in both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple cancer was 1.5 times higher in the victims exposed to more than 100 rad (Vsub(+) group) than in those exposed to less than one rad (V0 group), suggesting that there might be dose-response relationship, although this was not statistically significant between the exposed groups. According to the organs, relative risk ratio of developing cancer in the Vsub(+) group to that in the V0 group was high in the colon and rectum, bladder, lungs, and testes in men; in the thyroid gland, lungs, colon and rectum, bladder, and breast in women, although no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. This was suggestive of cancer that arises frequently in the lungs of men in the Vsub(+) group. Occult cancer of the thyroid gland and testes was also discussed in relation to the incidence of multiple cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima a-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 5

    Certain blood examinations were performed on a-bomb survivors having anemia more than moderate stage (the hemoglobin value under 9.0 g/dl), who were found out by the periodical health examination performed in Hiroshima-A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic during the latter period of the fiscal year 1975. The total number of a-bomb survivors who received the periodical health examination was 50,973, and the number of survivors whose hemoglobin value was under 9.0 g/dl was 201 (0.39%). The incidence of such anemia was high in women. There was not a relationship between this anemia and the exposure distance from the hypocenter. The incidence of this anemia was high in young a-bomb survivors, and more than 50% of a-bomb survivors having this anemia was under the age of 50. Iron-deficiency anemia was found in 88% of a-bomb survivors, and the course of their anemia ran in many years in many a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. First biological signature of A-bomb neutrons obtained from Hiroshima-survivors

    Full text: The so-called life-span-study is an extensive study to evaluate late effects of radiation received by the survivors of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki A-bombs. It consists of about 120000 individuals and represents the main database for our understanding of late effects of ionizing radiation. To correlate radiation and its effects, γ-ray and neutron-doses have to be determined and verified. The measurement of radionuclides, produced by neutrons originating from the a-bomb explosions, offers the possibility to reconstruct neutron fluences to which survivors were exposed. The radionuclide 41Ca, is presented here as a means for a retrospective determination of neutron fluences, directly within the human body of a survivor using tooth enamel as the most suitable material. Quantifying such small signals implies an extremely sensitive technique, solely represented by Accelerator-Mass-Spectrometry (AMS). The Munich tandem-accelerator which provides high particle energies in combination with a dedicated particle-detection-setup (GAMS) allowed the measurement of 41Ca down to naturally occurring levels. In comparison to non-exposed survivors, those exposed to A-bomb radiation showed higher 41Ca/Ca isotopic-ratios with a significant correlation with distance from the hypocenter. Thus, for the first time an experimental signature of neutron exposure was found in tissue obtained from A-bomb survivors. Since γ-ray doses had been determined by means of electron-spin-resonance method in the same material, both components of the mixed field that were present in Hiroshima at the time of bombing could be, for the first time, quantified in the same sample. The results will be useful to reconstruct neutron exposures that were calculated for the survivors on an individual scale. (author)

  8. Follow-up studies on A-bomb survivors: implications for radiological protection

    A-bomb survivor data are the principal basis for risk estimates for late somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man. The data concern radiation delivered at high dose rate and the risk estimates are dominated by persons with doses (kerma) of more than 100 rads. The estimates, therefore, may not be applicable to low doses received at low dose rates, where some advocate use of a dose-rate reduction factor of at least two for carcinogenesis. In contrast with dose-rate factors, little attention has been given to individual factors such as age. Even after more than 35 years, the experience of only the oldest A-bomb survivors (aged over 50 in 1945) is essentially complete. It appears, however, that the risk of carcinogenesis may depend upon age at exposure and that relative risk may be a more appropriate measure than absolute risk. Limits for occupational or population exposures were not developed on the basis of risk estimates; such estimates can, however, be used to calculate the possible consequences of exposure standards. In contrast to carcinogenesis, which has been shown clearly in the data on A-bomb survivors, and despite the appearance of chromosome aberrations, no evidence of radiation-induced mutations in the children of survivors has yet been detected

  9. Chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements are known to have persisted in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies has been observed in both cities. A preliminary analysis of cytogenetic data indicates that the inter-city difference observed with the T65D dose estimate becomes less pronounced with the new DS86 dosimetry system. The regression coefficient of the dose-response curves is nevertheless higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The majority of chromosome aberrations detectable to date are of the stable type, such as translocations and inversions, and they have formed the dose-response relationship. (author)

  10. Perspectives on radiation dose estimates for A-bomb survivors

    Loewe, W.E.

    1986-12-01

    Four decades after the actual events, quantitative characterization of the radiation fields at Hiroshima and Nagasaki continues to be sought, with high accuracy a goal justified by the unique contribution to radiation protection standards that is represented by the medical records of exposed survivors. The most recent effort is distinguished by its reliance on computer modeling and concomitant detail, and by its decentralized direction, both internationally and internally to the US and Japan, with resultant ongoing peer review and wide scope of inquiry. A new system for individual dose estimation has been agreed upon, and its scientific basis has been elaborated in the literature as well as in a comprehensive treatise to be published in the Spring of 1987. In perspective, this new system appears to be an unusually successful achievement that offers the expectation of reliable estimates with the desired accuracy. Some aspects leading to this expectation, along with a caveat, are discussed here. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by periodical health examination, (6)

    Serum ferritin was determined in A-bomb survivors, and its significance was evaluated. A low-ferritin group included many of the females under the age of 50, who mostly had iron deficient anemia. A high-ferritin group included many older-aged A-bomb survivors who had secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, paroxismal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), and multiple myeloma. Secondary anemia due to hemochromatosis, PNH, leukemia, and sideroblastic anemia was detected in those who were old and had underlying moderate or severe anemia with a high ferritin level. As the results of this investigation, blood examination combined with serum ferritin determination is valuable for diagnosis of anemia and detection of underlying diseases. (Ueda, J.)

  12. Contributing factors to long-term psychological consequences in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    The atomic bombing in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, caused an estimated casualty of 140,000 by the end of that year. Survivors faced hideous scenes and many lost family members. Later, in the early 1960s, increased rates of leukemia and other types of cancer were observed among the survivors. These long-term health effects caused serious apprehension to linger. However, only a few studies on psychological consequences among the survivors have been conducted. In 2008, Hiroshima City commissioned our study team to perform a large-scale survey on long-term health effects among the survivors. We delivered a questionnaire by mail to all subjects who were living in Hiroshima City and adjacent towns prior to the release of the A-bomb until the study was implemented. The number of potential subjects was 31,598 and the response rate was 75%. We analyzed a subsample of subjects (n=14,373) whose age at the event was 8 or above. In the multiple regression analysis, hibakusha (A-bomb victims) and those who were exposed to the Black Rain (fall-out) showed poor mental health compared to the comparison group on SF-8, K6 and IES-R scores even after adjusting socio-demographic variables. Although traumatic experiences at the event still affected mental health, anxiety for health effects and social stigma showed greater impact. Our findings suggest that even 63 years after the event, apprehension of health effects and social stigma harm mental health in A-bomb survivors. Our findings may also suggest that long-term risk communication will be vital to mitigate mental health effects among survivors of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (author)

  13. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Land, C.E. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Delayed immunologic effects of low dose radiation in Japanese A-bomb survivors. Technical progress report

    Samples collected from 832 A-bomb survivors were analyzed for natural killer activity, interleukin production, interferon production, serum interferon levels, and circulating immune complex levels. The most striking finding was a significant radiation-sex interaction for NK activity. The NK of females exposed to 100+ rads was decreased compared to those exposed to 0 to 99 rads. A significant increase in NK activity with age ATB was observed, as well as an increase with age in circulating immune complex

  15. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Future epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors

    That radiation can lead to an increased risk of lung cancer in the survivors of the atomic bomb explosions in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was first suggested in the late 1950s by the tumour registry data in Hiroshima (Harada and Ishida, 1960). This suggestion was subsequently confirmed by several studies of mortality and incidence data, including the latest published incidence report covering the period 1950-1980 (Yamamoto et al, 1986). The objectives of this paper are to review some of the epidemiologic features of lung cancer in the A-bomb survivors and to consider several areas for future research. (author)

  17. Search for gene mutations affecting protein structure in children of A-bomb survivors, 2

    Children who were born between May 1, 1946 and April 1, 1971 to survivor(s) exposed to A-bombing within 2,000 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were selected as exposed group; their sex- and age-matched children born to survivor(s) who were exposed at 2,500 m or farther were selected as control group. When these children were in junior high school, mutation of protein structure was examined by using electrophoresis and by determining red cell enzymes with decreased activity and heat-unstable red cell enzymes. Electrophoretic study revealed a ''rare type of protein mutation'' in 635 of 12,242 individuals in the exposed group and in 448 of 10,154 individuals in the control group. The number of locuses in all proteins examined was calculated. The number of locuses per protein was corrected using the rate of parents' mutation type, and relative number of locuses were obtained. As a result, there was no difference in the mutation frequency per locus and generation between the exposed and control groups. Among children having red cell enzymes with decreased activity, mutant in triose phosphate isomerase was detected in one child in the exposed group, in whom electrophoretic pattern was normal and red cell enzymes were stable to heat. Heat-unstable red cell enzymes were seen in 9 children and their parents. However, family survey revealed genetic mutation in all instances irrespective of A-bombing. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  19. Persistent chromosome aberrations in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Current status of knowledge on the radiation-induced chromosome aberrations persisting since their induction in 1945 to date in the somatic cells of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is reviewed. Dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies observed with the use of the old A-bomb dosimetry system (T65D) is also demonstrable based on the new dosimetry system (DS86). Despite the fact that the remarkable decrease in the amount of neutron component relative to the total dose in Hiroshima, there still exist inter-city differences in aberration frequency per unit dose both for kerma and bone marrow dose; the dose-square term is smaller in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The differential contribution of neutron radiation may be responsible in some part for the observed difference between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although proof still remains to be obtained. There is a wide variability of the frequency of cells with chromosome aberrations between survivors within a given dose range. Random errors in the dose estimates assigned to individual survivors seem responsible, to a large extent, for the observed overdispersions in aberration frequencies in both cities. New molecular biology-oriented techniques to differentially stain specific chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific composite DNA probes seem extremely promising for future rapid, accurate and extensive screening of reciprocal translocations observed predominantly in A-bomb survivors. Such data may be utilized to establish a better biological dosimetry system, especially for those persons who are irradiated in vivo many years before cytogenetic examinations. (author)

  20. A cytogenetic study of the F1 generation of A-bomb survivors

    The results of a cytogenetic study on the F1 generation (born before December 1958) of 4,332 a-bomb survivors (estimated exposure dose of one or both parents, over 1 rad) and 2,348 controls (estimated dose of their parents, below 1 rad or not exposed) are discussed. Structural abnormalities of autosomes were observed in 0.07% of the children in the control group and in 0.34% of the children in the exposed group in Hiroshima. The statistical differences in abnormalities were suggested by the results of T-tests. No effects of exposure to the a-bomb were observed in children in Nagasaki. In 4 of 8 cases the type of chromosomal abnormality was reciprocal translocation. Its frequency was 0.34%, indicating the usefulness of abnormal chromosomes as an index in this investigation. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  2. Persisting injuries in immune system and their effects on health in a-bomb survivors

    This review describes findings concerning persisting effects of A-bomb radiation on immune cells and their relation to diseases. Injuries in immune system are mainly the depression of cellular immunity mediated by T-lymphocytes, especially CD4 T-cells, and the elevation of humoral immunity by B-cells. These are conceivably the imbalance results in immune system of incomplete recovery of those T-cells after exposure and thymus retraction by aging and of consequently affecting the functional differentiation of CD4 T-cells to lower the cellular immunity and to elevate the humoral immunity. Lowered cellular immunity in the survivors can be related to their liver and cardiovascular diseases caused by infection and cancer caused by tumor antigens and oncoviruses. Thus immunological investigations of the survivors are revealing not only the effect of radiation on the immune system but also the correlation between immunity and diseases. (K.H.)

  3. Lung cancer incidence among Japanese A-bomb survivors, 1950 - 80

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese A-bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on histopathological examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histologic types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001): based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± s.e.) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (ATB; p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  4. Study on defense function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in A-bomb survivors, 4

    Included in this study were 222 A-bomb survivors, consisting of the exposed group (104 exposed to 0.5-6.0 Gy estimated on the basis of T65 DR) and the non-exposed group (118 exposed to 0 Gy). Regarding superoxide anion production, such as O2-·CF and O2-·F, there were significant differences between the exposed and non-exposed groups. Chemotaxis, natural migration, and chemokinesis of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) tended to be increased in the exposed group. This was more marked in men than women. Chemotaxis, natural migration, and chemokinesis of PMN were significantly increased in A-bomb survivors aged 59 years or less (65.2±16.7 μml/45 min, 31.3±11.1, and 44.7±13.9, respectively) than those aged more than 59 years (59.5±18.5, 26.3±10.8, and 38.6±14.6, respectively). The group of patients aged 59 years or less tended to have higher values of O2-·CF and O2-·F. A significantly increased chemokinesis was associated with cigarette smoking. Regarding the other items, such as migration, chemotaxis, and superoxide anion production, the measurement values tended to be higher in the group of smokers than that of nonsmokers. (N.K.)

  5. Reanalysis of interviewing study data in the health attitude survey of A-bomb survivors, etc

    The interviewing study data in the title were initially contained in the official request of Hiroshima City and Prefecture, which had been presented to MHLW (Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare) in 2010, concerning spread of previously defined A-bomb exposed regions and were statistically reanalyzed based on the requirement of the consequent MHLW council. The data were originally derived from the questionnaire in 2008 about the health attitude survey by Hiroshima authorities, from which 892 survivors had received the interview together with self-writing, and answers of 869 parsons (524 males) were finally subjected to the present reanalysis. Measures of the interview involved the SF-36 (Medical Outcome Study Short Form 36-item Health Survey) for QOL, GHQ28 (General Health Questionnaire 28-item) for screening of neurosis/depression, and CAPS (Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) for diagnosis of PTSD (post traumatic stress disorder), etc. These measures were analyzed along with classes of A-bomb experience with adjustment factors of sex, age and income by multiple-/multivariate logistic-regression. It was found that measures were tended to be worse in groups experiencing the black rain without effects of adjustment factors, which was similar to groups experiencing the heavier rainfall; however, these results were statistically insignificant. (T.T.)

  6. Origin of clonal chromosome aberrations observed in A-bomb survivors

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether abnormal clone cells possessing chromosome aberrations observed in A-bomb survivors were derived from stem cells or peripheral lymphocytes. Subjects were 12 survivors in Hiroshima who were known to have abnormal clone cells in 3 - 12% peripheral lymphocyte count. Lymphocytes were isolated by Ficoll conray method, labeled by mouse monoclonal antibody against human CD45RA or CD45RO and then by the secondary antibody beads against mouse IgG. The respective cells were further divided to cells with (+) or without (-) magnetic label by magnetic cell separation method. Naive T cells were CD45RA+ and CD45RO- and memory T cells, - and +, respectively. Clonal chromosome abberations were analyzed by multiple FISH staining with DNA probes for biotin-FITC, Cy3, WCPOrange and FITC-labeled centromere. It was found that in 12 subjects 8 lymphocyte cases were stem cell origin and 5 cases, peripheral lymphocyte. The mean frequency of the former was found to be 7.6% in total lymphocyte count and the latter, 3.6%, indicating that the difference of origin was the cause of the difference of the frequency. Clonal cell growth can be related with re-arrangement of DNA by tumor- or tumor suppressor-gene.(K.H.)

  7. Genetic instability model for cancer risk in A-bomb survivors

    This review was written rather against Mendelsohn's reductionist model for cancer risk in A-bomb survivors in following chapters. Assumptions for carcinogenic process: mutation of a cell to the cancer cell and its proliferation. Multi-step theory for carcinogenesis and age of crisis: induction of cancer by accumulation of cancer-related gene mutations which being linear to time (age). Effect of exogenous hit in the multi-step theory: radiation as an exogenous hit to damage DNA. Dose-effect relationship for cancer risk in the survivors and the problem for the latent period: for solid tumors, dose-effect relationship is linear and shortening of the latent period is not observed. Considerations on cancer data in adulthood exposure/Indirect effect model in radiation carcinogenesis: solid cancer data supporting the indirect effect model. Possible mechanism for radiation-induced long-term increase of natural mutation frequency: genetic instability remaining in the irradiated cells which being a basis of the indirect effect model. Notes for considerations of carcinogenicity in exposed people/Difference in carcinogenic mechanisms due to age. The author concluded that the radiation-induced carcinogenesis is deeply related with the natural carcinogenesis and particularly for solid cancers, it can not be explained by the classic reductionist model. (K.H.)

  8. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  9. Relationship between length of A-bomb survivor's health handbook possession and mortality risk

    The title handbook was first issued to support the health of A-bomb survivors by Japan MHLW in 1957, and about 220 thousands possess it in 2010. Its major supports contain free medicare, 2 periodic and 2 optional medical examinations/year and other various benefits. This study was performed to elucidate the relationship in the title for evaluation of its life prolonging effect on Hiroshima survivors. The length of handbook possession was defined the period from acquiring it to death. The cohort was 17,335 (7,607 men) registered survivors who had had the handbook for 1 year or more, and before Nov. 1965 or later, until Dec. 2010. Causes of death event were classified to be the cerebrovascular, cardiac and cancerous disease, and others were censored. The objective variable was mortality risk, and predictors were the exposed dose, age at the exposure, chronological age and length of handbook possession. Risk of cerebrovascular or cardiac death was estimated by the model of exponential function, and of cancer death, of power function based on multi-stage theory of carcinogenesis. Results revealed that the cerebrovascular mortality of women and men was 8.1 and 7.2%, respectively; cardiac, 8.7 and 7.2%; and cancerous, 10.1 and 14.9%. Significant reduction of relative risk of cerebrovascular death, about 4% per 1 year handbook possession, was observed in men alone; negative correlations of period effect were seen in cerebrovascular and cardiac death of women; and positive correlation between cancer death and exposed dose was observed. The prophylaxis and continuous treatment of cerebrovascular disease due to the handbook possession were thought effective in men. (T.T.)

  10. Study on specificity of leukemia among the second generation of A-bomb survivors

    The title specificity was studied and discussed for the leukemia (L) of 5 cases of the second generation who had lived in Osaka (Report 1977) in comparison with published statistic data of the second generation's 15 L cases in a life-span investigation (2003) and of 5,098 L cases in a nationwide report (2003). The A-bomb survivors were exposed in either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The Osaka cases (4/5 boys) were morbid during 1958-1975, had acute L (myeloid L 3 cases, and unidentified type L 2) and died at ages of 10-19 y. Their parents were exposed to A-bomb directly (2 cases) or due to entrance in the city (3), and 1 father, 3 mothers and 1 couple of parents were exposed. Parent(s) in the life-span investigation were classified in high dose exposure (within 2 km distance from the city) and zero exposure (2.5 km afar from the city and other) groups. Their second generation (13/20 boys) were morbid during 1952-1969 at average age of 9.7 y (high dose group) and 8.3-7.2 y (zero group), and had acute myeloid L (8 cases), acute lymphocytic L (5) and other L. Exposure was to their 12 mothers, 4 fathers and 4 both parents. The nationwide statistics showed L of <18 years old pediatric patients (1986-2000) involving 56.7% boys, of morbid age peak of 3-4 y and of acute lymphocytic L in 68.8%. As above, it seemed that, in the second generation, their mothers were mostly exposed relative to fathers, the morbid sex ratio was higher in boys, morbid age was higher than general, and acute myeloid L was more frequent than general. L of the second generation thus seemed to be somehow specific, particularly in the higher age of morbidity and frequency of acute myeloid L. (T.T.)

  11. Clinical study of infectious diseases on aged A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Welfare Home for aged A-bomb survivors

    Infections, especially urinary passage and respiratory infections of aged A-bomb survivers under special protective care was examined. Urinary passage infections have recently shown an increasing tendency. These infections are related to the factors such as their basic diseases and wearing napkins rather than a severe degree of protective care. In the case of respiratory infection, diseases such as influenza are observed rather in patients who can walk, but they tend to be aggravated in bedridden patients. It cannot be said that more urinary passage infections are observed in A-bomb survivers than non A-bomb survivers. Both urinary passage infection and respiratory infection tend to recur repeatedly. Aged A-bomb survivers show no significant difference of acquired immunity from that of non A-bomb survivers group. However, a maintenance of neutralizing antibody by vaccination of influenza in the former is worse than in the latter. Bedridden patients show a higher rate of infection to potential urinary passage diseases than patients who can walk, irrespective of sex. Moreover, bedridden patients have a large number of bacteria, but other significant host reaction couldn't be observed. In bedridden patients with potential urinary passage infection, a variety of bacteria, most of which are bacteria resistant to rutinely used broad spectrum antibiotics, is detected. As a main disease or a direct cause of death, pyelonephritis in women and bronchopneumonia are often observed. (Iwagami, H.)

  12. Mortality of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors exposed at the black rain region

    An epidemiological study was performed on the black rain as a death risk factor of survivors in Hiroshima Uda's (U) light to heavy black rain regions using the positional parameters at their exposure. Subjects were 27,610 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate and direct dose at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was defined to be their all deaths due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, cancers, etc. Confounding factors were sex (11,457 males/16,153 females), age at exposure (av. 25 y) and dose (av. 0.045 Gy), with which analysis was done by Cox proportional hazard model. The confounding interaction of the age/U region was found significant: e.g., at the exposed age 25 y, the hazard ratio was calculated to be 1.084, indicating about 8% higher hazard ratio of U region than the area outside of U. When the effect of the sex, exposed age and direct dose were adjusted to be minimized, the risk was found distributed mainly in concentric circle from hypocenter, yet still the effect of indirect exposure was observed though. When the distance instead of the indirect dose was used as an explanatory variable, it resulted in being significant with no significance of the direct exposure dose. Risk map employing the positional information at explosion revealed that the risk distribution was locally different even in U region itself. Thus this study suggested that the black rain was a mortality risk factor in the U raining region of Hiroshima. (T.T.)

  13. Statistical methods for site-specific analysis of cancer among the A-bomb survivors

    Statistical methods are presented for joint, or simultaneous, analysis of the risks of several types of cancer for the A-bomb survivors. Previous analyses have been made either for all cancers except leukemia together, or have been done separately by cancer type. Either of these approaches has serious limitations, and the aim of joint analysis is to overcome these, while taking advantage of the strengths of each. The primary advantage of joint analysis is that models for risks of various cancer types can have some parameters in common, and others which are type-specific. This serves to overcome difficulties due to the limited data on specific cancer types. It also provides for significant tests comparing both type-specific risks and type-specific effects of modifying factors such as sex and age. These methods are exemplified here by joint analysis of three classes of cancer considered by the BEIR-V committee: (i) respiratory, (ii) digestive, and (iii) other cancers, excluding leukemia and breast cancer. The primary aim is to illustrate the general advantages of joint analyses, but in addition some comparison is made between the results of such joint analyses and the conclusions drawn by BEIR-V committee from separate analyses. (author)

  14. Histological types of lung cancer in Japanese A-bomb survivors and Colorado plateau uranium miners

    In an investigation of possible differences between lung cancers induced by inhaled radon daughters and external gamma ray and neutrons, a blind pathology panel review was carried out of tissue slides from lung cancer cases diagnosed among 108 Japanese A-bomb survivors and 92 American uranium miners. Slides were selected on the basis of radiation exposure, smoking history, sex, age, and source and quality of pathology material. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal subtype, including squamous cell cancer, small cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent subtypes. The results were analyzed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was adequately accounted for by differences in radiation dose (more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published risk coefficients). Data for the two populations conformed to a common pattern, in which radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell subtype, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas. No additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles vs. gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled vs. external radiation source, or other population differences, appeared to be required. (author)

  15. Lung cancer at autopsy in A-bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961--1970. II. Smoking, occupation and A-bomb exposure

    The apparent effect of ionizing radiation on lung cancer in A-bomb survivors has not been large enough to still doubts as to its validity. It has seemed essential to determine whether the apparent radiation effect could have resulted from a confounding of heavy smoking and high radiation dose, or if the occupational exposure of high-dose subjects with lung cancer was suggestive of the influence of environmental hazards other than radiation. The available series consists of 204 subjects with lung cancer verified by autopsy, 61 of whom were low-dose (less than 1 rad) and 13 high-dose (200+ rads) subjects. No evidence could be found that the influence of either smoking or occupational exposure upon lung cancer was exerted so as to suggest that the apparent radiation effect is other than real. The study also provides additional evidence of the relationship between lung cancer and smoking in Japan

  16. Detection of radiation-induced translocations in A-bomb survivors by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method

    The present paper describes the results of a collaborative study by RERF, LINL and UCSF on an analysis of the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors. In this study, attempts have been made to investigate whether the translocation frequencies measured using FISH agree well with the translocation frequencies measured using both G-banding and conventional Giemsa staining analyses, the latter two techniques of which have been accepted as standard cytogenetic procedures. Sample subjects under study include 20 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors, consisting of 2 distally exposed survivors in the 0-Gy group, and 18 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 kerma ranging from 0.5 to 5.0 Gy. Our preliminary results of measurement of translocations using FISH on A-bomb survivors have indicated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of induced translocations, and thus for quantification of previous acute exposures to ionizing radiation. Translocation analysis using FISH can also be utilized to assess the level of acute radiation exposure independent of time between exposure and cytogenetic analysis. (author)

  17. BRCA1 gene expression and promoter methylation patterns in early-onset breast cancers among A-bomb survivors

    Full text: Early-onset breast cancer is one of the most obviously radiogenic cancers among A-bomb survivors. Our initial hypothesis was that A-bomb radiation exposure might have enhanced the risk of early-onset breast cancer in initially heterozygous BRCA1 mutation carriers by mutationally inactivating the normal copy of the BRCA1 gene. To test this hypothesis, we began by examining the changes in BRCA1 expression immunohistochemically using the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues that had been stored at various hospitals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for several decades. We then developed a highly-sensitive methylation-specific PCR method to test for hypermethylation of the BRCA1 gene promoter as a possible explanation for BRCA1 expression having been reduced in breast cancer cases. The breast cancer tissues studied so far were from a group of A-bomb survivors who were <45 years of age at diagnosis (31cases), and from a non-exposed group who were also <45 (21 cases). Our observations indicate that BRCA1 protein expression levels were reduced by ∼90% in many tumor tissues from both groups. Review of these reduced cases indicated that methylation silencing of the BRCA1 gene promoter was present in 40-50% of both exposed and unexposed cases. By contrast, fully unmethylated BRCA1 promoter sequences were present in as few as 15-20% of cases in the non-exposed group and 30-35% in the exposed group. Clearly we need to examine many more of the 700 samples that we aim to collect before we will be able to draw any conclusions about the possible role of methylation silencing in the development of early-onset breast cancers among A-bomb survivors

  18. Role of neutrons in late effects of radiation among A-Bomb survivors

    Experimental findings of many kinds as well as the Rossi-Kellerer theory of dual radiation action suggest that neutrons and gamma rays may differ in their biological effects, especially carcinogenesis, upon man. In particular, for many but not necessarily all cancers the carcinogenic effect of neutrons may be linear, and that of gamma- or X-radiation, a more complex function with linear and quadratic terms; in addition, dose-response functions for both types of radiation probably require a modifying factor to account for the frequently observed turn-down of dose-response curves in the high-dose region. In a further analysis of leukemia among A-Bomb survivors, Ishimaru et al. have fitted the function y a0 + a1n + a2γ2 where the a's are constants and n and γ the respective neutron and gamma doses. They find not only that this function fits the data well, although not significantly better than a straight line, but also that the best estimate of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for neutrons is 44n-1/2. In the present paper we report our efforts to re-analyze ABCC-RERF data on a variety of late radiation effects in an effort to distinguish between neutron and gamma radiation more sharply than has been possible in the past. The effects examined include: chromosomal aberrations, small heads and mental retardation, leukemia, thyroid cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer, lymphomas. The results of fitting various models will be reported. Goodness of fit will be examined and efforts will be made to derive RBE estimates. (author)

  19. Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed a-bomb survivors following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors following postoperative 60Co radiotherapy for breast cancer are presented. Case 1, a female who received an estimated dose of 364 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 22, was diagnosed as having left breast cancer 17 years later. At the age of 48, about 8 years after undergoing postoperative 60Co radiotherapy, she developed acute monocytic leukemia. Case 2, a female who received an estimated dose of 594 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 37, was diagnosed as having right breast cancer 22 years later. At the age of 63, 4 years after postoperative 60Co radiotherapy, she was found to have acute erythroleukemia. Both cases had been exposed to the A-bomb in Hiroshima and to therapeutic radiation after developing breast cancer presumably induced by A-bomb exposure. Thus it is proposed that acute leukemia was induced by exposure to large doses of radiation from two sources. (author)

  20. Indications of the neutron effect contribution in the solid cancer data of the A-bomb survivors.

    Kellerer, Albrecht M; Rühm, Werner; Walsh, Linda

    2006-06-01

    Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are primarily based on the follow-up of the Japanese A-bomb survivors. Their exposures were due to gamma rays and neutrons, and, currently--with the assumed low RBE = 10 of neutrons and reference to the colon dose--the late radiation effects are almost fully attributed to the gamma rays. Solid cancer risk estimates for different organ sites are assessed here, and an inconspicuous but statistically highly significant trend of larger values is found for the organs closer to the body surface; i.e., the organs with less body shielding and, therefore, with larger neutron dose-fractions. Underestimation of the RBE of neutrons can explain this apparent correlation. The trend of ERR/Gy vs. depth ceases to be statistically significant for RBE values close to 100. The suggestion of high RBE values and the corresponding reduction of gamma-ray risk estimates is found to be in line with log-likelihood computations in terms of AMFIT, which provide for the solid cancer mortality of the A-bomb survivors the minimum deviance for RBE = 100 with a 95% confidence lower limit of 25. The present assessment had to use the data made publicly available by RERF. In this form they contain city-, sex-, age-, and dose-categories, but--instead of a separate neutron-dose category--only the mean neutron dose for each data cell. The tentative conclusions that are here obtained should, therefore, be examined by a more definitive analysis, either in terms of grouped data with a separate classification of neutron doses or, ideally, in terms of person by person calculations to be performed at RERF with individually estimated neutron doses. PMID:16691103

  1. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors by French-American-British (FAB) classification, 1

    The concordance rate for the French-American-British (FAB) reclassification diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined by a group of RERF hematologists and one of the members of the FAB cooperative gruop. The peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 persons with leukemia or related disorder were reviewed. There was 85% agreement in the identification of leukemia types and subtypes. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnosis of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2%. The conclusion from this remarkably high rate of concordance is that it is feasible to accurately apply the FAB classification system to the cases of A-bomb-related leukemia. These preliminary observations suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders should be changed. (author)

  2. No evidence of increased mutation rates at microsatellite loci in offspring of A-bomb survivors.

    Kodaira, M; Ryo, H; Kamada, N; Furukawa, K; Takahashi, N; Nakajima, H; Nomura, T; Nakamura, N

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the genetic effects of A-bomb radiation, we examined mutations at 40 microsatellite loci in exposed families (father-mother-offspring, mostly uni-parental exposures), which consisted of 66 offspring having a mean paternal dose of 1.87 Gy and a mean maternal dose of 1.27 Gy. The control families consisted of 63 offspring whose parents either were exposed to low doses of radiation (Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombs. We found seven mutations in the exposed alleles (7/2,789; mutation rate 0.25 x 10(-2)/locus/generation) and 26 in the unexposed alleles (26/7,465; 0.35 x 10(-2)/locus/generation), which does not indicate an effect from parental exposure to radiation. Although we could not assign the parental origins of four mutations, the conclusion may hold since even if we assume that these four mutations had occurred in the exposed alleles, the estimated mean mutation rate would be 0.39 x 10(-2) in the exposed group [(7 + 4)/2,789)], which is slightly higher than 0.35 x 10(-2) in the control group, but the difference is not statistically significant. PMID:20095853

  3. Effect of aging on the competence for physical defence among A-bomb survivors, 4

    In A-bomb exposed and non-exposed groups of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), including refractory anemia (RA), T and B lymphocyte subsets and stem cell colony formation were analyzed using flow cytometry. There was no significant difference in the number of T lymphocyte subsets between the exposed and non-exposed RA groups. The number of cells positive for B-1 (CD20) was, however, significantly lower in exposed RA patients than normal volunteers (p < 0.01). In some of the exposed and non-exposed RA patients, the number of supressor inducer subsets were increased. For the other MDS types, more patients developed leukemia in the non-exposed group than those in the exposed group. CFU-E colony formation was observed in the absence of erythropoietin in the total incidence of 37 % (7/19) in both exposed and non-exposed groups, half of whom developed leukemia. For MDS patients in either the exposed or non-exposed group, there was no correlation between both T and B lymphocyte subsets and stem cell colony formation. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 8. Cancer mortality, 1950-1982

    This study extends an earlier one by 4 years (1979-1982) and includes mortality data on 11,393 additional Nagasaki survivors. Significant dose responses are observed for leukemia, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the lung, female breast, stomach, colon, esophagus, and urinary tract. Due to diagnostic difficulties, results for liver and ovarian cancers, while suggestive of significant dose responses, do not provide convincing evidence for radiogenic effects. No significant dose responses are seen for cancers of the gallbladder, prostate, rectum, pancreas, or uterus, or for lymphoma. For solid tumors, largely due to sex-specific differences in the background rates, the relative risk of radiation-induced mortality is greater for women than for men. For nonleukemic cancers the relative risk seen in those who were young when exposed has decreased with time, while the smaller risks for those who were older at exposure have tended to increase. While the absolute excess risks of radiation-induced mortality due to nonleukemic cancer have increased with time for all age-at-exposure groups, both excess and relative risks of leukemia have generally decreased with time. For leukemia, the rate of decrease in risk and the initial level of risk are inversely related to age at exposure

  5. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to A-bomb survivors exposed in utero.

    Chen, Jing

    2012-03-01

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypocentres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypocentre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypocentre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately. PMID:21816724

  6. Serum ferritin and stomach cancer risk among A-bomb survivors

    Using stored serum samples collected from 1970-72 and/or from 1977-79, serum ferritin, transferrin, and ceruloplasmin levels were immunologically determined for 233 stomach cancer and 84 lung cancer cases diagnosed from 1973-83 and for 385 matched controls from a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Elevated stomach cancer risk was associated with low serum ferritin levels, with more than a threefold excess among those in the lowest quintile as compared to the highest ferritin quintile. The average serum ferritin concentration was 8% lower in the stomach cancer cases than in the controls. Risk did not vary with the time between blood collection and stomach cancer onset, remaining high among those with low ferritin levels five or more years before cancer diagnosis. Low ferritin combined with achlorhydria, diagnosed about 10 years before the blood collection and up to 25 years before cancer diagnosis, was an exceptionally strong marker of increased stomach cancer risk. No effect of transferrin or ceruloplasmin independent of ferritin was observed on gastric cancer risk. Lung cancer risk was not related to these three serum proteins. (author)

  7. The development of fetal dosimetry and its application to a-bomb survivors exposed in utero

    The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki comprises the major basis for investigations of health effects induced by ionising radiation in humans. To study the health effects associated with radiation exposure before birth, fetal dosimetry is needed if significant differences exist between the fetal absorbed dose and the mother's uterine dose. Combining total neutron and gamma ray free-in-air fluences at 1 m above ground with fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients, fetal doses were calculated for various exposure orientations at the ground distance of 1500 m from the hypo-centres in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The results showed that the mother's uterine dose can serve as a good surrogate for the dose of the embryo and fetus in the first trimester. However, significant differences exist between doses of the fetus of different ages. If the mother's uterine dose were used as a surrogate, doses to the fetus in the last two trimesters could be overestimated by more than 20 % for exposure orientations facing towards and away from the hypo-centre while significantly underestimated for lateral positions relative to the hypo-centre. In newer fetal models, the brain is modelled for all fetal ages. Brain doses to the 3-month fetus are generally higher than those to an embryo and fetus of other ages. In most cases, brain absorbed doses differ significantly from the doses to the entire fetal body. In order to accurately assess radiation effects to the fetal brain, it is necessary to determine brain doses separately. (author)

  8. New dosimetry system (DS86) for Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors and its effects on risk estimates

    Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) at Hiroshima has recently published reports on the ongoing revision of the dose estimates to A-bomb survivors and the consequent changing trends in the risk estimates. A brief summary is presented here on the physics of the new dosimetry system calle d DS86 and the revised risk estimates from the presently available RERF reports. The important findings are: (i) The tissue free-in-air gamma doses are higher for Hiroshima and lower for Nagasaki compared to the earlier estimates; (ii) The free-in-air kerma values for neutrons are lower for both the cities and the reduction is nearly by an order of magnitude for Hiroshima; (iii) The excess cancer mortalities per 104 PYGy (combined shielded kerma) are increased from 1.38 to 1.61 fold for the various cancer types in the revised estimates; (iv) The difference in cancer mortality risk rates between Hiroshima and Nagasaki is smaller and no longer statistically significant; (v) Assumption of various values of RBE for the neutrons do not change significantly the risk estimates under the new system; (vi) The excess cancer mortality per 104 PYSv attributable to γ-rays (RBE=1) turns out to be 4 per cent lower for leukaemia and 27 per cent lower for all other cancer together, as compared to T65D estimates at RBE=1; (vii) At RBE=10 for neutrons and assuming the additive risk model for leukaemia and the multiplicative risk model for other cancers, the revised risk factor for the general Japanese population works out to be 11.5 per cent Sv-1 as against the ICRP-26 risk factor of 1.25 per cent Sv-1. (author). 6 refs., 8 figs

  9. Reanalysis of cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to low doses of radiation: bootstrap and simulation methods

    Dropkin Greg

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP recommended annual occupational dose limit is 20 mSv. Cancer mortality in Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to less than 20 mSv external radiation in 1945 was analysed previously, using a latency model with non-linear dose response. Questions were raised regarding statistical inference with this model. Methods Cancers with over 100 deaths in the 0 - 20 mSv subcohort of the 1950-1990 Life Span Study are analysed with Poisson regression models incorporating latency, allowing linear and non-linear dose response. Bootstrap percentile and Bias-corrected accelerated (BCa methods and simulation of the Likelihood Ratio Test lead to Confidence Intervals for Excess Relative Risk (ERR and tests against the linear model. Results The linear model shows significant large, positive values of ERR for liver and urinary cancers at latencies from 37 - 43 years. Dose response below 20 mSv is strongly non-linear at the optimal latencies for the stomach (11.89 years, liver (36.9, lung (13.6, leukaemia (23.66, and pancreas (11.86 and across broad latency ranges. Confidence Intervals for ERR are comparable using Bootstrap and Likelihood Ratio Test methods and BCa 95% Confidence Intervals are strictly positive across latency ranges for all 5 cancers. Similar risk estimates for 10 mSv (lagged dose are obtained from the 0 - 20 mSv and 5 - 500 mSv data for the stomach, liver, lung and leukaemia. Dose response for the latter 3 cancers is significantly non-linear in the 5 - 500 mSv range. Conclusion Liver and urinary cancer mortality risk is significantly raised using a latency model with linear dose response. A non-linear model is strongly superior for the stomach, liver, lung, pancreas and leukaemia. Bootstrap and Likelihood-based confidence intervals are broadly comparable and ERR is strictly positive by bootstrap methods for all 5 cancers. Except for the pancreas, similar estimates of

  10. The latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki A-bomb survivors - a higher radiation risk at dose rates below 50cGy (rad) - consequences for radiation protection

    The latest BEIR report assumes linear dose effect curves. The latest cancer statistics of the a-bomb survivors (1950 to 1982 and 1950 to 1985) reveal a definite positive correlation between cancer mortality and medium dose rate for groups of survivors exposed to mean kerma dose rates below 0.20 Gy. (orig.)

  11. Neuropsychiatric and psychologic effects of A-bomb radiation

    Few studies have assessed the influences of A-bombing from both psychiatric and psychologic points of view. This chapter deals with the knowledge of neuropsychiatric and psychologic influences of A-bombing. Many A-bomb survivors were exposed not only to radiation but also to rapid environmental alterations, such as death of family members and destruction of living. In addition, they suffered from sequelae and anxiety. Naturally, these were considered to cause psychological disturbance including autonomic imbalance and neurosis. Psychological survey, made immediately after A-bombing, is presented, with special attention to behavioral patterns in 54 A-bomb survivors by dividing them into 5 stimulation groups. Radiation syndrome occurring early after exposure and leukemia or cancer occurring later were referred to as 'Genbaku-sho' (A-bomb disease). A-bomb survivors' physically eventful conditions tended to induce mental anxiety or the contrary. Depression and phobia seemed to have correlated with physical conditions. In addition to 'A-bomb disease', mass media, dealing with 'A-bomb neurosis,' 'marriage in A-bomb survivors,' 'suicide in A-bomb survivors,' 'A-bomb survivors orphan,' and 'lonely old A-bomb survivors,' had a great impact on A-bomb survivors. For in uterus exposed and infantile A-bomb survivors, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups, although the incidence of eye tremor and sleeping disorder is found to be higher in the in uterus exposed group than the control group. (N.K.)

  12. Autopsy findings of human fetuses of descendant (F1, F2) of the A-bomb survivors

    An analysis was made of autopsy population of human fetuses and neonates (652 cases for F1 and 115 cases for F2 ) obtained from A-bomb exposed and non-exposed groups. In a study of delivery mode, the incidence of abnormal findings, including congenital anomaly, was found higher in the group of spontaneous delivery than the group of artificial delivery. Anomaly of the heart or great vessels was the most common, followed by anomaly of the central nervous system and urinary system in both F1 and F2 groups. Abnormal findings in the group of spontaneous delivery were observed in a total of 148 cases. For evaluable 32 cases in which the exposure distance was confirmed, these abnormalities were not related to distance from the hypocenter. Anomaly in this group was seen in 74 cases, in which autosomal dominant inheritance had induced chondrodystrophy (two cases) and polycystic kidney disease (one). For F2, anomaly was observed in 22 cases in the group of spontaneous delivery. Polycystic kidney disease was seen in each one case exposed at ≤2,000 m or 2,000-4,000 m from the hypocenter. The incidence of other anomalies was independent of exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure to A-bombing. Nor was correlation between the incidence of macerated fetuses and exposure distance or either paternal or maternal exposure. (N.K.)

  13. Age and dose related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic-bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC response with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was marked in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function had started to involute, allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who had adequate processing T-cell activity

  14. Biomarkers of Radiosensitivity in A-Bomb Survivors Pregnant at the Time of Bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Masazumi Akahoshi; Saeko Fujiwara; Kei Nakachi; Yoichiro Kusonoki; Thomas Seed; Yoshiaki Kodama; Eiji Nakashima; Naoko Kamada; Sachiyo Funamoto; Yoshimi Tatsukawa; Miles, Edward F.; Kazuo Neriishi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. There is evidence in the literature of increased maternal radiosensitivity during pregnancy. Materials and Methods. We tested this hypothesis using information from the atomic-bomb survivor cohort, that is, the Adult Health Study database at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, which contains data from a cohort of women who were pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Previous evaluation has demonstrated long-term radiation dose-response effects. Results...

  15. Report on the recently-updated study of cancer mortality in the A-bomb survivors: insights for radiation protection

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in Hiroshima has recently released an updated study of cancer mortality in the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort of survivors of the atomic bombings at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (The LSS is believed to contain about one-half of the total number of survivors who were within 2.5 km of the hypocentre.) The update has considerably more statistical power than previous studies because of five more years of follow-up(1986-1990 inclusive) and because of adding 10.536 survivors for whom DS86 dose estimates recently became available. Together these add about 550.000 person-years of follow-up compared to the previous report, which covered mortality to the end of 1985. Moreover, about 25% of the excess solid cancer deaths have occurred in these last five years of follow-up. Since the LSS is the most important source of information about the risk of induced cancer in humans following acute radiation exposures, this paper first summarizes this important new information. This is a keystone of radiation risk assessment and therefore of our radiation protection history; one cannot make sense of the current controversy concerning linearity without understanding what this data says and doesn't say. This communication then moves into a discussion of what implications there may be from this updated information, in the context of current debates about whether the linear-no threshold model is an appropriate one for radiation protection use. (DM)

  16. The observed relationship between the occurrence of acute radiation sickness and subsequent cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    In an analysis of data obtained from the Life Span Study, a follow-up study of a fixed population of 73,330 atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the slope of a linear dose response between the estimated dose of ionizing radiation and leukemia mortality was found to be steeper (p 0.2) by the presence of epilation. The results for leukemia were not modified by age or sex and were consistent in both cities. These observations suggest that those individuals who experienced early effects of radiation were more likely to die of leukemia during the follow-up period than individuals who were exposed to the same level of A-bomb radiation but did not develop epilation. The robustness of this finding on the interaction of two difficult but important problems was investigated. These were the validity of a linear dose-response model for leukemia, and the level of assumed precision of the radiation dosimetry system used for assignment of dose estimates to individual survivors. Assuming 35 % random dose errors and a dose-response function cubic in dose, the excess relative risk for leukemia was still estimated to be 1.89 times higher for the group with epilation, and the p-value for a test of association between leukemia and epilation remained significant at the 0.10 level. If 50 % random dosimetry errors are assumed using the same cubic model, the dose response in the epilation group is estimated to be 1.58 times higher than the others, but is not significant (p < 0.3). (author)

  17. Current risk estimates based on the A-bomb survivors data - A discussion in terms of the ICRP recommendations on the neutron weighting factor

    Currently, most analyses of the A-bomb survivors' solid tumour and leukaemia data are based on a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 10 that is applied to all survivors, independent of their distance to the hypo-centre at the time of bombing. The results of these analyses are then used as a major basis for current risk estimates suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use in international safety guidelines. It is shown here that (i) a constant value of 10 is not consistent with weighting factors recommended by the ICRP for neutrons and (ii) it does not account for the hardening of the neutron spectra in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which takes place with increasing distance from the hypo-centres. The purpose of this paper is to present new RBE values for the neutrons, calculated as a function of distance from the hypo-centres for both cities that are consistent with the ICRP60 neutron weighting factor. If based on neutron spectra from the DS86 dosimetry system, these calculations suggest values of about 31 at 1000 m and 23 at 2000 m ground range in Hiroshima, while the corresponding values for Nagasaki are 24 and 22. If the neutron weighting factor that is consistent with ICRP92 is used, the corresponding values are about 23 and 21 for Hiroshima and 21 and 20 for Nagasaki, respectively. It is concluded that the current risk estimates will be subject to some changes in view of the changed RBE values. This conclusion does not change significantly if the new doses from the Dosimetry System DS02 are used. (authors)

  18. Current risk estimates based on the A-bomb survivors data - a discussion in terms of the ICRP recommendations on the neutron weighting factor.

    Rühm, W; Walsh, L

    2007-01-01

    Currently, most analyses of the A-bomb survivors' solid tumour and leukaemia data are based on a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) value of 10 that is applied to all survivors, independent of their distance to the hypocentre at the time of bombing. The results of these analyses are then used as a major basis for current risk estimates suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for use in international safety guidelines. It is shown here that (i) a constant value of 10 is not consistent with weighting factors recommended by the ICRP for neutrons and (ii) it does not account for the hardening of the neutron spectra in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which takes place with increasing distance from the hypocentres. The purpose of this paper is to present new RBE values for the neutrons, calculated as a function of distance from the hypocentres for both cities that are consistent with the ICRP60 neutron weighting factor. If based on neutron spectra from the DS86 dosimetry system, these calculations suggest values of about 31 at 1000 m and 23 at 2000 m ground range in Hiroshima, while the corresponding values for Nagasaki are 24 and 22. If the neutron weighting factor that is consistent with ICRP92 is used, the corresponding values are about 23 and 21 for Hiroshima and 21 and 20 for Nagasaki, respectively. It is concluded that the current risk estimates will be subject to some changes in view of the changed RBE values. This conclusion does not change significantly if the new doses from the Dosimetry System DS02 are used. PMID:17533156

  19. Spatial consideration of black rainfall region using geographical information system and based on witness of A-bomb survivors and newspaper articles

    The black rainfall area after the A-bomb explosion was investigated using informational materials in the title because orographic precipitate is important for radioactive substances to spread. Witnesses were collected from questionnaires about exposure done by Asahi Newspapers (Apr., 2005) and by Japan Confederation of A- and H-Bomb Sufferers Organizations (Nov., 1985-Mar., 1986); from Newspaper Data Base in Hiroshima University about articles concerning A-bomb, exposure and black rain; and about geography, from National Digital Cartographic Data Base of Geographical Survey Institute. Geographical Information System was used for identifying the valley and ridge to plot the keywords about the above exposure, black rain and so on. It was found that black rain was experienced in Hiroshima City alone whereas witness of seeing the mushroom cloud was obtained at many places nearby around the City, suggesting the biased black rainfall region within the City. Particularly, when the black rain witnesses in the City were summing up for each region, they were found biased in the west to northern west areas of the hypocenter, that were downwind of the first ridge from the explosion site. Thus the black rainfall was found localized western to northern western from the hypocenter, which was thought to be further confirmed by other evidence like soil analysis. (T.T.)

  20. Age- and dose-related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was remarkable in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T-cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that, in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function has started to involute allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who have adequate processing T-cell activity. (author)

  1. Electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel does not indicate exposures to large radiation doses in a large proportion of distally-exposed A-bomb survivors.

    Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Cullings, Harry M; Miyazawa, Chuzo; Nakamura, Nori

    2011-01-01

    The atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to two different types of radiation exposure; one was direct and brief and the other was indirect and persistent. The latter (so-called exposure to residual radiation) resulted from the presence of neutron activation products in the soil, or from fission products present in the fallout. Compared with the doses from direct exposures, estimations of individual doses from residual radiation have been much more complicated, and estimates vary widely among researchers. The present report bases its conclusions on radiation doses recorded in tooth enamel from survivors in Hiroshima. Those survivors were present at distances of about 3 km or greater from the hypocenter at the time of the explosion, and have DS02 estimated doses (direct exposure doses) of less than 5 mGy (and are regarded as control subjects). Individual doses were estimated by measuring CO(2)(-) radicals in tooth enamel with the electron spin resonance (ESR; or electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR) method. The results from 56 molars donated by 49 survivors provided estimated doses which vary from -200 mGy to 500 mGy, and the median dose was 17 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles are -54 mGy and 137 mGy, respectively) for the buccal parts and 13 mGy (25% and 75% quartiles: -49 mGy and 87 mGy, respectively) for the lingual parts of the molars. Three molars had ESR-estimated doses of 300 to 400 mGy for both the buccal and lingual parts, which indicates possible exposures to excess doses of penetrating radiation, although the origin of such radiation remains to be determined. The results did not support claims that a large fraction of distally-exposed survivors received large doses (e.g. 1 Gy) of external penetrating radiation resulting from residual radiation. PMID:21768749

  2. Is the excess risk of childhood leukemia at Sellafield consistent with the experiences of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki ?

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize briefly selected studies relevant to the difference between the apparent pre-conception radiation-associated leukemia risks in the offspring born in the area near the Sellafield plant and to the atomic bomb survivors. Although no doubt exists about the hypothesis that radiation damages the genetic material in reproductive cells, it is important to recognize how small the effect in the first generation would be based on the various genetic endpoints. Generally only a small fraction of leukemia cases are inherited -- the proportion among all spontaneous cases does not exceed 10 %. Because there is still uncertainty and controversy about the genetic effects of radiation, the possible complex confounding factors are also briefly mentioned. It is clear that the studies of the atomic bomb survivors are pertinent to the possible genetic effect due to radiation-induced mutations in the spermatogonia and oocytes while the observations in Sellafield are, as suggested by Gardner et al. pertinent to the in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. No significant effect of atomic bomb radiation can be shown on the risk of leukemia as well as other genetic effect endpoints, such as the frequency of mutations associated with specific proteins, cytogenetic abnormalities, survival, and so on. (author)

  3. Multi-model inference of adult and childhood leukaemia excess relative risks based on the Japanese A-bomb survivors mortality data (1950-2000).

    Walsh, Linda; Kaiser, Jan Christian

    2011-03-01

    Some relatively new issues that augment the usual practice of ignoring model uncertainty, when making inference about parameters of a specific model, are brought to the attention of the radiation protection community here. Nine recently published leukaemia risk models, developed with the Japanese A-bomb epidemiological mortality data, have been included in a model-averaging procedure so that the main conclusions do not depend on just one type of model or statistical test. The models have been centred here at various adult and young ages at exposure, for some short times since exposure, in order to obtain specially computed childhood Excess Relative Risks (ERR) with uncertainties that account for correlations in the fitted parameters associated with the ERR dose-response. The model-averaged ERR at 1 Sv was not found to be statistically significant for attained ages of 7 and 12 years but was statistically significant for attained ages of 17, 22 and 55 years. Consequently, such risks when applied to other situations, such as children in the vicinity of nuclear installations or in estimates of the proportion of childhood leukaemia incidence attributable to background radiation (i.e. low doses for young ages and short times since exposure), are only of very limited value, with uncertainty ranges that include zero risk. For example, assuming a total radiation dose to a 5-year-old child of 10 mSv and applying the model-averaged risk at 10 mSv for a 7-year-old exposed at 2 years of age would result in an ERR=0.33, 95% CI: -0.51 to 1.22. One model (United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation report. Volume 1. Annex A: epidemiological studies of radiation and cancer, United Nations, New York, 2006) weighted model-averaged risks of leukaemia most strongly by half of the total unity weighting and is recommended for application in future leukaemia risk assessments that continue to ignore model uncertainty. However, on the basis of the analysis

  4. Radioepidemiology of the A-bomb survivors.

    Schull, W J

    1996-06-01

    Estimation of the risk of cancer and other health effects following exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki remains largely empirical, and the models used to adduce risk incorporate few, if any, of the advances in molecular biology of the past decade or so. These facts compromise the estimation of risk where the epidemiologic data are weakest, namely, at low doses and dose rates. Although the risk estimates may be sufficient for regulatory purposes, without a better understanding of the molecular and cellular events ionizing radiation initiates or promotes, it seems unlikely that the estimates will be as intellectually satisfying as they might be. Nor will the situation improve further without attention to the identification and estimation of the effects of those host and environmental factors that enhance or diminish risk of cancer or the effects on the developing brain. PMID:8635903

  5. Neutron relative biological effectiveness for solid cancer incidence in the Japanese A-bomb survivors: an analysis considering the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses with hierarchical partitioning.

    Walsh, Linda

    2013-03-01

    It has generally been assumed that the neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses in the data from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese A-bomb survivors are too highly correlated for an independent separation of the all solid cancer risks due to neutrons and due to γ-rays. However, with the release of the most recent data for all solid cancer incidence and the increased statistical power over previous datasets, it is instructive to consider alternatives to the usual approaches. Simple excess relative risk (ERR) models for radiation-induced solid cancer incidence fitted to the LSS epidemiological data have been applied with neutron and γ-ray absorbed doses as separate explanatory covariables. A simple evaluation of the degree of independent effects from γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses on the all solid cancer risk with the hierarchical partitioning (HP) technique is presented here. The degree of multi-collinearity between the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses has also been considered. The results show that, whereas the partial correlation between the neutron and γ-ray colon absorbed doses may be considered to be high at 0.74, this value is just below the level beyond which remedial action, such as adding the doses together, is usually recommended. The resulting variance inflation factor is 2.2. Applying HP indicates that just under half of the drop in deviance resulting from adding the γ-ray and neutron absorbed doses to the baseline risk model comes from the joint effects of the neutrons and γ-rays-leaving a substantial proportion of this deviance drop accounted for by individual effects of the neutrons and γ-rays. The average ERR/Gy γ-ray absorbed dose and the ERR/Gy neutron absorbed dose that have been obtained here directly for the first time, agree well with previous indirect estimates. The average relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons relative to γ-rays, calculated directly from fit parameters to the all solid cancer ERR model with both

  6. Stopping the greenhouse effect - recommendations submitted by the Bundestag Enquete Commission. - Why nuclear energy cannot solve the global-warming problem - on the urgency of a low-risk, efficient future energy economy. - The latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki A-bomb survivors - a higher radiation risk at dose rates below 50cGy (rad) - consequences for radiation protection

    The report compiles three contributions two of which discuss the issues of global warming, trace gases and ozone depletion. The measures proposed by a German enquete commision to stop the greenhouse effect, i.e. utilization of renewable energy sources, nuclear phaseout because nuclear power is not supposed to solve the global-warming problem, are described. The third contribution gives the latest cancer statistics of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki a-bomb survivors while taking into account the higher radiation risk due to low dose rates. (DG)

  7. A-bomb and skin injury

    Injury and influence in the skin given by A-bomb are reviewed from the dermatological aspect. As an acute injury, primary and secondary thermal burns, flash and flame, respectively, are generally caused by high-energy heat. More than 90% people present within 1 km diameter area of the hypocenter died in a week and about 30% of whom did due to burns. Alopecia appeared in those who had been exposed to A-bomb radiation within 2.5 km diameter region of the hypocenter in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and purpura, an important measure of radiation injury, occurred maximally 20-30 days after explosion in most of those people above. Late injury involves keloid and malignant skin tumor. The former, hypertrophic scar, was seen mainly in the curing process of the burns in 60-80% and was of somewhat different morphology after flash and flame injuries. In 1987, the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposed dose was recognized in 20,348 survivors in Nagasaki. In the period from 1958 to 1987, the incidence of basal cell carcinoma was found increased in the comparative studies of about 90,000 people consisting of survivors and non-exposed control. Skin examination is pointed out from the aspect to be important in those people exposed to the higher radiation dose than general population, like workers in the nuclear power plant and medical field as well as in those enrolled in a nuclear accident. (R.T.)

  8. Experimental simulation of A-bomb gamma ray spectra: Revisited

    It has been reported recently that the A-bomb gamma ray spectra received by the colon of the average Japanese survivor of Hiroshima and Nagasaki may be experimentally simulated using a hospital-based Philips SL15 linear accelerator. The simulated A-bomb gamma radiation may be used in radiobiology experiments to determine, amongst other things, the biological effectiveness of the A-bomb gamma radiation. However, in that study, the electron beams from the linear accelerator were poorly defined and photon contamination was ignored. In the study reported here, a Varian Clinac 2100C linear accelerator has been used for the same purpose but with photon contamination included in better defined output electron beams. It is found that the A-bomb gamma radiation can still be matched to an acceptable degree (<10%). The cause of the slightly poorer fit was due mainly to the different ranges of energies available from the linear accelerators used. The absorbed dose received by model breasts was also estimated in this study for the same situations as in the previous study. The ratio of the breast to colon doses was found to be only (3.9 ± 4.0)% low compared with the expected values of 1.17 and 1.16 for Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. These results provide further confirmation of the acceptability of the simple cylindrically symmetrical body models employed in these studies to represent the average Japanese survivor. (authors)

  9. The impact of the A-bomb

    Forty years after the throwing of the atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki this book is published as the expression of a profound longing for peace and disarmament. It is based on a comprehensive compilation of results published in 1979; it sums up the main parts of that work and adds new materials which illustrate the actual conditions at the time of the bombing. The experience of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is to become the joint possession of all peoples and to enhance the commitment of mankind to peace. The individual chapters describe the devastations, atomic destruction, the victims who suffered injuries, the acute stage of the A-bomb disease, scars that failed to heal, the survivors, life in the ruins, medical care and assistance, the search for peace, the path to a world without nuclear arms. (HSCH)

  10. Studies of the mortality of A-bomb survivors. 9. Mortality, 1950-1985: Part 1. Comparison of risk coefficients for site-specific cancer mortality based on the DS86 and T65DR shielded kerma and organ doses

    As a result of the reassessment of the A-bomb dosimetry, new (DS86) doses were calculated in 1986. In this paper, site-specific estimates of cancer mortality in the years 1950-1985, based on these new doses, are compared with those using the T65DR doses. The subjects of the study are 75,991 members of the Life Span Study sample for whom DS86 doses have been calculated. This reevaluation of the exposures does not change the list of radiation-related cancers. Most differences in dose response between Hiroshima and Nagasaki are no longer significant with the DS86 doses. The dose-response curve is closer to linear with the DS86 than the T65DR doses even for leukemia in the entire dose range, though, statistically, many other models cannot be excluded. However, in the low-dose range, the risk of leukemia remains nonlinear. Assuming a linear model at an RBE of 1, and using organ-absorbed doses, the risk coefficients derived from the two dosimetries are very similar, whereas those based on shielded kerma are about 40% higher with the new dosimetry. If RBE values larger than 1 are assumed, the disparity between the two dosimetries increases because the neutron dose is much greater in the T65DR. At an RBE of 10, for the five specific cancers, i.e., female breast, colon, leukemia, lung, and stomach, the increase in excess number of deaths per 10(4) PYSv under the DS86 varies from 12% (colon) to 133% (female breast). The magnitude of the effects of such modifiers of radiation-induced cancer as age at time of bomb and sex do not differ between the two dose systems

  11. Effect of low dose of A-bomb radiation on risk of death

    Among about 100,000 A-bomb survivors registered at Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 290 male subjects exposed to 50-149 cGy showed significantly lower mortality from non-cancer death than age-matched unexposed males. This was deduced from the fitting of a U-shaped dose-response relationship. (author)

  12. Proceedings of 42nd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title: the special review lecture concerning the epidemiological evidences of multiple myeloma examination in A-bomb survivors (12-year study), the symposium concerning the medical care of A-bomb survivors in 21st century (5 presentations of medical care for the aged survivors, psychiatric approach and psychological care, future clinical studies and survivors' children in RERF, epidemiological study on the late effect of A-bomb radiation, and international cooperation of medical care in Semipalatinsk), and 51 general presentations. The general presentations included 1 article concerning external dose estimation in Ust-Kamenogorsk city, 7, the health care and management of the survivors, 9, cancer and its risk assessment (lung, uterine, stomach, liver and bone marrow), 1, arteriosclerosis, 10, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Chernobyl (mainly on thyroid cancer), 2, experimental animal studies of thyroid cancer and malformation, 9, genomic studies like gene rearrangement, REV1 SNPs, function analysis and regeneration medicine, and 12, histological and cytological studies concerning DNA/RNA extraction, gene expression, signal transduction and immune system. (K.H.)

  13. The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987

    A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author)

  14. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors

    This study was designed to investigate the correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. When 140 A-bomb survivors, collected from 31 medical facilities in Nagasaki and its surrounding areas, were analyzed using logistic regression model based on the data of 66,276 A-bomb survivors, the incidence of skin cancer was found to be significantly lower in A-bomb survivors exposed farther from the hypocenter. This was also noted when confining to either men or women. Among 25,942 A-bomb survivors, available using DS85 dosimetry system, in the RERF-Life Span Study sample and RERF-Adult Health Study sample (1958-1985), 47 A-bomb survivors were found to have skin cancer. For them, higher incidence of skin cancer was associated with larger radiation doses. Dose-response relationship for skin cancer was linear. Twenty five of the 47 A-bomb survivors (53%) histologically had basal cell carcinoma. Since 1975, an increased rate in the incidence of skin cancer has been noticeable in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,500 m than those exposed at ≥3,000 m. The number of excess cases of skin cancer was found to have been steadily increased since 1958. (N.K.)

  15. Epidemiologic study of breast cancer in a-bomb survivors

    A case-control study was made on female breast cancer cases and their matched controls in the Life Span Study sample. The index cases were detected during 1958-69 among the 251 breast cancer cases ascertained originally by McGregor et al. The purpose of this study was to define the epidemiologic risk factors of breast cancer among Japanese women, to test for radiation effects in the presence of other risk factors, and to search for interactions. The survey was conducted by interview at home visits for those residing in the Hiroshima and Nagasaki areas, and by mail survey for others. The interview was carried out by several trained interviewers. Information concerning suspected risk factors of breast cancer, such as familial history, education, age at menarche and menopause, marital history, reproductive history, history of breast feeding, etc., was collected for both index cases and controls. Out of 183 original pairs, analysis was made on 164 pairs with available information for both the index and control, using the method of matched samples described by Mantel and Haenszel. There was enhancement of risk for those exposed to high radiation dose (100 rad or more). Although most major results were similar to those of previous studies, a significant increase of risk was observed among those under one of the following conditions: actual duration of marriage was less than 10 years; number of pregnancies was two or less; and age at delivery of first live born child was 27 or over. These factors had a mutual interrelationship and cases with two or more of these risk factors showed higher risk than those with one. Additive interrelationship was demonstrated between radiation dose and these marital or reproductive risk factors in elevating the relative risk of breast cancer. (author)

  16. The impact of the reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry

    This report examines the anticipated impact of the adoption by RERF of a new atomic bomb radiation dosimetry system to replace the revised tentative 1965 dosimetry system (T65DR). The current binational effort to reassess A-bomb dosimetry will eventually produce information about air doses and attenuation due to shielding by structures and body tissue. A method for computing individual survivors' total body surface exposure doses and organ doses from such data was developed, and a set of interim 1985 dosimetry (I85D) estimates was computed by this method using the data available to RERF in late 1984. Estimates of I85D total body surface exposure doses could be computed for 64,804 of 91,231 exposed survivors with T65DR dose estimates; following present plans, revised dose estimates may become available for an additional group of 10,000 to 12,000 exposed survivors. Mortality from leukemia and from all cancers except leukemia was examined in relation to I85D total body surface exposure doses (gamma plus neutron); parallel analyses using T65DR exposure doses were also conducted for the same set of survivors. Overall estimates of radiogenic excess risk based on I85D total body surface doses were about 50 % greater than those based on T65DR doses. Nonsignificant differences of only 3 % or less between the radiogenic excess risks for Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors were observed in relation to I85D doses. Modification of the radiation dose response by sex, age at the time of the bombing, or time since exposure was qualitatively similar for I85D and T65DR. For both leukemia and nonleukemic cancer mortality, the radiogenic excess risk was found to increase as a linear function of I85D total body surface dose; significantly poorer fits were obtained with pure quadratic dose-response functions, while linear-quadratic dose responses did not provide significantly better fits. (J.P.N.)

  17. Proceedings of the 43rd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title, which including the special review lecture concerning the subjects and prospects in studies on the late health effects of A-bomb radiation; symposia concerning the significance and summary of health effects study of the children of A-bomb survivors at Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the ethical issues on human genome and genetic analyses, and on materials of survivors and their biology in the archive, and the technology (genetic effects of radiation in human mini-satellite loci and microarray-based comparative genome hybridization as its efficient methodology); and 40 general presentations. The general presentations involve 19 clinical health examination studies of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, related to cancer (4 presentations), immunology (4) and other general clinical observations; 7 clinical and basic studies on patients generated in the Tokai criticality accident (1), in Chernobyl (3), Belarus (1) and Nagasaki (2); 5 application studies of histological specimens; and 9 basic radiation biology studies related to carcinogenesis, p53, radio-sensitization or -sensitivity etc. (N.I.)

  18. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker's standpoint

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.)

  19. Experimental derivation of relative biological effectiveness of A-bomb neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and implications for risk assessment.

    Sasaki, M S; Nomura, T; Ejima, Y; Utsumi, H; Endo, S; Saito, I; Itoh, T; Hoshi, M

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological data on the health effects of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide the framework for setting limits for radiation risk and radiological protection. However, uncertainty remains in the equivalent dose, because it is generally believed that direct derivation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons from the epidemiological data on the survivors is difficult. To solve this problem, an alternative approach has been taken. The RBE of polyenergetic neutrons was determined for chromosome aberration formation in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro, compared with published data for tumor induction in experimental animals, and validated using epidemiological data from A-bomb survivors. The RBE of fission neutrons was dependent on dose but was independent of the energy spectrum. The same RBE regimen was observed for lymphocyte chromosome aberrations and tumors in mice and rats. Used as a weighting factor for A-bomb survivors, this RBE system was superior in eliminating the city difference in chromosome aberration frequencies and cancer mortality. The revision of the equivalent dose of A-bomb radiation using DS02 weighted by this RBE system reduces the cancer risk by a factor of 0.7 compared with the current estimates using DS86, with neutrons weighted by a constant RBE of 10. PMID:18582156

  20. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  1. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  2. The story of an A-bomb by Oppenheimer

    Song, Eun Yeong

    2005-06-15

    This book concentrates on an A-bomb by Oppenheimer. It is divided into eleven class, which are exile of excellent scientists, uranium atomic fission, situation the U.S. and Germany I, situation the U.S. and Germany II, air strike in pearl Harbor, plan for development of an A-bomb, military action to blow up heavy water plant, select on spot to drop an A-bomb, surrender and drop for an A-bomb and science of an A-bomb. This book is written to explain an A-bomb with form of storytelling.

  3. Late A-bomb effects on proliferation and mitotic inhibition of T- and B-lymphocytes

    In order to investigate late effects of ionization radiation and aging on T- and B-lymphocytes, mitotic ability of T- and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of 266 A-bomb survivors was examined by determining the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and pokeweed mitogen (PWM) were used as inducers. Furthermore, mitotic inhibition of lymphocytes induced by a lymphatic inhibitor which was in part prepared from ulex seed extracts (USE) was examined. A decreased reaction of peripheral lymphocytes to PHA was seen in men exposed to 100-199 rad; a decreased reaction to PWM was seen in women exposed to more than 200 rad. According to the age group at examination, these decreased reactions were remarkable in men aged 60 years or younger and women aged 60 years or older. Among men less than 60-year-old exposed to 100-199 rad, PWM-induced mitosis of lymphocytes tended to be inhibited remarkably by USE. These results suggest the involvement of late A-bomb effects in mitotic regulation of T- and B-lymphocytes of aged A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. Geographical shielding of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure

    This study was performed to collect data concerning the title in Old Nagasaki City for the future assessment of exposure effect on cancer mortality as there had been no such data in Nagasaki University. The City areas were classified in 237 regions shielded (45), partly shielded (41) and not-shielded (151) by hills surrounding the City along with the 5 steps of distances from <1.0 to 5 km or more from the hypocenter (503 m high) + Nishiyama region (shielded) with use of Using Arc View GIS (Geological Information System, USA). Cancer mortality in each region was studied on total 43,735 survivors directly exposed to A-bomb at the age of <30 y who had lived in the City on Jan. 1, 1970. Cancer death was studied on this cohort until Dec. 31, 2011 (during 42 years). Numbers of not-shielded people were estimated to be 8,779 (49.3%) males and 13,430 (51.8%) females. Curves vs time of their mortality per 100 thousands during the 42 years were found to have the peak of about 600 males exposed at 1.0-1.9 km from the hypocenter and about 350 females at <1.0 km. The higher was the mortality, the closer was the distance from the hypocenter. The correlation between the mortality and distance was thus found, but not in shielded people. The effect of this geographical shielding should be considered in assessment of Nagasaki A-bomb exposure. (T.T.)

  5. A long-term cohort study of the atomic-bomb survivors

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), the predecessor of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), was established in 1947 to conduct long-term, comprehensive epidemiological and genetic studies of the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Today this study still depends upon the voluntary cooperation of several tens of thousands of survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. An in-depth follow-up study of mortality in the study population of 120,000 persons, including A-bomb survivors and controls, has continued since 1950. The study of tumor incidence was initiated through record linkage with a tumor registry system in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1958. In the same year, biennial medical examinations of 20,000 individuals began. Follow-up studies also have been conducted on in-utero-exposed persons and first-generation offspring of the survivors. On the basis of these studies spanning nearly half a century, we know that the occurrence of leukemia and cancers associated with A-bomb radiation is higher than among the non-exposed. Among the A-bomb survivors, radiation cataracts, hyperparathyroidism, delayed growth and development, and chromosomal aberrations also occur more often. However, to date no evidence exists of genetic effects in the children of A-bomb survivors. It should be kept in mind that such study results could never be obtained without the cooperation of A-bomb survivors. (author). 53 refs

  6. The hypothesis of radiation-accelerated aging and the mortality of Japanese A-bomb victims

    The hypothesis that ionizing radiation accelerates aging is extremely difficult to investigate in man except at the level of mortality. Among the 82000 Japanese A-bomb survivors being followed for mortality, there were 14400 deaths from non-neoplastic diseases from October 1950 to September 1974, and this experience has been analysed for evidence of a non-specific mortality differential associated with radiation dose (kerma). Cause of death has been classified as follows: neoplastic diseases individually and in various groupings, tuberculosis, cerebrovascular diseases, cardiovascular diseases other than cerebrovascular, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, diseases of the digestive system, all other non-neoplastic diseases, and all non-neoplastic diseases. Although there is clear evidence of a radiation effect for many forms of cancer, mortality from other diseases contains little suggestion of a relationship to radiation dose. A superficial association between mortality from diseases of blood and blood-forming organs and radiation rests entirely on the carcinogenic effect of radiation, especially the leukaemogenic effect. Deaths from digestive diseases seem related to radiation dose but only in the 1971-74 period and among the Hiroshima survivors; the excess is small but occurred in all age groups. Thus far the mortality experience of the Japanese A-bomb survivors suggests that the life-shortening effect of whole-body human exposure to ionizing radiation derives from its carcinogenic effect, not from any acceleration of the aging process

  7. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    During a one-month period from June 13 through July 13, 1989, the seventh medical examination was conducted at five cities, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu, for A-bomb survivors residents in North America. Nine hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors, including 21 living in Canada, were confirmed, consisting of 234 men and 684 women as of the end of July 1989. The number was increased by 167, compared with that as of the end of July 1987. During the past three years, there were 40 deaths; and 878 A-bomb survivors (223 men and 655 women) are still alive. Ninety percent of the survivors came from Hiroshima. U.S. nationality was seen in 61% and Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights was seen in 32%. The majority (39%) of the A-bomb survivors were in their fifties, with an average age of 59.4 years. The survivors were residing in 26 states in the USA and in 3 provinces in Canada. The acquisition rate of the A-bomb survivors' health handbook was 52%. Four hundred and six A-bomb survivors participated in the medical examination, including one male and 8 female children born to A-bomb survivors. Questionnaire survey revealed a history of surgical resection for cancer in 21 survivors. Subjective symptoms included complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness of the body. Overall evaluation revealed the necessity of medical treatment or observation in 71%. This was independent of exposure status. Hypertension was the most common (27%), followed by obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Malignant tumors were seen in 9 survivors, consisting of 3 with breast cancer, 2 with colorectal cancer, and single survivors with lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, or hepatoma. Only 29% of them have had finantial guarantee for their health management according to the Japanese law. (N.K.)

  8. Epidemiologic study of meningioma in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Forty-five A-bomb survivors (10 men and 35 women) with surgically proven meningioma were examined, whose ages ranged from 45 to 80 years. According to distance from the hypocenter, 18 A-bomb survivors were exposed at <2,500 m and the other 27 were exposed at ≥2,500 m. The incidence of meningioma was significantly decreased in A-bomb survivors exposed farther from the hypocenter, revealing a high correlation between exposure distance and the incidence of meningioma. Since 1980, the incidence of meningioma was significantly increased in the <2,500 m exposed group than the ≥2,500 m exposed group. (N.K.)

  9. Chlorine-36 in granite samples from the Hiroshima A-bomb site

    Nagashima, Y.; Seki, R.; Matsuhiro, T.; Takahashi, T.; Sasa, K.; Sueki, K.; Hoshi, M.; Fujita, S.; Shizuma, K.; Hasai, H.

    2004-08-01

    36Cl is a long-lived radioisotope, which, because it is created mainly through a thermal neutron capture process by 35Cl, may be used to estimate the strength of thermal neutron flux from A-bombs or nuclear fuel facilities. The 36Cl contents in granite samples from the Hiroshima A-bomb site have been measured by the Cl-36 accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system at the University of Tsukuba. The 36Cl/Cl ratios deduced from the 36Cl measurements are compared with independent evaluations based upon the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) of the radiation doses received by the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb. The measurements corresponded well up to a ground distance of 1100 m, which proved the effectiveness of the DS02. Measurements of the 36Cl/Cl ratio of unexposed granite samples were 1.92 × 10-13 on average, and because the measured ratio for samples at a ground distance of 1163 m was 2.50 × 10-13, the assessment of the neutron flux by the 36Cl measurements of samples beyond about 1100 m is not practical. This limitation arises from the inability to distinguish bomb-induced Cl-36 from activation due to ambient sources.

  10. Cancer risk estimates from the combined Japanese A-bomb and Hodgkin cohorts for doses relevant to radiotherapy.

    Schneider, Uwe; Walsh, Linda

    2008-04-01

    Most information on the dose-response of radiation-induced cancer is derived from data on the A-bomb survivors who were exposed to gamma-rays and neutrons. Since, for radiation protection purposes, the dose span of main interest is between 0 and 1 Gy, the analysis of the A-bomb survivors is usually focused on this range. However, estimates of cancer risk for doses above 1 Gy are becoming more important for radiotherapy patients and for long-term manned missions in space research. Therefore in this work, emphasis is placed on doses relevant for radiotherapy with respect to radiation-induced solid cancer. The analysis of the A-bomb survivor's data was extended by including two extra high-dose categories (4-6 Sv and 6-13 Sv) and by an attempted combination with cancer data on patients receiving radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease. In addition, since there are some recent indications for a high neutron dose contribution, the data were fitted separately for three different values for the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the neutrons (10, 35 and 100) and a variable RBE as a function of dose. The data were fitted using a linear, a linear-exponential and a plateau-dose-response relationship. Best agreement was found for the plateau model with a dose-varying RBE. It can be concluded that for doses above 1 Gy there is a tendency for a nonlinear dose-response curve. In addition, there is evidence of a neutron RBE greater than 10 for the A-bomb survivor data. Many problems and uncertainties are involved in combing these two datasets. However, since very little is currently known about the shape of dose-response relationships for radiation-induced cancer in the radiotherapy dose range, this approach could be regarded as a first attempt to acquire more information on this area. The work presented here also provides the first direct evidence that the bending over of the solid cancer excess risk dose response curve for the A-bomb survivors, generally observed above 2 Gy

  11. Statistic analysis of death risk of A-bomb victim due to entrance in Hiroshima city

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the health effect of indirect exposure to A-bomb by estimation of mortality risk of the cohort entering the City along the passed days after explosion (Aug. 6, 1945) with consideration about sex and age at the exposure. Subjects were 47,144 survivors (27,062 males) at Jan. 1, 1970, who had been registered as the city entrance victim in ABS (Database of A-bomb Survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture), and followed-up until Dec. 31, 2010. Estimated was the risk of death due to malignant neoplasm except leukemia at their age t during the follow-up using t as the variable and based on multistage carcinogenetic hypothesis: parameters were estimated with Cox likelihood method optimized by comparison of logarithmic likelihood. It was recorded that 80% of males and 73% females entered the city before Aug. 8, and their average ages at entrance were 33.8 and 28.8 y, respectively. Until the follow-up end, 16% of males and 9% females died from the malignancy. When the radiation dose was assumed infinitively close to the natural dose later than Aug. 11, death risk of those who had entered the city before Aug. 8 was found significantly higher than those after that day. The excessive relative mortality risk from the malignancy at age 75 y was found to be 13% in males and 8% in females assuming that they had entered the city at age 20 y. (T.T.)

  12. Geographical distribution of radiation risk unaccountable by direct exposure dose in hiroshima A-bomb victims

    Death risks due to solid cancer were estimated from region to region where the A-bomb survivors had been actually exposed, to visualize the risk distribution on the map, which resulting in risk regional difference that had been unaccountable by direct exposure dose estimation. Analysis was performed with 3 hazard models of the previous one, + direct exposed dose as a confounding factor and, further, + spatial distance from the explosion point. Subjects were 37,382 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was set by 4,371 deaths due to cancer except leukemia, cancers of thyroid and breast. Confounding factors in the previous hazard model were sex, age at the exposure, dose and shielding. With the previous model, risk distribution was observed in a concentric circular region around the hypocenter and in an additional west to northwestern suburbs. The latter risk distribution was also seen with the second model in the same region, where dose decreased with -7 powers of the distance. When adjusted with -3 powers of the distance with the third model, the actual risk distribution was found best fitted, indicating the presence of distance-dependent risk. It was suggested that the region exposed to additional dose possibly derived from fallout had been the actual black rainfall area as those regions agreed with each other. (T.T.)

  13. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  14. Genetic effect of A-bomb radiation- Analysis of minisatellite regions detected by DNA fingerprint probe

    Kodaira, Mieko [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    In author's laboratory, screening of mutation in germ cells of A-bomb survivors is under investigation with use of 8 single-locus minisatellite probes and no increase in mutation rate has been detected hitherto. This paper reported results of screening on the minisatellite region, which consisting of short repeated base sequence, using a DNA fingerprint probe for 33.15 core sequence. Subjects were 50 A-bomb survivor families exposed to mean dose of 1.9 Sv (exposed group) or 0 Gy (control), having 64 or 60 children, respectively. DNA was extracted from their B cells established by EB virus and subjected to agarose-gel electrophoresis followed by southern blotting with some improvements for fingerprinting. On the fingerprints, numbers of the band detected in regions of >3.5 kb were 1080 in children of the exposed group (16.9/child) and 1024 (17.1) in the control group, indicating no detectable effect of exposure on the germ cell mutation rate in the region.(K.H.)

  15. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Pathological and Epidemiologic Study of Gastric Cancer in Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1959-77

    Matsuura, Hiroo; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Sekine, Ichiro; Ochi, Yoshimiti; Ohtake, Masanori

    1984-01-01

    A study to elucidate the effects of atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation exposure on the incidence of stomach cancer was conducted on 79,856 A-bomb survivors included in the Life Span Study sample for whom dose estimates are available. From cases diagnosed duri

  17. Late effects of radiation on survivors of Shintoku Women's High School students exposed at the Central Telephone Office

    A cohort study was made on late radiation effects, particularly on the incidence of breast cancer, in A-bomb survivors of Shintoku Women's High School students exposed at the central telephone office. Fifty-six percent of the students died at the central telephone office. Cytogenetical and physical examinations estimated that the survivors had been exposed to approximately 400 rad. The incidence of breast cancer was 24.9 times higher in the A-bomb survivors than in the control group. Data obtained support the previous reports describing the relationship between breast cancer and exposure to the A-bombing, and suggest that breast cancer occurs more frequently among A-bomb survivors exposed during puberty. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Comparison of Medical Data of Atomic-Bomb Survivors Resident in the U.S. and Hiroshima

    Ito, Chikako; Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki

    1982-01-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6-28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U. S., was reviewed as explained hereunder.1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91...

  19. Mass cancer survey of atomic bomb survivors

    This is an outcome of mass screening for breast and uterine cancers performed in A-bomb survivors during the period from August 1988 through March 1990. Among 1,770 participants in mass screening for breast cancer, detailed examination was judged to be necessary in 6.1%. The rate of participation in the subsequent examination was 81.5%. Breast cancer was detected in 6 patients, which was all invasive ductal carcinoma. The estimated detection rate for breast cacer was 0.47%. There were 1,648 participants in mass screening for uterine cancer. The rate of detailed examination required was 2.0%, and the rate of participation was 66.7%. Uterine cancer was detected in 5 A-bomb survivors, one of whom had metastasis of rectal cancer. The estimated detection rate was 0.45%. (N.K.)

  20. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    Oikawa Masahiro; Yoshiura Koh-ichiro; Kondo Hisayoshi; Miura Shiro; Nagayasu Takeshi; Nakashima Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using micr...

  1. Effective dose of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki as assessed by chromosomal effectiveness of spectrum energy photons and neutrons.

    Sasaki, M S; Endo, S; Ejima, Y; Saito, I; Okamura, K; Oka, Y; Hoshi, M

    2006-07-01

    The effective dose of combined spectrum energy neutrons and high energy spectrum gamma-rays in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has long been a matter of discussion. The reason is largely due to the paucity of biological data for high energy photons, particularly for those with an energy of tens of MeV. To circumvent this problem, a mathematical formalism was developed for the photon energy dependency of chromosomal effectiveness by reviewing a large number of data sets published in the literature on dicentric chromosome formation in human lymphocytes. The chromosomal effectiveness was expressed by a simple multiparametric function of photon energy, which made it possible to estimate the effective dose of spectrum energy photons and differential evaluation in the field of mixed neutron and gamma-ray exposure with an internal reference radiation. The effective dose of reactor-produced spectrum energy neutrons was insensitive to the fine structure of the energy distribution and was accessible by a generalized formula applicable to the A-bomb neutrons. Energy spectra of all sources of A-bomb gamma-rays at different tissue depths were simulated by a Monte Carlo calculation applied on an ICRU sphere. Using kerma-weighted chromosomal effectiveness of A-bomb spectrum energy photons, the effective dose of A-bomb neutrons was determined, where the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons was expressed by a dose-dependent variable RBE, RBE(gamma, D (n)), against A-bomb gamma-rays as an internal reference radiation. When the newly estimated variable RBE(gamma, D (n)) was applied to the chromosome data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the city difference was completely eliminated. The revised effective dose was about 35% larger in Hiroshima, 19% larger in Nagasaki and 26% larger for the combined cohort compared with that based on a constant RBE of 10. Since the differences are significantly large, the proposed effective dose might have an

  2. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea.

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-06-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined noncancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of noncancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors. PMID:16778377

  3. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor's health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.)

  4. Proceedings of 41st Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title of the special review lecture concerning the late effect research, the symposium concerning the Tokai JCO criticality accident (6 presentations: radiation quality and dose assessment, treatment of highly-irradiated patients, medical preparedness, health care with its global standard for the residents, health management of public, and proposal from a view of medical care supporting A-bomb survivors) and 47 general presentations. The general presentations included 6 concerning the health care and management of the survivors, 3, hematological examinations, 2, cancer risk (lung and mammary gland), 1, blood pressure, 1, urinary occult blood, 4, thyroid diseases involving its cancer, 5, health physics studies in relation to Semipalatinsk and/or Belarus-Chernobyl, 4, experimental studies using animals, 4, cytological studies like gene mutation, 17, basic radiation biology studies such as those on gene expression, cloning (human REV1), mutation, abnormal protein expression, apoptosis, and gene therapy of hepatoma cells. (K.H.)

  5. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  6. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  7. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  8. A survey on respiratory diseases of atomic bomb survivors using chest X-ray examination

    From April 1981 through March 1986, 39,363 A-bomb survivors older than 50 years of age underwent chest X-ray examination. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in men (28 %) than in women (13 %). The most common disease was old pulmonary tuberculosis in both men and women. The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis was remarkably high in survivors exposed directly to A-bomb radiation, when compared with controls. There was no data suggesting the relationship between the incidence of respiratory disease and exposure status such as the distance from ground zero. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts and lymphocytes from atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    In the last 30 years or so, the existence of individual differences in in vivo radiation sensitivity has been well recognized in the response of normal tissues, particularly skin tissue, of cancer patients in the course of radiation therapy. If a large variation in radiosensitivity truly exists, it is very important to compare the radiosensitivity between the A-bomb survivors and a general population. If A-bomb survivors include a disproportionately large number of either radioresistant or radiosensitive persons, the surviving population would provide a biased estimate of the true risk of radiogenic cancer. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Glaucoma in atomic bomb survivors.

    Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Takamatsu, Michiya; Tsuiki, Eiko; Uematsu, Masafumi; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Kumagami, Takeshi; Kitaoka, Takashi; Minamoto, Atsushi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji; Khattree, Ravindra; Hida, Ayumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-10-01

    Radiation has been associated with increases in noncancerous diseases. An effect of low-dose radiation on the prevalence of clinically detected glaucoma has not been previously reported. We therefore investigated the prevalence of glaucoma in A-bomb survivors and its possible association with radiation dose. A total of 1,589 people who participated in the clinical examination program for A-bomb survivors at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) between October 2006 and September 2008 and who had reconstructed radiation doses, were recruited into this cross-sectional screening study. The prevalence of glaucoma and its dose-response relationship to A-bomb radiation were measured. Each subject underwent an initial screening consisting of an interview and ophthalmological examination. Questionable cases with any indication of ocular disease, including glaucoma, were referred to local hospitals for more comprehensive evaluation. A diagnosis of glaucoma was made based on specific optic disc appearance, perimetric results and other ocular findings. Of 1,589 eligible people, we detected 284 (17.9%) cases of glaucoma overall, including 36 (2.3%) cases of primary open-angle glaucoma with intraocular pressure levels greater than 21 mmHg, 226 (14.2%) cases of normal-tension glaucoma and 25 (1.6%) cases of primary angle-closure glaucoma. Seven glaucoma risk factors were examined as potential confounders but only two needed to be included in the final model. Binary regression using a generalized estimating equation method, with adjustment for gender, age, city, cataract surgery or diabetes mellitus, revealed an odds ratio at 1 Gy of 1.31 (95% confidence interval 1.11-1.53, P = 0.001) in the case of normal-tension glaucoma, but no association for other types of glaucoma. The prevalence of normal-tension glaucoma may increase with A-bomb radiation dose, but uncertainties associated with nonparticipation (59% participation) suggest caution in the interpretation of these

  11. Risk of cancer among in utero children exposed to A-bomb radiation, 1950-84

    This study examines the risk of cancer (incidence) over a period of 40 years among the inutero exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and adds eight years of follow-up to a previous report which was confined to mortality. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these survivors in the first 14 years of life; both had been heavily exposed. Subsequent cancers have all been of the adult type. Not only did the observed cancers occur earlier in the ≥ 0.30 Gy dose group than in the 0 Gy dose group but the incidence continues to increase and the crude cumulative incidence rate, 40 years after the A-bombing, is 3.9-fold greater in the ≥ 0.30 Gy group. In the observation period 1950-84, based on the absorbed dose to the mother's uterus, as estimated by the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), the relative risk of cancer at 1 Gy is 3.77 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.14-13.48. For the entire ≥ 0.01 Gy dose group the average excess risk per 104 person-year-gray is 6.57 (0.07-14.49) and the estimated attributable risk is 40.9% (2.9%-90.2%). These results, when viewed in the perspective of fetus doses, suggest that susceptibility to radiation-induced cancers is higher in pre- than in postnatally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). However, definitive conclusions must await further follow-up studies. (author)

  12. Report on the results of the fifteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    The fifteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from May 11th through May 25th and from June 15th through June 29th, 2005, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fifteenth medical examination was 435, 68 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 73.1 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 51.8%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 19.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterus, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 12.8% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 26.2% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 16.9% of the survivors examined. Among the examinees of A-bomb survivors, statistically significant associations with exposure status were not found in any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  13. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. PMID:22440534

  14. Myelodysplastic syndromes in atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki. A preliminary analysis

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous hematological group characterized by an ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in a variety of cytopenias, morphological abnormalities of blood cells, chromosomal aberrations, and an increases risk of transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. Despite of its nature of close relation to leukemia, MDS has been not well investigated in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with over 80,000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki to assess the incidence of MDS and its relation with A-bomb exposure status. In a preliminary analysis, we confirmed 162 MDS cases during 1980 to 2004. The median age at diagnosis was 71 years old. The incidence rate was higher in men than women, and an inverse relationship was observed between incidence of MDS and the distance from the hypocenter. We suggest that A-bomb radiation may affect the occurrence of MDS in A-bomb survivors even more than 50 years passed after the explosion. Further detail analyses are necessary to confirm these results. (author)

  15. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P bomb survivors. PMID:23148507

  16. ESR dosimetry for atomic bomb survivors and radiologic technologists

    Tatsumi-Miyajima, Junko

    1987-06-01

    An individual absorbed dose for atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors and radiologic technologists has been estimated using a new personal dosimetry. This dosimetry is based on the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of the CO 33- radicals, which are produced in their teeth by radiation. Measurements were carried out to study the characteristics of the dosimetry; the ESR signals of the CO 33- radicals were stable and increased linearly with the radiation dose. In the evaluation of the absorbed dose, the ESR signals were considered to be a function of photon energy. The absorbed doses in ten cases of A-bomb victims and eight cases of radiologic technologists were determined. For A-bomb survivors, the adsorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, were consistent with the ones obtained using the calculations of the tissue dose in air of A-bomb, and also with the ones obtained using the chromosome measurements. For radiologic technologists, the absorbed doses, which were estimated using the ESR dosimetry, agreed with the ones calculated using the information on the occupational history and conditions. The advantages of this method are that the absorbed dose can be directly estimated by measuring the ESR signals obtained from the teeth of persons, who are exposed to radiation. Therefore, the ESR dosimetry is useful to estimate the accidental exposure and the long term cumulative dose.

  17. Investigation of stomach diseases in atomic bomb survivors, (3)

    Mass examinations of the stomach were performed on 13,412 a-bomb survivors from Oct. 1975 to Mar. 1979. The necessity rate for detailed examinations was 13.6% on the average, and it was a little lower than the average in Japan. That in women was higher than that in men. The performance rate of detailed examinations was very high (91.8%), which might be influenced by active appeals to have detailed examinations. The estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer was 0.27% on the average, and it was higher than that in mass examinations of Chugoku and Shikoku districts. A relationship between the estimated discovery rate of stomach cancer and exposure conditions was not clarified. The discovery rate of stomach cancer was supposed to be influenced strongly by aging of a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Statistical report of A-bomb survivors detailed health examinations October 197 - March 1976

    The subject was 82,705 persons, and the number of female was larger by about 16,000. The number of cases which were exposed to atomic bomb at places within 2.0 km far from the center of explosion was 476 (212 males and 264 females), and it was 10.2% of the total. With respect to a correlation of each item for general examinations estimated from the statistical values, the mean age of male was 52.9 years old, and correlations of age with the number of erythrocytes, blood sedimentation, and hemoglobin were high. The mean age of female was 53.3 years old, and a correlation of age with the maximum blood pressure was high, while correlations of age, with blood sedimentation, and hemoglobin were not so high. The number of leukocyte was directly proportional to urine sugar only in male. Correlation coefficients between urobilinogen and protein in urine were low in both female and male. A correlation between the maximum blood pressure and the minimum blood pressure was properly high, and the maximum blood pressure in both female and male was directly proportional to age. In female, both the maximum and minimum blood pressures were directly proportional to the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin. There was the highest correlation between the distance from the center of explosion and the minimum blood pressure in female and male. Factor analysis made on the basis of the above-mentioned correlation matrix demonstrated that the first factor was erythrocyte, and the second factor was blood pressure. (Kanao, N.)

  19. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    Glanz, J

    2002-01-01

    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  20. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN), which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA) was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread), which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05). The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively). The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15). Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40). Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005) independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for genome-wide aCGH analysis. Our results suggested that A-bomb

  1. Significance of genomic instability in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: analysis of microarray-comparative genomic hybridization

    Oikawa Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that ionizing radiation induces breast cancers among atomic bomb (A-bomb survivors. We have reported a higher incidence of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplification in breast cancers from A-bomb survivors. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of A-bomb radiation exposure on genomic instability (GIN, which is an important hallmark of carcinogenesis, in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues of breast cancer by using microarray-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH. Methods Tumor DNA was extracted from FFPE tissues of invasive ductal cancers from 15 survivors who were exposed at 1.5 km or less from the hypocenter and 13 calendar year-matched non-exposed patients followed by aCGH analysis using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray. The total length of copy number aberrations (CNA was used as an indicator of GIN, and correlation with clinicopathological factors were statistically tested. Results The mean of the derivative log ratio spread (DLRSpread, which estimates the noise by calculating the spread of log ratio differences between consecutive probes for all chromosomes, was 0.54 (range, 0.26 to 1.05. The concordance of results between aCGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for HER2 gene amplification was 88%. The incidence of HER2 amplification and histological grade was significantly higher in the A-bomb survivors than control group (P = 0.04, respectively. The total length of CNA tended to be larger in the A-bomb survivors (P = 0.15. Correlation analysis of CNA and clinicopathological factors revealed that DLRSpread was negatively correlated with that significantly (P = 0.034, r = -0.40. Multivariate analysis with covariance revealed that the exposure to A-bomb was a significant (P = 0.005 independent factor which was associated with larger total length of CNA of breast cancers. Conclusions Thus, archival FFPE tissues from A-bomb survivors are useful for

  2. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  3. Investigation of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Fourty two cases of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors experienced between 1971 and 1975 were compared to non-exposure cases with lung cancer, and discussed. The mean age of A-bomb survivors with lung cancer was 68.7 year old, and that of control cases was 60 year old. The incidence ratio of male to female in the group was 4 : 1, and that of control group was 5 : 1. Occupation was one of the predisposing causes, but patients who had engaged in the occupation which was considered to predispose lung cancer were three. Among 39 patients with lung cancer whose smoking histories were clarified, 20.5 per cent was nonsmoker, and 69.3 per cent was heavy smoker. Among 39 patients whose cancer histories were clarified, 28.2 per cent of the patients had family history of cancer. Subjective symptoms of this disease were cough, sputum, bloody sputum and chest pain, and some had no symptoms. Seventeen cases (40.5 per cent) were detected in the physical examination for the A-bomb survivors. For the early detection of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors, patients with high risk should be selected to have received clearly established diagnosis. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was seen in many cases, following adenoma, and undifferenciated large cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma. Disturbances in pulmonary functions were obstructive ventilation, high rate of residual air, lowered diffusions ability. Therapy was operation in stage I, chemotherapy and radiation therapy in stage II and stage III. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Degenerative diseases of the nervous system in atomic bomb survivors

    Degenerative diseases (DD) of the nervous system were observed in 169 of 23,418 A-bomb survivors enrolled in a cohort adult health survey. Senile dementia and parkinsonism accounted for 76 % of the DD. The incidence of DD tended to be higher with increasing exposure doses for women. This was significant for younger women at the time of bombing. No dose-dependence was seen for occurrence of DD in men. There was no significant difference in the incidence of DD between Hiroshima's and Nagasaki's survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins...

  7. Pragmatic evaluation of repercussions for radiological protection of recent revisions in Japanese A-bomb dosimetry

    The recent re-evaluation of the dose data for the Japanese A-bomb survivors shows significant differences from the doses used by UNSCEAR, BEIR and ICRP. In particular the neutron dose is now considered to be very small at both Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Detailed revision and application of the new dose estimates is an ongoing process and it may take some time for definitive risk estimates to emerge. In the interim it is considered important to review and encourage risk estimation using data other than those from Japan. Estimates are given of low-LET risks based on the data of UNSCEAR (1977) but specifically excluding the bomb data. A total cancer mortality risk figure is found which is within a factor of 2 of the value given in ICRP Publication 26, but in accord with estimates of BEIR and UNSCEAR before reduction to account for dose rate/response effects. The need to consider the revised dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki focuses attention on the paucity of data on which dose limits for high-LET radiation can be based. Here too it is necessary to concentrate effort on the best use of all available human data, however limited, such as those from radiotherapy, occupational and environmental exposures. (author)

  8. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  9. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  10. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  11. Capillary microscopic observations on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima 1972-73

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972-73 at ABCC in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 years after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 years after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956-57) were found to persist in the current study (1972-73) conducted 30 years after the A-bomb though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the fingernail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of the bomb. A statistically significant difference was not observed for labial mucosa and lingual mucosa because the number of cases available for scoring was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the 100+ rad group under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging. This is in accord with results of studies of A-bomb survivors which suggested that radiation induces life shortening attributable primarily to cancers, but not a general acceleration of the aging phenomenon. (author)

  12. Comments on the exposure distance as a factor of severity of A-bomb cataracts

    In the study of A-bomb disorders, it is important in decision of exposure dose to consider not only exposure distance from the hypocenter but also shelter factors, and 8 cases were reported as examples. Group 1 (4 cases) was exposed to A-bomb in the train 750 m east of the hypocenter, and group 2 (4 cases) was exposed in the concrete steel building 620 m east of the hypocenter. Age, exposure distance, exposure place, shelter condition, wounds, acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, radiation dose, condition of turbidity of the crystalline lens, effect of A-bomb on visual acuity of eight cases were listed in table. Group 1 was exposed to A-bomb at the place 130 m far from the place where group 2 was exposed, but the exposed dose of group 1 was equivalent to twice that of group 2. Acute symptoms due to A-bomb exposure, turbidity of the crystalline lens, and effect of A-bomb on visual acuity were by far stronger in group 1 than in group 2. It was stressed that physical history and treatment course of the patients with A-bomb cataract were enough to be important materials on the study of A-bomb disorders. (Serizawa, K.)

  13. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, 3

    To determine how quantitative changes and qualitative abnormalities of IL-6R receptor (IL-6R) is involved in proliferation promotion of myeloma cells, the expression of IL-6R and recomposition of IL-6R genes were examined in myeloma cells obtained from a total of 37 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) or plasma cell leukemia, including 6 A-bomb survivors. Among 6 A-bomb survivors, 4 had been directly exposed and the other two had entered the city after A-bombing. Binding assay performed in 10 patients revealed binding ability in all of them; the number of bound IL-6R was 31-2440/cell and Kd value was 1.2-3.7 x 10-10 M. Northern blot test revealed noticeable IL-6R mRNA expression in only one MM patient. Nor was definitive IL-6R expression observed by flow cytometry. There was no recomposition of IL-6R genes in any of 20 MM patients, including A-bomb survivors. This may deny extensively structural abnormality in the genetic area that activates IL-6R genes. Regarding the expression of IL-6R of myeloma cells, such as the number of IL-6R, Kd value, the expression of IL-6R mRNA, and the recomposition of IL-6R genes, there was no difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups. In elucidating the occurrence of M protenemia in A-bomb survivors, further studies are required concerning IL-6 and IL-6R involved in proliferation mechanism of myeloma cells. (N.K.)

  14. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (>2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. (author)

  15. Longitudinal trends of total white blood cell and differential white blood cell counts of atomic bomb survivors.

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Cologne, John; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2010-01-01

    In studying the late health effects of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, earlier findings were that white blood cell (WBC) count increased with radiation dose in cross-sectional studies. However, a persistent effect of radiation on WBC count and other risk factors has yet to be confirmed. The objectives of the present study were 1) to examine the longitudinal relationship between A-bomb radiation dose and WBC and differential WBC counts among A-bomb survivors and 2) to investigate the potential confounding risk factors (such as age at exposure and smoking status) as well as modification of the radiation dose-response. A total of 7,562 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were included in this study from 1964-2004. A linear mixed model was applied using the repeated WBC measurements. During the study period, a secular downward trend of WBC count was observed. Radiation exposure was a significant risk factor for elevated WBC and differential WBC counts over time. A significant increase of WBC counts among survivors with high radiation dose (> 2 Gy) was detected in men exposed below the age of 20 and in women regardless of age at exposure. Effects on WBC of low dose radiation remain unclear, however. Cigarette smoking produced the most pronounced effect on WBC counts and its impact was much larger than that of radiation exposure. PMID:20543527

  16. The prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Kawanishi, Masahiro; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Okamoto, Sukeyoshi; Kajiyama, Goro

    1992-03-01

    Prognosis of pancreatic carcinoma in 28 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors was compared with that in background- and tumor size-matched non-exposed patients living in Hiroshima. A-bomb survivors consisted of 13 exposed within 2,000 m from the hypocenter, 12 who had entered the city within 3 days after A-bombing, and 3 not clarified in detail. Survival time was significantly prolonged when tumor resection or surgical internal fistula for obstructive jaundice was performed. The significant therapeutic factor was thus adjusted by using the Cox model to clarify the difference in cumulative survival rates between the exposed and non-exposed groups of pancreatic cancer patients. Median survival was 120 days in the exposed group and 186 days in the non-exposed group. The corresponding figures for 75% and 25% cumulative survival rates were 175 days and 75 days in the exposed group and 238 days and 120 days in the non-exposed group. Prognosis was worse in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. (N.K.).

  17. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  18. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  19. Report on the results of the fourteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    The fourteenth medical examination of atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 18th through July 2nd and from July 24th through August 6th, 2003, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the fourteenth medical examination was 453, 65 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 71.6 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 45.4%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 15.7% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, colon, and prostate. As a result of the blood test, 14.9% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 28.4% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 21.2% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  20. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Urabe, Takeshi [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital (Japan)] [and others

    2002-05-01

    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  1. Leukaemia following childhood radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in medically exposed groups

    Incidence and mortality risks of radiation-associated leukaemia are surveyed in the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors exposed in early childhood and in utero. Leukaemia incidence and mortality risks are also surveyed in 16 other studies of persons who received appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment in childhood and for whom there is adequate dosimetry and cancer incidence or mortality follow-up. Relative risks tend to be lower in the medical series than in the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The relative risks in the medical studies tend to diminish with increasing average therapy dose. After taking account of cell sterilisation and dose fractionation, the apparent differences between the relative risks for leukaemia in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the medical series largely disappear. This suggests that cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy between the relative risks in the Japanese data and the medical studies. Excess absolute risk has also been assessed in four studies, and there is found to be more variability in this measure than in excess relative risk. In particular, there is a substantial difference between the absolute risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor data and those in three other (European) populations. In summary, the relative risks of leukaemia in studies of persons exposed to appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions in childhood are generally less than those in the Japanese A-bomb survivor data. The effects of cell sterilisation can largely explain the discrepancy between the Japanese and the medical series. (authors)

  2. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U. S. and Hiroshima

    Ito, Chikako (Hiroshima Atomic-Bomb Survivors Health Clinic (Japan)); Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki

    1982-06-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%.

  3. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  4. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  5. Early mortality rate of atomic bomb survivors based on House Reconstruction Survey

    This paper studies the mortality rate experienced by over 23000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki between September 1945 and 1950 when the RERF-ABCC initiated the follow-up of the large LSS cohort. The study is based on the data of the 10-year House Reconstruction Survey. As expected, these data show an increasing mortality rate with increasing proximity to the hypocenter of the bomb. What was not anticipated was a higher morality rate in the 1400-1699m band than in the closer distance interval of 1200-1399m. This suggests a possible selective survival among A-bomb survivors. Whether this affects the cancer risk estimates has not as yet been determined. (author)

  6. Non-cancer Diseases of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-01-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined non-cancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and ur...

  7. Report on the results of the eighteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    The eighteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 15th through 29th and from July 13th through 27th, 2011, in the cities of Los Angeles, Honolulu, San Francisco, and Seattle. The total number of those who underwent the eighteenth medical examination was 378, 77 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinees was 77.6 years. The examination items included an medical interview, clinical (including surgical and gynecological) examinations, physical measurement, electrocardiography (ECG), and hematology, blood biochemistry, urine, and fecal occult blood reaction tests, and cervical cancer screening. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of about 60%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in about 18% of the survivors examined, with major cancer sites being the prostate, mammary gland, colon, and uterus. As a result of the blood biochemistry test, about 38% and 67% of the survivors examined were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and dyslipidemia, respectively. Analyses of the A-bomb survivors who underwent this examination showed no statistically significant associations between exposure status and any disease or examination finding. A report providing the results of the medical examination and the necessity of undergoing closer examination, receiving medical treatment, and clinical follow-up, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  8. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    The relationship between multiple myeloma in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the estimated exposure dose is discussed. From October 1950 to December 1976 multiple myeloma was observed in 22 of 72,802 a-bomb survivors (54,116 in Hiroshima; 18,686 in Nagasaki) who were examined periodically in a life span survey by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The incidence per 1,000 was roughly 0.97 in a group exposed to over 100 rad, 0.30 in a group exposed to 1 to 99 rad, and 0.21 in a group exposed to less than 1 rad. There was a statistical difference (p<0.05) in relative risk which standardized city, sex, and age according to the controls exposed to less than 1 rad. An increase in risk in a group exposed to a large dose was marked in survivors aged 20 to 59 at the time of exposure. Multiple myeloma was not observed in those under 20 or over 60 years. An increase in risk in the group exposed to a large dose became marked 15 years after exposure. It is believed that the age factor, in addition to radiation, specifically influenced the occurrence of disease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  10. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  11. Capillary microscopic observation on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima, 1972--1973

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972 to 1973 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 yr after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 yr after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956 to 1957) were found to persist in the current study (1972 to 1973) conducted 30 yr after the A-bomb, though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the nail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of bomb (ATB). A statistically significant difference was not observed with labial and lingual mucosae because the number of cases available for score evaluation was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the group exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging

  12. Capillary microscopic observation on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima, 1972--1973

    Tsuya, A.; Wakano, Y.; Otake, M.; Dock, D.S.

    1977-11-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972 to 1973 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 yr after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 yr after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956 to 1957) were found to persist in the current study (1972 to 1973) conducted 30 yr after the A-bomb, though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the nail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of bomb (ATB). A statistically significant difference was not observed with labial and lingual mucosae because the number of cases available for score evaluation was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the group exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging.

  13. Significance of lenticular opacity from the view point of the exposure dose of A-bomb radiation

    Two cases of lenticular opacity were discussed from the view point of exposure dose of A-bomb radiation. Case 1: female, 22 year and 5 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was 482.0 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation. Case 2: female, 21 years and 6 months old when she was exposured to A-bomb radiation. The presumed exposure dose was more than 1,000 rad. Cataract due to A-bomb radiation and incipient cataract senilis. It was reported here that there was a marked difference in opacity findings of cataract due to A-bomb radiation in accordance with difference in exposure dose of radiation. It was also presumed from the findings of incipient cataract senilis that with increasing exposure dose, the aging phenomenon was promoted. (Y. Tsukamoto)

  14. Biological dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors exposed within 500 meters from the hypocenter and the health consequences.

    Kamada, N

    1999-12-01

    Seventy-eight atomic bomb survivors were examined for biological dosimetry using chromosome abnormality. They had been exposed within 500 meters from the hypocenter in heavily shielded conditions and were found from NHK-RIRBM joint study carried out from 1966 to 1971. Estimation of the exposure doses for these survivors was made under the following steps; 1) calculation by DS86 system (physically estimated doses) in survivors who had been exposed within 1,500 meters and had precise records of exposure conditions. RBE for the neutron was defined as 10. 2) setting of exposure dose-chromosome aberration curve, and 3) observation of chromosome aberrations in the proximally exposed survivors, for whom biological doses were estimated. Estimation of the exposure doses were possible from the aberration rate of chromosome in the peripheral lymphocytes, even 25-40 years after the exposure. Of the 78 survivors, 96% were estimated to have exposed more than one Sv. Detection of transforming gene(s) of N and K RAS genes in DNAs from non-leukemic survivors was carried out as one of the biological investigations for these heavily exposed survivors. All four survivors examined showed N or K RAS gene mutation. Three of the four healthy survivors had cancer or leukemia 7-10 years after the examination. Further continuous follow-up study of these heavily exposed people will give us more information on the late effects of A-bomb radiation, which may arise in the future. PMID:10805004

  15. Biological dosimetry of atomic bomb survivors exposed within 500 meters from the hypocenter and the health consequences

    Seventy eight atomic bomb survivors were examined for biological dosimetry using chromosome abnormality. They had been exposed within 500 meters from the hypocenter in heavily shielded conditions and were found from NHK-RIRBM joint study carried out from 1966 to 1971. Estimation of the exposure doses for these survivors was made under the following steps: calculation by DS86 system (physically estimated doses) in survivors who had been exposed within 1,500 meters and had precise records of exposure conditions. RBE for the neutron was defined as 10; setting of exposure dose-chromosome aberration curve; and observation of chromosome aberrations in the proximally exposed survivors, for whom biological doses were estimated. Estimation of the exposure doses were possible from the aberration rate of chromosome in the peripheral lymphocytes, even 25-40 years after the exposure. Of the 78 survivors, 96% were estimated to have exposed more than one Sv. Detection of transforming gene(s) of N and K RAS genes in DNAs from non-leukemic survivors was carried out as one of the biological investigations for these heavily exposed survivors. All four survivors examined showed N or K RAS gene mutation. Three of the four healthy survivors had cancer or leukemia 7-10 years after the examination. Further continuous follow-up study of these heavily exposed people will give us more information on the late effects of A-bomb radiation, which may arise in the future. (author)

  16. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U.S. and Hiroshima

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (author)

  17. Late effects in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to fallout and radioactivation

    With the results available today it is possible to determine a dose range for the 0-9 rad direct exposure group of the population. Absorbed doses within this group are taken to vary between 5 and 32 rad (upper limit). For the Early Entry group, absorbed doses between 5 and 44 rad (upper limit) are calculated. (orig.)

  18. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure. (author)

  19. Micronuclei and Chromosome Aberrations Found 1n Bone Marrow Cells and Lymphocytes from Thorotrast Patients and Atomic Bomb Survivors

    Tanaka, Kimio; Izumi, Takaki; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kamada, Nanao

    1984-01-01

    As two cytogenetic parameters of radiation exposure, the frequency of micronucleus in erythroblasts, lymphocytes and red cells (Howell-Jolly body) as well as chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and in lymphocytes were studied in 24 thorotrast patients and in 32 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors who were exposed within one kilometer from the Hiroshima hypocenter. The incidence of both micronucleus and chromosome aberrations in these two exposed groups were significantly higher than that i...

  20. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    Eiji Nakashima; Kazuo Neriishi; Wan-Ling Hsu

    2015-01-01

    For young atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total) effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), α1 globulin, and α2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers...

  1. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, 1

    The aim of this study was to determine whether IL-6 production from myeloma cells is influenced by A-bombing. Subjects were 20 patients with multiple myeloma, consisting of 9 A-bomb exposed patients and 11 non-exposed patients. According to disease types, 8 had IgG and one had BJ in the exposed group; 4 had IgG, 4 had IgA, and 3 had BJ in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, two were clinically staged as Stage I, 3 as Stage II, and 4 as Stage III; and one was staged as Stage I, 4 as Stage II, and 6 as Stage III in the non-exposed group. In both exposed and non-exposed groups, IL-6 production was observed in myeloma cells. There was no definitive difference in IL-6 production from myeloma cells between the groups. These findings suggest that IL-6 production is influenced by other factors than A-bombing. There is much to be done before promotion mechanism of multiple myeloma may be elucidated among A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  2. Notes of problems in estimating mortality rate among atomic-bomb survivors, 3

    Annual changes in death hazard were compared in the group in which persons entered the city after the A-bomb explosion and acquired a health handbook during the period 1968-1976 (the case group) and the group in which A-bomb survivors had already acquired it as of 1960 (the control group). Mortality was analyzed by malignant diseases, cardiovascular diseases, digestive system diseases, and respiratory system diseases. Death hazard from malignant tumors was markedly high 3 to 4 years after the acquisition of the health handbook, irrespective of sex, in the case group. For cardiovascular diseases, it was high up to 8 years after the acquisition in males of the case group; however, it tended to be slightly higher in women immediately after the acquisition, and thereafter, it was not different from that in the control group. For both digestive system diseases and respiratory system diseases, death hazard tended to be higher in the case group than the control group during 8 years after the acquisition. The fact that death hazard was higher in the case group than the control group several years after the acquisition means that the acquisition of health handbook may be triggered by worse health conditions in A-bomb survivors in the case group. (N.K.)

  3. Investigation of cardio-vascular reflex in atomic bomb survivors, (2)

    Electrographic R-R interval variation was examined in a total of 915 A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter (the ≤ 2,000 m group) and a total of 1,162 A-bomb survivors exposed at >3,000 m or entered the city after the A-bombing (the >3,000 m group). Coefficient of variation (CV) for R-R interval variation on ECG tended to be decreased with advancing age in the >3,000 m group, irrespective of sex. Especially for men in this group, CV values were significantly lower for the age group of 45 to 54 years than the groups of 65 to 74 years and 75 to 84 years. Similar tendency was observed for CV values at deep breath. Decreased CV values tended to be associated with a decrease in glucose tolerance in both men and women of the >3,000 m group. In comparing the aforementioned CV values with those in the ≤2,000 m group, there was no significant difference between the groups. R-R interval variation on ECG was found independent of exposure condition, although it was influenced by sex, age, and glucose tolerance. (N.K.)

  4. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors. PMID:22872680

  5. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B e antigen and antibody, and antigen subtypes in atomic bomb survivors

    On the basis of previous studies showing an association between hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity and radiation exposure in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors, we investigated further the active state of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection by incorporating tests of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B e antibody (anti-HBe) and HBsAg subtypes into our biennial health examinations. Among 6548 A-bomb survivors for whom HBsAg was assayed between July 1979 and July 1981, 129 persons were HBsAg positive. HBeAg and anti-HBe were measured in 104 of these persons and subtypes of HBsAg in 98 persons. Among those exposed to radiation (average liver dose 0.58 Sv), the odds ratio of HBsAg positivity tended to increase with radiation dose (P for trend = 0.024). The P values for association between the prevalence of HB e antigen and radiation dose were 0.094 and 0.17, respectively. The HB antigen subtype adr was predominant over other subtypes in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but the distribution of subtypes did not seem to differ in relation to radiation dose. These results suggested that A-bomb survivors remain in active state of HBV infection and that the mechanism(s) of seroconversion may be impaired. 29 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  7. Sociological and socio-psycho-historical problems of A-bomb exposed twin

    The atomic bombing of Hiroshima brought many casualities on human society, and collapsed human communities. The purpose of this study is to make mainly on pairs of monozygotic twins one of whom was exposed and the other was not, or both of whom were exposed, a general socio-psycho-historical investigations through a twin control study to find whether the bombing, which can be considered to cause major environmental changes, has had any psychological effects on the individuals. Due to the limited sample of atomic bomb exposed twins, in numbers available for study, it is necessary to have an understanding for their condions of the living and identity they have developed from the numerous mental stress they suffered, and rapid socio-cultural changes they experienced, including for changes in life from birth until the atomic bombing and aftermath of the disaster. As the result of this study, by depth interview, projective psychological research and research on socio-psycho-history of exposed twin and the nonexposed before the A-bomb and aftermath of disaster, the following were obtained: a) Although at the age of four and eight they exposed, they still keep it in clear memory of the damage and suffering in the minds. b) The damage and suffereng of the family who belonged were relatively small, the effects of their psychological sufferings continued even after these thirtyseven years. c) In the aftermath of the A-bomb disaster, the psychological bond showed strengthen through crises and following social distress. d) During the long period since the bombing, those who did not experienced A-bombing, have shown high degree of support and co-operation on their familial and social role to their counterpart. e) Even though their social or medical effects of A-bombing are relatively limited, if their spouse or close relative suffer psychological stress caused by A-bomb, they too suffer from their similar experiences. (J.P.N.)

  8. Availability of ultrasonography in health examination of atomic bomb survivors

    Kato, Masafumi; Mito, Kazuyo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Takayama, Sadamatsu; Ito, Chikako (Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Survivors Health Clinic (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    A total of 1424 A-bomb survivors, consisting of 596 men and 827 women, participated in the health screening during the period from August 1985 through March 1988. Abnormal findings of ultrasonography were observed in 64% for men and 53% for women. According to age groups, the incidence of abnormal findings tended to increase with aging in men. In women, it was independent of aging. The most common abnormal finding was billiary calculus (13%), followed by renal cyst, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and liver disturbance. Suspected hepatic tumor, hepatomegaly, liver disturbance, fatty liver, and liver cirrhosis were more frequent in men than women. The incidence of billiary or gallbladder calculus was significantly higher in women than men. Among 56 survivors (13%) with suspected malignancy, it was confirmed in 25 survivors (19 with primary or metastatic liver carcinoma, 3 with renal cell carcinoma, 2 with cholangiocarcinoma, and one with pancreatic carcinoma). Of 9 hepatoma patients, 8 had an increased alpha-fetoprotein. Hematologic findings were normal in all of the patients with renal cell carcinoma. (N.K.).

  9. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    Three hundred and sixty cases of breast cancer were collected from among the 63,000 female members of the RERF extended Life Span Study sample which includes atomic bomb exposed women and controls of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The relationship of these breast cancer cases to A-bomb radiation was sought, and in studying 5-year survival, the following conclusions were obtained concerning its relationship to histopathological findings: 1) The prognosis of the 50+ rad high dose group is the best, followed by the nonexposed group and the low dose group; 2) The apparently better survival may be due, at least in part, to the fact that this group is heavily weighted in favor of those who were younger at the time of the bomb; 3) There is no specificity of the histologic type of breast cancer in the survivors by dose; 4) Nor, is any significant difference observed in the distribution of tumor size and histological grade; 5) Cellular reaction is significantly marked at the stroma of carcinoma tissue in the high dose group; 6) Immune reaction is considered to be strong at the affected site of breast cancer in the high dose group and this can be regarded as a finding suggestive of good prognosis; 7) Further extended studies are therefore warranted. (author)

  10. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  11. Investigation of stomach disease in atomic bomb survivors. The 12th report

    Radiation can be an additional risk factor of stomach cancer (SC), of which major risk is said to be H. pylori infection in Japanese. This study was performed to see the correlation between A-bomb exposure and SC prevalence based on results of mass survey for stomach disease done from 2000 to 2009. Primary survey of A-bomb survivors was conducted by simple roentgenography followed by detailed examination of suspicious subjects for SC with gastric endoscope. Subjects with the detected cancer were classified in 3 groups of exposure situation of within-1.9 km close to (C), 2.0 km-distant from (D), and entrance in (E), the Hiroshima City. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test, and by relative and proportional attributable risk assumed on Poisson distribution. The total number of the survey subject was 65,864 involving 32,281 men. The proportion of subjects receiving the detailed examination was found as high as 89.3% (2000) and 93.9% (2009), and detection rate of SC was 0.34% in 2009 in contrast to the previous 0.25%. Relative and attributable risks of SC in C survivors were 2.24 and 55.8%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in D and E survivors. Proportion of SC at an early stage, 52.5%, was significantly lower in C survivors than that in E survivors, 68.4%. Further investigation was thought necessary as ICRP Pub 103 (2007) had concerned carcinogenic risk even at low dose (<20 mSv). (T.T.)

  12. Utilization of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique for detection of radiation-induced translocations in atomic bomb survivors

    This paper summarizes recent progress in a collaborative study by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and university of California, San Francisco, to investigate the utility of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with whole-chromosome probes (chromosomes 1, 2 and 4) for measurement of the frequencies of chromosomal translocations that have persisted for decades in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of A-bomb survivors. The frequencies of radiation-induced translocations measured between FISH and G-band/conventional stains for 33 Hiroshima a-bomb survivors (7 distally and 26 proximally exposed survivors with estimated DS86 bone marrow dose ranging from 0-3.0 Sv). Findings showed that, except for a few discrepant cases, translocation frequencies from the same survivors agree reasonably well between FISH and G-banding, provides the assumption that the number of breaks involved in the radiation-induced translocations increases linearly with chromosomal dna content. Present findings have validated that the FISH technique is a useful biological assay system for rapid and accurate detection of persistent translocations for quantification of previous exposures to ionizing radiation. (author). 9 refs

  13. Biochemical genetics study of children of atomic bomb survivors

    In order to investigate genetic effect of radiation, especially the rate of mutation, the presence of protein variants in plasma and blood cells of children (F1 generation) of A-bomb survivors was examined. Twenty four kinds of protein consisting of 6 serum proteins and 18 hemoglobin, sampled from 2,800 children have been studied to data by using starch gel electrophoresis. Variants were detected in 13 kinds of proteins in 91 samples and among which the variants were observed often in transferrin, phosphoglucomutase and phosphohexose isomerase. To know whether detected variant types were induced by mutation, 54 cases of parents were tested. Results indicated that same variant types were observed in either of their parents. From these findings, it was confirmed that the variation is genetic and was not related to A-bomb radiation to their parents. Though the incidence of variant types was different in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, The number of samples, is not big enough to conclude it to be regional difference. (Iwagami, H.)

  14. The Great SO2 Canister Case: Or, How to Stop Worrying and Dispose of a Bomb

    Spargo, P. E.

    1995-12-01

    One of the services that the Science Education Unit at the University of Cape Town offers to local schools is the disposal of old laboratory chemicals. Upon receiving a cannister half-filled with liquid sulfur dioxide and having a heavily corroded and jammed metal tap, the SEU was faced with the dilemma of practically needing to dispose of a bomb. This article recounts the story of the disposal of the cannister's contents.

  15. Clinical studies of lung cancer of atomic bomb survivors, 4

    A comparative study was made on complications of lung cancer in 188 A-bomb survivors (group 1) and 327 non-exposed patients (group 2) treated from 1972 through 1982. The incidence of complications was higher in group 1 (32 %) than in group 2 (20 %). Complications occurred most frequently in the respiratory system, followed by those in the circulatory system and diabetes mellitus in both groups. Patients with complications in the respiratory, circulatory, or nervous system tended to be inoperable. For patients with clinical stage I or II developing complications, the prognosis was worse as compared with those without complications. Long-term survival can be achieved in two patients with early stage lung cancer in whom surgical treatment was impossible because of the association of severe complications. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  17. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases—hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke—in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11 951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose–response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease. (paper)

  18. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study.

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy

    2013-06-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases-hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke-in the first-generation (F1) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11,951 F1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose-response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease. PMID:23482396

  19. The status of the seventh report in the series Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations and a revised dosimetry for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's A-bomb studies

    Results of a National Academies workshop and feasibility study led US Governmental agencies to request the Board on Radiation Effects Research of the National Research Council to commence a risk assessment study in 1998 as the seventh report in the series Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR VII). Originally targeted for completion in the autumn of 2001, the study Potential Health Effects of Exposure to Low Dose, Low-LET Ionizing Radiation was extended until the autumn of 2003 at the request of the sponsors. Two factors contributing to this decision are discussed: a revised dosimetry to update DS86 for the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's A-bomb-survivor studies and the potential for new information to become available from low-dose studies that are under way. Epidemiological and biological data since BEIR V are being considered by a BEIR VII committee composed of 17 members. The committee's statement of task is reviewed along with the major recommendations of the recent National Research Council report on the status of DS86 - recommendations that are being implemented by US and Japan dosimetry working groups. (author)

  20. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  1. Epidemiological studies among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors

    On the basis of results of surveys for the frequency of malignant tumors during the period 1946-1982 and mortality during the period 1946-1985 among the offspring of A-bomb survivors, genetic effects of A-bombing were retrospectively investigated. Among 67,574 children born to parents whose gonad doses could be estimated, 83 in the age group of 20 years or younger were found to develop cancer. Of these, only 18 were considered to have genetic cancers, such as retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and embryonal carcinoma. The other 31 and 34 patients had leukemia and other cancers, respectively. No significantly increased incidence of cancer was associated with radiation doses received in their parents. Genetic effects of A-bombing were considered responsible for 3% to 5% of spontaneously induced malignant tumors. Among 67,586 children born to parents whose gonad doses could be estimated, 3852 (5.7%) were dead during the period 1946-1985. Of these, 76% had died before the age of 4. Survey for mortality has also showed that there is no significant correlation between gonad doses in parents and cancer risk for their offspring. (N.K.)

  2. Circulating Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Aging Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-01-01

    It is not yet known whether hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are compromised in the aging population of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors after their exposure nearly 70 years ago. To address this, we evaluated age- and radiation-related changes in different subtypes of circulating HSPCs among the CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34(+)Lin(-)) cell population in 231 Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. We enumerated functional HSPC subtypes, including: cobblestone area-forming cells; long-term culture-initiating cells; erythroid burst-forming units; granulocyte and macrophage colony-forming units; and T-cell and natural killer cell progenitors using cell culture. We obtained the count of each HSPC subtype per unit volume of blood and the proportion of each HSPC subtype in CD34(+)Lin(-) cells to represent the lineage commitment trend. Multivariate analyses, using sex, age and radiation dose as variables, showed significantly decreased counts with age in the total CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population and all HSPC subtypes. As for the proportion, only T-cell progenitors decreased significantly with age, suggesting that the commitment to the T-cell lineage in HSPCs continuously declines with age throughout the lifetime. However, neither the CD34(+)Lin(-) cell population, nor HSPC subtypes showed significant radiation-induced dose-dependent changes in counts or proportions. Moreover, the correlations of the proportions among HSPC subtypes in the survivors properly revealed the hierarchy of lineage commitments. Taken together, our findings suggest that many years after exposure to radiation and with advancing age, the number and function of HSPCs in living survivors as a whole may have recovered to normal levels. PMID:26720799

  3. The neutron spectrum of the Hiroshima A-bomb and the Dosimetry System 1986

    Rühm, W.; Kato, K.; Korschinek, G.; Morinaga, H.; Urban, A.; Zerle, L.; Nolte, E.

    1990-12-01

    The radioisotope 41Ca produced by the Hiroshima A-bomb in a gravestone 107 m from the hypocenter was measured with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Munich accelerator laboratory. The resonance integral for the reaction 40Ca(n,γ) 41Ca was determined to be Iγ = (0.22 ± 0.02) b. This, together with γ spectrometric data on 60Co, 152Eu and 154Eu and AMS data on 36Cl from the same gravestone permitted deduction of the neutron energy spectrum and fluence at this distance in Hiroshima. The derived spectrum is much harder than the spectrum used in the Dosimetry System 1986, DS86.

  4. Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  5. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M

    2014-12-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  6. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. PMID:27169377

  7. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  8. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  9. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    This paper deals with the application of the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86) methods to individual survivors in the major study populations of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The author concludes that the new dosimetry is capable of computing organ doses for three age groups, for several postures and for various orientations, and that the end result is more reliable and precise for estimates of organ doses for individual survivors, but that on average the new organ doses are about the same as before because of compensating differences in the T65D (tentative 1965 dose) house-transmission and absorbed-dose factors for gamma rays. (UK)

  10. Results of lung cancer screening in atomic bomb survivors

    Risk of lung cancer in A-bomb survivors is reportedly increased. The screening in the title has been conducted since 1988 and this report summarizes its results of the latest 6-year term (2004-2009). The total number of subjects who visited authors' facility for the screening in the period was 39,147 men (average age 70.6 y) and 45,351 women (71.8 y), of the age range of 60-89 y. The screening results of the cancer were examined concerning with sex, age and exposure situation. As well, the relationship between the found cancer incidence and exposure in never, formerly and currently smoking subjects were also examined. Exposure situation was divided in 3 groups of the exposure by entrance in the city/by other reasons, within 2 km close (Close, C) to, and out of 2.1 km afar (Distant, D) from, the city. Statistic analysis was performed by Chi-squire and/or Fisher's exact test. The index of positive finding in the screening of the lung cancer per 1,000 subjects was the highest in C men of ages 70s, 2.88 subjects, which was statistically significant from 0.85 in D men of the same generation. In current smokers, the index 5.40 in C men of ages 70s was significantly higher than 0.90 in D men of the same generation. Overall, positive results tended to be high in survivors of C regardless to sex and smoking, and was significantly high in current smokers of C as above, both implying the particular necessity of promotion to stop smoking in survivors. (T.T.)

  11. Report on results of third medical examination of Atomic Bomb Survivors residing in the U. S

    Matsubara, H. (Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan)); Yamakido, M.; Ito, C.; Yamada, H.

    1982-01-01

    The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.3% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. Responses to the Health Survey Questionnaires numbered 255, and those with symptoms which appeared to be related to diseases were found at a high rate among the early entrants, but as the number of those receiving examination in this group was few, it is considered that many of those in poor health had come in for the examination. No association could be demonstrated between psychological complaints and exposure status. Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin values were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors, the cause being considered to be the larger intake of animal fat and sugar by those of Japanese ancestry than the indigenous Japanese. Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination or treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%.

  12. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B.; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, signif...

  13. Delayed damage from fallout and activated radiation of A-bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    In connection with an alternative approach to assess the risk of delayed damage from fallout and activated radiation of the A-bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the total doses absorbed were determined separately for the '0-9 rad T65D' and 'NIC' (Not In City) groups of individuals. The risk of organ damage from loosely ionising radiation in the low dose range was calculated on the basis of quantitative observations for mammary carcinomas and leukemia. Account was further taken of predictions about the dose-response relationship, including theories supporting the likelihood of linear and quadratic curves for the two organ lesions under investigation. The incidence of these diseases as indicated by the overall cancer index for Japan was taken as a control value. (ECB)

  14. Radiation May Indirectly Impair Growth Resulting in Reduced Standing Height via Subclinical Inflammation in Atomic-Bomb Survivors Exposed at Young Ages

    Eiji Nakashima

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For young atomic-bomb (A-bomb survivors, A-bomb radiation’s (total effect on standing height is thought to comprise the sum of direct effect and indirect effect via inflammation. With the data of five inflammatory markers—white blood cell count, sialic acid, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, α1 globulin, and α2 globulin—obtained in adulthood during the period 1988 to 1992, a summary inflammatory index was constructed as a surrogate for the five subclinical inflammatory markers. For 3,327 A-bomb survivors exposed at ages of less than 25 years, a structural equation model was analyzed to measure direct radiation effects on adult height as well as mediating effect of radiation via inflammation on the height after adjustment for other risk factors, smoking, cancer, inflammatory disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus. The mediation proportion of the radiation effect on height via inflammation was approximately 5% for both sexes for all ages, and indirect dose effects via inflammation were statistically significant for both sexes combined and for females exposed at ages 0 to 5 years. Indirect dose effects for all ages via sialic acid, corrected ESR, and α2 globulin were marginally significant for both sexes combined and for females. These proportions are likely underestimated.

  15. Survivors of the Nazi Holocaust.

    Chodoff, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Presents psychiatric evidence regarding immediate and long-term effects of concentration camp internment. Many survivors exhibit a concentration camp syndrome which somewhat resembles combat stress reaction; adaptive behavior of survivors is viewed as less important than luck. Language is considered inadequate to describe the psychological impact…

  16. Who are the cancer survivors?

    Hovaldt, Hanna Birkbak; Suppli, N P; Olsen, M H;

    2015-01-01

    Background: No nationwide studies on social position and prevalence of comorbidity among cancer survivors exist. Methods: We performed a nationwide prevalence study defining persons diagnosed with cancer 1943-2010 and alive on the census date 1 January 2011 as cancer survivors. Comorbidity was...

  17. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T3, F T4) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T4 (0.71∼1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45∼4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in the Sh group were thyroid

  18. What do therapy linacs and A-bombs have in common?

    Full text: The Japanese survivors of the atomic-bomb blasts of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are the main source of information on the biological effects of low doses of low LET radiations. The epidemiological studies of the survivors are supplemented by laboratory-based radio-biological studies. Whereas the survivors were exposed to radiation with a large component of high-energy radiations, >1 MeV, past radio-biological studies have predominantly used lower energy radiations. Recent radio-biological studies suggest that the biological effectiveness of low LET radiations is not independent of energy, as implicitly assumed in current radiation protection philosophy, but that RBE and energy are inversely related. Radio-biological studies comparing test radiations with atomic-bomb-like radiations should extend the generality of the epidemiological studies. A recent study (Pattison et al, Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 2001, in press) has shown the feasibility of using therapy linacs to simulate atomic-bomb radiations. In that study, a Philips SL15 linac was utilized as photon contamination of the electron beams was known to be small (<3%) and was ignored. In this study, a Varian 2100C linac was investigated as its output is well-characterized (Rogers et al, Medical Physics, 1995, 22, 503-524) allowing the effect of photon contamination to be investigated. The photon fluence spectra that were incident on the survivors were obtained partly from the DS86 report, and partly from George Kerr of ORNL. The photon radiation was transported through a model body representing the average survivor, using EGS4, in order to obtain the electron fluence spectra passing through the colon. The various radiations from the linac were transported, similarly, and in turn, through an experimental set-up in order to obtain the electron fluence spectra at a cell culture. Combinations of the linac radiations were then determined which produced a similar electron fluence spectrum through a cell

  19. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias, 1968-; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. METHODS As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age

  20. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm3/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm3/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune response to

  1. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    Yamamoto, Yasuji [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko (and others)

    2000-06-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean {+-}S.D.) was: 69.0{+-}8.69 years; males, 68.4{+-}80.5 years; females, 69.2{+-}8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  2. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean ±S.D.) was: 69.0±8.69 years; males, 68.4±80.5 years; females, 69.2±8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  3. Rehabilitating torture survivors

    Sjölund, Bengt H; Kastrup, Marianne; Montgomery, Edith;

    2009-01-01

    Refugees have often been exposed to torture in their countries of origin. A core issue is the resulting multifaceted presentation of somatic, psychological and social problems in the same individual, leading to severe activity limitations and participation restrictions. An international conference......, "Rehabilitating Torture Survivors", was organized by the Rehabilitation and Research Centre for Torture Victims (a rehabilitation clinic and global knowledge and research centre with government support) in collaboration with the Centre for Transcultural Psychiatry at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark, in...... December 2008. The main topics were: the context of torture; mental problems including psychotherapy; internet-based therapy and pharmaco-therapy; chronic pain; social integration and family; and functioning and rehabilitation. Available evidence highlights the importance of an interdisciplinary approach...

  4. A chromosome study of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in T lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Cytogenetic characterizations were made of lymphocyte colonies established from somatic mutation assays for 6-thioguanine (TG) resistance in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. G-banded chromosomes were analyzed in both TG-resistant (TGr) and wild-type (not TG-selected) colonies. Included were 45 TGr and 19 wild-type colonies derived from proximally exposed A-bomb survivors, as well as colonies from distally exposed control individuals who were not exposed to a significant level of A-bomb radiation (18 TGr and 9 wild-type colonies). Various structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes were observed in both TGr and wild-type colonies. Aberrations of the X chromosome, on which the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus is present, were found in six colonies: two resistant colonies from controls [45,X/46,XX; 46,X,ins(X)], three resistant colonies [45,X/46,XX/46,X,+mar; 46,X,t(Xq+;14q-); 46,Y,t(Xq-;5q+)], and one wild-type colony [45,X/47,XXX] from proximally exposed persons. In cases with exchange aberrations, each of the break points on the X chromosome was situated proximally to band q26 where the HPRT locus is known to be assigned. DNA replicating patterns were also studied, and it was found that abnormal X chromosomes showed early replicating patterns, while normal X chromosomes showed late replicating patterns. (author)

  5. CD14 and IL18 gene polymorphisms associated with colorectal cancer subsite risks among atomic bomb survivors.

    Hu, Yiqun; Yoshida, Kengo; Cologne, John B; Maki, Mayumi; Morishita, Yukari; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Nakachi, Kei; Hayashi, Tomonori

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy worldwide, and chronic inflammation is a risk factor for CRC. In this study, we carried out a cohort study among the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor population to investigate any association between immune- and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms and CRC. We examined the effects of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms of CD14 and IL18 on relative risks (RRs) of CRC. Results showed that RRs of CRC, overall and by anatomic subsite, significantly increased with increasing radiation dose. The CD14-911A/A genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for all CRC and distal CRC compared with the other two genotypes. In addition, the IL18-137 G/G genotype showed statistically significant higher risks for proximal colon cancer compared with the other two genotypes. In phenotype-genotype analyses, the CD14-911A/A genotype presented significantly higher levels of membrane and soluble CD14 compared with the other two genotypes, and the IL18-137 G/G genotype tended to be lower levels of plasma interleukin (IL)-18 compared with the other two genotypes. These results suggest the potential involvement of a CD14-mediated inflammatory response in the development of distal CRC and an IL18-mediated inflammatory response in the development of proximal colon cancer among A-bomb survivors. PMID:27081544

  6. Delayed effects of low-dose radiation on cellular immunity in atomic bomb survivors residing in the United States.

    Bloom, E T; Akiyama, M; Kusunoki, Y; Makinodan, T

    1987-05-01

    Several parameters of cellular immune function were assessed among persons who survived the 1945 atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki but who now reside in the United States. The subjects in this study were exposed to various low doses (T65D) of radiation at the time of the bomb. More than half received an estimated 0 Gy (S0 group). Of those exposed to more radiation (S+ group), nearly 90% received less than 0.50 Gy (50 rad). Lymphocytes were isolated from the peripheral blood of these individuals and were assessed for the following parameters of cellular immunity: mitogenic response to phytohemagglutinin, mitogenic response to allogeneic lymphocytes, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC), and interferon production. In every case, the response of the S+ group was greater than that of the S0 group, although only the difference for NCMC was statistically significant. Results of studies presently being performed on A-bomb survivors residing in Hiroshima do not confirm this difference. Therefore, it is difficult to say whether the increase in natural cytotoxicity observed among the American and not the Japanese A-bomb survivors exposed to very low doses of radiation is a hormetic effect which was modulated by post-radiation environmental conditions or a result of selective migration. PMID:3570796

  7. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience. PMID:21401461

  8. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth

    2007-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports a study to explore how cancer survivors talk about, experience and manage time in everyday life. BACKGROUND: There is an increasing interest in specific physical and psychosocial aspects of life after cancer diagnosis and treatment, but hardly any research follows cancer...... survivors over time to explore how perceptions and experiences change. METHODS: An exploratory study was carried out in 2002-2004 with a purposive sample of adults who had experienced various forms of cancer. Data collection included 9 weeks of participant observation at a Cancer Rehabilitation Centre and...... prioritize how and with whom they want to spend their time. CONCLUSION: With an increasing number of people being cured following a cancer diagnosis, nurses and oncology nurse specialists who work with cancer survivors must be aware of the fact that time is a central theme in understanding cancer survivors...

  9. Thyroid carcinoma in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1958 - 1976

    Relation between radiation dose and incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma in A-bomb survivors exposed with large doses was studied by analyzing 82 cases in total consisting of those reported by Parker et al. from 1956 to 1971 and additional 19 cases lately occurred until 1976. Among them, 40 cases were clinically evident cancer confirmed histologically from clinical findings, and 42 cases were silent cancer confirmed by autopsy findings. The incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma during these 18 years rose along with the increase of radiation dose, and especially, this trend is marked in women. More noticeable dose-response was observed in clinically evident cancer. In a dose-response curve, it was observed that the incidence rate tends to rise higher with an increase of doses. However, in terms of statistics, a significantly higher incidence rate than that of a control group of 0 rad was first observed in the group of 50 - 100 rad. As far as the annual changes of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma are concerned, the group of over 100 rad still showed an increase of the incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma. By ages when patients were exposed to A-bomb, a group of those exposed under 30 years old showed an increase of the incidence rate since 1968 or 1969, while the group of those exposed at relatively higher ages recorded the high incidence rate already in 1958 and showed no remarkable increase afterwards. Also it was indicated that a noticeable influence given by A-bomb radiation appears after cancer age. By histological types, papillary type and papillary sclerosing type were often observed in clonically evident cancer and silent cancer, respectively. Papillary type was rather often seen in the group of over 100 rad. (Iwagami, H.)

  10. Present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean atomic bomb survivors: a mail questionnaire survey.

    Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Many Koreans were forced to move to Japan while Korea was occupied by Japan. Consequently, when the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki an estimated 40,000 Koreans died and 30,000 survived. In 2004, 2,235 Koreans were registered as A-bomb survivors in South Korea. A mail questionnaire survey to evaluate the present status and self-reported diseases of the Korean survivors was conducted. In total, 1,256 questionnaires were returned and analysed. The most frequent chronic diseases reported by Korean survivors were hypertension (40.1 per cent), peptic ulcer disease (25.7 per cent), anaemia (23.3 per cent) and cataracts (23.1 per cent). The most frequent malignant diseases were stomach cancer (1.9 per cent), colon cancer (0.5 per cent) and leukaemia/multiple myeloma (0.4 per cent). This study suggests that further investigations are needed into the health concerns of the survivors and into health protection measures. PMID:16180735

  11. A cytogenetic study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    A total of 896 metaphases obtained from 2-d-cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes of 23 heavily exposed A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima were examined first after ordinary staining, and the re-examined after trypsin-G-band staining. The frequencies of cells with radiation-induced chromosome aberrations, mainly of the symmetric type, were compared for the two methods. There were 348 metaphases identified as having abnormal karyotypes by either one or both methods. Of these aberrant cells, 293 were found to have chromosome aberrations by the ordinary stain. There were 55 metaphases in which abnormalities were detected only by G-banding, while 6 cells were identified as abnormal by ordinary stain but as normal by G-banding, 4 of which were misjudged in the ordinary preparation due to the presence of partially distorted chromosomes. Further G-banding analysis identified various exchanges, including several types of insertions and paracentric inversions, which could not be detected by the ordinary staining technique. (author)

  12. Cell biological study in multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors

    The study was undertaken to determine differences in the expression of cell surface antigens in normal plasma cells and mature myeloma cells. The subjects were 20 patients with multiple myeloma, including 5 A-bomb survivors. Seven normal persons, four with chronic tonsillitis, one with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and two with chronic lymphadenitis served as controls. In the group of myeloma cells, 12 showed mature myeloma cells of VLA-4+/VLA-5+/MPC-1+, and the other 8 showed precursor myeloma cells of VLA-4+/VLA-5-/MPC-1-. In terms of CD56 and CD19, CD56+/CD19- were seen in 13 patients, CD56-/CD19- in 5, and CD56+/CD19+ in 2; none of the patients showed phenotype of CD56-/CD19+. In the control group, all showed VLA-4+/VLA-5+/MPC-1+/CD44+/CD56-/CD19+; phenotype of normal plasma cells was CD38++/CD56-/CD19+ alone, which was not seen in the group of mature myeloma cells. Thus, this type is considered characteristic to normal plasma cells. These findings revealed that the difference in the expression of CD56 and CD19 aids in the identification of myeloma cells from normal plasma cells. (N.K.)

  13. Radiation-related risks of non-cancer outcomes in the atomic bomb survivors.

    Ozasa, K; Takahashi, I; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Risks of non-cancer outcomes after exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation have been evaluated among the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort and its subcohort, the Adult Health Study (AHS). Information regarding non-cancer outcomes in the LSS is obtained from death certificates. In the AHS, members undergo clinical examinations biennially to determine their health status. Many AHS studies have been limited to participants attending the clinic over a limited period, and therefore have varying degrees of inferential utility; as such, care is required for comparison with the LSS results. Disease structure of non-cancer diseases in Japan has changed over the long follow-up period since the end of World War II. The health status of the A-bomb survivors may be associated with the hardships of living in a devastated city and impoverished country following the prolonged war effort, in addition to the direct effects of radiation exposure. Radiation-related risk of cardiovascular disease may have increased due to radiation-related increased risk of hypertension and other secondary associations, and the risk of atherosclerotic disorders has also been reported recently. These results should be interpreted with caution because of changes in disease definitions over the follow-up period. The radiation-related risk of non-cancer respiratory diseases also appears to have increased over the follow-up period, but the shapes of the dose-response curves have shown little consistency. PMID:26956675

  14. The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

  15. Medical X-ray doses' contributions to the ionizing radiation exposures of atomic-bomb survivors

    Doses from diagnostic radiological examinations were measured in order to evaluate the radiation risks of atomic-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Using a phantom human, doses to the active bone marrow, gonads, salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were determined by type of examination and by examination site. The results of this dosimetry program will aid in estimating the diagnostic exposure doses received by each participant in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The current results of these dosimetry studies also indicate that the effects of A-bomb exposure cannot be reliably assessed unless medical X-ray doses are carefully incorporated into these long-term evaluations. (author) 51 refs

  16. Report on results of third medical examination of Atomic Bomb Survivors residing in the U.S

    The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb survivors in the U.S. in 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.3% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. Responses to the Health Survey Questionnaires numbered 255, and those with symptoms which appeared to be related to diseases were found at a high rate among the early entrants, but as the number of those receiving examination in this group was few, it is considered that many of those in poor health had come in for the examination. No association could be demonstrated between psychological complaints and exposure status. Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin values were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors, the cause being considered to be the larger intake of animal fat and sugar by those of Japanese ancestry than the indigenous Japanese. Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination or treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (J.P.N.)

  17. Study of skin cancer incidence in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1958-85

    The effects of exposure to ionizing radiation on skin cancer incidence in a cohort of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in the Nagasaki Extended Life Span Study (LSS-E85) sample have been investigated. Among 25,942 exposed survivors at risk whose DS86 dose estimates were available, 47 cases of skin cancer including malignant melanoma were confirmed in the Nagasaki Tumor Registry during the period from 1 April 1958 to 31 December 1985. The dose-response relationship of skin cancer based on an additive relative risk model showed linearity without threshold, not a linear-quadratic curve. The excess relative risk (ERR) of 2.2 per gray in the LSS-E85 sample was highly significant (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 5.0). In addition, the ERR of 3.1 per gray in the Adult Health Study (AHS) sample was also significant (95% confidence limits: 0.6 to 20.3). When dose equivalents based on a relative biological effectiveness of neutrons of 10 were used, the ERR in the former sample decreased to 2.0 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.7-4.5), and the risk in the latter group also declined, to 2.7 per sievert (95% confidence limits: 0.6-17.8). The ERRs did not differ significantly between males and females in the LSS-E85 and AHS samples, but a highly significant increase was observed for the ERR of age at exposure and time trend since exposure. The ERR of skin cancer cases including and excluding 4 malignant melanoma cases for the LSS-E85 sample (there were no malignant melanoma cases in the AHS sample) showed almost the same linear dose response. This is the first report to demonstrate a highly significant dose-response relationship between A-bomb exposure and skin cancer incidence. (author)

  18. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

  19. A review of forty-five years study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Cancer risk among in utero-exposed survivors.

    Yoshimoto, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-03-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) continues to conduct a follow-up study initiated some years ago of cancer mortality and incidence among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki exposed in utero. Although only 18 incident cases of cancer were identified in the years 1950-1984 (of which 5 cases were in the 0 dose group), cancer risk appears to increase significantly as maternal uterine dose increases. Only two cases of childhood cancer were observed among these individuals in the first 14 years of life; both had been exposed to greater than or equal to 0.30 Gy. All other cases developed cancer in adulthood, and the cancers they developed are, in the main, the ones known to be elevated in frequency among the postnatally exposed survivors. The estimated relative risk for cancer at 1 Gy (uterine dose) is 3.77. The results suggest that the in utero group may have a higher risk than that seen among exposed adults because the individuals exposed in utero have not reached the major cancer prone age. However, since the observed cases are too few to allow a site-specific review, further follow-up studies are required to determine if the observed increased cancer risk can definitely be attributed to A-bomb radiation, although there appears to be a significant dose-related cancer response. PMID:1762110

  20. A-bomb radiation and evidence of late effects other than cancer.

    Stewart, A M; Kneale, G W

    1990-06-01

    Cancer risk coefficients for ionizing radiation are currently based on the assumption that, after the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there were no late effects of early selection (survival of the fittest) or acute marrow damage. These negative findings were the result of applying a linear model of relative risk to the deaths of 5-y survivors. By applying a linear-quadratic model to these deaths (i.e., a model with more than one degree of freedom), we have obtained evidence of longstanding competition between selection effects of the early deaths and other radiation effects, and also evidence that late effects of radiation include marrow damage as well as cancer. Consequently, the present method of risk estimation--by linear extrapolation of high dose effects--should no longer be used for estimating the cancer effects of occupational exposures or background radiation. PMID:2345104

  1. Somatic cell mutations at the glycophorin A locus in erythrocytes of atomic bomb survivors: Implications for radiation carcinogenesis

    To clarify the relationship between somatic cell mutations and radiation exposure, the frequency of hemizygous mutant erythrocytes at the glycophorin A (GPA) locus was measured by flow cytometry for 1,226 heterozygous atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in HIroshima and Nagasaki. For statistical analysis, both GPA mutant frequency and radiation dose were log-transformed to normalize skewed distributions of these variables. The GPA mutant frequency increased slightly but significantly with age at testing and with the number of cigarettes smoked. Also, mutant frequency was significantly higher in males than in females even with adjustment for smoking and was higher to Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. These characteristics of background GPA mutant frequency are qualitatively similar to those of background solid cancer incidence or mortality obtained from previous epidemiological studies of survivors. An analysis of the mutant frequency dose response using a descriptive model showed that the doubling dose is about 1.20 Sv [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.95-1.56], whereas the minimum dose for detecting a significant increase in mutant frequency is about 0.24 Sv (95% CI: 0.041-0.51). No significant effects of sex, city or age at the time of exposure on the dose response were detected. Interestingly, the doubling dose of the GPA mutant frequency was similar to that of solid cancer incidence in A-bomb survivors. This observation is in line with the hypothesis that radiation-induced somatic cell mutations are the major cause of excess cancer risk after radiation. 49 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care.

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, phealth disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors. PMID:26577277

  3. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  4. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    ... fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease stress that impairs ... to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new research. "We found ...

  5. Measurement of 63Ni produced in copper plate of the A-bomb dome in Hiroshima

    The amount of 63Ni produced by the 63Cu(n,p)63Ni reaction provides an important information for the first-neutron fluence of the Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bomb. For measuring 63Ni in exposed copper samples, two effective methods are considered. One is measuring the number of 63Ni atoms by AMS. Another is beta-ray measurement for 63Ni chemically separated form copper samples by the liquid scintillation detectors. In this work, the measurement of 63Ni produced in the copper plate of the A-bomb dome in Hiroshima was carried out by the latter method. 63Ni produced in the exposed copper plate was chemically separated by the following chemical procedure. In the first step, the copper sample was dissolved in mixed acid with Ni and Co carrier, and almost the whole Cu was removed by electrolysis. Ni component in the solution was separated by using anion exchange columm from Cu and Co component. The separated Ni component was purified by solvent extraction method. Finally the solution was refined by cation exchange method and was dissolved in HNO3 and evaporated to decompose organic materials. The chemical yield of Ni in this chemical separation was determined to be 93.5% by means of ICP-AES measurement for the aliquot of Ni component. Beta-rays of separated Ni components have been measured by low-background liquid scintillation counter to determine the activities of 63Ni at RI center of University of Tokyo. Used scintillator was Clearsol-I. Standard solutions of 63Ni in the solutions of various Ni concentrations were measured to obtain the detection efficiency including quenching effect. The 63Ni measurement is in progress. The activities of 63Ni in the sample will be compared with the data of the rain gutter of Hiroshima University, and the lightning rod samples of the Bank of Japan and the San-in Godo Bank obtained by our research group. The final results will be presented in the symposium.

  6. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  7. Survivors' Reactions: Suicide vs. Other Causes.

    McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.

    The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…

  8. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  9. Stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation

    Peoples, Hanne; Satink, Ton; Steultjens, Esther

    2011-01-01

    needs, 3) Physical and non-physical needs, 4) Being personally valued and treated with respect, 5) Collaboration with health care professionals and 6) Assuming responsibility and seizing control. DISCUSSION: The synthesis showed that stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation reflected individual......INTRODUCTION: The aim was to obtain the best available knowledge on stroke survivors' experiences of rehabilitation. The increase in demands for accountability in health care and acknowledgement of the importance of client participation in health decisions calls for systematic ways of integrating...

  10. Report of a workshop on the application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of atomic-bomb survivors

    A workshop, entitled 'application of molecular genetics to the study of mutation in the children of atomic-bomb survivors,' was held on November 12-14, 1991, which was presided over by Mortimer Mendelsohn and Toshiyuki Kumatori, co-chairmen of the RERF Scientific Council. The purpose of this workshop was to evaluate the status of the emerging DNA-oriented techniques for the study of mutation and to discuss possible developments that would bear upon the program. Although specific genetic follow-up studies of children of A-bomb survivors were addressed, it was clear to the participants that their discussions had much-wider implications -- most notably, the Chernobyl accidents of 1986. This report summarizes the contents of the lively 2.5-day meeting. A complete list of the invited participants is shown in the Appendix. (N.K.) 79 refs