WorldWideScience

Sample records for a-3 test stand

  1. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  2. TMS delivered for A-3 Test Stand

    2010-01-01

    A state-of-the-art thrust measurement system for the A-3 Test Stand under construction at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center was delivered March 17. Once completed, the A-3 stand (seen in background) will allow simulated high-altitude testing on the next generation of rocket engines for America's space program. Work on the stand began in 2007, with activation scheduled for 2012. The stand is the first major test structure to be built at Stennis since the 1960s. The recently delivered TMS was fabricated by Thrust Measurement Systems in Illinois. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with an accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds.

  3. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  4. Engineers conduct key water test for A-3 stand

    2009-01-01

    Water cascades from the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center as engineers challenge the limits of the high-pressure water system as part of the preparation process for the A-3 Test Stand under construction. Jeff Henderson, test director for Stennis' A Complex, led a series of tests Nov. 16-20, flowing water simultaneously on the A-1 and A-2 stands, followed by the A-1 and B-1 stands, to determine if the high-pressure industrial water facility pumps and the existing pipe system can support the needs of the A-3 stand. The stand is being built to test rocket engines that will carry astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit and will need about 300,000 gallons of water per minute when operating, but the Stennis system never had been tested to that level. The recent tests were successful in showing the water facility pumps can operate at that capacity - reaching 318,000 gallons per minute in one instance. However, officials continue to analyze data to determine if the system can provide the necessary pressure at that capacity and if the delivery system piping is adequate. 'We just think if there's a problem, it's better to identify and address it now rather than when A-3 is finished and it has to be dealt with,' Henderson said.

  5. The SPL Front End: A 3 MeV$H^{-}$ Test Stand at CERN

    Rossi, C; Caspers, Friedhelm; Garoby, R; Genest, J; Hanke, K; Hori, Masaki; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Magistris, M; Millich, Antonio; Paoluzzi, M; Sargsyan, E; Silari, M; Steiner, T; Vretenar, M; Beauvais, Pierre Yves; Ausset, P; LINAC'04

    2004-01-01

    In the frame of the SPL (Superconducting Proton Linac) study at CERN, a new 160 MeV proton injector for the CERN PS Booster is presently under development. This linear accelerator (Linac4) would not only be a first step towards a future, multi-MW superconducting linac, but would also improve in the medium term both the beam availability and beam quality for CERN’s proton users. Within the framework of the Linac4 study and with the support of the EU funded Joint Research Activity HIPPI (High Intensity Pulsed Proton Injectors), a 3 MeV test stand is under construction at CERN. This test stand will explore some of the most critical issues of the linac, such as the beam dynamics at low energy, with special emphasis on the chopper line that has been designed to generate the required time structure of the beam, to clean the beam halo, and to match it to the subsequent RF structures. In this context, a new Beam Shape and Halo Monitor is under construction. The beam acceleration will be performed by an RFQ that is ...

  6. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  7. High Brightness Test Stand

    The High Brightness Test Stand is a 2 MeV, less than or equal to 10 kA electron accelerator module. This accelerator module, designed as an upgrade prototype for the Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), combines solid state nonlinear magnetic drives with state-of-the-art induction linac technology. The facility serves a dual role, as it not only provides a test bed for this new technology, but is used to develop high brightness electron optics. We will both further describe the accelerator, as well as present some of the preliminary electron optics measurements

  8. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  9. Beam optics test stand

    The authors have constructed a beam optics test stand in order to study adaptive charged particle optics. A low energy, continuous electron beam is used to model a high energy negative ion beam. In addition, the beam can be used as a diagnostic probe to study the correction of spherical aberrations in a solenoid lens. The authors test stand design stresses versatility. The conical glass vacuum system has reentrant electron and diagnostic chambers that allow immediate experimental modifications. As an integral part of the vacuum system, the solenoid lens also serves as structural support for grid focusing systems. Vacuum pumping is provided by an 8'' cryopump and the entire system can be moved about freely. Computer control and data acquisition are interfaced to the beam control and diagnostics. A post acceleration grid and deflection plates have been added to a commercial electron gun to produce a 10 keV beam at 100 μA. The diagnostics consist of phosphor screens, a charge-coupled photodiode array, and an image dissector

  10. Crush Test Abuse Stand

    Collins, Jacob; Jeevarajan, Judith; Salinas, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this system is to simulate an internal short on battery cells by causing deformation (a crushing force) in a cell without penetration. This is performed by activating a hydraulic cylinder on one side of a blast wall with a hydraulic pump located on the other. The operator can control the rate of the crush by monitoring a local pressure gauge connected to the hydraulic cylinder or a load cell digital display located at the hydraulic pump control area. The internal short simulated would be considered a worst-case scenario of a manufacturer fs defect. This is a catastrophic failure of a cell and could be a very destructive event. Fully charged cells are to have an internal short simulated at the center of the length of the cell (away from terminals). The crush can be performed with a .- to 1-in. (.0.6- to 2.5-cm) rod placed crossways to the cell axis, causing deformation of the cell without penetration. The OCV (open-circuit voltage) and temperature of the cells, as well as the pressure and crushing force, are recorded during the operation. Occurrence of an internal short accompanied by any visible physical changes such as venting, fires, or explosions is reported. Typical analytical data examined after the test would be plots of voltage, temperature, and pressure or force versus time. The rate of crushing force can be increased or decreased based on how fast the operator pumps the hydraulic pump. The size of cylinder used to compress the battery cell can be easily changed by adding larger or smaller fittings onto the end of the hydraulic cylinder based on the battery/cell size being tested. The cell is crushed remotely and videotaped, allowing the operator to closely monitor the situation from a safe distance.

  11. High-voltage test stand at Livermore

    This paper describes the present design and future capability of the high-voltage test stand for neutral-beam sources at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The stand's immediate use will be for testing the full-scale sources (120 kV, 65 A) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. It will then be used to test parts of the sustaining source system (80 kV, 85 A) being designed for the Magnetic Fusion Test Facility. Following that will be an intensive effort to develop beams of up to 200 kV at 20 A by accelerating negative ions. The design of the test stand features a 5-MVA power supply feeding a vacuum tetrode that is used as a switch and regulator. The 500-kW arc supply and the 100-kW filament supply for the neutral-beam source are battery powered, thus eliminating one or two costly isolation transformers

  12. Electrohydraulic stand for testing lifting means

    Natalya Babochenko

    2014-01-01

    Article is devoted to electrohydraulic to create test benches for lifting equipment. The author suggests a test stand electrohydraulic lifting means in the form of large-scale working model of the hinge-rod hydraulic manipulator with articulated boom and with one space drive mechanism, as well as examining the use of electrohydraulic control system.

  13. Beam instrumentation for an ISOL test stand

    TRIUMF is constructing a test bed for the first stages of the proposed TISAC accelerated radioactive beam facility. We will present the requirements for the diagnostic system for this test stand and describe the design and development work underway. Scintillators, beamstops and Faraday Cup have been tested using stable, mass analyzed, 12 keV beams of ions from mass 14 to 132. The design of a linear drive, with 10 μm resolution, for scanning wires and slits has begun. (author)

  14. TMS installation at A-1 Test Stand

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center complete installation of the new thrust measurement system on the A-1 Test Stand. The new TMS is a state-of-the-art upgrade from the previous system, which was installed when the testing structure was built in the 1960s. It is an advanced calibration system capable of measuring vertical and horizontal thrust loads with accuracy within 0.15 percent at 225,000 pounds. It also will allow engineers to measure thrust as they gimbal (or tilt) engines during tests. The new TMS is part of upgrades for the A-1 Test Stand in preparation for testing the next generation of American space program rocket engines.

  15. Optimal testing of stand-by systems

    The optimal test policy for a safety stand-by system is considered. In this paper we introduce a closed loop policy: the tests are not fixed in advance but a testing decision can be taken at any time. The method of dynamic programming is used to find the optimal policy in the case of a single unit and of a two-unit redundant system. The results are compared with those that would be obtained in the case where the testing policy is fixed in advance. The subject is discussed in relation to nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Test Stand for Linear Induction Accelerator Optimization

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has designed and constructed a test stand to improve the voltage regulation in our Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator cell. The goal is to create a more mono-energetic electron beam that will create an x-ray source with a smaller spot size. Studying the interaction of the beam and pulse-power system with the accelerator cell will improve the design of high-current accelerators at Livermore and elsewhere. On the test stand, a standard FXR cell is driven by a flexible pulse-power system and the beam current is simulated with a switched center conductor. The test stand is fully instrumented with high-speed digitizers to document the effect of impedance mismatches when the cell is operated under various full-voltage conditions. A time-domain reflectometry technique was also developed to characterize the beam and cell interactions by measuring the impedance of the accelerator and pulse-power component. Computer models are being developed in parallel with the testing program to validate the measurements and evaluate different design changes. Both 3D transient electromagnetic and circuit models are being used

  17. Engineering design of vertical test stand cryostat

    Under Indian Institutions and Fermilab collaboration, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory are jointly developing 2K Vertical Test Stand (VTS) cryostats for testing SCRF cavities at 2K. The VTS cryostat has been designed for a large testing aperture of 86.36 cm for testing of 325 MHz Spoke resonators, 650 MHz and 1.3 GHz multi-cell SCRF cavities for Fermilab's Project-X. Units will be installed at Fermilab and RRCAT and used to test cavities for Project-X. A VTS cryostat comprises of liquid helium (LHe) vessel with internal magnetic shield, top insert plate equipped with cavity support stand and radiation shield, liquid nitrogen (LN2) shield and vacuum vessel with external magnetic shield. The engineering design and analysis of VTS cryostat has been carried out using ASME B and PV Code and Finite Element Analysis. Design of internal and external magnetic shields was performed to limit the magnetic field inside LHe vessel at the cavity surface 2 shield has been performed to check the effectiveness of LN2 cooling and for compliance with ASME piping code allowable stresses.

  18. Stand for testing the electrical race car engine

    Baier, M.; Franiasz, J.; Mierzwa, P.; Wylenzek, D.

    2015-11-01

    An engine test stand created especially for research of electrical race car is described in the paper. The car is an aim of Silesian Greenpower project whose participants build and test electrical vehicles to take part in international races in Great Britain. The engine test stand is used to test and measure the characteristics of vehicles and their engines. It has been designed particularly to test the electric cars engineered by students of Silesian Greenpower project. The article contains a description how the test stand works and shows its versatility in many areas. The paper presents both construction of the test stand, control system and sample results of conducted research. The engine test stand was designed and modified using PLM Siemens NX 8.5. The construction of the test stand is highly modular, which means it can be used both for testing the vehicle itself or for tests without the vehicle. The test stand has its own wheel, motor, powertrain and braking system with second engine. Such solution enables verifying various concepts without changing the construction of the vehicle. The control system and measurement system are realized by enabling National Instruments product myRIO (RIO - Reconfigurable Input/Output). This controller in combination with powerful LabVIEW environment performs as an advanced tool to control torque and speed simultaneously. It is crucial as far as the test stand is equipped in two motors - the one being tested and the braking one. The feedback loop is realized by an optical encoder cooperating with the rotor mounted on the wheel. The results of tests are shown live on the screen both as a chart and as single values. After performing several tests there is a report generated. The engine test stand is widely used during process of the Silesian Greenpower vehicle design. Its versatility enables powertrain testing, wheels and tires tests, thermal analysis and more.

  19. Down force calibration stand test report

    The Down Force Calibration Stand was developed to provide an improved means of calibrating equipment used to apply, display and record Core Sample Truck (CST) down force. Originally, four springs were used in parallel to provide a system of resistance that allowed increasing force over increasing displacement. This spring system, though originally deemed adequate, was eventually found to be unstable laterally. For this reason, it was determined that a new method for resisting down force was needed

  20. Heat transfer simulation of a solar test stand

    A transient heat transfer model for a solar test stand is presented here to predict temperatures of the absorber plates on a solar test stand, instead of consuming excessive time to conduct numerous experiments. Three zones are defined in this model for the test stand: glass, enclosed-air, plates/insulation layers. A radiation model for the glass layer is developed here to achieve more accurate simulation. This model combines a cold medium without scattering approximation for solar irradiation together with optically thick approximation for infrared thermal radiation, thereby simplifying the spectral dependence on the semitransparent medium of glass. The numerical simulation to obtain three-dimensional transient temperature predictions is made with the finite-volume discretization and alternating directional implicit (ADI) scheme together with the Crank–Nicolson approach. In addition, the coupling effects on the interfacial boundary are handled by the iterative method. The model is validated by comparing the measured temperatures with the predicted ones at selected positions. It is found that the deviations between measured and predicted temperatures on the absorbing plates fall within 3 K (about 1%), which validates the computational model developed in this study. - Highlights: • A 3D transient heat transfer model for a simple solar collector is developed. • Heat transfer processes in the solar collector with absorbing glazing are analyzed. • Radiative heat transfer is handled by using two main spectral bands in the system. • Predictions are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. • Experiments are conducted to provide the data for model validation

  1. First measurements with the test stand for optical beam tomography

    Wagner, Christopher; Meusel, Oliver; Ulrich, Ratzinger; Reichau, Hermine

    2011-01-01

    A test stand for optical beam tomography was developed. As a new non-destructive beam-diagnostic system for high current ion beams, the test stand will be installed in the low energy beam transport section (LEBT) of the Frankfurt Neutron Source (FRANZ) behind the chopper system. The test stand consists of a rotatable vacuum chamber with a mounted CCD camera. The maximum rotation angle amounts to 270°. In a first phase the optical beam profile measurement and 3D density reconstruction is teste...

  2. Engine Test Stand Design Constraints Expert System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Propulsion test stands are designed for thermal and pressure loads for certain classes of engines. These plume induced loads are: radiative heating, acoustics and...

  3. Spallation Neutron Source High-Power Protection Module Test Stand

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) High-Power Protection Module (HPM) provides interlocks and fast shutdown for the radio frequency (RF) system to protect the accelerating structures and high power RF (HPRF) Distribution System. The HPM has required some functional upgrades since the start of beam operations and an upgrade to the HPM test stand was required to support these added features. The HPM test stand currently verifies functionality, RF channel calibration, and measurement of the speed of shutdown to ensure the specifications are met. The upgraded test stand was implemented in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) to allow for future growth and flexibility. Work is currently progressing on automation of the test stand to better perform the required module calibration schedule.

  4. The Advanced Photon Source Injector Test Stand Control System

    MacLean, J F

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source (APS) primary and backup injectors consist of two thermionic-cathode rf guns. These guns are being upgraded to provide improved performance, to improve ease of maintenance, and to reduce downtime required for repair or replacement of a failed injector. As part of the process, an injector test stand is being prepared. This stand is effectively independent of the APS linac and will allow for complete characterization and validation of an injector prior to its installation into the APS linac. A modular control system for the test stand has been developed using standard APS control solutions with EPICS to deliver a flexible and comprehensive control system. The modularity of the system will allow both the future expansion of test stand functionality and the evaluation of new control techniques and solutions.

  5. The stand-alone test and decreasing serial cost sharing

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Thorlund-Petersen, Lars

    2000-01-01

    The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability. These conditi......The rule of decreasing serial cost sharing defined in de Frutos [1] over the class of concave cost functions may violate the important stand-alone test. Sufficient conditions for the test to be satisfied are given, in terms of individual rationality as well as coalitional stability...

  6. Uppsala High Power Test Stand for ESS Spoke Cavities

    Yogi, RA; Dancila, D; Gajewski, K; Hermansson, L; Noor, M; Wedberg, R; Santiago-Kern, R; Ekelöf, T; Lofnes, T; Ziemann, V; Goryashko, V; Ruber, R

    2013-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is one of the world’s most powerful neutron source. The ESS linac will accelerate 50mA pulse current of protons to 2.5GeV in 2.86 ms long pulses at a repetition rate of 14 Hz. It produces a beam with 5MW average power and 125MW peak power. ESS Spoke Linac consist of 28 superconducting spoke cavities, which will be developed by IPN Orsay, France. These Spoke Cavities will be tested at low power at IPN Orsay and high power testing will be performed in a high power test stand at Uppsala University. The test stand consists of tetrode based RF amplifier chain (352MHz, 350 kW) power and related RF distribution. Outputs of two tetrodes shall be combined with the hybrid coupler to produce 350 kW power. Preamplifier for a tetrode shall be solid state amplifier. As the spoke cavities are superconducting, the test stand also includes horizontal cryostat, Helium liquefier, test bunker etc. The paper describes features of the test stand in details.

  7. Analysis of seated and standing triple Wingate tests.

    Wilson, Robert W; Snyder, Ann C; Dorman, Jason C

    2009-05-01

    Observations of athletes in seated and standing cycling positions in laboratory and field settings have led to the perception that they produce different outputs. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in power output and physiological responses between seated and standing positions of athletes during 3 consecutive Wingate tests. Seven (n = 7) elite-level speedskaters completed 3 x 30-second Wingate tests (resistance = 7.5% body weight) with 3.5 minutes of recovery between each test in both seated and standing positions. During the recovery period, athletes pedaled against no resistance in the seated position. Testing was randomized and separated by at least 48 hours. Power output, heart rate, blood lactate, and muscle oxygenation data were collected. Statistical analysis of comparable tests (i.e., seated Wingate test 1 [WinD1] compared with standing Wingate test 1 [WinU1]; WinD2:WinU2; WinD3:WinU3) revealed no significant differences between the seated and standing variables. Position during a short-duration maximal-effort exercise test on a stationary bike did not produce statistically different results in power, maximal heart rate, blood lactate, or muscle oxygenation. As no differences were detected between positions, practitioners can allow subjects to choose their position. Also, if a subject rises out of the seat during a "seated" test, this change may not affect the subject's physiological variables. However, transitioning from one position to the other during the test is not advised due to the possible chance of injury. It should be acknowledged that there may be reasons for stipulating one position over another (e.g., injuries, leg length). PMID:19387391

  8. Design study of a test stand for ITER gyrotron

    In the frame of development of the ITER electron cyclotron wave (ECW) system, a two MW CW coaxial cavity gyrotron will be developed during the Sixth Framework Program (2003-2006). Such development relies on the availability of a test stand capable of providing the electrical energy and cooling capacity. This test stand will possibly be used, in a later stage, for the component test of the ITER ECW system. This paper will first present the main parameters of this new coaxial gyrotron. Then we describe the test stand itself, including the general requirements for testing and evaluating the behaviour of the RF source and then a description of the electrical system design. Compared to the ITER reference design, the test stand emphasises the requirement of flexibility, which is necessary during the development of the gyrotron. The additional electrical equipment is included in the overview of the electrical system. The cooling system will be an important part of the design study. Indeed, the design efficiency of such a depressed collector gyrotron is ∼50%, implying >4 MW of continuous heat dissipation and evacuation by the cooling equipment. The specifications of the cooling system must also comply with ITER reference design values

  9. Method’s and Test Stand for Electronic PID Controller

    Cristian Paul Chioncel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents method’s and a testing stand for electronic controller using for this a signal generator and a digital oscilloscope respectively the virtual instrumentation and the signal acquisitions from the controllers input and output through an data acquisition board and an PC on that Lab View program runs.

  10. Optimisation of the test policy of stand-by systems

    In a nuclear power plant there are several systems which are on stand-by position as, for instance, safety systems. These stand-by systems have to be ready to start as soon as any situation for which they have be designed occurs. A test policy is then necessary in order to know the state of such a system and repair the possible failures. The tests are normally performed at regular intervals of time according to a scheduled sequence. We have already shown during the 'IIIeme Congres National de Fiabilite' held in Perros-Guirec in 1976 how it is possible in this case to find the optimum test interval leading to the best mean availability of the system. It is, in fact, possible, to improve that by considering that if the test interval is fixed 'a priori' this does not allow to take into account information we have on the system state every time

  11. A3 Subscale Diffuser Test Article Design

    Saunders, G. P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed description of the design of the A3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Article Design. The subscale diffuser is a geometrically accurate scale model of the A3 altitude rocket facility. It was designed and built to support the SDT risk mitigation project located at the E3 facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC) supporting the design and construction of the A3 facility at SSC. The subscale test article is outfitted with a large array of instrumentation to support the design verification of the A3 facility. The mechanical design of the subscale diffuser and test instrumentation are described here

  12. Stand for visual ultrasonic testing of spent fuel

    A stand for visual and ultrasonic testing of spent fuel, constructed under Strategic Governmental Programme for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste, is presented in the paper. The stand, named 'STEND-1', built up at the Institute of Atomic Energy in Swjerk, is appointed for underwater visual testing of spent fuel elements type MR6 and WWR by means of TV-CCD camera and image processing system and for ultrasonic scanning of external surface of these elements by means of video scan immersion transducer and straight UHT connector. 'STEND-1' is built using flexible in use, high-tensile, anodized aluminum profiles. All the profiles feature longitudinal grooves to accommodate connecting elements and for the attachment of accessories at any position. They are also characterised by straight-through core bores for use with standard fastening elements and to accommodate accessory components. Stand, equipped with automatic control and processing system based on personal computer, may be manually or automatically controlled. Control system of movements of the camera in the vertical axis and rotational movement of spent fuel element permits to fix chosen location of fuel element with accuracy better than 0.1 mm. High resolution of ultrasonic method allows to record damages of outer surface of order 0.1 mm. The results of visual testing of spent fuel are recorded on video tape and then may be stored on the hard disc of the personal computer and presented in shape of photo or picture. Only selected damage surfaces of spent fuel elements are tested by means of ultrasonic scanning. All possibilities of the stand and results of visual testing of spent fuel type WWR are presented in the paper. (author)

  13. A Test Stand System for High-Energy Physics Applications

    Cardoso, Guilherme; Andresen, Jeff; Chramowicz, John; Deuerling, Greg; Menasce, Dario; Prosser, Alan; Rivera, Ryan; Uplegger, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    The Front-End R&D group at Fermilab has been developing pixel hybridized modules and silicon strip detectors for the past decade for high-energy physics experiments. To accomplish this goal, one of the activities the group has been working on includes the development of a flexible high-speed and high-bandwidth data acquisition and test system to characterize front-end electronics. In this paper, we present a general purpose PCI-based test stand system developed to meet the stringent requirements of testing silicon strip and pixel detectors. The test stand is based on a platform that is flexible enough to be adapted to different types of front-end electronics. This system has been used to test the performance of the electronics for different experiments such as BTeV, CDF, CMS, and Phenix. The paper presents the capabilities of the system and how it can be adapted to meet the testing requirements of different applications.

  14. The cathode test stand for the DARHT second-axis

    The injector for the DARHT second-axis injector will use an 8-in. thermionic dispenser cathode. Because the cathode is relatively large and requires a large amount of heat (5 kW) there are certain engineering issues that need to be addressed, before the DARHT injector reaches the final design stage. The Cathode Test Stand (CTS) will be used to address those concerns. The CTS is a new facility, presently under construction. The CTS will consist of a high-voltage pulse modulator, a high-vacuum diode test-chamber, and a short beam-transport section with diagnostics. This paper discusses the status of the project

  15. High-Voltage Terminal Test of Test Stand for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    Park, Sae-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high-pressure vessel. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The results of the 300-kV high-voltage terminal tests are presented in this paper.

  16. Testing stand for cosmic gas-cooling fast reactor's sample

    For carrying out of technical decision and nuclear, radiation and technological safety of gas-cooling space nuclear power plants is elaborating gas-cooling fast reactor's testing stand. In the base of its draft is taken conception of the reactor with filling up type reactor core on the base of ball fuel elements and radial coolant flowing. On the testing stand would suggested carrying out testing for study neutron and physical parameters of gas-cooling reactor, its behaviour under accident simulation. In the reactor core will suggest use carbon nitrides fuel elements with tungsten cover, provides under nominal regime relatively low fission products yield to first contour of device. Construction of fuel element was carrying out on reactor and non reactor testing and its calculated on working resource about 3000 hours. Constructive materials of reactor core have lower melting temperature, that provides organized in good time remove fuel element to containers placed under reactor in case connected with hypothetical accident. In the construction of reactor for seen tree-contours system of heat transfer and its provides multistage system of barriers against fission products yield to environment. tabs.1

  17. Optical test stand for SiPM characterisation

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are versatile and hence interesting semiconductor based detectors for detection of single photons. This makes SiPMs ideal detectors for particle and astroparticle physics experiments. The SiPM characteristics include absolute and relative photon detection efficiency (PDE) and furthermore noise phenomena such as after pulsing and optical crosstalk as well as thermal noise. We have developed a test device, capable of measuring the above in a compact setup featuring devices for pulsing single wavelength LEDs and for providing constant white light that are designed especially for these testing purposes. Readout is carried out via QDC and FADC hardware and all testing mentioned above is integrated in one single setup, running fully automated. One main focus is on the resolution of the optical monochromator for studying the SiPM properties as a function of wavelength. The optical test stand for precision measurements on SiPM characteristics as well as results of these measurements are presented.

  18. TRAVELLING WAVE AND STANDING WAVE SINGLE CELL HIGH GRADIENT TESTS

    Accelerating gradient is one of the crucial parameters affecting design, construction and cost of next-generation linear accelerators. Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is limited by rf breakdown. In this paper we describe an experimental setup for study of these limits for 11.4 GHz travelingwave and standing-wave accelerating structures. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype structures for the Next Linear Collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures and in the mode converters are significantly lower than in this single cell. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn around time. Here we present design considerations and describe planned experiments

  19. Traveling Wave and Standing Wave Single Cell High Gradient Tests

    Dolgashev, V A

    2004-01-01

    Accelerating gradient is one of the crucial parameters affecting design, construction and cost of next-generation linear accelerators. Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is limited by rf breakdown. In this paper we describe an experimental setup for study of these limits for 11.4 GHz traveling-wave and standing-wave accelerating structures. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode and short test structures. The test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype structures for the Next Linear Collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures and in the mode converters are significantly lower then in this single cell. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn around time. In this paper we present design considerations and initial experimental data.

  20. Cryomdoule Test Stand Reduced-Magnetic Support Design at Fermilab

    McGee, Mike [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, Saravan Kumar [Fermilab; Crawford, Anthony [Fermilab; Harms, Elvin [Fermilab; Leibfritz, Jerry [Fermilab; Wu, Genfa [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In a partnership with SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) and Jefferson Lab, Fermilab will assemble and test 17 of the 35 total 1.3 GHz cryomodules for the Linac Coherent Light Source II (LCLS-II) Project. These devices will be tested at Fermilab's Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) within the Cryomodule Test Stand (CMTS-1) cave. The problem of magnetic pollution became one of major issues during design stage of the LCLS-II cryomodule as the average quality factor of the accelerating cavities is specified to be 2.7 x 10¹⁰. One of the possible ways to mitigate the effect of stray magnetic fields and to keep it below the goal of 5 mGauss involves the application of low permeable materials. Initial permeability and magnetic measurement studies regarding the use of 316L stainless steel material indicated that cold work (machining) and heat affected zones from welding would be acceptable.

  1. Control system for the CSNS ion source test stand

    A penning plasma surface H- ion source test stand for the CSNS has just been constructed at the IHEP. In order to achieve a safe and reliable system, nearly all devices of the ion source are designed to have the capability of both local and remote operation function. The control system consists of PLCs and EPICS real-time software tools separately serving device control and monitoring, PLC integration and OPI support. This paper summarizes the hardware and software implementation satisfying the requirements of the ion source control system.(authors)

  2. The Cold Dark Matter Search test stand warm electronics card

    Hines, Bruce; /Colorado U., Denver; Hansen, Sten; /Fermilab; Huber, Martin; /Colorado U., Denver; Kiper, Terry; /Fermilab; Rau, Wolfgang; /Queen' s U., Kingston; Saab, Tarek; /Florida U.; Seitz, Dennis; Sundqvist, Kyle; /UC, Berkeley; Mandic, Vuk; /Minnesota U.

    2010-11-01

    A card which does the signal processing for four SQUID amplifiers and two charge sensitive channels is described. The card performs the same functions as is presently done with two custom 9U x 280mm Eurocard modules, a commercial multi-channel VME digitizer, a PCI to GPIB interface, a PCI to VME interface and a custom built linear power supply. By integrating these functions onto a single card and using the power over Ethernet standard, the infrastructure requirements for instrumenting a Cold Dark Matter Search (CDMS) detector test stand are significantly reduced.

  3. Multi-harmonic RF test stand for RF breakdown studies

    A multi-harmonic RF test stand is under construction at Yale Beam Physics Laboratory. It includes a frequency multiplier which can generate high power harmonics efficiently that are phase locked to the fundamental drive frequency. In a bi-modal asymmetric cavity powered by this RF source, the cavity may experience reduced exposure time to peak fields and sweeping of peak fields across their surfaces, and strong asymmetry between surfaces that may experience cathode-and anode-like fields; these phenomena are to be assessed for their influence on RF breakdown probabilities.

  4. Mobile stand for testing charging machine ram devices

    The equipment described is designed to functional testing of the charging machine (CM) end, in laboratory or NPP conditions, over the span of maintenance activities. It appears to be a portable panel that can be easily coupled to the regulation and control elements of the ram driving systems. Such an equipment occurred as necessary following the analyses of the results and technical problems issued from the technical assistance services which INR Pitesti performed for Cernavoda NPP in the period 1996-1999. The experience acquired from these works resulted in a new design and execution of the CM ram devices the characteristics of which are indicated. The equipment was certified and is now successfully utilized at INR Pitesti and Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The mobile stand will be used in the near future for testing operations of the CM ends number 4 and 5 destined to Cernavoda NPP Unit 2, planned for year 2002

  5. HESTIA Commodities Exchange Pallet and Sounding Rocket Test Stand

    Chaparro, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During my Spring 2016 internship, my two major contributions were the design of the Commodities Exchange Pallet and the design of a test stand for a 100 pounds-thrust sounding rocket. The Commodities Exchange Pallet is a prototype developed for the Human Exploration Spacecraft Testbed for Integration and Advancement (HESTIA) program. Under the HESTIA initiative the Commodities Exchange Pallet was developed as a method for demonstrating multi-system integration thru the transportation of In-Situ Resource Utilization produced oxygen and water to a human habitat. Ultimately, this prototype's performance will allow for future evaluation of integration, which may lead to the development of a flight capable pallet for future deep-space exploration missions. For HESTIA, my main task was to design the Commodities Exchange Pallet system to be used for completing an integration demonstration. Under the guidance of my mentor, I designed, both, the structural frame and fluid delivery system for the commodities pallet. The fluid delivery system includes a liquid-oxygen to gaseous-oxygen system, a water delivery system, and a carbon-dioxide compressors system. The structural frame is designed to meet safety and transportation requirements, as well as the ability to interface with the ER division's Portable Utility Pallet. The commodities pallet structure also includes independent instrumentation oxygen/water panels for operation and system monitoring. My major accomplishments for the commodities exchange pallet were the completion of the fluid delivery systems and the structural frame designs. In addition, parts selection was completed in order to expedite construction of the prototype, scheduled to begin in May of 2016. Once the commodities pallet is assembled and tested it is expected to complete a fully integrated transfer demonstration with the ISRU unit and the Environmental Control and Life Support System test chamber in September of 2016. In addition to the development of

  6. 3 MeV Test Stand commissioning report

    Bellodi, Guilia; Andreassen, O; Comblin, J-F; Dimov, V; Lallement, J-B; Martin, C; Midttun, O; Ovalle, E; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F; Rossi, C; Scrivens, R; Vollaire, J; Yarmohammadi Satri, M; Zocca, Z

    2013-01-01

    Linac4 is a normal-conducting 160 MeV H- linear accelerator, presently under construction, that will replace the present 50 MeV Linac2 as injector of the CERN proton accelerator complex with the goal of increasing the LHC luminosity. The Linac4 front-end, composed of a 45 keV ion source, a Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) housing a beam chopper, was commissioned at the 3 MeV test stand area during the first half of 2013. This report gives details of the installation and operational systems used, describes the commissioning phases and measurements performed and summarizes the results that were finally achieved and the lessons learnt in the process.

  7. Cryogenics for a vertical test stand facility for testing superconducting radio frequency cavities at RRCAT

    Vertical Test Stand (VTS) Facility is located in a newly constructed building of Cryo-Engineering and Cryo-Module Development Division (CCDD). This test facility is one of the important facilities to develop SCRF technologies for superconducting accelerators like Indian Spallation Neutron Source. VTS has to be used for regular testing of the Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) Niobium cavities at nominal frequency of 1.3 GHz/ 650 MHz at 4 K / 2 K liquid helium (LHe) bath temperatures. Testing of these cavities at 2 K evaluates cavity processing methods, procedures and would also serve as a pre-qualification test for cavity to test it in horizontal cryostat, called horizontal test stand, with other cavity components such as tuner and helium vessel. Cryogenic technologies play a major role in these cavity testing facilities. Achieving and maintaining a stable temperature of 2 K in these test stands on regular and reliable basis is a challenging task and require broad range of cryogenic expertise, large scale system level understanding and many in-house technological and process developments. Furthermore this test stand will handle large amount of liquid helium. Therefore, an appropriately designed infrastructure is required to handle such large amount of helium gas generated during the operation of VTS .This paper describes the different cryogenic design aspects, initial cryogenic operation results and different cryogenic safety aspects. (author)

  8. Developments in Test Facility and Data Networking for the Altitude Test Stand at the John C. Stennis Space Center: A General Overview

    Hebert, Phillip W.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/SSC's Mission in Rocket Propulsion Testing Is to Acquire Test Performance Data for Verification, Validation and Qualification of Propulsion Systems Hardware: Accurate, Reliable, Comprehensive, and Timely. Data Acquisition in a Rocket Propulsion Test Environment Is Challenging: a) Severe Temporal Transient Dynamic Environments; b) Large Thermal Gradients; c) Vacuum to high pressure regimes. A-3 Test Stand Development is equally challenging with respect to accommodating vacuum environment, operation of a CSG system, and a large quantity of data system and control channels to determine proper engine performance as well as Test Stand operation. SSC is currently in the process of providing modernized DAS, Control Systems, Video, and network systems for the A-3 Test Stand to overcome these challenges.

  9. A high voltage test stand for electron gun qualification for LINACs

    An electron gun lest stand has been developed at RRCAT. The test stand consists of a high voltage pulsed power supply, electron gun filament supply, grid supply, UHV system and electron gun current measurement system. Several electron guns developed indigenously were evaluated on this test stand. The shielding is provided for the electron gun set up. Electron gun tests can be tested upto 55 kV with pulse width of 15 microsecs and pulse repetition rates up to 200 Hz. The technical details of the subsystems are furnished and results of performance of the test stand have been reported in this paper. (author)

  10. System integration and performance of the EUV engineering test stand

    The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a developmental lithography tool designed to demonstrate full-field EUV imaging and provide data for commercial-tool development. In the first phase of integration, currently in progress, the ETS is configured using a developmental projection system, while fabrication of an improved projection system proceeds in parallel. The optics in the second projection system have been fabricated to tighter specifications for improved resolution and reduced flare. The projection system is a 4-mirror, 4x-reduction, ring-field design having a numeral aperture of 0.1, which supports 70 nm resolution at a k1 of 0.52. The illuminator produces 13.4 nm radiation from a laser-produced plasma, directs the radiation onto an arc-shaped field of view, and provides an effective fill factor at the pupil plane of 0.7. The ETS is designed for full-field images in step-and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, magnetically levitated, scanning stages. This paper describes system performance observed during the first phase of integration, including static resist images of 100 nm isolated and dense features

  11. System integration and performance of the EUV engineering test stand

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Replogle, William C.; Stulen, Richard H.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Rockett, Paul D.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Jefferson, Karen L.; Leung, Alvin H.; Wronosky, John B.; Hale, Layton C.; Chapman, Henry N.; Taylor, John S.; Folta, James A.; Montcalm, Claude; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard; Blaedel, Kenneth; Sommargren, Gary E.; Sweeney, Donald W.; Naulleau, Patrick; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Gullikson, Eric M.; Bokor, Jeffrey; Batson, Phillip J.; Attwood, David T.; Jackson, Keith H.; Hector, Scott D.; Gwyn, Charles W.; Yan, Pei-Yang; Yan, P.

    2001-03-01

    The Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a developmental lithography tool designed to demonstrate full-field EUV imaging and provide data for commercial-tool development. In the first phase of integration, currently in progress, the ETS is configured using a developmental projection system, while fabrication of an improved projection system proceeds in parallel. The optics in the second projection system have been fabricated to tighter specifications for improved resolution and reduced flare. The projection system is a 4-mirror, 4x-reduction, ring-field design having a numeral aperture of 0.1, which supports 70 nm resolution at a k{sub 1} of 0.52. The illuminator produces 13.4 nm radiation from a laser-produced plasma, directs the radiation onto an arc-shaped field of view, and provides an effective fill factor at the pupil plane of 0.7. The ETS is designed for full-field images in step-and-scan mode using vacuum-compatible, magnetically levitated, scanning stages. This paper describes system performance observed during the first phase of integration, including static resist images of 100 nm isolated and dense features.

  12. Factors Affecting Test Results and Standardized Method in Quiet Standing Balance Evaluation

    Yoon, Jung Joong; Yoon, Tae Sik; Shin, Bo Mi; Na, Eun Hye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify factors affecting test results of the quiet standing balance evaluation conducted by posturography and to investigate the standardized method by comparing results according to feet width. Method The study cohort consisted of 100 healthy individuals. We assessed the quiet standing balance of subjects by using 3 different methods: standing on a force plate with feet width the same as shoulder width (test 1); with feet width the same as half the shoulder width (test 2); wit...

  13. The front end test stand high performance H- ion source at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory.

    Faircloth, D C; Lawrie, S; Letchford, A P; Gabor, C; Wise, P; Whitehead, M; Wood, T; Westall, M; Findlay, D; Perkins, M; Savage, P J; Lee, D A; Pozimski, J K

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the front end test stand (FETS) project is to demonstrate that chopped low energy beams of high quality can be produced. FETS consists of a 60 mA Penning Surface Plasma Ion Source, a three solenoid low energy beam transport, a 3 MeV radio frequency quadrupole, a chopper, and a comprehensive suite of diagnostics. This paper details the design and initial performance of the ion source and the laser profile measurement system. Beam current, profile, and emittance measurements are shown for different operating conditions. PMID:20192390

  14. Measurement properties and feasibility of clinical tests to assess sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit tasks in subjects with neurological disease: a systematic review

    Silva, Paula F. S.; Quintino, Ludmylla F.; Juliane Franco; Christina D. C. M. Faria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Subjects with neurological disease (ND) usually show impaired performance during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit tasks, with a consequent reduction in their mobility levels. OBJECTIVE: To determine the measurement properties and feasibility previously investigated for clinical tests that evaluate sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in subjects with ND. METHOD: A systematic literature review following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) ...

  15. Tests with the emergency condenser at the integral test stand Karlstein for KERENA trademark

    On the new test facility at Karlstein called INKA (Integral Test Stand Karlstein), the key components of the passive safety concept of KERENA trademark - the emergency condenser (EC) and the containment cooling condenser (CCC) - will be tested. Integral system tests will also be performed to show how the passive safety systems interact under various anticipated accident conditions, and to demonstrate the ability of the passive systems to bring the plant to a safe and stable condition without the aid of active systems or actuation by I and C signals. (orig.)

  16. Tests with the emergency condenser at the integral test stand Karlstein for KERENA trademark

    Wagner, Thomas; Wich, Michael; Doll, Mathias; Herbst, Vassili; Uhrig, Stefan [Areva NP GmbH, Karlstein (Germany). NTCTC-G

    2010-05-15

    On the new test facility at Karlstein called INKA (Integral Test Stand Karlstein), the key components of the passive safety concept of KERENA trademark - the emergency condenser (EC) and the containment cooling condenser (CCC) - will be tested. Integral system tests will also be performed to show how the passive safety systems interact under various anticipated accident conditions, and to demonstrate the ability of the passive systems to bring the plant to a safe and stable condition without the aid of active systems or actuation by I and C signals. (orig.)

  17. Stand development and reliability tests of the thermal monitoring means for NPP

    The paper is devoted to the reliability tests of thermoelectric thermometers and resistance thermometers during their operation in the nominal mode. Five stands Reliability are developed and operate for realization of tests of all manufactured thermal converters. delivered at NPP. Description of all stands are presented

  18. Pilot Field Test: Use of a Compression Garment During a Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Cerisano, J.; Kofman, I.; Reschke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a concern for astronauts returning from long-duration space flight. One countermeasure that has been used to protect against OI after short-duration bed rest and space flight is the use of lower body and abdominal compression garments. However, since the end of the Space Shuttle era we have not been able to test crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing on Earth. NASA's Pilot Field Test provided us the opportunity to test cardiovascular responses of crewmembers wearing the Russian Kentavr compression garment during a stand test at multiple time points throughout the first 24 hours after landing. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesized that the Kentavr compression garment would prevent an increase in heart rate (HR) >15 bpm during a 3.5-min stand test. METHODS: The Pilot Field Test was conducted up to 3 times during the first 24 hours after crewmembers returned to Earth: (1) either in a tent adjacent to the Soyuz landing site in Kazakhstan (approx.1 hr) or after transportation to the Karaganda airport (approx. 4 hr); (2) during a refueling stop in Scotland (approx.12 hr); and (3) upon return to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) (approx.24 hr). We measured HR and arterial pressure (finger photoplethysmography) for 2 min while the crewmember was prone and throughout 3.5 min of quiet standing. Eleven crewmembers consented to participate; however, 2 felt too ill to start the test and 1 stopped 30 sec into the stand portion of the test. Of the remaining 8 crewmembers, 2 did not wear the Russian Kentavr compression garment. Because of inclement weather at the landing site, 5 crewmembers were flown by helicopter to the Karaganda airport before initial testing and received intravenous saline before completing the stand test. One of these crewmembers wore only the portion of the Russian Kentavr compression garment that covered the lower leg and thus lacked thigh and abdominal compression. All crewmembers continued wearing the Russian Kentavr

  19. Development of test stand for experimental investigation of chemical and physical phenomena in Liquid Rocket Engine

    Emerson Andrade Santos; Wilton Fernandes Alves; André Neves Almeida Prado; Cristiane Aparecida Martins

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to present the specification of an experimental firing test stand for liquid rocket engines (LRE) and develop a program for control and acquisition of data. It provides conditions to test rocket engines with thrust from 50 to 100 kgf. A methodology for laboratory work implementation using information technology, which will allow the automatic and remote functioning of the test stand, permits users to input the necessary data to conduct tests safely, achieve...

  20. A cryogenic test stand for full length SSC magnets with superfluid capability

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility performs testing of the full scale SSC magnets on test stands capable of simulating the cryogenic environment of the SSC main ring. One of these test stands, Stand 5, also has the ability to operate the magnet under test at temperatures from 1.8K to 4.5K with either supercritical helium or subcooled liquid, providing at least 25 Watts of refrigeration. At least 50 g/s flow is available from 2.3K to 4.5K, whereas superfluid operation occurs with zero flow. Cooldown time from 4.5K to 1.8K is 1.5 hours. A maximum current capability of 10,000 amps is provided, as is instrumentation to monitor and control the cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the cryogenic design of this test stand. 8 refs., 6 figs

  1. Design and Manufacturing of Pneumatic Test Stand for Rod-less Cylinder vertical application

    Sabigoro, Rocky A.

    2014-01-01

    Within LiU Fluid laboratory there had been a number of hydraulic and pneumatic test stands for research projects and teaching. The effort was needed to do more extension within the field of pneumatics. This thesis was about designing, manufacturing, building and testing the Test Stand for vertical application of pneumatic rodless cylinder. It consisted of three main parts; mechanical structure, pneumatic system and electrical and electronics. The design part focused more on the mechanical str...

  2. Construction of control system for J-PARC RF ion source and RFQ III test stand

    The installation of Cs-seeded RF-driven H- ion source (RF ion source) to J-PARC LINAC is scheduled in 2014, as well as the replacement of the current RFQ to RFQ III. The test stand of RF ion source and RFQ III has been completed in the J-PARC LINAC building for the beam acceleration test. We designed test stand control system in consideration of compatibility with J-PARC accelerator. In order to protect devices, the same MPS was adopted and EPICS was implemented on the test stand. The timing system was constructed for sending a timing signal to each accelerator component device. This report describes construction of the control system in the test stand. (author)

  3. Beam Extraction for 1-MV Electrostatic Accelerator at the 300 kV Test Stand

    The Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) has been developing a 300-kV test stand for a 1-MV electrostatic accelerator ion source. The ion source in the high-pressure vessel is required to have a high reliability. The test stand has been proposed and developed to confirm the stable operating conditions of the ion source. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify the long-time operating conditions. The test stand comprises a 300-kV high-voltage terminal, a battery for the ion-source power, a 60-Hz inverter, 200-MHz RF power, a 5-kV extraction power supply, a 300-kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. A beam extraction experiment for the test stand was performed, and the beam current was measured using a faraday cup in the chamber. A beam extraction results for the RF ion source will be presented. Beam extraction from the RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. Thus far NI Labview, PLC and faraday cup have been used to measure the beam current. The OPC server is useful for monitoring the PLC values. The average beam current of (a), (b) and (c) shown in figure 2 are 110.241µA, 105.8597µA and 103.5278µA respectively

  4. Reliability of Arm Curl and Chair Stand tests for assessing muscular endurance in older people

    Boneth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess the test-retest reliability and level of agreement between measures of the 30 second (30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test in a sample of older adults from Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: a study of evaluation of diagnostic technology was done. Both tests were administered by the same evaluator to 111 adults older than 59 year-old (70,4 ± 7,3, on two occasions, with an interval of time between measures of 4 to 8 days. In the analysis, test-retest reliability was determined using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC= 2,1 with their confidence interval 95% (CI 95% respective. The agreement level was established by the Bland and Altman method. Results: the test-retest reproducibility of the 30-s Arm Curl test was very good ICC= 0,88 and to the Chair Stand test was good ICC= 0,78. The agreement was very good for both tests of muscle endurance. The CI 95% were between -3,8 and 3,2 stands to 30-s Chair Stand test and between -3,1 and 2,8 curls to 30-s Arm Curl test. Conclusion: the 30-s Arm Curl and 30-s Chair Stand test have good reliability and agreement to assess muscle endurance in older adults functionally independent.

  5. Stanowisko testowe z miedzianą strukturą typu TESLA (Test stand with copper TESLA structure)

    Glowka, J; Macias, M; Czuba, K.; Pozniak, K.; Romaniuk, R.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents preparation of a copper TESLA structure for the use in laboratory test stand. Standing wave principle of operation of the structure and basic characteristics are described. Sturucture tuning procedure is discussed and tuning results are presented. Construction of laboratory test stand is shortly dscribed. Sample results obtained from test stand control system are presented and discussed. Structures are tested for FEL applications. The paper has a wide didactic nature for st...

  6. Results from the Bo Liquid Argon Scintillation Test Stand at Fermilab

    In these proceedings I discuss results from the Bo test stand at the Proton Assembly Building, Fermilab. This test stand has been used to characterize elements of the MicroBooNE optical system as well as to perform studies of processes affecting argon scintillation light such as scintillation quenching and optical absorption by impurities. I review in detail a recent measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

  7. Results of Beam Tests on a High Current EBIS Test Stand

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory there is an R and D program to design an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) for use in a compact ion injector to be developed for the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC). The BNL effort is directed at developing an EBIS with intensities of 3 x 109 particles/pulse of ions such as Au35+ and U45+, and requires an electron beam on the order of 10A. The construction of a test stand (EBTS) with the full electron beam power and 1/3 the length of the EBIS for RHIC is nearing completion. Initial commissioning of the EBTS was made with pulsed electron beams of duration < 1 ms and current up to 13 A. Details of the EBTS construction, results of the pulse tests, and preparations for DC electron beam tests are presented

  8. A test stand for off-line laser ion source development at TRIUMF

    A test stand for ion source development and laser resonance ionization spectroscopy was built and commissioned at TRIUMF. The test stand is needed to develop efficient ion sources that can function reliably in the hostile, high temperature, high radiation environment of TRIUMF's isotope separator on-line (ISOL) production target ion source. In addition, it enables laser resonance ionization spectroscopy to develop laser excitation schemes suitable for the solid-state laser systems used with TRIUMF's resonant ionization laser ion source . Also, it allows for possible improvement of current ion sources and validation of new designs. The test stand employs a copy of the ion optics used on-line, so that results can be transferred directly to radioactive ion beam production. Due to space restrictions and the need for rapid mass scans, a quadrupole mass spectrometer is used as a mass separator. One of the first experiments conducted on the laser ion source test stand (LIS STAND) was resonant ionization spectroscopy of gallium to improve on the ionization scheme previously used on-line, so that low yield isotopes (e.g., 62Ga) become available for experiments. Different Rydberg series in gallium were observed and autoionizing states were searched for. The overall LIS STAND system performance, characteristics, and the first resonant ionization spectroscopy are described.

  9. The cryogenic system for the MTL magnet test stands

    This paper briefly describes the cryogenic test capabilities of the Magnet Test Laboratory (MTL). The instrumentation for controlling the operating condition of the magnet cryogenic test and for verifying the requirements of the SSC magnet performance is introduced. The development of the thermometer system, particularly the He vapor pressure thermometers with differential pressure transducer, is presented in detail. The 10-kA vapor-cooled power leads were optimized thermally, with consideration for the different fin shapes, diameters, lengths, and RRRs of the power lead material. Two mechanical designs were introduced. The anti-cryostats, so-called warm bore and warm finger, that provide a warm environment to allow the magnetic field-measuring probe to run through the 4.2-K beam tube are described. The warm finger for SSC short-magnet cryogenic tests was manufactured and successfully used. Finally, the feed and end cans -- used to provide cryogens to the magnet being tested as well as cryogenic vacuum -- and the support of other instrumentation are described

  10. An ion source test stand for the ISAC facility at TRIUMF

    The properties of ion sources and the beams extracted from them are critical to the successful design of the ISAC facility at TRIUMF. To better understand these properties, an off line 60 kV test stand has been constructed to test and evaluate targets and ion sources intended for use at the future ISAC facility. The test stand also presents the opportunity to evaluate diagnostics, beam monitoring and system control techniques required for ISAC. The test stand vacuum chamber mimics the ISAC target module. Ion beams are produced using a fixed geometry multielectrode extraction column and transported through 5m of beamline using electrostatic elements. Mass analysis is achieved using a 45 magnetic dipole midway along the flight path. Diagnostic elements positioned throughout the beamline are used to determine beam properties. (orig.)

  11. Development of timing system for RF ion source and RFQ III test stand

    J-PARC LINAC is scheduled for installation of cesium seeded RF-driven H- ion source (RF ion source) and 50 mA RFQ (RFQ III) for achieving high current beam in 2014. Therefore, we were implemented beam test at RF ion source and RFQ III test stand since 2013. The control system for RF ion source and RFQ III test stand was designed considering compatibility to the control system in J-PARC LINAC. But the timing parameter for RF ion source is different from the timing parameter for H- ion source is operating in J-PARC, because method of generating H- plasma is different. Therefore, we develop the timing system for RF ion source using the timing parameter of RF ion source, and were used it at RF ion source and RFQ III test stand. This report is described mainly the timing system. (author)

  12. Hip Strength Testing of Soccer Players With Long-Standing Hip and Groin Pain

    Rafn, Bolette S; Tang, Lars; Nielsen, Peter Martin;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether self-reported pain during hip strength testing correlates to a large degree with hip muscle strength in soccer players with long-standing unilateral hip and groin pain. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical assessments at Sports Orthopaedic Research...... Center-Copenhagen (SORC-C), Arthroscopic Centre Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four male soccer players with unilateral long-standing hip and groin pain. INTERVENTIONS: The soccer players performed 5 reliable hip muscle strength tests (isometric hip flexion...... strength (Spearman rho = -0.44, P = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported pain during testing does not seem to correlate with the majority of hip muscle strength tests used in soccer players with long-standing hip and groin pain....

  13. Test stands for the Central Drift Chamber front end hybrid in the Stanford Linear Collider Detector

    Lo, C.C.; Yim, A.K.

    1987-10-01

    The Central Drift Chamber (CDC) of the SLAC Linear Collider Detector (SLD) uses 1280 front end electronic hybrid modules. Each of these modules contains over 450 components and performs numerous functions. This paper describes the four test stands for production and detailed circuit characterizations of these hybrids. Descriptions and performance of some of the important functions of the test systems will be presented here.

  14. 40 CFR 201.16 - Standard for locomotive load cell test stands.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for locomotive load cell test... Interstate Rail Carrier Operations Standards § 201.16 Standard for locomotive load cell test stands. (a) Effective January 15, 1984, no carrier subject to this reguation shall operate locomotive load cell...

  15. Novel automatic phase lock determination for superconducting cavity tests at vertical test stand at RRCAT

    RRCAT has developed a Vertical Test Stand (VTS) which is used to test the Nb superconducting cavities under cryogenic conditions. In the VTS, RF cavity is characterized for its quality factor variation vs the accelerating gradient. The RF system is an essential part of the VTS which is required to provide stable RF power to the cavity in terms of amplitude, frequency and phase. RF system of VTS consists of several modules including the LLRF system. The LLRF system consists of the 'Frequency Control Module' which controls the input frequency to the SCRF cavity. Due to high quality factor, bandwidth of the cavity is less than 1 Hz. Even slight mechanical vibrations (microphonics) causes change in cavity resonance frequency resulting in total reflection of incident power. A PLL based frequency tracking module has been used to track the resonant frequency of RF cavity. This module changes RF source frequency according to change in Cavity resonance frequency. A novel method using a LabView based computer program has been developed which changes the phase of input RF signal using IQ modulator and monitors the transmitted power, incident and reflected power. The program plots the graph between phase and ratio of transmitted power to incident/reflected power and gives optimum locking phase for operation which has resulted in significant saving in the overall process time for the tests of the cavities in VTS. (author)

  16. Programmable logic controller system in neutral beam injector's ion source test stand

    Due to the real-time monitoring requirement of field devices in EAST-NBI ion source test stand, this paper introduces a programmable logic controller (PLC) system based on Profibus protocol. The hardware configuration of PLC system can be determined according to the requirement of test stand, a Profibus-DP network with single-master workstation make a distributed I/O system. The PLC system can monitor the field devices' status in real time, exchange data with NBI control system and instruct field devices work stably. In addition, full graphical user interface can realize the visualization of system operation, data storage and display in real-time, which will provide a basis for experimental analysis for physical operator. The whole PLC system is reliable,reproducible, well compatible and scalable, which can be used to monitor and control the field devices in EAST-NBI test stand. (authors)

  17. Installation of TVC Actuators in a Two Axis Inertial Load Simulator Test Stand

    Dziubanek, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about the installation of Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME) actuators in the new Two Axis Inertial Load Simulator (ILS) at MSFC. The new test stand will support the core stage of the Space Launch System (SLS). Because of the unique geometry of the new test stand standard actuator installation procedures will not work. I have been asked to develop a design on how to install the actuators into the new test stand. After speaking with the engineers and technicians I have created a possible design solution. Using Pro Engineer design software and running my own stress calculations I have proven my design is feasible. I have learned how to calculate the stresses my design will see from this task. From the calculations I have learned I have over built the apparatus. I have also expanded my knowledge of Pro Engineer and was able to create a model of my idea.

  18. Standing the Test of Time: Barth and Ethnicity

    Eloise Hummell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity remains an essential theory for understanding societies in the 21 st century. This paper focuses on how well Fredrik Barth’s 1969 analyses and insights in Ethnic Groups and Boundaries have ‘stood the test of time’. Barth’s theoretical framework sets out the subtle and sinuous frontiers of ethnic boundaries, the interconnectedness of ethnic identities and the continuity of ethnic groups. The messianic nature of this work will be explore d by closely reviewing some of his less well cited assertions, including those regarding stigmatized identities, increasing structural similarities and the political organisation of ethnic groups. Considering the applicability of his theory in current time s necessitates reflecting on what Barth may have omitted, oversimplified or exaggerated, such as the potential for multiple ethnic identities; the importance of the content of cultural practices, symbols and ‘traditions’; conflict and power plays within na tion - states. ‘Looking back’ at Barth’s work on ethnicity assists in enhancing understandings of current social spheres and reconsidering the world around us. It also contributes to the early stages of the author’s current PhD research which includes a focu s on Catalan ethnic identity.

  19. A model of heat transfer taking place in thermographic test stand

    Kaczmarczyk, J.; M. Rojek; G. Wróbel; J. Stabik

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a model describing heat transfer taking place during thermovision testing of polymer composites. Thermographic tests were undertaken to identify thermal properties of searched material and to correlate them with operational characteristics.Design/methodology/approach: Heat transfer model of thermographic testing stand of our own design was elaborated. The model was applied as a tool of tested material characteristics identification, forming the bas...

  20. An overview of the new test stand for H− ion sources at FNAL

    A new test stand at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is being constructed to carry out experiments to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H− ions of up to 80 mA at 35 keV in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan. The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. The technical details of the construction and layout of this test stand are presented, along with a prospective set of diagnostics to monitor the sources

  1. An overview of the new test stand for H- ion sources at FNAL

    Sosa, A.; Bollinger, D. S.; Duel, K.; Karns, P. R.; Pellico, W.; Tan, C. Y.

    2016-02-01

    A new test stand at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is being constructed to carry out experiments to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H- ions of up to 80 mA at 35 keV in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan. The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. The technical details of the construction and layout of this test stand are presented, along with a prospective set of diagnostics to monitor the sources.

  2. An overview of the new test stand for H{sup −} ion sources at FNAL

    Sosa, A., E-mail: asosa@fnal.gov; Bollinger, D. S.; Duel, K.; Karns, P. R.; Pellico, W.; Tan, C. Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510-5011 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    A new test stand at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is being constructed to carry out experiments to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H{sup −} ions of up to 80 mA at 35 keV in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan. The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. The technical details of the construction and layout of this test stand are presented, along with a prospective set of diagnostics to monitor the sources.

  3. An Overview of the New Test Stand for H- Ion Sources at FNAL

    Sosa, A; Duel, K; Karns, P; Pellico, W; Tan, C Y

    2015-01-01

    A new test stand at FNAL is being constructed to carry out experiments to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H- ions of up to 80 mA at 35 keV in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP). The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. The technical details of the construction and layout of this test stand are presented, along with a prospective set of diagnostics to monitor the sources.

  4. An overview of the new test stand for H⁻ ion sources at FNAL.

    Sosa, A; Bollinger, D S; Duel, K; Karns, P R; Pellico, W; Tan, C Y

    2016-02-01

    A new test stand at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) is being constructed to carry out experiments to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H(-) ions of up to 80 mA at 35 keV in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan. The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. The technical details of the construction and layout of this test stand are presented, along with a prospective set of diagnostics to monitor the sources. PMID:26931987

  5. Fabrication test of an engineering model cryo-sorption pump of KAERI test stand for KSTAR NBI

    The neutral beam injection system for KSTAR tokamak requires a pumping speed of > 2 x 103 m3/s to evacuate hydrogen/deuterium gases in the beam line chamber. In order to develop the KSTAR NBI system in KAERI test stand, that does not have a liquid He plant for the cryo-condensation pump, the cryo-sorption pump is being developed. An engineering model cryo-sorption pump, that will be a module of the pump for KAERI test stand, are designed, fabricated, and tested. The basic concept of the design is to obtain a maximum pumping speed with one refrigerator and minimum depth. The measured pumping speed of the engineering model is 80 m3/s for hydrogen at the panel temperature of 12 K. This pump will be used for the KAERI NBI Test Stand. (author)

  6. High power X-band RF test stand development and high power testing of the CLIC crab cavity

    Woolley, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and operation of multiple high power X-band RF test facilities for high gradient acceleration and deflecting structures at CERN, as re-quired for the e+ e- collider research programme CLIC (Compact Linear Collider). Signif-icant improvements to the control system and operation of the first test stand, Xbox-1 are implemented. The development of the second X-band test stand at CERN, Xbox-2 is followed from inception to completion. The LLRF (Low Level Radio ...

  7. Integrated System Health Management: Pilot Operational Implementation in a Rocket Engine Test Stand

    Figueroa, Fernando; Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jonathan A.; Turowski, Mark P.; Franzl, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a credible implementation of integrated system health management (ISHM) capability, as a pilot operational system. Important core elements that make possible fielding and evolution of ISHM capability have been validated in a rocket engine test stand, encompassing all phases of operation: stand-by, pre-test, test, and post-test. The core elements include an architecture (hardware/software) for ISHM, gateways for streaming real-time data from the data acquisition system into the ISHM system, automated configuration management employing transducer electronic data sheets (TEDS?s) adhering to the IEEE 1451.4 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, broadcasting and capture of sensor measurements and health information adhering to the IEEE 1451.1 Standard for Smart Sensors and Actuators, user interfaces for management of redlines/bluelines, and establishment of a health assessment database system (HADS) and browser for extensive post-test analysis. The ISHM system was installed in the Test Control Room, where test operators were exposed to the capability. All functionalities of the pilot implementation were validated during testing and in post-test data streaming through the ISHM system. The implementation enabled significant improvements in awareness about the status of the test stand, and events and their causes/consequences. The architecture and software elements embody a systems engineering, knowledge-based approach; in conjunction with object-oriented environments. These qualities are permitting systematic augmentation of the capability and scaling to encompass other subsystems.

  8. Stanowisko testowe z miedzianą strukturą typu TESLA (Test stand with copper TESLA structure)

    Glowka, J

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents preparation of a copper TESLA structure for the use in laboratory test stand. Standing wave principle of operation of the structure and basic characteristics are described. Sturucture tuning procedure is discussed and tuning results are presented. Construction of laboratory test stand is shortly dscribed. Sample results obtained from test stand control system are presented and discussed. Structures are tested for FEL applications. The paper has a wide didactic nature for students interested in accelerator technology. The tests were done in a laboratory associated with the EU FP CARE and EuCARD Projects.

  9. Then & Now: Reflections on "Bioengineering evaluation and field test of the Stand-Alone Therapeutic Aid"

    Ronald J. Triolo, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Our thinking and approachto research and assistivetechnologies have evolvedsignificantly since the publication 50years ago of “Bioengineering evaluationand field test of the Stand-AloneTherapeutic Aid.” The most strikingchange is in the value placed on basicdiscovery and knowledge generation,in addition to device developmentand verification testing. This evolutionfrom a “Consumer Reports” mentality,where assistive technologies arefield tested, to prospective, controlledtrials of fundamental c...

  10. Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test

    Fosberg Kelly K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Correction to McPoil TG, Cornwall MW, Medoff L, Vicenzion B, Fosberg K, Hilz D. Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2008; 1:3.

  11. Present status of 972 MHz RF test-stand at JAERI

    The JAERI 972 MHz RF Test-Stand has been operated for the development and estimation of 972 MHz RF Components at J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Linac in July 2001. In this paper, we describe the operational results in last year and report the R and D status of Klystron RF characteristics for a 972 MHz first tube. (author)

  12. Poisson simulation for high voltage terminal of test stand for 1MV electrostatic accelerator

    KOMAC provide ion beam to user which energy range need to expand to MeV range and develop 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The specifications of the electrostatic accelerator are 1MV acceleration voltage, 10 mA peak current and variable gas ion. We are developing test stand before set up 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. The test stand voltage is 300 kV and operating time is 8 hours. The test stand is consist of 300 kV high voltage terminal, DC-AC-DC inverter, power supply device inside terminal, 200MHz RF power, 5 kV extraction power supply, 300 kV accelerating tube and vacuum system.. The beam measurement system and beam dump will be installed next to accelerating tube. Poisson code simulation results of the high voltage terminal are presented in this paper. Poisson code has been used to calculate the electric field for high voltage terminal. The results of simulation were verified with reasonable results. The poisson code structure could be apply to the high voltage terminal of the test stand

  13. Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test

    Fosberg Kelly K; Vicenzino Bill; Medoff Lynn; Cornwall Mark W; McPoil Thomas G; Hilz Dana

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Correction to McPoil TG, Cornwall MW, Medoff L, Vicenzion B, Fosberg K, Hilz D. Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2008; 1:3.

  14. Test stand for the silicon vertex detector of the Collider Detector Facility

    A test stand for the next generation of the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX-II) of the Collider Detector Facility (CDF) at Fermilab has been developed. It is capable of performing cosmic ray, beam, and laser pulsing tests on silicon strip detectors using the new generation of SVX chips. The test stand is composed of a SGI workstation, a VME CPU, the Silicon Test Acquisition and Readout (STAR) board, the Test Fiber Interface Board (TFIB), and the Test Port Card (TPC). The STAR mediates between external stimuli for the different tests and produces appropriate high level commands which are sent to the TFIB. The TFIB, in conjunction with the TPC, translates these commands into the correct logic levels to control the SVX chips. The four modes of operation of the SVX chips are configuration, data acquisition, digitization, and data readout. The data read out from the SVX chips is transferred to the STAR. The STAR can then be accessed by the VME CPU and the SGI workstation for future analysis. The detailed description of this test stand is given

  15. Z-2 Suit Support Stand and MKIII Suit Center of Gravity Test

    Nguyen, Tuan Q.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's next generation spacesuits are the Z-Series suits, made for a range of possible exploration missions in the near future. The prototype Z-1 suit has been developed and assembled to incorporate new technologies that has never been utilized before in the Apollo suits and the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU). NASA engineers tested the Z-1 suit extensively in order to developed design requirements for the new Z-2 suit. At the end of 2014, NASA will be receiving the new Z-2 suit to perform more testing and to further develop the new technologies of the suit. In order to do so, a suit support stand will be designed and fabricated to support the Z-2 suit during maintenance, sizing, and structural leakage testing. The Z-2 Suit Support Stand (Z2SSS) will be utilized for these purposes in the early testing stages of the Z-2 suit.

  16. Robust multivariable predictive control: how can it be applied to industrial test stands ?

    Bordeneuve-Guibé, Joël; Vaucoret, Cyril

    2001-01-01

    To cope with recent technological evolutions of air conditioning systems for aircraft, the French Aeronautical Test Center built a new test stand for certification at ground level. The constraints specified by the industrial users of the process seemed antagonistic for many reasons. First, the controller had to be implemented on an industrial automaton, not adaptable to modern algorithms. Then the specified dynamic performances were very demanding, especially taking into account the wide o...

  17. Hydrostatic Vibratory Drive of the Test Stand for Excitation of the Amplitude-Modulated Vibrations

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.; Gavrilin, A. N.; Moyzes, B. B.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews the problems arising during the development of the test stand hydrostatic vibratory drive, which synthesize controlled amplitude-modulated vibrations required testing of vibration strength and vibrostability of technological devices. The newly developed modification can adequately simulate the transport vibration and vibration of the operating power-supply units of technological machinery vibration by means of implementing of a continuous frequency spectrum of the vibration exposure in the desired frequency range.

  18. NASA's Functional Task Test: High Intensity Exercise Improves the Heart Rate Response to a Stand Test Following 70 Days of Bedrest

    Laurie, Steven S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Phillips, Tiffany R.; Dillon, E. Lichar; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Urban, Randall J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Stenger, Michael B.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular adaptations due to spaceflight are modeled with 6deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR) and result in decreased orthostatic tolerance. We investigated if high-intensity resistive and aerobic exercise with and without testosterone supplementation would improve the heart rate (HR) response to a 3.5-min stand test and how quickly these changes recovered following BR. During 70 days of BR male subjects performed no exercise (Control, n=10), high intensity supine resistive and aerobic exercise (Exercise, n=9), or supine exercise plus supplemental testosterone (Exercise+T, n=8; 100 mg i.m., weekly in 2-week on/off cycles). We measured HR for 2 min while subjects were prone and for 3 min after standing twice before and 0, 1, 6, and 11 days after BR. Mixed-effects linear regression models were used to evaluate group, time, and interaction effects. Compared to pre-bed rest, prone HR was elevated on BR+0 and BR+1 in Control, but not Exercise or Exercise+T groups, and standing HR was greater in all 3 groups. The increase in prone and standing HR in Control subjects was greater than either Exercise or Exercise+T groups and all groups recovered by BR+6. The change in HR from prone to standing more than doubled on BR+0 in all groups, but was significantly less in the Exericse+T group compared to the Control, but not Exercise group. Exercise reduces, but does not prevent the increase in HR observed in response to standing. The significantly lower HR response in the Exercise+T group requires further investigation to determine physiologic significance.

  19. 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, CW and Pulsed RF test stand

    A 1 MW, 352.2 MHz, RF test stand based on Thales make TH 2089 klystron amplifier is being developed at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore for characterization and qualification of RF components, cavities and related subsystems. Provision to vary RF power from 50 kW to 1 MW with adequate flexibility for testing wide range of HV components, RF components and cavities is incorporated in this test stand. The paper presents a brief detail of various power supplies like high voltage cathode bias power supply, modulating anode power supply, filament power supply, electromagnet power supplies and ion pump power supplies along with their interconnections for biasing TH 2089 klystron amplifier. A digital control and interlock system is being developed to realize proper sequence of operation of various power supplies and to monitor the status of crucial parameters in this test set up. This RF test stand will be a unique national facility, capable of providing both CW and pulse RF power for realizing reliable RF power sources for various projects including the development of high energy proton linac under ADSS program of the Department of Atomic Energy. (author)

  20. 40 CFR 201.27 - Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and...

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures for: (1) Determining applicability of the locomotive load cell test stand standard and switcher locomotive standard by noise measurement on a receiving property; (2) measurement of locomotive load cell test stands more than 120 meters (400 feet) on a receiving property....

  1. 49 CFR 210.33 - Operation standards (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and...

    2010-10-01

    ... (switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders). (a) Measurement on receiving property of the noise emission levels from switcher locomotives, load cell test stands, car coupling operations, and retarders shall be performed in accordance with the requirements of 40 CFR...

  2. Development of piston rod sealings. Friction and leakage test stands; Entwicklung von Kolbenstangendichtungen. Reibkraft- und Leckagepruefstaende

    Goerres, M. [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Fluidtechnische Antriebe und Steuerungen (IFAS)

    2003-07-01

    New test stands for piston rod sealings for biodegradable fluids were developed by the IFAS institute of RWTH Aachen University. Influencing parameters are the leakage rate, the pressure distribution between sealing and piston rod, and the (direction-dependent) friction. The contribution describes the conception and development of the friction test stand for measuring the pressure profile and directional friction force of a single sealing. Droplet leakage is tested in a separate long-term test stand whose conception is explained in the contribution. [German] Zur Entwicklung neuartiger Kolbenstangendichtungen fuer biologisch schnell abbaubare Fluide, werden am Institut fuer fluidtechnische Antriebe und Steuerungen (IFAS) der RWTH Aachen neue Pruefstaende entwickelt. Wesentlichen Einfluss auf das Abdichtverhalten der Dichtungen haben neben der Leckage vor allem die Pressungsverteilung zwischen Dichtung und Kolbenstange, sowie die (verfahrrichtungsabhaengige) Reibung. Der Beitrag beschreibt die Konzeption und Entwicklung des Reibungspruefstands zur Messung des Druckprofils und der richtungsabhaengigen Reibkraft einer einzelnen Dichtung. Die Abtropfleckage wird mit Hilfe eines eigenstaendigen Dauerversuchspruefstands ermittelt, dessen Konzeption im Artikel erlaeutert wird.

  3. Test re-test reliability of centre of pressure measures during standing balance in individuals with knee osteoarthritis.

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of changes in standing balance following an intervention requires accurate measurement of balance parameters. The reliability of centre of pressure measures of balance during single-leg standing has not been reported in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the test re-test reliability of force platform centre of pressure measures during single-leg standing in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Twenty-five adults with radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis performed single-leg standing balance trials on a laboratory-grade force platform on two occasions, no more than 14 days apart. Participants were asked to stand on their more symptomatic limb for three, ten second trials. Centre of pressure measures collected included: standard deviation in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions, mean path length, velocity, and area. The mean of the three trials was calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, Bland and Altman plots and the minimum detectable change were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.87, suggesting mixed reliability of measures. Reliability was lowest for the centre of pressure area (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.54), and highest for centre of pressure velocity and path length (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87 for both). Standard error of measurement values were low for standard deviation in the mediolateral direction and high for centre of pressure area. These results suggest that centre of pressure values, in particular path length and velocity, are appropriate for assessment of standing balance in people with medial knee osteoarthritis. PMID:24746407

  4. COMPUTERIZED TEST STAND FOR INVESTIGATION OF STRAIN WAVES IN COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTIONS

    Morozov, Yu; Snisarenko, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents a test stand for investigation of ramp loading of composite constructions such as beams and plates. This ramp loading was performed using a striker with a piezoelectric force transducer. The velocity of the striker is up to 40 mps. The registration of the measurements results is carried out using a computerized measurement system. The experimental results of contact shock force acquisition are stated with appropriate calculations of nonstationary bending and shearing strain...

  5. Modeling Design and Application of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment Test Stand for Seeds before Sowing

    Shao, Changyong; You, Yong; Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Zhiqin; LI Yan; Zhao, Lijing; Tang, Xin; Liu, Liangdong; Wang, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation with a low-temperature plasma (LTP) can improve the seed germination and seed adaptability to the environment. This technology has been applied in practice, but the study level of mechanism involved is still limited. Moreover, the treatment devices in using are quite simple. The paper focuses on the modeling design and application of the LTP treatment test stand for seeds before sowing. Numerous experimental LTP treatment on crop seeds and forage grass seeds will be conducted to f...

  6. Processing Test Stand for the Fundamental Power Couplers of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Superconducting Cavities

    A test stand has been designed, constructed and commissioned for the processing of the SNS superconducting cavity fundamental power couplers. The cart is designed for insertion into a high-power (1 MW and higher) RF system at 805 MHz and it includes a complete vacuum pumping system, a bakeout control system and, in separate racks, all the controls for the RF conditioning, including interlocks, diagnostics and data acquisition systems

  7. Performance Studies of the Vibration Wire Monitor on the Test Stand with Low Energy Electron Beam

    Okabe, Kota; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    In the high intensity proton accelerator as the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) accelerators, serious radiation and residual dose is induced by a small beam loss such a beam halo. Therefore, diagnostics of the beam halo formation is one of the most important issues to control the beam loss. For the beam halo monitor, the vibration wire monitor (VWM) has a potential for investigating the beam halo and weak beam scanning. The VWM has a wide dynamic range, high resolution and the VWM is not susceptible to secondary electrons and electric noises. We have studied the VWM features as a new beam-halo monitor on the test stand with low energy electron gun. The frequency shift of the irradiated vibration wire was confirmed about wire material and the electron beam profile measured by using the VWM was consistent with the results of the Faraday cup measurement. Also we calculated a temperature distribution on the vibration wire which is irradiated by the electron beam with the numerical simulation. The simulations have been fairly successful in reproducing the transient of the irradiated vibration wire frequency measured by test stand experiments. In this paper, we will report a result of performance evaluation for the VWM on the test stands and discuss the VWM for beam halo diagnostic

  8. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions.

    Giffin, Paxton K; Parsons, Michael S; Unz, Ronald J; Waggoner, Charles A

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m(3)/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome. PMID:22667655

  9. Cold test results of a side-coupled standing-wave electron-accelerating structure

    Song, Ki Baek; Li, Yonggui; Lee, Sanghyun; Lee, Byeong-No; Park, Hyung Dal; Cha, Sung-Su; Lee, Byung Cheol

    2013-07-01

    The radio-frequency (RF) cavity for the dual-energy S-band electron linear accelerator (LINAC) is designed for a cargo inspection system (CIS) at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). The cold test results of the electron accelerator structure, which has a side-coupled standing-wave interlaced-pulse dual-energy mode, are described. The design concept, basic structure, microwave-tuning method, and cold-test procedure are described as well. The measured dispersion curve, spectrum characteristics, ρ-f relation of the power coupler, and axial field distribution of the accelerating gradient are provided.

  10. Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test

    McPoil Thomas G

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of a new foot mobility assessment method that utilizes digital images to measure the change in dorsal arch height measured at 50% of the length of the foot during the Sit-to-Stand test. Methods Two hundred – seventy five healthy participants participated in the study. The medial aspect of each foot was photographed with a digital camera while each participant stood with 50% body weight on each foot as well as in sitting for a non-weight bearing image. The dorsal arch height was measured at 50% of the total length of the foot on both weight bearing and non-weight bearing images to determine the change in dorsal arch height. The reliability and validity of the measurements were then determined. Results The mean difference in dorsal arch height between non-weight bearing and weight bearing was 10 millimeters. The change in arch height during the Sit-to-Stand test was shown to have good to high levels of intra- and inter-reliability as well as validity using x-rays as the criterion measure. Conclusion While the navicular drop test has been widely used as a clinical method to assess foot mobility, poor levels of inter-rater reliability have been reported. The results of the current study suggest that the change in dorsal arch height during the Sit-to-Stand test offers the clinician a reliable and valid alternative to the navicular drop test.

  11. Characterization of Space Shuttle Reusable Rocket Motor Static Test Stand Thrust Measurements

    Cook, Mart L.; Gruet, Laurent; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM) are static tested at two ATK Thiokol Propulsion facilities in Utah, T-24 and T-97. The newer T-97 static test facility was recently upgraded to allow thrust measurement capability. All previous static test motor thrust measurements have been taken at T-24; data from these tests were used to characterize thrust parameters and requirement limits for flight motors. Validation of the new T-97 thrust measurement system is required prior to use for official RSRM performance assessments. Since thrust cannot be measured on RSRM flight motors, flight motor measured chamber pressure and a nominal thrust-to-pressure relationship (based on static test motor thrust and pressure measurements) are used to reconstruct flight motor performance. Historical static test and flight motor performance data are used in conjunction with production subscale test data to predict RSRM performance. The predicted motor performance is provided to support Space Shuttle trajectory and system loads analyses. Therefore, an accurate nominal thrust-to-pressure (F/P) relationship is critical for accurate RSRM flight motor performance and Space Shuttle analyses. Flight Support Motors (FSM) 7, 8, and 9 provided thrust data for the validation of the T-97 thrust measurement system. The T-97 thrust data were analyzed and compared to thrust previously measured at T-24 to verify measured thrust data and identify any test-stand bias. The T-97 FIP data were consistent and within the T-24 static test statistical family expectation. The FSMs 7-9 thrust data met all NASA contract requirements, and the test stand is now verified for future thrust measurements.

  12. A Positional X-ray Instrumentation Test Stand For Beam-Line Experiments

    Nikoleyczik, Jonathan; Prieskorn, Z.; Burrows, D. N.; Falcone, A.

    2014-01-01

    A multi-axis, motion controlled test stand has been built in the PSU 47 m X-ray beam-line for the purpose of testing X-ray instrumentation and mirrors using parallel rays. The test stand is capable of translation along two axes and rotation about two axes with motorized fine position control. The translation stages have a range of motion of 200 mm with a movement accuracy of ± 2.5 microns. Rotation is accomplished with a two-axis gimbal which can rotate 360° about one axis and 240° about another; movement with ± 35 arcsecond accuracy are achieved in both axes. The position and status are monitored using a LabView program. An XCalibr source with multiple target materials is used as an X-ray source and can produce multiple lines between 0.8 and 8 keV. Some sample spectra are shown from a Si-PIN diode detector. This system is well suited for testing X-ray mirror segments which are currently being developed.

  13. Analysis of Flame Deflector Spray Nozzles in Rocket Engine Test Stands

    Sachdev, Jai S.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Allgood, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a unified tightly coupled multi-phase computational framework is described for the analysis and design of cooling spray nozzle configurations on the flame deflector in rocket engine test stands. An Eulerian formulation is used to model the disperse phase and is coupled to the gas-phase equations through momentum and heat transfer as well as phase change. The phase change formulation is modeled according to a modified form of the Hertz-Knudsen equation. Various simple test cases are presented to verify the validity of the numerical framework. The ability of the methodology to accurately predict the temperature load on the flame deflector is demonstrated though application to an actual sub-scale test facility. The CFD simulation was able to reproduce the result of the test-firing, showing that the spray nozzle configuration provided insufficient amount of cooling.

  14. Beam Profile Measurement of 300 kV Ion Source Test Stand for 1 MV Electrostatic Accelerator

    Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Yu-Seok [Dongguk University, Gyeonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae-Il; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, RF ion source, test stand of the ion source and its test results are presented. Beam profile was measured at the downstream from the accelerating tube and at the beam dump by using BPM and wire scanner. The RF ion source of the test stand is verified by measuring the total beam current with a faraday cup in the chamber. The KOMAC (KOrea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) has been developing a 300 kV ion source test stand for a 1 MV electrostatic accelerator. An ion source and accelerating tube will be installed in a high pressure vessel. The ion source in a high pressure vessel requires high reliability. To confirm the stable operation of the ion source, a test stand was proposed and developed. The ion source will be tested at the test stand to verify its long-term operation conditions. The test stand consists of a 300 kV high voltage terminal, a battery for the ion source power, a 60 Hz inverter, a 200 MHz RF power, a 5 kV extraction power supply, a 300 kV accelerating tube, and a vacuum system. The beam profile monitor was installed at the downstream from the accelerating tube. Wire scanner and faraday-cup was installed at the end of the chamber.

  15. Incompetency to stand trial and mental health treatment: a case study testing the subversion hypothesis.

    Hochstedler Steury, E; Choinski, M; Steury, S R

    1996-01-01

    This study is a test of the so-called subversion hypothesis, which posits that mentally disordered persons who commit minor offenses are prosecuted primarily for the purpose of imposing mental health treatment on them through evaluation and treatment for incompetency to stand trial. These persons, according to the subversion hypothesis, find themselves in the criminal process because they do not meet the stringent civil commitment standards, but do meet the less stringent criteria for a disorderly conduct prosecution. The findings, based on 893 disorderly conduct prosecutions in a single jurisdiction over a two-year period, do not lend general support to the subversion hypothesis. PMID:8889132

  16. Computer based diagnostic and control system for a 120 keV neutral beam test stand

    The computer based system provides data acquisition, analysis, display, archival, and control functions for the 120 KEV test stand IIIa at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The system supports calorimeter arrays and spectrometer diagnostics, controls all power supplies and provides 7 modes of control ranging from manual control with computer monitor to full auto conditioning with an auto sweep capability for parameter variation studies. This paper describes the software structure, I/O techniques, control algorithms, hardware configuration, and system performance. Conclusions based on system performance provide useful insight for design of neutral beam control systems for use on large plasma devices

  17. Development of Temperature Measurements and Calorimetry for the Neutral Beam Test Stand Operation at KAERI

    Operation of the Neutral Beam Test Stand(NB-TS) at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) now reaches to 80 kV-20A for about 10 seconds. Experiments with this kind of enormous power and energy necessarily entail many temperature measurements at various locations of the system, and most of the beam line components require to be monitored of their temperatures. We have been implementing temperature measurement utilizing K-Type and T-Type thermocouples(TCs) and a Pt-100 resistance temperature detector for the instrumentation and control and for establishing calorimetry during the operation of the NB-TS facility

  18. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image processing will also be discussed

  19. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image

  20. Determining the acceptance of the Brookhaven EBIS Test Stand for primary ions by computer simulation

    We report on computer studies to determine the acceptance of the Electron Beam Ion Source Test Stand (EBTS) at BNL. Knowledge of the acceptance is a useful guide in selecting a source of primary ions, and in designing a transfer line which best matches the primary ion beam to the acceptance of the EBTS. In this work, an ion beam with suitable parameters is tracked out of the EBIS, to a plane where knowledge of the acceptance is wanted. The emittance of the extracted beam in this plane gives a starting point for determining a more reliable value of acceptance. The result will be compared with a theoretical estimate

  1. Instrumentation and control system for the AT-2 accelerator test stand

    A data-driven subroutine package, written for our accelerator test stand (ATS), is described. This flexible package permits the rapid writing and modifying of data acquisition, control, and analysis programs for the many diverse experiments performed on the ATS. These structurally simple and easy to maintain routines help to control administratively the integrity of the ATS through the use of the database. Our operating experience indicates that the original design goals have been met. We describe the subroutines, database, and our experiences with this system

  2. Arch height change during sit-to-stand: an alternative for the navicular drop test

    McPoil Thomas G; Cornwall Mark W; Medoff Lynn; Vicenzino Bill; Forsberg Kelly; Hilz Dana

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background A study was conducted to determine the reliability and validity of a new foot mobility assessment method that utilizes digital images to measure the change in dorsal arch height measured at 50% of the length of the foot during the Sit-to-Stand test. Methods Two hundred – seventy five healthy participants participated in the study. The medial aspect of each foot was photographed with a digital camera while each participant stood with 50% body weight on each foot as well as ...

  3. A 20-Liter Test Stand with Gas Purification for Liquid Argon Research

    Li, Yichen; Tang, Wei; Joshi, Jyoti; Qian, Xin; Diwan, Milind; Kettell, Steve; Morse, William; Rao, Triveni; Stewart, James; Tsang, Thomas; Zhang, Lige

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design of a 20-liter test stand constructed to study fundamental properties of liquid argon (LAr). This system utilizes a simple, cost-effective gas argon (GAr) purification to achieve ultra-high purity, which is necessary to study electron transport properties in LAr. An electron drift stack with up to 25 cm length is constructed to study electron drift, diffusion, and attachment at various electric fields. A gold photocathode and a pulsed laser are used as a bright electron source. The operational performance of this system is reported.

  4. Design of the NSLS-II Linac Front End Test Stand

    The NSLS-II operational parameters place very stringent requirements on the injection system. Among these are the charge per bunch train at low emittance that is required from the linac along with the uniformity of the charge per bunch along the train. The NSLS-II linac is a 200 MeV linac produced by Research Instruments Gmbh. Part of the strategy for understanding to operation of the injectors is to test the front end of the linac prior to its installation in the facility. The linac front end consists of a 100 kV electron gun, 500 MHz subharmonic prebuncher, focusing solenoids and a suite of diagnostics. The diagnostics in the front end need to be supplemented with an additional suite of diagnostics to fully characterize the beam. In this paper we discuss the design of a test stand to measure the various properties of the beam generated from this section. In particular, the test stand will measure the charge, transverse emittance, energy, energy spread, and bunching performance of the linac front end under all operating conditions of the front end.

  5. TDLAS Test-stand Diagnostics Development for Velocity, Temperature, Efficiency, and Erosion for Space Shuttle Main Engines Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose here to develop tunable diode laser spectroscopy as a diagnostic for the Space Shuttle main engines during test stand operations. These engines represent...

  6. THE DETERMINATION OF THE STATISTICAL PARAMETERS OF THE CONVERTERS IN CIRCUITS TEST STANDS FOR TRACTION MOTORS OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

    V. M. Bezruchenko; O. L. Marenych

    2008-01-01

    In the article the method of static converters parameters calculation is resulted. It is proposed to replace the electromachine linear generator and balancing booster with static converters in the scheme of the traditional stand for test of locomotives traction engines.

  7. The use of an aircraft test stand for VTOL handling qualities studies. [pilot evaluation of flight controllability

    Pauli, F. A.; Corliss, L. D.; Selan, S. D.; Gerdes, R. M.; Gossett, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    The VTOL flight tests stand for testing control concepts on the X-14B VSS aircraft in hover, is described. This stand permits realistic and safe piloted evaluation and checkout of various control systems and of parameter variations within each system to determine acceptability to the pilot. Pilots can use it as a practical training tool to practice procedures and flying techniques and become familiar with the aircraft characteristics. Some examples of test experience are given. The test stand allows the X14B to maneuver in hover from centered position + or - 9.7 deg in roll and + or - 9.3 deg in pitch, about + or - 6 deg in yaw, and + or - 15 cm in vertical translation. The unique vertical free flight freedom enables study of liftoffs and landings with power conditions duplicated. The response on the stand agrees well with that measured in free hovering flight, and pilot comments confirm this.

  8. Superconducting Focusing Lenses for the SSR1 Cryomodule of PXIE Test Stand at Fermilab

    DiMarco, J. [Fermilab; Tartaglia, M. [Fermilab; Terechkine, I. [Fermilab

    2016-01-01

    Five solenoid-based focusing lenses designed for use inside the SSR1 cryomodule of the PXIE test stand at Fermilab have been fabricated and tested. In addition to a focusing solenoid, each lens is equipped with a set of windings that generate magnetic field in the transverse plane and can be used in the steering dipole mode or as a skew quadrupole corrector. The lenses will be installed between superconducting cavities in the cryomodule, so getting sufficiently low fringe magnetic field was one of the main design requirements. Beam dynamics simulations indicated a need for high accuracy positioning of the lenses in the cryomodule, which triggered a study towards understanding uncertainties of the magnetic axis position relative to the geometric features of the lens. This report summarizes the efforts towards certification of the lenses, including results of performance tests, fringe field data, and uncertainty of the magnetic axis position.

  9. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    The 160 MeV H- beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H- charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H- into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters. (author)

  10. The stripping foil test stand in the Linac4 transfer line

    Weterings, W; Noulibos, R; Sillanoli, Y; van Trappen, P

    2015-01-01

    The 160 MeV H− beam from the Linac4 (L4) linear accelerator at CERN will be injected into the proton synchrotron booster (PSB) with a new H− charge-exchange injection system. It will include a stripping foil, to convert H− into protons by stripping off the electrons. To gain experience with these very fragile foils, prior to the installation in the PSB, and test different foil materials and thicknesses, lifetimes of the foils, the foil changing mechanism and interlocking functions, a stripping foil test stand will be installed in the L4 transfer line in 2015. This paper describes the mechanical design of the system and discusses the test possibilities and parameters.

  11. INTER-RATER AND INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY OF ACTIVE HIP ABDUCTION TEST FOR STANDING INDUCED LOW BACK PAIN

    Mansi Shah; Pravin Aaron; Subin Solomen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Active hip abduction test (AHAbd) has previously been shown to be a reliable tool for predicting low back pain development during a prolonged standing exposure in previously asymptomatic individuals, but the reliability of AHAbd on patients with standing induced occupational low back pain has not been established. As it is an observation based test, reliability among different raters and same rater must be established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter-rater ...

  12. Test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand measures in young and older adults

    Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand (STS) peak power and other STS measures in young and older adults. In addition, test-retest reliability of the sensor method was compared to test-retest reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and Five-Times-Sit-to-S

  13. Laser based beam diagnostic for the RAL Front End Test Stand (FETS)

    For the diagnostic of high power particle beams, non-destructive measurement devices provide minimum influence on the beam and avoid various problems in connection with the high power density on surfaces. An H- ion beam offers the opportunity of non destructive beam diagnostics based on the effect of photo detachment. By the interaction of light with H- ions, the additional electron can be detached and a small number of neutrals will be produced. An additional magnetic dipole field can then be used to separate the detached electrons and neutrals from the ions. Using an integral detector the spatial distribution of the beam ion density can be derived, while the use of a spatial resolving detector enables to determine the phase space distribution. To investigate the measurement principle of the latter, a test stand was set up at the IAP in Frankfurt. This system will now be adopted to the requirements of the Front End Test Stand at CCLRC/ RAL. The aim of this FETS is to demonstrate a chopped H- beam of 60mA at 3MeV and 50pps with sufficiently high beam quality. The paper will present a detailed description of the proposed set up at RAL and discuss several results of simulations and experimental data gained in Frankfurt

  14. Diagnostic experiments at a 3 MeV test stand at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (United Kingdom)

    A front end is currently under construction consisting of a H- Penning ion source (65 keV, 60 mA), low energy beam transport (LEBT), and radio frequency quadrupole (3 MeV output energy) with a medium energy beam transport suitable for high power proton applications. Diagnostics can be divided either in destructive techniques such as beam profile monitor, pepperpot, slit-slit emittance scanner (preferably used during commissioning) or nondestructive, permanently installed devices such as photodetachment-based techniques. Another way to determine beam distributions is a scintillator with charge-coupled device camera. First experiments have been performed to control the beam injection into the LEBT. The influence of beam parameters such as particle energy and space-charge compensation on the two-dimensional distribution and profiles will be presented.

  15. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. Yu; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts returning from the International Space Station are met by a team of recovery personnel typically providing physical assistance and medical support immediately upon landing. That is because long-duration spaceflight impacts astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond the low Earth orbit, however, may require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration class missions. Pilot Field Test (PFT) experiment conducted with participation of ISS crewmembers traveling on Soyuz expeditions 34S - 41S comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. METHODS: The first test in the PFT battery sequence, and also the least demanding one from the sensorimotor perspective, was a Sit-to-Stand test. Test subjects were seated in the chair and had to stand up on command and remain standing for ten seconds. The subjects were instructed to stand up unassisted as quickly as they were able to, while maintaining postural control. Synchronized wireless inertial sensors mounted on the head, chest, lower back, wrists, and ankles were used to continuously log body kinematics. Crewmembers' blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and recorded with the Portapres and Polar systems. Each session was recorded with a digital video camera. During data collections occurring within the 24-hour postflight period, crewmembers were also asked to (1) evaluate their perceived motion sickness symptoms on a 20-point scale before and after completion of the test and (2) estimate how heavy they felt compared to their normal (preflight) body weight. Consent to participate in PFT was obtained from 18 crewmembers (11 US Orbital Segment [USOS] astronauts and 7

  16. Design and fabrication of the cryosorption panel for KSTAR NBI test stand

    Test Stand for KSTAR NBI is now fabricating to test the ion source and beamline component for development of the KSTAR NBI heating system at KAERI. Required pumping speed for stable beam transportation is about 5.0 x 105 L/s at this system. On this purpose, cryosorption type pumps (2 sets) were designed and they are now fabricating. The size of the pumps is 2.0m(W)x2.0m(H)x 0.15(D), and they'll be installed at both sides of the NBI beam chamber respectively. The area of the cryopanel pasted with activated carbon is 2 x 1.75m x 1.75m, and it'll be expected to have the pumping speed of 1 x 105L/s·m2. Here we explained the detail design parameters, and discussed several difficulties in fabricating the pump

  17. Design validation test stand guide inserts for the Spallation Neutron Source

    Successful operation of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) Facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee depends on providing guide systems that channel neutrons to each experimental instrument position with a minimum loss in flux. These guide systems originate approximately 1 m from the moderator and pass through Shutter Gates. The guide sections passing through the Shutter Gate, called Shutter Inserts, align with features separate from the Shutter Gate. These features are located on the first guide section called the Core Vessel Insert. This arrangement accommodates accurate alignment of the guide system without requiring accurate alignment of the heavy Shutter Gate. These Core Vessel and Shutter Inserts are being developed for the SNS Facility and will be tested in the Design Validation Test Stand (DVTS). This paper addresses the DVTS Core Vessel and Shutter Inserts. (author)

  18. Does Standing on a Cycle-ergometer, Towards the Conclusion of a Graded Exercise Test, Yield Cardiorespiratory Values Equivalent to Treadmill Testing?

    Mitchell, Joshua; KIST, WILLIAM B.; MEARS, KENDALL; NALLS, JESSE; RITTER, KYLE

    2010-01-01

    Graded exercise testing (GXT), per a cycle-ergometer (CE), offers safety and monitoring advantages over treadmill (TM) GXT. Unfortunately, CE-VO2max and some other cardiorespiratory (CR) variables are frequently lower than TM-GXT values. It has been difficult to compare TM and CE-GXT values. However, it was hypothesized that standing towards the conclusion of the CE-GXT (Stand-CE) might increase CE values to those equal to TM-GXT. If Stand-CE and TM-GXT CR values were equal, Stand-CE-GXT coul...

  19. Performance evaluation of 352.21 MHz, 1 MW klystrons and circulators at high power pulsed test stand at RRCAT

    A 1 MW pulsed test stand operating at 352.21 MHz was set up at RRCAT for tests and qualification of components and devices for the pulsed proton linac program. The test facility comprises of an indigenously built 100kV solid state bouncer modulator, WR 2300 waveguide system, high power circulator and high power RF load. The test facility has stand alone control system for taking the measurement data. We have used the test stand to qualify the 1 MW CW klystrons and circulators obtained from CERN under DAE CERN Collaboration for use in LEHIPA project of BARC and H- pulsed proton Linac at RRCAT. The present paper describes the test results of the qualifications done on the 1MW klystron and 1MW three port circulators for the LEHIPA project as well as for pulsed proton linac at RRCAT. (author)

  20. Posturographic performance and repeatability of the computerized sit-to-stand test: preliminary results.

    Rahmatullah, Arnan; Panta, Manoj; Geib, Roy W; Waite, Gabi N; Pagnacco, Guido; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Each year, one in every three adults over the age of 65 falls often with injury. While this public health problem can be substantially reduced with simple interventions such as vestibular rehabilitation, balance assessments are not routinely done in the clinic, and less than half of affected adults talk to their physicians about such concerns. The goal of this study is to investigate distinct posturographic parameters of the computerized Sit-to-Stand (StS) Test to determine between- and within- subject variability of these. The CAPS® Professional system and the BalanceTRAK® software were used to collect ten repetitions of the StS from 25 subjects. The inclusion criteria included a questionnaire investigating the subject’s health status, the presence of known vestibular health concerns or illnesses, and the ability to maintain balance while standing. Significant variation between and within subjects were found for all posturographic parameters considered in this study. However, no fatigue or learning effects were found among the ten repetitions. PMID:25996700

  1. Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade neutral beam test stand: A powerful tool for development and quality assurance

    During construction of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), a test stand was assembled to develop electronics for the neutral beam system. In the first six months of test stand use the authors operated a few neutral beam injector modules and directed considerable effort toward improving the electronic system. As system development progressed, the focus turned toward improving the injector modules themselves. The test stand has proved to be the largest single contributor to the successful operation of neutral beams on TMX-U, primarily because it provides quality assurance and development capability in conjunction with the scheduled activities of the main experiment. This support falls into five major categories: (1) electronics development, (2) operator training, (3) injector module testing and characterization, (4) injector module improvements, and (5) physics improvements (through areas affected by injector operation). Normal day-to-day operation of the test stand comes under the third category, testing and characterization, and comprises the final quality assurance activity for newly assembled or repaired modules before they are installed on TMX-U. They have also used the test stand to perform a series of physics experiments, including: reducing gas flow through valve and arc chamber characterization, reducing impurities by titanium gettering, and reducing streaming gas using apertures and collisional gas dynamics

  2. Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) for Test Stand and J-2X Engine: Core Implementation

    Figueroa, Jorge F.; Schmalzel, John L.; Aguilar, Robert; Shwabacher, Mark; Morris, Jon

    2008-01-01

    ISHM capability enables a system to detect anomalies, determine causes and effects, predict future anomalies, and provides an integrated awareness of the health of the system to users (operators, customers, management, etc.). NASA Stennis Space Center, NASA Ames Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne have implemented a core ISHM capability that encompasses the A1 Test Stand and the J-2X Engine. The implementation incorporates all aspects of ISHM; from anomaly detection (e.g. leaks) to root-cause-analysis based on failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), to a user interface for an integrated visualization of the health of the system (Test Stand and Engine). The implementation provides a low functional capability level (FCL) in that it is populated with few algorithms and approaches for anomaly detection, and root-cause trees from a limited FMEA effort. However, it is a demonstration of a credible ISHM capability, and it is inherently designed for continuous and systematic augmentation of the capability. The ISHM capability is grounded on an integrating software environment used to create an ISHM model of the system. The ISHM model follows an object-oriented approach: includes all elements of the system (from schematics) and provides for compartmentalized storage of information associated with each element. For instance, a sensor object contains a transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) with information that might be used by algorithms and approaches for anomaly detection, diagnostics, etc. Similarly, a component, such as a tank, contains a Component Electronic Data Sheet (CEDS). Each element also includes a Health Electronic Data Sheet (HEDS) that contains health-related information such as anomalies and health state. Some practical aspects of the implementation include: (1) near real-time data flow from the test stand data acquisition system through the ISHM model, for near real-time detection of anomalies and diagnostics, (2) insertion of the J-2X

  3. JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) stand-alone tritium test at the TSTA

    JAERI designed, fabricated, and installed the JAERI Fuel Cleanup System (J-FCU) as a subsystem of simulated fusion fuel loop at the TSTA. The main function of the J-FCU is to purify and to recover hydrogen isotopes from simulated plasma exhaust while exhausting tritium free impurities. J-FCU has been in tritium test since March, 1991. Ceramic electrolysis cell (CEC) was replaced with its spare on January 1992. The stand-alone tritium test was performed with full impurities (N2, CQ4 and Q2O etc.) on February, 1992. Main purpose of this test was to evaluate the J-FCU total integrity and function with full impurities after replacing CEC. During this test, plugging of Cold Trap (CT) occurred twice and about 500 Ci of tritium exhausted to the Tritium Waste Treatment system (TWT). The safety interlock of the J-FCU acted well, so operation was carried out safely. This report describes the detail results of the above test and discuss its functions and difficulties. (author)

  4. Temperature Measurement and Water Flow Calorimetry for the Neutral Beam Test Stand Operation at KAERI

    Temperature measurements during the beam line operation of the neutral beam test stand(NB-TS) is very important for the estimation of the absorbed energy by the beam line components such calorimeter and also for the temperature monitoring of the various components, and have been accomplished by the utilization of many of the thermocouples(TCs) installed onto the NB-TS and the data acquisition system(DAQ) based on the National Instruments' (NI) SCXI system. Preliminary estimations of the absorbed energy by the calorimeter during the beam extraction have been made. Greater efforts for the noise reduction in the TC signal acquisition has been made with partial success. We present the status of the temperature measurement and water flow calorimetry(WFC) related to the NB-TS operations

  5. RF-Breakdown kicks at the CTF3 two-beam test stand

    Palaia, Andrea; Muranaka, Tomoko; Ruber, Roger; Ziemann, V; Farabolini, W

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the effects of RF-breakdown on the beam in CLIC prototype accelerator structures is one of the key aspects of the CLIC two-beam acceleration scheme being addressed at the Two-beam Test Stand (TBTS) at CTF3. RF-breakdown can randomly cause energy loss and transverse kicks to the beam. Transverse kicks have been measured by means of a screen intercepting the beam after the accelerator structure. In correspondence of a RFbreakdown we detect a double beam spot which we interpret as a sudden change of the beam trajectory within a single beam pulse. To time-resolve such effect, the TBTS has been equipped with five inductive Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) and a spectrometer line to measure both relative changes of the beam trajectory and energy losses. Here we discuss the methodology used and we present the latest results of such measurements

  6. How well does the 30-second Chair Stand Test predict rehabilitation needs?

    Hansen Bruun, Inge; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Backer Mogensen, Christian; Maribo, Thomas

    Background The assessment of acutely admitted elderly medical patients’ need for rehabilitation is statutory and important for their independence. However, in an emergency department the assessment can be difficult as it has to be performed within 48 hours, when functional performance may be...... of functional decline. The 30-Second Chair Stand Test (30s-CST) is recommended by the Danish Health and Medicines Authority for screening of functional decline in elderly citizens living in their own home. However, its validity with hospitalized patients is undocumented, and it is unclear whether...... validated for use with such patients whose stay exceeds 48 hours. Our study aims to: - Investigate the face validity of 30s-CST and DEMMI for mobility assessment of acutely admitted elderly medical patients - Identify predictive indicators of hospitalized elderly medical patients’ need for rehabilitation...

  7. A new laser test stand for simulating charged-particle tracks

    We report on the construction of a new laser test stand equipped with a 1064 nm pulsed infrared YAG laser for simulating the passage of a charged particle in a silicon detector. The standard semiconductor repairing tool, the so-called laser-cutter, has been modified to have a newly developed optics which has the ability to reduce the light by the order of 106-108 and to adjust the spot size to several microns. As an application we measured the position dependence of the induced signals in a silicon-strip detector when the laser light hits in the region between the strips. The measurement has shown that this device is very effective in evaluating the detailed response of a silicon detector without using charged particles generated by accelerators. (orig.)

  8. Preliminary Measurement of Beam Power Transmission in KSTAR Neutral Beam Test-Stand

    A neutral beam test-stand (NBTS) was constructed to develop 300-sec deuterium beam extraction of 120 kV/65 A as an auxiliary heating system of KSTAR. The ion source is composed of a plasma generator and a tetrode accelerator. The beamline components include an optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA) duct, a neutralizer, a bending magnet (BM), an ion dump, a calorimeter, and a cryo-sorption pump system. Beam deposition along the NBTS has been measured by water flow calorimetry (WFC) and 96 % of the extracted beam power (Vacc·Iacc) was counted for a beam of 97 kV/22.2 A. Maximum power transmission efficiency, which is the ratio of transmitted power on the calorimeter to the extracted beam power, was 0.77 with an optimum perveance of 1.1 microperv

  9. Converter-Modulator Design and Operations for the ILC L-band Test Stand

    To facilitate a rapid response to the International Linear Collider (ILC) L-band development program at SLAC, a spare converter-modulator was shipped from LANL. This modulator was to be a spare for the spallation neutron source (SNS) accelerator at ORNL. The ILC application requires a 33% higher peak output power (15 MW) and output current (120 Amp). This presents significant design challenges to modify the existing hardware and yet maintain switching parameters and thermal cycling within the semiconductor component ratings. To minimize IGBT commutation and free-wheeling diode currents, a different set of optimizations, as compared to the SNS design, were used to tune the resonant switching networks. Additional complexities arose as nanocrystalline cores with different performance characteristics (as compared to SNS), were used to fabricate the resonant 'boost' transformers. This paper will describe the electrical design, modeling efforts, and resulting electrical performance as implemented for the ILC L-band test stand

  10. Small-Scale Hybrid Rocket Test Stand & Characterization of Swirl Injectors

    Summers, Matt H.

    Derived from the necessity to increase testing capabilities of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) propulsion systems for Daedalus Astronautics at Arizona State University, a small-scale motor and test stand were designed and developed to characterize all components of the system. The motor is designed for simple integration and setup, such that both the forward-end enclosure and end cap can be easily removed for rapid integration of components during testing. Each of the components of the motor is removable allowing for a broad range of testing capabilities. While examining injectors and their potential it is thought ideal to obtain the highest regression rates and overall motor performance possible. The oxidizer and fuel are N2O and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), respectively, due to previous experience and simplicity. The injector designs, selected for the same reasons, are designed such that they vary only in the swirl angle. This system provides the platform for characterizing the effects of varying said swirl angle on HRM performance.

  11. Numerical modeling of a 2K J-T heat exchanger used in Fermilab Vertical Test Stand VTS-1

    Gupta, Prabhat Kumar [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore (MP), India; Rabehl, Roger [FNAL

    2014-07-01

    Fermilab Vertical Test Stand-1 (VTS-1) is in operation since 2007 for testing the superconducting RF cavities at 2 K. This test stand has single layer coiled finned tubes heat exchanger before J-T valve. A finite difference based thermal model has been developed in Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to study its thermal performance during filling and refilling to maintain the constant liquid level of test stand. The model is also useful to predict its performance under other various operating conditions and will be useful to design the similar kind of heat exchanger for future needs. Present paper discusses the different operational modes of this heat exchanger and its thermal characteristics under these operational modes. Results of this model have also been compared with the experimental data gathered from the VTS-1 heat exchanger and they are in good agreement with the present model.

  12. Safety and diagnostic systems on the Liquid Lithium Test Stand (LLTS)

    Schwartz, J. A.; Jaworski, M. A.; Ellis, R.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2013-10-01

    The Liquid Lithium Test Stand (LLTS) is a test bed for development of flowing liquid lithium systems for plasma-facing components at PPPL. LLTS is designed to test operation of liquid lithium under vacuum, including flowing, solidifying (such as would be the case at the end of plasma operations), and re-melting. Constructed of stainless steel, LLTS is a closed loop of pipe with two reservoirs and a pump, as well as diagnostics for temperature, flow rate, and pressure. Since liquid lithium is a highly reactive material, special care must be taken when designing such a system. These include a permanent-magnet MHD pump and MHD flow meter that have no mechanical components in direct contact with the liquid lithium. The LLTS also includes an expandable 24-channel leak-detector interlock system which cuts power to heaters and the pump if any lithium leaks from a pipe joint. Design for the interlock systems and flow meter are presented. This work is supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Design and development of RF system for vertical test stand for characterization of superconducting RF cavities

    RRCAT is developing a Vertical Test Stand (VTS) to test and qualify 1.3 GHz/650 MHz, SCRF Cavities in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) under Indian Institutions' Fermilab Collaboration. The technical details for VTS is being provided by FNAL, USA. The RF System of VTS needs to provide stable RF power to SCRF cavity with control of amplitude, relative phase and frequency. The incident, reflected, transmitted power and field decay time constant of the cavity are measured to evaluate cavity performance parameters (E, Qo). RF Power is supplied via 500 W Solid State amplifier, 1270-1310 MHz being developed by PHPMS, RRCAT. VTS system is controlled by PXI Platform and National Instruments LabVIEW software. Low Level RF (LLRF) system is used to track the cavity frequency using Phase Locked Loop (PLL). The system is comprised of several integrated functional modules which would be assembled, optimized, and tested separately. Required components and instruments have been identified and procurement for the same is underway. Inhouse development for the Solid State RF amplifier and instrument interfacing is in progress. This paper describes the progress on the development of the RF system for VTS. (author)

  14. Design and testing of a new stand for the BOMAB family of phantoms

    A new stand has been designed to support the Bottle Manikin Absorber Phantoms when the phantoms are counted in the vertical position in a whole-body counter. The stand previously used by the Human Monitoring Laboratory was constructed from metal and was heavy to transport and making height adjustments to accommodate different phantom sizes was very time consuming. The new stand is constructed from lightweight plastic materials and allows easy height adjustments to accommodate different phantom sizes while supporting the weight of the phantoms. The stand was evaluated inside a whole-body counter at a nuclear-generating station and met all operational requirements for accessibility and ease of use. (authors)

  15. Role of prototype ground-test stands in developing transportable nuclear power installations

    Naval and shipborne (transportable) nuclear power installations (NPI) must incorporate the main constituents of the power installations of nuclear power plants (NPP) and meet some distinguishing specifications. Firstly as a direct consequence of the higher power-to-weight ratio of the installation (due to severe restrictions on its weight and size parameters), the power intensity of the core of the transportable NPI is higher than that of the cores used in NPP. Secondly, in view of the space constraints, a close arrangement of the equipment is necessary. Thirdly, the highly autonomous nature of the transportable NPI increases the stringency of the specifications with respect to the reliability and the service life of NPI that are realized, as a rule, by ensuring high reliability of the individual components and by reserving the extremely important elements (spares) of the systems of the installations. Furthermore, the required overall reliability of the installation and minimization of the number of operators calls for a high degree of automatic control. The prototype stand is a powerful facility for solving the problems related to the development and the assimilation of the newly designed transportable NPI. Its efficiency would be maximum if it is put into operation 2-3 years before completing the construction of the prototype NPI of a given type. In order to ensure efficient operation, it must satisfy certain conditions among which the most important ones are ensuring maximum identity of NPI tested using the stand and the newly created series-produced NPI, availability of powerful facilities for collecting, possessing and storing the obtained information, inclusion of a modeling complex based on the modern computer technology, and the presence of a well developed scientific infrastructure and a structure of the maintenance and engineering services

  16. Orthostatic function during a stand test before and after head-up or head-down bedrest

    Lathers, Claire M.; Diamandis, Peter H.; Riddle, Jeanne M.; Mukai, Chiaki; Elton, Kay F.; Bungo, Michael W.; Charles, John B.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of head-down or head-up bedrest at -5, +10, +20, or +42 deg (simulating 0, 1/6, 1/3, and 2/3 g, respectively) for 6 hrs on four different days on the orthostatic tolerance were investigated by measuring relevant physiological reactions to orthostatic test taken before and after bedrest sessions. The multivariate analysis of variance statistical analyses indicates that there was no angle effect on any of the cardiovascular parameters monitored during the last 3 min of the stand test, suggesting that partial gravity loads would have no effect on the cardiovascular deconditioning exhibited postflight. There was, however, a significant elevation in the heart rate post-bedrest, and the heart rate increased on standing. Results from the stand test pre- and post-bedrest at -5 deg (but not at +10, +20, and +42 deg) were similar to those observed after space flight.

  17. Direct thrust measurement stand with improved operation and force calibration technique for performance testing of pulsed micro-thrusters

    A robust stand for directly measuring pulsed thrust from micro-thrusters is presented. The method of electrostatic discs for in situ calibration was improved upon and simplified to allow convenient and accurate thrust measurement. The novel use of frictionless liquid gallium metal power interfaces for µN-level force measurement stands was also demonstrated. A series of detailed verification tests were performed to characterize the thrust stand’s overall operating range and accuracy. The stand can test single and multiple thrusters with a total mass of up to 10 kg and was found to be capable of resolving impulse bits between 0.27–600 µNs with 2–4% error in the optimal deflection range. Demonstration of the thrust stand’s capability and resilience to electromagnetic interference was accomplished by performing lifetime thrust tests on low-power Vacuum-Arc Thrusters operating with three different cathode fuels. (paper)

  18. Physical insights and test stand results for the LANSCE H- surface converter source

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) H- surface converter source has been under development for several years to reach 25-40 mA current with 7(πcm-mrad) lab emittance (95% beam fraction). The duty factor is 12% (120 Hz, 1 ms pulse length). Summary test stand results and interpretations for a six filament axial extraction H- source are presented. This source did produce 40-mA H- current, but with unacceptable emittance growth. More recently a fourth, modified LANSCE H- production source with radial H- extraction system has been constructed, and is presently undergoing tests. Currents up to 25mA H- have been observed with 20% emittance growth. This emittance growth may be acceptable for 800 MeV linac operations. A summary of physical principles of emittance growth mechanisms and converter physics are given. Significant upgrades to the LANSCE 800-MeV linac and Proton Storage Ring (PSR) operations can be realized by development of an if ion source with laboratory emittance of 7(πcm-mrad) at 95% beam fraction with 20-40mA H- current. The source beam energy is 80keV and the duty factor (df) is 12%. A six-filament version of the surface converter source with axial if beam extraction was developed in a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley National (LBNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratories (LANL). Although this source did produce 40-mA H- current, an unexpected emittance growth factor of 2.5 made these higher current beams unacceptable for LANSCE operations. A subsequent decision was made to fabricate and develop a fourth production source to produce 25-mA H- current with an emittance growth of no greater than 20%. The source upgrade technology would be used in a 750-keV H-. injector B at LANSCE. Experiments and analysis on the six-filament axial extraction source will be reviewed in the next section. Evidence is given that at the higher discharge power characteristic of this source, two beams are formed at extraction. The two beams originate in

  19. Three-Month Test-Retest Reliability of Center of Pressure Motion During Standing Balance in Individuals with Multiple Sclerosis

    Wajda, Douglas A.; Motl, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Balance impairment and an increased rate of falls are commonly reported in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). Force platform–generated center of pressure (COP) metrics have previously been recommended as an outcome measure to quantify balance deficits and distinguish between fallers and nonfallers in MS. Information is limited regarding the preservation of postural control in individuals with MS over extended time frames in the absence of an intervention. This report examines the test-retest reliability and magnitude of change of COP motion during standing balance over 3 months. Methods: Twenty individuals with MS and a history of falling underwent testing on two occasions 3 months apart in the absence of an intervention. On both occasions, participants completed two 30-second trials of three conditions: eyes open, eyes closed, and eyes open with concurrent cognitive challenge (dual task). Measures of COP area, velocity, and temporal structure were calculated and included in the reliability analysis. Results: The COP metrics displayed fair-to-excellent reliability over 3 months without an intervention. Reliability was maintained across the three commonly used balance conditions. Conclusions: These results offer insight into the reliability of COP measures over a 3-month period in MS and can inform the use of COP metrics for future study design (eg, sample size estimates) and balance outcome assessment during randomized controlled trials and fall-prevention studies in individuals with MS. PMID:27134578

  20. Pilot Field Test: Performance of a Sit-to-Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; May-Phillips, T. R.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Kitov, V. V.; Lysova, N. U.; Lee, S. M. C.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts returning from the International Space Station (ISS) are met by a team of recovery personnel who typically provide physical assistance and medical support immediately after landing. This assistance and support are provided because long-duration spaceflight greatly affects astronauts' functional abilities. Future expeditions to planets or asteroids beyond low Earth orbit, however, will require crewmembers to egress the vehicle and perform other types of physical tasks unassisted. It is therefore important to characterize the extent and longevity of functional deficits experienced by astronauts in order to design safe exploration-class missions. A joint US/Russian Pilot Field Test (PFT) study conducted with participation of crewmembers of ISS Expeditions 35-42 comprised several tasks designed to study the recovery of sensorimotor abilities of astronauts during the first 24 hours after landing and beyond. Sit-to-Stand (S2S) was the first task in the PFT battery.

  1. Stand for developing and testing the processes and equipment of the pyrochemical methods of nuclear fuel management

    The report summarizes the experience on developing and operating in RIAR's Chemical Technology Division a versatile stand designed for obtaining of experimental data on the process parameters of the currently developed non-aqueous processes of nuclear fuel management and on the peculiarities of the test equipment operation. The experiments carried out at the Stand according to the process requirements and the requirements of the equipment remote servicing are maximally approximated to the experimental processes with real irradiated fuel. The versatility of the Stand allows accomplishing a wide range of experimental tasks including those related to investigation of the processes for implementation of the closed fuel cycle. The report presents the data on the Stand structure and interior arrangement as well as on the configuration of the main and ancillary equipment. The report presents information on a number of 'cold' experiments carried out using the Stand. In order to check new design approaches, it is planned to arrange in the simulated shielded cell of the Stand the research complex of semi-industrial-scale equipment: the apparatus for pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the furnace for vitrification of high-level wastes arisen from SNF reprocessing by nonaqueous methods. (authors)

  2. Profile and Emittance Measurements at the CERN LINAC4 3 MeV test Stand

    Zocca, F; Duraffourg, M; Focker, GJ; Gerard, D; Raich, U; Roncarolo, F

    2013-01-01

    A new 160 MeV H- Linac named Linac-4 will be built at CERN to replace the old 50 MeV proton Linac. The ion source, the 3 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) and the Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line hosting a chopper, have been commissioned in a dedicated test stand. Wire grids and wire scanners were used to measure the transverse beam profile and a slit/grid emittance meter was installed on a temporary test bench plugged at the RFQ and MEBT exit in different stages. The emittance meter slit was also used as a scanning scraper able to reconstruct the transverse profile by measuring the transmission with a downstream current transformer. On the same measurement bench, a spectrometer in conjunction with a wire grid allowed measuring the energy spread of the particles. This paper summarizes the measurement results that allowed characterizing the 3 MeV beam and discusses the present understanding of monitor performance.

  3. The Renaissance: A test-stand for the Forward CMS Pixel Tracker assembly

    The CMS Forward Pixel Tracker will consist of two end-cap blocks, each made of two disks lodging sensors and Read-Out Chips (ROCs) (grouped into plaquettes of different sizes) for a total of about 18 million read-out channels. During the assembly phase, prior to the physical mounting of the plaquettes on the disks a thorough electronic test is necessary to check each channel for functionality, noise level, required threshold trimming and bump-bond quality. To this extent a complete test-stand system, based on custom PCI cards and specialized software, has been developed. Different methods have been evaluated and implemented to electronically assess the amount of malfunctioning bump-bonds. Determination of the correct parameters for initialization of the ROCs has also been implemented as an automatic procedure; data are finally fed into a centralized database for subsequent retrieval during detector initialization or for off-line analysis. In this paper we describe requirements, design and implementation of such a system, which is currently in use at the Silicon Detector Facility (SiDet) Laboratory of FNAL for the final assembly of the Forward Tracker system

  4. The Renaissance: A test-stand for the Forward CMS Pixel Tracker assembly

    Menasce, Dario; Turqueti, Marcos; Uplegger, Lorenzo

    2007-09-01

    The CMS Forward Pixel Tracker will consist of two end-cap blocks, each made of two disks lodging sensors and Read-Out Chips (ROCs) (grouped into plaquettes of different sizes) for a total of about 18 million read-out channels. During the assembly phase, prior to the physical mounting of the plaquettes on the disks a thorough electronic test is necessary to check each channel for functionality, noise level, required threshold trimming and bump-bond quality. To this extent a complete test-stand system, based on custom PCI cards and specialized software, has been developed. Different methods have been evaluated and implemented to electronically assess the amount of malfunctioning bump-bonds. Determination of the correct parameters for initialization of the ROCs has also been implemented as an automatic procedure; data are finally fed into a centralized database for subsequent retrieval during detector initialization or for off-line analysis. In this paper we describe requirements, design and implementation of such a system, which is currently in use at the Silicon Detector Facility (SiDet) Laboratory of FNAL for the final assembly of the Forward Tracker system.

  5. A stand for simulation and test of the magnetic components of the focus beam and transport systems for accelerator LUE-200, installation IREN

    Technical parameters and physical abilities of the equipment stand for simulation and testing of the dipole electromagnet to focus and transport the beam of the linear accelerator (LUE-200) are described. The overall design of the stand, a description of the magnetometer and the positioning system of Hall sensors are presented. The software of the stand has been developed

  6. Tandem mirror experiment-upgrade neutral beam test stand: a powerful tool for development and quality assurance

    During construction of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U), we assembled a test stand to develop electronics for the neutral beam system. In the first six months of test stand use we operated a few neutral beam injector modules and directed considerable effort toward improving the electronic system. As system development progressed, our focus turned toward improving the injector modules themselves. The test stand has proved to be the largest single contributor to the successful operation of neutral beams on TMX-U, primarily because it provides quality assurance andd development capability in conjunction with the scheduled activities of the main experiment. This support falls into five major categories: (1) electronics development, (2) operator training, (3) injector module testing and characterization, (4) injector module improvements, and (5) physics improvements (through areas affected by injector operation). Normal day-to-day operation of the test stand comes under the third category, testing and characterization, and comprises our final quality assurance activity for newly assembled or repaired modules before they are installed on TMX-U

  7. Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics (HISTRAP) vacuum test stand for pressures of 10-12 Torr

    HISTRAP (Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics) is a proposed synchrotron/cooler/storage ring accelerator optimized for advanced atomic physics research. The ring has a circumference of 46.8 m, a bore diameter of /similar to/15 cm, and requires a vacuum of 10-12 Torr to decelerate highly charged, very heavy ions down to low energies. To be able to test components and procedures to achieve this pressure, a test stand approximately modeling 1/16 of the ring vacuum chamber has been built. The 3.5-m-long test stand has been fabricated from 10-cm-diam components, with 316LN stainless-steel flanges. Prior to assembly, these components were vacuum fired at 950 0C at a pressure of 10-4 Torr. The test stand is bakable in situ at 300 0C. Pumping is achieved with two 750 l/s titanium sublimator pumps and one 60 l/s ion pump. Pressure is measured with two extractor ion gauges and a 10-4 partial pressure residual gas analyser. The roughing for the test stand consists of cryosorption pumps followed by a cryopump. A pressure of 4 x 10-12 Torr has been achieved

  8. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 1010 cm−2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region

  9. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    Si, Fenni; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin

    2015-08-01

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 1010 cm-2 (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  10. Stand alone computer system to aid the development of Mirror Fusion Test Facility rf heating systems

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) control system architecture requires the Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System (SCDS) to communicate with a LSI-11 Local Control Computer (LCC) that in turn communicates via a fiber optic link to CAMAC based control hardware located near the machine. In many cases, the control hardware is very complex and requires a sizable development effort prior to being integrated into the overall MFTF-B system. One such effort was the development of the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) system. It became clear that a stand alone computer system was needed to simulate the functions of SCDS. This paper describes the hardware and software necessary to implement the SCDS Simulation Computer (SSC). It consists of a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) LSI-11 computer and a Winchester/Floppy disk operating under the DEC RT-11 operating system. All application software for MFTF-B is programmed in PASCAL, which allowed us to adapt procedures originally written for SCDS to the SSC. This nearly identical software interface means that software written during the equipment development will be useful to the SCDS programmers in the integration phase

  11. Performance of an MDT cosmic test stand a Monte Carlo evaluation

    Bagnaia, P; Ciapetti, G; De Salvo, A; Di Girolamo, A; Solfaroli, E

    2004-01-01

    The high level of mechanical accuracy in the wire location represents one of the main characteristics of the MDT chambers. The X-ray measurements performed at CERN have certified this accuracy; almost all the measured chambers have an r.m.s. respect to the nominal position below 20 mm. It has been also observed that, leaving free, in the fit to the measured wire grid, few global parameters, like the relative distance, the rotation and the angle between multilayers (chamber mechanical parameters), we can obtain a substantial improvement (up to 5-7 mm) in the wire r.m.s. that can boost the ultimate precision of the Atlas muon spectrometer. Only a small (10-15%) fraction of all MDTs can be X-ray inspected at the CERN Tomograph [2], but all the chambers are expected to be certified in a cosmic rays stand. We can therefore try to optimize the chamber geometrical parameters from the analysis of the cosmic rays data. The aim of this note is the Monte Carlo evaluation of the performance of a simple cosmic rays test f...

  12. Inferred Influence of Human Lateral Profile on Limb Load Asymmetry during a Quiet Standing Balance Test

    Longley,Christopher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the identification and characterisation of a participant's lateral profile during quiet standing have not received much research attention, they have the potential to greatly extend our understanding of upright stance stability control. This study further examines limb load asymmetries during quiet bipedal stance. During voluntary frontal-plane weight shifting for 2 min, 300 centre-of-pressure displacements on 14 blindfolded right-handed young adults were recorded. Four biomechanical indices were used to assess postural behaviour. These were the bias of time and the magnitude of the partial ground reaction forces from both legs, and the bias in the number and magnitude of microshifts influencing stability. Our study identifies a significant level of asymmetry in the quiet bipedal stance of right-handed people. This asymmetry is associated with the right-sided bias of the ground reaction force and the angle of inclination to the upright (vertical centroidal line. We found that the initial lateralisation of the partial ground reaction forces from both feet, as well as the period of ground reaction force bias, are important elements in any clinical tests involving quiet bipedal stance.

  13. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%–90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132–300 tungsten wires with 5–10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (∼50 TW) and total radiated energy (∼500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed

  14. Measurements of high energy photons in Z-pinch experiments on primary test stand

    Si, Fenni, E-mail: sifenni@163.com; Zhang, Chuanfei; Xu, Rongkun; Yuan, Xi; Huang, Zhanchang; Xu, Zeping; Ye, Fan; Yang, Jianlun; Ning, Jiamin; Hu, Qingyuan; Zhu, Xuebin [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Sichuan, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-08-15

    High energy photons are measured for the first time in wire-array Z-pinch experiments on the Primary Test Stand (PTS) which delivers a current up to 8 MA with a rise time of 70 ns. A special designed detecting system composed of three types of detectors is used to measure the average energy, intensity, and pulse waveform of high energy photons. Results from Pb-TLD (thermoluminescence dosimeter) detector indicate that the average energy is 480 keV (±15%). Pulse shape of high energy photons is measured by the photodiode detector consisted of scintillator coupled with a photodiode, and it is correlated with soft x-ray power by the same timing signal. Intensity is measured by both TLD and the photodiode detector, showing good accordance with each other, and it is 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} (±20%) at 2 m in the horizontal direction. Measurement results show that high energy photons are mainly produced in pinch regions due to accelerated electrons. PTS itself also produces high energy photons due to power flow electrons, which is one order smaller in amplitude than those from pinch region.

  15. Preliminary experimental results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinches on primary test stand

    Huang, Xian-Bin; Zhou, Shao-Tong; Dan, Jia-Kun; Ren, Xiao-Dong, E-mail: amosrxd@163.com; Wang, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Si-Qun; Li, Jing; Xu, Qiang; Cai, Hong-Chun; Duan, Shu-Chao; Ouyang, Kai; Chen, Guang-Hua; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shu-Ping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Wei-Ping; Deng, Jian-Jun [Key Laboratory of Pulsed Power, Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-108, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China); Zhou, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yi [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-987, Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The Primary Test Stand (PTS) developed at the China Academy of Engineering Physics is a 20 TW pulsed power driver, which can deliver a ∼10 MA, 70 ns rise-time (10%–90%) current to a short-circuit load and has important applications in Z-pinch driven inertial confinement fusion and high energy density physics. Preliminary results of tungsten wire-array Z-pinch experiments on PTS are presented. The load geometries investigated include 15-mm-tall cylindrical single and nested arrays with diameter ranging from 13 mm to 30 mm, consisting of 132–300 tungsten wires with 5–10 μm in diameter. Multiple diagnostics were fielded to characterize the x-ray radiation from wire-array Z pinches. The x-ray peak power (∼50 TW) and total radiated energy (∼500 kJ) were obtained from a single 20-mm-diam array with 80-ns stagnation time. The highest x-ray peak power up to 80 TW with 2.4 ns FWHM was achieved by using a nested array with 20-mm outer diameter, and the total x-ray energy from the nested array is comparable to that of single array. Implosion velocity estimated from the time-resolved image measurement exceeds 30 cm/μs. The detailed experimental results and other findings are presented and discussed.

  16. Beam-Based Diagnostics of RF-Breakdown in the Two-Beam Test-Stand in CTF3

    Johnson, M

    2007-01-01

    The general outline of a beam-based diagnostic method of RF-breakdown, using BPMs, at the two-beam test-stand in CTF3 is discussed. The basic components of the set-up and their functions in the diagnostic are described. Estimations of the expected error in the measured parameters are performed.

  17. THE DETERMINATION OF THE STATISTICAL PARAMETERS OF THE CONVERTERS IN CIRCUITS TEST STANDS FOR TRACTION MOTORS OF THE LOCOMOTIVE

    V. M. Bezruchenko

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the method of static converters parameters calculation is resulted. It is proposed to replace the electromachine linear generator and balancing booster with static converters in the scheme of the traditional stand for test of locomotives traction engines.

  18. Design aspects of a test stand for axial injection system of 20-100 MeV compact cyclotron

    To increase the injection intensity and efficiency, a test stand is designed for the axial injection system of 20-100 MeV compact cyclotron so as to implement the experimental study. The design aspects of test stand, including the optics of the beam line, the elements design etc., are described. Mostly the elements selection for the beam transportation from the Hsource to the central region of the cyclotron, the matching calculation and the elements design are considered. To investigate the injection system of 22 MeV and 70 MeV cyclotrons experimentally by the test stand, the design goal is to keep the layout of injection line, the dimensions of elements, the operation parameters as close as possible so that the setup of the stand is more easily. The designed system can meet the need of the H- beam injection for the cyclotron from 20 MeV to 100 MeV though the dimension of the solenoid, which is installed in the main magnet of the machine, should be changed due to the different size of the magnets

  19. Development and qualification of a specialized gas turbine test stand to research the potential benefits of nanocatalyst fuel additives

    Kraemer, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the wide use of gas turbine engines, any performance improvements would yield significant impacts to many military and civilian programs. While hardware upgrades require costly replacements to existing equipment, fuel performance enhancement could provide a near term cost effective solution. This thesis research focused on the development and qualification of a suitable test stand system to provide bench testing of nanocatalyst additives for jet fuels on a fullscale tactical gas ...

  20. Test Beam Results of a 3D Diamond Detector

    Dunser, Marc

    2015-01-01

    3D pixel technology has been used successfully in the past with silicon detectors for tracking applications. Recently, a first prototype of the same 3D technology has been produced on a chemical vapour deposited single-crystal diamond sensor. This device has been subsequently tested in a beam test at CERN’s SPS accelerator in a beam of 120 GeV protons. Details on the production and results of testbeam data are presented.

  1. A-3 steel work completed

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  2. Rates and mechanisms of optic contamination in the EUV engineering test stand

    Grunow, Philip A.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Graham, Samuel, Jr.; Haney, Steven J.; Clift, W. Miles

    2003-06-01

    The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a full field, alpha class Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) tool that has demonstrated the printing of 70 nm resolution scanned images. The tool employs Mo/Si multilayer optics that reflect EUV radiation (13.4nm / 92.5eV) with ~67% peak reflectance per optic. For good reflectivity, many (greater than or equal to 40)Mo/Si layers must be present. Consequently, processes such as plasma induced multilayer erosion, which reduces the number of bilayer pairs on plasma facing optics, need to be understood. Since most materials readily absorb EUV photons, it is important to prevent contamination of mirror surfaces with EUV absorbing material. Contamination can occur by EUV photons "cracking" hydrocarbons or other species absorbed on the optical surfaces. The first ETS condenser component, referred to as C1, is coated with Mo/Si multilayers. Data collected from Mo/Si witness plates placed at the C1 position indicate erosion, using the Xe Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) spray jet, of 1 bilayer per ~15 million shots. Preliminary experiments with a filament jet yielded a significantly higher erosion rate. In the spray jet studies, erosion was found to depend sensitively on the composition of the residual background environment. Addition of low levels, ~7x10-7 Torr, of H2O to the vacuum background produced oxidation of the Si cap, and significantly slowed spray jet induced erosion. Operation of the plasma changed the environment in the Illuminator Chamber from oxidizing to carbonizing, thereby changing the nature of the contamination found environment at the C3 optic which does not view the plasma directly (and therefore does not erode). The change in environment is attributed to plasma induced outgassing of fluorocarbons in the Illuminator. Due to the non zero conductance between the Illuminator and Main Chambers, fluorocarbons were also found in the Main Chamber during Xe LPP operation. RGA data are presented that document the effect

  3. Rates and mechanisms of optic contamination in the EUVL engineering test stand

    Grunow, Philip A.; Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Graham, Samuel, Jr.; Haney, Steven J.; Clift, W. Miles

    2003-06-01

    The EUV Engineering Test Stand (ETS) is a full-field, alpha-class Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) tool that has demonstrated the printing of 70 nm resolution scanned images. The tool employs Mo/Si multilayer optics that reflect EUV radiation (13.4nm / 92.5eV) with ~67% peak reflectance per optic. For good reflectivity, many (≥40)Mo/Si layers must be present. Consequently, processes such as plasma-induced multilayer erosion, which reduces the number of bilayer pairs on plasma-facing optics, need to be understood. Since most materials readily absorb EUV photons, it is important to prevent contamination of mirror surfaces with EUV absorbing material. Contamination can occur by EUV photons "cracking" hydrocarbons or other species absorbed on the optical surfaces. The first ETS condenser component, referred to as C1, is coated with Mo/Si multilayers. Data collected from Mo/Si witness plates placed at the C1 position indicate erosion, using the Xe Laser Produced Plasma (LPP) spray jet, of 1 bilayer per ~15 million shots. Preliminary experiments with a filament jet yielded a significantly higher erosion rate. In the spray jet studies, erosion was found to depend sensitively on the composition of the residual background environment. Addition of low levels, ~7x10-7 Torr, of H2O to the vacuum background produced oxidation of the Si cap, and significantly slowed spray jet-induced erosion. Operation of the plasma changed the environment in the Illuminator Chamber from oxidizing to carbonizing, thereby changing the nature of the contamination found environment at the C3 optic which does not view the plasma directly (and therefore does not erode). The change in environment is attributed to plasma-induced outgassing of fluorocarbons in the Illuminator. Due to the non-zero conductance between the Illuminator and Main Chambers, fluorocarbons were also found in the Main Chamber during Xe LPP operation. RGA data are presented that document the effect. In the presence of such

  4. Foot Placement and Arm Position Affect the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test Time of Individuals with Chronic Stroke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effect of two foot placements (normal or posterior placement) and three arm positions (hands on the thighs, arms crossed over chest, and augmented arm position with elbow extended) on the five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test times of individuals with chronic stroke. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. University-based rehabilitation clinic. Participants. A convenience sample of community-dwelling individuals with chronic stroke (N = 45). Methods. The times i...

  5. Association of Seat Height and Arm Position on the Five Times Sit-to-Stand Test Times of Stroke Survivors

    Ng, Shamay S. M.; Susanna Y. Cheung; Lauren S. W. Lai; Liu, Ann S. L.; Selena H. I. Ieong; Fong, Shirley S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate (1) the association of seat height and (2) the association of arm position on the five times sit-to-stand test (FTSTS) times of individuals with stroke. Design. A cross-sectional study. Setting. University-based rehabilitation centre. Subjects. Patients (n = 43) with chronic stroke. Methods. The times in completing the FTSTS with different seat height (85%, 100%, and 115% knee height) and arm positions (arms across chest, hands on thighs). Results. FTSTS times were ...

  6. Effects of a standing and three dynamic workstations on computer task performance and cognitive function tests.

    Commissaris, Dianne A C M; Könemann, Reinier; Hiemstra-van Mastrigt, Suzanne; Burford, Eva-Maria; Botter, Juliane; Douwes, Marjolein; Ellegast, Rolf P

    2014-11-01

    Sedentary work entails health risks. Dynamic (or active) workstations, at which computer tasks can be combined with physical activity, may reduce the risks of sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to evaluate short term task performance while working on three dynamic workstations: a treadmill, an elliptical trainer, a bicycle ergometer and a conventional standing workstation. A standard sitting workstation served as control condition. Fifteen Dutch adults performed five standardised but common office tasks in an office-like laboratory setting. Both objective and perceived work performance were measured. With the exception of high precision mouse tasks, short term work performance was not affected by working on a dynamic or a standing workstation. The participant's perception of decreased performance might complicate the acceptance of dynamic workstations, although most participants indicate that they would use a dynamic workstation if available at the workplace. PMID:24951234

  7. Number of test trials needed for performance stability and interrater reliability of the one leg stand test in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Nielsen, Anni Østergaard; Madsen Topp, Ulla; Jakobsen, Berit; Nielsen, Kirsten Juel; Gybel Juul-Larsen, Helle; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2014-01-01

    Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST in...... patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and (3) to provide a test procedure....

  8. The over 3 m long SV25 steel props at an experimental stand and in underground site testing

    Homel, J.; Labonski, S.; Kozlowski, A.

    1991-07-01

    Presents results of an experimental stand and underground tests of installing long SV25 props in over 3 m high workings. Bench tests showed the bearing capacity of 3.5-4.86 m high props to be 285 kN on average for the first stage up to the point of sliding in joints and 160 kN in the second phase after straightening of stirrups. Characteristics of bending tests are also presented. Field tests were conducted in the Moszczenica black coal mine with satisfactory results. The conclusion is reached that props with two stirrups should be used only as auxiliary support reinforcement while application of a third stirrup is recommended if they are used as basic support elements. Application of double-yoke stirrups is also recommended. 3 refs.

  9. Development of Test Stand for Torsional Fatigue Test of Vehicle Steering Shaft%汽车转向轴扭转疲劳试验台开发

    陈建国; 袁海兵

    2013-01-01

    为了检验转向轴的质量,设计了转向轴扭转疲劳试验台。介绍了试验台的机械结构,设计了以PIC芯片为控制器的硬件电路,阐述了软件的编制流程。该试验台可以保证加载的扭矩恒定,方便地显示加载次数。系统自动化程度高,运行稳定可靠。%In order to verify the quality of the steering shaft,a test stand is designed for the purpose of torsional fatigue test. In this paper the mechanical contracture is introduced, the hardware circuit based on PIC microcontroller is designed and the flowchart of the control software is drawn. The test stand can ensure constant torque load and display the experimental times conveniently. The system has high automotive degree and works stably and reliably,which shows that the design of the test stand is successful.

  10. Location of rut stands vs.mating opportunities in Przewalski's gazelle: A field test of the "Resource-based Hypothesis" and "Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis"

    Zhangqiang YOU; Zhigang JIANG; Chunwang LI

    2011-01-01

    We studied the mating tactics of Przewalski's gazelle on the Qinghal-Tibetan Plateau from 2002 to 2005.Przewalski's gazelle is a cluster mating animal whereby female groups,including juveniles,travel to and from their resting grounds along luted routes and dominant males stand on or near these travel routes during rut.To explain rut patterns in male gazelles,we tested predictions arising from the "Resource-based Hypothesis" and "Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis".We marked the location of each rut stand and female travel route,measured food availability in each rut stand and recorded the mating opportunities of rut stand owners.We also conducted a field experiment to force female groups to change their daily travel route,and observed whether males abandon their original rut stands and shift their rut stands to new travel routes of females during the 3rd rut.We found that:(1) male gazelle defending rut stands closer to a female travel route had a higher chance of mating; (2) food resources within rut stands had no effect on mating opportunities of the rut stand owner; (3) when the female travel route was obstructed,female groups changed grazing sites,and all males abandoned their original rut stands and defended new rut stands along the new female travel route.In conclusion,the location of rut stands in relation to female travel routes is the ultimate factor for consolidating mating opportunities in male gazelle,supporting the "Female Route Version of Hotspot Hypothesis"[Current Zoology 57 (6):701-708,2011].

  11. An analysis of cross-coupling of a multicomponent jet engine test stand using finite element modeling techniques

    Schweikhard, W. G.; Singnoi, W. N.

    1985-01-01

    A two axis thrust measuring system was analyzed by using a finite a element computer program to determine the sensitivities of the thrust vectoring nozzle system to misalignment of the load cells and applied loads, and the stiffness of the structural members. Three models were evaluated: (1) the basic measuring element and its internal calibration load cells; (2) the basic measuring element and its external load calibration equipment; and (3) the basic measuring element, external calibration load frame and the altitude facility support structure. Alignment of calibration loads was the greatest source of error for multiaxis thrust measuring systems. Uniform increases or decreases in stiffness of the members, which might be caused by the selection of the materials, have little effect on the accuracy of the measurements. It is found that the POLO-FINITE program is a viable tool for designing and analyzing multiaxis thrust measurement systems. The response of the test stand to step inputs that might be encountered with thrust vectoring tests was determined. The dynamic analysis show a potential problem for measuring the dynamic response characteristics of thrust vectoring systems because of the inherently light damping of the test stand.

  12. Testing prototypes of high-temperature superconducting current leads of cryogenic stand for testing magnetic elements of the NICA accelerating complex

    Kres, E. V.; Kadenko, I. N.; Bessheiko, O. A.; Belov, D. V.; Blinov, N. A.; Galimov, A. R.; Zorin, A. G.; Karpinsky, V. N.; Nikiforov, D. N.; Pivin, R. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Shevchenko, E. V.; Smirnov, S. A.; Khodzhibagiyan, G. G.; Liu, Cheng Lian

    2014-09-01

    In the Laboratory of High Energies at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, as part of the NICA-MPD [1] project, tests of two prototypes of HTSC current leads prepared at ASIPP institute (Hefei, China) have been performed [2, 3] to measure electric and heat parameters and to search for structural and physical drawbacks. Based on the experimental results, necessary changes are made in the structure of HTSC current leads of the testing stand for the magnetic element testing of the NICA accelerating complex and its basic setups: the Nuclotron, Booster, and Collider.

  13. Creating an EPICS Based Test Stand Development System for a BPM Digitizer of the Linac Coherent Light Source

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is required to deliver a high quality electron beam for producing coherent X-rays. As a result, high resolution beam position monitoring is required. The Beam Position Monitor (BPM) digitizer acquires analog signals from the beam line and digitizes them to obtain beam position data. Although Matlab is currently being used to test the BPM digitizer?s functions and capability, the Controls Department at SLAC prefers to use Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS). This paper discusses the transition of providing similar as well as enhanced functionalities, than those offered by Matlab, to test the digitizer. Altogether, the improved test stand development system can perform mathematical and statistical calculations with the waveform signals acquired from the digitizer and compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the signals. Finally, logging of meaningful data into files has been added.

  14. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade Respecting: Pursuant to Standing Order 108(2), consideration of nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic

    The Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade met to consider the nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic. Canada is concerned about the environmental effects of the radioactive waste to the marine environment. The safe dismantlement of nuclear weapons or reactors is of major concern

  15. Validity and Reproducibility of an Incremental Sit-To-Stand Exercise Test for Evaluating Anaerobic Threshold in Young, Healthy Individuals

    Keisuke Nakamura, Masayoshi Ohira, Yoshiharu Yokokawa, Yuya Nagasawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sit-to-stand exercise (STS is a common activity of daily living. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to assess the validity of aerobic fitness measurements based on anaerobic thresholds (ATs, during incremental sit-to-stand exercise (ISTS with and without arm support compared with an incremental cycle-ergometer (CE test; and 2 to examine the reproducibility of the AT measured during the ISTSs. Twenty-six healthy individuals randomly performed the ISTS and CE test. Oxygen uptakes at the AT (AT-VO2 and heart rate at the AT (AT-HR were determined during the ISTSs and CE test, and repeated-measures analyses of variance and Tukey’s post-hoc test were used to evaluate the differences between these variables. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to assess the strength of the relationship between AT-VO2 and AT-HR during the ISTSs and CE test. Data analysis yielded the following correlations: AT-VO2 during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.77 (p < 0.05; AT-VO2 during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.70 (p < 0.05; AT-HR during the ISTS with arm support and the CE test, r = 0.80 (p < 0.05; and AT-HR during the ISTS without arm support and the CE test, r = 0.66 (p < 0.05. The AT-VO2 values during the ISTS with arm support (18.5 ± 1.9 mL·min-1·kg-1 and the CE test (18.4 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1 were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (16.6 ± 1.8 mL·min-1·kg-1; p < 0.05. The AT-HR values during the ISTS with arm support (126 ± 10 bpm and the CE test (126 ± 13 bpm were significantly higher than those during the ISTS without arm support (119 ± 9 bpm; p < 0.05. The ISTS with arm support may provide a cardiopulmonary function load equivalent to the CE test; therefore, it is a potentially valid test for evaluating AT-VO2 and AT-HR in healthy, young adults.

  16. Preliminary performance results for the ATLAS RPC test stand in Lecce

    We present here a preliminary performance analysis of the ATLAS RPC tested at the Lecce cosmic ray testing facility. In this paper we define the operating working point for our detectors and show the distribution of the principal operating parameters

  17. Data acquisition system of the 972 MHz klystron test stand for J-PARC linac

    At the 972 MHz klystron test station, we have been performing the various high power tests for the LINAC energy upgrade plan since 2001. In this April, the 972 MHz klystron which improved output window and collector was installed in the test station. We constructed the LLRF control system and the data acquisition system at the klystron test station to measure the RF characteristics of this klystron. In this report, we outline this system and present some of experiment results. (author)

  18. Data acquisition system of 324 MHz klystron test stand at J-PARC LINAC

    The J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) Linac consists of RFQ, DTL1-3 and SDTL1-15. They are driven by 324 MHz klystrons. We measured RF characteristics of 24 klystrons, and obtained various parameters by klystron high power tests at test stations. In this paper, we report the data acquisition system used by this high power tests. (author)

  19. Design of a test stand for measuring processes in a liquid helium vessel upon failure of the insulating vacuum

    Loss of the insulating vacuum is in many cases considered as the greatest conceivable failure in designing safety devices for liquid helium vessels. Proper dimensioning is of critical importance due to the extreme operating conditions (low temperatures, low enthalpy of evaporation of liquid helium). In many cases the existing technical codes (e.g. AD-2000, DIN) do not sufficiently cover the range of conditions that can occur in cryogenic engineering. In the past, the design of safety devices has usually been based on experience or a very limited selection of experimental data. However these often provide insufficient information on the processes taking place. This paper describes the planning and the measurement principle of a test stand for safety devices. The purpose of the test stand is to validate a preexisting theoretical model of the processes in question and, in particular, to analyse the influence of superinsulation on the heat flux to the helium as well as the processes taking place inside the helium vessel.

  20. INTRODUCING NOVEL GENERATION OF HIGH ACCURACY CAMERA OPTICAL-TESTING AND CALIBRATION TEST-STANDS FEASIBLE FOR SERIES PRODUCTION OF CAMERAS

    M. Nekouei Shahraki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent advances in the field of computer-vision have opened the doors of many opportunities for taking advantage of these techniques and technologies in many fields and applications. Having a high demand for these systems in today and future vehicles implies a high production volume of video cameras. The above criterions imply that it is critical to design test systems which deliver fast and accurate calibration and optical-testing capabilities. In this paper we introduce new generation of test-stands delivering high calibration quality in single-shot calibration of fisheye surround-view cameras. This incorporates important geometric features from bundle-block calibration, delivers very high (sub-pixel calibration accuracy, makes possible a very fast calibration procedure (few seconds, and realizes autonomous calibration via machines. We have used the geometrical shape of a Spherical Helix (Type: 3D Spherical Spiral with special geometrical characteristics, having a uniform radius which corresponds to the uniform motion. This geometrical feature was mechanically realized using three dimensional truncated icosahedrons which practically allow the implementation of a spherical helix on multiple surfaces. Furthermore the test-stand enables us to perform many other important optical tests such as stray-light testing, enabling us to evaluate the certain qualities of the camera optical module.

  1. Integrated Component and System Analyses of Instabilities in Test Stands Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Instabilities associated with the operation of liquid rocket propulsion systems and test facilities usually manifest themselves as structural vibrations and may...

  2. Last Stand-alone Beam Test of the Hadronic End-cap Calorimeter (HEC) Finished.

    Oberlack, H

    One quarter of all 134 HEC modules are tested with electron, pion and muon beams: two "partial HEC wheels", three HEC1 modules and three HEC2 modules, are used in a standard setup using the HEC cryostat in the H6 beam line. The picture shows a view of the set-up in the cryostat during the installation. MC results show that in this setup the energy leakage is well under control - well below 5 %. In addition, the other three quarters of modules are tested in technical cold tests. Using calibration signals, a detailed test of the cabling, cold electronics, crosstalk and noise performance is being done. The beam tests started with four prototype modules per run in '97, when technological optimization was still the key issue. From '98 onwards, modules of the "module 0" type have been tested, typically in two run periods per year. Finally in '99 the series production has started, with first beam test of series modules in 2000. Since then 57 series modules have been cold tested, 24 of them actually in beam tests. T...

  3. Integrated Component and System Analyses of Instabilities in Test Stands Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Instabilities associated with fluid handling and operation in liquid rocket propulsion systems and test facilities usually manifest themselves as structural...

  4. Design, installation, commissioning and operation of a beamlet monitor in the negative ion beam test stand at NIFS

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Brombin, M.; Cervaro, V.; Delogu, R.; De Muri, M.; Fasolo, D.; Franchin, L.; Ghiraldelli, R.; Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M.; Molon, F.; Muraro, A.; Nakano, H.; Pasqualotto, R.; Serianni, G.; Takeiri, Y.; Tollin, M.; Tsumori, K.; Veltri, P.

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the accompanying activity for the development of the two neutral beam injectors for the ITER fusion experiment, an instrumented beam calorimeter is being designed at Consorzio RFX, to be used in the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A), with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The main components of the instrumented calorimeter are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been used as a small-scale version of the entire calorimeter in the test stand of the neutral beam injectors of the LHD experiment, with the aim of characterising the beam features in various operating conditions. The extraction system of the NIFS test stand source was modified, by applying a mask to the first gridded electrode, in order to isolate only a subset of the beamlets, arranged in two 3×5 matrices, resembling the beamlet groups of the ITER beam sources. The present contribution gives a description of the design of the diagnostic system, including the numerical simulations of the expected thermal pattern. Moreover the dedicated thermocouple measurement system is presented. The beamlet monitor was successfully used for a full experimental campaign, during which the main parameters of the source, mainly the arc power and the grid voltages, were varied. This contribution describes the methods of fitting and data analysis applied to the infrared images of the camera to recover the beamlet optics characteristics, in order to quantify the response of the system to different operational conditions. Some results concerning the beamlet features are presented as a function of the source parameters.

  5. Design, installation, commissioning and operation of a beamlet monitor in the negative ion beam test stand at NIFS

    In the framework of the accompanying activity for the development of the two neutral beam injectors for the ITER fusion experiment, an instrumented beam calorimeter is being designed at Consorzio RFX, to be used in the SPIDER test facility (particle energy 100keV; beam current 50A), with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The main components of the instrumented calorimeter are one-directional carbon-fibre-carbon composite tiles. Some prototype tiles have been used as a small-scale version of the entire calorimeter in the test stand of the neutral beam injectors of the LHD experiment, with the aim of characterising the beam features in various operating conditions. The extraction system of the NIFS test stand source was modified, by applying a mask to the first gridded electrode, in order to isolate only a subset of the beamlets, arranged in two 3×5 matrices, resembling the beamlet groups of the ITER beam sources. The present contribution gives a description of the design of the diagnostic system, including the numerical simulations of the expected thermal pattern. Moreover the dedicated thermocouple measurement system is presented. The beamlet monitor was successfully used for a full experimental campaign, during which the main parameters of the source, mainly the arc power and the grid voltages, were varied. This contribution describes the methods of fitting and data analysis applied to the infrared images of the camera to recover the beamlet optics characteristics, in order to quantify the response of the system to different operational conditions. Some results concerning the beamlet features are presented as a function of the source parameters

  6. Design and fabrication of a micron scale free-standing specimen for uniaxial micro-tensile tests

    This paper presents a novel design and fabrication of test chips with a nickel free-standing specimen for the micro uniaxial tensile test. To fabricate test chips on the quartz substrate significantly reduces the fabrication time, minimizes the number of steps and eliminates the effect of the wet anisotropic etching process on mechanical properties. The test chip can be gripped tightly to the test machine and aligned accurately in the pulling direction; furthermore, the approximately straight design of the specimen rather than the traditional dog-bone structure enables the strain be directly measured by a displacement sensor. Both finite-element method (FEM) analysis and experimental results indicate the reliability of the new design. The test chip can also be extended to other materials. The experimental measured Young's modulus of a thin nickel film and the ultimate tensile strength are approximately 94.5 Gpa and 1.76 Gpa, respectively. The results were substantially supported by the experiment on larger gauge specimens by a commercial dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) instrument. These specimens were electroplated under the same conditions. The low Young's modulus and the high ultimate tensile strength might be explained by the fine grain in the electroplated structure

  7. Beam measurements of the ANL-APS linac injector test stand

    The Argonne Advanced Photon Source (APS) injection S-band linac consists of a thermionic gun, a single gap prebuncher, a constant impedance buncher with υp = 0.75 c and a 3-meter long constant gradient traveling waveguide. Results of the electron beam measurements at 56 MeV and comparison with calculations and beam simulations are presented. (author). 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. IKAR on-line testing stand for investigation of X-ray optics and radiation detectors in the 0.5-120 nm spectrum range

    The IKAR vacuum testing stand is intended for calibration and investigation of X-ray optics and radiation detector radiation. The stand is equipped with a set of radiation sources, filters and monochromators on the basis of transparent and reflecting lattices, radiation receivers of various types. The facility operates on-line with SM-3 computer through the CAMAC interface and is provided with actuating mechanisms and software, necessary for controlling experiments

  9. Completion of Flow Interruption Capability Test Stand for Functional Qualification Test of Valves Used in Nuclear Power Plant

    CHENG; Dao-xi; QI; Xiao-guang; ZHAI; Wei-ming; YANG; Bing; ZHOU; Ping

    2013-01-01

    The flow interruption capability test of valve is used for researching the capability of the valves used in nuclear power plants emergently shut off the flow,when the reactor loop is in emergency situations,especially in the design basis accident conditions.This test is one of the most difficult tests in the functional

  10. Development of 20 kW input power coupler for 1.3 GHz ERL main linac. Component test at 30 kW IOT test stand

    We started to develop an input coupler for a 1.3 GHz ERL superconducting cavity. Required input power is about 20 kW for the cavity acceleration field of 20 MV/m and the beam current of 100 mA in energy recovery operation. The input coupler is designed based on the STF-BL input coupler and some modifications are applied to the design for the CW 20 kW power operation. We fabricated input coupler components such as ceramic windows and bellows and carried out the high-power test of the components by using a 30 kW IOT power source and a test stand constructed for the highpower test. In this report, we mainly describe the results of the high-power test of ceramic window and bellows. (author)

  11. RF and Data Acquisition Systems for Fermilab's ILC SRF Cavity Vertical Test Stand

    Fermilab is developing a facility for vertical testing of SRF cavities as part of a program to improve cavity performance reproducibility for the ILC. The RF system for this facility, using the classic combination of oscillator, phase detector/mixer, and loop amplifier to detect the resonant cavity frequency and lock onto the cavity, is based on the proven production cavity test systems used at Jefferson Lab for CEBAF and SNS cavity testing. The design approach is modular in nature, using commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) components. This yields a system that can be easily debugged and modified, and with ready availability of spares. Data acquisition and control is provided by a PXI-based hardware platform in conjunction with software developed in the LabView programming environment. This software provides for amplitude and phase adjustment of incident RF power, and measures all relevant cavity power levels, cavity thermal environment parameters, as well as field emission-produced radiation. It also calculates the various cavity performance parameters and their associated errors. Performance during system commissioning and initial cavity tests will be presented

  12. Progress of the Hard-wired Instrumentation and Control Works for the Neutral Beam Test Stand at KAERI

    Progress of the hard-wired instrumentation and control works for the neutral beam test stand(NB-TS) has been existed for the past one year period. Details of the installed arc detector circuit are explained. LN2 level and temperature control during the cryosorption pumping operation are explained with an emphasis on its control circuit. With an expectation of more accurate and sensitive measurement of temperatures than the thermocouple utilization during the calorimeter operation, PT-100 resistance temperature detector(RTD) utilization is initiated and the results are described. During the ion beam experiment, physical measurements are made with some delayed time than the beam extraction, and thus a delayed trigger pulse generator was fabricated and installed to the system. Underlying principles of the electronic circuits for the interlock implementation and optical signal transmission are introduced. These are basically the application of operational amplifier circuits. A cautious aspect of the SMPS(switch mode power supply) utilization is also give

  13. Load optimal design for a primary test stand facility based on a zero-dimensional load model

    In order to couple the numerical simulation of a primary test stand driver with an optimal load design, a zero-dimensional wire array load model is designed based on the Saturn load model using PSPICE, which is an upgraded version of the Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) designed by the ORCAD Corporation to perform circuit simulations. This paper calculates different load parameters and discusses factors influencing the driving current curve. With appropriate driving current curves chosen, further magneto-hydrodynamic calculations are carried out and discussed to provide the best results for experiments. The suggested optimal load parameters play an important role in experimental load design. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  14. Sensitivity and alternative operating point studies on a high charge CW FEL injector test stand at CEBAF

    A high charge CW FEL injector test stand is being built at CEBAF based on a 500 kV DC laser gun, a 1500 MHz room-temperature buncher, and a high-gradient (∼10 MV/m) CEBAF cryounit containing two 1500 MHz CEBAF SRF cavities. Space-charge-dominated beam dynamics simulations show that this injector should be an excellent high-brightness electron beam source for CW UV FELs if the nominal parameters assigned to each component of the system are experimentally achieved. Extensive sensitivity and alternative operating point studies have been conducted numerically to establish tolerances on the parameters of various injector system components. The consequences of degraded injector performance, due to failure to establish and/or maintain the nominal system design parameters, on the performance of the main accelerator and the FEL itself are discussed

  15. Networked remote control and data acquisition on the Mantis test stand

    Low level neutron radiation generated by long pulse deuterium experiments on the MANTIS test bed requires that the experiment be monitored and controlled from a location outside of the control room. Consequently, a flexible and low cost data acquisition system has been developed using public domain technologies of the Internet. A virtual console to the MANTIS experiment can be located anywhere in the world. (author)

  16. Developing A New Test Stand For Lifetime Measurements Using A Narrow Gap Detector

    Tuitt, Omani; Hill, Joanne E.; Jahoda, Keith; Morris, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) recently won a proposal "The First Four-Year Physics and Astronomy Degree at the University of the Virgin Islands; A new Era in Caribbean Participation in NASA Science" in collaboration with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The proposal included building a detector life-test chamber at UVI to support the degree program as well as assist NASA by running tests on detector components and reporting the results.The team at GSFC is developing X-ray polarimeters that can be used in detecting and imaging astrophysical sources such as black holes and neutron stars. The purpose of our research is to understand the effects that the degradation of gas has on the performance of the detectors. The current generation of time projection polarimeter incorporates a narrow gap detector assembled with epoxy. The addition of the epoxy allows a smaller gap with the minimal amount of changes from the original design, enhancing the performance of the detectors.With the use of epoxy, lifetime measurements have to be made to see how the epoxy detectors compared to previous iterations. We have been studying the effects on the narrow gap detector in the Mahaffey chamber in order to determine whether the epoxy affects the cleanliness of the gas. Tests have been conducted with a residual gas analyzer (RGA) in order to monitor the cleanliness of the gas inside of the Mahaffey chamber while being baked out. Results show that the detector is in fact getting cleaner as time progresses. The plan is to recreate a detector that meets the performance criteria for 2 years and has minimal degradation.

  17. Design Parameters of the Normal Conducting Booster Cavity for the PITZ-2 Test Stand

    Paramonov, V V; Kvasha, A I; Menshov, A; Pronin, O D; Skasyrskaya, A; Stepanov, A A

    2004-01-01

    The normal conducting booster cavity is intended to increase the electron bunch energy in the Photo Injector Test (DESY, Zeuthen) stage 2 experiments. The normal conducting cavity is selected due to infrastructure particularities. The L-band cavity is designed to provide the accelerating gradient up to 14 MV/m with the total input RF power 8.6 MW, RF pulse length up to 900 mks and repetition rate 5 Hz. The multi-cell cavity is based on the CDS compensated accelerating structure with the improved coupling coefficient value. The main design ideas and decisions are described briefly together with cavity parameters - RF properties, cooling and pumping circuits.

  18. Radio frequency induction plasma generator 80-kV test stand operation

    Beam extraction tests at energies up to 80 kV were performed using a radio frequency induction (RFI) plasma generator hydrogen ion source. A 7 x 10-cm2, long pulse accelerator was operated with a 10 x 10-cm2 axial magnetic cusp bucket and a magnetic-filter bucket. Atomic fractions (up to 85% H+), plasma production efficiencies (roughly-equal0.6 A of beam per kW rf power), and beam divergence were at least as good as with arc plasmas in similar chambers. Potential advantages of the RFI plasma sources for large-scale applications are ease of operation, reliability, and extended service life

  19. Status of High Power Tests of Normal Conducting Single-Cell Standing Wave Structures

    Our experiments are directed toward the understanding of the physics of rf breakdown in systems that can be used to accelerate electron beams at ∼11.4 GHz. The structure geometries have apertures, stored energy per cell, and rf pulse duration close to that of the NLC or CLIC. The breakdown rate is the main parameter that we use to compare rf breakdown behavior for different structures at a given set of rf pulse parameters (pulse shape and peak power) at 60 Hz repetition rate. In our experiments, the typical range of the breakdown rate is from one per few hours to ∼100 per hour. To date we have tested 29 structures. We consistently found that after the initial conditioning, the behavior of the breakdown rate is reproducible for structures of the same geometry and material, and the breakdown rate dependence on peak magnetic fields is stronger than on peak surface electric fields for structures of different geometries. Below we report the main results from tests of seven structures made from hard copper, soft copper alloys and hard-copper alloys. Additional details on these and other structures will be discussed in future publications.

  20. Start-up of low-background test stand LArGe for GERDA at LNGS

    LArGe is a test facility for Phase II of the GERDA experiment. The goal of GERDA is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76 with a considerable reduction of background in comparison with predecessor experiments. GERDA will operate bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in Ge-76) submerged in high purity liquid argon supplemented by a water shield. LArGe puts into practice the novel concept to use LAr scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for further background suppression. In the pilot setup Mini-LArGe about 95% of the background Compton events in the Ge detector were vetoed using 19 kg of LAr as active volume. Pulse shape analysis methods were developed, which allow to perform gamma/alpha/neutron selection with a strong discrimination factor (>105) for diagnostics. LArGe intends to realize these powerful tools on a larger scale using 1.4 tons of LAr as active volume in a copper cryostat surrounded by a graded low-level shielding. This talk gives an account of the start-up phase of this setup, which is currently ongoing in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (Italy).

  1. Where the world stands still: turnaround as a strong test of ΛCDM cosmology

    Our intuitive understanding of cosmic structure formation works best in scales small enough so that isolated, bound, relaxed gravitating systems are no longer adjusting their radius; and large enough so that space and matter follow the average expansion of the Universe. Yet one of the most robust predictions of ΛCDM cosmology concerns the scale that separates these limits: the turnaround radius, which is the non-expanding shell furthest away from the center of a bound structure. We show that the maximum possible value of the turnaround radius within the framework of the ΛCDM model is, for a given mass M, equal to (3GM/Λ c2)1/3, with G Newton's constant and c the speed of light, independently of cosmic epoch, exact nature of dark matter, or baryonic effects. We discuss the possible use of this prediction as an observational test for ΛCDM cosmology. Current data appear to favor ΛCDM over alternatives with local inhomogeneities and no Λ. However there exist several local-universe structures that have, within errors, reached their limiting size. With improved determinations of their turnaround radii and the enclosed mass, these objects may challenge the limit and ΛCDM cosmology

  2. Standing of nucleic acid testing strategies in veterinary diagnosis laboratories to uncover Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex members.

    Costa, Pedro; Botelho, Ana; Couto, Isabel; Viveiros, Miguel; Inácio, João

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification, and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific, and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS) and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnostics for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnostics approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease. PMID:25988157

  3. Intra-observer and interobserver reliability ofOne Leg Stand Test as a measure of posturalbalance in low back pain patients

    Maribo, Thomas; Iversen, Elena; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Schøittz-Christensen, Berit

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver measurements of postural balance using the One Leg Stand Test in patients with low back pain. Patients and metho...... balance in patients with chronic The One Leg Stand Test can be used to test postural balance in patients with chronic low back pain, as the reliability of the test was acceptable.......Objective: To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver To determine the absolute and relative reliability of intra-observer and interobserver measurements of postural balance using the One Leg Stand Test in patients with low back pain. Patients and methods......: Forty-eight patients with chronic low back pain advised to do exercise were : Forty-eight patients with chronic low back pain advised to do exercise were included. A test protocol was established based on review of the literature and a pilot test. Patients were timed for their ability to stand on one...

  4. Progress of the Hard-wired Instrumentation and Control Works for the Neutral Beam Test Stand at KAERI

    Jung, Ki Sok

    2005-12-15

    Progress of the hard-wired instrumentation and control works for the neutral beam test stand(NB-TS) has been existed for the past one year period. Details of the installed arc detector circuit are explained. LN{sub 2} level and temperature control during the cryosorption pumping operation are explained with an emphasis on its control circuit. With an expectation of more accurate and sensitive measurement of temperatures than the thermocouple utilization during the calorimeter operation, PT-100 resistance temperature detector(RTD) utilization is initiated and the results are described. During the ion beam experiment, physical measurements are made with some delayed time than the beam extraction, and thus a delayed trigger pulse generator was fabricated and installed to the system. Underlying principles of the electronic circuits for the interlock implementation and optical signal transmission are introduced. These are basically the application of operational amplifier circuits. A cautious aspect of the SMPS(switch mode power supply) utilization is also give.

  5. Transverse profile expansion and homogenization at target for the injector Scheme- I test stand of China-ADS

    Yang, Zheng; Tang, Jing-Yu; Yan, Fang; Pei, Shi-Lun; Chen, Yuan; Li, Zhi-Hui; Geng, Hui-Ping

    2015-02-01

    For the injector Scheme- I test stand of the China-ADS (Accelerator Driven subcritical System), a beam with the maximum power of 100 kW will be produced and transported to the beam dump. To solve the very high thermal load problem at the dump, two measures are taken to deal with the huge power density at the target. One is to enlarge the contact area between the beam and the target, and this is to be accomplished by expanding the beam profile at the target and using slanted target plates. The other is to produce a more homogenous beam profile at the target to minimize the maximum power density. Here the beam dump line is designed to meet the requirement of beam expansion and homogenization at 3 different energies (3.2 MeV, 5 MeV and 10 MeV), and the step-like field magnets are employed for the beam spot homogenization. Taking into account the fact that the space charge effects are very strong at such low beam energies, the simulations have included space charge effects and errors which show that the beam line can meet the requirements very well. In the meantime, the alternative beam design using standard multipole magnets is also presented. Supported by CAS Strategic Priority Research Program- China-ADS and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11235012, 10975150)

  6. Measuring the ion energy distribution using a retarding field energy analyzer in a plasma material interaction test stand

    Christenson, Michael; Jung, Soonwook; Andruczyk, Daniel; Curreli, Davide; Ruzic, David

    2013-10-01

    The Divertor Erosion and Vapor Shielding eXperiment (DEVeX) at the University of Illinois is a gas-puff driven, theta pinch plasma source that is used as a test stand for off-normal plasma events incident on materials in the edge and divertor regions of a tokamak. Ion temperatures and the resulting energy distribution are of vital importance in DEVeX, indicating the level of edge simulation. For this reason, a theta pinch has been applied as a source of external heating, along with a coaxial plasma accelerator as a pre-ionization source. In its most recent iteration, the accurate diagnosis of ion temperature will prove difficult using conventional methods, since diagnostics are difficult in a pulsed device for measuring the ion temperature range produced in DEVeX (~10-100 eV). A retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA) has been proposed to measure the ion energy distribution and will be compared to theoretical predictions for the ion temperature in the upgraded DEVeX system. Such a diagnostic tool would be less susceptible to external fields and would be suitable for ion temperatures on the order of 100 eV. The RFEA will serve as a diagnostic for the ThermoElectric-driven Liquid-metal plasma-facing Structures (TELS), and its further applications are discussed. In residence at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

  7. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Total Aboveground Biomass in Forest Stands: Site-scale Test of Model

    CHOI, S.; Shi, Y.; Ni, X.; Simard, M.; Myneni, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sparseness in in-situ observations has precluded the spatially explicit and accurate mapping of forest biomass. The need for large-scale maps has raised various approaches implementing conjugations between forest biomass and geospatial predictors such as climate, forest type, soil property, and topography. Despite the improved modeling techniques (e.g., machine learning and spatial statistics), a common limitation is that biophysical mechanisms governing tree growth are neglected in these black-box type models. The absence of a priori knowledge may lead to false interpretation of modeled results or unexplainable shifts in outputs due to the inconsistent training samples or study sites. Here, we present a gray-box approach combining known biophysical processes and geospatial predictors through parametric optimizations (inversion of reference measures). Total aboveground biomass in forest stands is estimated by incorporating the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Two main premises of this research are: (a) The Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL) theory can provide a relationship between tree geometry and local resource availability constrained by environmental conditions; and (b) The zeroth order theory (size-frequency distribution) can expand individual tree allometry into total aboveground biomass at the forest stand level. In addition to the FIA estimates, two reference maps from the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) were produced to evaluate the model. This research focuses on a site-scale test of the biomass model to explore the robustness of predictors, and to potentially improve models using additional geospatial predictors such as climatic variables, vegetation indices, soil properties, and lidar-/radar-derived altimetry products (or existing forest canopy height maps). As results, the optimized ASRL estimates satisfactorily

  8. X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the Compact Linear Collider test facility

    Adli, E; Dubrovskiy, A; Syratchev, I; Ruber, R; Ziemann, V

    2011-01-01

    We discuss X-band rf power production and deceleration in the two-beam test stand of the CLIC test facility at CERN. The rf power is extracted from an electron drive beam by a specially designed power extraction structure. In order to test the structures at high-power levels, part of the generated power is recirculated to an input port, thus allowing for increased deceleration and power levels within the structure. The degree of recirculation is controlled by a splitter and phase shifter. We present a model that describes the system and validate it with measurements over a wide range of parameters. Moreover, by correlating rf power measurements with the energy lost by the electron beam, as measured in a spectrometer placed after the power extraction structure, we are able to identify system parameters, including the form factor of the electron beam. The quality of the agreement between model and reality gives us confidence to extrapolate the results found in the present test facility towards the parameter reg...

  9. An evaluation of the 30-s chair stand test in older adults: frailty detection based on kinematic parameters from a single inertial unit

    Millor, Nora; Lecumberri, Pablo; Gómez, Marisol; Martínez-Ramírez, Alicia; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing interest in frailty syndrome exists because it is regarded as a major predictor of co-morbidities and mortality in older populations. Nevertheless, frailty assessment has been controversial, particularly when identifying this syndrome in a community setting. Performance tests such as the 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST) are a cornerstone for detecting early declines in functional independence. Additionally, recent advances in body-fixed sensors have enhanced the sens...

  10. Standing out

    Ruiz Muñoz De León, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Standing Out is a documentary about sports commonly called urbans. Many of these were born in the street, some by necessity and others for fun. As these sports have grown and have won a lot of follower the last years, have begun to appear some competitions. But it is a competition to what an athlete should aspire? Many followers of these sports have continued to believe that the most important thing is to enjoy. the sport without other purpose than to fun. Standing Out is a documentary abo...

  11. Developments in Test Facility and Data Networking for the Altitude Test Stand at the John C. Stennis Space Center, MS - A General Overview

    Hebert, Phillip W., Sr.

    2008-01-01

    May 2007, NASA's Constellation Program selected John C Stennis Space Center (SSC) near Waveland Mississippi as the site to construct an altitude test facility for the developmental and qualification testing of the Ares1 upper stage (US) engine. Test requirements born out of the Ares1 US propulsion system design necessitate exceptional Data Acquisition System (DAS) design solutions that support facility and propellant systems conditioning, test operations control and test data analysis. This paper reviews the new A3 Altitude Test Facility's DAS design requirements for real-time deterministic digital data, DAS technology enhancements, system trades, technology validation activities, and the current status of this system's new architecture. Also to be discussed will be current network technologies to improve data transfer.

  12. A 3D Laboratory Test-platform for Overhead Power Line Inspection

    Liu, Chang-An; Dong, Ruifang; Wu, Hua; Yang, Guo-tian; Lin, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for performing automatic inspection of overhead power lines instead of foot patrols is an attractive option, since doing so is safer and have considerable cost savings, among other advantages. The purpose of this paper is to design a 3D laboratory test-platform to simulate UAVs' inspection of transmission lines and secondly, proposing an automated inspection strategy for UAVs in order to follow transmission lines. The construction and system architecture ...

  13. A-3 First Tree Cutting

    2007-01-01

    Tree clearing for the site of the new A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space center began June 13. NASA's first new large rocket engine test stand to be built since the site's inception, A-3 construction begins a historic era for America's largest rocket engine test complex. The 300-foot-tall structure is scheduled for completion in August 2010. A-3 will perform altitude tests on the Constellation's J-2X engine that will power the upper stage of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and earth departure stage of the Ares V cargo launch vehicle. The Constellation Program, NASA's plan for carrying out the nation's Vision for Space Exploration, will return humans to the moon and eventually carry them to Mars and beyond.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 252: Area 25 Engine Test Stand 1 Decontamination Pad, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 252 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 252 consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-07-02, Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) Decontamination Pad. Located in Area 25 at the intersection of Road H and Road K at the Nevada Test Site, ETS-1 was designed for use as a mobile radiation checkpoint and for vehicle decontamination. The CAS consists of a concrete decontamination pad with a drain, a gravel-filled sump, two concrete trailer pads, and utility boxes. Constructed in 1966, the ETS-1 facility was part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) complex and used to test nuclear rockets. The ETS-1 Decontamination Pad and mobile radiation check point was built in 1968. The NRDS complex ceased primary operations in 1973. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to determine if any primary contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) (including radionuclides, total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are present at this site. Vertical extent of migration of suspected vehicle decontamination effluent COPCs is expected to be less than 12 feet below ground surface. Lateral extent of migration of COPCs is expected to be limited to the sump area or near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. Using a biased sampling approach, near-surface and subsurface sampling will be conducted at the suspected worst-case areas including the sump and soil near the northeast corner of the decontamination pad. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible e valuation

  15. Study of a static rocket test stand system for setting the performances of a rocket engine fed with oxygen and methane in gaseous phase

    Ferrer González, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    According to the concept of a fluid-bipropellant rocket engine proposed in Design of a rocket engine fed with oxygen and methane in gaseous phase for educational purposes [TR01], a preliminary test stand design for the prediction and validation of the main performances of this engine has been developed. The main sensors and transducers are selected to measure the stated performances. After the proposed instrumentation, a virtual panel control has been also carried out.

  16. A 3D Laboratory Test-platform for Overhead Power Line Inspection

    Chang-an Liu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for performing automatic inspection of overhead power lines instead of foot patrols is an attractive option, since doing so is safer and have considerable cost savings, among other advantages. The purpose of this paper is to design a 3D laboratory test-platform to simulate UAVs' inspection of transmission lines and secondly, proposing an automated inspection strategy for UAVs in order to follow transmission lines. The construction and system architecture of our 3D test-platform is described in this paper. The inspection strategy contributes to knowledge pertaining to an automated inspection procedure and includes two steps: flight path planning for UAVs and visual tracking of the transmission lines. The 3D laboratory test-platform is applied to test the performance of the proposed strategy and the tracking results of our inspection strategy are subsequently presented. The availability of the 3D laboratory test-platform and the efficiency of our tracking algorithm are verified by experiments.

  17. Optical Tests of a 3.7-m diameter Liquid Mirror Behavior under External Perturbations

    Tremblay, G; Tremblay, Gregoire; Borra, Ermanno F.

    2000-01-01

    We have built and tested a 3.7-m diameter liquid mirror that rotates on a ball bearing. We have carried out extensive optical tests. We find that although the ball bearing has a poor quality, the quality of the mirror, with mercury layers 1-mm thick, is surprisingly good. Taken at face values the instantaneous Strehl ratios indicate a mirror, that is not quite diffraction limited but usable for astronomical applications. However, the large coning error of the bearing (1.5 arcseconds P-V) induces an excessive wobble, considerably worsening the time averaged PSF. The most interesting result of the interferometry is that we do not see any evidence of the strong astigmatism that may have been expected from Coriolis forces.

  18. Toward A 3-D Picture of Hydraulic Conductivity With Multilevel Slug Tests

    McElwee, C. D.; McElwee, C. D.; Ross, H. C.

    2001-12-01

    The GEMS (Geohydrologic Experiment and Monitoring Site) field area has been established (in the Kansas River valley near Lawrence, Kansas) for a variety of reasons relating to research and teaching in hydrogeology at the University of Kansas. Over 70 wells have been installed for various purposes. The site overlies an alluvial aquifer with a total thickness of about 70 feet. The water table is typically about 20 feet below the surface, giving a total saturated thickness of about 50 feet. The upper part of the aquifer is finer material consisting of silt and clay. Typically, the lower 35 feet of the aquifer is sand and gravel. A number of wells through out the site are fully screened through the sand and gravel aquifer. Some of these fully screened wells are larger diameters; however, most wells are constructed of 2 inch PVC casing. Slug tests are widely used in hydrogeology to measure hydraulic conductivity. Over the last several years we have been conducting research to improve the slug test method. We have previously reported the detailed structure of hydraulic conductivity that can be seen in a 5 inch well (McElwee and Zemansky, EOS, v. 80, no. 46, p. F397, 1999) at this site, using multilevel slug tests. The existing 2 inch, fully screened wells are spread out over the site and offer the opportunity for developing a 3-D picture of the hydraulic conductivity distribution. However, it is difficult to develop a system that allows multilevel slug tests to be done accurately and efficiently in a 2 inch well. This is especially true in regions of very high hydraulic conductivity, where the water velocity in the casing will be relatively high. The resistance caused by frictional forces in the equipment must be minimized and a model taking account of these forces must be used. We have developed a system (equipment, software, and technique) for performing multilevel slug tests in 2 inch wells. Some equipment configurations work better than others. The data that we have

  19. Testing of a 3 tesla superconducting magnet for the AMY detector at TRISTAN

    A 3 tesla magnet was constructed and installed in an experimental hall at TRISTAN. Cooldown and excitation tests of the magnet were carried out with a dedicated cryogenic system. The coil has a 2.39 m inner diameter and is 1.54 m long with a radial thickness of 0.1 m. The rated current is 5 kA and the stored energy is 40 MJ. The refrigerator and 17-ton magnet cold mass were cooled to 4.4 K in seven days. Then the magnet was energized to the design current of 5 kA and the mechanical stress of the coil supports was measured. The stress on the supports was well below the allowed maximum. Measurements of the discharge characteristics of the magnet confirmed that the magnet was stable and reliable

  20. Location of rut stands vs. mating opportunities in Przewalski’s gazelle: A field test of the “Resource-based Hypothesis” and “Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis”

    Zhangqiang YOU, Zhigang JIANG, Chunwang LI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the mating tactics of Przewalski’s gazelle on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau from 2002 to 2005. Przewalski’s gazelle is a cluster mating animal whereby female groups, including juveniles, travel to and from their resting grounds along fixed routes and dominant males stand on or near these travel routes during rut. To explain rut patterns in male gazelles, we tested predictions arising from the “Resource-based Hypothesis” and “Female Traffic Version of the Hotspot Hypothesis”. We marked the location of each rut stand and female travel route, measured food availability in each rut stand and recorded the mating opportunities of rut stand owners. We also conducted a field experiment to force female groups to change their daily travel route, and observed whether males abandon their original rut stands and shift their rut stands to new travel routes of females during the 3rd rut. We found that: (1 male gazelle defending rut stands closer to a female travel route had a higher chance of mating; (2 food resources within rut stands had no effect on mating opportunities of the rut stand owner; (3 when the female travel route was obstructed, female groups changed grazing sites, and all males abandoned their original rut stands and defended new rut stands along the new female travel route. In conclusion, the location of rut stands in relation to female travel routes is the ultimate factor for consolidating mating opportunities in male gazelle, supporting the “Female Route Version of Hotspot Hypothesis” [Current Zoology 57 (6: 701–708, 2011].

  1. Compatible growth models and stand density diagrams

    This paper discusses a stand average growth model based on the self-thinning rule developed and used to generate stand density diagrams. Procedures involved in testing are described and results are included

  2. Validity and variability of the 5-repetition sit-to-stand test in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Bibby, Bo Martin; Guldhammer, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    30 min break. Results: Significant correlations were found between the 5STS-test and isometric and isokinetic knee flexor and extensor muscle strength of the most affected leg (R = -0.60 to -0.77), and between the 5STS-test and balance performance (R = 0.69). Intra-assessor day-to-day variability......, intra-assessor test-retest variability and intra-assessor variability within test were 25.5, 22.3, and 23.1%, respectively. Inter-assessor variability within test and inter-assessor variability were 23.4 and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The 5STS-test is related to lower extremity muscle strength and...

  3. High voltage test-stand research done on ICRF antenna elements of the high-harmonic fast-wave system of NSTX

    Perkins, R. J.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bortolon, A.; Brunkhorst, C.; Ellis, R.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.; Hosea, J. C.; Kung, C.; Miller, D.

    2015-12-01

    The twelve-strap high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) antenna on NSTX has exhibited a high-voltage standoff around 25 kV during previous experimental campaigns; this standoff needs to be improved for increased power coupling. During the recent NSTX-U upgrade period, a test-stand was set up with two antenna straps along with Faraday screens for testing purposes. Using a diagnostic suite consisting of a fast camera, a residual gas analyzer, a pressure gage, high-voltage probes, and an infrared camera, several interesting discoveries were made, leading to possible improvements of the antenna RF voltage operation level. First, arcing was observed outside the Faraday shields towards the low-voltage ("grounded") end of the straps (faraday shield box ends); this arcing was successfully eliminated by installing an additional grounding point between the Faraday shield box and the vessel wall. Second, considerable outgassing was observed during the RF pulse and the amount of outgassing was found to decrease with increasing RF power, possibly indicative of multipacting. Finally, infrared camera measurements of heating on the Faraday shield assembly suggest that the return currents on the Faraday shield box are highly localized at the box sides and possibly account for the pressure increase observed. Computations of these RF currents using Microwave Studio show qualitative agreement with the heated regions. New grounding points between the antenna box and the vessel have been implemented in NSTX-U, where future tests will be done to determine if the high-voltage standoff has improved. Further antenna improvements will be sought through future experiments on the test stand.

  4. Development of a clinical assessment test of 180-degree standing turn strategy (CAT-STS) and investigation of its reliability and validity.

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Usuda, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To develop a clinical assessment test of 180-degree standing turn strategy (CAT-STS) and quantify its reliability and construct validity. [Subjects] Outpatients with stroke that occurred at least 6 months previously (N = 27) who could walk 10 m without physical assistance were included. [Methods] The CAT-STS was based on the literature and discussion with four physical therapists. The final version of the CAT-STS includes seven items: direction, use of space, foot movement, initiation, termination, instability, and non-fluidity. Patients were videotaped performing a 180-degree turn while standing. The Motricity Index, gait speed and Functional Ambulation Category were also evaluated. Two raters evaluated the turn on two occasions, and inter- and intra-rater reliability were calculated. Construct validity was also calculated. [Results] Inter-rater reliability was fair or moderate for many items (kappa = 0.221-0.746). Intra-rater reliability was good-to-excellent for all items (kappa = 0.681-0.846) except direction and termination. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the total CAT-STS score were substantial and excellent, respectively (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.725 and 0.865, respectively). The total CAT-STS score was associated with walking ability and the time and number of steps taken to turn. [Conclusion] The total CAT-STS score is a reliable and valid measure. PMID:27065557

  5. Safety interlock system for Z-pinch primary test stand%Z箍缩初级实验平台安全联锁系统

    田青; 姜苹; 卿燕玲; 王传伟; 计策

    2012-01-01

    A Z-pinch primary test stand now being built is composed of 24 modules adopting capacitive storage scheme. It has large numbers of control and monitoring nodes, enlarged controlling scale, and complicated experiment. Here, a safety interlock system for the Z-pinch primary test stand, with higher level of experiment security performance, is developed to safeguard the security of the human and the devices. The safety interlock system consists of field units, lower computer system and remote control system. Among them, field units are composed of several switches, indicator light and alarm device, etc. Lower computer system adopts programmable logic controller ( PLC) to supervise field units. And remote control system is used to control and manage the interlock controller. The communication signals are transferred through optical fiber to avoid electromagnetic interference. C++ Builder is used as the software development platform for upper computer and network controlling. Communication between control center and the interlock system is realized by CORBA middleware. The function of parameters setting and experimental data processing is fulfilled in the central database.%正在调试的Z箍缩实验装置(Z-pinch Primary Test Stand)由24个基于Marx发生器和水线的性能、结构相同的模块组成,运行控制节点众多,控制规模大,试验过程复杂,因此要求建立Z箍缩初级实验平台安全联锁系统,具备较高的实验安全性能,以保障人身和设备安全.安全联锁系统包括现场单元、安全联锁下位机系统及远程控制系统.其中现场单元包括各种开关、指示灯、报警装置等,安全联锁下位机选用可编程逻辑控制器实现现场单元的统一监控,远程控制系统实现网络总控及统一管理.系统通信信号全部采用光纤传输,有效隔离电磁干扰.C++Builder为系统上位机及网络总控的软件开发平台,CORBA中间件技术实现总控与安全

  6. The conservation of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) stands in the territory of Parco Lombardo Valle del Ticino (province of Milano and Pavia): main results and management proposals after three years of testing

    Bianchi L; Caronni F; Giovannini G.; Paci M

    2013-01-01

    The conservation of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) stands in the territory of Parco Lombardo Valle del Ticino (province of Milano and Pavia): main results and management proposals after three years of testing.. In the territory of “Parco Lombardo della Valle del Ticino” an experiment, aimed to assess the silviculture pattern suitable for the conservation of stands dominated by peduncolate oak, was set up in 2008. Four experimental areas were located, both in “meso-hygrophilous” and “mesophil...

  7. Implementing a 3D histogram version of the Energy-Test in ROOT

    Cohen, E. O.; Reid, I. D.; Piasetzky, E.

    2016-08-01

    Comparing simulation and data histograms is of interest in nuclear and particle physics experiments; however, the leading three-dimensional histogram comparison tool available in ROOT, the 3D Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, exhibits shortcomings. Throughout the following, we present and discuss the implementation of an alternative comparison test for three-dimensional histograms, based on the Energy-Test by Aslan and Zech.

  8. Imaging-based liver function tests. Past, present and future; Bildgestuetzte Leberfunktionstests. Stand der Technik und zukuenftige Entwicklungen

    Geisel, D.; Hamm, B.; Denecke, T. [Charite, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Luedemann, L. [Essen University Hospital (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics

    2015-10-15

    Preoperative assessment of liver function and prediction of postoperative functional reserve are important in patients scheduled for liver resection. While determination of absolute liver function currently mostly relies on laboratory tests and clinical scores, postoperative remnant liver function is estimated volumetrically using imaging data obtained with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate estimation of hepatic function is also relevant for intensive care patients, oncologic patients, and patients with diffuse liver disease. The indocyanine green (ICG) test is still the only established test for estimating true global liver function. However, more recent tools such as the LiMAx test also allow global assessment of hepatic function. These tests are limited when liver function is inhomogeneously distributed, which is the case in such conditions as unilateral cholestasis or after portal vein embolization. Imaging-based liver function tests were first developed in nuclear medicine and, compared with laboratory tests, have the advantage of displaying the spatial distribution of liver function. Nuclear medicine scans are obtained using tracers such as 99mTc galactosyl and 99mTc mebrofenin. Liver function is typically assessed using planar scintigraphy. However, three-dimensional volumetry is possible with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT-CT). Another technique for image-based liver function estimation is Gd-EOB-enhanced MRI. While metabolization of Gd-EOB in the body is similar to that of ICG and mebrofenin, its distribution in the liver can be displayed by MRI with higher temporal and spatial resolution. Moreover, MRI-based determination of liver function can be integrated into routine preoperative imaging. This makes MRI an ideal candidate for preoperative determination of liver function, though the best pulse sequence and the parameter to be derived from the image information remain to be identified. Another

  9. Use of phase information with a stepper motor to control frequency for tuning system of the Front End Test Stand Radio Frequency Quadrupole at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    Alsari, S., E-mail: s.alsari@imperial.ac.uk; Aslaninejad, M.; Pozimski, J.

    2015-03-01

    For the Front End Test Stand (FETS) linear accelerator project at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, a 4 m, 4 vanes Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) with a resonant frequency of 324 MHz has been designed. The RF power feeding the RFQ gives rise to the temperature increase in the RFQ, which in turn, results in shifting the resonant frequency of the RFQ. The frequency shift and the stability in the RFQ frequency can be maintained based on the reflected power or signal phase information. We have, however, investigated restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases driving a stepper motor. The concept and the system set-up and electronics are described in detail. Results of the measurements indicating the full restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases and stepper motor are presented. Moreover, measured sensitivity of tuner with respect to its position is given.

  10. Use of phase information with a stepper motor to control frequency for tuning system of the Front End Test Stand Radio Frequency Quadrupole at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory

    For the Front End Test Stand (FETS) linear accelerator project at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, a 4 m, 4 vanes Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) with a resonant frequency of 324 MHz has been designed. The RF power feeding the RFQ gives rise to the temperature increase in the RFQ, which in turn, results in shifting the resonant frequency of the RFQ. The frequency shift and the stability in the RFQ frequency can be maintained based on the reflected power or signal phase information. We have, however, investigated restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases driving a stepper motor. The concept and the system set-up and electronics are described in detail. Results of the measurements indicating the full restoration of the RFQ nominal frequency based on the RF signal phases and stepper motor are presented. Moreover, measured sensitivity of tuner with respect to its position is given

  11. Useful load-carrying capacity of yielding supports for mine roadways in the light of stand tests

    Jurkiewicz, R.

    1992-08-01

    Discusses the effect of applying shackles of a new design to arched support sets on their load-carrying capacity. Basic technical data of the tested supports and test results are provided. Results for bow type shackles are compared with results for double-yoke shackles. It is concluded that the kind of shackle used to connect the support arches is of utmost importance. Shackles with single stirrups were found to be inferior to double-yoke shackles. Use of heavier profiles for supports is considered to be justified only if double-yoke stirrups are applied. Support performance graphs (load versus reduction in support height) for various supports with the two types of shackles are provided. 10 refs.

  12. Commissioning and acceptance testing of Cadplan plus- a 3D treatment planning system

    3D treatment planning systems are finding wide acceptance in the radiotherapy community due to their improved dose calculation accuracy as well as the 3D visualization tools. Cadplan plus, a 3D treatment planning system from Varian, has been commissioned at the Tata Memorial Hospital in accordance to various international guidelines

  13. Control Performance of General Electric Fuel and Torque Regulator Operating on T31-3 Turbine-Propeller Engine in Sea-Level Test Stand

    Oppenheimer, Frank L.; Lazar, James

    1951-01-01

    A .General Electric fuel and torque regulator was tested in conjunction with a T31-3 turbine-propeller engine in the sea-level static test stand at the NACA Lewis laboratory. The engine and control were operated over the entire speed range: 11,000 rpm, nominal flight idle, to 13,000 rpm, full power. Steady-state and transient data were recorded and are presented with a description of the four control loops being used in the system. Results of this investigation indicated that single-lever control operation was satisfactory under conditions of test. Transient data presented showed that turbine-outlet temperature did overshoot maximum operating value on acceleration but that the time duration of overshoot did not exceed approximately 1 second. This temperature limiting resulted from a control on fuel flow as a function of engine speed. Speed and torque first reached their desired values 0.4 second from the time of change in power-setting lever position. Maximum speed overshoot was 3 percent.

  14. Magnetic and electric bulge-test instrument for the determination of coupling mechanical properties of functional free-standing films and flexible electronics

    For the first time a novel multi-field bulge-test instrument which enables measurements of the biaxial mechanical properties and electro-magnetic-mechanical coupling effect of free-standing films in external magnetic/electric fields was proposed. The oil pressure was designed with two ranges, 0–1 MPa for elastic small deformation and 0–7 MPa for plastic/damage large deformation. A magnetic field that was horizontal and uniform in the film plane was supplied by a hollow cylindrical magnet. The magnitude could be changed from 0 to 10 000 Oe by adjusting the position of the testing film. Meanwhile, an electric field applied on the film was provided by a voltage source (Maximum voltage: 1000 V; Maximum current: 1 A). Various signals related to deformation, mechanical loading, magnetic field, and electric field could be measured simultaneously without mutual interference, which was confirmed by the coincidence of the measured P-H curves for titanium (Ti)/nickel (Ni) specimens with/without external fields. A hardening phenomenon under magnetic/electric fields was observed for Ni and lead zirconate titanate specimens. The multi-field bulge-test instrument will provide a powerful research tool to study the deformation mechanism of functional films and flexible electronics in the coupling field

  15. Magnetic and electric bulge-test instrument for the determination of coupling mechanical properties of functional free-standing films and flexible electronics

    Yu, Zejun; Mao, Weiguo; Li, Faxin; Feng, Xue; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2014-06-01

    For the first time a novel multi-field bulge-test instrument which enables measurements of the biaxial mechanical properties and electro-magnetic-mechanical coupling effect of free-standing films in external magnetic/electric fields was proposed. The oil pressure was designed with two ranges, 0-1 MPa for elastic small deformation and 0-7 MPa for plastic/damage large deformation. A magnetic field that was horizontal and uniform in the film plane was supplied by a hollow cylindrical magnet. The magnitude could be changed from 0 to 10 000 Oe by adjusting the position of the testing film. Meanwhile, an electric field applied on the film was provided by a voltage source (Maximum voltage: 1000 V; Maximum current: 1 A). Various signals related to deformation, mechanical loading, magnetic field, and electric field could be measured simultaneously without mutual interference, which was confirmed by the coincidence of the measured P-H curves for titanium (Ti)/nickel (Ni) specimens with/without external fields. A hardening phenomenon under magnetic/electric fields was observed for Ni and lead zirconate titanate specimens. The multi-field bulge-test instrument will provide a powerful research tool to study the deformation mechanism of functional films and flexible electronics in the coupling field.

  16. Control stand of scintillation counters

    Paper describes a stand designed to test complex optical elements of the CMS endwindow hadron calorimeter. The optical element (the megatile) represents an assembly where 19 trapezoidal scintillators are sandwiched in light-absorbing and light-reflecting layers. The stand to test the quality of scintillation counters consists of a bench with a carriage double-coordinated actuation mechanism, a group of photodetectors, a high-voltage power unit, a laser control checking system, a PC and a scintillation counter to calibrate photodetectors. One studies in detail the procedure to test megatiles in the course of which minimum 100 trigger statistics is ensured for every megatile

  17. Non-Reactor testing stands for investigation of interaction of the fuel and constructive materials with the coolant

    In 1991 in the United Expedition of Scientific and Industrial Corp. Luch the non-reactor experiments were beginning. The appearances accompanied by water cooling reactor heavy accident were studied. There are 'Ruchej', 'LAVA', 'SLAVA' experimental facilities working out for such purposes. The 'Ruchej' facility is intended for conducting of the investigation of behavior of water cooling reactor core constructive elements in the high temperature gas-steam media. There were 27 testing start-up of 'Ruchej' facility and 70 fuel elements shells samples and 2 models fuel elements. 'LAVA' facility is intended to study the processes of the interaction of the melting composition of WWER-1000 reactor core with water. The 'SLAVA' facility is destined for study of corium jet characteristics and the processes of interaction of corium with WWER-1000 reactor constructive materials. The corium generation is realized in the electric melting furnaces (EPP-1, EPP-2) and both of them could be using for the 'LAVA' facility and the 'SLAVA' facility. The expenses, temperature, pressure of the water in the facility's cooling highway, pressure of gas within device, temperature of the corium or its imitator, geometrical parameters of stream' temperature of construct device's elements, electric parameters (voltage, current) has being registered

  18. Buckling test of a 3-meter-diameter corrugated graphite-epoxy ring-stiffened cylinder

    Davis, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    A three m diameter by three m long corrugated cylindrical shell with external stiffening rings was tested to failure by buckling. The corrugation geometry for the graphite epoxy composite cylinder wall was optimized to withstand a compressive load producing an ultimate load intensity of 157.6 kN/m without buckling. The test method used to produce the design load intensity was to mount the specimen as a cantilevered cylinder and apply a pure bending moment to the end. A load introduction problem with the specimen was solved by using the BOSOR 4 shell of revolution computer code to analyze the shell and attached loading fixtures. The cylinder test loading achieved was 101 percent of design ultimate, and the resulting mass per unit of shell wall area was 1.96 kg/sq m.

  19. Development of a 3D neutron transport code and benchmark tests

    Results are reported of NEACRP '3D Neutron Transport Benchmarks' proposed from Osaka UNiversity, and of recent progress in the development of a 3D neutron transport code. Takeda et al. proposed four problems to NEACRP as 3D neutron transport benchmarks, and 22 results from 20 organizations were submitted. A variety of methods have been used, such as the Monte Carlo, Sn, Pn, synthetic, and nodal method. The results for k-eff, control-rod worths, and region-averaged fluxes are summarized with the conclusions that (1) in XYZ geometry the Sn method with n=8 shows a good agreement with the Monte-Carlo method, and gives even better results in some cases, (2) the Pn method has significant spatial mesh effects, and (3) the Sn method is not satisfactory in hexagonal-Z geometry, and improvements in accuracy are desirable. Improvement of a 3D neutron transport code is in progress to resolve the problem in the hexagonal-Z geometry by considering new diamond difference schemes and an improved coarse-mesh method, and also by applying the nodal method. (author)

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A-3 to Part 60 - Test Methods 4 through 5I

    2010-07-01

    ... Tests) and § 60.11 (Compliance With Standards and Maintenance Requirements) of 40 CFR part 60, subpart A... seamless tubing may be used, subject to the approval of the Administrator. 6.1.1.3Pitot Tube. Type S, as... aid in condensing moisture in impingers. 6.2.4Drying Tube. Tube packed with new or regenerated 6-...

  1. Development of a 3-D model for eddy current testing: application for fastened structures in aeronautics

    One of the Eddy Current Testing issues in aeronautics is the inspection of fastened structures to detect flaws nearby rivets which can grow because of mechanical stress. EADS and the CEA LIST have started a collaborative work with the support of the Ile-de-France Region to develop a simulation tool of EC fastened structures testing, integrated to the CIVA platform, aimed at conceiving testing methods, optimizing and qualifying it. The volume integral method using the Green dyadics formalism has been chosen in order to get a fast resolution of Maxwell equations. A first milestone was to build a simulation model of multilayer structures testing, thanks to the use of the multilayer Green dyads. Because of the rivet volume, 60 times bigger than the one of a typical flaw, a large number of discretization cells are needed. Therefore an iterative method has been developed in order to numerically solve large calculation zones. Finally, the flaw response simulation mostly has to cope with a scale issue between the size of the rivet and the one of the flaw, the latter being much smaller in a direction than the former. The whole model has been experimentally validated and compared to other simulation models at the important development steps: multilayer configuration, iteration resolution, and flaw signature. (author)

  2. Changes in skin test reactivity among adults with atopic disease: a 3-year prospective study

    Aslund, N.; Thomsen, S.F.; Molgaard, E.;

    2008-01-01

    , 186 candidates, ranging in age from 14 to 44 years, who in a screening questionnaire reported symptoms suggestive of respiratory allergic disease, 344 individuals with a positive skin prick test (SPT) result concomitantly with asthma and/or rhinitis were clinically studied on 2 occasions, 3 years...

  3. Fabrication and installment of the hard-wired I and C works for the neutral beam injection test stand of the K-STAR project

    Instrumentation and Control(I and C) of the neutral beam injection test stand (NBI-TS) for the K-STAR national fusion research project has been underway since the start of the project to answer the diverse requests arising from the various facets of the development and construction phases of the project. In a parallel effort with the software oriented I and C development, there has been existing an enormous amount of hard-wiring I and C works for the NBI facility to be developed and fabricated in schedule. Circuits and hardwired functions have been designed, tested, fabricated, and finally installed to the relevant parts of the system. Examples of those hard-wired I and C works are related to the vacuum system, gas feeding system, arc detector circuit, ion source monitoring, bending magnet and calorimeter. Another one to be mentioned is the interlock circuitry. One of the interlock circuits are related to the coolant flow failure. The other is the interlock circuit related to the vacuum failure. All of the above mentioned circuitry now constitutes integral parts for the proper operation of the NBI system; details of those hard-wired I and C work are described in this report

  4. Single-line-to-ground fault test on a 3-phase superconducting fault current limiting reactor

    The current limiting behavior of a 3-phase superconducting fault current limiting reactor (SCFCLR) in a model power system at a single-line-to-ground fault is experimentally confirmed. A small arc gap is attached on one phase of the model transmission line. And, a single-line-to-ground fault is activated. The behavior of the grounding current and the arc are observed. This paper reports that the experimental result show that, the fault current is limited to very small value by the large zero-phase-sequence reactance of the SCFCLR, and the self-extinction of the fault arc is observed, the power flow is not disturbed by a single-line-to-ground fault at all, and any power system disturbances are not observed, the windings do not quench for a single-line-tosingle-line-to-ground fault

  5. Tests of a 3 meter curved superconducting beam transport dipole magnet

    Initial tests of one of the curved 3 m long superconducting dipole magnets intended to generate 6.0 T and produce a 20.40 bend in the primary proton beam to a new D-target station at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS have been completed. Although this magnet, whose window frame design generally follows that of the successful 80 and Model T superconducting dipoles, demonstrates many of the desirable characteristics of these earlier magnets such as excellent quench propagation and good ramping properties, it has only reached a disappointingly low magnetic field of 3.5 to 4.0 T. Because of the great interest in superconducting magnet technology, this report will describe the diagnostic tests performed and plans for future modifications

  6. Tests of a 3 meter curved superconducting beam transport dipole magnet

    Allinger, J E; Carroll, A S; Danby, G T; DeVito, B; Jackson, J W; Leonhardt, W J; Prodell, A G; Weisenbloom, J

    1981-01-01

    Initial tests of one of the curved 3 m long superconducting dipole magnets intended to generate 6.0 T and produce a 20.4/sup 0/ bend in the primary proton beam to a new D-target station at the Brookhaven National Laboratory AGS have been completed. Although this magnet, whose window frame design generally follows that of the successful 8/sup 0/ and Model T superconducting dipoles, demonstrates many of the desirable characteristics of these earlier magnets such as excellent quench propagation and good ramping properties, it has only reached a disappointingly low magnetic field of 3.5 to 4.0 T. Because of the great interest in superconducting magnet technology, this report will describe the diagnostic tests performed and plans for future modifications.

  7. Magnetisation distribution measurements from powders using a 3He spin filter: a test experiment

    Magnetisation distribution maps deduced from the measurement of polarization dependent cross-sections have provided information that has been key to our understanding of the detailed electronic configurations and mechanisms of superconductors, colossal magnetoresistance and molecular magnets. Presently, the absence of any installation on a powder instrument limits its application largely to single crystals. This article details a test experiment carried out using polarized 3He spin filters on a powder diffractometer together with the technical background and data analysis considerations

  8. [The Family System Test: a 3-dimensional method for analyzing social relation structures].

    Gehring, T M; Funk, U; Schneider, M

    1989-01-01

    The Family System Test (FAST) is a clinically-derived figure placement technique designed for a three-dimensional representation of cohesion and power in the family. The FAST measures individual and group perceptions in typical, ideal and conflict situations. The flexibility of family structures is assessed by comparing representations of these situations. Scoring procedures as well as validity and reliability of the FAST are described. The relevance of the FAST is discussed from a systemic, developmental and clinical perspective. PMID:2740283

  9. Precise Tests of Fundamental Symmetries at Low Energies using a 3He-129Xe Comagnetometer

    Allmendinger, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    Effects of theories beyond the Standard Model would become directly apparent at high energies, which are probably out of reach for colliders. As an alternative, low-energy high-precision measurements of quantities are performed, looking for deviations from the Standard Model (SM) predictions. In this case: Firstly, a small amount of the large effects of quantum gravity at the Planck scale should remain at low energies, which is tested by looking for Lorentz invariance violation in the neut...

  10. Standing Tall: The Benefits of Standing Devices

    Warner, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    In the author's opinion as a pediatric physical therapist, with the exception of a wheelchair, there is no other piece of assistive technology that is more beneficial to children and adults with special needs than a standing device. Postural symmetry during standing and walking activities is extremely important for everyone. Very few children…

  11. The project New forest stand map

    Within the scope of the project New forest stand map an operational procedure was developed to derive automatically forest stand parameters from airborne laser scanner and satellite data. Those stand parameters were development stage, species combination, crown cover and standing timber volume. Optional were number of trees, dominant tree height and others. The degree of automation is high. The automatically delineated stand boundaries were visually controlled and corrected. All stand parameters were then derived completely automatically. The applicability of the procedure developed was demonstrated with three test sites containing 3000 ha of forest. The New forest stand map was developed as a saleable product. The procedure is robust regarding varying data situations and forest conditions. (author)

  12. DESIGN OF A SUPERBIKE PADDOCK STAND USING CAD AND CAE TOOLS

    M.H. Mohd Noh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Two people are required to operate current superbike paddock stands in order to elevate the superbike. Lifting the superbike alone using the current design of paddock stand may be impractical and inconvenient for users. To overcome this limitation, a new design of a superbike paddock stand was conceived that could be operated by a single user. CAD and CAE tools using CATIA V5R18 software were utilised in designing this new stand. A 3D CAD model was developed and analysed through finite element analysis (FEA and a prototype fabricated for verification testing of the design. The use of CAD and CAE tools saved much time in the design work and gave the researchers and designers freedom in producing their own design. However, the most important aspect of this design study was to design a superbike paddock stand that is more practical and convenient for operation by a single user.

  13. Out-standing!

    Kural, René

    2013-01-01

    Out-standing concerns the Danish tennisplayer Leif Rovsing and his outstanding piece of architecture Danish Tennis Club in Hellerup.......Out-standing concerns the Danish tennisplayer Leif Rovsing and his outstanding piece of architecture Danish Tennis Club in Hellerup....

  14. The In-Plume Emission Test Stand: an instrument platform for the real-time characterization of fuel-based combustion emissions.

    Nussbaum, Nicholas J; Zhu, Dongzi; Kuhns, Hampden D; Mazzoleni, Claudio; Chang, M-C Oliver; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G

    2009-12-01

    The In-Plume Emission Test Stand (IPETS) characterizes gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emissions from combustion sources in real time. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and other gases are quantified with a closed-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR). Particle concentrations, chemical composition, and other particle properties are characterized with an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI), a light-scattering particle detector, an optical particle counter, and filter samples amenable to different laboratory analysis. IPETS measurements of fuel-based emission factors for a diesel generator are compared with those from a Mobile Emissions Laboratory (MEL). IPETS emission factors ranged from 0.3 to 11.8, 0.2 to 3.7, and 22.2 to 32.8 g/kg fuel for CO, NO2, and NO, respectively. IPETS PM emission factors ranged from 0.4 to 1.4, 0.3 to 1.8, 0.3 to 2.2, and 1 to 3.4 g/kg fuel for filter, photoacoustic, nephelometer, and impactor measurements, respectively. Observed linear regression statistics for IPETS versus MEL concentrations were as follows: CO slope = 1.1, r2 = 0.99; NO slope = 1.1, r2 = 0.92; and NO2 slope = 0.8, r2 = 0.96. IPETS versus MEL PM regression statistics were: filter slope = 1.3, r2 = 0.80; ELPI slope = 1.7, r2 = 0.87; light-scattering slope = 2.7, r2 = 0.92; and photoacoustic slope = 2.1, r2 = 0.91. Lower temperatures in the dilution air (approximately 25 degrees C for IPETS vs. approximately 50 degrees C for MEL) may result in greater condensation of semi-volatile compounds on existing particles, thereby explaining the 30% difference for filters. The other PM measurement devices are highly correlated with the filter, but their factory-default PM calibration factors do not represent the size and optical properties of diesel exhaust. They must be normalized to a simultaneous filter measurement. PMID:20066909

  15. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with troublesome symptoms and increased mortality. It is treatable and deserving of accurate diagnosis. This can be time consuming. The current reference standard for its diagnosis is head-up tilt (HUT) testing with continuous beat-to-beat plethysmography. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of sit-stand testing with semi-automatic sphygmomanometry for the diagnosis of OH. DESIGN: Retrospective test of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed using a database maintained by a busy syncope unit. HUT testing was performed using an automated tilt table with Finometer monitoring. A 3 min 70 degrees HUT was performed following 5 min supine. Sitting blood pressure (BP) was measured following 3 min rest. Standing BP was measured within 30 s of assuming the upright posture. The results of sit-stand testing were compared with HUT testing as a reference standard. Both tests happened within 5 min of each other and patients underwent no intervention between tests. RESULTS: From a total of 1452 consecutive HUTs, we identified 730 with pre-test measures of sitting and standing BP. The mean age of this group was 70.57 years (SD = 15.1), 62% were female. The sensitivity of sit-stand testing was calculated as 15.5%, specificity as 89.9%, positive predictive value as 61.7%, negative predictive value as 50.2% and the likelihood ratio as 1.6. The area under the Receiver Operator Curve was 0.564. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that sit-stand testing for OH has very low diagnostic accuracy. We recommend that the more time-consuming reference standard method of diagnosis be used if the condition is suspected.

  16. An investigation into student understanding of longitudinal standing waves

    Dostal, Jack Alan

    This study investigates the difficulties that introductory university physics students have with the concept of longitudinal standing waves in the context of standing waves in pipes. My goal is to identify difficulties that persist even after standard instruction on longitudinal standing waves and attempt to improve upon that method of instruction. The study follows a four-step design. I first use exploratory surveys and interviews with students to elicit the difficulties present in students' understanding of longitudinal standing waves in pipes. I then use the information gained to create and assessment instrument, the Standing Waves Diagnostic Test, and a curricular intervention, the Longitudinal Standing Waves Tutorial. I then undertake a three-step process of pre-testing students with the Standing Wave Diagnostic Test, intervention with the Longitudinal Standing Waves Tutorial, and post-testing again with the Standing Wave Diagnostic Test to determine the impact of the intervention. This is then compared to data from students in classes where the intervention is not used. Students using the intervention significantly outperform their non-intervention counterparts on the Standing Wave Diagnostic Test. The results of the students pre- and post-tests indicate that significant improvement in students' understandings of longitudinal standing waves can be achieved by the use of the tutorial.

  17. Forest Stand Age

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Source data for forest stand age were obtained from the USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) DataMart and were projected for future scenarios based on selected...

  18. Long-term test of online measuring concentration of borate in the stand-by liquid control system of Isar 1 NPP

    In BWR plants a boron injection system, called stand-by liquid control system, is installed if the sub-critical state is not reached with adequate certainty by inserting the control blades. This system has a storage tank which contains a certain amount of boron as sodium pentaborate. While the volume may be monitored by observing the fill level in the tank, there is no similar simple procedure to continuously survey the concentration with sufficient sensitivity. The procedure presented is aiming at identifying a method which also enables continuous monitoring of the concentration with appropriate accuracy. (orig.)

  19. Rock property analysis of core samples from the Calico Hills UE25a-3 borehole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Core samples from the Calico Hills UE25a-3 borehole were measured for density, porosity, resistivity, induced polarization, compressional sonic velocity, and magnetic properties as part of the radioactive waste disposal site identification studies currently in progress at the Nevada Test Site. The samples were representative of three distinct subunits of argillite underlain by a marble section, all believed to be in the Mississippian part of the Eleana Formation. Because of a history of regional structural deformation, subsequent fracturing, and various degrees of fracture rehealing, the rock properties measured are highly variable within each principal rock section. Porosity changes affect virtually all rock properties measured except for magnetic intensity, and grain-density evidence shows that compositional differences are also a factor in producing the observed variability in rock properties. The induced polarization response is high in the argillite section owing to the concentration of pyrite, magnetite, and possible clay minerals within the fracture-filling material. The relatively high remanent and induced magnetization of the altered argillite subunit is a distinguishing feature of that section of argillite

  20. Standing wave compressor

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1991-01-01

    A compressor for compression-evaporation cooling systems, which requires no moving parts. A gaseous refrigerant inside a chamber is acoustically compressed and conveyed by means of a standing acoustic wave which is set up in the gaseous refrigerant. This standing acoustic wave can be driven either by a transducer, or by direct exposure of the gas to microwave and infrared sources, including solar energy. Input and output ports arranged along the chamber provide for the intake and discharge of the gaseous refrigerant. These ports can be provided with optional valve arrangements, so as to increase the compressor's pressure differential. The performance of the compressor in either of its transducer or electromagnetically driven configurations, can be optimized by a controlling circuit. This controlling circuit holds the wavelength of the standing acoustical wave constant, by changing the driving frequency in response to varying operating conditions.

  1. Stand-alone XLIF

    Hansen, E. J.; Simony, A.; Hummel, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    and clinical/radiological results in 22 patients treated with XLIF procedure for DS or degenerative disc disease (DDD). Material and methods: 22 consecutive patients with DS underwent surgery with the XLIF stand-alone procedure, with follow-up of 24 months. Clinical outcome scores were collected. Complications...... (31.8%) underwent revision surgery. Fusion was achieved in 53% (25/49) at 1-year follow-up. Anterior thigh pain was reported in 12 patients postoperatively, and in 2 patients at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions: The XLIF stand-alone procedure improves clinical outcome scores significantly after 1-and 2......-year follow-up, with a 31.8% revision rate. Due to the high revision rate we recommend supplementary posterior instrumentation, to achieve a higher fusion rate. When considering XLIF-stand-alone procedure for DS or DDD without supplemental posterior instrumentation, only single-level disease should...

  2. Standing for Animals

    Sunstein, Cass Robert

    1999-01-01

    From the legal point of view, there is nothing at all new or unfamiliar in the idea of "animal rights;" on the contrary, it is entirely clear that animals have legal rights. Indeed, the rise of legal rights for animals has been one of the most distinctive features of the last thirty years of federal statutory law. An investigation of the question of standing helps show that the real issues involve problems of enforcement and scope. Human beings often do and should have standing to protect ani...

  3. On standing one's ground

    Sinclair, Neil

    2014-01-01

    I provide a positive expressivist account of the permissibility of ‘standing one’s ground’ in some cases of moral conflict, based in part on an illustrative analogy with political disputes. This account suffices to undermine Enoch’s recent argument against expressivism.

  4. Sit-to-Stand and Stand-to-Sit Control Mechanisms of Two-Wheeled Wheelchair.

    Abdul Ghani, N M; Tokhi, M O

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a mechanism for standing and sitting transformation of a wheelchair using a two-wheeled inverted pendulum concept with reduced torque requirement, in simulation studies. The motivation of this work is to design a compact standing mechanism to help an elderly/disabled person with functional limitation in lower extremities to maneuver in small and confined spaces and enable them to perform standard daily life routines independently. The wheelchair system at the upright standing position is tested with different travel distances, and the challenge is to control both sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit operations in a stable manner using flexible-joint humanoid. An additional spring/damping element is incorporated at each wheel to provide a comfortable ride for the user especially during stand-to-sit transformation task. A PD-fuzzy control with modular structure is implemented, and the performance of the system is observed through visual nastran 4d (vn4d) visualization software and simulation in matlab. The stand-to-sit performance tests have shown more than 38% reduction in tilt and back seat angles fluctuation in linear travel motion using a suspension system, while the initial tilt torque needed is 50% less than the amount required in previous designs. PMID:26902396

  5. Specific cutting energy consumption in a circular saw for Eucalyptus stands VM01 and MN463

    Erica Moraes de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern technologies for continuous carbonization of Eucalyptus sp. require special care in wood cutting procedures. Choosing the right tool, cutting speeds and feed rates is important to manage time and energy consumption, both of which being critical factors in optimizing production. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of machining parameters on the specific cutting energy consumption of Eucalyptus sp. stands MN 463 and VM 01, owned by V&M Florestal. Tests were performed at the Wood Machining Laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (DCF/UFLA. Moist logs 1.70m in length were used. The experiment was set up using a 3 x 3 x 4 x 2 factorial design (cutting speed x feed rate x number of teeth x tree stand. Results were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% significance level. Greater cutting speeds, lower feed rates and the 40 teeth circular saw consumed more specific energy. Stand MN 463 consumed more specific energy. The combination of cutting speed 46 m.s-1, feed rate 17 m.min-1 and 24 teeth circular saw produced better specific energy consumption results for stand MN 463. As for stand VM 01, the combination of cutting speed 46 m.s-1, feed rate 17 m.min-1 and 20 teeth circular saw resulted in lower specific energy consumption.

  6. Members of the team responsable for the strength test stand on the plug for the main CMS shaft on which 2500 tonnes of steel blocks have been placed

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The plug over the CMS shaft, which will be required to bear the weight of the various detector sub-assemblies when they are lowered into the experiment hall, has just passed a strength test. The plug, a huge 2.2-metre-thick rectangular block of reinforced concrete measuring 15 x 20 metres and weighing 2000 tonnes, underwent its first strength test on 15 May.

  7. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    M.Vasugi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged or discharged thus prolonging its life. The charge/discharge control is necessary in order to achieve safety and increase the capacity of the battery. The project has been tested according its operational purposes. Maximum power rating of the experimented solar charge controller is 100W according battery capacities. Cost effective solar charge controller has been designed and implemented to have efficient system and much longer battery lifetime. The dc output is given to inverter and then it is supplied to loads. This method is very cheap and cost effective.

  8. Minimum joint space width (mJSW) of patellofemoral joint on standing ''skyline'' radiographs: test-retest reproducibility and comparison with quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI)

    Simoni, Paolo; Jamali, Sanaa; Alvarez Miezentseva, Victoria [CHU de Liege, Diagnostic Imaging Departement, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Albert, Adelin [CHU de Liege, Biostatistics Departement, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium); Totterman, Saara; Schreyer, Edward; Tamez-Pena, Jose G. [Qmetrics Technologies, Rochester, NY (United States); Zobel, Bruno Beomonte [Campus Bio-Medico University, Diagnostic Imaging Departement, Rome (Italy); Gillet, Philippe [CHU de Liege, Orthopaedic surgery Department, Domanine du Sart Tilman, Liege (Belgium)

    2013-11-15

    To assess the intraobserver, interobserver, and test-retest reproducibility of minimum joint space width (mJSW) measurement of medial and lateral patellofemoral joints on standing ''skyline'' radiographs and to compare the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint to the mean cartilage thickness calculated by quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (qMRI). A couple of standing ''skyline'' radiographs of the patellofemoral joints and MRI of 55 knees of 28 volunteers (18 females, ten males, mean age, 48.5 {+-} 16.2 years) were obtained on the same day. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint was manually measured and Kellgren and Lawrence grade (KLG) was independently assessed by two observers. The mJSW was compared to the mean cartilage thickness of patellofemoral joint calculated by qMRI. mJSW of the medial and lateral patellofemoral joint showed an excellent intraobserver agreement (interclass correlation (ICC) = 0.94 and 0.96), interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.90 and 0.95) and test-retest agreement (ICC = 0.92 and 0.96). The mJSW measured on radiographs was correlated to mean cartilage thickness calculated by qMRI (r = 0.71, p < 0.0001 for the medial PFJ and r = 0.81, p < 0.0001 for the lateral PFJ). However, there was a lack of concordance between radiographs and qMRI for extreme values of joint width and KLG. Radiographs yielded higher joint space measures than qMRI in knees with a normal joint space, while qMRI yielded higher joint space measures than radiographs in knees with joint space narrowing and higher KLG. Standing ''skyline'' radiographs are a reproducible tool for measuring the mJSW of the patellofemoral joint. The mJSW of the patellofemoral joint on radiographs are correlated with, but not concordant with, qMRI measurements. (orig.)

  9. ISSP Position Stand

    Ryba, Tatiana; Stambulova, Natalia; Si, Gangyan;

    2013-01-01

    The multicultural landscape of contemporary sport sets a challenge to rethink sport and exercise psychology research and practice through a culturally re␣exive lens. This ISSP Position Stand provides a rigorous synthesis and engagement with existing scholarship to outline a roadmap for future work...... in the ␣eld. The shift to culturally competent sport and exercise psychology implies: (a) recognizing hidden ethnocentric philosophical assumptions permeating much of the current theory, research, and practice; (b) transitioning to professional ethics in which difference is seen as not inherent and...... enhancing cultural competence in the ␣eld of sport and exercise psychology....

  10. Stand for studying microcontrollers

    Гринчак, Николай Васильевич; Кузьмичева, Екатерина Владимировна

    2013-01-01

    The problems of studying the basics of microprocessor technology and microcontrollers in technical high schools are considered in the paper. The version of the educational stand -Control computer LMakPic24-64 is proposed. Due to the thought-up design, the computer has a low cost and is suitable for replication in high school conditions. The computer is also suitable for the development of applications, based on the Microchip 16-bit PIC24 family.The main purpose of the study is to solve the fo...

  11. Learning to Stand: The Acceptability and Feasibility of Introducing Standing Desks into College Classrooms

    Roberto M. Benzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged sedentary behavior is an independent risk factor for multiple negative health outcomes. Evidence supports introducing standing desks into K-12 classrooms and work settings to reduce sitting time, but no studies have been conducted in the college classroom environment. The present study explored the acceptability and feasibility of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. A total of 993 students and 149 instructors completed a single online needs assessment survey. This cross-sectional study was conducted during the fall semester of 2015 at a large Midwestern University. The large majority of students (95% reported they would prefer the option to stand in class. Most students (82.7% reported they currently sit during their entire class time. Most students (76.6% and instructors (86.6% reported being in favor of introducing standing desks into college classrooms. More than half of students and instructors predicted having access to standing desks in class would improve student’s “physical health”, “attention”, and “restlessness”. Collectively, these findings support the acceptability of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Future research is needed to test the feasibility, cost-effectiveness and efficacy of introducing standing desks in college classrooms. Such studies would be useful for informing institutional policies regarding classroom designs.

  12. Stand Diameter Distribution Modelling and Prediction Based on Richards Function

    Duan, Ai-guo; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Xiong-qing; He, Cai-yun

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce application of the Richards equation on modelling and prediction of stand diameter distribution. The long-term repeated measurement data sets, consisted of 309 diameter frequency distributions from Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in the southern China, were used. Also, 150 stands were used as fitting data, the other 159 stands were used for testing. Nonlinear regression method (NRM) or maximum likelihood estimates method (MLEM) we...

  13. Advantages of a 3-parameter reduced constitutive model for the measurement of polymers elastic modulus using tensile tests

    Blaise, A.; André, S.; Delobelle, P.; Meshaka, Y.; Cunat, C.

    2016-04-01

    Exact measurements of the rheological parameters of time-dependent materials are crucial to improve our understanding of their intimate relation to the internal bulk microstructure. Concerning solid polymers and the apparently simple determination of Young's modulus in tensile tests, international standards rely on basic protocols that are known to lead to erroneous values. This paper describes an approach allowing a correct measurement of the instantaneous elastic modulus of polymers by a tensile test. It is based on the use of an appropriate reduced model to describe the behavior of the material up to great strains, together with well-established principles of parameter estimation in engineering science. These principles are objective tools that are used to determine which parameters of a model can be correctly identified according to the informational content of a given data set. The assessment of the methodology and of the measurements is accomplished by comparing the results with those obtained from two other physical experiments, probing the material response at small temporal and length scales, namely, ultrasound measurements with excitation at 5 MHz and modulated nanoindentation tests over a few nanometers of amplitude.

  14. Predicting the natural state of fractured carbonate reservoirs: An Andector Field, West Texas test of a 3-D RTM simulator

    Tuncay, K.; Romer, S.; Ortoleva, P. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Hoak, T. [Kestrel Geoscience, Littleton, CO (United States); Sundberg, K. [Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The power of the reaction, transport, mechanical (RTM) modeling approach is that it directly uses the laws of geochemistry and geophysics to extrapolate fracture and other characteristics from the borehole or surface to the reservoir interior. The objectives of this facet of the project were to refine and test the viability of the basin/reservoir forward modeling approach to address fractured reservoir in E and P problems. The study attempts to resolve the following issues: role of fracturing and timing on present day location and characteristics; clarifying the roles and interplay of flexure dynamics, changing rock rheological properties, fluid pressuring and tectonic/thermal histories on present day reservoir location and characteristics; and test the integrated RTM modeling/geological data approach on a carbonate reservoir. Sedimentary, thermal and tectonic data from Andector Field, West Texas, were used as input to the RTM basin/reservoir simulator to predict its preproduction state. The results were compared with data from producing reservoirs to test the RTM modeling approach. The effects of production on the state of the field are discussed in a companion report. The authors draw the following conclusions: RTM modeling is an important new tool in fractured reservoir E and P analysis; the strong coupling of RTM processes and the geometric and tensorial complexity of fluid flow and stresses require the type of fully coupled, 3-D RTM model for fracture analysis as pioneered in this project; flexure analysis cannot predict key aspects of fractured reservoir location and characteristics; fracture history over the lifetime of a basin is required to understand the timing of petroleum expulsion and migration and the retention properties of putative reservoirs.

  15. ENSYSTROB - Design, manufacturing and test of a 3-phase resistive fault current limiter based on coated conductors for medium voltage application

    Elschner, S.; Kudymow, A.; Brand, J.; Fink, S.; Goldacker, W.; Grilli, F.; Noe, M.; Vojenciak, M.; Hobl, A.; Bludau, M.; Jänke, C.; Krämer, S.; Bock, J.

    2012-11-01

    Within the German project ENSYSTROB a 3-phase resistive fault current limiter for medium voltage applications (12 kV, 533 Arms) was designed, built, tested and installed in the grid for a one year’s field test. The superconducting modules are made of YBCO coated conductors and replace the modules of an already successfully tested limiter on the basis of BSCCO 2212 bulk material. The components are multifilar spirals equipped with pairs of 12 mm wide YBCO tapes. The single components were characterized with respect to critical current, AC losses and limitation behavior under all possible operation conditions. The finally mounted limiter was successfully tested with respect to high voltage and limitation according to the standards of the customer. It is now installed and operating in its field test location. Finally we give a first comparison of both materials with respect to the different operational aspects.

  16. Impact of Stand, Site and Structural Characteristics on Stand Regeneration Planning in Pedunculate Oak Forests

    Juro Čavlović

    2011-04-01

    analysis derived. The complex potential revenue (rent difference was defined for stand regeneration (Equation 3 as a dependent variable and objective criterion for stand ranking according to regeneration priority. By means of partial linear analyses, multivariate analysis and modeling (generalized linear modeling, mutual and complex impacts of stand, site and economic factors on elements of stand structure and potential revenue (rent difference were investigated. Statistical analyses were performed by application of the SAS software package, whereas descriptive statistics, correlation analyses, integration of functions and development of graphical presentations were carried out by means of the STATISTICA 8.2 software package.The research included different management, stand and structural characteristics (Table 1 and determined a statistically significant mutual impact of individual variables of stand, site and economic factors on certain elements of stand structure and potential revenue (rent difference (Table 2. Multivariate analysis revealed models of complex impacts of stand, site and economic factors on standing volume of pedunculate oak and revenue (rent difference (Table 3. According to the obtained data, all three models are statistically significant for the estimated standing volume of pedunculate oak and also for the estimated revenue (rent difference. The stand factors in total account for 35% variability of standing volume of pedunculate oak and for 22% variability of revenue (rent difference. The site factors account for 39% variability of standing volume of pedunculate oak and for 34% variability of revenue (rent difference, whereas economic factors account for even 45% variability of standing volume of pedunculate oak and for 43% variability of revenue (rent difference. The results of the Tukey post hoc (HSD test for statistically significant variables of multivariate analysis of the revenue (rent difference and the standing volume of pedunculate oak (Table

  17. In-situ Curing Strain Monitoring of a Flat Plate Residual Stress Specimen Using a Chopped Stand Mat Glass/Epoxy Composite as Test Material

    Jakobsen, J.; Skordos, A.; James, S.; Correia, R. G.; Jensen, M.

    2015-12-01

    The curing stresses in a newly proposed bi-axial residual stress testing configuration are studied using a chopped strand mat glass/epoxy specimen. In-situ monitoring of the curing is conducted using dielectric and fibre Bragg grating sensors. It is confirmed that a bi-axial residual stress state can be introduced in the specimens during curing and a quantification of its magnitude is presented. An alternative decomposition method used for converting the dielectric signal into a material state variable is proposed and good agreement with models found in the literature is obtained. From the cure cycles chosen it is suggested that any stress build up in the un-vitrified state is relaxed immediately and only stress build up in the vitrified state contributes to the residual stress state in the specimen.

  18. Examination of material performance of W exposed to high heat load: postmortem analysis of W exposed to TEXOR plasma and E-beam test stand

    We have examined the behavior of high Z limiters exposed to TEXTOR edge plasma and found that under certain conditions high Z materials are compatible with plasmas. In high density Ohmic plasmas the accumulation of a high Z impurity in the plasma center with significant radiation is observed, whereas an auxiliary heating like NBI and ICRH enhances the impurity exhaust with saw tooth activity. For a practical use of high Z plasma facing materials, extremely high heat load from the plasma becomes a serious concern. In the present work we have conducted the high heat load tests of tungsten (W) using two different heat sources, one is the W limiter exposed to TEXTOR plasma and the other is various W samples heat loaded with an intense E-beam using the JEBIS facility in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). From the test results we have to conclude that W, if applied in the form of the bulk material, should be used above the ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) but below about 1500 C to avoid the recrystallization. Maximum heat load tolerable without surface melting is about 20 MW/m2 for several seconds. The monocrystalline used at high temperatures shows very good performance, though the production of the monocrystalline with a desired shape is not easy. Considering its brittle nature, hard machining and heavy mass, bulk W cannot be a structure material but be used as a thin tile or deposited film on some structure materials. Unfortunately, however, the thermal expansion coefficient of W is so small that brazing of W to a heat sink material like Cu which has a much larger thermal expansion coefficient would easily result in cracking due to the large thermal stress. Thus the development of tungsten plasma facing component (PFC) needs much effort in future. (orig.)

  19. Coupling tree-ring delta13C and delta15N to test the effect of fertilization on mature Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) stands across the Interior northwest, USA.

    Balster, Nick J; Marshall, John D; Clayton, Murray

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization causes long-term increases in biomass production in many N-limited forests around the world, but the mechanistic basis underlying the increase is often unclear. One possibility, especially in summer-dry climates, is that N fertilization increases the efficiency with which a finite water supply is consumed to support photosynthesis. This increase is achieved by a reduction in the canopy-integrated concentration of internal CO(2) and thus discrimination against (13)C. We used stable isotopes of carbon (delta(13)C) in tree rings to experimentally test the physiological impact of N fertilization on mature Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco var. glauca) stands across the geographic extent of the Intermountain West, USA. The concentration and the stable isotopes of N (delta(15)N) in tree rings were also used to assess the presence and activity of fertilizer N. We hypothesized that N fertilization would (i) increase delta(15)N and N concentration of stemwood relative to non-fertilized stands and (ii) increase stemwood delta(13)C as photosynthetic gas exchange responded to the additional N. This experiment included two rates of urea addition, 178 kg ha(-1) (low) and 357 kg ha(-1) (high), which were applied twice over a 6-year interval bracketed by the 18 years of wood production measured in this study. Foliar N concentrations measured the year after each fertilization treatment suggest that the fertilizer N had been assimilated by the trees (P soil N between sites. However, we found no significant effect of the N fertilizer on delta(13)C of the annual rings (P = 0.76). These data lead us to suggest that alternative mechanisms underlie the growth response to fertilizer, i.e., increase in canopy area and shifts in biomass allocation. PMID:19855101

  20. In vivo testing of a 3D bifurcating microchannel scaffold inducing separation of regenerating axon bundles in peripheral nerves

    Stoyanova, Irina I.; van Wezel, Richard J. A.; Rutten, Wim L. C.

    2013-12-01

    Artificial nerve guidance channels enhance the regenerative effectiveness in an injured peripheral nerve but the existing design so far has been limited to basic straight tubes simply guiding the growth to bridge the gap. Hence, one of the goals in development of more effective neuroprostheses is to create bidirectional highly selective neuro-electronic interface between a prosthetic device and the severed nerve. A step towards improving selectivity for both recording and stimulation have been made with some recent in vitro studies which showed that three-dimensional (3D) bifurcating microchannels can separate neurites growing on a planar surface and bring them into contact with individual electrodes. Since the growing axons in vivo have the innate tendency to group in bundles surrounded by connective tissue, one of the big challenges in neuro-prosthetic interface design is how to overcome it. Therefore, we performed experiments with 3D bifurcating guidance scaffolds implanted in the sciatic nerve of rats to test if this new channel architecture could trigger separation pattern of ingrowth also in vivo. Our results showed that this new method enabled the re-growth of neurites into channels with gradually diminished width (80, 40 and 20 µm) and facilitated the separation of the axonal bundles with 91% success. It seems that the 3D bifurcating scaffold might contribute towards conveying detailed neural control and sensory feedback to users of prosthetic devices, and thus could improve the quality of their daily life.

  1. Standing Concertation Committee

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee in the first quarter of 2009 included: Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS) 2009 exercise The committee took note of 2009 MARS ceiling guidelines giving the advancement budget by career path and amounting to approx 1.80% of the basic salary bill. To this will be added 250 steps CERN-wide, financed by savings from implementation of the international indemnity for 2007, 2008 and the first half of 2009. The specific Senior Staff Guidelines, including the proposed number of promotions from Career Path E to F, were also noted. The guidelines with respect to step distribution were also noted: the minima and maxima remain the same as in previous years. Compliance with the guidelines will continue to be monitored closely (more details, including a frequently asked questions section). It was also noted that Financial Awards (awards for extraordinary service and responsibility allowances) may b...

  2. Standing wave linear accelerator

    Consideration is being given to standing wave linear accelerator containing generator, phase shifter, two accelerating resonator sections, charged particle injector and waveguide bridge. Its first arm is oined up with generator via the phase shifter, the second and the third ones-with accelerating sections and the fourth one - with HF-power absorber. HF-power absorber represents a section of circular diaphragmatic wavequide with transformer with input wave and intrawaveguide output load located between injector and the first accelerating section. The section possesses holes in side walls lying on accelerator axis. The distances between centers of the last cell of the fast accelerating section and the first cell of the second accelerating sectiOn equal (2n+3)lambda/4, where n=1, 2, 3..., lambda - wave length of generator. The suggested system enables to improve by one order spectral characteristics of accelerators as compared to the prototype in which magnetrons are used as generator

  3. Standing Concertation Committee

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The Committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had enrolled in the short-term saved leave scheme: approx. 58% had signed up for 1 slice, 14% for two slices, 5% for three slices and 23% for four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PR...

  4. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2008 included: Short-term Saved Leave Scheme The committee noted that, by the end of February 2008, some 600 staff had subscribed to the short-term saved leave scheme: approx 58% had subscribed 1 slice, 14% two slices, 5% three slices and 23% four slices. Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 4 (Rev. 4) - Unemployment Insurance Scheme to the Director-General for approval. Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 30 (Rev. 2) - Financial Benefits upon taking up appointment and termination of contract to the Director-General for approval. Progressive Retirement Programme The Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) was extended for a further year to 3...

  5. Standing Concertation Committee

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Ordinary Meeting on 11 May 2009 The meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee held on 11 May 2009 was entirely dedicated to the preparation of the TREF meeting on 19 & 20 May 2009. The Committee took note, discussed and agreed on some clarifications on a number of documents and presentations that the Management planned to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: • Personnel statistics 2008: J. Purvis presented the Personnel Statistics for 2008 prepared by HR Department. In line with the previous year, key messages were firstly, a general reduction in staff (2544 to 2400, - 6%), secondly, a reduction in administrative services personnel (from 422 to 387, - 8%) and thirdly, a marked increase in the number of Users and Unpaid Associates (from 8369 to 9140, + 9%) • Five-Yearly Review 2010: A series of draft documents were submitted for discussion, comprising an introductory document explaining the statutory basis for the following four document...

  6. Standing Concertation Committee

    HR Department

    2010-01-01

    Main issues examined at the meeting of 2 October 2009 The October 2009 meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee was entirely devoted to preparation of TREF’s meeting on 21-22 October. The Committee took note of, discussed and agreed on clarifications needed to some of the documents and presentations that the Management intended to submit and/or present to TREF on the following subjects: Equal opportunities The Committee took note of a preliminary report on equal opportunities at CERN drawn up by D. Chromek-Burckhart, the Equal Opportunities Officer, and T. Smith, Chairman of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel, containing in particular a proposal for a new process for resolving harassment conflicts. Technical analysis of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme - Actuary’s Report The Committee took note of a presentation by P. Charpentier, Chairman of the CERN Health Insurance Supervisory Board (CHIS Board), on the 2009 actuarial report on the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS). Th...

  7. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 2 november 2007 Extraordinary meeting on 12 November 2007 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 November 2007 and 12 November included: Restaurants Supervisory Committee Report The committee took note of the report by the chairman of the Restaurants Supervisory Committee (RSC), T. Lagrange. In particular, it was recorded that, in Restaurant No. 1, the new kitchen and free flow arrangements had been inaugurated and all works had been commissioned on schedule in October 2007.The contractor, Novae, had taken over maintenance of the new kitchen. Some price increases were to be expected in the coming months due mainly to strong increases in the cost of basic ingredients. A problem with bad smells in the area of Restaurant No. 1 was being taken care of by tuning the ventilation system. The RSC wished to thank the management and staff of Restaurant No. 2 for their cooperation while Restaurant No 1 was ...

  8. Food Irradiation. Standing legislation

    The standing legislation in Mexico on food irradiation matter has its basis on the Constitutional Policy of the Mexican United States on the 4 Th. article by its refers to Secretary of Health, 27 Th. article to the Secretary of Energy and 123 Th. of the Secretary of Work and Social Security. The laws and regulations emanated of the proper Constitution establishing the general features which gives the normative frame to this activity. The general regulations of Radiological Safety expedited by the National Commission for Nuclear Safety and Safeguards to state the specifications which must be fulfill the industrial installations which utilizing ionizing radiations, between this line is founded, just as the requirements for the responsible of the radiological protection and the operation of these establishments. The project of Regulation of the General Health Law in matter of Sanitary Control of Benefits and Services, that in short time will be officialized, include a specific chapter on food irradiation which considers the International Organizations Recommendations and the pertaining harmonization stated for Latin America, which elaboration was in charge of specialized group where Mexico was participant. Additionally, the Secretary of Health has a Mexican Official Standard NOM-033-SSA1-1993 named 'Food irradiation; permissible doses in foods, raw materials and support additives' standing from the year 1995, where is established the associated requirements to the control registers, service constancies and dose limits for different groups of foods, moreover of the specific guidelines for its process. This standard will be adequate considering the updating Regulation of Benefits and Services and the limits established the Regulation for Latin America. The associated laws that cover in general terms it would be the requirements for food irradiation although such term is not manageable. (Author)

  9. Final Results of a 3-Year Literacy-Informed Intervention to Promote Annual Fecal Occult Blood Test Screening.

    Arnold, Connie L; Rademaker, Alfred; Wolf, Michael S; Liu, Dachao; Lucas, Geoffrey; Hancock, Jill; Davis, Terry C

    2016-08-01

    This three arm study was designed to make CRC screening with FOBTs more accessible, understandable and actionable for patients cared for in predominantly rural Federally Qualified Health Centers. Patients in an enhanced version of usual care received an annual CRC recommendation and FOBT kit; those in the education arm additionally received brief literacy and culturally appropriate education and those in the nurse arm received the education by a nurse manager who followed up by telephone. Baseline FOBT rates in this population were 3 %. We evaluated if FOBT rates could be sustained over 3 years. A three-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted among eight clinics in Louisiana. Screening efforts included: (1) enhanced usual care, (2) literacy-informed education of patients, and (3) education plus nurse support. Overall, 961 average-risk patients, ages 50-85, eligible for routine CRC screenings were recruited. The primary outcome was completing three annual FOBT tests. Of 961 patients enrolled, 381 (39.6 %) participants did not complete a single FOBT, 60.4 % completed at least one FOBT of which 318 (33.1 %) completed only one, 162 (16.9 %) completed two and 100 (10.4 %) completed three FOBTs over the 3-year period (the primary study outcome). The primary outcome, return of three FOBT kits over the 3-year period, was achieved by 4.7 % in enhanced care, 11.4 % in education and 13.6 % in the nurse arm (p = 0.005). Overall 3-year FOBT screening rates were not sustained with any of the three interventions, despite reports of promising interim results at years 1 and 2. New strategies for sustaining FOBT screening over several years must be developed. PMID:26769026

  10. Review Over a 3-Year Period of European Union Proficiency Tests for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins in Food Matrices

    Nia, Yacine; Mutel, Isabelle; Assere, Adrien; Lombard, Bertrand; Auvray, Frederic; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks are a major cause of foodborne illnesses in Europe and their notifications have been mandatory since 2005. Even though the European regulation on microbiological criteria for food defines a criterion on staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) only in cheese and dairy products, European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) data reported that various types of food matrices are involved in staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks. The European Screening Method (ESM) of European Union Reference Laboratory for Coagulase Positive Staphylococci (EURL CPS) was validated in 2011 for SE detection in food matrices and is currently the official method used for screening purposes in Europe. In this context, EURLCPS is annually organizing Inter-Laboratory Proficiency Testing Trials (ILPT) to evaluate the competency of the European countries’ National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) to analyse SE content in food matrices. A total of 31 NRLs representing 93% of European countries participated in these ILPTs. Eight food matrices were used for ILPT over the period 2013–2015, including cheese, freeze-dried cheese, tuna, mackerel, roasted chicken, ready-to-eat food, milk, and pastry. Food samples were spiked with four SE types (i.e., SEA, SEC, SED, and SEE) at various concentrations. Homogeneity and stability studies showed that ILPT samples were both homogeneous and stable. The analysis of results obtained by participants for a total of 155 blank and 620 contaminated samples allowed for evaluation of trueness (>98%) and specificity (100%) of ESM. Further to the validation study of ESM carried out in 2011, these three ILPTs allowed for the assessment of the proficiency of the NRL network and the performance of ESM on a large variety of food matrices and samples. The ILPT design presented here will be helpful for the organization of ILPT on SE detection by NRLs or other expert laboratories. PMID:27089364

  11. THYC, a 3D thermal-hydraulic code for steam generators, heat exchangers and condensers: recent developments and validation tests

    PWR steam generators, tubular heat exchangers and condensers, are basic components of nuclear power plants involving two-phase flows in tube bundles. The operation of these components lead to vibration and corrosion inside the tube bundle, and to deposits and thermal shocks on the tube sheet of steam generators. A deep knowledge of the detailed flow patterns on the shell side is necessary to predict, quantify and prevent these risks. Moreover it is also useful to assess the efficiency of new designs, such as the economizer of the N4 nuclear plant steam generator. For these purposes, Electricite de France has developed, since 1986, a general purpose code named THYC (Thermal HYdraulic Code) designed to study three-dimensional single and two-phase flows in tube bundle (pressurized water reactor cores, steam generators, condensers, heat exchangers). Two types of components in the 3D domain are taken into account: fluid and solids (i.e. porous media approach). The THYC model is obtained by space-time averaging of the instantaneous equations (mass, momentum and energy) of each fluid phase over control volumes including fluid and solids. The THYC-EXCHANGER version solves three to five conservation equations of the fluid outside the tubes, plus the energy equation of the fluid inside the tubes. That makes the code able to model all types of heat exchangers, from single phase heat exchangers, to components involving boiling or condensation. First of all, this paper describes the physical model and the numerical method used in THYC-EXCHANGER. Secondly, validation tests (comparison with experiments) and applications are presented. We present successively : (a) the single-phase heat exchanger mock-up VACARM; (b) the PALUEL steam generator with temperature measurement; (c) the steam generator mock-up CLOTAIRE with void fraction and gas velocity measurements. They emphasize the latest developments, the new capabilities and the adaptability of the code to compute the local

  12. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should b...

  13. Design and construction of standing wave accelerating structures at TUE

    Two standing wave accelerating structures have been built for the operation of two AVF racetrack microtrons (RTM). For the first RTM a 3 cell 1.3 GHz on axis coupled standing wave structure has been designed to accelerate a 50 A peak current beam in 9 steps from the injection energy of 6 MeV to a final energy of 25 MeV. The beam will be used as drive beam for the free electron laser TEUFEL. The second structure accelerates a 7.5 mA beam in 13 steps from the injection energy of 10 MeV, to a maximum energy of 75 MeV. This 9 cell on-axis coupled structure operates at 3 GHz and was designed with a relatively large aperture radius (8 mm) in order to avoid limitations on the RTM's acceptance. Design, fabrication and testing of the structures have been done in house. For the design of the structures the combination of the codes Superfish and Mafia has been used. Low and high power tests proved that the structures live up to the demands. With the experiences gained a design for the accelerating structure of the H- linac of the ESS project has been made. The design of the cells as well as a novel type of single cell bridge coupler will be presented. (author)

  14. Using a stand-level model to predict light absorption in stands with vertically and horizontally heterogeneous canopies

    David I Forrester

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Forest ecosystem functioning is strongly influenced by the absorption of photosynthetically active radiation (APAR, and therefore, accurate predictions of APAR are critical for many process-based forest growth models. The Lambert-Beer law can be applied to estimate APAR for simple homogeneous canopies composed of one layer, one species, and no canopy gaps. However, the vertical and horizontal structure of forest canopies is rarely homogeneous. Detailed tree-level models can account for this heterogeneity but these often have high input and computational demands and work on finer temporal and spatial resolutions than required by stand-level growth models. The aim of this study was to test a stand-level light absorption model that can estimate APAR by individual species in mixed-species and multi-layered stands with any degree of canopy openness including open-grown trees to closed canopies. Methods The stand-level model was compared with a detailed tree-level model that has already been tested in mixed-species stands using empirical data. Both models were parameterised for five different forests, including a wide range of species compositions, species proportions, stand densities, crown architectures and canopy structures. Results The stand-level model performed well in all stands except in the stand where extinction coefficients were unusually variable and it appears unlikely that APAR could be predicted in such stands using (tree- or stand-level models that do not allow individuals of a given species to have different extinction coefficients, leaf-area density or analogous parameters. Conclusion This model is parameterised with species-specific information about extinction coefficients and mean crown length, diameter, height and leaf area. It could be used to examine light dynamics in complex canopies and in stand-level growth models.

  15. UPTF-TRAM test A3. Turn-over of the hot-leg injected ECC in the steam generator direction

    The UPTF TRAM test A3 was a separate effects test to investigate the interaction between the hot leg-injected ECC and the single-phase or two-phase natural circulation in the hot leg in the case of an SBLOCA in a PWR. The experimental investigation of 7 runs was mainly concentrated on the following phenomena: - Transport of hot leg injected ECC water to the upper plenum or in the direction of steam generator, depending on the loop mass flow, -Utilization of the condensation potential of ECC water, - Mixing of the saturated water with the ECC water, - Effect of hot leg injection on the flow phenomena in the hot leg, - Effect of pressure (3 and 15 bar) on the scaling and hence the verification of the scaling concept applied. A preliminary evaluation of the test is presented in the Quick Look Report. (orig.)

  16. Stand-up physics

    2009-01-01

    A CMS physicist and amateur stand up comic was named the winner of NESTA FameLab 2009. Tom Whyntie battled it out with nine others young scientists from across the UK to win the contest to find the country’s next top science communicator. Tom Whyntie with his prize money after the NESTA Famelab final.Tom Whyntie, who is currently doing his PhD on the CMS experiment, managed to persuade his supervisor to give him a few days off on 5 June so he could fly back to the UK for the final of NESTA FameLab 2009. In the competition, which has been dubbed ‘the X Factor for scientists’, he had just three minutes to explain a complex scientific idea to a panel of judges made up of high-profile science professionals. During the final, he captivated the audience with his talk about how finding nothing at the LHC, far from being a waste of £5 billion, would actually catalyse the next scientific revolution. It Whyntie’s own words: "If the L...

  17. Standing concertation commmittee

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    MEETINGS ON 2 AND 9 DECEMBER 2008 The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 2 and 9 December 2008 included: Medical Service Report 2007 The Committee took note of the report by Dr. E. Reymond (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/fr/indexFR.htm) and of a number of points raised during the discussion. It was noted that the number of professional accidents declined in 2007 (361 accidents) in comparison with 2006 (483), as well as their gravity and frequency. The CERN Medical Service carried out a study on cancer prevalence (number of cases) and incidence (new cases per year per 100000 people), between 1993 and 2007, which identified some prostate, breast and colorectal cancers, though less than in the two Host States. Specific preventive actions will be promoted by the CERN CHISboard and the Medical Service in this context as well as in other areas. The committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work i...

  18. Standing Concertation Committee

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 30 January 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement measure...

  19. Standing Concertation Committee

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 30 JANUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 January 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 26: with the introduction of the merit recognition system in the framework of the 5-yearly review of CERN employment conditions, Administrative Circular No. 26 has been revised. The Committee took note of the revised document which is being finalized for submission to the Director-General for approval in the near future. Technical analysis of CERN Health Insurance Scheme: the Committee was informed that a group has been set up by the Director-General to analyse the financial situation of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme in the short and long term, and to propose measures to ensure that the Scheme remains in financial balance, with adequate cover, over the medium term. The group's terms of reference and membership were communicated. Voluntary programmes It was announced that the programmes: 'part-time work as a pre-retirement mea...

  20. Standing Concertation Committee

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    ORDINARY MEETING ON 27 FEBRUARY 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members : M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines: In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff ...

  1. Standing Concertation Commmittee

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary meeting on 27 February 2007 The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 February 2007 included: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): It was announced that a Management/Staff Association working group had been set up to discuss the Saved Leave Scheme (SLS): Members: M. Büttner, E. Chiaveri (chair), Ph. Defert, D. Klem, M. Vitasse, J.-M. Saint-Viteux. It was noted that the Staff Association was launching a questionnaire on SLS and distributed to all members of the personnel. Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the CERN-wide 2007 Merit Recognition Guidelines, including the Frequently Asked Questions on HR Department's dedicated website. Information on CERN's medium and long-term plans (MTP-LTP)/Contract renewals/ External mobility The Committee took note of the information provided on CERN's MTP-LTP and of documentation distributed at the meeting by the Staff Associatio...

  2. Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

  3. "UCx fission targets oxidation test stand"

    Lacroix, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    "Set up a rig dedicated to the oxidation of UCx and define a procedure for repeatable, reliable and safe method for converting UC2 fission targets into an acceptable uranium carbide oxide waste for subsequent disposal by the Swiss Authorities."

  4. AA Prototype-Quadrupole on Measurement Stand

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of quadrupoles: narrow ones (QFN, QDN) and wide ones (QFW, QDW). The wide ones, although not very long (steel length 0.54 m), had an unusually large aperture of 0.75 m in width, 0.68 m "good field". A prototype was built in 1978. Here we see it on its test stand, with Ray Brown positioning the measurement coil.

  5. AA Prototype-Quadrupole on Measurement Stand

    1979-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of quadrupoles: narrow ones (QFN, QDN) and wide ones (QFW, QDW). The wide ones, although rather short (steel length 0.54 m), had an unusually large aperture of 0.75 m in width, 0.68 m "good field". A prototype was built at CERN in 1978. Here we see it on its test stand, with a measurement coil inserted, Brian Pincott taking readings.

  6. Height Extraction and Stand Volume Estimation Based on Fusion Airborne LiDAR Data and Terrestrial Measurements for a Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] Test Site in Romania

    Apostol, Bogdan; Adrian LORENT; Marius PETRILA; Gancz, Vladimir; Ovidiu BADEA

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of individual tree identification and stand volume estimation from LiDAR data. The study was located in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stands in southwestern Romania and linked airborne laser scanning (ALS) with terrestrial measurements through empirical modelling. The proposed method uses the Canopy Maxima algorithm for individual tree detection together with biometric field measurements and individual trees positioning. Fiel...

  7. The Stand-alone Heliostat

    The first Autonomous Heliostat has been developed by CIEMAT at PSA facilities in Almeria. This heliostat is an innovative approach to reducing the civil engineering work costs in heliostat fields of central tower plants. Channels, cables and other electric elements have been eliminated in the new heliostat. Thus, one 70-nr, classical T glass/metal heliostat has been adapted to include all the new stand-alone concept components. A PV system is able to drive two sun-tracking DC motors between 5 and 24Vdc, 0 and 15A. The heliostat communicates with the control room 400-m away by using a radio-modem working at 9600 baud. An anemometer, a wind switcher, light and ambient temperature sensors have been installed on the heliostat for self-protection decision-making. A PV panel integrated into the heliostat reflecting surface, eliminates cabling and other elements required for a conventional power supply. Communication lines between master control and local control have been replaced by radio-modem. Testing has validated the technical feasibility of the prototype and quantified the real consumption and efficiencies of new elements. The extra costs produced.by the autonomous concepts are compared with the cost of civil work in conventional heliostat field. (Author) 8 refs

  8. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  9. Fuel assembly inspection stand at NPP cooling pool

    The stand for the RBMK fuel assembly inspection under conditions of the fuel cooling pool is described. Results of experimental testing the techniques and stand equipment at the Ignalinskaya NPP are presented. The stand provides for visual control using the TSU-24M television system; eddy current examination of peripheral fuel elements; identification of failed fuel elements; measurement of diameters of peripheral fuel elements and gaps between them; registration of fuel element assembly carriage coordinates and turn angle; measurement of fuel assembly cross dimensions, bending and twist using ultrasonic transducers; drive control; carriage positioning; drive control by setting transducers in operational position

  10. The role of forest stand structure as biodiversity indicator

    Gao, Tian; Hedblom, Marcus; Emilsson, Tobias;

    2014-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation is a key objective for sustainable forest management, but the multi-dimensional and multi-scale character of biodiversity renders full assessment difficult at large scale. Therefore, indicators are often used to monitor biodiversity. Important cost-benefit synergies can be...... achieved if indicators are derived from existing data. In this study, a model for classifying forest stand structures was developed and tested as an indicator of overall plant species diversity at stand level. The model combines four stand structure parameters: canopy coverage, age of canopy trees, tree...... species composition and canopy stratification. Using data from the National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden and General Linear Mixed Model, plant species diversity (Shannon diversity index, SHDI) and composition (Sørensen-Dice index, SDI) were tested between 26 different stand structure types and nine...

  11. Residual Liquefaction under Standing Waves

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an experimental study which deals with the residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves. It is shown that the seabed liquefaction under standing waves, although qualitatively similar, exhibits features different from that caused by progressive waves....... The experimental results show that the buildup of pore-water pressure and the resulting liquefaction first starts at the nodal section and spreads towards the antinodal section. The number of waves to cause liquefaction at the nodal section appears to be equal to that experienced in progressive waves for the same...... wave height. Recommendations are made as to how to assess liquefaction potential in standing waves. Copyright © 2012 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  12. The Stability of Standing Waves

    Riecke, H; Riecke, Hermann; Kramer, Lorenz

    1998-01-01

    We determine the modulational stability of standing waves in quasi-onedimensional systems slightly above the threshold of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. The stability limits are given by two different long-wavelength destabilisation mechanisms and generically also a short-wavelength destabilisation. The Eckhaus parabola is shifted off-center and can be convex from below or above. For nonzero group velocity the Newell criterion, which near the crossover from standing to traveling waves becomes a rather weak condition, does not determine the destabilisation of all standing waves in one dimension. The cross-over to the non-local equations that are asymptotically valid near threshold is discussed in detail. Our results yield necessary conditions for the stability of traveling rectangles in quasi-twodimensional systems with axial anisotropy and form a starting point for understanding the spatio-temporal chaos of traveling oblique rolls observed in electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals.

  13. Computational Analyses in Support of Sub-scale Diffuser Testing for the A-3 Facility. Part 2; Unsteady Analyses and Risk Assessment

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Allgood, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Simulation technology can play an important role in rocket engine test facility design and development by assessing risks, providing analysis of dynamic pressure and thermal loads, identifying failure modes and predicting anomalous behavior of critical systems. This is especially true for facilities such as the proposed A-3 facility at NASA SSC because of a challenging operating envelope linked to variable throttle conditions at relatively low chamber pressures. Design Support of the feasibility of operating conditions and procedures is critical in such cases due to the possibility of startup/shutdown transients, moving shock structures, unsteady shock-boundary layer interactions and engine and diffuser unstart modes that can result in catastrophic failure. Analyses of such systems is difficult due to resolution requirements needed to accurately capture moving shock structures, shock-boundary layer interactions, two-phase flow regimes and engine unstart modes. In a companion paper, we will demonstrate with the use of CFD, steady analyses advanced capability to evaluate supersonic diffuser and steam ejector performance in the sub-scale A-3 facility. In this paper we will address transient issues with the operation of the facility especially at startup and shutdown, and assess risks related to afterburning due to the interaction of a fuel rich plume with oxygen that is a by-product of the steam ejectors. The primary areas that will be addressed in this paper are: (1) analyses of unstart modes due to flow transients especially during startup/ignition, (2) engine safety during the shutdown process (3) interaction of steam ejectors with the primary plume i.e. flow transients as well as probability of afterburning. In this abstract we discuss unsteady analyses of the engine shutdown process. However, the final paper will include analyses of a staged startup, drawdown of the engine test cell pressure, and risk assessment of potential afterburning in the facility. Unsteady

  14. Renormalization schemes: Where do we stand?

    We consider the status of the current approaches to the application of the renormalization program to the standard SU2L x U1 theory from the standpoint of the interplay of the scheme chosen for such an application and the attendant high-precision tests of the respective loop effects. We thus review the available schemes and discuss their theoretical relationships. We also show how such schemes stand in numerical relation to one another in the context of high-precision Z0 physics, as an illustration. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Burnout : de stand van zaken

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W.

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten geleg

  16. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  17. A 3-DIMENSIONAL MATRIX ASSAY THAT MAY HELP PREDICT TREATMENT RESPONSE TO TEMOZOLOMIDE IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBASTOMA: SUBGROUP ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING MGMT TESTING

    Megyesi, Joseph F.; Costello, Penny; McDonald, Warren; Macdonald, David; Easaw, Jay

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: (blind field). METHODS: Records for patients treated for newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastoma were analyzed. All patients had undergone surgical resection and tumor specimens at time of surgery were available for culture in a 3-dimensional matrix assay and observed for growth and invasion. Drug effects on mean invasion and growth were expressed as a ratio relative to control conditions. Length of survival was compared between temozolomide treated patients whose screening results had predicted a positive or negative response to temozolomide. The MGMT status of a subgroup of these patients was analyzed and correlated with the response of tumor tissue in the assay to temozolomide. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with glioblastoma were assessed. Each patient's tumor displayed a unique invasion and response profile. We looked in particular at the correlation between the outcome of a patient with glioblastoma treated with temozolomide and the response of that patient's tumor tissue to temozolomide in the 3-dimensional assay. Mean survival time for patients whose tumors were not significantly sensitive to temozolomide in the assay was 181.7 +/- 43 days. Mean survival time for patients whose tumors were significantly sensitive to temozolomide in the assay was 290.0 +/- 33 days. Twelve patients underwent MGMT testing. In 10 of the 12 patients there was a correlation between tumor response in the assay and MGMT status. CONCLUSIONS: The 3-dimensional assay may help predict glioblastoma patients who will show a treatment response to temozolomide. There appears to be a positive correlation between the response profiles in the assay to the MGMT status of the patient's tumor. SECONDARY CATEGORY: n/a.

  18. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1, both RR and SBP trended towards preflight

  19. Gender-based differences in the cardiovascular response to standing

    Gotshall, Robert W.; Tsai, Pai-Feng; Frey, Mary A. B.

    1991-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses of men and women to the stand test were compared by measuring respective values for heart rate, blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance during a 5-min supine and a 5-min standing test in ten subjects of each gender. It was found that, while the male and female subjects had similar heart rate values, all other responses exhibited greater changes in men than in women. While differences in the height of the subjects did not account for differences in cardiovascular responses, no mechanism responsible for these differences could be identified.

  20. Burnout: de stand van zaken

    Taris, T.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Schaufeli, W

    2013-01-01

    Dit artikel geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken in het onderzoek naar burnout. Burnout is een syndroom van extreme vermoeidheid (uitputting), afstand nemen van het werk (distantie) en weinig vertrouwen in het eigen kunnen (verminderde competentie), waarbij de oorzaken voor deze aspecten gelegen zijn in hetzij de werksfeer, hetzij de manier waarop werknemers omgaan met stresserende aspecten in hun werk. Als werkgerelateerd fenomeen onderscheidt burnout zich van vergelijkbare psychische ...

  1. Factors affecting forage stand establishment

    Sulc R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Significant advances have been made in our knowledge of forage seed physiology, technology, and stand establishment practices; however, stand establishment continues to be one of the most common production problems affecting forage crops in the USA. There is a need for research on stand establishment of forage crops under abiotic and biotic stress. Although the forage seed industry produces and markets seed of high quality, new methods of assessing seed vigor are needed and their use should be expanded in the industry to enable matching seed lot performance to specific environmental conditions where performance can be maximized. Seed treatment and seed coating are used in the forage seed industry, and studies have shown they are of benefit in some environments. There is an increase in no-tillage seeding of forage crops, but improvements in the no-tillage planting equipment are needed to make them better suited to small seeds. Other recent developments in seeding techniques include broadcasting seed with dry granular and fluid fertilizers, which improves the efficiency of the seeding operation.

  2. Reducing stand densities in immature and mature stands, applegate watershed, southwest Oregon. Forest Service research note

    Main, M.L.; Amaranthus, M.P.

    1996-02-01

    In the study the authors examined conditions following density management treatments in two adjacent but dissimilar stands in Applegate Watershed, Oregon. An immature stand received a unique density reduction treatment retaining both hardwoods and conifers to encourage long-term survival and growth of its coniferous component. The mature stand density reduction treatment focused on removal of the competitive influence from overstocked, surpressed understory trees and maintaining existing large-diameter conifers. Precommercial thinning greatly reduced stand density and increased quadratic mean diameters in the immature stand. In the immature stand the combination of commercial and precommercial thinnings produced a reduced stand density designed to improve overall stand vigor.

  3. Diurnal variations in the outcomes of instrumented gait and quiet standing balance assessments and their association with falls history

    One in three adults aged over 65 falls every year, resulting in enormous costs to society. Incidents of falling vary with time of day, peaking in the early morning. The aim of this study was to determine if the ability of instrumented gait and balance assessments to discriminate between participants based on their falls history varies diurnally. Body-worn sensors were used during a 3 m gait assessment and a series of quiet standing balance tests. Each assessment was performed four times during a single day under supervised conditions in the participant's homes. 40 adults aged over 60 years (19 fallers) participated in this study. A range of parameters were derived for each assessment, and the ability of each parameter to discriminate between fallers and non-fallers at each recording time was examined. The effect of falls history on single support time varied significantly with recording time, with a significantly reduced single support time observed at the first and last recording session of the day. Differences were observed between fallers and non-fallers for a range of other gait parameters; however, these effects did not vary with assessment time. The quiet standing assessments examined in this study revealed significant variations with falls history; however, the sensitivity of the examined quiet standing assessments to falls risk does not appear to be time dependent. These results indicate that, with the exception of single support time, the association of gait and quiet standing balance parameters with falls risk does not vary diurnally. (paper)

  4. 24 CFR 203.34 - Credit standing.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit standing. 203.34 Section 203.34 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....34 Credit standing. A mortgagor must have a general credit standing satisfactory to the Commissioner....

  5. 24 CFR 206.37 - Credit standing.

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Credit standing. 206.37 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgagors § 206.37 Credit standing. Each mortgagor must have a general credit standing satisfactory to the Secretary....

  6. Juvenile Competency to Stand Trial.

    Stepanyan, Sofia T; Sidhu, Shawn S; Bath, Eraka

    2016-01-01

    Competency to stand trial is interpreted as a protected due process right for all defendants and is defined as a defendant's fundamental knowledge and understanding of the criminal charges being filed, roles and procedures within the courtroom, and a general ability to work with the defense counsel. Questions of competency are most often raised by the judge, defense, or the prosecution, and competency evaluations are most often completed by psychiatrists or psychologists with forensic training or work experience. Mental illness, intellectual disability, developmental disorders, and developmental immaturity are the 4 main factors considered in most juvenile competency evaluations. PMID:26593118

  7. Beyond Technology, there Stands Magic

    Lúcia Fernandes Lobato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article shows evidence that despite the prominent influences of the technological revolution and the spectacular panoramas on the contemporary world, magic seems to stand beyond technology. To support this hypothesis, the author investigates the images on the cinema, pointing out that to discover magic in a film, for instance, it is necessary to recognize its subjective structures disguised in the objectivity of the screen. Finally, the author indicates that in the field of image production, dance films that are created out of a cross-disciplinary effort are another by product of the fusion between art and video, born out of technological advancements.

  8. Height Extraction and Stand Volume Estimation Based on Fusion Airborne LiDAR Data and Terrestrial Measurements for a Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] Test Site in Romania

    Bogdan APOSTOL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the efficiency of individual tree identification and stand volume estimation from LiDAR data. The study was located in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L. Karst.] stands in southwestern Romania and linked airborne laser scanning (ALS with terrestrial measurements through empirical modelling. The proposed method uses the Canopy Maxima algorithm for individual tree detection together with biometric field measurements and individual trees positioning. Field data was collected using Field-Map real-time GIS-laser equipment, a high-accuracy GNSS receiver and a Vertex IV ultrasound inclinometer. ALS data were collected using a Riegl LMS-Q560 instrument and processed using LP360 and Fusion software to extract digital terrain, surface and canopy height models. For the estimation of tree heights, number of trees and tree crown widths from the ALS data, the Canopy Maxima algorithm was used together with local regression equations relating field-measured tree heights and crown widths at each plot. When compared to LiDAR detected trees, about 40-61% of the field-measured trees were correctly identified. Such trees represented, in general, predominant, dominant and co-dominant trees from the upper canopy. However, it should be noted that the volume of the correctly identified trees represented 60-78% of the total plot volume. The estimation of stand volume using the LiDAR data was achieved by empirical modelling, taking into account the individual tree heights (as identified from the ALS data and the corresponding ground reference stem volume. The root mean square error (RMSE between the individual tree heights measured in the field and the corresponding heights identified in the ALS data was 1.7-2.2 meters. Comparing the ground reference estimated stem volume (at trees level with the corresponding ALS estimated tree stem volume, an RMSE of 0.5-0.7 m3 was achieved. The RMSE was slightly lower when comparing the ground

  9. New methods for optical distance indicator and gantry angle quality control tests in medical linear accelerators: image processing by using a 3D phantom

    Shandiz, Mahdi Heravian; Khalilzadeh, Mohammadmahdi; Anvari, Kazem [Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Layen, Ghorban Safaeian [Mashhad University of Medical Science, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    In order to keep the acceptable level of the radiation oncology linear accelerators, it is necessary to apply a reliable quality assurance (QA) program. The QA protocols, published by authoritative organizations, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), determine the quality control (QC) tests which should be performed on the medical linear accelerators and the threshold levels for each test. The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy and precision of the selected QC tests in order to increase the quality of treatment and also increase the speed of the tests to convince the crowded centers to start a reliable QA program. A new method has been developed for two of the QC tests; optical distance indicator (ODI) QC test as a daily test and gantry angle QC test as a monthly test. This method uses an image processing approach utilizing the snapshots taken by the CCD camera to measure the source to surface distance (SSD) and gantry angle. The new method of ODI QC test has an accuracy of 99.95% with a standard deviation of 0.061 cm and the new method for gantry angle QC has a precision of 0.43 degrees. The automated proposed method which is used for both ODI and gantry angle QC tests, contains highly accurate and precise results which are objective and the human-caused errors have no effect on the results. The results show that they are in the acceptable range for both of the QC tests, according to AAPM task group 142.

  10. New methods for optical distance indicator and gantry angle quality control tests in medical linear accelerators: image processing by using a 3D phantom

    In order to keep the acceptable level of the radiation oncology linear accelerators, it is necessary to apply a reliable quality assurance (QA) program. The QA protocols, published by authoritative organizations, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), determine the quality control (QC) tests which should be performed on the medical linear accelerators and the threshold levels for each test. The purpose of this study is to increase the accuracy and precision of the selected QC tests in order to increase the quality of treatment and also increase the speed of the tests to convince the crowded centers to start a reliable QA program. A new method has been developed for two of the QC tests; optical distance indicator (ODI) QC test as a daily test and gantry angle QC test as a monthly test. This method uses an image processing approach utilizing the snapshots taken by the CCD camera to measure the source to surface distance (SSD) and gantry angle. The new method of ODI QC test has an accuracy of 99.95% with a standard deviation of 0.061 cm and the new method for gantry angle QC has a precision of 0.43 degrees. The automated proposed method which is used for both ODI and gantry angle QC tests, contains highly accurate and precise results which are objective and the human-caused errors have no effect on the results. The results show that they are in the acceptable range for both of the QC tests, according to AAPM task group 142.

  11. Adaptive load-stand design for real-time HWIL JSOW missile control section characterization

    Strauss, E. Paul

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of having dynamically adaptive load stand capability is to verify and monitor control section actuator performance under simulated free-flight aerodynamic load conditions in a Closed Loop Real Time HWIL environment. HWIL testing is a cost effective and risk reducing means of evaluating missile system prior to flight testing. This article develops methods of designing, analyzing, and testing of an extension spring driven load stand. Load stand spring natural and surging frequencies are evaluated. Nonlinear control section actuator anomalies are discussed in terms of load stand testing. Actuator time response data is examined under hinge moment and normal force loaded conditions. A design verification procedure was executed to provide a high degree of assurance that the load stand would perform as predicted by analytical methods.

  12. Use, effects and legal standing of depleted uranium munitions

    The paper provides a brief description of depleted uranium and its use in weapons. Several exposure scenarios are described, and examples of the use of DU ammunition in training, testing, and combat are provided. A summary of depleted uranium's health and environmental effects follows, and the paper concludes with a brief analysis of the legal standing of DU munitions under international humanitarian law

  13. Dynamic stability training improves standing balance control in neuropathic patients with type 2 diabetes

    Hoda Salsabili, MS

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type 2 diabetic neuropathy (DN are at an increased risk of falls due to the decreased accurate proprioceptive feedbacks. Effective balance training should treat context-specific instabilities of postural control of patients with DN. For this purpose, evaluations and balance training were designed with a 3-week baseline with evaluation after 3 weeks, followed by training over 3 weeks with reevaluation. We acquired control scores for standing balance from the Biodex stability system and fluctuations of the center of pressure. We performed repeated measure analysis of variance to test mean differences in three sessions of assessments. In addition, we compared mean differences of each pair of sessions with the least significant difference test. We used the paired t-test to compare the pure effects of trainings. Our investigation showed that the results of Biodex stability scores and force platform medial-lateral sway measurements improved statistically. Significant higher open-eyes median and mean frequency values of postural sway in the medial-lateral direction indicated that balance training allowed patients to develop control over the degree of freedom at the hip joint. In conclusion, training that compensates for disordered balance indicated by subclinical constraints with respect to the guidance effect of external visual feedback improves standing postural control in patients with type 2 DN

  14. Sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    N. Bilalis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A method of sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems regarding the reliability to satisfy the load demand, economy of components, and discharge depth exploited by the batteries is presented in this work. Solar radiation data simulated by an appropriate stochastic time series model, and not actual measurements, are used in the sizing procedure. This offers two distinct advantages: (a sizing can be performed even for locations where no actual data exist, (b the influence of the variation of the statistical parameters of solar radiation in sizing can be examined. The method has been applied and tested for several representative locations all over Greece for which monthly daily average values of solar radiation are given by ELOT (Hellenic Organization of Standardization.

  15. Sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of sizing stand-alone photovoltaic systems regarding the reliability to satisfy the load demand, economy of components, and discharge depth exploited by the batteries is presented in this work. Solar radiation data simulated by an appropriate stochastic time series model, and not actual measurements, are used in the sizing procedure. This offers two distinct advantages: (a sizing can be performed even for locations where no actual data exist, (b the influence of the variation of the statistical parameters of solar radiation in sizing can be examined. The method has been applied and tested for several representative locations all over Greece for which monthly daily average values of solar radiation are given by ELOT (Hellenic Organization of Standardization.

  16. [Soil quality assessment of forest stand in different plantation esosystems].

    Huang, Yu; Wang, Silong; Feng, Zongwei; Gao, Hong; Wang, Qingkui; Hu, Yalin; Yan, Shaokui

    2004-12-01

    After a clear-cutting of the first generation Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation in 1982, three plantation ecosystems, pure Michelia macclurei stand (PMS), pure Chinese-fir stand (PCS) and their mixed stand, were established in spring 1983, and their effects on soil characteristics were evaluated by measuring some soil physical, chemical, microbiological and biochemical parameters. After 20 years' plantation, all test indices showed differences among different forest management models. Both PMS and MCM had a favorable effect on soil fertility maintenance. Soil quality assessment showed that some soil functions, e.g., water availability, nutrient availability, root suitability and soil quality index were all in a moderate level under the mixed and pure PMS stands, whereas in a relatively lower level under successive PCS stand. The results also showed that there existed close correlations between soil total organic C (TOC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), microbial biomass-C (Cmic) and other soil physical, chemical and biological indices. Therefore, TOC, CEC and Cmic could be used as the indicators in assessing soil quality in this study area. In addition, there were also positive correlations between soil microbial biomass-C and TOC, soil microbial biomass-N and total N, and soil microbial biomass-P and total P in the present study. PMID:15825426

  17. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  18. Development of A Thrust Stand to Meet LISA Mission Requirements

    Willis, William D., III; Zakrzwski, C. M.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A thrust stand has been built and tested that is capable of measuring the force-noise produced by electrostatic micro-Newton (micro-Newton) thrusters. The LISA mission's Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) requires thrusters that are capable of producing continuous thrust levels between 1-100 micro-Newton with a resolution of 0.1 micro-Newton. The stationary force-noise produced by these thrusters must not exceed 0.1 pN/4Hz in a 10 Hz bandwidth. The LISA Thrust Stand (LTS) is a torsion-balance type thrust stand designed to meet the following requirements: stationary force-noise measurements from 10(exp-4) to 1 Hz with 0.1 micro-Newton resolution, absolute thrust measurements from 1-100 micro-Newton with better than 0.1 micro-Newton resolution, and dynamic thruster response from 10(exp -4) to 10 Hz. The ITS employs a unique vertical configuration, autocollimator for angular position measurements, and electrostatic actuators that are used for dynamic pendulum control and null-mode measurements. Force-noise levels are measured indirectly by characterizing the thrust stand as a spring-mass system. The LTS was initially designed to test the indium FEEP thruster developed by the Austrian Research Center in Seibersdorf (ARCS), but can be modified for testing other thrusters of this type.

  19. Simulating stand climate, phenology, and photosynthesis of a forest stand with a process-based growth model.

    Rötzer, Thomas; Leuchner, Michael; Nunn, Angela J

    2010-07-01

    In the face of climate change and accompanying risks, forest management in Europe is becoming increasingly important. Model simulations can help to understand the reactions and feedbacks of a changing environment on tree growth. In order to simulate forest growth based on future climate change scenarios, we tested the basic processes underlying the growth model BALANCE, simulating stand climate (air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and precipitation), tree phenology, and photosynthesis. A mixed stand of 53- to 60-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica) in Southern Germany was used as a reference. The results show that BALANCE is able to realistically simulate air temperature gradients in a forest stand using air temperature measurements above the canopy and PAR regimes at different heights for single trees inside the canopy. Interception as a central variable for water balance of a forest stand was also estimated. Tree phenology, i.e. bud burst and leaf coloring, could be reproduced convincingly. Simulated photosynthesis rates were in accordance with measured values for beech both in the sun and the shade crown. For spruce, however, some discrepancies in the rates were obvious, probably due to changed environmental conditions after bud break. Overall, BALANCE has shown to respond to scenario simulations of a changing environment (e.g., climate change, change of forest stand structure). PMID:20084520

  20. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    Lucas, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  1. Spatial prediction of forest stand variables

    Nothdurft, Arne; Saborowski, Joachim; Breidenbach, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    This study aims at the development of a model to predict forest stand variables in management units (stands) from sample plot inventory data. For this purpose we apply a non-parametric most similar neighbour (MSN) approach. The study area is the municipal forest of Waldkirch, 13 km north-east of Freiburg, Germany, which comprises 328 forest stands and 834 sample plots. Low-resolution laser scanning data, classification variables as well rough estimations from the forest management planning se...

  2. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional imaging technique for non-destructive testing of roll-to-roll coated polymer solar cells

    Thrane, Lars; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Jørgensen, Mikkel;

    2013-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated the first application of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a 3-dimensional (3D) imaging technique to visualize the internal structure of complete multilayered polymer solar cell modules (Thrane et al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 97, 181-185 (2012)). The 3......D imaging of complete polymer solar cells prepared by roll-to-roll coating was carried out using a high-resolution 1322nm OCT system having a 4.5 microns axial resolution and a 12 microns lateral resolution. It was possible to image the 3-dimensional structure of the entire solar cell that comprise...... UV-barrier, barrier material, adhesive, substrate and active solar cell multilayer structure. In addition, it was found that the OCT technique could be readily employed to identify coating defects in the functional layers, making it a potential technique to enable process control by real...

  3. The 2006 North Korean nuclear test - analysis of the explosive component using moment tensor inversion based on a 3D earth model

    Full text: Due to its low yield, the mb 3.9 North Korean nuclear test on 9 October 2006 could not be verified undoubtedly using solely seismic methods. The low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) limits conventional discrimination methods such as P/S amplitude-ratios, and thus we perform a moment tensor inversion (MTI) to estimate the explosive (isotropic) component of the event. Long-period recordings are mainly controlled by the seismic source mechanism, while at shorter periods variations of the crustal structure have a stronger influence on the waveforms. On the other hand, long periods have a lower SNR than shorter periods. To obtain a good SNR for source-sensitive periods, we use an intermediate pass-band (T = 10-50 s) and include a regional 3D velocity structure deduced from the Crust 2.0 model to calculate synthetic waveforms. We study the influence of the crustal model on the inversion result using regional recordings with source-receiver distances up to 3000 km and compare the results with a tectonic mb 4.0 event that occurred in a distance of 34 km on 16 April 2002. We observe a higher isotropic part (Miso) for the nuclear test compared to the tectonic event. However, the absolute value of Miso cannot be determined because a trade-off with the inversion damping exists. To study the influence of seismic noise on Miso, we add artificial noise to the recordings of the tectonic event. Compared with the MTI of the original data we also find an increased Miso, but with other dependencies on the damping compared to the nuclear explosion data. We show trade-off curves of damping versus model length (as a function of MW) that can be a helpful tool for a timely verification of nuclear tests. (author)

  4. Correction of electric standing waves

    Kester, Do; Avruch, Ian; Teyssier, David

    2014-12-01

    Electric Standing Waves (ESW) appear in some frequency bands of HIFI, a heterodyne spectrometer aboard the Herschel Space Observatory. ESWs consist of about 10 irregular ripples added to a continuum contribution. They distort the spectra and should be removed. ESWs change so rapidly that the standard ways to mitigate them, do not work. We have built a catalog of thousands of spectra taken on empty sky that contain only the ESW contribution. All ESWs seem to belong to a limited number of multiplicative families. To find representative members of the families we modelled them as splines and chose one representative template model for each family based on Bayesian evidence. The resulting set of models is our catalog of possible ESW templates. To correct a spectrum taken on an astronomical source, we select the template from the catalog that fits with the highest Bayesian evidence and subtract it. This has to be done in the possible presence of spectral lines and of a true astronomical continuuum. Both the true lines and continuum should be unaffected by the procedure. To exclude the lines we use a robustly weighted variety of the (gaussian) likelihood. Ideally the correction should be part of the pipeline with which all HIFI observations have to be processed. This requires a procedure having no failures, no interaction, and limited CPU usage.

  5. Simultaneous Bimaxillary Surgery and Mandibular Reconstruction With a 3-Dimensional Printed Titanium Implant Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting: A Preliminary Mechanical Testing of the Printed Mandible.

    Lee, Ui-Lyong; Kwon, Jae-Sung; Woo, Su-Heon; Choi, Young-Jun

    2016-07-01

    A woman presented with a long history of mandibular defects posterior to the left lower first premolar caused by inadequate reconstruction after removal of a tumor on the left side of the mandible. In the frontal view, extreme facial asymmetry was apparent. The dental midline of the mandible was deviated 10 mm to the left compared with the dental midline of the maxilla, and all maxillary teeth were inclined to the left owing to dental compensation. There was an 8-mm maxillary occlusal cant relative to the maxillary first molar. Bimaxillary surgery using computer-assisted designed and computer-assisted manufactured devices without an intermediate occlusal splint was performed to align the maxilla and mandible at the correct position, and reconstructive surgery for the mandible using a 3-dimensional printed titanium mandible was concurrently performed. In particular, during the virtual mandible design, 2 abutments that enabled the prosthetic restoration were included in the mandible using a computer-assisted design program. This report describes the successful functional and esthetic reconstruction of the mandible using electron beam melting technology, an alternative technique for reconstruction of mandibles that did not undergo radiation therapy. PMID:27060494

  6. Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods

    O. P. Sekretenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.

  7. A 3D numerical study of LO2/GH2 supercritical combustion in the ONERA-Mascotte Test-rig configuration

    Benmansour, Abdelkrim; Liazid, Abdelkrim; Logerais, Pierre-Olivier; Durastanti, Jean-Félix

    2016-02-01

    Cryogenic propellants LOx/H2 are used at very high pressure in rocket engine combustion. The description of the combustion process in such application is very complex due essentially to the supercritical regime. Ideal gas law becomes invalid. In order to try to capture the average characteristics of this combustion process, numerical computations are performed using a model based on a one-phase multi-component approach. Such work requires fluid properties and a correct definition of the mixture behavior generally described by cubic equations of state with appropriated thermodynamic relations validated against the NIST data. In this study we consider an alternative way to get the effect of real gas by testing the volume-weighted-mixing-law with association of the component transport properties using directly the NIST library data fitting including the supercritical regime range. The numerical simulations are carried out using 3D RANS approach associated with two tested turbulence models, the standard k-Epsilon model and the realizable k-Epsilon one. The combustion model is also associated with two chemical reaction mechanisms. The first one is a one-step generic chemical reaction and the second one is a two-step chemical reaction. The obtained results like temperature profiles, recirculation zones, visible flame lengths and distributions of OH species are discussed.

  8. Aircraft Stand Allocation with Associated Resource Scheduling

    Justesen, Tor Fog; Larsen, Jesper; Lusby, Richard Martin;

    different ground handling resources (taxiways, aircraft stands, gates, etc) at different times. Each resource can be claimed by at most one turn-round at a time. The aircraft stand allocation problem with associated resource scheduling is the problem of allocating the required ground handling resources to...

  9. Theory of standing spin-wave attenuation

    Exchange attenuation of standing spin waves is calculated for an ultrathin magnetic of the order of exchange length thick. Because of the boundary conditions the wave vectors of spin waves in such films high values that are proportional to the inverse film thickness. The exchange attenuation at such wave vectors becomes dominant and can result in smearing of the standing spin wave spectrum

  10. PHOTOGRAPHY BY KSC SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER ENTERPRISE STANDS ON KSC'S PAD 39A HIGHLIGHTED AGAINST THE

    1980-01-01

    PHOTOGRAPHY BY KSC SPACE SHUTTLE ORBITER ENTERPRISE STANDS ON KSC'S PAD 39A HIGHLIGHTED AGAINST THE DARKENED FLORIDA SKY DURING TESTING OF THE HIGH-INTENSITY LIGHTING SYSTMES. THE BANKS OF XENON LIGHTS ARE USED DURING LAUCH PREPARATIONS.

  11. Regional-scale stand density management diagrams for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) stands in north-west Spain

    Castaño-Santamaría J; Barrio-Anta M; Álvarez-Álvarez P

    2013-01-01

    Stand Density Management Diagrams are useful tools for designing and evaluating alternative density management regimes without the need of implementing any silvicultural action, and allowing the future stand conditions to be predicted prior to implementing management schedules. In this study, stand density management diagrams were developed for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) stands in north-west Spain by including data on stand volume, stand aboveground biomass, stand stem biomass an...

  12. Do People Stand by their Commitments? Evidence from Classroom Experiments

    Agnès Festré; Pierre Garrouste

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we test the fulfillment of commitments in terms of effort made by students under an incentive contract but without strategic interactions. Accordingly it is an experimental contribution to decision theory. The experiments took place in classrooms during class time. Students have to announce a level and realize a level of effort virtually. The two levels of effort can differ and the game is made in such a way that students have interest not the stand by their commitments that to ...

  13. Impact of Acoustic Standing Waves on Structural Responses

    Kolaini, Ali R.

    2014-01-01

    For several decades large reverberant chambers and most recently direct field acoustic testing have been used in the aerospace industry to test larger structures with low surface densities such as solar arrays and reflectors to qualify them and to detect faults in the design and fabrication. It has been reported that in reverberant chamber and direct acoustic testing, standing acoustic modes may strongly couple with the fundamental structural modes of the test hardware (Reference 1). In this paper results from a recent reverberant chamber acoustic test of a composite reflector are discussed. These results provide further convincing evidence of the acoustic standing wave and structural modes coupling phenomenon. The purpose of this paper is to alert test organizations to this phenomenon so that they can account for the potential increase in structural responses and ensure that flight hardware undergoes safe testing. An understanding of the coupling phenomenon may also help minimize the over and/or under testing that could pose un-anticipated structural and flight qualification issues.

  14. Stand, Viewpoint and Method in Sannong Studies

    CaoJinqing

    2005-01-01

    It is now a matter of urgency to consider the issue of sannong (farmers, the countryside and agriculture) against the whole background of reform, opening-up and modernization in China and against the backdrop of the whole world, i.e., against the backdrop of the globalization of capital. In my view, one's stand is a key factor in considering this issue. I use the word “stand” in a relatively broad meaning. To put it simply, where do you stand? At what time and in what space do you stand?

  15. Design and evaluation of thrust vectored nozzles using a multicomponent thrust stand

    Carpenter, Thomas W.; Blattner, Ernest W.; Stagner, Robert E.; Contreras, Juanita; Lencioni, Dennis; Mcintosh, Greg

    1990-01-01

    Future aircraft with the capability of short takeoff and landing, and improved maneuverability especially in the post-stall flight regime will incorporate exhaust nozzles which can be thrust vectored. In order to conduct thrust vector research in the Mechanical Engineering Department at Cal Poly, a program was planned with two objectives; design and construct a multicomponent thrust stand for the specific purpose of measuring nozzle thrust vectors; and to provide quality low moisture air to the thrust stand for cold flow nozzle tests. The design and fabrication of the six-component thrust stand was completed. Detailed evaluation tests of the thrust stand will continue upon the receipt of one signal conditioning option (-702) for the Fluke Data Acquisition System. Preliminary design of thrust nozzles with air supply plenums were completed. The air supply was analyzed with regard to head loss. Initial flow visualization tests were conducted using dual water jets.

  16. Gravity where do we stand?

    Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the current understanding of gravitation, with a focus on the current efforts to test its theories, especially general relativity. It shows how the quest for a deeper understanding, which would possibly incorporate gravity in the quantum realm, is more than ever an open field. The majority of the contributions deals with the manifold facets of “experimental gravitation”, but the book goes beyond this and covers a broad range of subjects from the foundations of gravitational theories to astrophysics and cosmology. The book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with foundations and Solar System tests. An introductory pedagogical chapter reviews first Newtonian gravitational theory, special relativity, the equivalence principle and the basics of general relativity. Then it focuses on approximation methods, mainly the post-Newtonian formalism and the relaxed Einstein equations, with a discussion on how they are used in treating experimental tests and in the proble...

  17. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  18. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Outpatient Procedures PUF

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Outpatient Procedures Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare outpatient claims. The CMS BSA...

  19. Minnesota DNR Forest Stand Inventory Version 2

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer is a digital inventory of individual forest stands. The data is collected by DNR Foresters in each DNR Forestry Administrative Area, and is updated on a...

  20. Tasty Stand-Ins for Salt

    ... Ginger Mint Nutmeg Oregano Paprika/smoked paprika Parsley Rosemary Salt-free seasoning mix Tarragon Thyme Use Condiments, ... Much of a Good Thing / Labels: For your health / Quiz: What's the buzz about salt? / Tasty Stand- ...

  1. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Hospice Beneficiary PUF

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Hospice Beneficiary Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare hospice claims. The CMS BSA Hospice...

  2. Inexpensive Guitar Stand Project Really Rocks!

    Horath, Larry; Horath, Elyse

    2010-01-01

    Anyone who plays a guitar needs a stand to hold the guitar when he or she is not playing it. A guitar is not an instrument that one can lay down or prop against the wall without risking potentially catastrophic and long-term damage. There are several options in pre-made guitar stands made for single or multiple guitars, but as an alternative that…

  3. Simulating the restoration of standing balance at leaning postures with functional neuromuscular stimulation following spinal cord injury.

    Nataraj, Raviraj; Audu, Musa L; Triolo, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    In this simulation study, we present and examine methods to develop a feedback controller for a neuroprosthesis that restores forward and side leaning function during standing following complete thoracic-level spinal cord injury. Achieving leaning postures away from erect stance with functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) would allow users to extend their reaching capabilities. Utilizing a 3-D computer model of human stance, an FNS control system based on total-body center of mass (CoM) kinematics (position, acceleration) is developed and tested in simulation. CoM kinematics drive an artificial neural network to modulate muscle excitations and reduce the upper extremity loading, presumably against a walker or similar support surface, required to resist the effects of postural perturbations. Furthermore, a novel method to robustly estimate the feedback kinematics for standing applications is also presented while assuming 3-D accelerometer signals at locations consistent with a proposed implantable networked neuroprosthesis system. For shifting and balance at leaning postures, respectively, center of mass position and acceleration could be approximated to within 20 % of the maximum value, with strong correlations (R > 0.9) between values estimated by the proposed method and the true values derived from model dynamics. When utilizing the estimated feedback kinematics for FNS control, standing performance in terms of maximum upper extremity loading was still significantly reduced (p < 0.001) compared to conventionally applying constant and maximal stimulation. In the future, these simulation-based methods will be employed to develop experimental approaches for restoring leaning standing function by FNS. PMID:26324246

  4. Birch Stands Growth Increase in Western Siberia

    Kharuk, Viacheslav I.; Kuzmichev, Valeriy V.; Im, Sergey T.; Ranson, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Birch (Betula pendula Roth) growth within the Western Siberia forest-steppe was analyzed based on long-term (1897-2006) inventory data (height, diameter at breast height [dbh], and stand volume). Analysis of biometry parameters showed increased growth at the beginning of twenty-first century compared to similar stands (stands age = 40-60 years) at the end of nineteenth century. Mean height, dbh, and stem volume increased from 14 to 20 m, from 16 to 22 cm, and from approx. 63 to approx. 220 cu m/ha, respectively. Significant correlations were found between the stands mean height, dbh, and volume on the one hand, and vegetation period length (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.74), atmospheric CO2 concentration (r(sub s) = 0.71 to 0.76), and drought index (Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, r(sub s) = -0.33 to -0.51) on the other hand. The results obtained have revealed apparent climate-induced impacts (e.g. increase of vegetation period length and birch habitat drying due to drought increase) on the stands growth. Along with this, a high correlation of birch biometric parameters and [CO2] in ambient air indicated an effect of CO2 fertilization. Meanwhile, further drought increase may switch birch stand growth into decline and greater mortality as has already been observed within the Trans-Baikal forest-steppe ecotone.

  5. Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Free-Standing Cu Foils

    Caiyun Dai; Xiaofei Zhu; Guangping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Tensile and fatigue properties of free-standing as-rolled Cu foils were investigated by means of uniaxial tensile and dynamic bending tests. A special testing system was established to evaluate fatigue behavior of a mi-croscale material subjected to dynamic bending load. The experimental results show that the yield strength increases, but the fracture strain and fatigue resistance decrease with decreasing foil thickness. Deformation and fatigue damage behavior was characterized. The size effect on tensile and fatigue properties of the Cu foils are evaluated to get further understanding of the mechanical behavior of the micrometer-scale metallic materials.

  6. Investigation of sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit in an above knee amputee

    Gao, Fan; Zhang, Fan; Huang, He

    2011-01-01

    the objective of this pilot study is twofold: 1) to extract key factors/features in sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit (STS) performed by an above knee (AK) amputee; 2) to propose a convenient way to quantify symmetry. One male unilateral transfemoral amputee participated in the pilot study. The subject was instructed to rise in a comfortable and natural manner and conduct a series of sit-to-stand, stand-to-sit. We simultaneously measured kinematics, kinetics and muscle activities. Principal compo...

  7. Sit-stand and stand-sit transitions in older adults and patients with Parkinson’s disease: event detection based on motion sensors versus force plates

    Zijlstra Agnes

    2012-10-01

    (ICC = 0.61. Conclusions This study demonstrated high agreement of body-fixed-sensor based detection of sit-stand and stand-sit events with that based on force plates in older adults and patients with mild to moderate Parkinson’s disease. Further development and testing is needed to establish reliability for unstandardized performance in clinical and home settings.

  8. Test

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  9. SU-C-213-07: Fabrication and Testing of a 3D-Printed Small Animal Rectal Cooling Device to Evaluate Local Hypothermia as a Radioprotector During Prostate SBRT

    Hrycushko, B; Chopra, R; Futch, C; Bing, C; Wodzak, M; Stojadinovic, S; Jiang, S; Medin, P [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to SBRT treatments. Relevant to prostate SBRT, this work details the fabrication and testing of a 3D-printed cooling device to facilitate the investigation of the radioprotective effect of local hypothermia on the rat rectum. Methods: A 3cm long, two-channel rectal cooling device was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD for 3D printing. The water intake nozzle is connected to a 1mm diameter brass pipe from which water flows and circulates back around to the exit nozzle. Both nozzles are connected by plastic tubing to a water chiller pump. Following leak-proof testing, fiber optic temperature probes were used to evaluate the temperature over time when placed adjacent to the cooling device within a rat rectum. MRI thermometry characterized the relative temperature distribution in concentric ROIs surrounding the probe. CBCT images from a small-animal irradiator were evaluated for imaging artifacts which could affect Monte Carlo dose calculations during treatment planning. Results: The rectal temperature adjacent to the cooling device decreased from body temperature (37°C) to 15°C in 10–20 minutes from device insertion. Rectal temperature was maintained at 15±3°C during active cooling. MRI thermometry tests revealed a steep temperature gradient with increasing distance from the cooling device, with the desired temperature range maintained within the surrounding few millimeters. Conclusion: A 3D printed rectal cooling device was fabricated for the purpose of inducing local hypothermia in rat rectums. Rectal cooling capabilities were characterized in-vivo to facilitate an investigation of the radioprotective effect of hypothermia for late rectal

  10. SU-C-213-07: Fabrication and Testing of a 3D-Printed Small Animal Rectal Cooling Device to Evaluate Local Hypothermia as a Radioprotector During Prostate SBRT

    Purpose: The protective effects of induced or even accidental hypothermia on the human body are widespread with several medical uses currently under active research. In vitro experiments using human cell lines have shown hypothermia provides a radioprotective effect that becomes more pronounced at large, single-fraction doses common to SBRT treatments. Relevant to prostate SBRT, this work details the fabrication and testing of a 3D-printed cooling device to facilitate the investigation of the radioprotective effect of local hypothermia on the rat rectum. Methods: A 3cm long, two-channel rectal cooling device was designed in SOLIDWORKS CAD for 3D printing. The water intake nozzle is connected to a 1mm diameter brass pipe from which water flows and circulates back around to the exit nozzle. Both nozzles are connected by plastic tubing to a water chiller pump. Following leak-proof testing, fiber optic temperature probes were used to evaluate the temperature over time when placed adjacent to the cooling device within a rat rectum. MRI thermometry characterized the relative temperature distribution in concentric ROIs surrounding the probe. CBCT images from a small-animal irradiator were evaluated for imaging artifacts which could affect Monte Carlo dose calculations during treatment planning. Results: The rectal temperature adjacent to the cooling device decreased from body temperature (37°C) to 15°C in 10–20 minutes from device insertion. Rectal temperature was maintained at 15±3°C during active cooling. MRI thermometry tests revealed a steep temperature gradient with increasing distance from the cooling device, with the desired temperature range maintained within the surrounding few millimeters. Conclusion: A 3D printed rectal cooling device was fabricated for the purpose of inducing local hypothermia in rat rectums. Rectal cooling capabilities were characterized in-vivo to facilitate an investigation of the radioprotective effect of hypothermia for late rectal

  11. Reconstitution: Where do we stand?

    A comprehensive review of the status of the reconstitution technique, as applied to reactor pressure vessel steel, is given. The reconstruction techniques in use at this moment on different small-size specimen geometries are highlighted, and the reconstitution methodology is evaluated. The advantages and limitations of reconstituted specimens are discussed, in relation to preparation and material conditions and in view of the test techniques to be used. For plant life management issues, the importance of finding an indexing parameter independent of the reconstitution process will be indicated

  12. First Results of Monitoring of Stand Structure Changes in Unmanaged Beech Stands in NP Plitvice Lakes

    Vladimir Novotny

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: It is possible to monitor and study the natural growth and development of the forest ecosystems in the example of protected forest stands, which were excluded from management, and which are not under a negative influence of human activity. Therefore the aim of the research through the repeated measurements is to estimate the stand structure development on the Medveđak permanent experimental plot in the Plitvice Lakes national park area. In this paper we presented the first preliminary results of established monitoring, i.e. comparison of results of stand structure elements between two measurements (1998 and 2008. Furthermore, obtained results were compared with data from growth-yield tables for common beech stands similar characteristics as researched stand. In this case data from growth-yield tables present managed pure beech stands. Material and Methods: The permanent experimental plot was set in 1998 in the natural stand of mountain beech forest (Lamio orvale-Fagetum sylvaticae Ht. 1938. It is in rectangular shape, dimensions 100×100m, with subplot 60×60 m and 30×30 m. The plot is founded according to the experimental plot setting methodology (Dubravac & Novotny, 1992 and Novotny, 1997 extended on the ICP Forest workgroup demand. Tree crown damage assessment was repeated in 2003, and in June 2008 another measurement of basic stand structural elements was done. Results and Conclusion: The results in this paper show the development of the observed structural elements of the pure beech stand in the natural conditions without the management activities. According to the results of stand structure development (shape of diameter distribution, number of trees, stand basal area and volume and results obtained in other research at the same plot [9] (number, vitality and quality of beech young growth it can be concluded that our stand is developing towards the optimum phase of the secondary virgin forest. Furthermore

  13. Successional Pattern, Stand Structure and Regeneration of Forest Vegetation According to Local Environmental Gradients

    Nikolay R. Dyakov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the attempted botanical and ecological studies so far, integrated picture of successional and regenerative pattern of the forest vegetation in the studied area have not been achieved. Moreover, stand composition and development of these forests have never been studied in the context of environmental gradients. This study aims to integrate and clarify the accumulated knowledge about the successional pattern, stand structure and regeneration in the studied territory. It has also attempted to test some classical viewpoints about the forest vegetation pattern, placed in the context of environmental gradients. We hypothesized that most forest stands will follow the normal diameter distribution. Gradient-transect sampling procedure was used. Accumulated field samples were classified using TWINSPAN clustering method. Obtained forest community types were tested for consistency. Distribution of stand stem number by diameter classes was tested with Shapiro-Wilk test for normality. Stand successional distribution followed its own trajectory and no convergence has been found. All stands had normal diameter distribution and compromised seed regeneration, i.e. they were in “stagnant” condition. Dominant trees also had normal stem distribution except beech stands from the most xeric habitats, but this was due to their sprouting regeneration. We hypothesized that this regeneration pattern is due to erroneous management and lack of major natural disturbances in the area during the last decades, which could have drew the stands from “stagnancy” and restart the seed regeneration. If this tendency is maintained we suppose that it will lead to continuing degradation of local forest vegetation.

  14. Relationships between the developments of seedbank, standing vegetation and litter in a post-mined peatland

    Egawa, Chika; Koyama, Asuka; Tsuyuzaki, Shiro

    2009-01-01

    To clarify seedbank developmental pattern and its determinants, we examined relationships between seedbank, standing vegetation, and litter in a post-mined peatland on Sarobetsu Mire, northern Japan. In late fall 2006 and early summer 2007, peat was sampled from four vegetation types, and litter was also sampled from two of the four vegetation where thick litter was accumulated. Seed germination tests were performed by the samples in a glasshouse. The results were compared to the standing veg...

  15. How do activities walking, standing, and resting influence trans-tibial amputee residual limb fluid volume?

    Sanders, Joan; Cagle, John; Allyn, Katheryn; Harrison, Daniel; Ciol, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how fluid volume changes in the residual limbs of people with trans-tibial amputation were affected by activity during test sessions with equal durations of resting, standing, and walking. Residual limb extracellular fluid volume was measured using biompedance analysis on 24 participants. Results showed that all subjects lost fluid volume during standing with equal weight-bearing, averaging a loss rate of 0.4%/min, and a mean loss over the 25 min ...

  16. How do walking, standing, and resting influence transtibial amputee residual limb fluid volume?

    Joan E. Sanders, PhD; John C. Cagle, BSE; Katheryn J. Allyn, CPO; Daniel S. Harrison, BS; Marcia A. Ciol, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine how fluid volume changes in the residual limbs of people with transtibial amputation were affected by activity during test sessions with equal durations of resting, standing, and walking. Residual limb extracellular fluid volume was measured using biompedance analysis in 24 participants. Results showed that all subjects lost fluid volume during standing with equal weight-bearing, averaging a loss rate of –0.4%/min and a mean loss over the 25 min t...

  17. Quantitative assessment of exposure and risk for three carcinogenics in long-standing pollution sites

    The project attempts a quantitative assessment of risks for three carcinogenics that are common in sites of long-standing pollution. Benzo(a)pyrene stands for the group of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cadmium for heavy metals, and benzene for volatile aromatic compounds. The report discusses the general fundamentals of exposure and risk assessment. The exposure model is described in detail and applied to the three test substances. (orig./MG)

  18. Standing on a declining surface reduces transient prolonged standing induced low back pain development.

    Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-09-01

    While alternating standing position on a sloped surface has proven successful at reducing low back pain during standing, the purpose of this study was to evaluate standing solely on a declining surface to isolate the influence of the postural change. Seventeen participants performed two 75-min prolonged standing occupational simulations- level ground and declining surface. Fifty-three percent of participants (9/17) were categorized as pain developers during the level ground standing condition. For these same pain developers, their average maximum pain scores were 58% lower during sloped standing. All participants showed greater hip flexion, trunk-to-thigh angle flexion, and posterior translation of the trunk center of gravity when standing on the sloped surface. These postural changes could cause the muscles crossing the hip posteriorly to increase passive stiffness and assist with stabilizing the pelvis. This study stresses the importance of hip kinematics, not just lumbar spine posture, in reducing prolonged standing induced low back pain. PMID:27184314

  19. Virginia youth stand up, stand out at 4-H State Congress, June 23-26

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    More than 600 teens, volunteer leaders, and Virginia Cooperative Extension agents will participate in the 88th annual 4-H State Congress at Virginia Tech's Blacksburg campus from June 23 to 26. This year's theme - "Stand Up, Stand Out for 4-H" - will empower participants to learn about leadership, citizenship, and life skills.

  20. Stand-off Raman spectroscopy for the detection of explosives

    Due to the worldwide threat of terrorism, a transportable prototype is being developed combining three OPtical Technologies for the detection and Identification of eXplosives (OPTIX) at a distance of 20 metres. The techniques are laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, pulsed laser fragmentation mid infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. As part of this FP7 project, a stand off Raman system was set up and optimised. Meeting the challenging situations in real life scenarios, different explosives and their precursors were analysed in the presence of interfering substances and on a variety of background materials, (metal, plastics, car doors). Furthermore, detection limits were established, showing that this technique is suitable for trace detection. The influence of the excitation wavelength was investigated by changing the pulsed laser from 532 nm to 355 or 266 nm, which can increase the Raman signal significantly. In addition to the OPTIX project requirements, the stand off distance was successfully extended to 100 metres at a testing ground at the Austrian Armed Forces. Moreover, combining stand off technology with spatial offset Raman scattering it is now possible to identify and quantify substances at up to 40 metres in bottles which are non transparent to the human eye. This method permits the detection of concealed substances in ''real life'' containers from a safe distance, even if the container exhibits interfering fluorescence. An alternative way to probe substances inside turbid bottles was found by using depth resolved stand off Raman spectroscopy. This methodology employs the speed of light to distinguish between samples located at different distances from the setup. (author)

  1. A magnetic coupling thrust stand for microthrust measurements

    Wright, W. P.; Ferrer, P.

    2016-01-01

    A direct thrust measurement system that is based on a horizontal lever and utilizes a novel magnetic coupling mechanism to measure thrust has been developed. The system is capable of measuring thrusts as low as 10’s of μN. While zero drift is observed in the balance, tests have shown that they do not have an appreciable effect on thrust measurements. The thrust stand’s sensitivity can be adjusted by shifting the position of the coupling magnet inside the stand’s thrust support member, which allows flexibility for testing both higher and lower powered thrusters. The thrust stand has been modeled theoretically and the predicted results from the model are compared with experimentally measured data. The system was tested using a simple cold gas thruster and provided credible results that can be compared with other systems studied in the literature. Advantages include that the thrust stand is very cheap and easy to construct and further, the calibration process takes no longer than half an hour, facilitating rapid turnaround times while still retaining accuracy. Repeatability tests have shown that the balance gives consistent results.

  2. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  3. Using a Standing-Tree Acoustic Tool to Identify Forest Stands for the Production of Mechanically-Graded Lumber

    Alexis Achim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the use of a Hitman ST300 acoustic sensor can help identify the best forest stands to be used as supply sources for the production of Machine Stress-Rated (MSR lumber. Using two piezoelectric sensors, the ST300 measures the velocity of a mechanical wave induced in a standing tree. Measurements were made on 333 black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. BSP trees from the North Shore region, Quebec (Canada selected across a range of locations and along a chronosequence of elapsed time since the last fire (TSF. Logs were cut from a subsample of 39 trees, and sawn into 77 pieces of 38 mm × 89 mm cross-section before undergoing mechanical testing according to ASTM standard D-4761. A linear regression model was developed to predict the static modulus of elasticity of lumber using tree acoustic velocity and stem diameter at 1.3 m above ground level (R2 = 0.41. Results suggest that, at a regional level, 92% of the black spruce trees meet the requirements of MSR grade 1650Fb-1.5E, whilst 64% and 34% meet the 2100Fb-1.8E and 2400Fb-2.0E, respectively. Mature stands with a TSF < 150 years had 11 and 18% more boards in the latter two categories, respectively, and therefore represented the best supply source for MSR lumber.

  4. Engine Gimbal Requirements for Ground Testing of J-2X

    Kovalcik, Julia; Leahy, Joe

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Apollo-era J-2 that powered the second and third stages of the Saturn V, the current J-2X is the liquid hydrogen and oxygen high-altitude rocket engine in development for both the Ares I Upper Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage. During my summer 2009 internship, J-2X was at a stage in its design maturity where verification testing needed to be considered for the benefit of adequate test facility preparation. My task was to focus on gimbal requirements and gimbal related hot-fire test plans. Facility capabilities were also of interest, specifically for hot-fire testing slated to occur at test stands A-1, A-2, and A-3 at Stennis Space Center(SSC) in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Gimbal requirements and stage interface conditions were investigated by applying a top-to-bottom systems engineering approach, which involved system level requirements, engine level requirements from both government and engine contractor perspectives, component level requirements, and the J-2X to Upper Stage and Earth Departure Stage interface control documents. Previous hydrogen and oxygen liquid rocket engine gimbal verification methods were researched for a glimpse at lessons learned. Discussion among the J-2X community affected by gimballing was organized to obtain input relative to proper verification of their respective component. Implementing suggestions such as gimbal pattern, angulated dwell time, altitude testing options, power level, and feed line orientation, I was able to match tests to test stands in the A Complex at SSC. Potential test capability gaps and risks were identified and pursued. The culmination of all these efforts was to coordinate with SSC to define additional facility requirements for both the A-3 altitude test stand that is currently under construction and the A-1 sea level test stand which is being renovated

  5. Stand structural dynamics on pristine and managed boreal peatlands

    Sarkkola, Sakari

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the stand structure and succession dynamics in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands on pristine peatlands and in Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) dominated stands on drained peatlands. Furthermore, my focus was on characterising how the inherent and environmental factors and the intermediate thinnings modify the stand structure and succession. For pristine peatlands, the study was based on inventorial stand data, w...

  6. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    2010-01-01

    After successfully containing the biggest flood this century, the Three Gorges Dam,on the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in central China’s Hubei Province, has encountered another flood, that of public opinion:Will this dam be able to hold floods that are "once-in-10,000-years" or "once-in-1,000-years" or "once-in-a-century"? Should numerous hazards this year, including land and mudslides and mountain torrents,be blamed on accumulation of sediment caused by the construction of the Three Gorges Dam? To get answers to these questions,journalists from Xinhua News Agency interviewed Cao Guangjing, Board Chairman of the China Three Gorges Corp., the operator of the Three Gorges Dam.

  7. Will the Three Gorges Dam Stand The Test of Time?

    2010-01-01

    @@ Netizens have collected several ar-ticles about the flood-control capacity of the Three Gorges Dam. In these articles, its capacity was differently described as tackling flooding "once-in-10,000-years" "once-in- l,O00-years" or "once-in-a-century" Can you give the specifics of the flood control capacity of the dam?

  8. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    For the on-line production of a 14O+ ion beam, an integrated target transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3He beam from the LBNL 88double-prime Cyclotron via the reaction 12C(3He,n)14O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar+, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O+, 0.33 for C+ have been measured. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Does Courvoisier's sign stand the test of time?

    Aim: To investigate the validity of Courvoisier's sign, in the age of cross-sectional imaging and image analysis software by objectively measuring gallbladder volumes at magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients with and without biliary obstruction and to assess whether gallbladder volume is more significantly increased in patients with gallstone-related rather than non-gallstone-related biliary obstruction. Materials and methods: All MCRP investigations that were performed at a tertiary hepatobiliary centre over a 2-year period were analysed. The information recorded included the presence or absence of gallbladder stones as well as the presence and type of common bile duct (CBD) disease. Gallbladder volume was calculated from MRCP studies using image analysis software. Results: Three hundred and ninety-four of 645 examined MRCPs (61.1%) were eligible for analysis. A statistically significant difference in mean gallbladder volume existed between the summated obstructive and non-obstructive groups (p < 0.001). In addition, a significant difference existed in mean gallbladder volume between those with CBD stones and non-gallstone CBD obstruction (p = 0.03). Conclusion: A significant difference was observed in gallbladder volumes in the group with biliary obstruction from choledocholithiasis compared with the group with biliary obstruction from other causes. Thus, objective measurement of gallbladder volume from modern cross-sectional imaging studies appears to validate Courvoisier's sign as a valuable clinical sign, which could be applied to modern imaging studies in distinguishing different causes of biliary obstruction in the jaundiced patient.

  10. Development of a radioactive ion beam test stand at LBNL

    For the on-line production of a 14O+ ion beam, an integrated target--transfer line ion source system is now under development at LBNL. 14O is produced in the form of CO in a high temperature carbon target using a 20 MeV 3He beam from the LBNL 88'' Cyclotron via the reaction 12C(3He,n)14O. The neutral radioactive CO molecules diffuse through an 8 m room temperature stainless steel line from the target chamber into a cusp ion source. The molecules are dissociated, ionized and extracted at energies of 20 to 30 keV and mass separated with a double focusing bending magnet. The different components of the setup are described. The release and transport efficiency for the CO molecules from the target through the transfer line was measured for various target temperatures. The ion beam transport efficiencies and the off-line ion source efficiencies for Ar, O2 and CO are presented. Ionization efficiencies of 28% for Ar+, 1% for CO, 0.7% for O+, 0.33 for C+ have been measured

  11. Hydraulic stand for testing the models of nuclear reactors

    Paper describes the basic design and hydraulic characteristics of the MR experimental bench including equipment and coolant circulation circuit, two-loop reactor hydraulic model and measuring system. The bench enables to investigate into thermal and hydraulic characteristics of models of two- and four-loop vessel reactors. Paper dwells upon research and training use of the bench

  12. Does Courvoisier's sign stand the test of time?

    Murphy, K

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the validity of Courvoisier\\'s sign, in the age of cross-sectional imaging and image analysis software by objectively measuring gallbladder volumes at magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) in patients with and without biliary obstruction and to assess whether gallbladder volume is more significantly increased in patients with gallstone-related rather than non-gallstone-related biliary obstruction.

  13. Structural mechanics of seed deterioration: Standing the test of time

    Seeds die unexpectedly during storage and current understanding of seed quality and storage conditions does not allow reliable means to predict or prevent this critical problem. Chemical degradation of seed components likely occurs through oxidative damage, but the rate of these reactions is domina...

  14. Estimating Stand Volume and Above-Ground Biomass of Urban Forests Using LiDAR

    Vincenzo Giannico

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assessing forest stand conditions in urban and peri-urban areas is essential to support ecosystem service planning and management, as most of the ecosystem services provided are a consequence of forest stand characteristics. However, collecting data for assessing forest stand conditions is time consuming and labor intensive. A plausible approach for addressing this issue is to establish a relationship between in situ measurements of stand characteristics and data from airborne laser scanning (LiDAR. In this study we assessed forest stand volume and above-ground biomass (AGB in a broadleaved urban forest, using a combination of LiDAR-derived metrics, which takes the form of a forest allometric model. We tested various methods for extracting proxies of basal area (BA and mean stand height (H from the LiDAR point-cloud distribution and evaluated the performance of different models in estimating forest stand volume and AGB. The best predictors for both models were the scale parameters of the Weibull distribution of all returns (except the first (proxy of BA and the 95th percentile of the distribution of all first returns (proxy of H. The R2 were 0.81 (p < 0.01 for the stand volume model and 0.77 (p < 0.01 for the AGB model with a RMSE of 23.66 m3·ha−1 (23.3% and 19.59 Mg·ha−1 (23.9%, respectively. We found that a combination of two LiDAR-derived variables (i.e., proxy of BA and proxy of H, which take the form of a forest allometric model, can be used to estimate stand volume and above-ground biomass in broadleaved urban forest areas. Our results can be compared to other studies conducted using LiDAR in broadleaved forests with similar methods.

  15. Sliding and Lower Limb Mechanics during Sit-Stand-Sit Transitions with a Standing Wheelchair

    Yu-Sheng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the shear displacement between the body and backrest/seat, range of motion (ROM, and force acting on the lower limb joints during sit-stand-sit transitions by operating an electric-powered standing wheelchair. Methods and Materials. The amounts of sliding along the backrest and the seat plane, ROM of lower limb joints, and force acting on the knee/foot were measured in twenty-four people with paraplegia. Results. Without an antishear mechanism, the shear displacement was approximately 9 cm between the user’s body and the backrest/seat surfaces. During standing up, the user’s back slid down and the thigh was displaced rearward, but they moved in opposite directions when wheelchair sat back down. A minimum of 60 degrees of ROM at the hip and knee was needed during sit-stand-sit transitions. The maximal resultant forces acting on the knee restraints could reach 23.5% of body weight. Conclusion. Sliding between the body and backrest/seat occurred while transitioning from sitting to standing and vice versa. A certain amount of ROM at lower limb joints and force acting on the knee was necessitated during sit-stand-sit transitions. Careful consideration needs to be given to who the user of the electric powered standing wheelchair is.

  16. Massless fermions in the standing wave braneworld

    Gogberashvili, Merab; Midodashvili, Levan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the 5D massless fermionic fields within the standing wave braneworld model. We show that in the case of increasing warp factor there exist localized left spinor field zero modes on the brane, while right fermion wave functions are not normalizable.

  17. Standing waves in fiber-optic interferometers

    De Haan, V.; Santbergen, R.; Tijssen, M.; Zeman, M.

    2011-01-01

    A study is presented giving the response of three types of fiber-optic interferometers by which a standing wave through an object is investigated. The three types are a Sagnac, Mach–Zehnder and Michelson–Morley interferometer. The response of the Mach–Zehnder interferometer is similar to the Sagnac

  18. Standing alone; Auf eigenen Fuessen stehen

    Klempert, Oliver; Garus, Katharina

    2011-11-21

    Direct marketing of electric power from renewable energy sources is more profitable than the fixed rates specified by the German Renewables Act (EEG). The intention was to give 'green' power a better standing in the market, but some utilities are sensing big business.

  19. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2012-10-09

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  20. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Ayers, Marion Jay; Ayers, Shannon Lee

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  1. Nanopositioning with detection of a standing wave

    Holá, M.; Hrabina, J.; Číp, O.; Fejfar, Antonín; Stuchlík, Jiří; Kočka, Jan; Oulehla, J.; Lazar, J.

    Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2013, s. 792-796. ISBN 978-80-87294-44-4. [NANOCON 2013. International Conference /5./. Brno (CZ), 16.10.2013-18.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanometrology * nanopositioning * Fabry-Perot cavity * standing wave * interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  2. Guitar Strings as Standing Waves: A Demonstration

    Davis, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The study demonstrates the induction of one-dimensional standing waves, called "natural-harmonics" on a guitar to provide a unique tone. The analysis shows that a normally complex vibration is composed of a number of simple and discrete vibrations.

  3. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  4. Residual liquefaction of seabed under standing waves

    Kirca, V.S. Ozgur; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the seabed liquefaction beneath standing waves. Silt (with d50 =0.070mm) was used in the experiments. Two kinds of measurements were carried out: pore water pressure measurements and water surface elevation measurements. These measuremen...

  5. AA, wide quadrupole on measurement stand

    1981-01-01

    Please look up 8101024 and 8103203 first. Wide quadrupole (QFW, QDW) with end-shims and shimming washers on the measurement stand. With the measurement coil one measured the harmonics of the magnetic field, determined the magnetic centre, and catalogued the effect of washer constellations.

  6. 11kW Stand Alone Wind Turbine Based on Proven Wind Turbine

    Bindner, Henrik; Wodstrup, Jens; Andersen, Jesper; Blaabjerg, Frede; Teodorescu, Remus

    enable control of frequency and voltage independently on both the grid side and the generator side. The prototype has been installed at Risø. The paper will present results from test runs of the system both operating stand-alone supplying a single load and in parallel operation with a diesel genset....... measurement programme. The positive operational experience with the turbine has motivated the development of a stand-alone version. The stand-alone version uses the standard version of the wind turbine combined with a back-to-back converter arrangement in order to decouple the wind turbine from the grid and......The paper will present the rationale behind the design of a stand-alone version of a existing 11kW wind turbine that has been installed at 100 sites mainly in Denmark. The wind turbine has been developed as a part of the Danish household wind turbine programme that included certification, and a...

  7. How do walking, standing, and resting influence transtibial amputee residual limb fluid volume?

    Joan E. Sanders, PhD

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine how fluid volume changes in the residual limbs of people with transtibial amputation were affected by activity during test sessions with equal durations of resting, standing, and walking. Residual limb extracellular fluid volume was measured using biompedance analysis in 24 participants. Results showed that all subjects lost fluid volume during standing with equal weight-bearing, averaging a loss rate of –0.4%/min and a mean loss over the 25 min test session of 2.6% (standard deviation [SD] 1.1. Sixteen subjects gained limb fluid volume during walking (mean gain of 1.0% [SD 2.5], and fifteen gained fluid volume during rest (mean gain of 1.0% [SD 2.2]. Walking explained only 39.3% of the total session fluid volume change. There was a strong correlation between walk and rest fluid volume changes (−0.81. Subjects with peripheral arterial disease experienced relatively high fluid volume gains during sitting but minimal changes or losses during sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitioning. Healthy female subjects experienced high fluid volume changes during transitioning from sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit. The differences in fluid volume response among subjects suggest that volume accommodation technologies should be matched to the activity-dependent fluid transport characteristics of the individual prosthesis user.

  8. Sit-to-Stand Trainer: An Apparatus for Training "Normal-Like" Sit to Stand Movement.

    Matjacic, Zlatko; Zadravec, Matjaz; Oblak, Jakob

    2016-06-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) transfer training is probably the most demanding task in rehabilitation. We have developed an innovative STS trainer that offers variable levels of mechanical support and speeds of STS transfer. In a group of neurologically intact individuals we compared kinematics, kinetics and electromyography (EMG) patterns of STS transfer assessed in three experimental conditions with increasing degree of mechanical support (MIN STS-T, MED STS-T, and MAX STS-T) to natural, unassisted STS movement (NO STS-T). The resulting ankle, knee, hip joint and trunk angles in experimental conditions MED STS-T and MIN STS-T were very similar to experimental condition NO STS-T. Vertical ground reaction forces and EMG patterns in the tibialis anterior, quadriceps and hamstrings show a clear trend toward "normal" patterns as the level of mechanical support from the device is progressively reduced. We have further tested the feasibility of the STS trainer in five stroke subjects at two levels of support showing that increased voluntary effort is needed when the support is reduced. Based on these results we conclude that negligible constraints are imposed by the device on a user's STS transfer kinematics, which is an important prerequisite for considering clinical use of the device for training in neurologically impaired. PMID:26068547

  9. The subjective postural vertical in standing: reliability and normative data for healthy subjects.

    Bergmann, Jeannine; Kreuzpointner, Monica-Antoanela; Krewer, Carmen; Bardins, Stanislav; Schepermann, Andreas; Koenig, Eberhard; Müller, Friedemann; Jahn, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Impaired verticality perception can cause falls, or even the inability to stand, due to lateropulsion or retropulsion. The internal estimate of verticality can be assessed through the subjective visual, haptic, or postural vertical (SPV). The SPV reflects impaired upright body orientation, but has primarily been assessed in sitting position. The internal representations of body orientation might be different between sitting and standing, mainly because of differences in somatosensory input for the estimation of SPV. To test the SPV during standing, we set up a paradigm using a device that allows movement in three dimensions (the Spacecurl). This study focused on the test-retest and interrater reliabilities of SPV measurements (n = 25) and provides normative values for the age range 20-79 years (n = 60; 10 healthy subjects per decade). The test-retest and interrater reliabilities for SPV measurements in standing subjects were good. The normality values ranged from -1.7° to 2.3° in the sagittal plane, and from -1.6° to 1.2° in the frontal plane. Minor alterations occurred with aging: SPV shifted backward with increasing age, and the variability of verticality estimates increased. Assessment of SPV in standing can be done with reliable results. SPV should next be used to test patients with an impaired sense of verticality, to determine its diagnostic value in comparison to established tools. PMID:25522832

  10. Learning Upright Standing on a Multiaxial Balance Board.

    Valle, Maria Stella; Casabona, Antonino; Cavallaro, Carlo; Castorina, Gabriele; Cioni, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    Upright stance on a balance board is a skill requiring complex rearrangement of the postural control. Despite the large use of these boards in training the standing posture, a comprehensive analysis of the learning process underlying the control of these devices is lacking. In this paper learning to maintain a stable stance on a multiaxial oscillating board was studied by analyzing performance changes over short and long periods. Healthy participants were asked to keep the board orientation as horizontal as possible for 20 sec, performing two sessions of 8 trials separated by 15-min pause. Memory consolidation was tested one week later. Amplitude and variability of the oscillations around horizontal plane and area and sway path of the board displacement decreased rapidly over the first session. The performance was stable during the second session, and retained after 1 week. A similar behavior was observed in the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions for amplitude and variability parameters, with less stable balance in the anterior-posterior direction. Approximate entropy and mean power frequency, assessing temporal dynamics and frequency content of oscillations, changed only in the anterior-posterior direction during the retention test. Overall, the ability to stand on a balance board is rapidly acquired, and retained for long time. The asymmetric stability between anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions replicates a structure observed in other standing stances, suggesting a possible transfer from previous postural experiences. Conversely, changes in the temporal dynamics and the frequency content could be associated with new postural strategies developed later during memory consolidation. PMID:26544694

  11. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    Soebandrija, K. E. N.; Astuti, S. W. D.

    2014-03-01

    This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766) and Solow (1957) and updated journal such as Reikard (2011) researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM ). The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach's alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square) Asymp. Sig=0.028analysis (NPV 2,340,596>0, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86). The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  12. Improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and Its Increased Production Capacity

    Soebandrija K. E. N

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has the objective to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer can lead to the cycle time target as part of Improvement efforts and its Productivity. Prior researches through prior journals both classics journal such as Quesnay (1766 and Solow (1957 and updated journal such as Reikard (2011 researches, are mentioned and elaborated. Precisely, the research is narrowed down and specified into automotive industry and eventually the software related of SPSS and Structural Equation Modeling ( SEM . The analysis and its method are conducted through the calculation working time. The mentioned calculation are reinforced with the hypothesis test using SPSS Version 19 and involve parameters of production efficiency, productivity calculation, and the calculation of financial investments. The results obtained are augmented achievement of cycle time target ≤ 80 seconds posterior to improvement stand jig sealer. The result from calculation of SPSS-19 version comprise the following aspects: the one-sided hypothesis test is rejection of Ho:μ≥80 seconds, the correlation rs=0.84, regression y = 0.159+0.642x, validity R table = 0.4438, reliability value of Cronbach’s alpha = 0.885>0.70, independence (Chi Square Asymp. Sig=0.0280, PI 2.04>1, IRR 45.56%>i=12.68%, PP=1.86. The Mentioned calculation results support the hypothesis and ultimately align with the objective of this paper to prove that improvement of Stand Jig Sealer and its relation toward the cycle time target. Precisely, the improvement of production capacity of PT. Astra Daihatsu Motor.

  13. First results of monitoring of stand structure changes in unmanaged beech stands in NP Plitvice Lakes

    Vladimir Novotny; Ivan Balenović; Tomislav Dubravac; Dijana Vuletić; Stjepan Dekanić

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: It is possible to monitor and study the natural growth and development of the forest ecosystems in the example of protected forest stands, which were excluded from management, and which are not under a negative influence of human activity. Therefore the aim of the research through the repeated measurements is to estimate the stand structure development on the Medveđak permanent experimental plot in the Plitvice Lakes national park area. In this paper we presented the f...

  14. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  15. Thrust stand for vertically oriented electric propulsion performance evaluation

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-11-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A noncontact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy-current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN level thrusts, while those tests conducted on a 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 mN at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  16. Thrust Stand for Vertically Oriented Electric Propulsion Performance Evaluation

    Moeller, Trevor; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A variation of a hanging pendulum thrust stand capable of measuring the performance of an electric thruster operating in the vertical orientation is presented. The vertical orientation of the thruster dictates that the thruster must be horizontally offset from the pendulum pivot arm, necessitating the use of a counterweight system to provide a neutrally-stable system. Motion of the pendulum arm is transferred through a balance mechanism to a secondary arm on which deflection is measured. A non-contact light-based transducer is used to measure displacement of the secondary beam. The members experience very little friction, rotating on twisting torsional pivots with oscillatory motion attenuated by a passive, eddy current damper. Displacement is calibrated using an in situ thrust calibration system. Thermal management and self-leveling systems are incorporated to mitigate thermal and mechanical drifts. Gravitational restoring force and torsional spring constants associated with flexure pivots provide restoring moments. An analysis of the design indicates that the thrust measurement range spans roughly four decades, with the stand capable of measuring thrust up to 12 N for a 200 kg thruster and up to approximately 800 mN for a 10 kg thruster. Data obtained from calibration tests performed using a 26.8 lbm simulated thruster indicated a resolution of 1 mN on 100 mN-level thrusts, while those tests conducted on 200 lbm thruster yielded a resolution of roughly 2.5 micro at thrust levels of 0.5 N and greater.

  17. Regional-scale stand density management diagrams for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. stands in north-west Spain

    Castaño-Santamaría J

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stand Density Management Diagrams are useful tools for designing and evaluating alternative density management regimes without the need of implementing any silvicultural action, and allowing the future stand conditions to be predicted prior to implementing management schedules. In this study, stand density management diagrams were developed for Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica Willd. stands in north-west Spain by including data on stand volume, stand aboveground biomass, stand stem biomass and carbon pools. Data were obtained from Third National Forest Inventory plots (n=1860. The large geographical area analyzed in this study was classified by provenance regions, which were compared in terms of biomass production in order to define areas with similar characteristics for use as management units. The comparisons identified 6 independent groups. Different stand-level models and the associated diagrams for the aforementioned stand variables were therefore developed for each group.

  18. Motor parameter identification for laboratory stand

    Lidmila, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The goal of introduced thesis is to provide measurement of the engines used as a tutorial laboratory stand in the course “Electric drives”. Due to the absence of appropriate measurement centre, the main emphasis is laid on the modernization of older dynymometer, which is going to be used by the students. Dynymometer has been equipped with the electric speed and torque vbmeasurement, data from these measurements are displayed and evaluated by the digital devices very clearly and precisely. Eng...

  19. Standing stability evaluation using a triaxial accelerometer

    Mayagoitia, Ruth E.; Lotters, Joost C.; Veltink, Peter H.

    1996-01-01

    A triaxial accelerometer is placed at the back of the subject at the height of the center of mass. Force plate data are collected simultaneously. Subjects stand in a comfortable position with eyes open, eyes closed and doing cognitive tasks; and with feet together with eyes open and closed. The cognitive tasks are: mathematical, auditory Stroop and memory. The force plate data are processed to obtain the center of pressure and from it the parameters of: mean radius, speed and frequency, and b...

  20. Inertial Sensor Based Analysis of Lie-to-Stand Transfers in Younger and Older Adults.

    Schwickert, Lars; Boos, Ronald; Klenk, Jochen; Bourke, Alan; Becker, Clemens; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2016-01-01

    Many older adults lack the capacity to stand up again after a fall. Therefore, to analyse falls it is relevant to understand recovery patterns, including successful and failed attempts to get up from the floor in general. This study analysed different kinematic features of standing up from the floor. We used inertial sensors to describe the kinematics of lie-to-stand transfer patterns of younger and healthy older adults. Fourteen younger (20-50 years of age, 50% men) and 10 healthy older community dwellers (≥60 years; 50% men) conducted four lie-to-stand transfers from different initial lying postures. The analysed temporal, kinematic, and elliptic fitting complexity measures of transfer performance were significantly different between younger and older subjects (i.e., transfer duration, angular velocity (RMS), maximum vertical acceleration, maximum vertical velocity, smoothness, fluency, ellipse width, angle between ellipses). These results show the feasibility and potential of analysing kinematic features to describe the lie-to-stand transfer performance, to help design interventions and detection approaches to prevent long lies after falls. It is possible to describe age-related differences in lie-to-stand transfer performance using inertial sensors. The kinematic analysis remains to be tested on patterns after real-world falls. PMID:27529249

  1. Experimental Evaluation of Balance Prediction Models for Sit-to-Stand Movement in the Sagittal Plane

    Oscar David Pena Cabra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of balance control ability would become important in the rehabilitation training. In this paper, in order to make clear usefulness and limitation of a traditional simple inverted pendulum model in balance prediction in sit-to-stand movements, the traditional simple model was compared to an inertia (rotational radius variable inverted pendulum model including multiple-joint influence in the balance predictions. The predictions were tested upon experimentation with six healthy subjects. The evaluation showed that the multiple-joint influence model is more accurate in predicting balance under demanding sit-to-stand conditions. On the other hand, the evaluation also showed that the traditionally used simple inverted pendulum model is still reliable in predicting balance during sit-to-stand movement under non-demanding (normal condition. Especially, the simple model was shown to be effective for sit-to-stand movements with low center of mass velocity at the seat-off. Moreover, almost all trajectories under the normal condition seemed to follow the same control strategy, in which the subjects used extra energy than the minimum one necessary for standing up. This suggests that the safety considerations come first than the energy efficiency considerations during a sit to stand, since the most energy efficient trajectory is close to the backward fall boundary.

  2. Standing sausage waves in photospheric magnetic waveguides

    Dorotovič, I.; Erdélyi, R.; Freij, N.; Karlovský, V.; Márquez, I.

    2014-03-01

    Aims: By focussing on the oscillations of the cross-sectional area and the total intensity of magnetic waveguides located in the lower solar atmosphere, we aim to detect and identify magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage waves. Methods: Capturing several high-resolution time series of magnetic waveguides and employing a wavelet analysis, in conjunction with empirical mode decomposition (EMD), makes the MHD wave analysis possible. For this paper, two sunspots and one pore (with a light bridge) were chosen as examples of MHD waveguides in the lower solar atmosphere. Results: The waveguides display a range of periods from 4 to 65 min. These structures display in-phase behaviour between the area and intensity, presenting mounting evidence for sausage modes within these waveguides. The detected periods point towards standing oscillations. Conclusions: The presence of fast and slow MHD sausage waves has been detected in three different magnetic waveguides in the solar photosphere. Furthermore, these oscillations are potentially standing harmonics supported in the waveguides that are sandwiched vertically between the temperature minimum in the lower solar atmosphere and the transition region. The relevance of standing harmonic oscillations is that their exploitation by means of solar magneto-seismology may allow insight into the sub-pixel resolution structure of photospheric MHD waveguides.

  3. Experimental stand for studies of hydrogen isotopes permeation

    As a result of the high probability of hydrogen isotope permeation through materials used in high-temperature reactor operations, the interaction of hydrogen isotopes with metallic structural materials proposed to be used for fusion reactor designing is of great importance for safety considerations. Determining the parameters of the interaction between hydrogen isotopes and different materials, is therefore essential to accurately calculate recycling, outgassing, loading, permeation and hydrogen embrittlement. The permeation tests were made in collaboration with IFIN Bucuresti inside of a special glove-box to avail their radioactive protection expertise. This investigation programme is ongoing. In this paper we describe the permeation stand facility and the preliminary tests carried out to date. (authors)

  4. College Athlete Stands Again…On His Own!

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics College Athlete Stands Again…On His Own! Past ... cells to make new connections. Read More "NIBIB Robotics" Articles Progress for the Paralyzed / College Athlete Stands ...

  5. Mechanical properties of free standing porous anodic alumina films

    Ignashev, E.; Shulgov, V.

    2012-01-01

    Free-standing films of anodic alumina obtained from the one-sided anodization of aluminum were studied. The flexural strength of free-standing porous anodic alumina films to the lateral bending, circular bending, and microhardness were studied.

  6. Study on the Explainable Ability by Using Airborne LIDAR in Stand Value and Stand Competition

    Huang, S. C.; Yeh, J. Y.; Chen, C. T.; Chen, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    Forest canopy structure is composed by the various species. Sun light is a main factor to affect the crown structures after tree competition. However, thinning operation is an appropriate way to control canopy density, which can adjust the competition conditions in the different crown structures. Recently, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), has been established as a standard technology for high precision three dimensional forest data acquisition; it could get stand characteristics with three-dimensional information that had develop potential for the structure characteristics of forest canopy. The 65 years old, different planting density of Cryptomeria japonica experiment area was selected for this study in Nanytou, Taiwan. Use the LiDAR image to estimate LiDAR characteristic values by constructed CHM, voxel-based LiDAR, mu0ltiple echoes, and assess the accuracy of stand characteristics with intensity values and field data. The competition index was calculated with field data, and estimate competition index of LiDAR via multiple linear regression. The results showed that the highest accuracy with stand characteristics was stand high which estimate by LiDAR, its average accuracy of 91.03%. LiDAR raster grid size was 20 m × 20 m for the correlation was the best, however, the higher canopy density will reduce the accuracy of the LiDAR characteristic values to estimate the stand characteristics. The significantly affect canopy thickness and the degree of competition in different planting distances.

  7. Standing Sound Waves in Air with DataStudio

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments related to standing sound waves in air are adapted for using the ScienceWorkshop data-acquisition system with the DataStudio software from PASCO scientific. First, the standing waves are created by reflection from a plane reflector. The distribution of the sound pressure along the standing wave is measured. Second, the resonance…

  8. A Fresh Look at Longitudinal Standing Waves on a Spring

    Rutherford, Casey

    2013-01-01

    Transverse standing waves produced on a string, as shown in Fig. 1, are a common demonstration of standing wave patterns that have nodes at both ends. Longitudinal standing waves can be produced on a helical spring that is mounted vertically and attached to a speaker, as shown in Fig. 2, and used to produce both node-node (NN) and node-antinode…

  9. 21 CFR 886.1860 - Ophthalmic instrument stand.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic instrument stand. 886.1860 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1860 Ophthalmic instrument stand. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic instrument stand is an AC-powered or nonpowered device intended to store...

  10. A stand for determining CH3I, I2 and radioiodine aerosols removal efficiency on filters

    The paper describes a filter testing laboratory stand for studying airborne radioiodine removal efficiency. The stand is constructed by using a Pyrex glass on NS 14 ground glass joints. As the stand is assembled mainly from standard elements, it is multipurpose and allows to test different filters including charcoal ones. The radioiodine supply system can feed elementary iodine, CH3I and radioiodine aerosols. The I-131 labeled CH3I is synthesized when necessary in the Laboratory of the IRNE, BAS. The stand allows to study the filter parameters in different conditions. Depending on the investigation, the filter bed used is either scanned by a 25x25 mm NaI detector situated in a lead shielding with a collimator, or the activity is washed out and measured on a 50x50 mm NaI detector. A single-channel analyzer is used. Charcoal filters 89 Reactor B/St from AUER (Germany) which are used in BERTHOLD Outdoor I-131 Monitor have been studied on the stand. (author)

  11. The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency and radiation use efficiency of field-grown willow clones

    Linderson, Maj-Lena; Iritz, Z.; Lindroth, A.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of water availability on stand-level productivity, transpiration, water use efficiency (WUE) and radiation use efficiency (RUE) is evaluated for different willow clones at stand level. The measurements were made during the growing season 2000 in a 3-year-old plantation in Scania......, southernmost Sweden. Six willow clones were included in the study: L78183, SW Rapp, SW Jorunn, SW Jorr, SW Tora and SW Loden. All clones were exposed to two water treatments: rain-fed, non-irrigated treatment and reduced water availability by reduced soil water recharge. Field measurements of stem sap-flow and...... biometry are up-scaled to stand transpiration and stand dry substance production and used to assess WUE. RUE is estimated from the ratio between the stand dry substance production and the accumulated absorbed photosynthetic active radiation over the growing season. The total stand transpiration rate for...

  12. Validity and reliability of the Nintendo Wii Balance Board for assessment of standing balance.

    Clark, Ross A; Bryant, Adam L; Pua, Yonghao; McCrory, Paul; Bennell, Kim; Hunt, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Impaired standing balance has a detrimental effect on a person's functional ability and increases their risk of falling. There is currently no validated system which can precisely quantify center of pressure (COP), an important component of standing balance, while being inexpensive, portable and widely available. The Wii Balance Board (WBB) fits these criteria, and we examined its validity in comparison with the 'gold standard'-a laboratory-grade force platform (FP). Thirty subjects without lower limb pathology performed a combination of single and double leg standing balance tests with eyes open or closed on two separate occasions. Data from the WBB were acquired using a laptop computer. The test-retest reliability for COP path length for each of the testing devices, including a comparison of the WBB and FP data, was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Bland-Altman plots (BAP) and minimum detectable change (MDC). Both devices exhibited good to excellent COP path length test-retest reliability within-device (ICC=0.66-0.94) and between-device (ICC=0.77-0.89) on all testing protocols. Examination of the BAP revealed no relationship between the difference and the mean in any test, however the MDC values for the WBB did exceed those of the FP in three of the four tests. These findings suggest that the WBB is a valid tool for assessing standing balance. Given that the WBB is portable, widely available and a fraction of the cost of a FP, it could provide the average clinician with a standing balance assessment tool suitable for the clinical setting. PMID:20005112

  13. Stand-alone photovoltaic applications. Lessons learned

    The IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme (PVPS) is one of the collaborative R and D agreements established within the IEA. The objective of Task III is to promote and facilitate the exchange of information and experiences in the field of PV Systems in Stand-alone and Island Applications (SAPV). The book focuses on the practical experiences gained, and does not aim to provide a complete manual on SAPV. When Task III started its activities in 1993, a collection of 50 'State of the art' projects was published in the book 'Examples of Stand-Alone Photovoltaic Systems'. This publication marked the base line for the work of the task. Now, in 1998, the showcases from each country demonstrate the lessons learned in five years of cooperation. The book consists of two parts. The first part contains eight chapters dealing with a specific aspect of stand-alone PV. The second part introduces 14 national showcase projects in a systematic presentation. Each chapter and showcase can be read independently from the rest of the book. Chapter 2, contributed by The Netherlands, analyses the market for stand-alone PV systems. It gives an overview of the 'traditional' application of stand-alone PV, which is the electrification of remote buildings and which has been addressed in depth in other publications. The focus is on the market niches of service applications that are also interesting for more densely populated areas, e.g. in industrialised countries. The United Kingdom illustrates the economic aspects in Chapter 3. Cost comparisons are made, but more important is the illustration of the non-financial considerations that make PV the preferred choice as a power source for many applications. Switzerland explores in Chapter 4 (financing aspects) different financing mechanisms, and financial policies used to overcome the initial cost barrier. Most of these approaches have been applied in developing countries rather than in the western world. Using various examples from all over the

  14. Construction of an automated table standing

    In this paper, the construction of an upright stretcher designed for patients in rehabilitation. The standing back to patients' expectations of therapeutic improvement, allowing correct all the troubles of a passive long. It has been shown that this table favors not only physically but also has a psychological reach beyond the scope of physical therapy and strongly affects the recovery. At the same time, the use of an upright stretcher greatly decreases the biomechanical disorders of hospital staff in the process of recovery. Thus the problem of rehabilitation of trafficking in a comprehensive way which not only focuses on the patient's undivided attention but also includes medical and auxiliary personnel.

  15. Cs-137 content in a spruce stand

    The Cs-137 content of a spruce stand was investigated in soil, plant and animal biomasses of a 100 m. 100 m permanent study-site. The total content was 119 kBq.m-2. Most of all, 82.7% were found in soil, of that about 59.5% were bound in the 4 cm thick humus layer. The Cs-137 content of the above growing plant-biomass was 13050 Bq.m-2, these are 11.1% of the total. The Cs-137 contribution, bound in animal biomass was insignificant small. (orig.)

  16. Nanopositioning with detection of a standing wave

    Holá, Miroslava; Hrabina, Jan; Číp, Ondřej; Fejfar, A.; Stuchlík, J.; Kočka, J.; Oulehla, Jindřich; Lazar, Josef

    Ostrava: TANGER Ltd, 2013. ISBN 978-80-87294-44-4. [NANOCON 2013. International Conference /5./. Brno (CZ), 16.10.2013-18.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP102/11/P820; GA TA ČR TA02010711; GA TA ČR TE01020233; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Nanometrology * Nanopositioning * Fabry-Perot cavity * Standing wave * Interferometry Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  17. P17.56A 3-DIMENSIONAL MATRIX ASSAY TO HELP PREDICT TREATMENT RESPONSE TO TEMOZOLOMIDE IN PATIENTS WITH GLIOBASTOMA: UPDATE OF RESULTS AND SUBGROUP ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS UNDERGOING MGMT TESTING

    Megyesi, J.F.; Costello, P.; McDonald, W.; Macdonald, D.; Easaw, J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Usual treatment for glioblastoma is surgical resection, if possible, followed by radiotherapy with adjuvant chemotherapy using temozolomide. However a significant number of patients have a short response to temozolomide and subsequently a poorer prognosis. We investigated the possibility that surgical specimens obtained at the time of surgery might provide valuable information regarding sensitivity to chemotherapies, including temozolomide. In order to do this we used a 3-dimensional matrix assay that mimics brain. We analyzed a subgroup of these patients for O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) status and correlated this with the response of tumor tissue in the assay to temozolomide. METHODS: Records for patients treated for newly diagnosed or recurrent glioblastoma were analyzed. All patients had undergone surgical resection and tumor specimens at time of surgery were available for culture in a 3-dimensional matrix assay and observed for growth and invasion. Drug effects on mean invasion and growth were expressed as a ratio relative to control conditions. Length of survival was compared between temozolomide treated patients whose screening results had predicted a positive or negative response to temozolomide. The MGMT status of a subgroup of these patients was analyzed and correlated with the response of tumor tissue in the assay to temozolomide. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients with glioblastoma were assessed. Each patient's tumor displayed a unique invasion and response profile. We looked in particular at the correlation between the outcome of a patient with glioblastoma treated with temozolomide and the response of that patient's tumor tissue to temozolomide in the 3-dimensional assay. Mean survival time for patients whose tumors were not significantly sensitive to temozolomide in the assay was 181.7 +/- 43 days. Mean survival time for patients whose tumors were significantly sensitive to temozolomide in the assay was 290.0 +/- 33 days

  18. Sliding and Lower Limb Mechanics during Sit-Stand-Sit Transitions with a Standing Wheelchair

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to investigate the shear displacement between the body and backrest/seat, range of motion (ROM), and force acting on the lower limb joints during sit-stand-sit transitions by operating an electric-powered standing wheelchair. Methods and Materials. The amounts of sliding along the backrest and the seat plane, ROM of lower limb joints, and force acting on the knee/foot were measured in twenty-four people with paraplegia. Results. Without an antishear mechanism, the sh...

  19. Regional Instability in the Abundance of Open Stands in the Boreal Forest of Eastern Canada

    Rija Rapanoela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fires are a key disturbance of boreal forests. In fact, they are the main source of renewal and evolution for forest stands. The variability of fire through space and time results in a diversified forest mosaic, altering their species composition, structure and productivity. A resilient forest is assumed to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium with the fire regime, so that the composition, age structure and succession stages of forests should be consistent with the fire regime. Dense spruce-moss stands tend, however, to diminish in favour of more open stands similar to spruce-lichen stands when subjected to more frequent and recurring disturbances. This study therefore focused on the effects of spatial and temporal variations in burn rates on the proportion of open stands over a large geographic area (175,000 km2 covered by black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill. Britton, Sterns, Poggenb.. The study area was divided into 10 different zones according to burn rates, as measured using fire-related data collected between 1940 and 2006. To test if the abundance of open stands was unstable over time and not in equilibrium with the current fire regime, forest succession was simulated using a landscape dynamics model that showed that the abundance of open stands should increase progressively over time in zones where the average burn rate is high. The proportion of open stands generated during a specific historical period is correlated with the burn rate observed during the same period. Rising annual burn rates over the past two decades have thereby resulted in an immediate increase in the proportion of open stands. There is therefore a difference between the current proportion of open stands and the one expected if vegetation was in equilibrium with the disturbance regime, reflecting an instability that may significantly impact the way forest resources are managed. It is apparent from this study that forestry planning should consider the risks associated

  20. Imagery rescripting as a stand-alone treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood abuse

    S. Raabe; T. Ehring; L. Marquenie; M. Olff; M. Kindt

    2015-01-01

    Objective This case series tested the feasibility and explored the efficacy of Imagery Rescripting (ImRs) as a stand-alone treatment for PTSD related to childhood physical and/or sexual abuse (CA). Method Participants (6 women and 2 men) were patients with PTSD related to CA who entered an 8 week tr

  1. Foot-Ground Interaction during Upright Standing in Children with Down Syndrome

    Pau, Massimiliano; Galli, Manuela; Crivellini, Marcello; Albertini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantitatively characterize the main foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing and to assess foot evolution with increasing age in young individuals affected by Down syndrome (DS). To this end, 99 children with DS of mean age 9.7 (1.7) were tested using a pressure sensitive mat, and the raw data were…

  2. Effects on the location of the centre of gravity and the foot pressure contribution to standing balance associated with ageing.

    Tanaka, T; Takeda, H; Izumi, T; Ino, S; Ifukube, T

    1999-07-01

    The aim was to analyse the limitation of the head and lumbar movements in relation to the centre of gravity which is needed to maintain standing balance with ageing. The participants of the study were 25 healthy volunteers divided into two age categories, the young group (mean 22.4 +/- 2.7 years) and the elderly group (mean 71.2 +/- 3.6 years). The instruments for measuring the movements of the lumbar region and head and the centre of pressure (COP) were a 3-D motion analysis system and a force plate. In addition, the peak foot pressure was measured during standing using the F-Scan system. The participants were first asked to stand relaxed for 10 s. They then shifted from the starting position to the four directions of sway: anterior, posterior, right and left. They were asked to maintain standing balance at the maximal distance position for each sway as much as possible for 10 s. Analysis of parameters was performed by measuring the average maximal linear displacement (cm) of the head and lumbar markers, the COP (cm), and the peak foot pressure (% of body weight per cm2) in each participant. The data of the young group for lumbar maximal displacement were greater than those of the elderly group in the anterior, posterior and lateral sways. A significant difference between the young and elderly data was found in the posterior sway. According to the data of the head's maximal displacement, the elderly group's data were greater than the young group's data in all sways, except for the anterior side. For the data of peak foot pressure in the posterior sway, the elderly group's data was greater than the young group's data. The forefoot area data of the young group was significantly greater than that of the elderly group, and the heel area data of the elderly was significantly greater than that of the young group in the right sway. The results suggest that the maximal displacement of head and lumbar positions and the toe's muscle activity in the forefoot are important

  3. Millimeter-area, free standing, phospholipid bilayers.

    Beltramo, Peter J; Van Hooghten, Rob; Vermant, Jan

    2016-05-11

    Minimal model biomembrane studies have the potential to unlock the fundamental mechanisms of cellular function that govern the processes upon which life relies. However, existing methods to fabricate free-standing model membranes currently have significant limitations. Bilayer sizes are often tens of micrometers, decoupling curvature or substrate effects, orthogonal control over tension, and solvent exchange combined with microscopy techniques is not possible, which restricts the studies that can be performed. Here, we describe a versatile platform to generate free standing, planar, phospholipid bilayers with millimeter scale areas. The technique relies on an adapted thin-film balance apparatus allowing for the dynamic control of the nucleation and growth of a planar black lipid membrane in the center of an orifice surrounded by microfluidic channels. Success is demonstrated using several different lipid types, including mixtures that show the same temperature dependent phase separation as existing protocols, moreover, membranes are highly stable. Two advantages unique to the proposed method are the dynamic control of the membrane tension and the possibility to make extremely large area membranes. We demonstrate this by showing how a block polymer, F68, used in drug delivery increases the membrane compliance. Together, the results demonstrate a new paradigm for studying the mechanics, structure, and function of model membranes. PMID:27050618

  4. Science stand-up at CERN

    Stephanie McClellan

    2013-01-01

    Supported by host Helen Keen from BBC4’s "It is Rocket Science", six amateur performers from CERN (Sam Gregson, Alex Brown, Benjamin Frisch, Claire Lee, Hugo Day and Clara Nellist) were joined on stage by geek-pop sensation Jonny Berliner and comedians Pierre Novellie and Lieven Scheire for a night of science stand-up comedy.   Host Helen Keen starts off the comedy event. (Image: Piotr Traczyk). Like the genesis of most great things, the LHComedy event began as an idea. Sam Gregson, a PhD student at CERN, had been a regular at the Cambridge Bright Club. This public engagement event promotes scientists’ research through stand-up comedy. Sam thought, “If people came to watch Bright Club at Cambridge and enjoyed the research, why can’t we do it at the biggest scientific experiment in the world?” Sam’s idea gained momentum after being introduced to FameLab participants at CERN. Similar to Bright Club, FameLab is a com...

  5. A laboratory stand for research concerning drive units applied in unmanned flying micro vehicles

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Golinski, Pawel

    2015-09-01

    This article presents a laboratory stand used for research concerning static and dynamic characteristics of MAV (micro air vehicle) drive units. An electric powered drive unit, applied in unmanned flying vehicles of short range was chosen as the research object. Such device consists of the following elements: acquisition and control unit, a variable frequency drive (VFD), an engine and a propeller. The article contains a description of the stand structure as well as the way of data acquisition and an example of its processing in the post-processing mode. Moreover, example tests and the results are presented here.

  6. Magnetic measurement stands for the UNK superconducting quadrupoles

    Within the framework of a contractual collaboration with IHEP (Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino) for the UNK project, two test stands have been built and delivered to measure the magnetic characteristics of the UNK superconducting quadrupoles: location and transfer of the magnetic axis, gradient value and homogeneity. This paper describes the different parts of the apparatus, in particular the carbon fiber measuring tube which enables the sag of the measuring device to be minimized. Emphasis is put on the mechanical measurements and controls made on the measuring tube, the wire system used to locate the magnetic axis and the optical elements selected for the alignment. Preliminary results obtained in the USSR are reported

  7. Competency to stand trial: rationalism, "contextualism" and other modest theories.

    Jan Brakel, S

    2003-01-01

    Determinations of competency to stand trial in criminal cases are complicated and rendered unpredictable by two sub-surface issues that are rarely articulated: (i) the place of the defendant's rationality in the substantive standard(s) for competency and (ii) the level or degree of incompetency required to stop the criminal process. The rare references to these issues, mostly indirect, that are made in the cases, commentary, and competency testing instruments devised (including those civil as well as criminal) are examined. The conclusion that emerges is that the level of capacity and rationality required of the defendant depends much on context-the type of case, its relative complexity, and the values and stakes implicated in the outcome. PMID:12808691

  8. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Henriksson, M.; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M.

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles. Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes. Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40-97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum). An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were also seen in e.g. camphene and limonene emissions between chemotypes, but sesquiterpene emissions did not differ

  9. Chemodiversity in terpene emissions at a boreal Scots pine stand

    J. Bäck

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric chemistry in background areas is strongly influenced by natural vegetation. Coniferous forests are known to produce large quantities of volatile vapors, especially terpenes to the surrounding air. These compounds are reactive in the atmosphere, and contribute to the formation and growth of atmospheric new particles.

    Our aim was to analyze the variability of mono- and sesquiterpene emissions between Scots pine trees, in order to clarify the potential errors caused by using emission data obtained from only a few trees in atmospheric chemistry models. We also aimed at testing if stand history and seed origin has an influence on the chemotypic diversity. The inherited, chemotypic variability in mono- and sesquiterpene emission was studied in a seemingly homogeneous 47-yr-old stand in Southern Finland, where two areas differing in their stand regeneration history could be distinguished. Sampling was conducted in August 2009. Terpene concentrations in the air had been measured at the same site for seven years prior to branch sampling for chemotypes.

    Two main compounds, α-pinene and Δ3-carene formed together 40–97% of the monoterpene proportions in both the branch emissions and in the air concentrations. The data showed a bimodal distribution in emission composition, in particular in Δ3-carene emission within the studied population. 10% of the trees emitted mainly α-pinene and no Δ3-carene at all, whereas 20% of the trees where characterized as high Δ3-carene emitters (Δ3-carene forming >80% of total emitted monoterpene spectrum. An intermediate group of trees emitted equal amounts of both α-pinene and Δ3-carene. The emission pattern of trees at the area established using seeding as the artificial regeneration method differed from the naturally regenerated or planted trees, being mainly high Δ3-carene emitters. Some differences were

  10. Foot Push-Up Test

    ... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Foot Push-Up Test Take this simple test to ... Stand with your back straight, and lift one foot off the floor. Slowly lift the heel of ...

  11. A composite L-band HH radar backscattering model for coniferous forest stands

    Sun, Guoquing; Simonett, David S.

    1988-01-01

    The radar backscattering model developed by Richards et al. (1987), has been improved and further tested in this research. The trunk term may now be calculated from the exact solution to the electromagnetic wave equations instead of the corner reflector equation. Rough surface models have been introduced into the radar model, so that the forward reflectance and the backscattering from the ground surface are now calculated from the same model and, thus, are consistent. The number of trees in an individual pixel is assumed to be Poisson distributed, with tree height in a stand log-normally distributed. The simulated results show that the match of backscattering coefficients for eight forest stands between SIR-B image data and the simulated results are satisfying, and that the trunk term now seems to be convincingly established as the dominant term in the L-band HH radar return from coniferous forest stands.

  12. Soil development mediated by traditional practices shape the stand structure of Spanish juniper woodland

    Javier de la Fuente-Leon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Assessing the effect of soil development on the stand structure of a Spanish juniper forest traditionally shaped by livestock browsing and wood extraction. Area of study: Berlanga de Duero (Soria, Castilla y León, Spain.Material and Methods: A stand inventory served to record stand structure. Tree age, height, DBH, basal area, and overbark volume were determined in each plot. Results were pooled considering two well-differentiated degrees of soil evolution. One-way ANOVAs (and Tukey’s test and regressions between growth parameters were performed to assess significant differences between growth performances on both types of soils. Research highlights: Deeper soils yielded significant higher plant density and stand stock figures than stony shallower profiles despite the intense past livestock activity in the area; and single tree-size was also significantly greater. Non-significant differences were found for merchantable junipers age (≈120-160 years. Wood extraction and livestock browsing should be limited on shallower soils to allow soil and forest evolution; as well as to preserve the genetic pool better adapted to hardest growing conditions.Keywords: livestock browsing; forest development; Juniperus thurifera L.; soil evolution; stand stock.

  13. 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 8 - 9, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Radiation Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plan for the Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis Cancer Risk. The SRP also reviewed the newly revised Evidence Reports for the Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs) (Acute Risk), the Risk of Acute (In-flight) and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS Risk), and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Other Degenerative Tissue Effects from Radiation (Degen Risk), as well as a status update on these Risks. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Simonsen, Dr. Huff, Dr. Nelson, and Dr. Patel for their detailed presentations. The Space Radiation Element did a great job presenting a very large volume of material. The SRP considers it to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data. The SRP commended the tissue sharing protocols, working groups, systems biology analysis, and standardization of models. In several of the discussed areas the SRP suggested improvements of the research plans in the future. These include the following: It is important that the team has expanded efforts examining immunology and inflammation as important components of the space radiation biological response. This is an overarching and important focus that is likely to apply to all aspects of the program including acute, CVD, CNS, cancer and others. Given that the area of immunology/inflammation is highly complex (and especially so as it relates to radiation), it warrants the expansion of investigators expertise in immunology and inflammation to work with the individual research projects and also the NASA Specialized Center of Research (NSCORs). Historical data on radiation injury to be entered into the Watson

  14. Methods to inventory and strip thin in dense stands of aspen root suckers

    Headlee WL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aspen and their hybrids have demonstrated high biomass productivity and can produce abundant regeneration in the form of root suckers. This makes aspen particularly intriguing for bio-energy production, because replanting costs can be avoided and additional biomass can be obtained by thinning the regenerating stands. Mechanical strip thinning (removal of stems in parallel strips has been proposed as a fast and efficient method for capturing biomass that would otherwise be lost to mortality in such stands. However, determining the appropriate width for the residual rows is challenging, due to the difficulty of conducting inventories with traditional sampling tools and the variability in gap sizes between root suckers in the residual rows. In this study, we describe the development and testing of a simple inventory tool that may be used to conduct either fixed-area or variable-radius sampling in these stands. Also described is the development and testing of an equation that uses such inventory data along with Poisson distribution theory to predict the size of the largest gap between root suckers within residual rows, which in turn can be used to inform strip thinning operations. Based on the promising results of our limited tests, we encourage further evaluation of these methods with regeneration from planted and natural aspen stands, as well as other root suckering species.

  15. Crossmodal Correspondences: Standing Issues and Experimental Guidelines.

    Parise, Cesare V

    2016-01-01

    Crossmodal correspondences refer to the systematic associations often found across seemingly unrelated sensory features from different sensory modalities. Such phenomena constitute a universal trait of multisensory perception even in non-human species, and seem to result, at least in part, from the adaptation of sensory systems to natural scene statistics. Despite recent developments in the study of crossmodal correspondences, there are still a number of standing questions about their definition, their origins, their plasticity, and their underlying computational mechanisms. In this paper, I will review such questions in the light of current research on sensory cue integration, where crossmodal correspondences can be conceptualized in terms of natural mappings across different sensory cues that are present in the environment and learnt by the sensory systems. Finally, I will provide some practical guidelines for the design of experiments that might shed new light on crossmodal correspondences. PMID:27311289

  16. Classification of Stand-to-Sit and Sit-to-Stand Movement from Low Frequency EEG with Locality Preserving Dimensionality Reduction

    Bulea, Thomas C.; Prasad, Saurabh; Kilicarslan, Atilla; Contreras-Vidal, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated decoding of lower extremity limb kinematics from noninvasive electroencephalography (EEG), showing feasibility for development of an EEG-based brain-machine interface (BMI) to restore mobility following paralysis. Here, we present a new technique that preserves the statistical richness of EEG data to classify movement state from time-embedded low frequency EEG signals. We tested this new classifier, using cross-validation procedures, during sit-to-stand and st...

  17. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Matti Maltamo; Annukka Pesonen; Lauri Korhonen; Jari Kouki; Mikko Vehmas; Kalle Eerikinen

    2015-01-01

    Background:The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods:We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes:volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collected from three separate forest stands in Koli National Park, eastern Finland. At each site, we measured breast height diameter and coordinates of each aspen. The comparison of inventory methods of aspens within the three stands was based on simulations with mapped field data. We mimicked stand level inventory by locating varying numbers of fixed area circular plots both systematically and randomly within the stands. Additionally, we also tested if the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS) data as auxiliary information would improve the accuracy of the stand level inventory by applying the probability proportional to size sampling to assist the selection of field plot locations. Results:The results showed that aspens were always clustered, and the diameter distributions indicated different stand structures in the three investigated forest stands. The reliability of the volume and number of large aspen trees varied from relative root mean square error figures above 50%with fewer sample plots (5–10) to values of 25%–50%with 10 or more sample plots. Stand level inventory estimates were also able to detect spatial pattern and the shape of the diameter distribution. In addition, ALS-based auxiliary information could be useful in guiding the inventories, but caution should be used when applying the ALS-supported inventory technique. Conclusions:This study characterized European aspen populations for the purposes of monitoring and management of boreal conservation areas. Our results suggest that

  18. Inventory of aspen trees in spruce dominated stands in conservation area

    Matti Maltamo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The occurrence of aspen trees increases the conservation value of mature conifer dominated forests. Aspens typically occur as scattered individuals among major tree species, and therefore the inventory of aspens is challenging. Methods We characterized aspen populations in a boreal nature reserve using diameter distribution, spatial pattern, and forest attributes: volume, number of aspens, number of large aspen stems and basal area median diameter. The data were collected from three separate forest stands in Koli National Park, eastern Finland. At each site, we measured breast height diameter and coordinates of each aspen. The comparison of inventory methods of aspens within the three stands was based on simulations with mapped field data. We mimicked stand level inventory by locating varying numbers of fixed area circular plots both systematically and randomly within the stands. Additionally, we also tested if the use of airborne laser scanning (ALS data as auxiliary information would improve the accuracy of the stand level inventory by applying the probability proportional to size sampling to assist the selection of field plot locations. Results The results showed that aspens were always clustered, and the diameter distributions indicated different stand structures in the three investigated forest stands. The reliability of the volume and number of large aspen trees varied from relative root mean square error figures above 50% with fewer sample plots (5–10 to values of 25%–50% with 10 or more sample plots. Stand level inventory estimates were also able to detect spatial pattern and the shape of the diameter distribution. In addition, ALS-based auxiliary information could be useful in guiding the inventories, but caution should be used when applying the ALS-supported inventory technique. Conclusions This study characterized European aspen populations for the purposes of monitoring and management of boreal conservation areas. Our

  19. Edaphic, salinity, and stand structural trends in chronosequences of native and non-native dominated riparian forests along the Colorado River, USA

    Merritt, David M.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2012-01-01

    Tamarix spp. are introduced shrubs that have become among the most abundant woody plants growing along western North American rivers. We sought to empirically test the long-held belief that Tamarix actively displaces native species through elevating soil salinity via salt exudation. We measured chemical and physical attributes of soils (e.g., salinity, major cations and anions, texture), litter cover and depth, and stand structure along chronosequences dominated by Tamarix and those dominated by native riparian species (Populus or Salix) along the upper and lower Colorado River in Colorado and Arizona/California, USA. We tested four hypotheses: (1) the rate of salt accumulation in soils is faster in Tamarix-dominated stands than stands dominated by native species, (2) the concentration of salts in the soil is higher in mature stands dominated by Tamarix compared to native stands, (3) soil salinity is a function of Tamarix abundance, and (4) available nutrients are more concentrated in native-dominated stands compared to Tamarix-dominated stands. We found that salt concentration increases at a faster rate in Tamarix-dominated stands along the relatively free-flowing upper Colorado but not along the heavily-regulated lower Colorado. Concentrations of ions that are known to be preferentially exuded by Tamarix (e.g., B, Na, and Cl) were higher in Tamarix stands than in native stands. Soil salt concentrations in older Tamarix stands along the upper Colorado were sufficiently high to inhibit germination, establishment, or growth of some native species. On the lower Colorado, salinity was very high in all stands and is likely due to factors associated with floodplain development and the hydrologic effects of river regulation, such as reduced overbank flooding, evaporation of shallow ground water, higher salt concentrations in surface and ground water due to agricultural practices, and higher salt concentrations in fine-textured sediments derived from naturally saline

  20. Performance of spinal cord injury individuals while standing with the Mohammad Taghi Karimi reciprocal gait orthosis (MTK-RGO)

    Most patients with spinal cord injury use a wheelchair to transfer from place to place, however they need to stand and walk with orthosis to improve their health status. Although many orthoses have been designed for paraplegic patients, they have experienced various problems while in use. A new type of reciprocal gait orthosis was designed in the Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University to solve the problems of the available orthoses. Since there was no research undertaken regarding testing of the new orthosis on paraplegic subjects, this study was aimed to evaluate the new orthosis during standing of paraplegic subjects. Five paraplegic patients with lesion level between T12 and L1 and aged matched normal subjects were recruited into this study. The stability of subjects was evaluated during quiet standing and while undertaking hand tasks during standing with the new orthosis and the knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO). The difference between the performances of paraplegic subjects while standing with both orthoses, and between the function of normal and paraplegic subjects were compared using the paired t test and independent sample t test, respectively. The stability of paraplegic subjects in standing with the new orthosis was better than that of the KAFO orthosis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the force applied on the crutch differed between the orthoses. The functional performance of paraplegic subjects was better with the new orthosis compared with normal subjects. The performance of paraplegic subjects while standing with the new orthosis was better than the KAFO. Therefore, the new orthosis may be useful to improve standing and walking in patients with paraplegia.

  1. Biomass expansion factors for Eucalyptus globulus stands in Portugal

    Soares, P.; Tome, M.

    2012-11-01

    One of several procedures for estimating carbon stocks in forests is the estimation of tree or stand biomass based on forest inventory data. The two approaches normally used to convert field measurements of trees to stand biomass values are allometric biomass equations and biomass expansion factors (BEFs). BEFs are used in published National Forest Inventory results in which biomass is not estimated or as a complement of growth models that do not include biomass predictions. In this paper, the effectiveness of BEFs for estimating total stand biomass in Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus plantations was analyzed. Here, BEF is defined as the ratio of total stand biomass (aboveground biomass plus root biomass) to stand volume with bark. To calculate total biomass, an equation was developed to estimate root biomass as a function of aboveground biomass. Changes of BEF with stand variables were analyzed. Strong relationships were observed between BEF and stand age, stand basal area, stand volume and dominant height. Consequently, an equation to predict BEF as a function of stand variables was fitted, and dominant height was selected as the predictor stand variable. Estimates of total stand biomass based on individual tree allometric equations were compared with estimates obtained with a constant BEF (0.77), used in the Portuguese National Inventory Report on Greenhouse Gases, and with estimates obtained using the dominant height-dependent BEF equation developed in this work. The BEF prediction model proposed in this work may be used to improve E. globulus Portuguese biomass estimates when tree allometric equations cannot be used. (Author) 40 refs.

  2. Stand model for upland forests of Southern Arkansas

    Mielke, D.L.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1978-06-01

    A forest stand growth and composition simulator (FORAR) was developed by modifying a stand growth model by Shugart and West (1977). FORAR is a functional stand model which used ecological parameters to relate individual tree growth to environment rather than using Markov probability matrices or differential equations to determine single tree or species replacement rates. FORAR simulated tree growth and species composition of upland forests of Union County, Ark., by considering 33 tree species on a /sup 1///sub 12/ ha circular plot.

  3. Efficiency of group work in harvesting mountainous broadleaf thinning stands

    Legat, Nejc; Zečić, Željko; Krpan, Ante P. B.

    2016-01-01

    Group work was researched for felling, processing, skidding and quality inspection activities in mountainous broadleaf thinning stands with approximately the same terrain and stand conditions. The stands were 55 and 70years old. In the forest communities of the mountainous beech forest with dead nettle (Lamio orvale - Fagetum sylvaticae/Ht. 1938) and the forests of the sessile oak and horn beam with beech (Epimedio - Carpinetum betuli var. Fagus sylvatica/Ht. 1938/Borth.1963), the main tree s...

  4. Ant assemblages in successional stages of Scotch Broom stands

    Dauber, Jens; Simmering, D.

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED Scotch Broom (Cytisus scoparius [L.] LINK) stands are important seminatural habitats in cultural landscapes of Ger-many. High structural diversity of broom stands is reflected by a high species diversity of the flora and fauna, giving them a high value for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to assess the composition and structure of ant assemblages among successional stages of Scotch Broom stands, and compare these with assemblages in arable land and the climax ...

  5. The experiences of mastery of stand-by energy demand; Les experiences de MDE stand by

    Schilken, P.

    2001-07-01

    In the residential sector of the OECD countries, the electricity losses of domestic appliances in stand-by position represent 1.5% of the total electricity consumption. This study belongs to the SAVE project (pilot campaign of municipal utilities for an improved rational use of energy). Its aim is to observe the policies and experiments implemented by municipalities and municipal energy companies for the abatement of the electricity consumptions of stand-by origin. A working group consisting of the German Stadtwerke and some international partners have debated the possible actions and documents for an efficient information of the public. This document presents the brochures and local actions of this program. (J.S.)

  6. Knowing Where They Stand: The Role of Inferred Distributions of Others in Misestimates of Relative Standing

    Andrew D. Gershoff; Katherine A. Burson

    2011-01-01

    People often estimate how they compare to other consumers when they make purchase decisions. Unfortunately, they tend to err in this task, and this can lead to negative consequences in their choices. Previous literature has largely argued that these errors in estimates of relative standing are due to underweighting or ignoring the reference group. Using a novel measure of people's perception of the reference group, we show that consumers do attend to that information but err in their estimate...

  7. STUDY ON THE EXPLAINABLE ABILITY BY USING AIRBORNE LIDAR IN STAND VALUE AND STAND COMPETITION

    Huang, S.C.; Yeh, J.Y.; Chen, C. T.; Chen, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Forest canopy structure is composed by the various species. Sun light is a main factor to affect the crown structures after tree competition. However, thinning operation is an appropriate way to control canopy density, which can adjust the competition conditions in the different crown structures. Recently, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), has been established as a standard technology for high precision three dimensional forest data acquisition; it could get stand characteristics ...

  8. Estimation of tree heights and stand volume using an airborne lidar system

    The use of an airborne lidar system for estimating tree heights and stand volume was investigated. A helicopter-borne laser was tested in a coastal Scots pine stand where mean height was approximately 12.5 m. The laser equipment operated in a scanning mode and different laser footprints and sampling densities were tested at three independent registration times: one in June, one in October, and one in December. The tested footprints, measured at the ground, were between 0.75 m and 3.0 m in diameter. The results showed that the mean tree height was underestimated by 2.1–3.7 m. Optimal laser footprint size was found to change across data acquisition times. (author)

  9. Desk-based workers’ perspectives on using sit-stand workstations: a qualitative analysis of the Stand@Work study

    Chau, Josephine Y; Daley, Michelle; Srinivasan, Anu; Dunn, Scott; Bauman, Adrian E; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged sitting time has been identified as a health risk factor. Sit-stand workstations allow desk workers to alternate between sitting and standing throughout the working day, but not much is known about their acceptability and feasibility. Hence, the aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and perceptions of using sit-stand workstations in a group of desk-based office workers. Methods This article describes the qualitative evaluation of t...

  10. Powered Sit-to-Stand and Assistive Stand-to-Sit Framework for a Powered Transfemoral Prosthesis

    Varol, Huseyin Atakan; Sup, Frank; Goldfarb, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This work extends the three level powered knee and ankle prosthesis control framework previously developed by the authors by adding sitting mode. A middle level finite state based impedance controller is designed to accommodate sitting, sit-to-stand and stand-to-sit transitions. Moreover, a high level Gaussian Mixture Model based intent recognizer is developed to distinguish between standing and sitting modes and switch the middle level controllers accordingly. Experimental results with unila...

  11. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  12. Key processes from tree to stand level

    Changes in six factors have been identified as having potential major future impacts on the productivity and survival of forest trees and stands. These factors are atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, tropospheric ozone concentration, mean annual air temperature and precipitation, extremes in temperature and precipitation, and levels of ultraviolet radiation. Except for precipitation, all of these factors are expected to increase with climatic change. However, the likelihood of their increase or change ranges from the given to the unknown. The way in which one or more of these factors might individually or in combination affect the productivity and survival of trees is discussed, and particularly sensitive physiological processes are identified. For example, increases in winter temperature and a doubling of CO2 will result in early budburst in many species and therefore increase the risk of frost damage. In other species or locations, warm winters may mean insufficient chilling hours and the requirements for release from bud dormancy may not be met. The interaction of these processes with current species distribution, genotype selection, and management alternatives is reviewed. 52 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Theoretical Study on Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Engine

    Kalra, S.; Desai, K. P.; Naik, H. B.; Atrey, M. D.

    Applications of thermoacoustic engines are not limited to driving pulse tube cryocoolers. The performance of a thermoacoustic engine is governed by various design parameters like type of resonator, stack geometry, frequency, type of working gas etc. and various operating parameters like heat input, charging pressure etc. It is very important to arrive at an optimum configuration of the engine for which a theoretical model is required. In the present work, a theoretical analysis, based on linear acoustic theory of a standing wave type half wavelength thermoacoustic engine is carried out using DeltaEC software. The system dimensions like length of resonator, stack, hot and cold heat exchangers are fixed with a helium-argon mixture as the working gas and a parallel plate type stack. Later on, two plate spacings, corresponding to helium-argon mixture and nitrogen gas, are used for carrying out analysis with helium, argon, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and helium-argon mixture as working gases of the system. The effect of charging pressure on the performance of the system is studied in terms of resonating frequency, onset temperature, pressure amplitude, acoustic power and efficiency. The conclusions derived from the analysis are reported in the paper.

  14. RAMSES stands guard over the accelerator chain

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    RAMSES, the system that is used to monitor radiation at the LHC, CNGS, CTF3 and n-TOF facilities, will soon be installed at strategic points in the accelerator chain, replacing the older monitoring system ARCON. The replacement programme has already begun.   RAMSES (which stands for “Radiation Monitoring System for the Environment and Safety”) is designed to protect workers, the general public and the environment, both on the Organization’s site and in the surrounding areas. It is currently operational on all the LHC sites and at CTF3, CNGS and n-TOF, while the remaining sites are still equipped with the ARCON (Area CONtroller) system. Daniel Perrin, head of the Instrumentation and Logistics Section of the HSE Unit's Radiation Protection Group, explains: “ARCON was designed for the old LEP accelerator and dates back to the early 1980s, while RAMSES is a much more recent design intended specifically for the LHC. With 389 detectors distributed across 124 mea...

  15. Developing a mobile stand alone photovoltaic generator

    This paper describes a recent work developed to create a mobile stand alone photovoltaic generator that can be easily relocated in remote areas to evaluate the feasibility of photovoltaic energy applications. A set of sensors were installed to monitor the electric current and voltage of the energy generated, the energy stored and the energy used by the loads that may be connected to the system. Other parameters like solar radiations (both on the horizontal and on the photovoltaic generation planes) and temperatures (of both the environment and the photovoltaic module) were monitored. This was done while considering the important role of temperature in the photovoltaic module performance. Finally, a measurement and communication hardware was installed to interface the system developed with a conventional computer. In this way, the performance of the overall system in real rural conditions could be evaluated efficiently. Visual software that reads, visualizes and saves the data generated by the system was also developed by means of the LabVIEW programming environment

  16. Invistigation on Canopy Height and Density Differentiations in the Managed and Unmanaged Forest Stands Using LIDAR Data (case Study: Shastkalateh Forest, Gorgan)

    Shataee, Sh.; Mohammadi, J.

    2015-12-01

    Forest management plans are interesting to keep the forest stand natural composite and structure after silvicultural and management treatments. In order to investigate on stand differences made by management treatments, comparing of these stands with unmanaged stands as natural forests is necessary. Aerial laser scanners are providing suitable 3D information to map the horizontal and vertical characteristics of forest structures. In this study, different of canopy height and canopy cover variances between managed and unmanaged forest stands as well as in two dominant forest types were investigated using Lidar data in Dr. Bahramnia forest, Northern Iran. The in-situ information was gathered from 308 circular plots by a random systematic sampling designs. The low lidar cloud point data were used to generate accurate DEM and DSM models and plot-based height statistics metrics and canopy cover characteristics. The significant analyses were done by independent T-test between two stands in same dominant forest types. Results showed that there are no significant differences between canopy cover mean in two stands as well as forest types. Result of statistically analysis on height characteristics showed that there are a decreasing the forest height and its variance in the managed forest compared to unmanaged stands. In addition, there is a significant difference between maximum, range, and mean heights of two stands in 99 percent confidence level. However, there is no significant difference between standard deviation and canopy height variance of managed and unmanged stands. These results showd that accomplished management treatments and cuttings could lead to reducing of height variances and converting multi-layers stands to two or single layers. Results are also showed that the canopy cover densities in the managed forest stands are changing from high dense cover to dense cover.

  17. Radiation monitoring of the stand complex's Bajkal-1 personnel

    The stand complex Bajkal-1 was created in the end sixteenth and beginning of seventeenth at the territory of Semipalatinsk testing site and was intended to working out of experimental study of nuclear rocket engines of prototype-reactor with solid phase reactor core. During testing of reactor elements has being accumulated a considerable material on a radiation investigation and a radiation protection. In 1988 works by cosmic subject characterizing great exposure doses from working reactor and radionuclides yield to environment was stopped. But the perfect radiation monitoring system was saved. It was created in collaboration a specialists of former USSR and own personnel of the complex. The series of the organization and technical measures under exploitation of reactors allows achieved average irradiation dose of personnel equal up 0,3 Br per year. There is control of incorporated radionuclides in the human organism spectrometer. All personnel of the complex one time in year are inspecting on it. It necessary noted, that contents of Cs 137 isotope does not exceeded 0,01 from limit value. Now the first results of radon and it daughter products concentration in the air of working premises measuring are obtained. The working out of numerous of measuring allows choose optimal regime of the ventilation

  18. Diagnostics in athletes with long-standing groin pain.

    Jansen, J A C G; Mens, J M A; Backx, F J G; Stam, H J

    2008-12-01

    Chronic adductor dysfunction, osteitis pubis and abdominal wall deficiency are mentioned as pathologies explaining long-standing groin pain (LGP) in athletes. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of diagnostic tests used to identify these pathologies in athletic OKE. Additionally, starting points for intervention were searched for. A systematic literature search was performed to retrieve all relevant diagnostic studies and studies describing risk factors. The methodological quality of the identified studies was evaluated. Seventeen studies provided an insight into pathologies; eight provided relevant information for intervention. Adduction provocation tests are moderately valid for osteitis pubis. A pelvic belt might provide some insight into the role of the pubic symphysis during adduction provocation. Palpation can be used for provocation of adductors and symphysis. Roentgen, bone scan and herniography show poor validity. Bilateral abdominal abnormalities on ultrasound appear to be a valid marker for LGP. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can visualize edema and other abnormalities, although the relation to groin pain is not unambiguous. The methodological quality of the studies ranged from poor to good. MRI and ultrasound should be the primary diagnostic tools after clinical examination. PMID:18980608

  19. Vibration transmission characteristics of the legs of freely standing honeybees

    Rohrseitz, Kristin; Kilpinen, Ole

    The leg vibrations of honeybees standing on a vibrating substrate were measured with laser Doppler vibrometry, both in freely standing bees and in bees attached to a holder. In both cases, no resonances were found. In the fixed bee preparation, the legs moved with approximately the same amplitude...

  20. Approved forest stands for seed collection; 1 : 1 000 000

    This map of The Atlas represents the approved forest stands for seed collection of the Slovak Republic. The approved stands rank among the best quality ones of the wood species used for seed collection and they are the result of the previous massive selection expressed by the phenotype value in the forest economic plan. (authors)