WorldWideScience

Sample records for a resonances

  1. Resonator having a selection circuit for selecting a resonance mode

    Verhoeven, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Resonator provided with a resonating device and with a selection circuit for selecting a resonance mode. The selection circuit is formed by a first-order oscillator which is provided with a synchronization input and whose output is connected to the excitation input of the resonating device, the output of the resonating device being connected to the synchronization input of the first-order oscillator in order to synchronize said oscillator and the output signal of the resonator being derived f...

  2. Resonance in a head massager

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2015-04-01

    Mechanical structures such as pendula, bridges, or buildings always exhibit one (or more) natural oscillation frequency.1 If that structure is subjected to oscillatory forces of this same frequency, resonance occurs, with consequent increase of the structure oscillation amplitude. There is no shortage of simple experiments for demonstrating resonance in high school classes using a variety of materials, such as saw blades,2 guitars,3 pendulums,4 wine glasses,5 bottles,6 Ping-Pong balls,7 and pearl strings.8 We present here an experimental demonstration using only an inexpensive head (or scalp) massager, which can be purchased for less than a dollar.

  3. A Broadband Dipolar Resonance in THz Metamaterials

    Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Surdi, Harshad; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Prabhu, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a THz metamaterial with broadband dipole resonance originating due to the hybridization of LC resonances. The structure optimized by finite element method simulations is fabricated by electron beam lithography and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Numerically, we found that when two LC metamaterial resonators are brought together, an electric dipole resonance arises in addition to the LC resonances. We observed a strong dependence of the width of these resona...

  4. A Broadband Dipolar Resonance in THz Metamaterials

    Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Gopal, Achanta Venu; Prabhu, S S

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a THz metamaterial with broadband dipole resonance originating due to the hybridization of LC resonances. The structure optimized by finite element method simulations is fabricated by electron beam lithography and characterized by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. Numerically, we found that when two LC metamaterial resonators are brought together, an electric dipole resonance arises in addition to the LC resonances. We observed a strong dependence of the width of these resonances on the separation between the resonators. This dependence can be explained based on series and parallel RLC circuit analogies. The broadband dipole resonance appears when both the resonators are fused together. The metamaterial has a stopband with FWHM of 0.47 THz centered at 1.12 THz. The experimentally measured band features are in reasonable agreement with the simulated ones. The experimental power extinction ratio of THz in the stopbands is found to be 15 dB.

  5. Traces of a triboson resonance

    Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Lombardo, S

    2016-01-01

    We show that the relatively small but coincident excesses observed around 2 TeV in the ATLAS Run 1 and Run 2 hadronic diboson searches --- when a cut on the number of tracks in the fat jets is not applied --- and the null results of all remaining high-mass diboson searches are compatible with the decay of a triboson resonance $R$ into $WZ$ plus an extra particle $X$. These decays can take place via new neutral ($Y^0$) or charged ($Y^\\pm$) particles, namely $R \\to Y^0 \\, W$, with $Y^0 \\to Z X$, or $R \\to Y^\\pm Z$, with $Y^\\pm \\to W X$. An obvious candidate for such intermediate particle is a neutral one $Y^0$, given a $3.9\\sigma$ excess found at 650 GeV by the CMS Collaboration in searches for intermediate mass diboson resonances decaying to $ZV$, with $V=W,Z$. We discuss discovery strategies for triboson resonances with small modifications of existing hadronic searches.

  6. Describing resonances in a discrete basis

    The problem of describing resonances when the continuum is represented by a discrete set of normalizable states is addressed. In particular, here the description of resonances in a transformed harmonic oscillator basis is presented. A method to disentangle the resonances from the nonresonant continuum is proposed. The Ginocchio potential is used to model a case in which resonances appear in the continuum and a reference case in which only nonresonant continuum appears

  7. A Family of Resonant Vibration Control Formats

    Krenk, Steen; Høgsberg, Jan Becker

    Resonant control makes use of a controller with a resonance frequency and an equivalent damping ratio. A simple explicit calibration procedure is presented for a family of resonant controllers in which the frequency is tuned to the natural frequency of the targeted mode in such a way that the two...

  8. A new Fano resonance in measurement processes

    Martínez-Argüello, A. M.; Martínez-Mares, M.; Cobián-Suárez, M.; Báez, G.; Méndez-Sánchez, R. A.

    2015-06-01

    In a wave resonant scattering process the interference of the continuous scattering amplitude with a discrete resonant state, both of the same undulatory nature, gives rise to a Fano resonance profile. We report experimental evidence of a new kind of Fano resonance, in which the continuous amplitude is of a different nature than that of the resonant wave. The continuous amplitude, of a electromagnetic nature, comes from the measurement process and induces a new type of prompt, or rapid, response of the system which we describe theoretically including this response as a direct process.

  9. Electron Shell as a Resonator

    Main principles of the resonance effect arising in the electron shells in interaction of the nuclei with electromagnetic radiation are analyzed and presented in the historical aspect. Principles of NEET are considered from a more general position, as compared to how this is usually presented. Characteristic features of NEET and its reverse, TEEN, as internal conversion processes are analyzed, and ways are offered of inducing them by laser radiation. The ambivalent role of the Pauli exclusion principles in NEET and TEEN processes is investigated.

  10. Observation of a hybrid spin resonance

    Bai; Allgower; Ahrens; Alessi; Brown; Bunce; Cameron; Chu; Courant; Glenn; Huang; Jeon; Kponou; Krueger; Luccio; Makdisi; Lee; Ratner; Reece; Roser; Spinka; Syphers; Tsoupas; Underwood; van Asselt W; Williams

    2000-02-01

    A new type of spin depolarization resonance has been observed at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). This spin resonance is identified as a strong closed-orbit sideband around the dominant intrinsic spin resonance. The strength of the resonance was proportional to the 9th harmonic component of the horizontal closed orbit and proportional to the vertical betatron oscillation amplitude. This "hybrid" spin resonance cannot be overcome by the partial snake at the AGS, but it can be corrected by the harmonic orbit correctors. PMID:11017474

  11. Hybrid resonant phenomenon in a metamaterial structure with integrated resonant magnetic material

    Gollub, Jonah N.; Smith, David R.; Baena, Juan D.

    2008-01-01

    We explore the hybridization of fundamental material resonances with the artificial resonances of metamaterials. A hybrid structure is presented in the waveguide environment that consists of a resonant magnetic material with a characteristic tuneable gyromagnetic response that is integrated into a complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) metamaterial structure. The combined structure exhibits a distinct hybrid resonance in which each natural resonance of the CSRR is split into a lower and up...

  12. Soft resonator of omnidirectional resonance for acoustic metamaterials with a negative bulk modulus

    Xiaodong Jing; Yang Meng; Xiaofeng Sun

    2015-01-01

    Monopolar resonance is of fundamental importance in the acoustic field. Here, we present the realization of a monopolar resonance that goes beyond the concept of Helmholtz resonators. The balloon-like soft resonator (SR) oscillates omnidirectionally and radiates from all parts of its spherical surface, eliminating the need for a hard wall for the cavity and baffle effects. For airborne sound, such a low-modulus resonator can be made extremely lightweight. Deep subwavelength resonance is achie...

  13. Transmission resonance in a composite plasmonic structure

    Yin, Xiao-gang; Wang, Qian-jin; Zhang, Chao; Zhu, Yong-yuan

    2009-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and optical properties of a composite plasmonic structure, a two-dimentional array of split-ring resonators inserted into periodic square holes of a metal film, have been reported. A new type of transmission resonance, which makes a significant difference from the conventional peaks, has been suggested both theoretically and experimentally. To understand this effect, a mechanism of ring- resonance induced dipole emission is proposed.

  14. A resonance mechanism of earthquakes

    Flambaum, V V

    2015-01-01

    It had been observed in [1] that there are periodic 4-6 hours pulses of ? 200 ?Hz seismogravita- tional oscillations ( SGO ) before 95 % of powerful earthquakes. We explain this by beating between an oscillation eigenmode of a whole tectonic plate and a local eigenmode of an active zone which tranfers the oscillation energy from the tectonic plate to the active zone causing the eathrquake. Oscillation frequencies of the plate and ones of the active zone are tuned to a resonance by an additional pressure applied to the active zone due to collision of neighboring plates or convection in the upper mantia (plume). Corresponding theory may be used for short-term prediction of the earthquakes and tsunami.

  15. A multimode electromechanical parametric resonator array

    Mahboob, I.; Mounaix, M.; K. Nishiguchi; Fujiwara, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2014-01-01

    Electromechanical resonators have emerged as a versatile platform in which detectors with unprecedented sensitivities and quantum mechanics in a macroscopic context can be developed. These schemes invariably utilise a single resonator but increasingly the concept of an array of electromechanical resonators is promising a wealth of new possibilities. In spite of this, experimental realisations of such arrays have remained scarce due to the formidable challenges involved in their fabrication. I...

  16. A new subgroup method for resonance treatment

    Recent calculations of spatial resonance interference effects, based on continuous Monte Carlo and energy-pointwise slowing-down codes, confirm the need to use rigorous methods. This means that an improved resonance calculation must somehow use data on resonance location, width, etc. In the current work, a generalization of the subgroup resonance treatment was derived to account for the space and energy dependence of the resonance absorption inside the fuel rod of a heterogeneous lattice. This paper describes the basic principles and algorithms used in the proposed subgroup method. Example applications are given for homogeneous medium and for spatial distribution of effective resonance absorption by 238 U in thick uranium metal rod. (author)

  17. A High-Q Microwave MEMS Resonator

    Jian, Z.; Yuanwei, Y.; Yong, Z.; Chen, Chen; Shixing, J.

    2007-01-01

    A High-Q microwave (K band) MEMS resonator is presented, which empolys substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and micromachined via-hole arrays by ICP process. Nonradiation dielectric waveguide (NRD) is formed by metal filled via-hole arrays and grounded planes. The three dimensional (3D) high resistivity silicon substrate filled cavity resonator is fed by current probes using CPW line. This monolithic resonator results in low cost, high performance and easy integration with planar cicuits. The...

  18. Coherence of magnetic resonators in a metamaterial

    Yumin Hou

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The coherence of periodic magnetic resonators (MRs under oblique incidence is studied using simulations. The correlated phase of interaction including both the retardation effect and relative phase difference between two MRs is defined, and it plays a key role in the MR interaction. The correlated phase is anisotropic, as is the coherence condition. The coherence condition is the same as the Wood's anomaly and verified by the Fano resonance. This study shows that the applications of the Fano resonance of periodic MRs will become widespread owing to achieving the Fano resonance simply by tuning the incident angle.

  19. A novel resonant pressure sensor with boron diffused silicon resonator

    Wang, Junbo; Shi, Xiaojing; Liu, Lei; Wu, Zhengwei; Chen, Deyong; Zhao, Jinmin; Li, Shourong

    2008-12-01

    To improve the performance of the micro-machined resonant pressure sensor and simplify its fabrication process, a novel structure is proposed in which the boron diffused silicon (up to 15um thickness) and the bulk silicon are used as the resonant beam and pressure membrane respectively. The structural parameters were optimized through FEM to achieve the better sensitivity, and the relationships between the structural parameters and the sensitivity were established. Moreover, the fabrication processes were discussed to increase the product rate and the pressure sensor with the optimal structural parameters was fabricated by the bulk silicon MEMS processes. In order to enhance the signal of the sensor and make the closed-looped control of the sensor easily, electromagnetic excitation and detection was applied. However there is so high noise coming from the distributing capacitances between the diffused silicon layer and electrodes that reduce the signal to noise ratio of the sensor. Through the analysis of the micro-structure of the sensor, the asymmetrical excitation circuit was used to reduce the noise and then the detection circuit was designed for this sensor. The resonator of the sensor was packaged in the low vacuum condition so that the high quality factor (Q) with about 10000 can be achieved. Experimental tests were carried out for the sensor over the range of -80kPa to 100kPa, the results show that the sensitivity of the sensor is about 20kHz/100kPa, the sensitivity is 0.01%F.S. and the nonlinearity is about 1.8%.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Force Detection using a Membrane Resonator

    Scozzaro, Nicolas; Ruchotzke, Will; Belding, Amanda; Cardellino, Jeremy D.; Blomberg, Erick C.; McCullian, Brendan A.; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Pelekhov, Denis V.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2016-01-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost magnetic resonance imaging instruments would further broaden the substantial impact of this technology. We report highly sensitive detection of magnetic resonance using low-stress silicon nitride (SiN$_x$) membranes. We use these membranes as low-loss, high-frequency mechanical oscillators and find they are able to mechanically detect spin-dependent forces with high sensitivity enabling ultrasensitive magnetic resonance detection. The high force detection...

  1. A High-Q Microwave MEMS Resonator

    Jian, Z; Yong, Z; Chen, Chen; Shixing, J

    2008-01-01

    A High-Q microwave (K band) MEMS resonator is presented, which empolys substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) and micromachined via-hole arrays by ICP process. Nonradiation dielectric waveguide (NRD) is formed by metal filled via-hole arrays and grounded planes. The three dimensional (3D) high resistivity silicon substrate filled cavity resonator is fed by current probes using CPW line. This monolithic resonator results in low cost, high performance and easy integration with planar cicuits. The measured quality factor is beyond 180 and the resonance frequency is 21GHz.It shows a good agreement with the simulation results. The chip size is only 4.7mm x 4.6mm x 0.5mm. Finally, as an example of applications, a filter using two SIW resonators is designed.

  2. Magnetic resonance force detection using a membrane resonator

    Scozzaro, Nicolas; Ruchotzke, William; Belding, Amanda; Cardellino, Jeremy; Blomberg, Erick; McCullian, Brendan; Bhallamudi, Vidya; Pelekhov, Denis; Hammel, P. Chris

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) membranes are commercially-available, versatile structures that have a variety of applications. Although most commonly used as the support structure for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies, membranes are also ultrasensitive high-frequency mechanical oscillators. The sensitivity stems from the high quality factor Q 106 , which has led to applications in sensitive quantum optomechanical experiments. The high sensitivity also opens the door to ultrasensitive force detection applications. We report force detection of electron spin magnetic resonance at 300 K using a Si3N4 membrane with a force sensitivity of 4 fN/√{ Hz}, and a potential low temperature sensitivity of 25 aN/√{ Hz}. Given membranes' sensitivity, robust construction, large surface area and low cost, SiN membranes can potentially serve as the central component of a compact room-temperature ESR and NMR instrument that has superior spatial resolution to conventional NMR.

  3. Resonances

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to...... realize theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall...

  4. Membrane metamaterial resonators with a sharp resonance: A comprehensive study towards practical terahertz filters and sensors

    Yongyao Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the resonant properties of high quality-factor membrane-based metamaterial resonators functioning in the terahertz regime. A number of factors, including the resonator geometry, dielectric loss, and most importantly the membrane thickness are found to extensively influence the resonance strength and quality factor of the sharp resonance. Further studies on the membrane thickness-dependent-sensitivity for sensing applications reveal that high quality-factor membrane metamaterials with a moderate thickness ranging from 10 to 50 μm are the most promising option towards developing realistic integrated terahertz filters and sensors.

  5. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to ∼37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g0=2π.300 MHz respectively C0=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached.

  6. Kepler-16b: a resonant survivor

    Popova, E A

    2012-01-01

    The planet Kepler-16b is known to follow a circumbinary orbit around a double system of two main-sequence stars. We construct stability diagrams in the "pericentric distance - eccentricity" plane, which show that Kepler-16b is in a hazardous vicinity to the chaos domain - just between the instability "teeth" in the space of orbital parameters. Kepler-16b survives, because it is close to the half-integer 11/2 orbital resonance with the central binary. The neighbouring resonance cells are vacant, because they are "purged" by Kepler-16b, due to overlap of first-order resonances with the planet.

  7. Prediction for a four-neutron resonance

    Shirokov, A M; Mazur, A I; Mazur, I A; Roth, R; Vary, J P

    2016-01-01

    We utilize various {\\em ab initio} approaches to search for a low-lying resonance in the four-neutron ($4n$) system using the JISP16 realistic $NN$ interaction. Our most accurate prediction is obtained using a $J$-matrix extension of the No-Core Shell Model and suggests a $4n$ resonant state at an energy near $E_r = 0.8$ MeV with a width of approximately $\\Gamma = 1.4$ MeV.

  8. Modeling the acoustic excitation of a resonator

    Mandre, Shreyas; Mahadevan, Lakshminarayanan

    2007-11-01

    The sounding of a beverage bottle when blown on is a familiar but very little understood phenomenon. A very similar mechanism is used by musical wind instruments, like organ pipes and flutes, for sound production. This phenomenon falls under the general umbrella of flow induced oscillations and is representative of a more generic mechanism. The modeling of this phenomenon essentially involves two components. The first is the resonator, which bears the oscillations and this component is very well understood. The resonator, however, needs an external energy input to sustain the oscillations, which is provided by the jet of air blown. The dynamics of the jet and its interaction with the resonator is the primary focus of this talk. In particular, we provide a linearized model based on first principles to explain the feedback of energy from the jet to the resonator and compare the predictions with experimental results.

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a Dielectric Lens

    Vazquez, F.; Marrufo, O.; MARTIN,R; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, metamaterials have been introduced to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of magnetic resonance images with very promising results. However, the use polymers in the generation of high quality images in magnetic resonance imaging has not been fully been investigated. These investigations explored the use of a dielectric periodical array as a lens to improve the image SNR generated with single surface coils. Commercial polycarbonate glazing sheets were used together with a circula...

  10. Fano resonances in a plasmonic waveguide system composed of stub coupled with a square cavity resonator

    A coupled plasmonic waveguide resonator system which can produce sharp and asymmetric Fano resonances was proposed and analyzed. Two Fano resonances are induced by the interactions between the narrow discrete whispering gallery modes in a plasmonic square cavity resonator and the broad spectrum of the metal–insulator–metal stub resonator. The relative peak amplitudes between the 1st and 2nd order Fano resonances can be adjusted by changing the structure parameters, such as the square cavity size, the stub size and the center-to-center distance between the square cavity and the stub resonators. And the 1st order Fano resonant peak, which is a standing-wave mode, will split into two resonant peaks (one standing-wave mode and one traveling-wave mode) when it couples with the 2nd Fano resonance. Also, the potential of the proposed Fano system as an integrated slow-light device and refractive index sensor was investigated. The results show that a maximum group index of about 100 can be realized, and a linear refractive index sensitivity of 938 nm/RIU with a figure of merit of about 1.35 × 104 can be obtained. (paper)

  11. Wireless Magnetoelastic Resonance Sensors: A Critical Review

    Keat G. Ong

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive review of magnetoelastic environmental sensor technology; topics include operating physics, sensor design, and illustrative applications. Magnetoelastic sensors are made of amorphous metallic glass ribbons or wires, with a characteristic resonant frequency inversely proportional to length. The remotely detected resonant frequency of a magnetoelastic sensor shifts in response to different physical parameters including stress, pressure, temperature, flow velocity, liquid viscosity, magnetic field, and mass loading. Coating the magnetoelastic sensor with a mass changing, chemically responsive layer enables realization of chemical sensors. Magnetoelastic sensors can be remotely interrogated by magnetic, acoustic, or optical means. The sensors can be characterized in the time domain, where the resonant frequency is determined through analysis of the sensor transient response, or in the frequency domain where the resonant frequency is determined from the frequency-amplitude spectrum of the sensor.

  12. Double Fano resonances in a composite metamaterial possessing tripod plasmonic resonances

    Lee, Y.U.; Choi, E. Y.; Kim, E S; Woo, J.H.; KANG, B.; Kim, J.; Park, Byung Cheol; Hong, T. Y.; Kim, Jae Hoon; Wu, J W

    2013-01-01

    By embedding four-rod resonators inside double-split ring resonators superlattice, a planar composite metamaterial possessing tripod plasmonic resonances is fabricated. Double Fano resonances are observed where a common subradiant driven oscillator is coupled with two superradiant oscillators. As a classical analogue of four-level tripod atomic system, the transmission spectrum of the composite metamaterial exhibits a double Fano-based coherent effect. Transfer of absorbed power between two s...

  13. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  14. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process.

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M

    2016-04-14

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly. PMID:27083746

  15. A transmission calibration method for superconducting resonators

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Barrentine, Emily M; Brown, Ari D; Moseley, Samuel H; U-Yen, Kongpop

    2014-01-01

    A method is proposed and experimentally explored for \\textit{in-situ} calibration of complex transmission data for superconducting microwave resonators. This cryogenic calibration method accounts for the instrumental transmission response between the vector network analyzer reference plane and the device calibration plane. Once calibrated, the observed resonator response was modeled in detail by two approaches. The first, a phenomenological model based on physically realizable rational functions, enables the extraction of multiple resonance frequencies and widths for coupled resonators without explicit specification of the circuit network. In the second, an ABCD-matrix representation for the distributed transmission line circuit is used to model the observed response from the characteristic impedance and propagation constant. When used in conjunction with electromagnetic simulations, the kinetic inductance fraction can be determined with this method with an accuracy of 2%. Datasets for superconducting microst...

  16. Cylindrical Resonator Utilizing a Curved Resonant Grating as a Cavity Wall

    Hirohito Yamada

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A thin-film grating on a curved substrate functions as a highly reflective and wavelength sensitive mirror for a diverging wave that has the same curvature as the substrate. In this paper we propose a cylindrical cavity surrounded by a curved resonant grating wall, and describe its resonance characteristics. Through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD simulation we have clarified that this type of cavity supports two resonance modes: one is confined by Fresnel reflection and the other by resonance reflection of the wall. We have also demonstrated that the latter mode exhibits a Q factor several orders of magnitude higher than that of the former mode.

  17. Chemical sensors based on the modification of a resonator cavity

    Hennig, Oliver; Mendes, Sergio B.; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Peyghambarian, Nasser

    1999-02-01

    In this paper, we present a chemical sensor based on the modification of an optical resonator: the optical path length of the resonant cavity is changed by the chemical in question, thus shifting its resonant frequency.

  18. Tunable Fano resonance in a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer.

    Wang, Kaiyang; Liu, Xiaoqi; Yu, Changqiu; Zhang, Yundong

    2013-07-10

    We theoretically study a single-ring-resonator-based add/drop interferometer to achieve tunable Fano resonance. The Fano resonance results from the interference of two resonant beams propagating in the ring resonator. The line shapes of the Fano resonance are tunable by controlling the coupling coefficients between the waveguide and ring resonator. The spectra of the drop port and through port of the add/drop interferometer are horizontally mirror-symmetric. A box-like spectral response can be produced with the proper coupling coefficient owing to the double resonances. When the phase difference between the two light inputs to the add/drop interferometer is compensated, a doubled free spectral range can be obtained. PMID:23852203

  19. Fano resonances in a multimode waveguide coupled to a high-Q silicon nitride ring resonator.

    Ding, Dapeng; de Dood, Michiel J A; Bauters, Jared F; Heck, Martijn J R; Bowers, John E; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2014-03-24

    Silicon nitride (Si3N4) optical ring resonators provide exceptional opportunities for low-loss integrated optics. Here we study the transmission through a multimode waveguide coupled to a Si3N4 ring resonator. By coupling single-mode fibers to both input and output ports of the waveguide we selectively excite and probe combinations of modes in the waveguide. Strong asymmetric Fano resonances are observed and the degree of asymmetry can be tuned through the positions of the input and output fibers. The Fano resonance results from the interference between modes of the waveguide and light that couples resonantly to the ring resonator. We develop a theoretical model based on the coupled mode theory to describe the experimental results. The large extension of the optical modes out of the Si3N4 core makes this system promising for sensing applications. PMID:24664026

  20. A mechanical memory with a dc modulation of nonlinear resonance

    Noh, Hyunho; Shim, Seung-Bo; Jung, Minkyung; Khim, Zheong G.; Kim, Jinhee

    2010-07-01

    We present a mechanical memory device based on dynamic motion of a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator. The NEM resonator exhibits clear nonlinear resonance characteristics which can be controlled by the dc bias voltage. For memory operations, the NEM resonator is driven to the nonlinear resonance region, and binary values are assigned to the two allowed states on the bifurcation branch. The transition between memory states is achieved by modulating the nonlinear resonance characteristics with dc bias voltage. Our device works at room temperature and modest vacuum conditions with a maximum operation frequency of about 5 kHz.

  1. Double Fano resonances in a composite metamaterial possessing tripod plasmonic resonances

    By embedding four-rod resonators inside a double-split ring resonator superlattice, a planar composite metamaterial possessing tripod plasmonic resonances is fabricated. Double Fano resonances are observed where a common subradiant driven oscillator is coupled with two superradiant oscillators. As a classical analogue of a four-level tripod atomic system, the extinction spectrum of the composite metamaterial exhibits a coherent effect based on double Fano resonances. Transfer of the absorbed power between two orthogonal superradiant oscillators is shown to be mediated by the common subradiant oscillator. (paper)

  2. Topological phase of a resonant state

    We study the adiabatic dynamics of a nuclear state which is a superposition of resonant states and evolves irreversibly due to the spontaneous decay of the unstable states. The Hamiltonian of the system is smoothly parameterised by collective or slow variables. We give the geometrical structure of the energy surface close to the degeneracy. The condition for accidental degeneracy of two resonances defines a circle in parameter space, the 'diabolical' circle. In the special case of two overlapping resonances, mixed by a Hermitian interaction, the energy surface has two pieces embedded in orthogonal subspaces. The surface corresponding to the level repulsion regime has the shape of an open sandglass or diabolo, with its waist at the diabolical circle. The surface corresponding to the width attraction regime is a sphere with the equator at the diabolical circle. The two surfaces touch each other at all points on the diabolical circle. We also give a closed analytical expression for the Berry phase of a resonant state which is now complex. Its real part is the same as the well known expression for the Berry phase of a stable state. Its imaginary part is proportional to the difference of the half-widths of the unperturbed resonances. The validity of the adiabatic approximation in this case is shortly discussed. (Author). 33 refs, 5 figs

  3. A diphoton resonance from bulk RS

    Csáki, Csaba; Randall, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Recent LHC data hinted at a 750 GeV mass resonance that decays into two photons. A significant feature of this resonance is that its decays to any other Standard Model particles would be too low to be detected so far. Such a state has a compelling explanation in terms of a scalar or a pseudoscalar that is strongly coupled to vector states charged under the Standard Model gauge groups. Such a scenario is readily accommodated in bulk RS with a scalar localized in the bulk away from but close to the Higgs. Turning this around, we argue that a good way to find the elusive bulk RS model might be the search for a resonance with prominent couplings to gauge bosons.

  4. A general model of resonance capture in planetary systems: First and second order resonances

    Mustill, Alexander J

    2010-01-01

    Mean motion resonances are a common feature of both our own Solar System and of extrasolar planetary systems. Bodies can be trapped in resonance when their orbital semi-major axes change, for instance when they migrate through a protoplanetary disc. We use a Hamiltonian model to thoroughly investigate the capture behaviour for first and second order resonances. Using this method, all resonances of the same order can be described by one equation, with applications to specific resonances by appropriate scaling. We focus on the limit where one body is a massless test particle and the other a massive planet. We quantify how the the probability of capture into a resonance depends on the relative migration rate of the planet and particle, and the particle's eccentricity. Resonant capture fails for high migration rates, and has decreasing probability for higher eccentricities. More massive planets can capture particles at higher eccentricities and migration rates. We also calculate libration amplitudes and the offse...

  5. Lateral acoustic wave resonator comprising a suspended membrane of low damping resonator material

    Olsson, Roy H.; El-Kady; , Ihab F.; Ziaei-Moayyed, Maryam; Branch; , Darren W.; Su; Mehmet F.,; Reinke; Charles M.,

    2013-09-03

    A very high-Q, low insertion loss resonator can be achieved by storing many overtone cycles of a lateral acoustic wave (i.e., Lamb wave) in a lithographically defined suspended membrane comprising a low damping resonator material, such as silicon carbide. The high-Q resonator can sets up a Fabry-Perot cavity in a low-damping resonator material using high-reflectivity acoustic end mirrors, which can comprise phononic crystals. The lateral overtone acoustic wave resonator can be electrically transduced by piezoelectric couplers. The resonator Q can be increased without increasing the impedance or insertion loss by storing many cycles or wavelengths in the high-Q resonator material, with much lower damping than the piezoelectric transducer material.

  6. Resonant entrainment of a confined pulsed jet

    Parikh, P. G.; Moffat, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports the discovery of a new resonant entrainment phenomenon associated with a confined, pulsed jet flow. It was found that a confined jet, when pulsed at an organ-pipe resonant frequency of the confinement tube, experiences greatly enhanced entrainment and mixing near the exit end of the confinement tube compared to a steady confined jet. The mixing and entrainment rates for the resonantly pulsed confined jet approach, and in some cases slightly exceed, those for an unconfined pulsed jet. Both visual and quantitative evidence of this phenomenon is presented. The new effect should be of considerable interest in ejector and combustor design, both of which benefit from any enhancement in mixing between a primary and a secondary flow

  7. Resonance statistics in a microwave cavity with a thin antenna

    Exner, P.; Šeba, P.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a model for scattering in a flat resonator with a thin antenna. The results are applied to rectangular microwave cavities. We compute the resonance spacing distribution and show that it agrees well with experimental data provided the antenna radius is much smaller than wavelengths of the resonance wavefunctions.

  8. A bulk niobium superconducting quarter wave resonator

    Ben-Zvi, I. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Chiaveri, E. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Elkonin, B.V. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel)); Facco, A.; Sokolowski, J.S. (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionale di Legnaro)

    1990-01-01

    A bath-cooled all-niobium 160 MHz quarter wave resonator prototype was constructed and tested. The objective of this research has been the development of a high performance accelerating element with {beta}{sub opt} {approx equal} 0.11 for the ALPI linac at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The design of this resonator was based upon a previous 150 MHz model, with minor changes due to the different frequency and to modified welding procedure. An accelerating field of 5 MV/m was achieved at a power dissipation of 10 W and the low power Q was 2.4 {times} 10{sup 8}. The resonator could dissipate 70 W of power without thermal breakdown. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Basic dynamics at a multiple resonance

    The problem of multiple resonance is dealt with as it occurs in Celestial Mechanics and in non-linear Mechanics. In perturbation theory small divisors occur as a consequence of the fact that the flows in the phase space of the real system and the flows in the phase space of the so-called undisturbed system are not homeomorphic at all. Whatever the perturbation technique we adopt, the first step is to correct the topology of the undisturbed flows. It is shown that at a multiple resonance we are led to dynamical systems that are generally non-integrable. The basic representatives of these systems are the n-pendulums theta sup(:) sub(k) = σ sub(j)A sub(jk) sin theta sub(j). Multiple resonances are classified as syndetic or asyndetic following the eigenvalues of a quadratic form. Some degenerate cases are also presented. (Author)

  10. Magnetic Resonance Imaging with a Dielectric Lens

    Vazquez, F; Martin, R; Rodriguez, A O

    2009-01-01

    Recently, metamaterials have been introduced to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of magnetic resonance images with very promising results. However, the use polymers in the generation of high quality images in magnetic resonance imaging has not been fully been investigated. These investigations explored the use of a dielectric periodical array as a lens to improve the image SNR generated with single surface coils. Commercial polycarbonate glazing sheets were used together with a circular coil to generate phantom images at 3 Tesla on a clinical MR imager.

  11. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  12. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-06-01

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a “seismic rainbow” effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context.

  13. Production amplitude for a single scalar resonance

    We derive a simple expression for the production amplitude of two pseudoscalar mesons involving a single scalar resonance. This amplitude is determined by a combination of Watson's phase δ(s) and another phase ω(s), related to an unambiguous two-meson propagator. With a lagrangian model, we study the σππ system

  14. A superheterodyne spectrometer for electronic paramagnetic. Resonance

    After a few generalities about electron paramagnetic resonance, a consideration of different experimental techniques authorises the choice of a particular type of apparatus. An EPR superheterodyne spectrometer built in the laboratory and having a novel circuit is described in detail. With this apparatus, many experimental results have been obtained and some of these are described as example. (author)

  15. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-01-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at fr...

  16. Resonance-spacing tuning over whole free spectral range in a single microring resonator

    Gao, Ge; Yuan, Shuai; Li, Danping; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present a single microring resonator structure formed by incorporating a reflectivity-tunable loop mirror for the tuning of resonance spacing. Based on the optical mode-splitting in the resonator structure, spacing between two adjacent resonances can be tuned from zero to one whole free spectral range (FSR) by controlling the coupling strength between the two counter-propagating degenerate modes in the microring resonator. In experiment, by integrating metallic microheater, the resonance-spacing tuning over the whole FSR (1.17 nm) is achieved within 9.82 mW heating power dissipation. The device is expected to have potential applications in reconfigurable optical filtering and microwave photonics.

  17. Stochastic resonance and chaotic resonance in bimodal maps: A case study

    G Ambika; N V Sujatha; K P Harikrishnan

    2002-09-01

    We present the results of an extensive numerical study on the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a bimodal cubic map. Both Gaussian random noise as well as deterministic chaos are used as input to drive the system between the basins. Our main result is that when two identical systems capable of stochastic resonance are coupled, the SNR of either system is enhanced at an optimum coupling strength. Our results may be relevant for the study of stochastic resonance in biological systems.

  18. A resonant dc-dc power converter assembly

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a resonant DC-DC power converter assembly comprising a first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second resonant DC-DC power converter having identical circuit topologies. A first inductor of the first resonant DC-DC power converter and a second inductor of the...... second resonant DC-DC power converter are configured for magnetically coupling the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters to each other to forcing substantially 180 degrees phase shift, or forcing substantially 0 degree phase shift, between corresponding resonant voltage waveforms of the first...... and second resonant DC-DC power converters. The first and second inductors are corresponding components of the first and second resonant DC-DC power converters....

  19. A Field of Resonant Learning

    Lindvang, Charlotte

    A mixed methods investigation og student esperiences and professionals' evaluation of their own competencies......A mixed methods investigation og student esperiences and professionals' evaluation of their own competencies...

  20. Simulation of a resonant inverter

    Breda, David Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Mostly developed since the Industrial Revolution, the automation of systems and equipment around us is responsible for a technological progress and economic growth without precedents, but also by a relentless energy dependence. Currently, fossil fuels still tend to come as the main energy source, even in developed countries, due to the ease in its extraction and the mastery of the technology needed for its use. However, the perception of its ending availability, as well a...

  1. Direct measurement of the intrinsic linewidth of a resonant state

    Kobos, Zachary; Reed, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have applied inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) techniques to a resonantly-coupled system to determine quantitative differences in resonant versus non-resonant IETS. We use as a model system a set of GaAs-AlGaAs resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs)(footnote: with different barrier widths to tune resonant state linewidths and transmission coefficients. Modulation-broadening studies confirm theoretical predictions; however, the thermal dependence is markedly different than expected from classical IETS theory. An analysis of resonance shut-off reveals that the thermal dependence reflects the thermal broadening of the injector and resonant state density of states. Using this analysis, we show that one can extract both the transmission coefficient and the intrinsic linewidth of the resonant state. This is compared for RTDs of different tunneling barrier widths, and we observe the expected increase in resonance width for thinner barriers. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation.

  2. A Maximum Resonant Set of Polyomino Graphs

    Zhang Heping

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A polyomino graph P is a connected finite subgraph of the infinite plane grid such that each finite face is surrounded by a regular square of side length one and each edge belongs to at least one square. A dimer covering of P corresponds to a perfect matching. Different dimer coverings can interact via an alternating cycle (or square with respect to them. A set of disjoint squares of P is a resonant set if P has a perfect matching M so that each one of those squares is M-alternating. In this paper, we show that if K is a maximum resonant set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching. We further prove that the maximum forcing number of a polyomino graph is equal to the cardinality of a maximum resonant set. This confirms a conjecture of Xu et al. [26]. We also show that if K is a maximal alternating set of P, then P − K has a unique perfect matching.

  3. Controllable strong coupling between individual spin qubits and a transmission line resonator via nanomechanical resonators

    We investigate a hybrid quantum system where an individual electronic spin qubit (EQ) and a transmission line resonator (TLR) are connected by a nanomechanical resonator (NAMR). We analyze the possibility of realizing a strong coupling between the EQ and the TLR. Compared with a direct coupling between an EQ and a TLR, the achieved coupling can be stronger and controllable. The proposal might be used to implement a high-fidelity quantum state transfer between the spin qubit and the TLR, and is scalable to involve several individual EQ-NAMR coupled systems with a TLR. -- Highlights: ► Strong coupling of a spin qubit to a transmission line resonator is achieved. ► The coupling is mediated by a nanomechanical resonator. ► The coupling is controllable and stronger than the direct spin-resonator coupling.

  4. Stochastic resonance in a surface dipole

    The dynamics of a neutral dipole diffusing on a one-dimensional symmetric periodic substrate is numerically investigated in the presence of an ac electric field. It is observed that the amplitude of the forced oscillations of the dipole can be enhanced by tuning the noise strength, i.e., the substrate temperature. Such a manifestation of stochastic resonance turns out to be extremely sensitive to the mechanical properties of the dipole. This phenomenon has immediate applications in surface physics and nanodevice technology.

  5. Self-consistent resonance in a plasma

    Chaliasos, Evangelos

    2005-01-01

    As an application of the solution of the equations of electromagnetic self-consistency in a plasma, found in a previous paper, the study of controlled thermo-nuclear fusion is undertaken. This study utilizes the resonance which can be developed in the plasma, as indicated by the above solution, and is based to an analysis of the underlying forced oscillation under friction. As a consequence, we find that, in this way, controlled thermonuclear fusion seems now to be feasible in principle. The ...

  6. A microwave resonance dew-point hygrometer

    Underwood, R. J.; Cuccaro, R.; Bell, S.; Gavioso, R. M.; Madonna Ripa, D.; Stevens, M.; de Podesta, M.

    2012-08-01

    We report the first measurements of a quasi-spherical microwave resonator used as a dew-point hygrometer. In conventional dew-point hygrometers, the condensation of water from humid gas flowing over a mirror is detected optically, and the mirror surface is then temperature-controlled to yield a stable condensed layer. In our experiments we flowed moist air from a humidity generator through a quasi-spherical resonator and detected the onset of condensation by measuring the frequency ratio of selected microwave modes. We verified the basic operation of the device over the dew-point range 9.5-13.5 °C by comparison with calibrated chilled-mirror hygrometers. These tests indicate that the microwave method may allow a quantitative estimation of the volume and thickness of the water layer which is condensed on the inner surface of the resonator. The experiments reported here are preliminary due to the limited time available for the work, but show the potential of the method for detecting not only water but a variety of other liquid or solid condensates. The robust all-metal construction should make the device appropriate for use in industrial applications over a wide range of temperatures and pressures.

  7. Resonance fluorescence in a waveguide geometry

    Kocabaş, Şukrü Ekin; Rephaeli, Eden; Fan, Shanhui

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW A 85, 023817 (2012) Resonance fluorescence in a waveguide geometry S¸ ¨ukr¨u Ekin Kocabas¸,1,* Eden Rephaeli,2,† and Shanhui Fan3,‡ 1Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Koc¸ University, Rumeli Feneri Yolu TR-34450 Sarıyer, ˙Istanbul, Turkey 2Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA 3Ginzton Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, USA (Received...

  8. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    Vijay Dahya; Spottiswoode, Bruce S.

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths...

  9. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging - a pictorial review

    Vijay Dahya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR is a powerful problem-solving tool and arguably offers the most comprehensive assessment of cardiac morphology and function, as well as the opportunity of rebuilding the bridge between cardiologists and radiologists. The role of CMR-trained imaging physicists is also valuable, and many CMR centres harmoniously incorporate these three sub-specialty fields. This paper comprises an overview of several CMR techniques, outlining both the strengths and limitations of the modality.

  10. Nanodiamond graphitization: a magnetic resonance study

    We report on the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of the high-temperature nanodiamond-to-onion transformation. 1H, 13C NMR and EPR spectra of the initial nanodiamond samples and those annealed at 600, 700, 800 and 1800 ° C were measured. For the samples annealed at 600 to 800 ° C, our NMR data reveal the early stages of the surface modification, as well as a progressive increase in sp2 carbon content with increased annealing temperature. Such quantitative experimental data were recorded for the first time. These findings correlate with EPR data on the sensitivity of the dangling bond EPR line width to air content, progressing with rising annealing temperature, that evidences consequent graphitization of the external layers of the diamond core. The sample annealed at 1800 ° C shows complete conversion of nanodiamond particles into carbon onions. (paper)

  11. Cavity optomechanics on a microfluidic resonator

    Kim, Kyu Hyun; Lee, Wonsuk; Liu, Jing; Tomes, Matthew; Fan, Xudong; Carmon, Tal

    2012-01-01

    Light pressure is known to excite or cool vibrations in microresonators for sensing quantum-optomechanical effects and we now show that it can be explored for investigations with liquids. Currently, optical resonances are utilized to detect analytes in liquids. However, optomechanical oscillations have never been excited when devices were immersed in liquid. This is because replacing the surrounding air with water inherently increases the acoustical impedance and the associated acoustical-radiation losses. Here we fabricate a hollow optomechanical bubble resonator with water inside, and use light pressure to excite 8 MHz - 140 MHz vibrations with 1 mW optical-threshold power and >2000 mechanical Q, constituting the first time that any microfluidic system is optomechanically actuated. Bridging between optomechanics and microfluidics will enable recently developed capillaries and on-chip bubbles to vibrate via optical excitation; and allow optomechanics with non-solid material phases including bio-analytes, sup...

  12. Reliable and integrated technique for determining resonant frequency in radio frequency resonators. Application to a high-precision resonant cavity-based displacement sensor

    Jauregui, Rigoberto; Asua, Estibaliz; Portilla, Joaquin; Etxebarria, Victor

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a reliable and integrated technique for determining the resonant frequency of radio frequency resonators, which can be of interest for different purposes. The approach uses a heterodyne scheme as phase detector coupled to a voltage-controlled oscillator. The system seeks the oscillator frequency that produces a phase null in the resonator, which corresponds to the resonant frequency. A complete explanation of the technique to determine the resonant frequency is presented and experimentally tested. The method has been applied to a high-precision displacement sensor based on resonant cavity, obtaining a theoretical nanometric precision.

  13. Direct Visualization of a Polariton Resonator in the THz Regime.

    Stoyanov, Nikolay; Feurer, T; Ward, David; Statz, Eric; Nelson, Keith

    2004-05-31

    We report fabrication of a THz phonon-polariton resonator in a single crystal of LiNbO3 using femtosecond laser machining with high energy pulses. Fundamental and overtone resonator modes are excited selectively and monitored through spatiotemporal imaging. The resonator is integrated into a single solid-state platform that can include THz generation, manipulation, readout and other functionalities. PMID:19475075

  14. Resonance decay effect on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness fluctuations in high energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find a good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  15. Appendix resonances on a simple graph

    We study the scattering problem on a graph consisting of a line with a finite-length appendix. The two parts are coupled through boundary conditions depending on three parameters; the motion on the line is free while the appendix supports a potential. The appendix bound states give rise to a ladder of resonances; we construct the resolvent and solve the corresponding pole condition for a weak coupling. In general, the condition only admits an analytic solution in particular cases. We find the pole positions numerically for a linear potential and show that the poles eventually return to the real axis when the coupling strength increases. (author)

  16. Soft resonator of omnidirectional resonance for acoustic metamaterials with a negative bulk modulus

    Jing, Xiaodong; Meng, Yang; Sun, Xiaofeng

    2015-11-01

    Monopolar resonance is of fundamental importance in the acoustic field. Here, we present the realization of a monopolar resonance that goes beyond the concept of Helmholtz resonators. The balloon-like soft resonator (SR) oscillates omnidirectionally and radiates from all parts of its spherical surface, eliminating the need for a hard wall for the cavity and baffle effects. For airborne sound, such a low-modulus resonator can be made extremely lightweight. Deep subwavelength resonance is achieved when the SR is tuned by adjusting the shell thickness, benefiting from the large density contrast between the shell material and the encapsulated gas. The SR resonates with near-perfect monopole symmetry, as demonstrated by the theoretical and experimental results, which are in excellent agreement. For a lattice of SRs, a band gap occurs and blocks near-total transmission, and the effective bulk modulus exhibits a prominent negative band, while the effective mass density remains unchanged. Our study shows that the SR is suitable for building 3D acoustic metamaterials and provides a basis for constructing left-handed materials as a new means of creating a negative bulk modulus.

  17. Resonant driving of a nonlinear Hamiltonian system

    As a proof of principle, we show how a classical nonlinear Hamiltonian system can be driven resonantly over reasonably long times by appropriately shaped pulses. To keep the parameter space reasonably small, we limit ourselves to a driving force which consists of periodic pulses additionally modulated by a sinusoidal function. The main observables are the average increase of kinetic energy and of the action variable (of the non-driven system) with time. Applications of our scheme aim for driving high frequencies of a nonlinear system with a fixed modulation signal.

  18. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  19. Resonant-tunnelling diode oscillator using a slot-coupled quasioptical open resonator

    Stephan, K. D.; Brown, E. R.; Parker, C. D.; Goodhue, W. D.; Chen, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    A resonant-tunneling diode has oscillated at X-band frequencies in a microwave circuit consisting of a slot antenna coupled to a semiconfocal open resonator. Coupling between the open resonator and the slot oscillator improves the noise-to-carrier ratio by about 36 dB relative to that of the slot oscillator alone in the 100-200 kHz range. A circuit operating near 10 GHz has been designed as a scale model for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave applications.

  20. Tunable cavity resonator including a plurality of MEMS beams

    Peroulis, Dimitrios; Fruehling, Adam; Small, Joshua Azariah; Liu, Xiaoguang; Irshad, Wasim; Arif, Muhammad Shoaib

    2015-10-20

    A tunable cavity resonator includes a substrate, a cap structure, and a tuning assembly. The cap structure extends from the substrate, and at least one of the substrate and the cap structure defines a resonator cavity. The tuning assembly is positioned at least partially within the resonator cavity. The tuning assembly includes a plurality of fixed-fixed MEMS beams configured for controllable movement relative to the substrate between an activated position and a deactivated position in order to tune a resonant frequency of the tunable cavity resonator.

  1. Exponential decay and resonances in a driven system

    Briet, Philippe; Fernandez, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We study the resonance phenomena for time periodic perturbations of a Hamiltonian $H$ on the Hilbert space $L^2( \\mathbb R ^d)$. Here, resonances are characterized in terms of time behavior of the survival probability. Our approach uses the Floquet-Howland formalism combined with the results of L. Cattaneo, J.M. Graf and W. Hunziker on resonances for time independent perturbations.

  2. Resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip; Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip

    Steinmetz, Tilo

    2008-04-29

    In the present dissertation experiments on resonator quantum electrodynamics on a microtrap chip are described. Thereby for the first time single atoms catched in a chip trap could be detected. For this in the framework of this thesis a novel optical microresonator was developed, which can because of its miniaturization be combined with the microtrap technique introduced in our working group for the manipulation of ultracold atoms. For this resonator glass-fiber ends are used as mirror substrates, between which a standing light wave is formed. With such a fiber Fabry-Perot resonator we obtain a finess of up to {approx}37,000. Because of the small mode volumina in spite of moderate resonator quality the coherent interaction between an atom and a photon can be made so large that the regime of the strong atom-resonator coupling is reached. For the one-atom-one-photon coupling rate and the one-atom-one-photon cooperativity thereby record values of g{sub 0}=2{pi}.300 MHz respectively C{sub 0}=210 are reached. Just so for the first time the strong coupling regime between a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and the field of a high-quality resonator could be reached. The BEC was thereby by means of the magnetic microtrap potentials deterministically brought to a position within the resonator and totally transformed in a well defined antinode of an additionally optical standing-wave trap. The spectrum of the coupled atom-resonator system was measured for different atomic numbers and atom-resonator detunings, whereby a collective vacuum Rabi splitting of more than 20 GHz could be reached. [German] In der vorliegenden Dissertation werden Experimente zur Resonator-Quantenelektrodynamik auf einem Mikrofallenchip beschrieben. Dabei konnte u. a. erstmals einzelne, in einer Chipfalle gefangene Atome detektiert werden. Hier fuer wurde im Rahmen dieser Arbeit ein neuartiger optischer Mikroresonator entwickelt, der sich dank seiner Miniaturisierung mit der in unserer Arbeitsgruppe

  3. Phonon blockade in a nanomechanical resonator resonantly coupled to a qubit

    Xu, Xun-Wei; Liu, Yu-xi

    2016-01-01

    We study phonon statistics in a nanomechanical resonator (NAMR) which is resonantly coupled to a qubit. We find that there are two different mechanisms for phonon blockade in such a resonantly coupled NAMR-qubit system. One is due to the strong anharmonicity of the NAMR-qubit system with large coupling strength; the other one is due to the destructive interference between different paths for two-phonon excitation in the NAMR-qubit system with a moderate coupling strength. In order to enlarge the mean phonon number for strong phonon antibunching with a moderate NAMR-qubit coupling strength, we assume that two external driving fields are applied to the NAMR and qubit, respectively. In this case, we find that the phonon blockades under two mechanisms can appear at the same frequency regime by optimizing the strength ratio and phase difference of the two external driving fields.

  4. Self-consistent resonance in a plasma

    Chaliasos, E

    2005-01-01

    As an application of the solution of the equations of electromagnetic self-consistency in a plasma, found in a previous paper, the study of controlled thermo-nuclear fusion is undertaken. This study utilizes the resonance which can be developed in the plasma, as indicated by the above solution, and is based to an analysis of the underlying forced oscillation under friction. As a consequence, we find that, in this way, controlled thermonuclear fusion seems now to be feasible in principle. The treatment is rather elementary, and it may serve as a guide for more detailed calculations.

  5. Investigation of a Dielectric Square Resonator with Microwave Experiments

    Bittner, S; Dietz, B; Miski-Oglu, M; Richter, A

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed experimental study of the symmetry properties and the momentum space representation of the field distributions of a dielectric square resonator as well as the comparison with a semiclassical model. The experiments have been performed with a flat ceramic microwave resonator and both the resonance spectra and field distributions were measured with different antenna configurations. The momentum space representation allows for a better understanding of the symmetry properties of the field distributions and the determination of the refractive index. The length spectrum deduced from the measured resonance spectrum and the trace formula for the dielectric square resonator are discussed in the framework of the semiclassical model.

  6. A microwave resonator integrated on a polymer microfluidic chip

    Kiss, S. Z.; Rostas, A. M.; Heidinger, L.; Spengler, N.; Meissner, M. V.; MacKinnon, N.; Schleicher, E.; Weber, S.; Korvink, J. G.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a novel stacked split-ring type microwave (MW) resonator that is integrated into a 10 mm by 10 mm sized microfluidic chip. A straightforward and scalable batch fabrication process renders the chip suitable for single-use applications. The resonator volume can be conveniently loaded with liquid sample via microfluidic channels patterned into the mid layer of the chip. The proposed MW resonator offers an alternative solution for compact in-field measurements, such as low-field magnetic resonance (MR) experiments requiring convenient sample exchange. A microstrip line was used to inductively couple MWs into the resonator. We characterised the proposed resonator topology by electromagnetic (EM) field simulations, a field perturbation method, as well as by return loss measurements. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra at X-band frequencies were recorded, revealing an electron-spin sensitivity of 3.7 ·1011spins ·Hz - 1 / 2G-1 for a single EPR transition. Preliminary time-resolved EPR experiments on light-induced triplet states in pentacene were performed to estimate the MW conversion efficiency of the resonator.

  7. Optical Fano resonances in a nonconcentric nanoshell.

    Norton, Stephen J; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    The interaction of light with a metal nanoshell with an off-center core generates multipoles of all orders. We show here that the matrix elements used to compute the multipole expansion coefficients can be derived analytically and, with this result, we can show explicitly how the dipole and quadrupole terms in the expansion are coupled and give rise to a Fano resonance. We also show that the off-center core significantly increases the electric field enhancement at the shell surface compared to the concentric case, which can be exploited for surface-enhanced sensing. The multipole solutions are confirmed with finite-element calculations. PMID:27139663

  8. Resonant activation: a strategy against bacterial persistence

    A bacterial colony may develop a small number of cells genetically identical to, but phenotypically different from, other normally growing bacteria. These so-called persister cells keep themselves in a dormant state and thus are insensitive to antibiotic treatment, resulting in serious problems of drug resistance. In this paper, we proposed a novel strategy to 'kill' persister cells by triggering them to switch, in a fast and synchronized way, into normally growing cells that are susceptible to antibiotics. The strategy is based on resonant activation (RA), a well-studied phenomenon in physics where the internal noise of a system can constructively facilitate fast and synchronized barrier crossings. Through stochastic Gilliespie simulation with a generic toggle switch model, we demonstrated that RA exists in the phenotypic switching of a single bacterium. Further, by coupling single cell level and population level simulations, we showed that with RA, one can greatly reduce the time and total amount of antibiotics needed to sterilize a bacterial population. We suggest that resonant activation is a general phenomenon in phenotypic transition, and can find other applications such as cancer therapy

  9. Observation of ferromagnetic resonance in a microscopic sample using magnetic resonance force microscopy

    We report the observation of a ferromagnetic resonance signal arising from a microscopic (∼20μmx40μm) particle of thin (3μm) yttrium iron garnet film using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). The large signal intensity in the resonance spectra suggests that MRFM could become a powerful microscopic ferromagnetic resonance technique with a micron or sub-micron resolution. We also observe a very strong nonresonance signal which occurs in the field regime where the sample magnetization readily reorients in response to the modulation of the magnetic field. This signal will be the main noise source in applications where a magnet is mounted on the cantilever. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a nonlinear resonator

    Bertet, P; Boissonneault, M; Bolduc, A; Mallet, F; Doherty, A C; Blais, A; Vion, D; Esteve, D

    2011-01-01

    One of the most studied model systems in quantum optics is a two-level atom strongly coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field stored in a cavity, a research field named cavity quantum electrodynamics or CQED. CQED has recently received renewed attention due to its implementation with superconducting artificial atoms and coplanar resonators in the so-called circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In cQED, the couplings can be much stronger than in CQED due to the design flexibility of superconducting circuits and to the enhanced field confinement in one-dimensional cavities. This enabled the realization of fundamental quantum physics and quantum information processing experiments with a degree of control comparable to that obtained in CQED. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the situation where the resonator to which the atom is coupled is made nonlinear with a Kerr-type nonlinearity, causing its energy levels to be nonequidistant. The system is then described by a nonlinea...

  11. Electrodynamics of a ring-shaped spiral resonator

    Maleeva, N.; Fistul, M. V.; Karpov, A.; Zhuravel, A. P.; Averkin, A.; Jung, P.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2014-02-01

    We present analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of electromagnetic resonant modes of a compact monofilar Archimedean spiral resonator shaped in a ring, with no central part. Planar spiral resonators are interesting as components of metamaterials for their compact deep-subwavelength size. Such resonators couple primarily to the magnetic field component of the incident electromagnetic wave, offering properties suitable for magnetic meta-atoms. Surprisingly, the relative frequencies of the resonant modes follow the sequence of the odd numbers as f1:f2:f3:f4… = 1:3:5:7…, despite the nearly identical boundary conditions for electromagnetic fields at the extremities of the resonator. In order to explain the observed spectrum of resonant modes, we show that the current distribution inside the spiral satisfies a particular Carleman type singular integral equation. By solving this equation, we obtain a set of resonant frequencies. The analytically calculated resonance frequencies and the current distributions are in good agreement with experimental data and the results of numerical simulations. By using low-temperature laser scanning microscopy of a superconducting spiral resonator, we compare the experimentally visualized ac current distributions over the spiral with the calculated ones. Theory and experiment agree well with each other. Our analytical model allows for calculation of a detailed three-dimensional magnetic field structure of the resonators.

  12. Off-resonance energy absorption in a linear Paul trap due to mass selective resonant quenching

    Sivarajah, I; Wells, J E; Narducci, F A; Smith, W W

    2013-01-01

    Linear Paul r.f. ion traps (LPT) are used in many experimental studies such as mass spectrometry, atom-ion collisions and ion-molecule reactions. Mass selective resonant quenching (MSRQ) is implemented in LPT either to identify a charged particle's mass or to remove unwanted ions from a controlled experimental environment. In the latter case, MSRQ can introduce undesired heating to co-trapped ions of different mass, whose secular motion is off resonance with the quenching ac field, which we call off-resonance energy absorption (OREA). We present simulations and experimental evidence that show that the OREA increases exponentially with the number of ions loaded into the trap and with the amplitude of the off-resonance external ac field.

  13. A fluid density sensor based on a resonant tube

    A fluid density sensor based on resonance frequency change of a metallic tube is presented. The sensor has been developed without using a complex micro-fabrication process. The sensor is able to identify fluid types/contaminations and improve the performance by reducing testing time, decreasing complexity of testing equipment and reducing sample sizes. The sensor can measure the resonance frequency of its own structure and determine the change in resonance frequency due to the subsequent sample inside the tube. Numerical modelling, analytical modelling and physical testing of a prototype sensor showed comparable results for both the magnitude and resonance frequency shift. The modelling results yielded a resonance frequency shift of 200 Hz from 9.87 kHz to 9.67 kHz after the water was filled into the tube. The actual testing illustrated a resonance frequency change of 280 Hz from 9.11 kHz to 8.83 kHz. The ultimate aim of the work is to determine resonance frequencies of desired samples at a level that could detect genetic disease on a cellular level. (paper)

  14. A hyperpolarized equilibrium for magnetic resonance

    Hövener, Jan-Bernd; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Lickert, Thomas; Duckett, Simon B.; Mewis, Ryan E.; Highton, Louise A. R.; Kenny, Stephen M.; Green, Gary G. R.; Leibfritz, Dieter; Korvink, Jan G.; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik

    2013-12-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) play an indispensable role in science and healthcare but use only a tiny fraction of their potential. No more than ≈10 p.p.m. of all 1H nuclei are effectively detected in a 3-Tesla clinical MRI system. Thus, a vast array of new applications lays dormant, awaiting improved sensitivity. Here we demonstrate the continuous polarization of small molecules in solution to a level that cannot be achieved in a viable magnet. The magnetization does not decay and is effectively reinitialized within seconds after being measured. This effect depends on the long-lived, entangled spin-order of parahydrogen and an exchange reaction in a low magnetic field of 10-3 Tesla. We demonstrate the potential of this method by fast MRI and envision the catalysis of new applications such as cancer screening or indeed low-field MRI for routine use and remote application.

  15. A Microwave Photonic Notch Filter Using a Microfiber Ring Resonator

    A novel tunable microwave photonic filter based on a microfiber ring resonator is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A fiber ring laser based on the microfiber ring resonator is employed to generate two single-longitudinal-mode carriers, then the dispersive element introduces the delay between two modulated carriers. By adjusting the diameter of the microfiber ring resonator, the proposed microwave photonic notch filter can be continuously and widely tuned. The measured notch rejection ratio is greater than 35 dB, and there is good agreement between the experimental result and the theoretical analysis. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  16. A Wireless, Passive Load Cell based on Magnetoelastic Resonance

    Brandon D. Pereles; Dienhart, Thomas; Sansom, Thadeus; Johnston, Kyle; Ong, Keat Ghee

    2012-01-01

    A wireless, battery-less load cell was fabricated based on the resonant frequency shift of a vibrating magnetoelastic strip when exposed to an AC magnetic field. Since the vibration of the magnetoelastic strip generated a secondary field, the resonance was remotely detected with a coil. When a load was applied to a small area on the surface of the magnetoelastic strip via a circular rod applicator, the resonant frequency and amplitude decreased due to the damping on its vibration. The force s...

  17. A search for resonant Z pair production

    Boveia, Antonio; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2008-12-01

    I describe a search for anomalous production of Z pairs through a new massive resonance X in 2.5-2.9 fb{sup -1} of p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV using the CDFII Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. I reconstruct Z pairs through their decays to electrons, muons, and quarks. To achieve perhaps the most efficient lepton reconstruction ever used at CDF, I apply a thorough understanding of the detector and new reconstruction software heavily revised for this purpose. In particular, I have designed and employ new general-purpose algorithms for tracking at large {eta} in order to increase muon acceptance. Upon analyzing the unblinded signal samples, I observe no X {yields} ZZ candidates and set upper limits on the production cross section using a Kaluza-Klein graviton-like acceptance.

  18. Superconducting atomic contacts inductively coupled to a microwave resonator

    Janvier, C.; Tosi, L.; Girit, Ç. Ö.; Goffman, M.F.; Pothier, H.; Urbina, C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe and characterize a microwave setup to probe the Andreev levels of a superconducting atomic contact. The contact is part of a superconducting loop inductively coupled to a superconducting coplanar resonator. By monitoring the resonator reflection coefficient close to its resonance frequency as a function of both flux through the loop and frequency of a second tone we perform spectroscopy of the transition between two Andreev levels of highly transmitting channels of the contact. Th...

  19. Tunable Geometric Fano Resonances in a Metal/Insulator Stack

    Grotewohl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    A metal-insulator-metal-insulator stack is shown to have a Fano resonance in the angular domain. The metal/insulator stack consists of two interacting subsystems, a metallic waveguide mode and a surface plasmon mode, coupled by a finite layer metal film. The two modes in close spatial proximity interfere destructively resulting in level repulsion of two metal/insulator stack modes. By adding a coupling prism to momentum match the input EM field, the reflected field exhibits a geometric Fano resonance. Changes to the waveguide insulator permittivity and thickness are shown to tune the geometric Fano resonance. The geometric Fano resonance is also tuned by variations of the exterior insulator permittivity. At a given frequency, the geometric Fano resonance can be tuned to desired lineshape. In addition, this tunability allows for a geometric Fano resonance for any frequency in the visible range.

  20. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion

    Bruno Hochhegger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation.

  1. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    Haghighipour, N

    1999-01-01

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a res...

  2. High-Q microwave resonators with a photonic crystal structure

    The localisation of electromagnetic energy at a defect in a photonic crystal is similar to a well known effect employed to construct high-Q microwave resonators: In a whispering gallery (WHG-) mode resonator the high Q-factor is achieved by localisation of the electromagnetic field energy by total reflection inside a disk made of dielectric material. The topic of this work is to demonstrate, that WHG-like modes can exist in an air defect in a photonic crystal that extends over several lattice periods; and that a high-Q microwave resonator can be made, utilizing these resonant modes. In numerical simulations, the transmission properties of a photonic crystal structure with hexagonal lattice symmetry have been investigated with a transfer-matrix-method. The eigenmodes of a defect structure in a photonic crystal have been calculated with a quasi-3d finite element integration technique. Experimental results confirm the simulated transmission properties and show the existence of modes inside the band gap, when a defect is introduced in the crystal. Resonator measurements show that a microwave resonator can be operated with those defect modes. It was found out that the main losses of the resonator were caused by bad microwave properties of the used dielectric material and by metal losses on the top and bottom resonator walls. Furthermore, it turned out that the detection of the photonic crystal defect mode was difficult because of a lack of simulation possibilities and high housing mode density in the resonator. (orig.)

  3. Flow-excited acoustic resonance of a Helmholtz resonator: Discrete vortex model compared to experiments

    The acoustic resonance in a Helmholtz resonator excited by a low Mach number grazing flow is studied theoretically. The nonlinear numerical model is established by coupling the vortical motion at the cavity opening with the cavity acoustic mode through an explicit force balancing relation between the two sides of the opening. The vortical motion is modeled in the potential flow framework, in which the oscillating motion of the thin shear layer is described by an array of convected point vortices, and the unsteady vortex shedding is determined by the Kutta condition. The cavity acoustic mode is obtained from the one-dimensional acoustic propagation model, the time-domain equivalent of which is given by means of a broadband time-domain impedance model. The acoustic resistances due to radiation and viscous loss at the opening are also taken into account. The physical processes of the self-excited oscillations, at both resonance and off-resonance states, are simulated directly in the time domain. Results show that the shear layer exhibits a weak flapping motion at the off-resonance state, whereas it rolls up into large-scale vortex cores when resonances occur. Single and dual-vortex patterns are observed corresponding to the first and second hydrodynamic modes. The simulation also reveals different trajectories of the two vortices across the opening when the first and second hydrodynamic modes co-exist. The strong modulation of the shed vorticity by the acoustic feedback at the resonance state is demonstrated. The model overestimates the pressure pulsation amplitude by a factor 2, which is expected to be due to the turbulence of the flow which is not taken into account. The model neglects vortex shedding at the downstream and side edges of the cavity. This will also result in an overestimation of the pulsation amplitude

  4. Flow-excited acoustic resonance of a Helmholtz resonator: Discrete vortex model compared to experiments

    Dai, Xiwen; Jing, Xiaodong, E-mail: jingxd@buaa.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaofeng [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-05-15

    The acoustic resonance in a Helmholtz resonator excited by a low Mach number grazing flow is studied theoretically. The nonlinear numerical model is established by coupling the vortical motion at the cavity opening with the cavity acoustic mode through an explicit force balancing relation between the two sides of the opening. The vortical motion is modeled in the potential flow framework, in which the oscillating motion of the thin shear layer is described by an array of convected point vortices, and the unsteady vortex shedding is determined by the Kutta condition. The cavity acoustic mode is obtained from the one-dimensional acoustic propagation model, the time-domain equivalent of which is given by means of a broadband time-domain impedance model. The acoustic resistances due to radiation and viscous loss at the opening are also taken into account. The physical processes of the self-excited oscillations, at both resonance and off-resonance states, are simulated directly in the time domain. Results show that the shear layer exhibits a weak flapping motion at the off-resonance state, whereas it rolls up into large-scale vortex cores when resonances occur. Single and dual-vortex patterns are observed corresponding to the first and second hydrodynamic modes. The simulation also reveals different trajectories of the two vortices across the opening when the first and second hydrodynamic modes co-exist. The strong modulation of the shed vorticity by the acoustic feedback at the resonance state is demonstrated. The model overestimates the pressure pulsation amplitude by a factor 2, which is expected to be due to the turbulence of the flow which is not taken into account. The model neglects vortex shedding at the downstream and side edges of the cavity. This will also result in an overestimation of the pulsation amplitude.

  5. On Resonance: A Critical Pluralistic Inquiry into Advertising Rhetoric.

    Edward F. McQuarrie; Mick, David Glen

    1992-01-01

    Print ads exhibit resonance when they combine wordplay with a relevant picture to create ambiguity and incongruity. This article uses multiple perspectives and methods within a framework of critical pluralism to investigate advertising resonance. Semiotic text analyses, a content analysis of contemporary magazine ads, two experiments, and phenomenological interviews combine to yield insights into the operation, prevalence, impact and experience of resonance. Specifically, the two experiments ...

  6. A XOR Threshold Logic Implementation Through Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Nitesh Kumar Dixit; Vinod Kumari

    2012-01-01

    Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs) have functional versatility and high speed switching capability. The integration of resonant tunneling diodes and MOS transistor makes threshold gates and logics. The design and fabrication of linear threshold gates will be presented based on a mono stable bis table transition logic element. Each of its input terminals consist out of a resonant tunnelling diode merged with a transistor device. The circuit models of RTD and MOSFET are simulated in HSPICE. Two i...

  7. Electromagnetically induced absorption in a three-resonator metasurface system.

    Zhang, Xueqian; Xu, Ningning; Qu, Kenan; Tian, Zhen; Singh, Ranjan; Han, Jiaguang; Agarwal, Girish S; Zhang, Weili

    2015-01-01

    Mimicking the quantum phenomena in metamaterials through coupled classical resonators has attracted enormous interest. Metamaterial analogs of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) enable promising applications in telecommunications, light storage, slow light and sensing. Although the EIT effect has been studied extensively in coupled metamaterial systems, excitation of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) through near-field coupling in these systems has only been sparsely explored. Here we present the observation of the EIA analog due to constructive interference in a vertically coupled three-resonator metamaterial system that consists of two bright and one dark resonator. The absorption resonance is one of the collective modes of the tripartite unit cell. Theoretical analysis shows that the absorption arises from a magnetic resonance induced by the near-field coupling of the three resonators within the unit cell. A classical analog of EIA opens up opportunities for designing novel photonic devices for narrow-band filtering, absorptive switching, optical modulation, and absorber applications. PMID:26023061

  8. A Magnetic Resonance Measurement Technique for Rapidly Switched Gradient Magnetic Fields in a Magnetic Resonance Tomograph

    K. Bartušek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method for measuring of the gradient magnetic field in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR tomography, which is one of the modern medical diagnostic methods. A very important prerequisite for high quality imaging is a gradient magnetic field in the instrument with exactly defined properties. Nuclear magnetic resonance enables us to measure the pulse gradient magnetic field characteristics with high accuracy. These interesting precise methods were designed, realised, and tested at the Institute of Scientific Instruments (ISI of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. The first of them was the Instantaneous Frequency (IF method, which was developed into the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo (IFSE and the Instantaneous Frequency of Spin Echo Series (IFSES methods. The above named methods are described in this paper and their a comparison is also presented.

  9. Design of a superconducting low beta niobium resonator

    Prakash Potukuchi; Amit Roy

    2012-04-01

    The proposed high current injector for the superconducting Linac at the InterUniversity Accelerator Centre will have several accelerating structures, including a superconducting module which will contain low beta niobium resonators. A prototype resonator for the low beta module has been designed. The resonator has been carefully modelled to optimize the electromagnetic parameters. In order to validate them, a room-temperature copper model has been built and tested. In this paper we present details of the electromagnetic design of the low beta resonator, briefly discuss the mechanical and engineering design, and present results from the measurements on the room-temperature copper model.

  10. Fluctuation Reduction in a Si Micromechanical Resonator Tuned to Nonlinear Internal Resonance

    Strachan, B. Scott; Czaplewski, David; Chen, Changyao; Dykman, Mark; Lopez, Daniel; Shaw, Steven

    2015-03-01

    We describe experimental and theoretical results on an unusual behavior of fluctuations when the system exhibits internal resonance. We study the fundamental flexural mode (FFM) of a Si microbeam. The FFM is electrically actuated and detected. It is resonantly nonlinearly coupled to another mode, which is not directly accessible and has a frequency nearly three times the FFM frequency. Both the FFM and the passive mode have long lifetimes. We find that the passive mode can be a ``sink'' for fluctuations of the FFM. This explains the recently observed dramatic decrease of these fluctuations at nonlinear resonance. The re-distribution of the vibration amplitudes and the fluctuations is reminiscent of what happens at level anti-crossing in quantum mechanics. However, here it is different because of interplay of the dependence of the vibration frequency of the FFM on its amplitude due to internal nonlinearity and the nonlinear resonance with the passive mode. We study both the response of the system to external resonant driving and also the behavior of the system in the presence of a feedback loop. The experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement.

  11. Electroproduction of Roper Resonance in a Meson Cloud Model

    CHEN Dian-Yong; DONG Yu-Bing

    2008-01-01

    The Q2 dependencies of Roper resonance (N* (1440)) helicity amplitudes have been discussed based on two assumptions:(I) the Roper resonance is an excitation of one of the three quarks,and (ii) the quarks are surrounded by a pion-meson cloud.Our study shows that the mixing of the ground state in the Roper wavefunction caused by the pion meson cloud together with the pion meson cloud itself is crucial for the predictions of the photoproduction amplitudes of the Roper resonance.It is found that our model can give a good description for the helicity amplitudes of the Roper resonance comparing with the experimental measurement.

  12. Paramagnetic and ferromagnetic resonance imaging with a tip-on-cantilever magnetic resonance force microscope

    Wago, K.; Botkin, D.; Yannoni, C. S.; Rugar, D.

    1998-05-01

    A magnetic resonance force microscope with a "tip-on-cantilever" configuration was used to compare imaging characteristics of paramagnetic and ferromagnetic samples. Three-dimensional electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) imaging of diphenylpicrylhydrazil (DPPH) particles was accomplished by scanning the sample in two dimensions while stepping an external field. The EPR force map showed broad response reflecting the size and shape of the sample, allowing a three-dimensional real-space magnetization image to be successfully reconstructed. In contrast to the EPR case, ferromagnetic resonance imaging of a micron-scale yttrium iron garnet sample showed no significant line broadening despite the strong field gradient (˜10 G/μm). Two-dimensional force maps revealed spatial dependence of magnetostatic and magnetoelastic modes.

  13. Lineshape Engineering in an All-Pass Ring Resonator with Backreflection Coupled to a Symmetrical Fabry-Perot Resonator

    Melnikov, Vasily A.

    2012-11-10

    We derive transfer functions for an all-pass ring resonator with internal backreflection coupled to a symmetrical Fabry-Perot resonator and demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency-like and Fano-like lineshapes tunable by backreflection in the ring resonator.

  14. Analysis and design of a coupled coaxial line TEM resonator for magnetic resonance imaging

    In this paper, we have successfully realized a numerical tool to analyse and to design an n-element unloaded coaxial line transverse electromagnetic (TEM) resonator. This numerical tool allows the determination of the primary parameters, matrices [L], [C] and [R], and simulates the frequency response of S11 at the RF port of the designed TEM resonator. The frequency response permits evaluation of the unloaded quality factor Q0. As an application, we present the analysis and the design of an eight-element unloaded TEM resonator for animal studies at 4.7 T. The simulated performance has a -62.81 dB minimum reflection and a quality factor of 260 around 200 MHz

  15. Impact of resonance regeneration and decay on the net proton fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas

    Nahrgang, Marlene, E-mail: marlene.nahrgang@phy.duke.edu [Department of Physics, Duke University, 27708-0305, Durham, NC (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bluhm, Marcus [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, 27695, Raleigh, NC (United States); Alba, Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino and INFN, Sezione di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125, Turin (Italy); Bellwied, Rene; Ratti, Claudia [Department of Physics, University of Houston, 77204, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We investigate net proton fluctuations as important observables measured in heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. Special emphasis is given to effects which are a priori not inherent in a thermally and chemically equilibrated HRG approach. In particular, we point out the importance of taking into account the successive regeneration and decay of resonances after the chemical freeze-out, which lead to a randomization of the isospin of nucleons and thus to additional fluctuations in the net proton number. We find good agreement between our model results and the recent STAR measurements of the higher-order moments of the net proton distribution.

  16. Impact of resonance regeneration and decay on the net proton fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas

    Nahrgang, Marlene [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies (FIAS), Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bluhm, Marcus [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Alba, Paolo [Universita degli Studi di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Turin (Italy); INFN, Turin (Italy); Bellwied, Rene; Ratti, Claudia [University of Houston, Department of Physics, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-12-15

    We investigate net proton fluctuations as important observables measured in heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. Special emphasis is given to effects which are a priori not inherent in a thermally and chemically equilibrated HRG approach. In particular, we point out the importance of taking into account the successive regeneration and decay of resonances after the chemical freeze-out, which lead to a randomization of the isospin of nucleons and thus to additional fluctuations in the net proton number. We find good agreement between our model results and the recent STAR measurements of the higher-order moments of the net proton distribution. (orig.)

  17. Study of Nonpolaritons in a Kerr Nonlinear Optical Resonator

    WAN Jin-Yin; CHENG Ze

    2006-01-01

    We find that in a Kerr nonlinear optical resonator, the photon system possesses a new kind of quasiparticle,the nonpolariton. The existence of nonpolaritons should be testified by observing the energy density dependence of the velocity and squeezing of nonpolaritons. As we have investigated, the transition energy density of a Kerr nonlinear optical resonator is larger than that of a normal state.

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess. (author)

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of a brain abscess

    Oikawa, Akihiro; Kagawa, Mizuo; Yatoh, Seiji; Izawa, Masahiro; Ujiie, Hiroshi; Sakaguchi, Jun; Onda, Hideaki; Kitamura, Kohichi

    1988-06-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 13 patients with brain abscesses, and the alternation of MRI findings, as correlated with the progression of brain-abscess formation, was reviewed. In the cerebritis stage, spin-echo images showed a high intensity, and inversion-recovery images, a low intensity, due to inflammation and edema. The spin-echo images were very sensitive in delineating the brain edema; however, it was difficult to distinguish the inflammation from the surrounding edema. In the capsule stage, due to the accumulation of purulent material, the central necrotic area was demonstrated as a low-intensity area, while the capsule of the abscess was revealed as an iso-intensity ring on the inversion-recovery images. The central necrotic area also decreased in intensity on spin-echo images in the later period of this stage. With contrast enhancement (Gd-DTPA), the SR image showed the capsule as a high-intensity ring. MRI was found to be a useful method for estimating the process of the formation of a brain abscess.

  20. Effect of energy and momentum conservation on fluid resonances for resonant magnetic perturbations in a tokamak

    In this paper, the impact of momentum and energy conservation of the collision operator in the kinetic description for Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) in a tokamak is studied. The particle conserving differential collision operator of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck type is supplemented with integral parts such that energy and momentum are conserved. The application to RMP penetration in a tokamak shows that energy conservation in the electron collision operator is important for the quantitative description of plasma shielding effects at the resonant surface. On the other hand, momentum conservation in the ion collision operator does not significantly change the results

  1. Eigenvalue study of a chaotic resonator

    The field of quantum chaos comprises the study of the manifestations of classical chaos in the properties of the corresponding quantum systems. Within this work, we compute the eigenfrequencies that are needed for the level spacing analysis of a microwave resonator with chaotic characteristics. The major challenges posed by our work are: first, the ability of the approaches to tackle the large scale eigenvalue problem and second, the capability to extract many, i.e. order of thousands, eigenfrequencies for the considered cavity. The first proposed approach for an accurate eigenfrequency extraction takes into consideration the evaluated electric field computations in time domain of a superconducting cavity and by means of signal-processing techniques extracts the eigenfrequencies. The second approach is based on the finite element method with curvilinear elements, which transforms the continuous eigenvalue problem to a discrete generalized eigenvalue problem. Afterwards, the Lanczos algorithm is used for the solution of the generalized eigenvalue problem. In the poster, a summary of the applied algorithms, as well as, critical implementation details together with the simulation results are provided.

  2. A possible resonance mechanism of earthquakes

    Flambaum, V. V.; Pavlov, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    It had been observed by Linkov et al. (Doklady Academii Nauk, Physics of Earth, 313, 23-25 1992) that there exist periodic 4-6 h pulses of ˜200 μHz seismogravitational oscillations (SGO) before 95 % of powerful earthquakes. We explain this by beating between an oscillation eigenmode of a whole tectonic plate and a local eigenmode of an active zone. The beating transfers the oscillation energy from the remote zone of the tectonic plate to the active zone, triggering the earthquake. Oscillation frequencies of the plate and ones of the active zone are tuned to a resonance by an additional compression applied to the active zone due to collision of neighboring plates or the magma flow in the liquid underlay of the asthenosphere (the upper mantle). In the case when there are three or more SGO with incommensurable difference frequencies ω m - ω n , the SGO beating pattern looks quasi-random, thus masking the non-random nature of the beating process. Nevertheless, we are able to discuss a possibility of the short-term earthquakes predictions based on an accurate monitoring of the beating dynamics.

  3. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    Gyüre, B.; Márkus, B. G.; Bernáth, B.; Simon, F., E-mail: ferenc.simon@univie.ac.at [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics and MTA-BME Lendület Spintronics Research Group (PROSPIN), P.O. Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Murányi, F. [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT’IS), Zeughausstrasse 43, 8004 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation.

  4. A time domain based method for the accurate measurement of Q-factor and resonance frequency of microwave resonators

    We present a novel method to determine the resonant frequency and quality factor of microwave resonators which is faster, more stable, and conceptually simpler than the yet existing techniques. The microwave resonator is pumped with the microwave radiation at a frequency away from its resonance. It then emits an exponentially decaying radiation at its eigen-frequency when the excitation is rapidly switched off. The emitted microwave signal is down-converted with a microwave mixer, digitized, and its Fourier transformation (FT) directly yields the resonance curve in a single shot. Being a FT based method, this technique possesses the Fellgett (multiplex) and Connes (accuracy) advantages and it conceptually mimics that of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance. We also establish a novel benchmark to compare accuracy of the different approaches of microwave resonator measurements. This shows that the present method has similar accuracy to the existing ones, which are based on sweeping or modulating the frequency of the microwave radiation

  5. Diphoton resonance from a warped extra dimension

    Bauer, Martin; Hörner, Clara; Neubert, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a warped extra dimension, which successfully address the hierarchy and flavor problems of elementary particle physics, can provide an elegant explanation of the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. A gauge-singlet bulk scalar with {O} (1) couplings to fermions is identified as the new resonance S, and the vector-like Kaluza-Klein excitations of the SM quarks and leptons mediate its loop-induced couplings to photons and gluons. The electroweak gauge symmetry almost unambiguously dictates the bulk matter content and hence the hierarchies of the Sto γ γ, W W,ZZ,Zγ, toverline{t} and dijet decay rates. We find that the S → Zγ decay mode is strongly suppressed, such that Br( S → Zγ) /Br( S → γγ) boson is solved in analogy with the Higgs boson by localizing it near the infrared brane. The infinite sums over the Kaluza-Klein towers of fermion states converge and can be calculated in closed form with a remarkably simple result. Reproducing the observed pp → S → γγ signal requires Kaluza-Klein masses in the multi-TeV range, consistent with bounds from flavor physics and electroweak precision observables.

  6. Collective resonant modes of a meta-surface

    Felbacq, Didier; Rousseau, Emmanuel; Kling, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    A periodic layer of resonant scatterers is considered in the dipolar approximation. An asymptotic expression for the field diffracted is given in terms of an impedance operator. It is shown that surface Bloch modes appear as a collective effect due to the resonances of the scatterers.

  7. Stochastic resonance with a mesoscopic reaction-diffusion system.

    Mahara, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko; Parmananda, P

    2014-06-01

    In a mesoscopic reaction-diffusion system with an Oregonator reaction model, we show that intrinsic noise can drive a resonant stable pattern in the presence of the initial subthreshold perturbations. Both spatially periodic and aperiodic stochastic resonances are demonstrated by employing the Gillespies stochastic simulation algorithm. The mechanisms for these phenomena are discussed. PMID:25019857

  8. A model for ferrite-loaded transversely biased coaxial resonators

    Acar, Öncel; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple model for shortened coaxial cavity resonators with transversely biased ferrite elements. The ferrite allows the resonance frequency to be tuned, and the presented model provides a method of approximately calculating these frequencies to generate the tuning curve in sh...

  9. Temperature measurement and stabilization in a birefringent whispering gallery resonator

    Strekalov, D. V.; Thompson, R.J.; Baumgartel, L. M.; Grudinin, I. S.; Yu, N

    2011-01-01

    Temperature measurement with nano-Kelvin resolution is demonstrated at room temperature, based on the thermal dependence of an optical crystal anisotropy in a high quality whispering gallery resonator. As the resonator's TE and TM modes frequencies have different temperature coefficients, their differential shift provides a sensitive measurement of the temperature variation, which is used for active stabilization of the temperature.

  10. Miniature Microring Resonator Sensor Based on a Hybrid Plasmonic Waveguide

    Xinwan Li

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a compact 1-mm-radius microring resonator sensor based on a hybrid plasmonic waveguide on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. The hybrid waveguide is composed of a metal-gap-silicon structure, where the optical energy is greatly enhanced in the narrow gap. We use the finite element method to numerically analyze the device optical characteristics as a biochemical sensor. As the optical field in the hybrid micoring resonator has a large overlap with the upper-cladding sensing medium, the sensitivity is very high compared to other dielectric microring resonator sensors. The compactness of the hybrid microring resonator is resulted from the balance between bending radiation loss and metal absorption loss. The proposed hybrid microring resonator sensors have the main advantages of small footprint and high sensitivity and can be potentially integrated in an array form on a chip for highly-efficient lab-on-chip biochemical sensing applications.

  11. A census of transient orbital resonances encountered during binary inspiral

    Ruangsri, Uchupol

    2013-01-01

    Transient orbital resonances have recently been identified as potentially important to the inspiral of small bodies into large black holes. These resonances occur as the inspiral evolves through moments in which two fundamental orbital frequencies, $\\Omega_\\theta$ and $\\Omega_r$, are in a small integer ratio to one another. Previous work has demonstrated that a binary's parameters are "kicked" each time the inspiral passes through a resonance, changing the orbit's characteristics relative to a model that neglects resonant effects. In this paper, we use exact Kerr geodesics coupled to an accurate but approximate model of inspiral to survey orbital parameter space and estimate how commonly one encounters long-lived orbital resonances. We find that the most important resonances last for a few hundred orbital cycles at mass ratio $10^{-6}$, and that resonances are almost certain to occur during the time that a large mass ratio binary would be a target of gravitational-wave observations. Resonances appear to be ub...

  12. Tuning Fano resonances with a nano-chamber of air.

    Chen, Jianjun; He, Keke; Sun, Chengwei; Wang, Yujia; Li, Hongyun; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-05-15

    By designing a polymer-film-coated asymmetric metallic slit structure that only contains one nanocavity side-coupled with a subwavelength plasmonic waveguide, the Fano resonance is realized in the experiment. The Fano resonance originates from the interference between the narrow resonant spectra of the radiative light from the nanocavity and the broad nonresonant spectra of the directly transmitted light from the slit. The lateral dimension of the asymmetric slit is only 825 nm. Due to the presence of the soft polymer film, a nano-chamber of air is constructed. Based on the opto-thermal effect, the air volume in the nano-chamber is expanded by a laser beam, which blueshifts the Fano resonance. This tunable Fano resonance in such a submicron slit structure with a nano-chamber is of importance in the highly integrated plasmonic circuits. PMID:27176948

  13. Electromagnetic coupling in a planar periodic configuration of resonators

    C. Jouvaud

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We are studying arrays composed of a periodic arrangement of sub-wavelength resonators. An analytical model is developed inside an array of 4 by 4 multi-gap split ring resonators. To describe the frequency splitting of the single fundamental resonance, we propose a simple model based on the approximation of each resonator as an electrical dipole and a magnetic dipole that are driven by the same complex amplitude. We show that the relative strength of the two dipoles strongly depends on cell symmetry. With this approximation, the dispersion relation can be obtained for an infinite size array. A simple matrix diagonalization provides a powerful way to deduce the resonant frequencies for finite size array. These results are comforted by numerical simulations. Finally, an experimental demonstration of a tunable antenna based on this study is presented.

  14. Classical decoherence in a nanomechanical resonator

    Maillet, O.; Vavrek, F.; Fefferman, A. D.; Bourgeois, O.; Collin, E.

    2016-07-01

    Decoherence is an essential mechanism that defines the boundary between classical and quantum behaviours, while imposing technological bounds for quantum devices. Little is known about quantum coherence of mechanical systems, as opposed to electromagnetic degrees of freedom. But decoherence can also be thought of in a purely classical context, as the loss of phase coherence in the classical phase space. Indeed the bridge between quantum and classical physics is under intense investigation, using, in particular, classical nanomechanical analogues of quantum phenomena. In the present work, by separating pure dephasing from dissipation, we quantitatively model the classical decoherence of a mechanical resonator: through the experimental control of frequency fluctuations, we engineer artificial dephasing. Building on the fruitful analogy introduced between spins/quantum bits and nanomechanical modes, we report on the methods available to define pure dephasing in these systems, while demonstrating the intrinsic almost-ideal properties of silicon nitride beams. These experimental and theoretical results, at the boundary between classical nanomechanics and quantum information fields, are prerequisite in the understanding of decoherence processes in mechanical devices, both classical and quantum.

  15. Phase Matching of Diverse Modes in a WGM Resonator

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey; Mohageg, Makan; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Phase matching of diverse electromagnetic modes (specifically, coexisting optical and microwave modes) in a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator has been predicted theoretically and verified experimentally. Such phase matching is necessary for storage of microwave/terahertz and optical electromagnetic energy in the same resonator, as needed for exploitation of nonlinear optical phenomena. WGM resonators are used in research on nonlinear optical phenomena at low optical intensities and as a basis for design and fabrication of novel optical devices. Examples of nonlinear optical phenomena recently demonstrated in WGM resonators include low-threshold Raman lasing, optomechanical oscillations, frequency doubling, and hyperparametric oscillations. The present findings regarding phase matching were made in research on low-threshold, strongly nondegenerate parametric oscillations in lithium niobate WGM resonators. The principle of operation of such an oscillator is rooted in two previously observed phenomena: (1) stimulated Raman scattering by polaritons in lithium niobate and (2) phase matching of nonlinear optical processes via geometrical confinement of light. The oscillator is partly similar to terahertz oscillators based on lithium niobate crystals, the key difference being that a novel geometrical configuration of this oscillator supports oscillation in the regime. The high resonance quality factors (Q values) typical of WGM resonators make it possible to achieve oscillation at a threshold signal level much lower than that in a non-WGM-resonator lithium niobate crystal.

  16. Nuclear magnetic resonance as a petrophysical measurement

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of hydrogen nuclei in fluids which saturate porous rocks is important in oil exploration and production, since NMR logs can provide good estimates of permeability and fluid flow. This paper reviews developments which connect the NMR properties of rocks with petrophysical properties, and particularly those relating to fluid flow. The recent advances in the use of NMR in boreholes which have spurred these developments are also discussed. The relevance of other NMR measurements on geological samples, including magnetic resonance imaging, is briefly referred to. (author)

  17. Resonances and resonance widths

    Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances

  18. Degeneracy of resonances in a double barrier potential

    Hernandez, E.; Mondragon, A. [Instituto de Fisica, UNAM, Mexico DF (Mexico); Jauregui, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-06-23

    Degeneracy of resonant states and double poles in the scattering matrix of a double barrier potential are contrived by adjusting the parameters of the system. The cross section, scattering wavefunction and Gamow eigenfunction are computed at degeneracy. Some general properties of the degeneracy of resonances are exhibited and discussed in this simple quantum system. (author)

  19. Photonic crystal resonator integrated in a microfluidic system

    Rodrigues de Sousa Nunes, Pedro André; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Kutter, Jörg Peter;

    2008-01-01

    -free refractive index detection. The resonator was fabricated in a silicon oxynitride platform, to support electro-osmotic flow, and operated at =1.55 m. Different aqueous solutions of ethanol with refractive indices ranging from n1.3330 to 1.3616 were pumped into the column/resonator, and the transmission...

  20. Josephson soliton oscillators in a superconducting thin film resonator

    Holm, J.; Mygind, Jesper; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Barbara, Paola; Filatrella, G.; Davidson, A.

    . Different modes of half-wave resonances in the thin-film structure impose different magnetic field configurations at the boundaries of the junctions. The DC I-V characteristic shows zero-field steps with a number of resonator-induced steps. These structures are compared to RF-induced steps generated by...

  1. Tuning of resonance spacing over whole free spectral range based on Autler-Townes splitting in a single microring resonator.

    Gao, Ge; Li, Danping; Zhang, Yong; Yuan, Shuai; Armghan, Ammar; Huang, Qingzhong; Wang, Yi; Yu, Jinzhong; Xia, Jinsong

    2015-10-19

    In this paper, a single microring resonator structure formed by incorporating a reflectivity-tunable loop mirror is demonstrated for the tuning of resonance spacing. Autler-Townes splitting in the resonator is utilized to tune the spacing between two adjacent resonances by controlling the strength of coupling between the two counter-propagating degenerate modes in the microring resonator. A theoretical model based on the transfer matrix method is built to analyze the device. The theoretical analysis indicates that the resonance spacing can be tuned from zero to one free spectral range (FSR). In experiment, by integrating metallic microheater, the tuning of resonance spacing in the range of the whole FSR (1.17 nm) is achieved within 9.82 mW heating power dissipation. The device has potential for applications in reconfigurable optical filtering and microwave photonics. PMID:26480351

  2. Dispersive Thermometry with a Josephson Junction Coupled to a Resonator

    Saira, O.-P.; Zgirski, M.; Viisanen, K. L.; Golubev, D. S.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We embed a small Josephson junction in a microwave resonator that allows simultaneous dc biasing and dispersive readout. Thermal fluctuations drive the junction into phase diffusion and induce a temperature-dependent shift in the resonance frequency. By sensing the thermal noise of a remote resistor in this manner, we demonstrate primary thermometry in the range of 300 mK to below 100 mK, and high-bandwidth (7.5 MHz) operation with a noise-equivalent temperature of better than 10 μ K /√{Hz } . At a finite bias voltage close to a Fiske resonance, amplification of the microwave probe signal is observed. We develop an accurate theoretical model of our device based on the theory of dynamical Coulomb blockade.

  3. Resonance frequencies of a cavity containing a compressible viscous fluid

    Conca, C.; Planchard, J.; Vanninathan, M.

    1993-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the resonance spectrum of a cavity containing a compressible viscous fluid. This system admits a discrete infinite sequence of eigenvalues whose real parts are negative, which is interpreted as the damping effect introduced by viscosity. Only a finite number of them have non-zero imaginary parts and this number depends on viscosity; a simple criterion is given for their position in the complex plane. The case of a cavity containing an elastic mechanical system immersed in the fluid is also examined; from a qualitative point of view, the nature of the resonance spectrum remains unchanged.

  4. Electron paramagnetic resonance of individual atoms on a surface.

    Baumann, Susanne; Paul, William; Choi, Taeyoung; Lutz, Christopher P; Ardavan, Arzhang; Heinrich, Andreas J

    2015-10-23

    We combined the high-energy resolution of conventional spin resonance (here ~10 nano-electron volts) with scanning tunneling microscopy to measure electron paramagnetic resonance of individual iron (Fe) atoms placed on a magnesium oxide film. We drove the spin resonance with an oscillating electric field (20 to 30 gigahertz) between tip and sample. The readout of the Fe atom's quantum state was performed by spin-polarized detection of the atomic-scale tunneling magnetoresistance. We determine an energy relaxation time of T1 ≈ 100 microseconds and a phase-coherence time of T2 ≈ 210 nanoseconds. The spin resonance signals of different Fe atoms differ by much more than their resonance linewidth; in a traditional ensemble measurement, this difference would appear as inhomogeneous broadening. PMID:26494753

  5. Optimized Coplanar Waveguide Resonators for a Superconductor-Atom Interface

    Beck, M A; Booth, D; Pritchard, J D; Saffman, M; McDermott, R

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and characterization of superconducting coplanar waveguide cavities tailored to facilitate strong coupling between superconducting quantum circuits and single trapped Rydberg atoms. For initial superconductor-atom experiments at 4.2 K, we show that resonator quality factors above $10^4$ can be readily achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the incorporation of thick-film copper electrodes at a voltage antinode of the resonator provides a route to enhance the zero-point electric fields of the resonator in a trapping region that is 40 $\\mu$m above the chip surface, thereby minimizing chip heating from scattered trap light. The combination of high resonator quality factor and strong electric dipole coupling between the resonator and the atom should make it possible to achieve the strong coupling limit of cavity quantum electrodynamics with this system.

  6. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Hyde, James S. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Mett, Richard R. [Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 (United States); Department of Physics and Chemistry, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202 (United States); Swarts, Steven G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32610 (United States); Swartz, Harold M. [Department of Radiology, Geisel Medical School at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg{sup 2+} doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  7. A microwave resonator for limiting depth sensitivity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy of surfaces

    Sidabras, Jason W.; Varanasi, Shiv K.; Mett, Richard R.; Swarts, Steven G.; Swartz, Harold M.; Hyde, James S.

    2014-10-01

    A microwave Surface Resonator Array (SRA) structure is described for use in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The SRA has a series of anti-parallel transmission line modes that provides a region of sensitivity equal to the cross-sectional area times its depth sensitivity, which is approximately half the distance between the transmission line centers. It is shown that the quarter-wave twin-lead transmission line can be a useful element for design of microwave resonators at frequencies as high as 10 GHz. The SRA geometry is presented as a novel resonator for use in surface spectroscopy where the region of interest is either surrounded by lossy material, or the spectroscopist wishes to minimize signal from surrounding materials. One such application is in vivo spectroscopy of human finger-nails at X-band (9.5 GHz) to measure ionizing radiation dosages. In order to reduce losses associated with tissues beneath the nail that yield no EPR signal, the SRA structure is designed to limit depth sensitivity to the thickness of the fingernail. Another application, due to the resonator geometry and limited depth penetration, is surface spectroscopy in coating or material science. To test this application, a spectrum of 1.44 μM of Mg2+ doped polystyrene 1.1 mm thick on an aluminum surface is obtained. Modeling, design, and simulations were performed using Wolfram Mathematica (Champaign, IL; v. 9.0) and Ansys High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS; Canonsburg, PA; v. 15.0). A micro-strip coupling circuit is designed to suppress unwanted modes and provide a balanced impedance transformation to a 50 Ω coaxial input. Agreement between simulated and experimental results is shown.

  8. Tunable resonant transmission of electromagnetic waves through a magnetized plasma.

    Kee, Chul-Sik; Li, Shou-Zhe; Kim, Kihong; Lim, H

    2003-03-01

    We theoretically investigate the resonant transmission of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in the electromagnetic stop band of a magnetized plasma slab using the invariant embedding method. The frequency and quality factor of the resonant mode for the right-handed (left-handed) circularly polarized wave created by inserting a dielectric layer into the plasma increase (decrease) as the magnitude of the external magnetic field increases. These phenomena are compared with the characteristics of resonant modes in metallic and dielectric Fabry-Perot resonators to show that they are due to the change of plasma reflectivity. We also discuss the damping effect due to the collisions of the constituent particles of the plasma on the resonant transmission of circularly polarized waves. PMID:12689184

  9. Formation and coupling of band gaps in a locally resonant elastic system comprising a string with attached resonators

    A uniform string with periodically attached spring-mass resonators represents a simple locally resonant continuous elastic system whose band gap mechanisms are basic to more general and complicated problems. In this Letter, analytical models with explicit formulations are provided to understand the band gap mechanisms of such a system. Some interesting phenomena are demonstrated and discussed, such as asymmetric/symmetric attenuation behavior within a resonance gap, and the realization of a super-wide gap due to exact coupling between Bragg and resonance gaps. In addition, some approximate formulas for the evaluation of low frequency resonance gaps are derived using an approach different from existing investigations. - Research highlights: → We examine band gaps in a special one-dimensional locally resonant system. → Bragg and resonance gaps co-exist. → Explicit formulas for locating band edges are derived. → Exact physical models are used to clarify the band gap formation mechanisms. → Coupling between Bragg and resonance gaps leads to a super-wide gap.

  10. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid

    Gupta, Nikhil [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)], E-mail: nikhil_ms26@yahoo.co.in; Kakar, Arun K. [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Chowdhury, Veena [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India); Gulati, Praveen [MR Centre, A-23 Green Park, New Delhi (India); Shankar, L. Ravi [Department of Radioiodine Uptake and Imaging, Institute of Nucler Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Timarpur, New Delhi (India); Vindal, Anubhav [Department of Surgery, Maulana Azad Medical College, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (India)

    2007-12-15

    Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy of solitary thyroid nodules and its correlation with histopathology. Materials and methods: In this study, magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out on 26 patients having solitary thyroid nodules. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was performed on a 1.5 T super conductive system with gradient strength of 33 mTs. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done after MRS. All 26 patients underwent surgery either because of cytopathologically proven malignancy or because of cosmetic reasons. Findings of magnetic resonance spectroscopy were compared with histopathology of thyroid specimens. Results and conclusion: It was seen that presence or absence of choline peak correlates very well with presence or absence of malignant foci with in the nodule (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 88.88%). These results indicate that magnetic resonance spectroscopy may prove to be an useful diagnostic modality for carcinoma thyroid.

  11. Efficient second harmonic generation in a metamaterial with two resonant modes coupled through two varactor diodes

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Tamayama, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Masao

    2012-01-01

    We present an effective method to generate second harmonic (SH) waves using nonlinear metamaterial composed of coupled split ring resonators (CSRRs) with varactor (variable capacitance) diodes. The CSRR structure has two resonant modes: a symmetric mode that resonates at the fundamental frequency and an anti-symmetric mode that resonates at the SH frequency. Resonant fundamental waves in the symmetric mode generate resonant SH waves in the anti-symmetric mode. The double resonance contributes...

  12. A vibration energy harvesting device with bidirectional resonance frequency tunability

    Vibration energy harvesting is an attractive technique for potential powering of wireless sensors and low power devices. While the technique can be employed to harvest energy from vibrations and vibrating structures, a general requirement independent of the energy transfer mechanism is that the vibration energy harvesting device operate in resonance at the excitation frequency. Most energy harvesting devices developed to date are single resonance frequency based, and while recent efforts have been made to broaden the frequency range of energy harvesting devices, what is lacking is a robust tunable energy harvesting technique. In this paper, the design and testing of a resonance frequency tunable energy harvesting device using a magnetic force technique is presented. This technique enabled resonance tuning to ± 20% of the untuned resonant frequency. In particular, this magnetic-based approach enables either an increase or decrease in the tuned resonant frequency. A piezoelectric cantilever beam with a natural frequency of 26 Hz is used as the energy harvesting cantilever, which is successfully tuned over a frequency range of 22–32 Hz to enable a continuous power output 240–280 µW over the entire frequency range tested. A theoretical model using variable damping is presented, whose results agree closely with the experimental results. The magnetic force applied for resonance frequency tuning and its effect on damping and load resistance have been experimentally determined

  13. Superconducting atomic contacts inductively coupled to a microwave resonator

    Janvier, C.; Tosi, L.; Girit, Ç. Ö.; Goffman, M. F.; Pothier, H.; Urbina, C.

    2014-11-01

    We describe and characterize a microwave setup to probe the Andreev levels of a superconducting atomic contact. The contact is part of a superconducting loop inductively coupled to a superconducting coplanar resonator. By monitoring the resonator reflection coefficient close to its resonance frequency as a function of both flux through the loop and frequency of a second tone we perform spectroscopy of the transition between two Andreev levels of highly transmitting channels of the contact. The results indicate how to perform coherent manipulation of these states.

  14. Two-resonator circuit QED: A superconducting quantum switch

    Coupling different kind of superconducting (sc) qubits to on-chip microwave resonators has strongly advanced the field of circuit QED. Regarding the application of circuit QED systems in quantum information processing it would be highly desirable to switch on and off the interaction between two resonators. We introduce a formalism for two-resonator circuit QED where two on-chip microwave resonators are simultaneously coupled to one sc qubit. In this three-circuit network, the qubit mediates a geometric and a dynamic second-order interaction between the two resonators. These two coupling strengths can be tuned to be equal by varying the qubit operation point, thus permitting to switch on and off the interaction between the resonators. We discuss the effect of the qubit on the dynamic second-order coupling and how it can be deliberately manipulated to realize a sc quantum switch. Finally, we present a realistic design for implementing a two-resonator circuit QED setup based on a flux qubit and show preliminary experimental results.

  15. Magnetic resonance force microscopy studies in a thin permalloy film

    A 50nm thick Permalloy film has been studied using magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). The ferromagnetic resonance signal has been mechanically detected utilizing a cantilever with a Nd2Fe14B tip. The measurements were performed in the temperature range between 10 and 70K and a DC field applied perpendicular to the surface of the film. The microwave field was in the plane. The measurements indicate a decrease of the ferromagnetic resonance field with increasing temperature which may be attributed to temperature-dependent changes of the saturation magnetization. The measurements demonstrate the capability of MRFM to study temperature-dependent phenomena

  16. Sensitive birefringent temperature sensor based on a waveguide ring resonator.

    Yu, Xuhui; Ma, Huilian; Jin, Zhonghe; Pan, Ming; Hou, Liwei; Xie, Wei

    2014-04-20

    A sensitive birefringent thermometer based on a SiO2 waveguide ring resonator is demonstrated in this paper. It can be used to fabricate a terahertz thermal detector. The temperature sensitivity is enhanced by the resonances of two polarization modes in the waveguide ring resonator. A high degree of common rejection exists for external influence. A linear temperature range from 6°C to 40°C has been detected with resolution of 0.025°C. PMID:24787604

  17. A New Procedure for Resonance Integral Table with Pre-Adjusted Resonance Interference Effect for Transport Lattice Codes

    Resonance treatment is the most important part in the deterministic transport lattice calculation. The conventional resonance treatment requires resonance integrals tabulated as a function of the background cross section (σb) or subgroup data transformed from the resonance integral table. Typically the resonance integrals for a nuclide are generated as a function of background cross sections through solving slowing down equation for 1-dimensional cylindrical fuel. Slowing down equation is solved for the very fine energy groups with scattering and absorption cross sections for resonant nuclide and potential cross sections for background nuclides. Resonance interference is considered not at this stage but at the transport calculation through the Bondarenko's iteration. This procedure results in some errors in predicting the interfered resonance cross sections. Sometimes the resonance integrals are adjusted from the comparison with the critical experiments such as TRX-1 and -2 and with other reference results to conserve the whole resonance reaction rate. A new procedure has been developed to predict the group-wise self-shielded cross sections correctly. This procedure has been developed by using MERIT, SUBDATA, KARMA developed at KAERI, and MCNP

  18. Easy fabrication of a tunable high-pass birdcage resonator.

    Xu, Y; Tang, P

    1997-07-01

    A practical design for a high-pass birdcage resonator is presented. Precision seamless telescoping tubes were used for easy tuning of resonant frequency by adjusting the length of the coils. Three probes, of 4.4, 5.0, and 25.0 cm in diameter, respectively, were constructed and tested. An empirical formula is given that can be used to calculate the capacitance needed for a given frequency when the desired physical dimension and the number of elements of the coll are specified. A simple three-step procedure is suggested for easy fabrication of resonators that are routinely tunable over tens of megahertz. PMID:9211393

  19. A NOTE ON THE NARROW OPEN CHANNEL RESONANCE

    2002-01-01

    A narrow open channel resonant phenomenon, newly found by the authors in corresponding numerical calculations, was proved to exist based on the method of matching asymptotic expansions for three different channel configurations. It is shown that the resonant wave number k emerges around kL=nπ, n=1,2,3,…∞ with a corresponding frequency shift, where L is the length of the channel. It is also clear that the resonance in a narrow open channel is an essential property of a channel as long as it is uniformly narrow.

  20. Stochastic resonance in a simple duffing equation

    Náprstek, Jiří

    Prague : Institute of thermomechanics AS CR, 2014 - (Pešek, L.), s. 79-85 ISBN 978-80-87012-50-5. [Colloquium Dynamics of machines 2014. Prague (CZ), 04.02.2014-05.02.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-34405J Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : stochastic resonance * random vibration * interwell hopping Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  1. A resonant chain of four transiting, sub-Neptune planets.

    Mills, Sean M; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Migaszewski, Cezary; Ford, Eric B; Petigura, Erik; Isaacson, Howard

    2016-05-26

    Surveys have revealed many multi-planet systems containing super-Earths and Neptunes in orbits of a few days to a few months. There is debate whether in situ assembly or inward migration is the dominant mechanism of the formation of such planetary systems. Simulations suggest that migration creates tightly packed systems with planets whose orbital periods may be expressed as ratios of small integers (resonances), often in a many-planet series (chain). In the hundreds of multi-planet systems of sub-Neptunes, more planet pairs are observed near resonances than would generally be expected, but no individual system has hitherto been identified that must have been formed by migration. Proximity to resonance enables the detection of planets perturbing each other. Here we report transit timing variations of the four planets in the Kepler-223 system, model these variations as resonant-angle librations, and compute the long-term stability of the resonant chain. The architecture of Kepler-223 is too finely tuned to have been formed by scattering, and our numerical simulations demonstrate that its properties are natural outcomes of the migration hypothesis. Similar systems could be destabilized by any of several mechanisms, contributing to the observed orbital-period distribution, where many planets are not in resonances. Planetesimal interactions in particular are thought to be responsible for establishing the current orbits of the four giant planets in the Solar System by disrupting a theoretical initial resonant chain similar to that observed in Kepler-223. PMID:27225123

  2. Chemisorption-Induced Resonance Frequency Shift of a Microcantilever

    The autonomy and property of atoms/molecules adsorbed on the surface of a microcantilever can be probed by measuring its resonance frequency shift due to adsorption. The resonance frequency change of a cantilever induced by chemisorption is theoretically studied. Oxygen chemisorbed on the Si(100) surface is taken as a representative example. We demonstrate that the resonant response of the cantilever is mainly determined by the chemisorption-induced bending stiffness variation, which depends on the bond configurations formed by the adsorbed atoms and substrate atoms. This study is helpful for optimal design of microcantilever-based sensors for various applications. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  3. A XOR Threshold Logic Implementation Through Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Nitesh Kumar Dixit

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs have functional versatility and high speed switching capability. The integration of resonant tunneling diodes and MOS transistor makes threshold gates and logics. The design and fabrication of linear threshold gates will be presented based on a mono stable bis table transition logic element. Each of its input terminals consist out of a resonant tunnelling diode merged with a transistor device. The circuit models of RTD and MOSFET are simulated in HSPICE. Two input XOR gate is designed and tested.

  4. A XOR Threshold Logic Implementation Through Resonant Tunneling Diode

    Nitesh Kumar Dixit

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs have functional versatility and high speed switching capability. The integration of resonant tunneling diodes and MOS transistor makes threshold gates and logics. The design and fabrication of linear threshold gates will be presented based on a monostable bistable transition logic element. Each of its input terminals consist out of a resonant tunnelling diode merged with a transistor device. The circuit models of RTD and MOSFET are simulated in HSPICE. Two input XOR gate is designed and tested.

  5. Simulation of pyroshock environments using a tunable resonant fixture

    Davie, N.T.

    1993-09-30

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for simulating pyrotechnic shock for the purpose of qualifying electronic components for use in weapons, satellite, and aerospace applications. According to the invention, a single resonant bar fixture has an adjustable resonant frequency in order to exhibit a desired shock response spectrum upon mechanical impact. The invention eliminates the need for availability of a large number of different fixtures, capable of exhibiting a range of shock response characteristics, in favor of a single tunable system.

  6. Simulation of pyroshock environments using a tunable resonant fixture

    Davie, N.T.

    1996-10-15

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for simulating pyrotechnic shock for the purpose of qualifying electronic components for use in weapons, satellite, and aerospace applications. According to the invention, a single resonant bar fixture has an adjustable resonant frequency in order to exhibit a desired shock response spectrum upon mechanical impact. The invention eliminates the need for availability of a large number of different fixtures, capable of exhibiting a range of shock response characteristics, in favor of a single tunable system. 32 figs.

  7. Simulation of pyroshock environments using a tunable resonant fixture

    Davie, Neil T. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed are a method and apparatus for simulating pyrotechnic shock for the purpose of qualifying electronic components for use in weapons, satellite, and aerospace applications. According to the invention, a single resonant bar fixture has an adjustable resonant frequency in order to exhibit a desired shock response spectrum upon mechanical impact. The invention eliminates the need for availability of a large number of different fixtures, capable of exhibiting a range of shock response characteristics, in favor of a single tunable system.

  8. A Compact Dual Band Dielectric Resonator Antenna For Wireless Applications

    A. Gharsallah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a dual band rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRAcoupled to narrow slot aperture that is fed by microstrip line. The fundamental TE111mode andhigher-order TE113mode are excited with their resonant frequencies respectively. Thesefrequencies can be controlled by changing the DRA dimensions. A dielectric resonator with highpermittivity is used to miniaturize the global structure. The proposed antenna is designed to havedual band operation suitable for both DCS (1710 - 1880 MHz and WLAN (2400 - 2484 MHzapplications. The return loss, radiation pattern and gain of the proposed antenna are evaluated.Reasonable agreement between simulation and experimental results is obtained.

  9. A Search for ttbar Resonances with the ATLAS Detector

    Livermore, SSA

    2012-01-01

    A search for resonant production of ttbar pairs with data collected in 2011 by ATLAS. The analyses presented here concentrate on the lepton + jets and fully leptonic final states, with datasets corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 2.05 and 1.04 fb-1 respectively. Limits are set on the production cross-section times branching ratio to top quark pairs of resonances predicted by key benchmark models. Prospects are also presented for an analysis tailored to the search for high mass resonances which decay to pairs of "boosted" top quarks with large transverse momenta.

  10. Optical Fiber Excitation of Fano Resonances in a Silicon Microsphere

    Sabahattin Gökay, Ulaş; Zakwan, Muhammad; Demir, Abdullah; Serpengüzel, Ali

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Fano lineshape whispering gallery modes were observed in the light scattering spectrum of a silicon microsphere in near-infrared telecommunication wavelengths. A simple model is presented to explain the transition from Lorentzian lineshape to the Fano lineshape resonances with the coupled-mode theory of multiple whispering gallery modes. Polar mode spacing of 0.23 nm is observed in the spectra, which correlates well with the calculated value. The quality factor of the Lorentzian and Fano resonances are on the order of 105. By using an appropriate interface design for the microsphere coupling geometries, Fano lineshape optical resonances herald novel device applications for silicon volumetric lightwave circuits.

  11. Optical modulation in a resonant tunneling relaxation oscillator

    Figueiredo, J.M.L.; Stanley, C.R.; Boyd, A.R.; Ironside, C. N.; McMeekin, S.G.; Leite, A. M. P.

    1999-01-01

    We report high-speed optical modulation in a resonant tunneling relaxation oscillator consisting of a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) integrated with a unipolar optical waveguide and incorporated in a package with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. When appropriately biased, the RTD can provide wide-bandwidth electrical gain. For wavelengths near the material band edge, small changes of the applied voltage give rise to large, high-speed electroabsorption modulation of the light. We have o...

  12. Optical modulation in a resonant tunneling relaxation oscillator

    Figueiredo, J.M.L.; Stanley, C.R.; Boyd, A.R.; Ironside, C. N.

    2005-01-01

    We report high speed optical modulation in a resonant tunneling relaxation oscillator consisting of a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) integrated with a unipolar optical waveguide and incorporated in a package with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. When appropriately biased, the RTD can provide wide-bandwidth electrical gain. For wavelengths near the material band-edge, small changes of the applied voltage give rise to large, high-speed electro-absorption modulation of the light. We have ...

  13. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of a patient with an magnetic resonance imaging conditional permanent pacemaker

    Chris B. Pepper; Mohan Sivananthan; Artis, Nigel J.; Hogarth, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as the optimum modality for cardiac imaging. An aging population and rising numbers of patients with permanent pacemakers means many such individuals may require cardiac MRI scanning in the future. Whilst the presence of a permanent pacemaker is historically regarded as a contra-indication to MRI scanning, pacemaker systems have been developed to limit any associated risks. No reports have been published regarding the use of such d...

  14. Modeling of a Resonant Tunneling Diode Optical Modulator

    Calado, J. J. N.; Figueiredo, J.M.L.; Ironside, C. N.

    2005-01-01

    The integration of a double barrier resonant tunneling diode within a unipolar optical waveguide provides electrical gain over a wide bandwidth. Due to the non-linearities introduced by the double barrier resonant tunneling diode an unipolar InGaAlAs/InP optical waveguide can be employed both as optical modulator and optical detector. The modeling results of a device operating as optical modulator agree with preliminary experimental data, foreseeing for an optimized device modulation depths u...

  15. Quantum Light from a Whispering-Gallery-Mode Disk Resonator

    Fürst, J. U.; Strekalov, D. V.; Elser, D.; Aiello, A.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Marquardt, Ch.; Leuchs, G.

    2011-01-01

    direct observation of intensity squeezing of -1.2 dB of each of the individual parametric beams in parametric down-conversion by use of a high quality whispering-gallery-mode disk resonator. In addition, we observed twin-beam quantum correlations of -2.7 dB with this cavity. Such resonators feature...... strong optical confinement and offer tunable coupling to an external optical field. This work exemplifies the potential of crystalline whispering-gallery-mode resonators for the generation of quantum light. The simplicity of this device makes the application of quantum light in various fields highly...

  16. A Second Peak in Diphoton (or Diboson) Resonances

    Carena, Marcela; Ismail, Ahmed; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R; Wagner, Carlos E M

    2016-01-01

    A resonant diphoton peak can be explained by gluon fusion production of a new neutral scalar which subsequently decays into a pair of photons. Loop-induced couplings of the new scalar to gluons and photons should be mediated by particles carrying color and electric charge. We point out that, if the loop particles hadronize before decaying, their bound states will induce a second peak in the diphoton invariant mass spectrum near twice their mass. Using the recently reported 750 GeV excess as a benchmark, we discuss implications of this second peak for resonance searches at the LHC. The second peak could be present for resonances in the $gg$ and $Z\\gamma$ channels, or even in the $WW$ and $ZZ$ channels for a pseudo-scalar resonance, where the couplings are mediated by new loop particles.

  17. Development of a traveling wave neutronspin-resonator

    The design and first construction of a travelling-wave-mode neutron spin resonator, as a tool for the generation of arbitrarily shaped wavelength-selected and polarised neutron pulses, is the objective of this thesis. The basic principle of the neutron spin resonator was introduced in the 1960s by Drabkin et al. Thereby, polarised neutrons are passing a spatially alternating transverse magnetic field, oriented perpendicularly to the magnetic guide field. In the neutrons' rest frame, the frequency of this alternating field is dependent on the neutrons' velocity and the spatial period of the resonator. If this frequency equals the Larmor precession frequency, defined by the static guide field (selector field), a full Pi-spin-flip takes place. A tuning of the selector field allows for the selection of neutrons with a certain wavelength. The easiest design of such a device consists of an aluminium-meander between two polarising supermirros. By switching the device on and off, one can create neutron pulses with a smallest possible pulselength defined by the total length of the resonator. In order to go for the creation of much shorter and sharper neutron pulses, a travelling-wave-mode type resonator is realised. For this purpose, the meander is replaced by a number of individually controllable aluminium coils, creating a travelling magnetic field that accompanies the neutron pulse through the resonator. The new smallest possible pulse width is now given by the thickness of one aluminium coil which now represents one half period of the resonator field. Compared to a conventional resonator, much shorter pulse widths become possible with a resonator driven in travelling-wave-mode. Another advantage of this modular construction over the meander-setup is the flexibility of shaping the magnetic field configuration which allows to eliminate unwanted side maxima in the spin-flip probability. Based on a design study, two resonator prototypes are assembled and tested at the TRIGA

  18. Tailoring Light-Matter Interaction with a Nanoscale Plasmon Resonator

    de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones; Shields, Brendan John; Yu, Chun; Englund, Dirk E.; Akimov, Alexey; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun

    2012-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new approach for achieving strong light-matter interactions with quantum emitters. Our approach makes use of a plasmon resonator composed of defect-free, highly crystalline silver nanowires surrounded by patterned dielectric distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs). These resonators have an effective mode volume (Veff) two orders of magnitude below the diffraction limit and quality factor (Q) approaching 100, enabling enhancement of spontaneous emission rates by a fact...

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging appearance of hypertensive encephalopathy in a dog

    Bowman, Chloe A; Witham, Adrian; Tyrrell, Dayle; Long, Sam N

    2015-01-01

    A 16-year-old female spayed English Staffordshire terrier was presented for evaluation of a 10-month history of intermittent myoclonic episodes, and a one weeks history of short episodes of altered mentation, ataxia and collapse. Magnetic resonance imaging identified subcortical oedema, predominately in the parietal and temporal lobes and multiple cerebral microbleeds. Serum biochemistry, indirect blood pressure measurements and magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities were consistent with hy...

  20. A comparison of approaches to estimate the resonance energy

    Zielinski, M.L.; Havenith, R.W.A.; Jenneskens, L. W.; Lenthe, J.H. van

    2010-01-01

    We discuss Ab Initio approaches to calculate the energy lowering (stabilisation) due to aromaticity. We compare the valence bond method and the block-localised wave function approaches to calculate the resonance energy. We conclude that the valence bond approach employs a Pauling–Wheland resonance energy and that the block-localised approach employs a delocalisation criterion. The latter is shown to be more basis set dependent in a series of illustrative calculations.

  1. A silicon single-crystal cryogenic optical resonator

    Wiens, Eugen; Ernsting, Ingo; Luckmann, Heiko; Rosowski, Ulrich; Nevsky, Alexander; Schiller, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    We report on the demonstration and characterization of a silicon optical resonator for laser frequency stabilization, operating in the deep cryogenic regime at temperatures as low as 1.5 K. Robust operation was achieved, with absolute frequency drift less than 20 Hz over 1 hour. This stability allowed sensitive measurements of the resonator thermal expansion coefficient ($\\alpha$). We found $\\alpha=4.6\\times10^{-13}$ ${\\rm K^{-1}}$ at 1.6 K. At 16.8 K $\\alpha$ vanishes, with a derivative equal to $-6\\times10^{-10}$ ${\\rm K}^{-2}$. The temperature of the resonator was stabilized to a level below 10 $\\mu$K for averaging times longer than 20 s. The sensitivity of the resonator frequency to a variation of the laser power was also studied. The corresponding sensitivities and the expected Brownian noise indicate that this system should enable frequency stabilization of lasers at the low-$10^{-17}$ level.

  2. Observation of optomechanical coupling in a microbottle resonator

    Asano, Motoki; Chen, Weijian; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Ikuta, Rikizo; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Yang, Lan; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we report optomechanical coupling, resolved sidebands and phonon lasing in a solid-core microbottle resonator fabricated on a single mode optical fiber. Mechanical modes with quality factors (Q_m) as high as 1.57*10^4 and 1.45*10^4 were observed, respectively, at the mechanical frequencies f_m=33.7 MHz and f_m=58.9 MHz. The maximum f_m*Q_m~0.85*10^12 Hz is close to the theoretical lower bound of 6*10^12 Hz needed to overcome thermal decoherence for resolved-sideband cooling of mechanical motion at room temperature, suggesting microbottle resonators as a possible platform for this endeavor. In addition to optomechanical effects, scatter-induced mode splitting and ringing phenomena, which are typical for high-quality optical resonances, were also observed in a microbottle resonator.

  3. The localized surface plasmon resonances based on a Bragg reflector

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Yumin; Yu, Zhongyuan; Ye, Chunwei; Lv, Hongbo; Shu, Changgan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we present the theoretical analysis on how the wavelength of the localized surface plasmon resonances of gold nanoparticle can lead shift for the resonance wavelength. In our results, we calculate the scattering cross-section, the absorption cross-section and the field enhancement due to the nanoparticle. Numerical simulation were done using the finite element method (FEM). The work that we do here is different from the previous work because we use the Bragg reflector as a substrate. The Bragg reflector has a property of high reflectivity in some certain frequency bandwidth because of its periodic structure. The coherence interference of the Bragg reflector contributes to the plasmon resonances and results in some special character for a wide variety application, from sensing to photovoltaic. The periodic number of the Bragg reflector substrate and shapes of the nanoparticles are also discussed that result in a shift of the resonance wavelength.

  4. Resonance fluorescence from a telecom-wavelength quantum dot

    Al-Khuzheyri, R; Huwer, J; Santana, T S; Szymanska, J Skiba-; Felle, M; Ward, M B; Stevenson, R M; Farrer, I; Tanner, M G; Hadfield, R H; Ritchie, D A; Shields, A J; Gerardot, B D

    2016-01-01

    We report on resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot emitting at telecom wavelengths. We perform high-resolution spectroscopy and observe the Mollow triplet in the Rabi regime--a hallmark of resonance fluorescence. The measured resonance-fluorescence spectra allow us to rule out pure dephasing as a significant decoherence mechanism in these quantum dots. Combined with numerical simulations, the experimental results provide robust characterisation of charge noise in the environment of the quantum dot. Resonant control of the quantum dot opens up new possibilities for on-demand generation of indistinguishable single photons at telecom wavelengths as well as quantum optics experiments and direct manipulation of solid-state qubits in telecom-wavelength quantum dots.

  5. A novel soft switching crossing current resonant converter (XCRC)

    Poon, FNK; Pong, MH

    1994-01-01

    Unlike other resonate or soft-switching converter, this novel topology employs only two switches and a very simply control method. The inherent constant power protection feature is another merit. No special resonate chip is needed to control the circuit. By adding two diode parallel with the dividing capacitors and selecting the capacitors for a small value that will fully charge and discharge in one cycle, one can obtain the zero voltage switching characteristic and control the output voltag...

  6. A novel integrated synchronous rectifier for LLC resonant converter

    Ho, Kwun-yuan, Godwin.; 賀觀元.

    2012-01-01

    There is ever-increasing demand in telecommunication system, data server and computer equipment for low voltage, high current power supply. LLC resonant converter is a good topology on primary side of the converter because it has soft switching and resonant conversion. However, the passive rectifier in the secondary side has high power dissipation. Synchronous rectifier is a popular method to reduce this rectification loss. Although there are many types of synchronous rectifier for PWM conve...

  7. Pluto and Charon: A Case of Precession-Orbit Resonance?

    Rubincam, David Parry; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Pluto may be the only known case of precession-orbit resonance in the solar system. The Pluto-Charon system orbits the Sun with a period of 1 Plutonian year, which is 250.8 Earth years. The observed parameters of the system are such that Charon may cause Pluto to precess with a period near 250.8 Earth years. This gives rise to two possible resonances, heretofore unrecognized. The first is due to Pluto's orbit being highly eccentric, giving solar torques on Charon with a period of 1 Plutonian year. Charon in turn drives Pluto near its precession period. Volatiles, which are expected to shuttle across Pluto's surface between equator and pole as Pluto's obliquity oscillates, might change the planet's dynamical flattening enough so that Pluto crosses the nearby resonance, forcing the planet's equatorial plane to depart from Charon's orbital plane. The mutual tilt can reach as much as 2 deg after integrating over 5.6 x 10(exp 6) years, depending upon how close Pluto is to the resonance and the supply of volatiles. The second resonance is due to the Sun's traveling above and below Charon's orbital plane; it has a period half that of the eccentricity resonance. Reaching this half-Plutonian year resonance requires a much larger but still theoretically possible amount of volatiles. In this case the departure of Charon from an equatorial orbit is about 1 deg after integrating for 5.6 x 10(exp 6) years. The calculations ignore libration and tidal friction. It is not presently known how large the mutual tilt can grow over the age of the solar system, but if it remains only a few degrees, then observing such small angles from a Pluto flyby mission would be difficult. It is not clear why the parameters of the Pluto-Charon system are so close to the eccentricity resonance.

  8. Lifetime of resonant state in a spherical quantum dot

    Li Chun-Lei; Xiao Jing-Lin

    2007-01-01

    This paper calculates the lifetime of resonant state and transmission probability of a single electron tunnelling in a spherical quantum dot (SQD) structure by using the transfer matrix technique. In the SQD, the electron is confined both transversally and longitudinally, the motion in the transverse and longitudinal directions is separated by using the adiabatic approximation theory. Meanwhile, the energy levels of the former are considered as the effective confining potential. The numerical calculations are carried out for the SQD consisting of GaAs/InAs material. The obtained results show that the bigger radius of the quantum dot not only leads significantly to the shifts of resonant peaks toward the low-energy region, but also causes the lengthening of the lifetime of resonant state. The lifetime of resonant state can be calculated from the uncertainty principle between the energy half width and lifetime.

  9. Signal amplification in a qubit-resonator system

    We study the dynamics of a qubit-resonator system, when the resonator is driven by two signals. The interaction of the qubit with the high-amplitude driving we consider in terms of the qubit dressed states. Interaction of the dressed qubit with the second probing signal can essentially change the amplitude of this signal. We calculate the transmission amplitude of the probe signal through the resonator as a function of the qubit energy and the driving frequency detuning. The regions of increase and attenuation of the transmitted signal are calculated and demonstrated graphically. We present the influence of the signal parameters on the value of the amplification, and discuss the values of the qubit-resonator system parameters for an optimal amplification and attenuation of the weak probe signal.

  10. Measuring ac losses in superconducting cables using a resonant circuit:Resonant current experiment (RESCUE)

    Däumling, Manfred; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Rasmussen, Carsten;

    1998-01-01

    A simple way to obtain true ac losses with a resonant circuit containing a superconductor, using the decay of the circuit current, is described. For the measurement a capacitor is short circuited with a superconducting cable. Energy in the circuit is provided by either charging up the capacitors...... with a certain voltage, or letting a de flow in the superconductor. When the oscillations are started-either by opening a switch in case a de is flowing or by closing a switch to connect the charged capacitors with the superconductor-the current (via a Rogowski coil) or the voltage on the capacitor can...

  11. A tuneable doubly stacked dielectric resonator housed in an intact TE 102 cavity for electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Mattar, Saba M.; Emwas, Abdul H.

    2003-01-01

    An EPR resonator is constructed by inserting a pair of dielectric ceramic rings in an unmodified rectangular TE 102 cavity. It is tuneable over the range of 8.0-10.0 GHz. Therefore, existing EPR cavities can be easily converted to resonators with superior signal-to-noise ratios that are at least 24 times larger than the original ones in this extended frequency range. The resonator's performance is tested using DPPH, TEMPONE, MnO and Cu 2+ complexes and displays excellent resolution and sensitivity. Thus EPR spectra of small paramagnetic organic and inorganic samples and spin labeled biomolecules may be obtained without resorting to loop gap resonators.

  12. Investigation of a delayed feedback controller of MEMS resonators

    Masri, Karim M.

    2013-08-04

    Controlling mechanical systems is an important branch of mechanical engineering. Several techniques have been used to control Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) resonators. In this paper, we study the effect of a delayed feedback controller on stabilizing MEMS resonators. A delayed feedback velocity controller is implemented through modifying the parallel plate electrostatic force used to excite the resonator into motion. A nonlinear single degree of freedom model is used to simulate the resonator response. Long time integration is used first. Then, a finite deference technique to capture periodic motion combined with the Floquet theory is used to capture the stable and unstable periodic responses. We show that applying a suitable positive gain can stabilize the MEMS resonator near or inside the instability dynamic pull in band. We also study the stability of the resonator by tracking its basins of attraction while sweeping the controller gain and the frequency of excitations. For positive delayed gains, we notice significant enhancement in the safe area of the basins of attraction. Copyright © 2013 by ASME.

  13. A walk along the steep neutron resonance data evaluation path

    Bouland, O. [CEA Cadarache (DEN/CAD/DER/SPRC/LEPh), Physics Studies Lab., 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs

    2008-07-01

    This paper goes through some major steps of a 'resonance evaluator' work and in particular on actual tricky questions: the nature of the experimental data base, the life without R-matrix approximations, the external level gambling, the influence of level structures in observables other than cross sections, the puzzling unresolved resonance range and the disused average sub-threshold fission cross sections. (authors)

  14. Experimental observation of the shear Alfven resonance in a tokamak

    Experiments in Tokapole II have demonstrated the shear Alfven resonance in a tokamak by direct probe measurement of the wave magnetic field within the plasma. The resonance is driven by external antennas and is identified as radially localized enhancements of the poloidal wave magnetic field. The radial location agrees with calculations which include toroidicity and noncircularity of the plasma cross-section. Other properties such as polarization, radial width, risetime, and wave enhancement also agree with MHD theory

  15. Parametric resonances and stochastic layer induced by a phase modulation

    Liu, J.Y.; Ball, M.; Brabson, B. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Cyclotron Facility] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Hamiltonian system with phase modulation in a higher harmonic rf cavity is experimentally studied on the IUCF cooler ring. The Poincare maps in the resonant rotating frame are obtained from experimental data and compared with numerical tracking. The formation of the stochastic layer due to the overlap of parametric resonances is discussed. The dependence of the stochastic layer on the voltage of the higher harmonic rf cavity, amplitude and frequency of the phase modulation is studied.

  16. Parametric resonances and stochastic layer induced by a phase modulation

    The Hamiltonian system with phase modulation in a higher harmonic rf cavity is experimentally studied on the IUCF cooler ring. The Poincare maps in the resonant rotating frame are obtained from experimental data and compared with numerical tracking. The formation of the stochastic layer due to the overlap of parametric resonances is discussed. The dependence of the stochastic layer on the voltage of the higher harmonic rf cavity, amplitude and frequency of the phase modulation is studied

  17. Ferromagnetic resonance driven by an ac current: a brief review

    Excitation of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) by an ac current has been observed in macroscopic ferromagnetic films for decades and typically relies on the ac Oersted field of the current to drive magnetic moments into precession and classical rectification of ac signals to detect the resonance. Recently, current-driven ferromagnetic resonances have attracted renewed attention with the discovery of the spin-transfer torque (STT) effect due to its potential applications in magnetic memory and microwave technologies. Here STT associated with the ac current is used to drive magnetodynamics on the nanoscale that enables FMR studies in sample volumes smaller by a factor of 1000 compared to conventional resonance techniques. In this paper, we briefly review the basics of STT-FMR technique and the results of various STT-FMR experiments.

  18. A numerical method for calculating resonant-state wave functions

    An initial-value method of numerical solving of Sturm-Liouville problems is applied to find the solution to the Schroedinger equation which corresponds to a resonance situation. The depth of the nuclear potential is regarded as an eigenvalue, which is obtained by iteration. Having established the nuclear potential, the resonant wavefunction is generated by integrating numerically the Schroedinger differential equation inwards from larger radii using the initial conditions of G(r), where G is the irregular Coulomb function. Because the solution is exactly on resonance, nosearching for the phase shift is required. Consequently, the suggested procedure may be employed even if the resonance widths are extremely narrow (e.g., 10-16 MeV)

  19. Numerical Investigations of Resonant Layers in a Periodically—Driven Pendulum

    AlbertC.L.LUO

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the presence of resonant layers formed near a resonant separatrix in a periodically driven pendulum are presented through an energy spectrum method.The analytical predictions are also presented.The resonant layers are illustrated through the Poincare mapping sections.For the strong excitation.The sub-resonance effects should be considered through the self-similarity of resonance in the resonant layers.

  20. A self-resonant micro flow velocity sensor based on a resonant frequency shift by flow-induced vibration

    We report the development of a self-resonant flow sensor based on a resonant frequency shift due to flow-induced vibrations. The vibration of a microcantilever beam, induced by a turbulent flow, is modulated with its own natural frequency, and the resonant frequency is shifted by a surface stress on the beam due to fluid drag force. The vibration induced by air flow is measured by using a piezoelectric PZT material on a silicon cantilever beam. The theoretical resonant frequencies of two cantilever beams (lengths: 610 µm and 2000 µm) are 12416 Hz and 1155 Hz, respectively. For the air flow velocities of 2.8 m s−1 and 9.7 m s−1, the shifted resonant frequencies of the cantilever beam whose length is 610 µm are 12 810 Hz and 15 602 Hz, respectively. Sensitivities of the two self-resonant flow sensors with the 610 and 2000 µm long beams are approximately 384 ± 15 Hz/(m/s) and 20.4 ± 0.6 Hz/(m/s), respectively.

  1. A temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode resonator

    Yu, L.; Fernicola, V.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with a microwave temperature sensor based on a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator whose dielectric medium is a cylindrical sapphire crystal. The performance as temperature sensor were investigated a three WGMs resonant frequencies over the temperature range from -40 °C to 85 °C. It was found that the quality factor for these WGMs can be in excess of 1.7ṡ105, potentially enabling high-resolution measurements. The temperature repeatability, stability, hysteresis, frequency-vs-temperature sensitivity of the WGM temperature sensor are reported. Moreover, two sapphires, which have the same nominal characteristics, were investigated in order to assess the system reproducibility and the results reported.

  2. A Sub wavelength Plasmonic Waveguide Filter with a Ring Resonator

    The transmission characteristics of the electromagnetic wave are numerically investigated in two-dimensional compound plasmonic structures composed of two straight sub wavelength metal-insulator-metal (MIM) waveguides and a ring resonator. The two straight MIM waveguides situate on both sides of the ring resonator, and the MIM waveguide of the outgoing side has a positional angular deviation θ relative to the MIM waveguide of the incoming side. The results show that the filtering performances of the asymmetric structures (θ≠=00) are greatly improved in comparison with the symmetric structure (θ=00) . For most of the asymmetric structures, there is a transmission minimum at the slightly bigger wavelength than one at which the transmission peak appears for the symmetric structures, and there is still a transmission peak at the wavelength of the transmission peak of the symmetric structures. Moreover, the difference between the transmission peak and valley is increased, and the breadth of the transmission peak becomes narrow

  3. Coupling a Transmon Qubit to a Superconducting Metamaterial Resonator

    Wang, Haozhi; Hutchings, M.; Indrajeet, Sager; Rouxinol, Francisco; Lahaye, Matthew; Plourde, B. L. T.; Taketani, Bruno G.; Wilhelm, Frank K.

    Arrays of lumped circuit elements can be used to form metamaterial resonant structures that exhibit significantly different mode structures compared to resonators made from conventional distributed transmission lines. In particular, it is possible to produce a high density of modes in the microwave regime where a superconducting qubit can be operated and coupled to the various modes. We will present our low-temperature measurements of such a superconducting metamaterial resonator coupled to a tunable transmon qubit. By tuning the magnetic flux biasing the qubit, we observe vacuum Rabi splittings in the modes that the qubit transition passes through. We will also discuss our measurements of an interaction between neighboring modes of the metamaterial system that is mediated by the qubit. Because of the dispersive coupling of the qubit to the various modes of the system, driving a microwave tone near one mode of the system can have a significant influence on the transmission through another mode, with a strong dependence on the bias point of the qubit. We will compare these measurements with a theoretical model of the system.

  4. Nonlinear resonance islands and modulational effects in a proton synchrotron

    The authors examine one-dimensional and two-dimensional nonlinear resonance islands created in the transverse phase space of a proton synchrotron by nonlinear magnets. The authors examine application of the theoretical framework constructed to the phenomenon of modulational diffusion in a collider model of the Fermilab Tevatron. For the one-dimensional resonance island system, the authors examine the effects of two types of modulational perturbations on the stability of these resonance islands: Tune modulation and beta function modulation. Hamiltonian models are presented which predict stability boundaries that depend on only three parameters: The strength and frequency of the modulation and the frequency of small oscillations inside the resonance island. The tune modulation model is successfully tested in experiment, where frequency domain analysis coupled with tune modulation is demonstrated to be useful in measuring the strength of a nonlinear resonance. Nonlinear resonance islands are examined in two transverse dimensions in the presence of coupling and linearly independent crossing resonances. The authors present a first-order Hamiltonian model which predicts fixed point locations, but does not reproduce small oscillation frequencies seen in tracking. Particle tracking is presented which shows evidence of two-dimensional persistent signals, and the authors make suggestions on methods for observing such signals in future experiment. The authors apply the tune modulation stability diagram to the explicitly two-dimensional phenomenon of modulational diffusion in the Fermilab Tevatron with beam-beam kicks as the source of nonlinearity. The amplitude growth created by this mechanism in simulation is exponential rather than root-time as predicted by modulational diffusion models. The authors comment upon the luminosity and lifetime limitations such a mechanism implies in a proton storage ring

  5. Efficient second harmonic generation in a metamaterial with two resonant modes coupled through two varactor diodes

    Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Tamayama, Yasuhiro; Kitano, Masao

    2012-01-01

    We present an effective method to generate second harmonic (SH) waves using nonlinear metamaterial composed of coupled split ring resonators (CSRRs) with varactor (variable capacitance) diodes. The CSRR structure has two resonant modes: a symmetric mode that resonates at the fundamental frequency and an anti-symmetric mode that resonates at the SH frequency. Resonant fundamental waves in the symmetric mode generate resonant SH waves in the anti-symmetric mode. The double resonance contributes to effective SH radiation. In the experiment, we observe 19.6 dB enhancement in the SH radiation in comparison with the nonlinear metamaterial that resonates only for the fundamental waves.

  6. Pitchfork bifurcation and vibrational resonance in a fractional-order Duffing oscillator

    J H Yang; M A F Sanjuán; W Xiang; H Zhu

    2013-12-01

    The pitchfork bifurcation and vibrational resonance are studied in a fractional-order Duffing oscillator with delayed feedback and excited by two harmonic signals. Using an approximation method, the bifurcation behaviours and resonance patterns are predicted. Supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations can be induced by the fractional-order damping, the exciting highfrequency signal and the delayed time. The fractional-order damping mainly determines the pattern of the vibrational resonance. There is a bifurcation point of the fractional order which, in the case of double-well potential, transforms vibrational resonance pattern from a single resonance to a double resonance, while in the case of single-well potential, transforms vibrational resonance from no resonance to a single resonance. The delayed time influences the location of the vibrational resonance and the bifurcation point of the fractional order. Pitchfork bifurcation is the necessary condition for the double resonance. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the numerical simulations.

  7. The diphoton resonance as a gravity mediator of dark matter

    Chengcheng Han

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility of interpreting the recently reported diphoton excess at 750 GeV as a spin-two massive particle (such as a Kaluza–Klein graviton in warped extra-dimensions which serves as a mediator to Dark Matter via its gravitational couplings to the dark sector and to the Standard Model (SM. We model non-universal couplings of the resonance to gauge bosons in the SM and to Dark Matter as a function on their localization in the extra dimension. We find that scalar, fermion or vector dark matter can saturate the dark matter relic density by the annihilation of dark matter into a pair of the SM particles or heavy resonances, in agreement with the diphoton resonance signal strength. We check the compatibility of our hypothesis with other searches for the KK graviton. We show that the invisible decay rate of the resonance into a pair of dark matter is subdominant in the region of the correct relic density, hence leading to no constraints from the mono-jet bound at 8 TeV via the gluon coupling. We also discuss the kinematic features of the decay products of a KK graviton to distinguish the KK graviton from the SM backgrounds or a scalar particle interpretation of the diphoton resonance.

  8. The diphoton resonance as a gravity mediator of dark matter

    Han, Chengcheng; Lee, Hyun Min; Park, Myeonghun; Sanz, Verónica

    2016-04-01

    We consider the possibility of interpreting the recently reported diphoton excess at 750 GeV as a spin-two massive particle (such as a Kaluza-Klein graviton in warped extra-dimensions) which serves as a mediator to Dark Matter via its gravitational couplings to the dark sector and to the Standard Model (SM). We model non-universal couplings of the resonance to gauge bosons in the SM and to Dark Matter as a function on their localization in the extra dimension. We find that scalar, fermion or vector dark matter can saturate the dark matter relic density by the annihilation of dark matter into a pair of the SM particles or heavy resonances, in agreement with the diphoton resonance signal strength. We check the compatibility of our hypothesis with other searches for the KK graviton. We show that the invisible decay rate of the resonance into a pair of dark matter is subdominant in the region of the correct relic density, hence leading to no constraints from the mono-jet bound at 8 TeV via the gluon coupling. We also discuss the kinematic features of the decay products of a KK graviton to distinguish the KK graviton from the SM backgrounds or a scalar particle interpretation of the diphoton resonance.

  9. Matrix Formalism for Spin Dynamics Near a Single Depolarization Resonance

    Chao, Alexander W.; /SLAC

    2005-10-26

    A matrix formalism is developed to describe the spin dynamics in a synchrotron near a single depolarization resonance as the particle energy (and therefore its spin precession frequency) is varied in a prescribed pattern as a function of time such as during acceleration. This formalism is first applied to the case of crossing the resonance with a constant crossing speed and a finite total step size, and then applied also to other more involved cases when the single resonance is crossed repeatedly in a prescribed manner consisting of linear ramping segments or sudden jumps. How repeated crossings produce an interference behavior is discussed using the results obtained. For a polarized beam with finite energy spread, a spin echo experiment is suggested to explore this interference effect.

  10. Resonance at the Rabi frequency in a superconducting flux qubit

    Greenberg, Ya. S. [Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Il' ichev, E.; Oelsner, G. [common Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Jena (Germany); Shevchenko, S. N. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, Kharkov, Ukraine and V. Karazin Kharkov National University, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2014-10-15

    We analyze a system composed of a superconducting flux qubit coupled to a transmission-line resonator driven by two signals with frequencies close to the resonator's harmonics. The first strong signal is used for exciting the system to a high energetic state while a second weak signal is applied for probing effective eigenstates of the system. In the framework of doubly dressed states we showed the possibility of amplification and attenuation of the probe signal by direct transitions at the Rabi frequency. We present a brief review of theoretical and experimental works where a direct resonance at Rabi frequency have been investigated in superconducting flux qubits. The interaction of the qubit with photons of two harmonics has prospects to be used as a quantum amplifier (microwave laser) or an attenuator.

  11. A wireless, passive load cell based on magnetoelastic resonance

    A wireless, battery-less load cell was fabricated based on the resonant frequency shift of a vibrating magnetoelastic strip when exposed to an AC magnetic field. Since the vibration of the magnetoelastic strip generated a secondary field, the resonance was remotely detected with a coil. When a load was applied to a small area on the surface of the magnetoelastic strip via a circular rod applicator, the resonant frequency and amplitude decreased due to the damping of its vibration. The force sensitivity of the load cell was controlled by changing the size of the force applicator and placing the applicator at different locations on the strip’s surface. Experimental results showed that the force sensitivity increased when a larger applicator was placed near the edge of the strip. The novelty of this load cell is not only its wireless passive nature, but also the controllability of the force sensitivity. (paper)

  12. Lamb shift of Rydberg atoms in a resonator

    The Lamb shift of a Rydberg atom in a cavity is shown to be enhanced with the resonance interaction of a virtual atomic transition and cavity modes. The dependence of the Lamb shift on quantum numbers and atomic number changes drastically. Shifting cavity walls and scanning the atomic beam one can vary the Lamb shift. The value of the Lamb shift in a cavity may exceed a typical magnitude of the fine structure energy. For a rough resonance tuning the Coulumb multiplet occurs to be strongly mixed and a novel classification is necessary. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  13. A capacitor charging power supply using series resonant topology

    A capacitor charging power supply has to perform under wide range of load variations. Initially the capacitor will act as a short circuit so the topology must be such that it should withstand short circuit condition repetitively. This power supply has been specially developed using series resonant topology for capacitor charging applications. The capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) will charge a 100 uF energy storage capacitor from 0V to 600V in 35 ms exhibiting a charging power of 514.28 J/s at a repetition rate of 25 Hz. Topology selection is based on the fact that the series resonant converter with switching frequency below 50% of the resonant frequency (fs r) act as a current source. (author)

  14. Solving the resonating-group equation on a Lagrange mesh

    Hesse, M; Baye, D

    2002-01-01

    The resonating-group method allows treating reactions in a fully microscopic way. The non-local resonating-group equation can be accurately solved on a Lagrange mesh involving few mesh points. This mesh technique is combined with either the R-matrix method or the Hulthen-Kohn method. The forbidden states can be eliminated by a special treatment. The accuracy of the technique of solution is illustrated on a solvable non-local potential. Phase shifts for the alpha+n and alpha+p scatterings are calculated with both variants of the resonating-group method on a Lagrange mesh and a comparison is performed between them and the equivalent generator-coordinate method.

  15. A planar left-handed metamaterial based on electric resonators

    A planar left-handed metamaterial(LHM) composed of electric resonator pairs is presented in this paper. Theoretical analysis, an equivalent circuit model and simulated results of a wedge sample show that this material exhibits a negative refraction pass-band around 9.6GHz under normal-incidence and is insensitive to a change in incidence angle. Furthermore, as the angle between the arm of the electric resonators and the strip connecting the arms increases, the frequency range of the pass-band shifts downwards. Consequently, this LHM guarantees a relatively stable torlerence of errors when it is practically fabricated. Moreover, it is a candidate for designing multi-band LHM through combining the resonator pairs with different angles. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  16. Resonance and propulsion performance of a heaving flexible wing

    Michelin, S

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the bending rigidity of a flexible heaving wing on its propulsive performance in a two-dimensional imposed parallel flow is investigated in the inviscid limit. Potential flow theory is used to describe the flow over the flapping wing. The vortical wake of the wing is accounted for by the shedding of point vortices with unsteady intensity from the wing's trailing edge. The trailing-edge flapping amplitude is shown to be maximal for a discrete set of values of the rigidity, at which a resonance occurs between the forcing frequency and a natural frequency of the system. A quantitative comparison of the position of these resonances with linear stability analysis results is presented. Such resonances induce maximum values of the mean developed thrust and power input. The flapping efficiency is also shown to be greatly enhanced by flexibility.

  17. A quadratic-shaped-finger comb parametric resonator

    A large-stroke (8 µm) parametric resonator excited by an in-plane ‘shaped-finger’ electrostatic comb drive is fabricated using a 15 µm thick silicon-on-insulator microelectromechanical systems (SOI-MEMS) process. A quadratic capacitance-engagement response is synthesized by engineering a custom-shaped comb finger profile. A folded-flexure suspension allows lateral motion while constraining rotational modes. The excitation of the nonlinear parametric resonance is realized by selecting an appropriate combination of the linear and cubic electrostatic stiffness coefficients through a specific varying-gap comb-finger design. The large-amplitude parametric resonance promotes high signal-to-noise ratio for potential use in sensitive chemical gravimetric sensors, strain gauges, and mode-matched gyroscope applications. (paper)

  18. Two-resonator circuit quantum electrodynamics: A superconducting quantum switch

    Mariantoni, Matteo; Deppe, Frank; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.; Solano, E.

    2008-09-01

    We introduce a systematic formalism for two-resonator circuit QED, where two on-chip microwave resonators are simultaneously coupled to one superconducting qubit. Within this framework, we demonstrate that the qubit can function as a quantum switch between the two resonators, which are assumed to be originally independent. In this three-circuit network, the qubit mediates a geometric second-order circuit interaction between the otherwise decoupled resonators. In the dispersive regime, it also gives rise to a dynamic second-order perturbative interaction. The geometric and dynamic coupling strengths can be tuned to be equal, thus permitting to switch on and off the interaction between the two resonators via a qubit population inversion or a shifting of the qubit operation point. We also show that our quantum switch represents a flexible architecture for the manipulation and generation of nonclassical microwave field states as well as the creation of controlled multipartite entanglement in circuit QED. In addition, we clarify the role played by the geometric interaction, which constitutes a fundamental property characteristic of superconducting quantum circuits without a counterpart in quantum-optical systems. We develop a detailed theory of the geometric second-order coupling by means of circuit transformations for superconducting charge and flux qubits. Furthermore, we show the robustness of the quantum switch operation with respect to decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we propose a realistic design for a two-resonator circuit QED setup based on a flux qubit and estimate all the related parameters. In this manner, we show that this setup can be used to implement a superconducting quantum switch with available technology.

  19. A Periodic Dielectric Resonator Structure for Terahertz Wave Amplification

    Fawole, Olutosin; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2014-03-01

    We present a periodic Slow Wave Structure (SWS) that consists of an arrangement of closely spaced cylindrical resonators with low dielectric constant. In this compact arrangement, coupling between resonators was via evanescent field coupling. This arrangement contrasts earlier infinite high dielectric constant SWSs with widely spaced resonators coupled via magnetic dipole moments. The presented periodic structure is an alternative to the metallic slow wave structures that have been proposed for TWT THz amplifiers. The fabricated low frequency (8 GHz) prototype of our structure consists of an array of cylindrical resonators with dielectric constant 9.2, diameter 12 mm, and height 6.35 mm. Slow waves, which setup a TE01δ-like electric field mode in each resonator, propagate in the structure when then the structure was excited with a microstrip line. We will present detailed simulation and experimental results of this prototype at the conference. Furthermore, efforts to scale the SWS to THz frequency and to interact the SWS with high-energy particle beams will be presented.

  20. Strong coupling of paramagnetic spins to a superconducting microwave resonator

    Greifenstein, Moritz; Zollitsch, Christoph; Lotze, Johannes; Hocke, Fredrik; Goennenwein, Sebastian T.B.; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut (WMI), Garching (Germany); Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut (WMI), Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Under application of an external magnetic field, non-interacting electron spins behave as an ensemble of identical two-level-systems with tuneable transition frequency. When such an ensemble collectively interacts with a single mode of an electromagnetic resonator, the entire system can be described as two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators. The criterion for the observation of the so-called strong coupling regime is that the collective coupling strength g exceeds both the loss rate of the resonator {kappa} and of the spin ensemble {gamma}. In our experiment we realize a coupled spin-photon-system by introducing the spin marker DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) into the mode volume of a superconducting coplanar microwave resonator and investigate the interaction at 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 GHz. For tuning the resonance, we apply an in-plane magnetic field and observe interaction at around {+-}90, {+-}180 and {+-}270 mT. While the coupling with the fundamental mode and the first harmonic mode of the resonator is identified as weak, the second harmonic shows g=21 MHz, {kappa} = 6 MHz and {gamma} = 5 MHz, i.e. the strong coupling regime. We further investigate the dependence of g on temperature and on microwave input power.

  1. Ultra-luminescent a-SiOx resonant structures

    Lang, Rossano; Vallini, Felipe; Frateschi, Newton C

    2011-01-01

    We have fabricated ultra-luminescent samples with erbium-doped amorphous silicon sub-oxide (a-SiOx) layers deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. The layer thicknesses were designed to provide a resonance with low Q and large modal effective volume at 1540 nm and resonances in the wavelength range between 600 - 1200 nm. Within this range, strong light emission from a-SiOx defect-related radiative centers is observed. The Er3+ optical transition 4I11/2 - 4I15/2 (980 nm) is also observed. Two-fold improvement in photoluminescence intensity is achieved in the wavelength range between 800 - 1000 nm due to the resonator structure. The photoluminescence intensity in the wavelength range between 1400 - 1700 nm (region of Er3+ 4I13/2 - 4I15/2 transition) is increased four times. This improvement is apparently caused by optical pumping at 980 nm, close to the resonance wavelength where the emission from the 4I13/2 level couples to the low Q resonance at 1540 nm. After efficient dangling-bond engineering by temperature annea...

  2. Tagging sneutrino resonances at a linear collider with associated photons

    Sneutrino resonances at a high-energy linear e+e- collider may be one of the clearest signals of supersymmetry without R parity, especially when the R-parity-violating coupling is too small to produce observable excesses in four-fermion processes. However, there is no guarantee that the sneutrino pole will lie anywhere near the machine energy. We show that associated photon production induces the necessary energy spread, and that the resonance then leaves a clear imprint in the photon spectrum. It follows that tagging of a hard monoenergetic photon for a variety of possible final states provides a realistic method of separating sneutrino resonance signals from the standard model backgrounds

  3. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer.

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor's vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment. PMID:22399981

  4. Detecting elementary excitations of a quantum simulator with superconducting resonator

    Du, Lianghui; You, J. Q.; Tian, Lin

    2014-03-01

    Analog quantum simulators can emulate various many-body systems and can be used to study novel quantum correlations in such systems. One essential question in quantum simulation is how to detect the properties of the simulated many-body system, such as ground state property and spectrum of elementary excitations. Here we present a circuit QED approach for detecting the excitation spectrum of a quantum simulator by measuring the correlation spectrum of a superconducting resonator. For illustration, we apply this approach to a simulator for the transverse field Ising model coupling to a coplanar waveguide resonator. The simulator can be implemented with an array of superconducting flux qubits. We show that the resonance peaks in the correlation spectrum reveal exactly the frequencies of the excitations. The project was supported by NSF-0956064 and NSF-0916303.

  5. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer

    Dahai Ren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor’s vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  6. Cluster structure of a low-energy resonance in tetraneutron

    Lashko, Y; Filippov, Gennady; Lashko, Yuliya

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the possibility for a tetraneutron to exist as a low-energy resonance state. We explore a microscopic model based on the assumption that the tetraneutron can be treated as a compound system where $^3$n+n and $^2$n+$^2$n coupled cluster configurations coexist. The influence of the Pauli principle on the kinetic energy of the relative motion of the neutron clusters is shown to result in their attraction. The strength of such attraction is high enough to ensure the existence of a low-energy resonance in the tetraneutron, provided that the oscillator length is large enough.

  7. Diboson Resonance as a Portal to Hidden Strong Dynamics

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new explanation for excess events observed in the search for a high-mass resonance decaying into dibosons by the ATLAS experiment. The resonance is identified as a composite spin-$0$ particle that couples to the Standard Model gauge bosons via dimension-5 operators. The excess events can be explained if the dimension-5 operators are suppressed by a mass scale of ${\\cal O}(1$--$10$) TeV. We also construct a model of hidden strong gauge dynamics which realizes the spin-$0$ particle as its lightest composite state, with appropriate couplings to Standard Model gauge bosons.

  8. Diboson resonance as a portal to hidden strong dynamics

    Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Fukuda, Hajime; Harigaya, Keisuke; Ibe, Masahiro; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2015-11-01

    We propose a new explanation for excess events observed in the search for a high-mass resonance decaying into dibosons by the ATLAS experiment. The resonance is identified as a composite spin-0 particle that couples to the Standard Model gauge bosons via dimension-5 operators. The excess events can be explained if the dimension-5 operators are suppressed by a mass scale of O(1-10) TeV. We also construct a model of hidden strong gauge dynamics which realizes the spin-0 particle as its lightest composite state, with appropriate couplings to Standard Model gauge bosons.

  9. Design and Implementation of a Micromechanical Silicon Resonant Accelerometer

    Libin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer has attracted considerable attention in the research and development of high-precision MEMS accelerometers because of its output of quasi-digital signals, high sensitivity, high resolution, wide dynamic range, anti-interference capacity and good stability. Because of the mismatching thermal expansion coefficients of silicon and glass, the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer based on the Silicon on Glass (SOG technique is deeply affected by the temperature during the fabrication, packaging and use processes. The thermal stress caused by temperature changes directly affects the frequency output of the accelerometer. Based on the working principle of the micromechanical resonant accelerometer, a special accelerometer structure that reduces the temperature influence on the accelerometer is designed. The accelerometer can greatly reduce the thermal stress caused by high temperatures in the process of fabrication and packaging. Currently, the closed-loop drive circuit is devised based on a phase-locked loop. The unloaded resonant frequencies of the prototype of the micromechanical silicon resonant accelerometer are approximately 31.4 kHz and 31.5 kHz. The scale factor is 66.24003 Hz/g. The scale factor stability is 14.886 ppm, the scale factor repeatability is 23 ppm, the bias stability is 23 μg, the bias repeatability is 170 μg, and the bias temperature coefficient is 0.0734 Hz/°C.

  10. A microring resonator based negative permeability metamaterial sensor.

    Sun, Jun; Huang, Ming; Yang, Jing-Jing; Li, Ting-Hua; Lan, Yao-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper, we derive the dispersion relation of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide loaded on a negative permeability metamaterial (NPM) layer, and compute the resonant frequencies and electric field distribution of the corresponding Whispering-Gallery-Modes (WGMs). The theoretical resonant frequency and electric field distribution results are in good agreement with the full wave simulation results. We show that the NPM sensor based on a microring resonator possesses higher sensitivity than the traditional microring sensor since with the evanescent wave amplification and the increase of NPM layer thickness, the sensitivity will be greatly increased. This may open a door for designing sensors with specified sensitivity. PMID:22164062

  11. Intrinsic Noise Induced Coherence Resonance in a Glow discharge Plasma

    Shaw, Pankaj Kumar; Ghosh, S; Janaki, M S; Iyengar, A N S

    2014-01-01

    Experimental evidence of intrinsic noise induced coherence resonance in a glow discharge plasma is being reported. Initially the system is started at a discharge voltage (DV) where it exhibited fixed point dynamics, and then with the subsequent increase in the DV spikes were excited which were few in number and with further increase of DV the number of spikes as well as their regularity increased. The regularity in the interspike interval of the spikes is estimated using normalized variance (NV). Coherence resonance was determined using normalized variance curve and also corroborated by Hurst exponent and power spectrum plots. We show that the regularity of the excitable spikes in the floating potential fluctuation increases with the increase in the DV, upto a particular value of DV. Using a Wiener filter, we separated the noise component which was observed to increase with DV and hence conjectured that noise can be playing an important role in the generation of the coherence resonance. From an anharmonic osc...

  12. A Microring Resonator Based Negative Permeability Metamaterial Sensor

    Yao-Zhong Lan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are artificial multifunctional materials that acquire their material properties from their structure, rather than inheriting them directly from the materials they are composed of, and they may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors. In this paper, we derive the dispersion relation of a cylindrical dielectric waveguide loaded on a negative permeability metamaterial (NPM layer, and compute the resonant frequencies and electric field distribution of the corresponding Whispering-Gallery-Modes (WGMs. The theoretical resonant frequency and electric field distribution results are in good agreement with the full wave simulation results. We show that the NPM sensor based on a microring resonator possesses higher sensitivity than the traditional microring sensor since with the evanescent wave amplification and the increase of NPM layer thickness, the sensitivity will be greatly increased. This may open a door for designing sensors with specified sensitivity.

  13. Resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on branes

    Zhang, Yu-Peng; Guo, Wen-Di; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2016-01-01

    It is known that there are two mechanisms for localizing a bulk fermion on a brane, one is the well-known Yukawa coupling and the other is the new coupling proposed in [Phys. Rev. D 89, 086001 (2014)]. In this paper, we investigate localization and resonance spectrum of a bulk fermion on the same branes with the two localization mechanisms. It is found that both the two mechanisms can result in a volcano-like effective potential of the fermion Kaluza-Klein modes. The left-chiral fermion zero mode can be localized on the brane and there exist some discrete massive fermion Kaluza-Klein modes that quasilocalized on the brane (also called fermion resonances). The number of the fermion resonances increases linearly with the coupling parameter.

  14. Analysis and experimental realization of locally resonant phononic plates carrying a periodic array of beam-like resonators

    We present theoretical examination and experimental demonstration of locally resonant (LR) phononic plates consisting of a periodic array of beam-like resonators attached to a thin homogeneous plate. Such phononic plates feature unique wave physics due to the coexistence of localized resonance and structural periodicity. We demonstrate that a low-frequency complete band gap for flexural plate waves can be created in the proposed structure owing to the interaction between the localized resonant modes of the beam-like resonators and the flexural wave modes of the host plate. We show that the location and width of the complete band gap can be dramatically tuned by changing the properties of the beam-like resonators. To understand the opening mechanism and evolution behaviour of the complete band gap, some approximate but explicit models are provided and discussed. We further perform experimental measurements of a specimen fabricated by an array of double-stacked aluminum beam-like resonators attached to a thin aluminum plate with 5 cm structure periodicity. The experimental results evidence a complete band gap extending from 465 to 860 Hz, matching well with our theoretical prediction. The LR phononic plates proposed in this work can find potential applications in attenuation of low-frequency mechanical vibrations and insulation of low-frequency audible sound. (paper)

  15. Stochastic resonance induced by the memory of a random delay

    We study the stochastic resonance (SR) induced by the memory of a random delay in a bistable system driven by a periodic force. Resorting to numerical simulations, we first analyze the stochastic bifurcation diagram and find that the jump of a Brownian particle between two potential wells becomes regular and exhibits strong periodicity at some optimal noise level. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) theory, we find that the SNR curves vary non-monotonically and behave as an obvious SR phenomenon. Moreover, the parameter-tuning stochastic resonances about the system parameters are also investigated in this paper. (paper)

  16. Josephson Plasma Resonance as a Structural Probe of Vortex Liquid

    Recent developments of the Josephson plasma resonance and transport c -axis measurements in layered high Tc superconductors allow one to probe Josephson coupling in a wide range of the vortex phase diagram. We derive a relation between the field dependent Josephson coupling energy and the density correlation function of the vortex liquid. This relation provides a unique opportunity to extract the density correlation function of pancake vortices from the dependence of the plasma resonance on the ab component of the magnetic field at a fixed c -axis component. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  17. A novel soft-switching inverter using resonant inductor freewheeling

    Chan, CC; Yao, JM; Chan, DTW; Chau, KT

    1997-01-01

    A novel topology of the voltage-source soft-switching inverter for induction motor drives is presented. The key of this topology is to employ two fractional-duty auxiliary switches and one resonant inductor per phase to provide a favorable zero-voltage turn-on condition for those main switches. By fully utilizing the inherent natural freewheeling of the inverter, the auxiliary switches need to operate in the resonant inductor freewheeling only in a fractional duty. Apart from providing a soft...

  18. Modeling of a Resonant Tunneling Diode Optical Modulator

    Calado, J J N; Ironside, C N

    2005-01-01

    The integration of a double barrier resonant tunneling diode within a unipolar optical waveguide provides electrical gain over a wide bandwidth. Due to the non-linearities introduced by the double barrier resonant tunneling diode an unipolar InGaAlAs/InP optical waveguide can be employed both as optical modulator and optical detector. The modeling results of a device operating as optical modulator agree with preliminary experimental data, foreseeing for an optimized device modulation depths up to 23 dB with chirp parameter between -1 and 0 in the wavelength range analyzed (1520 nm - 1600 nm).

  19. A second generation of low thermal noise cryogenic silicon resonators

    Matei, D. G.; Legero, T.; Grebing, Ch; Häfner, S.; Lisdat, Ch; Weyrich, R.; Zhang, W.; Sonderhouse, L.; Robinson, J. M.; Riehle, F.; Ye, J.; Sterr, U.

    2016-06-01

    We have set up an improved vertically mounted silicon cavity operating at the zero-crossing temperature of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) near 123 K with estimated thermal noise limited instability of 4 x 10-17 in the modified Allan deviation. Owing to the anisotropic elasticity of single-crystal silicon, the vertical acceleration sensitivity was minimized in situ by axially rotating the resonator with respect to the mounting frame. The control of the resonator temperature is greatly improved by using a combination of two thermal shields, monitoring with several temperature sensors, and employing low-thermal conductivity materials. The instability of the resonator stabilized laser was characterized by comparing with another low-noise system based on a 48 cm long room temperature cavity of PTB's strontium lattice clock, resulting in a modified Allan deviation of 7 x 10-17 at 100 s.

  20. Matter Neutrino Resonance Transitions above a Neutron Star Merger Remnant

    Zhu, Yong-Lin; McLaughlin, Gail C

    2016-01-01

    The Matter-Neutrino Resonance (MNR) phenomenon has the potential to significantly alter the flavor content of neutrinos emitted from compact object mergers. We present the first calculations of MNR transitions using neutrino self interaction potentials and matter potentials generated selfconsistently from a dynamical model of a three-dimensional neutron star merger. In the context of the single angle approximation, we find that Symmetric and Standard MNR transitions occur in both normal and inverted hierarchy scenarios. We examine the spatial regions above the merger remnant where propagating neutrinos will encounter the matter neutrino resonance and find that a significant fraction of the neutrinos are likely to undergo MNR transitions.

  1. A graphene based tunable terahertz sensor with double Fano resonances

    Zhang, Yuping; Li, Tongtong; Zeng, Beibei; Zhang, Huiyun; Lv, Huanhuan; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weili; Azad, Abul K.

    2015-07-01

    We propose an ultrasensitive terahertz (THz) sensor consisting of a subwavelength graphene disk and an annular gold ring within a unit cell. The interference between the resonances arising from the graphene disk and the gold ring gives rise to Fano type resonances and enables ultrasensitive sensing. Our full wave electromagnetic simulations show frequency sensitivity as high as 1.9082 THz per refractive index unit (RIU) and a figure of merit (FOM) of 6.5662. Furthermore, the sensing range can be actively tuned by adjusting the Fermi level of graphene.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for extravehicular activity analysis

    Dickenson, R.; Lorenz, C.; Peterson, S.; Strauss, A.; Main, J.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a means of conducting kinematic studies of the hand for the purpose of EVA capability enhancement. After imaging the subject hand using a magnetic resonance scanner, the resulting 2D slices were reconstructed into a 3D model of the proximal phalanx of the left hand. Using the coordinates of several landmark positions, one is then able to decompose the motion of the rigid body. MRI offers highly accurate measurements due to its tomographic nature without the problems associated with other imaging modalities for in vivo studies.

  3. Manipulating the conduction process of a molecular resonant tunneling diode

    In this work we propose two methods to manipulate the conduction process in a molecular resonant tunneling diode. In the first proposal we make use of the fact that by twisting the molecule along the long axis, we can generate a nonlinear coupling between the conduction electrons and the phonons. In the second proposal, we allow a light of appropriate frequency to pump the electrons from the ground state to the first excited state. This mechanism generates an additional current across the molecular resonant tunneling diode. (author)

  4. Resonance-like tunneling across a barrier with adjacent wells

    S Mahadevan; P Prema; S K Agarwalla; B Sahu; C S Shastry

    2006-09-01

    We examine the behavior of transmission coefficient across the rectangular barrier when attractive potential well is present on one or both sides and also the same is studied for a smoother barrier with smooth adjacent wells having Woods–Saxon shape. We find that presence of well with suitable width and depth can substantially alter at energies below the barrier height leading to resonant-like structures. In a sense, this work is complementary to the resonant tunneling of particles across two rectangular barriers, which is being studied in detail in recent years with possible applications in mind. We interpret our results as due to resonant-like positive energy states generated by the adjacent wells. We describe in detail the possible potential application of these results in electronic devices using n-type oxygen-doped gallium arsenide and silicon dioxide. It is envisaged that these results will have applications in the design of tunneling devices.

  5. Nucleon-antinucleon resonance spectrum in a potential model

    Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Moussallam, B.; Mau, R. Vinh

    1984-05-01

    We investigate the spectrum of antinucleon-nucleon resonances, using an optical potential we derived recently. An effective method to compute the S-matrix poles is presented. The corresponding phase shifts do not behave as ordinary resonances in the Argand diagram. We show, however, that the poles can be located by extrapolating the phase shifts with the aid of polynomial fits. The annihilation part of our potential is state and energy dependent and of short range. It yields a richer spectrum than that given by a longer ranged annihilation model.

  6. Stochastic resonance at diffusion over a potential barrier

    The general problem of diffusive overcoming of a single-well potential barrier in the presence of a periodic time forcing is studied within the generalized Langevin approach. We found that the thermal diffusion over the barrier can be resonantly accelerated at some frequency of the periodic modulation that is inversely proportional to the mean first-passage time for the motion in the absence of the time-modulation. The resonant activation effect is rather insensitive to the correlation time of the random force term in the Langevin equation of motion

  7. Initial state dependence of a quantum-resonance ratchet

    Ni, Jiating; Dadras, Siamak; Borunda, Mario F; Wimberger, Sandro; Summy, Gil S

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum resonance ratchets created with Bose-Einstein condensates exposed to pulses of an off-resonant standing light wave. We show how some of the basic properties of the ratchets are controllable through the creation of different initial states of the system. In particular, our results prove that through an appropriate choice of initial state it is possible to reduce the extent to which the ratchet state changes with respect to time. We develop a simple theory to explain our results and indicate how ratchets might be used as part of a matter wave interferometer or quantum-random walk experiment.

  8. A Spectral-Scanning Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Integrated System

    Hassibi, Arjang; Babakhani, Aydin; Hajimiri, Ali

    2008-01-01

    An integrated spectral-scanning magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique is implemented in a 0.12μm SiGe BiCMOS process. This system is designed for small-scale MRI applications with non-uniform and low magnetic fields. The system is capable of generating customized magnetic resonance (MR) excitation signals, and also recovering the MR response using a coherent direct conversion receiver. The operation frequency is tunable from DC to 37MHz for wide-band MRI and up to...

  9. Field Line Resonance at Mercury's Magnetosphere: A Simulation Study

    Ultra low frequency (ULF) waves, which are assumed to be standing waves on the field, are observed by the Mariner 10 spacecraft at Mercury. These waves are oscillating at 38% of the proton gyrofrequency. It is well known that the heavy ions, such as Na+, are abundant in Mercury's magnetosphere. Because the presence of different ion species has an influence on the plasma dispersion characteristics near the ion gyro-frequencies, such relatively high frequencies of magnetospheric eigenoscillations at Mercury require a multi-fluid treatment for the plasma. Thus ULF waves at Mercury may have a distinct difference from typical ULF oscillations at Earth, which are often described in terms of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). By adopting a multi-fluid numerical wave model, we examine how magnetic eigenoscillations occur in Mercury's magnetosphere. Because protons and sodium ions are the main constituents at Mercury, we assume an electron-proton- sodium plasma in our model. The frequency spectra and time histories of the electromagnetic fields at the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) and cavity resonances are presented. Our results show: (1) The observed ULF waves are likely compressional waves rather than FLR. (2) Resonant absorption occurs at the IIH resonance, thus incoming compressional waves are converted into the IIH resonance. (3) The IIH resonance is strongly guided by the background magnetic field and shows linear polarization in the east-west meridian. (4) Both the Alfven and the IIH are suggested as a mechanism for FLR at Mercury. (5) The resonance frequency enables us to estimate the local heavy ion concentration ratio.

  10. Dynamics of a Josephson Array in a Resonant Cavity

    Almaas, E.; Stroud, D.

    2001-01-01

    We derive dynamical equations for a Josephson array coupled to a resonant cavity by applying the Heisenberg equations of motion to a model Hamiltonian described by us earlier [Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 63}, 144522 (2001); Phys. Rev. B {\\bf 64}, 179902 (E)]. By means of a canonical transformation, we also show that, in the absence of an applied current and dissipation, our model reduces to one described by Shnirman {\\it et al} [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 79}, 2371 (1997)] for coupled qubits, and that it co...

  11. Resonances of the helium atom in a strong magnetic field

    Lühr, Armin Christian; Al-Hujaj, Omar-Alexander; Schmelcher, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We present an investigation of the resonances of a doubly excited helium atom in a strong magnetic field covering the regime B=0–100  a.u. A full-interaction approach which is based on an anisotropic Gaussian basis set of one-particle functions being nonlinearly optimized for each field strength is...

  12. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of a Free Radical

    Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Hansen, K. B.;

    1975-01-01

    The resonance Raman spectrum of a 10−3 molar solution of the stable diphenyl-pikryl-hydrazyl radical in benzene was obtained using a single laser pulse of 10 mJ energy and 600 ns duration from a flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser. Spectra were recorded using an image intensifier coupled to a TV...

  13. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    Matova, S.P.; Elfrink, R.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Schaijk, R. van

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adju

  14. Entanglement and decoherence of a micromechanical resonator via coupling to a Cooper box

    Armour, A. D.; Blencowe, M. P.; Schwab, K. C.

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the quantum dynamics of a micromechanical resonator capacitively coupled to a Cooper box. With appropriate quantum state control of the Cooper box, the resonator can be driven into a superposition of spatially separated states. The Cooper box can also be used to probe the environmentally-induced decoherence of the resonator superposition state.

  15. Study of nuclear giant resonances using a Fermi-liquid method

    Sun, Bao-Xi

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear giant resonances are studied by using a Fermi-liquid method, and the nuclear collective excitation energies of different values of $l$ are obtained, which are fitted with the centroid energies of the giant resonances of spherical nuclei, respectively. In addition, the relation between the isovector giant resonance and the corresponding isoscalar giant resonance is discussed.

  16. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  17. Recommended formulae and formats for a resonance parameter library

    It is proposed that a library of neutron resonance parameters be set up, on punched cards and magnetic tape, which will complement the cross section data in the present U.K. Nuclear Data Library. This report gives parametric formulae for the resolved resonance region, based on:- (i) the Breit-Wigner approximation, (ii) other approximations of R-matrix theory and (iii) the formulae of Adler and Adler. In addition, the statistical distributions of the parameters are given. The final section of the report contains the recommended formats for the parameters of the various formulae. (author)

  18. Coherence-Resonance Chimeras in a Network of Excitable Elements

    Semenova, Nadezhda; Zakharova, Anna; Anishchenko, Vadim; Schöll, Eckehard

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that chimera behavior can be observed in nonlocally coupled networks of excitable systems in the presence of noise. This phenomenon is distinct from classical chimeras, which occur in deterministic oscillatory systems, and it combines temporal features of coherence resonance, i.e., the constructive role of noise, and spatial properties of chimera states, i.e., the coexistence of spatially coherent and incoherent domains in a network of identical elements. Coherence-resonance chimeras are associated with alternating switching of the location of coherent and incoherent domains, which might be relevant in neuronal networks.

  19. The hairpin resonator: A plasma density measuring technique revisited

    A microwave resonator probe is a resonant structure from which the relative permittivity of the surrounding medium can be determined. Two types of microwave resonator probes (referred to here as hairpin probes) have been designed and built to determine the electron density in a low-pressure gas discharge. One type, a transmission probe, is a functional equivalent of the original microwave resonator probe introduced by R. L. Stenzel [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 603 (1976)], modified to increase coupling to the hairpin structure and to minimize plasma perturbation. The second type, a reflection probe, differs from the transmission probe in that it requires only one coaxial feeder cable. A sheath correction, based on the fluid equations for collisionless ions in a cylindrical electron-free sheath, is presented here to account for the sheath that naturally forms about the hairpin structure immersed in plasma. The sheath correction extends the range of electron density that can be accurately measured with a particular wire separation of the hairpin structure. Experimental measurements using the hairpin probe appear to be highly reproducible. Comparisons with Langmuir probes show that the Langmuir probe determines an electron density that is 20-30% lower than the hairpin. Further comparisons, with both an interferometer and a Langmuir probe, show hairpin measurements to be in good agreement with the interferometer while Langmuir probe measurements again result in a lower electron density

  20. An absolute nuclear magnetic resonance magnetometer; Magnetometre absolu a resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Salvi, A. [Commisariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-10-15

    After an introduction in which the various work undertaken since the discovery of nuclear magnetic resonance is rapidly reviewed, the author describes briefly In the first chapter three types of NMR magnetometers, giving the advantages and disadvantages of each of them and deducing from this the design of the apparatus having the greatest number of qualities Chapter II is devoted to the crossed coil nuclear oscillator which operates continuously over a wide range (800 gamma). To avoid an error due to a carrying over the frequency, the measurement is carried out using bands of 1000 {gamma}. Chapter III deals with frequency measurements. The author describes an original arrangement which makes possible the frequency-field conversion with an accuracy of {+-} 5 x 10{sup -6}, and the differential measurement between two nuclear oscillators. The report finishes with a conclusion and a few recordings. (author) [French] Apres une introduction rappelant les divers travaux effectues en resonance magnetique nucleaire depuis sa mise en evidence, l'auteur decrit sommairement dans le premier chapitre trois types de magnetometre a R.M.N. enumerant les avantages et les inconvenients de chacun a partir desquels il projet, l'appareillage reunissant le maximum de qualites. Le chapitre II est consacre a l'oscillateur nucleaire a bobines croisees permettant un fonctionnement continu dons une large plage (800 gamma). Pour eviter une erreur due a l'entrainement de frequence, la mesure s'effectue par bandes de 1000 {gamma} chacune. Le chapitre III traite la mesure de frequence. L'auteur expose un montage original permettant la traduction frequence-champ avec une precision egale a {+-} 5.10{sup -6}, et la mesure differentielle entre deux oscillateurs nucleaires. Une conclusion et quelques enregistrements terminent ce travail. (auteur)

  1. Effect of resonance decay on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Mohanty, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge, and net-strangeness fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  2. Pyroshock simulation for satellite components using a tunable resonant fixture

    Davie, N. T.; Bateman, V. I.

    Aerospace components are often subjected to pyroshock events during flight and deployment, and must be qualified to this frequently severe environment. Laboratory simulation of pyroshock using a mechanically excited resonant fixture, has gained favor at Sandia for testing small (less than 8 inch cube) satellite and weapon components. With this method, each different shock environment required a different resonant fixture that was designed such that it's response reached the environment. A new test method has been developed which eliminates the need to have a different resonant fixture for each test requirement. This is accomplished by means of a tunable resonant fixture that has a response which is adjustable over a wide frequency range. The adjustment of the fixture's response is done in a simple and deterministic way. This report covers the first phase of this research, which includes design conception through fabrication and evaluation of hardware capable of testing components with up to a 10 inch x 10 inch base. This method will ultimately allow the testing of much larger items, perhaps as large as entire small satellites.

  3. Pyroshock simulation for satellite components using a tunable resonant fixture

    Davie, N.T.; Bateman, V.I.

    1992-12-31

    Aerospace components are often subjected to pyroshock events during flight and deployment, and must be qualified to this frequently severe environment. Laboratory simulation of pyroshock using a mechanically excited resonant fixture, has gained favor at Sandia for testing small (<8 inch cube) satellite and weapon components. With this method, each different shock environment required a different resonant fixture that was designed such that it`s response retched the environment A new test method has been developed which eliminates the need to have a different resonant fixture for each test requirement This is accomplished by means of a tunable resonant fixture that has a response which is adjustable over a wide frequency range. The adjustment of the fixture`s response is done in a simple and deterministic way. This report covers the first phase of this research, which includes design conception through fabrication and evaluation of hardware capable of testing components with up to a 10 inch {times} 10 inch base. This method will ultimately allow the testing of much larger items, perhaps as large as entire small satellites.

  4. Pyroshock simulation for satellite components using a tunable resonant fixture

    Davie, N.T.; Bateman, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    Aerospace components are often subjected to pyroshock events during flight and deployment, and must be qualified to this frequently severe environment. Laboratory simulation of pyroshock using a mechanically excited resonant fixture, has gained favor at Sandia for testing small (<8 inch cube) satellite and weapon components. With this method, each different shock environment required a different resonant fixture that was designed such that it's response retched the environment A new test method has been developed which eliminates the need to have a different resonant fixture for each test requirement This is accomplished by means of a tunable resonant fixture that has a response which is adjustable over a wide frequency range. The adjustment of the fixture's response is done in a simple and deterministic way. This report covers the first phase of this research, which includes design conception through fabrication and evaluation of hardware capable of testing components with up to a 10 inch [times] 10 inch base. This method will ultimately allow the testing of much larger items, perhaps as large as entire small satellites.

  5. New formula for a resonant scattering near an inelastic threshold

    We show that the Flatte formula is not adequate to interpret precision data on a resonance production near an inelastic threshold. A unitary parameterization, satisfying generalized Watson's theorem for the production amplitudes, is proposed to replace the Flatte parameterization in the phenomenological analyses of the experimental data

  6. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Immunobiosensor for Detection of Phytophthora infestans

    Skottrup, Peter; Frøkiær, Hanne; Hejgaard, Jørn;

    In this study we focused on the development of a Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) immunosensor for Phytophthora infestans detection. The fungus-like organism is the cause of potato late blight and is a major problem in potato growing regions of the world. Efficient control is dependent on early...

  7. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a case of Danon disease

    Kosieradzka Agnieszka; Walczak Ewa; Kuch Marek; Kownacki Lukasz; Piotrowska-Kownacka Dorota; Fidzianska Anna; Krolicki Leszek

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Danon disease is a rare X-linked dominant lysosomal glycogen storage disease that can lead to severe ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure. We report a case of Danon disease with cardiac involvement evaluated with cardiovascular magnetic resonance, including late gadolinium enhancement and perfusion studies.

  8. Temperature compensation of resonant cavities with a teflon post

    Bará Temes, Francisco Javier

    1982-01-01

    The negative temperature coefficient of E for teflon is used to compensate the frequency drift of a metal cavity due to thermal expansion. An experimental X-band transmission resonator was compensated in this way with a 10 mm teflon post. The results are considered of great interest for the compensation of waveguide millimiter wave oscillators. Peer Reviewed

  9. Stochastic resonance of vortices in a washboard pinning potential

    Highlights: • The dynamics of Abrikosov vortices in a cosine pinning potential is investigated. • The voltage responses are predicted to demonstrate stochastic resonance. • Experimental parameters for observing stochastic resonance are suggested. - Abstract: In a bistable potential at low temperatures, stochastic resonance can be characterized as a synchronization effect of the hopping mechanism induced by an external periodic stimulus, where synchronization attains a maximum by fine-tuning the forcing frequency close to the relevant switching rate. In this work, we theoretically investigate the nonlinear single-vortex dynamics in a tilted cosine (multistable) washboard pinning potential at nonzero temperature in the presence of dc and ac currents of arbitrary amplitudes and frequency. The conditions for stochastic resonance to appear are derived on the basis of the exact solution of the corresponding Langevin equation for non-interacting vortices in terms of a matrix continued fraction. The nonlinear ac voltage response is analyzed as a function of temperature, dc bias, ac amplitude and frequency, with particular focus on the amplification of the external harmonic signal and its conversion to the third harmonics of the input frequency

  10. Breakdown of Effective Field Theory for a Gluon Initiated Resonance

    de la Puente, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Gauge invariance dictates that a resonance produced from initial state gluons must be produced through a non-renormalizable operator or a loop process. Should such a resonance be discovered, uncovering the dynamics that give rise to its couplings to gluons will be crucial to understanding the nature of the new state. Here we study how the production of this resonance at high transverse momentum in association with one (or more) jets can be used to directly measure the scale of the operator or the mass of the particles in the loop. We use a 750 GeV diphoton resonance as an example application, and we study how the non-renormalizable operator case can be described by a slowly converging effective field theory (EFT) expansion with operators of dimension five and seven. We show that with O(100) events, one can put strong constraints on the scale of the EFT, particularly in theories with strong coupling. We also compare the EFT analysis to that of a UV completion with vector-like quarks, and outline how the mass o...

  11. Towards a comprehensive model for a resonant nanoelectromechanical system

    The mass production and very large scale integration (VLSI) of micro/nanoelectromechanical systems (M/NEMS) requires the development and use of accurate models and simulations, which are capable of rapidly evaluating potential designs. Because of the large range of applications that have been proposed for M/NEMS, the most useful models are those that can accurately capture a system’s response under widely varying input and operating conditions. This allows the M/NEMS devices to be treated as well understood circuit components in simulation contexts. It is towards this end that a first-principles based model is proposed for a resonant nanosystem inclusive of an electrostatically-actuated fixed-fixed beam resonator, test equipment and system parasitics. By encoding the algebraic and differential equations which describe the system into circuit components using Verilog-A, an experimental test setup was simulated using Spectre and subsequently compared to experimental results for qualitative validation of the model. The simulation was then used to investigate the behavior of a representative device for a basic input configuration that more closely represents a final-use scenario for the nanoresonator. Discrepancies between the commonly-employed experimental methodology and the practical final-use scenario are discussed and used as a platform to encourage the development of improved experimental methodologies, while also emphasizing the need for robust and accurate system-level models. (paper)

  12. Analytical investigation into the resonance frequencies of a curling probe

    Arshadi, Ali; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter

    2016-08-01

    The term ‘active plasma resonance spectroscopy’ (APRS) denotes a class of closely related plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency {ω\\text{pe}} ; an electrical radio frequency signal (in the GHz range) is coupled into the plasma via an antenna or a probe, the spectral response is recorded and a mathematical model is employed to determine plasma parameters such as the plasma density and the electron temperature. The curling probe, recently invented by Liang et al (2011 Appl. Phys. Express 4 066101), is a novel realization of the APRS concept which has many practical advantages. In particular, it can be miniaturized and flatly embedded into the chamber wall, thus allowing the monitoring of plasma processes without contamination nor disturbance. Physically, the curling probe can be understood as a ‘coiled’ form of the hairpin probe (Stenzel 1976 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47 603). Assuming that the spiralization of the probe has little electrical effect, this paper investigates the characteristcs of a ‘straightened’ curling probe by modeling it as an infinite slot-type resonator that is in direct contact with the plasma. The diffraction of an incident plane wave at the slot is calculated by solving the cold plasma model and Maxwell’s equations simultaneously. The resonance frequencies of the probe are derived and are found to be in good agreement with the numerical results of the probe inventors.

  13. A Resonant Cavity for Single-Shot Emittance Measurement

    Kim, J S; Whittum, D H; Miller, R H; Tantawi, S G; Weidemann, A W

    2002-01-01

    We present a non-invasive, resonant cavity based approach to beam emittance measurement of a shot-to-shot non-circular beam pulse of multi-bunches. In a resonant cavity, desired field components can be enhanced up to Q_L_lambda/pi, where Q_L_lambda is the loaded Q of the resonance mode lambda, when the cavity resonant mode matches with the beam operating frequency. In particular, a Quad-cavity, with its quadrupole mode at beam operating frequency, extracts the beam quad-moment exclusively, utilizing the symmetry of the cavity and some simple networks to suppress common modes. Six successive beam quadrupole moment measurements, performed at different betatron phases in a linear transport system, allow us to determine the beam emittance, i.e., the beam size and shape in the beam's phase space. One measurement alone provides the rms-beam size if the beam position is given, for instance, by nearby beam-position-monitors. This paper describes the basic design and analysis of a Quad-cavity beam monitoring system.

  14. The diphoton resonance as a gravity mediator of dark matter

    Han, Chengcheng; Park, Myeonghun; Sanz, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility of interpreting the recently reported diphoton excess at 750 GeV as a spin-two massive particle (such as a Kaluza-Klein graviton in warped extra-dimensions) which serves as a mediator to Dark Matter via its gravitational couplings to the dark sector and to the Standard Model (SM). We model non-universal couplings of the resonance to gauge bosons in the SM and to Dark Matter as a function on their localization in the extra dimension. We find that scalar, fermion or vector dark matter can saturate the dark matter relic density by the annihilation of dark matter into a pair of the SM particles or heavy resonances, in agreement with the diphoton resonance signal strength. We check the compatibility of our hypothesis with other searches for the KK graviton. We show that the invisible decay rate of the resonance into a pair of dark matter is subdominant in the region of the correct relic density, hence leading to no constraints from the mono-jet bound at 8 TeV via the gluon coupling. We ...

  15. Evaluation of toroidal torque by non-resonant magnetic perturbations in tokamaks for resonant transport regimes using a Hamiltonian approach

    Albert, Christopher G; Kapper, Gernot; Kasilov, Sergei V; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F

    2016-01-01

    Toroidal torque generated by neoclassical viscosity caused by external non-resonant, non-axisymmetric perturbations has a significant influence on toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. In this article, a derivation for the expressions of toroidal torque and radial transport in resonant regimes is provided within quasilinear theory in canonical action-angle variables. The proposed approach treats all low-collisional quasilinear resonant NTV regimes including superbanana plateau and drift-orbit resonances in a unified way and allows for magnetic drift in all regimes. It is valid for perturbations on toroidally symmetric flux surfaces of the unperturbed equilibrium without specific assumptions on geometry or aspect ratio. The resulting expressions are shown to match existing analytical results in the large aspect ratio limit. Numerical results from the newly developed code NEO-RT are compared to calculations by the quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 at low collisionalities. The importance of the magnetic shea...

  16. A dual resonance model for high energy electroweak reactions

    The aim of this work is to propose an original model for the weak interaction at high energy (about 1 TeV) that is inspired from resonance dual models established for hadron physics. The first chapter details the basis and assumptions of the standard model. The second chapter deals with various scenarios that go beyond the standard model and that involve a strong interaction and a perturbative approach to assess coupling. The third chapter is dedicated to the main teachings of hadron physics concerning resonances, the model of Regge poles and the concept of duality. We present our new model in the fourth chapter, we build a scenario in which standard fermions and the 3 massive gauge bosons would have a sub-structure alike that of hadrons. In order to give non-null values to the width of resonances we use the K matrix method, we describe this method in the last chapter and we apply it for the computation of the width of the Z0 boson. Our model predicts a large spectra of states particularly with the 143-up-lets of ff-bar states. The K matrix method has allowed us to compute amplitudes for helicity, then to collapse them in amplitudes invariant with SU(2) and to project these amplitudes in partial waves of helicity. For most resonances partial widths are very low compared to their mass

  17. Analyzing a Vibrating Wire Transducer using Coupled Resonator Circuits

    POP, S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to be an approach on the vibrating wire transducer from the perspective of the necessary rules used for a correct measurement procedure. There are several studies which analyze the vibrating wire transducer as a mechanical system. However, a comparative time-domain analysis between the mechanical and the electrical model is lacking. The transducer analysis is based on a theoretical analysis of the equivalent circuit, on both excitation and response time intervals. The electrical model consists of two magnetic coupled resonating circuits. When connected to an excitation source, there will be an energy transfer from the coil to the wire. The maximum energy transfer will occur at the vibrating wire's frequency of resonance. Using the transient regime analysis, it has been proven that, in the response time interval - when the wire vibrates freely, the current through the circuit that models the wire describes the oscillating movement of the wire. A complex signal is obtained, that contains both coil's and wire's frequencies of resonance, strongly dependent with theirs parasitic elements. The mathematical analysis highlights the similarity between mechanical and electrical model and the procedures in order to determine the wire frequency of resonance from the output signal.

  18. A few words about resonances in the electroweak effective Lagrangian

    Rosell, Ignasi [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Matemáticas y de la Computación, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, c/ Sant Bartomeu 55, 46115 Alfara del Patriarca, València (Spain); Pich, Antonio; Santos, Joaquín [Departament de Física Teòrica, IFIC, Universitat de València – CSIC, Apt. Correus 22085, 46071 València (Spain); Sanz-Cillero, Juan José [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-01-22

    Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models including both a light Higgs-like boson and massive spin-1 resonances are not in conflict with experimental constraints on the oblique S and T parameters. We use an effective Lagrangian implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU (2){sub L} ⊗ SU (2){sub R} → SU (2){sub L+R} that contains the Standard Model gauge bosons coupled to the electroweak Goldstones, one Higgs-like scalar state h with mass m{sub h} = 126 GeV and the lightest vector and axial-vector resonance multiplets V and A. We have considered the one-loop calculation of S and T in order to study the viability of these strongly-coupled scenarios, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the calculation. Once we have constrained the resonance parameters, we do a first approach to the determination of the low energy constants of the electroweak effective theory at low energies (without resonances). We show this determination in the case of the purely Higgsless bosonic Lagrangian.

  19. Electron paramagnetic resonance: A new method of quaternary dating

    Significant progress has occurred in the last years in quaternary geochronology. One of this is the emergence of a new dating approach, the Electron Spin Resonance Method. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the method and discuss some aspects of the work at CBPF. (Author)

  20. A Quantum Mechanical Review of Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Odaibo, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we review the quantum mechanics of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We traverse its hierarchy of scales from the spin and orbital angular momentum of subatomic particles to the ensemble magnetization of tissue. And we review a number of modalities used in the assessment of acute ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury.

  1. Alternative current harmonics on a resonant tunneling diode

    The harmonics of forced oscillations on a resonant tunneling diode have been analyzed in the paper. The amplitudes and phases of the harmonics have been obtained as functions of the bias voltage. The dependences of the amplitudes of the harmonics on the amplitude of the external signal have been also analyzed

  2. Resonator design for a visible wavelength free-electron laser [*

    Design requirements for a visible wavelength free-electron laser being developed at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented along with predictions of laser performance from 3-D numerical simulations. The design and construction of the optical resonator, its alignment and control systems are also described. 15 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  3. A few words about Resonances in the Electroweak Effective Lagrangian

    Rosell, Ignasi; Santos, Joaquin; Sanz-Cillero, Juan Jose

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to a widely spread believe, we have demonstrated that strongly coupled electroweak models including both a light Higgs-like boson and massive spin-1 resonances are not in conflict with experimental constraints on the oblique S and T parameters. We use an effective Lagrangian implementing the chiral symmetry breaking SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R -> SU(2)_{L+R} that contains the Standard Model gauge bosons coupled to the electroweak Goldstones, one Higgs-like scalar state h with mass m_h=126 GeV and the lightest vector and axial-vector resonance multiplets V and A. We have considered the one-loop calculation of S and T in order to study the viability of these strongly-coupled scenarios, being short-distance constraints and dispersive relations the main ingredients of the calculation. Once we have constrained the resonance parameters, we do a first approach to the determination of the low energy constants of the electroweak effective theory at low energies (without resonances). We show this determination in the ca...

  4. Design of a loop resonator with a split-ring-resonator (SRR) for a human-body coil in 3 T MRI systems

    Son, Hyeok Woo; Cho, Young Ki; Kim, Byung Mun; Back, Hyun Man; Yoo, Hyoungsuk

    2016-04-01

    A new radio-frequency (RF) resonator for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) imaging at clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems is proposed in this paper. An approach based on the effects of the properties of metamaterials in split-ring resonators (SRRs) is used to design a new loop resonator with a SRR for NMR imaging. This loop resonator with a SRR is designed for NMR imaging at 3 T MRI systems. The 3D electromagnetic simulation was used to optimize the design of the proposed RF resonator and analyze it's performance at 3 T MRI systems. The proposed RF resonator provides strong penetrating magnetic fields at the center of the human phantom model, approximately 10%, as compared to the traditional loop-type RF resonator used for NMR imaging at clinical MRI systems. We also designed an 8-channel body coil for human-body NMR imaging by using the proposed loop resonator with a SRR. This body coil also produces more homogeneous and highly penetrating magnetic fields into the human phantom model.

  5. A Computational and Experimental Study of Resonators in Three Dimensions

    Tam, C. K. W.; Ju, H.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.; Parrott, Tony L.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous work by the present authors, a computational and experimental investigation of the acoustic properties of two-dimensional slit resonators was carried out. The present paper reports the results of a study extending the previous work to three dimensions. This investigation has two basic objectives. The first is to validate the computed results from direct numerical simulations of the flow and acoustic fields of slit resonators in three dimensions by comparing with experimental measurements in a normal incidence impedance tube. The second objective is to study the flow physics of resonant liners responsible for sound wave dissipation. Extensive comparisons are provided between computed and measured acoustic liner properties with both discrete frequency and broadband sound sources. Good agreements are found over a wide range of frequencies and sound pressure levels. Direct numerical simulation confirms the previous finding in two dimensions that vortex shedding is the dominant dissipation mechanism at high sound pressure intensity. However, it is observed that the behavior of the shed vortices in three dimensions is quite different from those of two dimensions. In three dimensions, the shed vortices tend to evolve into ring (circular in plan form) vortices, even though the slit resonator opening from which the vortices are shed has an aspect ratio of 2.5. Under the excitation of discrete frequency sound, the shed vortices align themselves into two regularly spaced vortex trains moving away from the resonator opening in opposite directions. This is different from the chaotic shedding of vortices found in two-dimensional simulations. The effect of slit aspect ratio at a fixed porosity is briefly studied. For the range of liners considered in this investigation, it is found that the absorption coefficient of a liner increases when the open area of the single slit is subdivided into multiple, smaller slits.

  6. A double scale fast algorithm for the transient evolution of a resonant tunneling diode

    Ben Abdallah, Naoufel; Faraj, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The simulation of the time-dependent evolution of the resonant tunneling diode is done by a multiscale algorithm exploiting the existence of resonant states. After revisiting and improving the algorithm developed in [N. Ben Abdallah, O. Pinaud, J. Comp. Phys. 213 (2006) 288-310] for the stationary case, the time-dependent problem is dealt with. The wave function is decomposed into a non resonant part and a resonant one. The projection method to compute the resonant part leads to an accurate a...

  7. A study of the main resonances outside the geostationary ring

    Celletti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of satellites and space debris in external resonances, namely in the region outside the geostationary ring. Precisely, we focus on the 1:2, 1:3, 2:3 resonances, which are located at about 66 931.4 km, 87 705.0 km, 55 250.7 km, respectively. Some of these resonances have been already exploited in space missions, like XMM-Newton and Integral. Our study is mainly based on a Hamiltonian approach, which allows us to get fast and reliable information on the dynamics in the resonant regions. Significative results are obtained even by considering just the effect of the geopotential in the Hamiltonian formulation. For objects (typically space debris) with high area-to-mass ratio the Hamiltonian includes also the effect of the solar radiation pressure. In addition, we perform a comparison with the numerical integration in Cartesian variables, including the geopotential, the gravitational attraction of Sun and Moon, and the solar radiation pressure. We implement some simple mathematical tools...

  8. A random subsynchronous resonance in a turbine generator set

    Tsai, J.I.; Zhan, T.S. [Kao Yuan Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electronic Engineering; Wu, R.C. [I-Shou Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The largest load in a power system can be attributed to the electrical arc furnace (EAF). This paper investigated the torsional vibrations in turbine-generator shafts and blades subject to real and reactive power variations from a large-scale EAF plant. The study was conducted since electromechanical interactions between electrical loads and turbine-generator are rarely examined. The torsional impact of electrical disturbances on turbine-generator shafts and blades impose considerably high stresses on turbine shafts and blades and even cause fatigue damage such as network fault. Most excitations are focused on large disturbances since small disturbances are not immediately noticed. However, the cumulative long-term fatigue damaging effect should not be ignored when the small disturbances are sustained and even resonant. The paper presented simulation results of these investigations in the form of typical time responses. The dynamic load fed by real and reactive power consumption data measured at metal-out-fit (MOF) of an EAF plant was conducted in order to precisely model the stochastic behavior of an EAF load. The load flow for the one-machine infinite-bus system incorporating such an EAF load was also conducted. It was concluded that the transient power fluctuation of the load was randomly dramatic and that most of the frequencies of the induced voltage flicker, generator delivering power and even electromagnetic torque were subsynchronous. Therefore, such a continued stochastic disturbance could impose random subsynchronous resonant stresses on turbine mechanisms. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  9. A study of integrated position sensors for PZT resonant micromirrors

    Gu-Stoppel, S.; Quenzer, H. J.; Heinrich, F.; Janes, J.; Benecke, W.

    2015-02-01

    PZT driven resonant micromirrors offer advantages of large scan angles and decreasing power consumption due to the benefits of resonant driving and high torque delivered by PZT actuators. Therefore they are entering into different application fields recently, for example as laser projection or head-up displays. For many uses position sensing of the micromirrors is necessary to set up closed loop controls. Thus, the development of integrated position sensors is aimed in this work. Investigation and evaluation of different position sensing principles have been performed. In previous works 1D and 2D PZT driven resonant micromirrors have been presented, which feature various spring suspensions and thinfilm PZT actuators as drivers. Due to the considerably different motion modes and resonant frequencies, which vary from 100 Hz up to 64 kHz, various position detection methods have been investigated. This work presents primarily fabrication and characterization results of the position sensors based on the direct piezoelectric effect, which will be compared to the position sensors using metallic strain gauge realized by the same fabrication technology. Analyses of the sensitivity, linearity and dynamic behavior of the sensors have been performed, by means of comparing the sensor signals and the micromirror position signals measured by a Position-Sensitive-Device. Advantages and drawbacks of the sensors are discussed and methods for eliminating the drawbacks are proposed.

  10. Interpreting the behavior of a quarter-wave transmission line resonator in a magnetized plasma

    The quarter wave resonator immersed in a strongly magnetized plasma displays two possible resonances occurring either below or above its resonance frequency in vacuum, fo. This fact was demonstrated in our recent articles [G. S. Gogna and S. K. Karkari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151503 (2010); S. K. Karkari, G. S. Gogna, D. Boilson, M. M. Turner, and A. Simonin, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 50(9), 903 (2010)], where the experiments were carried out over a limited range of magnetic fields at a constant electron density, ne. In this paper, we present the observation of dual resonances occurring over the frequency scan and find that ne calculated by considering the lower resonance frequency is 25%–30% smaller than that calculated using the upper resonance frequency with respect to fo. At a given magnetic field strength, the resonances tend to shift away from fo as the background density is increased. The lower resonance tends to saturate when its value approaches electron cyclotron frequency, fce. Interpretation of these resonance conditions are revisited by examining the behavior of the resonance frequency response as a function of ne. A qualitative discussion is presented which highlights the practical application of the hairpin resonator for interpreting ne in a strongly magnetized plasma

  11. Spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot open resonators in a surface-wave photonic crystal

    Gao, Zhen; Xu, Hongyi; Zhang, Youming; Zhang, Baile

    2016-01-01

    We report on the proposal and experimental realization of a spoof surface plasmon Fabry-Perot (FP) open resonator in a surface-wave photonic crystal. This surface-wave FP open resonator is formed by introducing a finite line defect in a surface-wave photonic crystal. The resonance frequencies of the surface-wave FP open resonator lie exactly within the forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal and the FP open resonator uses this complete forbidden band gap to concentrate surface waves within a subwavelength cavity. Due to the complete forbidden band gap of the surface-wave photonic crystal, a new FP plasmonic resonance mode that exhibits monopolar features which is missing in traditional FP resonators and plasmonic resonators is demonstrated. Near-field response spectra and mode profiles are presented in the microwave regime to characterize properties of the proposed FP open resonator for spoof surface plasmons.

  12. Harvesting energy from airflow with a michromachined piezoelectric harvester inside a Helmholtz resonator

    In this paper we report an airflow energy harvester that combines a piezoelectric energy harvester with a Helmholtz resonator. The resonator converts airflow energy to air oscillations which in turn are converted into electrical energy by a piezoelectric harvester. Two Helmholtz resonators with adjustable resonance frequencies have been designed—one with a solid bottom and one with membrane on the bottom. The resonance frequencies of the resonators were matched to the complementing piezoelectric harvesters during harvesting. The aim of the presented work is a feasibility study on using packaged piezoelectric energy harvesters with Helmholtz resonators for airflow energy harvesting. The maximum energy we were able to obtain was 42.2 µW at 20 m s−1

  13. Implementation of a Biaxial Resonant Fatigue Test Method on a Large Wind Turbine Blade

    Snowberg, D.; Dana, S.; Hughes, S.; Berling, P.

    2014-09-01

    A biaxial resonant test method was utilized to simultaneously fatigue test a wind turbine blade in the flap and edge (lead-lag) direction. Biaxial resonant blade fatigue testing is an accelerated life test method utilizing oscillating masses on the blade; each mass is independently oscillated at the respective flap and edge blade resonant frequency. The flap and edge resonant frequency were not controlled, nor were they constant for this demonstrated test method. This biaxial resonant test method presented surmountable challenges in test setup simulation, control and data processing. Biaxial resonant testing has the potential to complete test projects faster than single-axis testing. The load modulation during a biaxial resonant test may necessitate periodic load application above targets or higher applied test cycles.

  14. Circularly polarized dielectric resonator antenna excited by a conformal wire

    Khamas, S.K.

    2008-01-01

    A conformal spiral wire has been used to feed a dielectric resonator antenna to obtain a circular polarization. The parameters of the spiral have been optimized numerically so that minimum axial ratio (AR) and return losses are achieved. The method of moments (MoM) has been used in the analysis and the results have been validated against those from a commercial software package with a good agreement.

  15. Resonant tunneling in a Luttinger liquid for arbitrary barrier transmission

    Huegle, S.; Egger, R.

    2003-01-01

    A numerically exact dynamical quantum Monte Carlo approach has been developed and applied to transport through a double barrier in a Luttinger liquid with arbitrary transmission. For strong transmission, we find broad Fabry-Perot Coulomb blockade peaks, with a lineshape parametrized by a single parameter, but at sufficiently low temperatures, non-Lorentzian universal lineshapes characteristic of coherent resonant tunneling emerge, even for strong interactions. For weak transmission, our data ...

  16. Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography in a Pulsed Neutron Beam

    Dangendorf, V.; Laczko, G; Kersten, C.; Jagutzki, O.; Spillmann, U

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of performing fast neutron resonance radiography at the PTB accelerator facility is studied. A neutron beam of a broad spectral distribution is produced by a pulsed 13 MeV deuterium beam hitting a thick Be target. The potential of 3 different neutron imaging detectors with time-of flight capability are investigated. The applied methods comprise wire chambers with hydrogenous converter layers and a fast plastic scintillator with different optical readout schemes. We present the...

  17. Resonance and Transcendence of a Bodily Presence

    Petersen, Rikke Munck; Farsø, Mads

    2017-01-01

    developed in closer relation to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. Through an analysis of first two works by the Austrian Filmmaker Johann Lurf and then three studio...... its sound – if being integrated as design studio tool – comes to amplify sensory dimensions. The studio films illustrate how the surface of the film´s picture frame almost become like a skin, and with its surface and sound, projecting both a site and near sensual experience, the film media reflects...... and projects a double perception. It supports a haptic reflection on both outer experiences and inner sensations that - in its audiovisual and time space-based presentation - is close to a human experience. Especially the parts humans often are not aware about. The sonic and ‘skin’ of the surface may...

  18. Vortex properties of a resonant superfluid

    The properties of a vortex in a rotating superfluid Fermi gas are studied in the unitary limit. A phenomenological approach based on Ginzburg-Landau theory is developed for this purpose. The density profiles, including those of the normal fluid and superfluid, are obtained at various temperatures and rotation frequencies. The superfluid and normal fluid densities can be identified from the angular momentum density. The total free energy and angular momentum of the vortex are also obtained

  19. Triadic instability of a non-resonant precessing fluid cylinder

    Lagrange, R; Eloy, C

    2015-01-01

    Flows forced by a precessional motion can exhibit instabilities of crucial importance, whether they concern the fuel of a flying object or the liquid core of a telluric planet. So far, stability analyses of these flows have focused on the special case of a resonant forcing. Here, we address the instability of the flow inside a precessing cylinder in the general case. We first show that the base flow forced by the cylinder precession is a superposition of a vertical or horizontal shear flow and an infinite sum of forced modes. We then perform a linear stability analysis of this base flow by considering its triadic resonance with two free Kelvin modes. Finally, we derive the amplitude equations of the free Kelvin modes and obtain an expression of the instability threshold and growth rate.

  20. Triadic instability of a non-resonant precessing fluid cylinder

    Lagrange, Romain; Meunier, Patrice; Eloy, Christophe

    2016-06-01

    Flows forced by a precessional motion can exhibit instabilities of crucial importance, whether they concern the fuel of a flying object or the liquid core of a telluric planet. So far, stability analyses of these flows have focused on the special case of a resonant forcing. Here, we address the instability of the flow inside a precessing cylinder in the general case. We first show that the base flow forced by the cylinder precession is a superposition of a vertical or horizontal shear flow and of an infinite sum of forced modes. We then perform a linear stability analysis of this base flow by considering its triadic resonance with two free Kelvin modes. Finally, we derive the amplitude equations of the free Kelvin modes and obtain an expression of the instability threshold and growth rate. xml:lang="fr"

  1. Validity - a matter of resonant experience

    Revsbæk, Line

    across researcher’s past experience from the case study and her own life. The autobiographic way of analyzing conventional interview material is exemplified with a case of a junior researcher researching newcomer innovation of others, drawing on her own experience of being newcomer in work community...

  2. A lower bound and estimates for resonances

    Using Schwinger's variational formula for the phase shifts, we deduce a lower bound for the potential strength lambdasub(l)(K) at which deltasub(l)(K)=π/2. The derivation is used to show that the lower bound is a worse estimate than a known upper bound. Whence an improved lower bound is deduced which is then used to obtain an estimate for lambdasub(l)(K). These considerations are then illustrated for some potentials of practical interest, viz., the square well, exponential, Morse and Yukawa, the results being satisfactory. (author)

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of a phakomatous choristoma

    Otto, Josephin; Sorge, Ina [Leipzig University Hospital, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Horn, Lars-Christian [Leipzig University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Leipzig (Germany); Sterker, Ina [Leipzig University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Phakomatous choristoma is a rare congenital benign tumour in the inferomedial eyelid or orbit that is thought to be of lenticular anlage origin. We describe the MRI findings in an infant boy with histopathologically confirmed phakomatous choristoma. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of a Non-resonant Ultrasonic Levitation Device

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    In this study, a non-resonant configuration of ultrasonic levitation device is presented, which is formed by a small diameter ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. The influence of different levitator parameters on the levitation performance is investigated by using a numerical model that combines the Gor'kov theory with a matrix method based on the Rayleigh integral. In contrast with traditional acoustic levitators, the non-resonant ultrasonic levitation device allows the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be adjusted continually, without requiring the separation distance to be set to a multiple of half-wavelength. It is also demonstrated, both numerically and experimentally, that the levitating particle can be manipulated by maintaining the transducer in a fixed position in space and moving the reflector in respect to the transducer.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Simulation on a Grid Computing Architecture

    Benoit-Cattin, Hugues; Bellet, Fabrice; Montagnat, Johan; Odet, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) simulator on a GRID computing architecture. The simulation process is based on the resolution of Bloch equation [1] in a 3D space. The computation kernel of the simulator is distributed to the grid nodes using MPICH-G2 [2]. The results presented show that simulation of 3D MRI data is achieved with a reasonable cost which gives new perspectives to MRI simulations usage.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Benign Cardiac Masses: A Pictorial Essay

    Thomas J Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis for a cardiac mass includes primary and metastatic neoplasms. While primary cardiac tumors are rare, metastatic disease to the heart is a common finding in cancer patients. Several "tumor-like" processes can mimic a true cardiac neoplasm with accurate diagnosis critical at guiding appropriate management. We present a pictorial essay of the most common benign cardiac masses and "mass-like" lesions with an emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging features.

  7. Improved optomechanical disk resonator sitting on a pedestal mechanical shield

    We experimentally demonstrate the controlled enhancement of the mechanical quality factor Q of gallium arsenide disk optomechanical resonators. Disks vibrating at 1.3 GHz with a mechanical shield integrated in their pedestal show a Q improvement by a factor 10–16. The structure is modeled numerically and different modes of vibration are observed, which shed light on the Q enhancement mechanism. An optimized double-disk geometry is presented that promises Q above the million for a large parameter range. (paper)

  8. A Classical Approach to Multichromophoric Resonance Energy Transfer

    Duque, Sebastian; Pachon, Leonardo A

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced rates in multichromophoric resonance energy transfer are shown to be well described by a classical theory based on classical electrodynamics. In a coupling configuration between $N_A$ acceptors and $N_D$ donors, the theory correctly predicts an enhancement of the energy transfer rate dependent on the total number of donor-acceptor pairs, $N_A N_D$. As an example, the theory, applied to the transfer rate in LH II, gives results in excellent agreement with experiment.

  9. A capacitive probe for Electron Spin Resonance detection

    Aloisi, Giovanni; Dolci, David; Carlà, Marcello; Mannini, Matteo; Piuzzi, Barbara; Caneschi, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    The use of the magnetic field associated with Maxwell displacement current in a capacitor is proposed for the detection of Electron Spin Resonance. A probe based on this concept is realized and successfully tested with CW radio-frequency in the band going from 200 MHz to 1 GHz with a DPPH sample. A significant increase of Signal to Noise Ratio is observed while increasing the frequency.

  10. Magnetization reversal in a ferromagnetic circular dot under current induced resonant excitation

    A magnetic vortex core in a ferromagnetic circular dot can be resonantly excited by a spin-polarized AC current at the eigenfrequency determined by the confining potential. We studied the magnetic properties of the dot in its dynamical state with a vortex core on resonance as well as off resonance. Magnetoresistance measurements under the AC current revealed that the annihilation field of the vortex core is reduced in the resonance state compared to the off-resonance state. This may be due to the additional energy accompanying the resonant motion

  11. A high frequency resonance gravity gradiometer

    Bagaev, S. N.; Kvashnin, N. L.; Skvortsov, M. N. [Laser Physics Institute SB RAS, Novosibirsc (Russian Federation); Bezrukov, L. B.; Krysanov, V. A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, S. I.; Motylev, A. M.; Popov, S. M.; Samoilenko, A. A.; Yudin, I. S. [Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Rudenko, V. N. [Institute of Nuclear Physics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lomonosov MSU, Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-06-15

    A new setup OGRAN—the large scale opto-acoustical gravitational detector is described. As distinguished from known gravitational bar detectors it uses the optical interferometrical readout for registering weak variations of gravity gradient at the kilohetz frequency region. At room temperature, its sensitivity is limited only by the bar Brownian noise at the bandwidth close to 100 Hz. It is destined for a search for rare events—gravitational pulses coincident with signals of neutrino scintillator (BUST) in the deep underground of Baksan Neutrino Observatory of INR RAS.

  12. Stochastic resonance in a nonlinear mechanical vibration isolation system

    Lu, Zeqi; Chen, Li-Qun; Brennan, Michael J.; Yang, Tiejun; Ding, Hu; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-05-01

    This paper concerns the effect that a stochastic resonance can have on a vibration isolation system. Rather than reducing the transmitted force, it is shown that it is possible to significantly mask the component of the force transmitted though the isolator, when the system is excited harmonically. This can be achieved by adding a very low intensity of random noise to the harmonic excitation force. The nonlinear mechanical vibration isolation system used in the study consists of a vertical linear spring in parallel with two horizontal springs, which are configured so that the potential energy of the system has a double-well. Prior to the analytical and numerical study, an experiment to demonstrate stochastic resonance in a mechanical system is described.

  13. Resonances and Decay Widths within a Relativistic Coupled Channel Approach

    Kleinhappel, Regina

    2010-01-01

    We present a microscopic model for hadron resonances which contains, in addition to constituent (anti)quarks, mesonic degrees of freedom. It is assumed that the (anti)quarks are confined by an instantaneous potential and that the mesons can couple directly to the (anti)quarks. This system is treated within a relativistic coupled-channel formalism in order to take the dynamics of the mesonic degrees of freedom fully into account. It is demonstrated that the mass eigenvalue problem for such a system can be reformulated as a purely hadronic eigenvalue problem in which bare hadrons, i.e. eigenstates of the pure confinement problem, are coupled via meson loops. The substructure of the bare hadrons is then hidden in (bare) hadron-meson vertex form factors. It is shown for a simple toy model that such a kind of approach may lead to reasonable (non-perturbative) decay widths for hadron resonances.

  14. Design and construction of a nuclear magnetic resonator circuit

    It is described the operation of a feedback circuit that it using the nuclear resonance phenomena and that covers a broad sweeping interval in frequency with a minimum adjustment of the circuit elements and it produces an appropriate nuclear absorption for a sign relation at reasonable noise. The circuit is an oscillator amplifier modulated that it is based its sensibility and stability in an inductive-capacitive arrangement in parallel and always operate in resonant condition, in such a way that the quality factor of Q arrangement has been very elevated. Thus when the nuclear absorption occurs it is producing a fall of Q effective. The oscillation amplitude is controllable and it maintains in a convenient value over the operation interval using control by feedback. The circuit uses a configuration 'Auto dyne Hop kin' that it suffers as a follower of inductive charge, which have the main characteristic of to cause a negative resistance that it appears through the tuning circuit. It is introduced a control for feedback via two trajectories, the first by differential pair for to maintain the amplitude level in RF and the second for to stability a band wide interval in the modulation condition. It is necessary since the RF signal value must have a value to excite the specimen nucleus without to carry to saturate it and that the permanence in the absorption region was appropriate. Between applications of the nuclear magnetic resonance phenomena we have the magnetic fields measurements, physicochemical molecular properties studies, training and medical instrumentation. (Author)

  15. Coupling a thermal atomic vapor to an integrated ring resonator

    Ritter, Ralf; Pernice, Wolfram; Kübler, Harald; Pfau, Tilman; Löw, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Strongly interacting atom-cavity systems within a network with many nodes constitute a possible realization for a quantum internet which allows for quantum communication and computation on the same platform. To implement such large-scale quantum networks, nanophotonic resonators are promising candidates because they can be scalably fabricated and interconnected with waveguides and optical fibers. By integrating arrays of ring resonators into a vapor cell we show that thermal rubidium atoms above room temperature can be coupled to photonic cavities as building blocks for chip-scale hybrid circuits. Although strong coupling is not yet achieved in this first realization, our approach provides a key step towards miniaturization and scalability of atom-cavity systems.

  16. Optical modulation in a resonant tunneling relaxation oscillator

    Figueiredo, J M L; Boyd, A R; Ironside, C N

    1999-01-01

    We report high speed optical modulation in a resonant tunneling relaxation oscillator consisting of a resonant tunneling diode (RTD) integrated with a unipolar optical waveguide and incorporated in a package with a coplanar waveguide transmission line. When appropriately biased, the RTD can provide wide-bandwidth electrical gain. For wavelengths near the material band-edge, small changes of the applied voltage give rise to large, high-speed electro-absorption modulation of the light. We have observed optical modulation at frequencies up to 14 GHz, associated with sub harmonic injection locking of the RTD oscillation at the fundamental mode of the coplanar transmission line, as well as generation of 33 ps optical pulses due to relaxation oscillation.

  17. Optimal grouping for a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scanner

    VANDAELE, Nico; VAN NIEUWENHUYSE, Inneke; CUPERS, Sascha

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyze how a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Scanner can be managed more efficiently, simultaneously improving patient comfort (in terms of total time spent in the system) and increasing availability in case of emergency calls. By means of a superposition approach, all relevant data on the arrival and service process of different patient types are transformed into a general single server, single class queueing model. The objective function consists of the weighted average patient...

  18. Tuning the resonance properties of 2D carbon nanotube networks towards a mechanical resonator.

    Zhan, Haifei; Zhang, Guiyong; Zhang, Baocheng; Bell, John M; Gu, Yuantong

    2015-08-01

    The capabilities of the mechanical resonator-based nanosensors in detecting ultra-small mass or force shifts have driven a continuing exploration of the palette of nanomaterials for such application purposes. Based on large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we have assessed the applicability of a new class of carbon nanomaterials for nanoresonator usage, i.e. the single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) network. It is found that SWNT networks inherit excellent mechanical properties from the constituent SWNTs, possessing a high natural frequency. However, although a high quality factor is suggested from the simulation results, it is hard to obtain an unambiguous Q-factor due to the existence of vibration modes in addition to the dominant mode. The nonlinearities resulting from these extra vibration modes are found to exist uniformly under various testing conditions including different initial actuations and temperatures. Further testing shows that these modes can be effectively suppressed through the introduction of axial strain, leading to an extremely high quality factor in the order of 10(9) estimated from the SWNT network with 2% tensile strain. Additional studies indicate that the carbon rings connecting the SWNTs can also be used to alter the vibrational properties of the resulting network. This study suggests that the SWNT network can be a good candidate for applications as nanoresonators. PMID:26184034

  19. Unconventional superconducting quantum interference in a suspended graphene resonator

    Allen, Monica; Nurgaliev, Daniyar; Akhmerov, Anton; Yacoby, Amir

    2014-03-01

    In a coherent electron cavity, quantum interference of electron waves replaces classical diffusion as a key feature of electronic transport. Here we report novel behavior that emerges by coupling superconducting reservoirs to a Fabry-Perot resonator in bilayer graphene. In this device, a pair of superconducting electrodes is coupled to a suspended graphene membrane and defines a ballistic cavity between the two graphene-electrode interfaces. Tuning the Fermi wavelength in the cavity with a gate electrode moves the system on and off resonance, thus inducing an oscillatory critical current whose period satisfies the Fabry-Perot interference conditions. By varying the magnetic flux through the junction, we explore the rich interplay between superconducting quantum interference and resonant cavity states and demonstrate a non-trivial correspondence between the supercurrent and normal state resistance. To describe our findings, we use a numerical model based on the tight-binding approach and Landauer-Buttiker scattering formalism. These results constitute a departure from the conventional Josephson effect in graphene and motivate exploration of new effects at the intersection of superconductivity and optics-like phenomena.

  20. A model realizing inverse seesaw and resonant leptogenesis

    We construct a model realizing the inverse seesaw mechanism. The model has two types of gauge singlet fermions in addition to right-handed neutrinos. A required Majorana mass scale (keV scale) for generating the light active neutrino mass in the conventional inverse seesaw can be naturally explained by a “seesaw” mechanism between the two singlet fermions in our model. We find that our model can decrease the magnitude of hierarchy among the mass parameters by O(104) from that in the conventional inverse seesaw model. We also show that a successful resonant leptogenesis occurs for generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe in our model. The desired mass degeneracy for the resonant leptogenesis can also be achieved by the “seesaw” between the two singlet fermions

  1. Resonant X-ray emission with a standing wave excitation.

    Ruotsalainen, Kari O; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Collins, Stephen P; Monaco, Giulio; Moretti Sala, Marco; Krisch, Michael; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-01-01

    The Borrmann effect is the anomalous transmission of x-rays in perfect crystals under diffraction conditions. It arises from the interference of the incident and diffracted waves, which creates a standing wave with nodes at strongly absorbing atoms. Dipolar absorption of x-rays is thus diminished, which makes the crystal nearly transparent for certain x-ray wave vectors. Indeed, a relative enhancement of electric quadrupole absorption via the Borrmann effect has been demonstrated recently. Here we show that the Borrmann effect has a significantly larger impact on resonant x-ray emission than is observable in x-ray absorption. Emission from a dipole forbidden intermediate state may even dominate the corresponding x-ray spectra. Our work extends the domain of x-ray standing wave methods to resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and provides means for novel spectroscopic experiments in d- and f-electron systems. PMID:26935531

  2. Spin injection in a ferromagnet/resonant tunneling diode heterostructure

    Jin Bao; Fang Wan; Yu Wang; Xiaoguang Xu; Yong Jiang

    2008-01-01

    The spin transport property of a ferromagnet (FM)/insulator (I)/resonant tunneling diode (RTD) heterostructure was stud-ied. The transmission coefficient and spin polarization in a multilayered heterostructure was calculated by a Scbr(o)dinger wave equa-tion. An Airy function formalism approach was used to solve this equation. Based on the transfer matrix approach, the transmittivity of the structure was determined as a function of the Feimi energy and other parameters. The result shows that the spin polarization induced by the structure oscillates with the increasing Fermi energy of the FM layer. While the thickness of the RTD is reduced, the resonant peaks become broad. In the heterostructure, the spin polarization reaches as high as 40% and can be easily controlled by the external bias voltage.

  3. Resonant X-ray emission with a standing wave excitation

    Ruotsalainen, Kari O.; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Collins, Stephen P.; Monaco, Giulio; Moretti Sala, Marco; Krisch, Michael; Hämäläinen, Keijo; Hakala, Mikko; Huotari, Simo

    2016-01-01

    The Borrmann effect is the anomalous transmission of x-rays in perfect crystals under diffraction conditions. It arises from the interference of the incident and diffracted waves, which creates a standing wave with nodes at strongly absorbing atoms. Dipolar absorption of x-rays is thus diminished, which makes the crystal nearly transparent for certain x-ray wave vectors. Indeed, a relative enhancement of electric quadrupole absorption via the Borrmann effect has been demonstrated recently. Here we show that the Borrmann effect has a significantly larger impact on resonant x-ray emission than is observable in x-ray absorption. Emission from a dipole forbidden intermediate state may even dominate the corresponding x-ray spectra. Our work extends the domain of x-ray standing wave methods to resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy and provides means for novel spectroscopic experiments in d- and f-electron systems. PMID:26935531

  4. Hodological resonance, hodological variance, psychosis and schizophrenia: A hypothetical model

    Paul Brian eLawrie Birkett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a disorder with a large number of clinical, neurobiological, and cognitive manifestations, none of which is invariably present. However it appears to be a single nosological entity. This article considers the likely characteristics of a pathology capable of such diverse consequences. It is argued that both deficit and psychotic symptoms can be manifestations of a single pathology. A general model of psychosis is proposed in which the informational sensitivity or responsivity of a network ("hodological resonance" becomes so high that it activates spontaneously, to produce a hallucination, if it is in sensory cortex, or another psychotic symptom if it is elsewhere. It is argued that this can come about because of high levels of modulation such as those assumed present in affective psychosis, or because of high levels of baseline resonance, such as those expected in deafferentation syndromes associated with hallucinations, for example, Charles Bonnet. It is further proposed that schizophrenia results from a process (probably neurodevelopmental causing widespread increases of variance in baseline resonance; consequently some networks possess high baseline resonance and become susceptible to spontaneous activation. Deficit symptoms might result from the presence of networks with increased activation thresholds. This hodological variance model is explored in terms of schizo-affective disorder, transient psychotic symptoms, diathesis-stress models, mechanisms of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and persistence of genes predisposing to schizophrenia. Predictions and implications of the model are discussed. In particular it suggests a need for more research into psychotic states and for more single case-based studies in schizophrenia.

  5. Harmonically resonant cavity as a bunch-length monitor

    Roberts, B.; Hannon, F.; Ali, M. M.; Forman, E.; Grames, J.; Kazimi, R.; Moore, W.; Pablo, M.; Poelker, M.; Sanchez, A.; Speirs, D.

    2016-05-01

    A compact, harmonically resonant cavity with fundamental resonant frequency 1497 MHz was used to evaluate the temporal characteristics of electron bunches produced by a 130 kV dc high voltage spin-polarized photoelectron source at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) photoinjector, delivered at 249.5 and 499 MHz repetition rates and ranging in width from 45 to 150 picoseconds (FWHM). A cavity antenna attached directly to a sampling oscilloscope detected the electron bunches as they passed through the cavity bore with a sensitivity of ˜1 mV /μ A . The oscilloscope waveforms are a superposition of the harmonic modes excited by the beam, with each cavity mode representing a term of the Fourier series of the electron bunch train. Relatively straightforward post-processing of the waveforms provided a near-real time representation of the electron bunches revealing bunch-length and the relative phasing of interleaved beams. The noninvasive measurements from the harmonically resonant cavity were compared to measurements obtained using an invasive RF-deflector-cavity technique and to predictions from particle tracking simulations.

  6. A broad 750 GeV diphoton resonance? Not alone

    Roig, P

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a possible resonance in the diphoton channel with mass of 750 GeV is still under study and will be hopefully clarified this summer. If confirmed with a large width, it will be difficult to accommodate within weakly interacting beyond Standard Model theories, hinting a composite scenario. By means of forward sum-rules for $\\gamma\\gamma$ and $gg$ scattering we show that a spin-0 resonance with mass of the order of the TeV and a sizable $\\gamma\\gamma$ or $gg$ partial width -of the order of a few GeV- must be accompanied by higher spin resonances with $J_R\\geq 2$ with similar properties, as expected in strongly coupled extensions of the Standard Model or, alternatively, in higher dimensional deconstructed duals. Furthermore, independently of whether the 750 GeV candidate is a scalar or a tensor, the large contribution to the forward sum-rules in the referred scenario implies the presence of states in the spectrum with $J_R\\geq 2$, being these high spin particles a manifestation of new extra-dimen...

  7. Coupled superconducting resonant cavities for a heavy ion linac

    A design for a superconducting niobium slow-wave accelerating structure has been explored that may have performance and cost advantages over existing technology. The option considered is an array of pairs of quarter-wave coaxial-line resonant cavities, the two elements of each pair strongly coupled through a short superconducting transmission line. In the linac formed by such an array, each paired structure is independently phased. A disadvantage of two-gap slow wave structures is that each cavity is relatively short, so that a large number of independently-phased elements is required for a linac. Increasing the number of drift tubes per cavity reduces the number of independently-phased elements but at the cost of reducing the range of useful velocity acceptance for each element. Coupling two cavities splits the accelerating rf eigenmode into two resonant modes each of which covers a portion of the full velocity acceptance range of the original, single cavity mode. Using both of these resonant modes makes feasible the use of coupled cavity pairs for a linac with little loss in velocity acceptance. (Author) 2 figs., 8 refs

  8. Magnetic resonance force microscopy and a solid state quantum computer.

    Pelekhov, D. V. (Denis V.); Martin, I. (Ivar); Suter, A. (Andreas); Reagor, D. W. (David W.); Hammel, P. C. (P. Chris)

    2001-01-01

    A Quantum Computer (QC) is a device that utilizes the principles of Quantum Mechanics to perform computations. Such a machine would be capable of accomplishing tasks not achievable by means of any conventional digital computer, for instance factoring large numbers. Currently it appears that the QC architecture based on an array of spin quantum bits (qubits) embedded in a solid-state matrix is one of the most promising approaches to fabrication of a scalable QC. However, the fabrication and operation of a Solid State Quantum Computer (SSQC) presents very formidable challenges; primary amongst these are: (1) the characterization and control of the fabrication process of the device during its construction and (2) the readout of the computational result. Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy (MRFM)--a novel scanning probe technique based on mechanical detection of magnetic resonance-provides an attractive means of addressing these requirements. The sensitivity of the MRFM significantly exceeds that of conventional magnetic resonance measurement methods, and it has the potential for single electron spin detection. Moreover, the MRFM is capable of true 3D subsurface imaging. These features will make MRFM an invaluable tool for the implementation of a spin-based QC. Here we present the general principles of MRFM operation, the current status of its development and indicate future directions for its improvement.

  9. Coralling a distant planet with extreme resonant Kuiper belt objects

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2016-01-01

    The four longest period Kuiper belt objects have orbital periods close to small integer ratios with each other. A hypothetical planet with orbital period $\\sim$17,117 years, semimajor axis $\\sim$665 AU, would have N/1 and N/2 period ratios with these four objects. The orbital geometries and dynamics of resonant orbits constrain the orbital plane, the orbital eccentricity and the mass of such a planet, as well as its current location in its orbital path.

  10. Clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: a review

    The advantages and present limitations of the clinical applications of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are reviewed in outline, with passing references to skeletal muscular studies, in particular a group of children with advanced Duchenne dystrophy, and the applications to the study of cerebral metabolism of neonates, excised kidneys, biopsy studies of breast and axillary lymph node samples, and NMR spectroscopy performed during chemotherapy of a secondary rhabdomyosarcoma in the skin. (U.K.)

  11. The multipole resonance probe: characterization of a prototype

    Lapke, Martin; Oberrath, Jens; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Mussenbrock, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Elektrotechnik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Schulz, Christian; Rolfes, Ilona [Lehrstuhl fuer Hochfrequenzsysteme, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Storch, Robert; Musch, Thomas [Lehrstuhl fuer Elektronische Schaltungstechnik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Styrnoll, Tim; Awakowicz, Peter [Lehrstuhl fuer Allgemeine Elektrotechnik und Plasmatechnik, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Zietz, Christian [Institut fuer Hochfrequenztechnik und Funksysteme, Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The multipole resonance probe (MRP) was recently proposed as an economical and industry compatible plasma diagnostic device (Lapke et al 2008 Appl. Phys. Lett. 93 051502). This communication reports the experimental characterization of a first MRP prototype in an inductively coupled argon/nitrogen plasma at 10 Pa. The behavior of the device follows the predictions of both an analytical model and a numerical simulation. The obtained electron densities are in excellent agreement with the results of Langmuir probe measurements. (brief communication)

  12. A Model for Quantum Jumps in Magnetic Resonance Force Microscopy

    Berman, G P; Tsifrinovich, V I

    2004-01-01

    We propose a simple model which describes the statistical properties of quantum jumps in a single-spin measurement using the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals technique in magnetic resonance force microscopy. Our computer simulations based on this model predict the average time interval between two consecutive quantum jumps and the correlation time to be proportional to the characteristic time of the magnetic noise and inversely proportional to the square of the magnetic noise amplitude.

  13. A model for quantum jumps in magnetic resonance force microscopy

    We propose a simple model which describes the statistical properties of quantum jumps in a single-spin measurement using the oscillating cantilever-driven adiabatic reversals technique in magnetic resonance force microscopy. Our computer simulations based on this model predict the average time interval between two consecutive quantum jumps and the correlation time to be proportional to the characteristic time of the magnetic noise and inversely proportional to the square of the magnetic noise amplitude

  14. Electric field switching in a resonant tunneling diode electroabsorption modulator

    Figueiredo, J.M.L.; Ironside, C. N.; Stanley, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    The basic mechanism underlying electric field switching produced by a resonant tunnelling diode (RTD) is analysed and the theory compared with experimental results; agreement to within 12% is achieved. The electro-absorption modulator (EAM) device potential of this effect is explored in an optical waveguide configuration. It is shown that a RTD-EAM can provide significant absorption coefficient change, via the Franz-Keldysh effect, at appropriate optical communication wavelengths around 1550 ...

  15. A resonant ionization laser ion source at ORNL

    Liu, Y.; Stracener, D. W.

    2016-06-01

    Multi-step resonance laser ionization has become an essential tool for the production of isobarically pure radioactive ion beams at the isotope separator on-line (ISOL) facilities around the world. A resonant ionization laser ion source (RILIS) has been developed for the former Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The RILIS employs a hot-cavity ion source and a laser system featuring three grating-tuned and individually pumped Ti:Sapphire lasers, especially designed for stable and simple operation. The RILIS has been installed at the second ISOL production platform of former HRIBF and has successfully provided beams of exotic neutron-rich Ga isotopes for beta decay studies. This paper reports the features, advantages, limitations, and on-line and off-line performance of the RILIS.

  16. Observation of a shape resonance of the positronium negative ion

    Michishio, Koji; Kanai, Tsuneto; Kuma, Susumu; Azuma, Toshiyuki; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Hyodo, Toshio; Yagishita, Akira; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    When an electron binds to its anti-matter counterpart, the positron, it forms the exotic atom positronium (Ps). Ps can further bind to another electron to form the positronium negative ion, Ps- (e-e+e-). Since its constituents are solely point-like particles with the same mass, this system provides an excellent testing ground for the three-body problem in quantum mechanics. While theoretical works on its energy level and dynamics have been performed extensively, experimental investigations of its characteristics have been hampered by the weak ion yield and short annihilation lifetime. Here we report on the laser spectroscopy study of Ps-, using a source of efficiently produced ions, generated from the bombardment of slow positrons onto a Na-coated W surface. A strong shape resonance of 1Po symmetry has been observed near the Ps (n=2) formation threshold. The resonance energy and width measured are in good agreement with the result of three-body calculations.

  17. A Search for Heavy Resonances in the Dilepton Channel

    Hayden Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics which predict the addition of a U(1 symmetry, and/or extra spatial dimensions, which give rise to new high mass resonances such as the Z′ and Randall-Sundrum graviton. The LHC provides a unique opportunity to explore the TeV scale where these phenomena may become apparent, and can be searched for using the precision tracking and high energy resolution calorimetry of the ATLAS detector. This poster presents the search for high mass resonances in the dilepton channel, and was conducted with an integrated luminosity of 1.08/1.21 fb−1 in the dielectron/dimuon channel respectively, at a centre of mass energy √s = 7 TeV.

  18. Fabrication of a Resonant Photoacoustic Cell for Samples Study

    J.C. Kapil

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Nondestructive treatment of a sample in photoacoustic spectroscopy is helpful in the study of thermal and optical properties of ice and snow. In the present study, a  low-temperature resonant photoacoustic cell, based on Helmholtz resonator model, has been designed and fabricated for the study of samples like ice or snow. Its performance has also been studied using carbon black as a standard sample and various other samples like water, ice, glass, plexi-glass, polycarbonate, etc. Thermal diffusivity of ice, water, and many other transparent materials has been determined by varying chopping frequency and recording corresponding phase changes in the photoacoustic signal. The results obtained are in good agreement with those predicted by Rosencwaig-Gersho (R-G' theory.

  19. Novel kinematics from a custodially protected diphoton resonance

    Collins, Jack H; Dror, Jeff Asaf; Lombardo, Salvator

    2016-01-01

    We study a simple, well-motivated model based on a custodial symmetry which describes the tree-level production of a 750 GeV diphoton resonance from a decay of a singly produced vector-like quark. The model has several novel features. The identification of the resonance as an SU(2)$_R$ triplet provides a symmetry explanation for suppression of its decays to hh, WW, and gg. Moreover, the ratio of the 13 TeV to 8 TeV cross sections can be larger than single production of a 750 GeV resonance, reaching ratios of up to 7 for TeV scale vector-like quark masses. This eliminates any tension between the results from Run I and Run II diphoton searches. Lastly, we study the kinematics of our signal and conclude that the new production mechanism is consistent with available experimental distributions in large regions of parameter space but, depending on the mass of the new vector-like quarks, can be differentiated from the background with more statistics.

  20. Low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonance with a dc SQUID

    Conventional pure nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) is a technique well suited for the study of very large quadrupolar interactions. Numerous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques have been developed for the study of smaller quadrupolar interactions. However, there are many nuclei which have quadrupolar interactions of intermediate strength. Quadrupolar interactions in this region have traditionally been difficult or unfeasible to detect. This work describes the development and application of a SQUID NQR technique which is capable of measuring intermediate strength quadrupolar interactions, in the range of a few hundred kilohertz to several megahertz. In this technique, a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) is used to monitor the longitudinal sample magnetization, as opposed to the transverse magnetization, as a rf field is swept in frequency. This allows the detection of low-frequency nuclear quadrupole resonances over a very wide frequency range with high sensitivity. The theory of this NQR technique is discussed and a description of the dc SQUID system is given. In the following chapters, the spectrometer is discussed along with its application to the study of samples containing half-odd-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei, in particular boron-11 and aluminum-27. The feasibility of applying this NQR technique in the study of samples containing integer spin nuclei is discussed in the last chapter. 140 refs., 46 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Quantum resonance catastrophe for conductance through a periodically driven barrier

    Thuberg, Daniel; Reyes, Sebastián A.; Eggert, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    We consider the quantum conductance in a tight-binding chain with a locally applied potential which is oscillating in time. The steady state for such a driven impurity can be calculated exactly for any energy and applied potential using the Floquet formalism. The resulting transmission has a nontrivial, nonmonotonic behavior depending on incoming momentum, driving frequency, and the strength of the applied periodic potential. Hence there is an abundance of tuning possibilities, which allows finding the resonances of total reflection for any choice of incoming momentum and periodic potential. Remarkably, this implies that even for an arbitrarily small infinitesimal impurity potential it is always possible to find a resonance frequency at which there is a catastrophic breakdown of the transmission T =0 . The points of zero transmission are closely related to the phenomenon of Fano resonances at dynamically created bound states in the continuum. The results are relevant for a variety of one-dimensional systems where local AC driving is possible, such as quantum nanodot arrays, ultracold gases in optical lattices, photonic crystals, or molecular electronics.

  2. Novel kinematics from a custodially protected diphoton resonance

    Collins, Jack H.; Csáki, Csaba; Dror, Jeff A.; Lombardo, Salvator

    2016-06-01

    We study a simple, well-motivated model based on a custodial symmetry which describes the tree-level production of a 750 GeV diphoton resonance from a decay of a singly produced vector-like quark. The model has several novel features. The identification of the resonance as an SU(2 ) R triplet provides a symmetry explanation for suppression of its decays to h h , W W , and g g . Moreover, the ratio of the 13 TeV to 8 TeV cross sections can be larger than single production of a 750 GeV resonance, reaching ratios of up to 7 for TeV scale vectorlike quark masses. This eliminates any tension between the results from Run I and Run II diphoton searches. Lastly, we study the kinematics of our signal and conclude that the new production mechanism is consistent with available experimental distributions in large regions of parameter space but, depending on the mass of the new vectorlike quarks, can be differentiated from the background with more statistics.

  3. A theory of baryon resonances at large N_c

    Diakonov, Dmitri; Vladimirov, Alexey A

    2013-01-01

    At large number of colors, N_c quarks in baryons are in a mean field of definite space and flavor symmetry. We write down the general Lorentz and flavor structure of the mean field, and derive the Dirac equation for quarks in that field. The resulting baryon resonances exhibit an hierarchy of scales: The crude mass is O(N_c), the intrinsic quark excitations are O(1), and each intrinsic quark state entails a finite band of collective excitations that are split as O(1/N_c). We build a (new) theory of those collective excitations, where full dynamics is represented by only a few constants. In a limiting (but unrealistic) case when the mean field is spherically-and flavor-symmetric, our classification of resonances reduces to the SU(6) classification of the old non-relativistic quark model. Although in the real world N_c is only three, we obtain a good accordance with the observed resonance spectrum up to 2 GeV.

  4. Fano resonance and persistent current of a quantum ring

    We investigate electron transport and persistent current of a quantum ring weakly attached to current leads. Assuming there is direct coupling (weakly or strongly) between two leads, electrons can transmit by the inter-lead coupling or tunneling through the quantum ring. The interference between the two paths yields asymmetric Fano line shape for conductance. In presence of interior magnetic flux, there is persistent current along the ring with narrow resonance peaks. The positions of the conductance resonances and the persistent current peaks correspond to the quasibound levels of the closed ring. This feature is helpful to determine the energy spectrum of the quantum ring. Our results show that the proposed setup provides a tunable Fano system

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Wealth of Cardiovascular Information

    Shah, Sangeeta; Chryssos, Emanuel D.; Parker, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is a relatively new noninvasive imaging modality that provides insight into multiple facets of the human myocardium not available by other imaging modalities. This one test allows for the assessment of ventricular and valvular function, ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies, congenital heart disease, and cardiac tumors. It has been coined by many as “one-stop shopping.” As with any imaging modality, it is important to understand not only the indications ...

  6. Narrowing of EIT resonance in a Doppler Broadened Medium

    Javan, Ali; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Lee, Hwang; Scully, Marlan O.

    2001-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the linewidth of EIT resonance in a Doppler broadened system. It is shown here that for relatively low intensity of the driving field the EIT linewidth is proportional to the square root of intensity and is independent of the Doppler width, similar to the laser induced line narrowing effect by Feld and Javan. In the limit of high intensity we recover the usual power broadening case where EIT linewidth is proportional to the intensity and inversely proporti...

  7. A Microring Resonator Sensor for Sensitive Detection of 1,3,5-Trinitrotoluene (TNT

    Nina Welschoff

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A microring resonator sensor device for sensitive detection of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitrotoluene (TNT is presented. It is based on the combination of a silicon microring resonator and tailored receptor molecules.

  8. A low-g electrostatically actuated resonant switch

    This work investigates a new concept of an electrostatically actuated resonant switch (EARS) for earthquake detection and low-g seismic applications. The resonator is designed to operate close to the instability bands of frequency–response curves, where it is forced to collapse dynamically (pull-in) if operated within these bands. By careful tuning, the resonator can be made to enter the pull-in instability zone upon the detection of the earthquake signal, thereby snapping down as an electric switch. Such a switching action can be functionalized for alarming purposes or can be used to activate a network of sensors for seismic activity recording. The EARS is modeled and its dynamic response is simulated using a nonlinear single-degree-of-freedom model. Experimental investigation is conducted demonstrating the EARS’ capability of being triggered at small levels of acceleration as low as 0.02g. Results for the switching events for several levels of low-g accelerations using both theory and experiments are presented and compared. (paper)

  9. Combination of resonance integral and Maxwellian 30 keV data – A sensitive test of the resonance region

    Highlights: ► Neutron-induced capture cross sections can be tested by considering the Resonance Integral and Maxwellian average cross section at 30 keV. ► Results are presented for typical reactions from EAF-2010 and ENDF/B-VII.1. ► Including data at the energies of 14.5 MeV and 0.0253 eV as well as the spontaneous fission spectrum of 252-Cf improve the validation process. ► Examples where capture reactions can be improved by this validation procedure are presented. -- Abstract: This paper presents the approach of a combined use of resonance integrals and average Maxwellian cross sections (MACS) at kT = 30 keV to test and validate the resolved resonance range or its reconstructed cross section curve. Based on these two integral measurements a sensitive and energy dependent test can be provided. These two integral quantities cover with their neutron spectra the energy region between En = 0.5 eV up to several hundred keV, respectively, with different weighting. Our principal motivation is to produce a validation tool, sensitive to the lower and upper parts of the resonance region through the difference in the applied 1/E and kT = 30 keV Maxwell–Boltzmann spectra of the resonance integral and MACS data

  10. Resonance control for a cw [continuous wave] accelerator

    A resonance-control technique is described that has been successfully applied to several cw accelerating structures built by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the National Bureau of Standards and for the University of Illinois. The technique involves sensing the rf fields in an accelerating structure as well as the rf power feeding into the cavity and, then, using the measurement to control the resonant frequency of the structure by altering the temperature of the structure. The temperature of the structure is altered by adjusting the temperature of the circulating cooling water. The technique has been applied to continuous wave (cw) side-coupled cavities only but should have applications with most high-average-power accelerator structures. Some additional effort would be required for pulsed systems

  11. QND Measurements in a Resonant Cavity-QED System

    Chen, Zilong; Bohnet, Justin G.; Dai; Thompson, James K.

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate QND measurements on an ensemble of 10^6 ^87Rb atoms. Quantum state-dependent populations are determined at the projection noise level by measurements of the collective Vacuum Rabi Splitting for the resonantly coupled atom-cavity system. The splitting is measured by simultaneously scanning the frequency of two probes across the two transmission resonances and phase coherently detecting the full IQ response of the reflected electric fields. Measurement back-action imposes AC Stark shifts on the atoms, resulting in a reduction of the Ramsey fringe contrast due to inhomogeneity in the probe-atom coupling. We show that the spin-echo sequences that will be needed to achieve atomic spin-squeezing on the Rb clock transition also strongly suppress these AC stark shifts. The remaining probe-induced decoherence is close to the fundamental limit imposed by free space scattering of the probe photons.

  12. Interpreting a 750 GeV Diphoton Resonance

    Gupta, Rick S; Kats, Yevgeny; Perez, Gilad; Stamou, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the implications of significant excesses in the diphoton final state observed by the LHC experiments ATLAS and CMS around 750 GeV diphoton invariant mass. Interpreting the result as a spin-zero s-channel resonance, the excess alone implies model-independent lower bounds on both the branching ratio and the coupling to photons, leading to stringent constraints on dynamical models. We consider both the case where the excess is described by a narrow and a broad resonance. We also obtain model-independent constraints on the allowed couplings and branching fractions to various other final states, by including the interplay with 8 TeV searches. These results can guide attempts to construct viable dynamical models of the resonance. Turning to specific models, our findings suggest that the anomaly cannot be accounted for by the presence of only an additional singlet or doublet spin zero field and the Standard Model degrees of freedom; this includes all Two-Higgs-doublet-models. We prove that the whole param...

  13. Combining synaptic and cellular resonance in a feed-forward neuronal network

    Jonathan D Drover; Tohidi, Vahid; Bose, Amitabha; Nadim, Farzan

    2007-01-01

    We derive a mathematical theory to explain the subthreshold resonance response of a neuron to synaptic input. The theory shows how a neuron combines information from its intrinsic resonant properties with those of the synapse to determine the neuron’s generalized resonance response. Our results show that the maximal response of a postsynaptic neuron can lie between the preferred intrinsic frequency of the neuron and the synaptic resonance frequency. We compare our theoretical results to paral...

  14. A coupling model for amplified spontaneous emission in laser resonators

    The competition between amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and main laser in solid-state laser resonators is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A coupled model using the spatial volume integral instead of the Monte Carlo type raytrace technique is proposed to depict ASE in the laser resonators. This model is able to evaluate all possible reflections at both the polishing surface and the diffusive side, to calculate ASE for an inhomogeneous gain distribution, and to include the spectral correction. An experiment is carefully designed to verify the theoretical model and to investigate the distinct physical properties caused by the coupling between ASE and the laser oscillations. The experimental data exhibit an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. According to that model, we confirm that ASE in thin-disk lasers can be characterized approximately by the product of the threshold gain of the resonator and the diameter of the disks, as laser modes are highly overlapped with the pumping beam. Theoretical evaluation shows that the scattering characteristic of the disk side impacts on ASE significantly. Furthermore, we point out that ASE decreases output laser power by affecting threshold pumping power, while slope efficiency is not changed by ASE. This observation provides us with a simple way to estimate the decrease of the optical efficiency by ASE. (paper)

  15. A coupling model for amplified spontaneous emission in laser resonators

    Su, Hua; Wang, Xiaojun; Shang, Jianli; Yu, Yi; Tang, Chun

    2015-10-01

    The competition between amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and main laser in solid-state laser resonators is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. A coupled model using the spatial volume integral instead of the Monte Carlo type raytrace technique is proposed to depict ASE in the laser resonators. This model is able to evaluate all possible reflections at both the polishing surface and the diffusive side, to calculate ASE for an inhomogeneous gain distribution, and to include the spectral correction. An experiment is carefully designed to verify the theoretical model and to investigate the distinct physical properties caused by the coupling between ASE and the laser oscillations. The experimental data exhibit an excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. According to that model, we confirm that ASE in thin-disk lasers can be characterized approximately by the product of the threshold gain of the resonator and the diameter of the disks, as laser modes are highly overlapped with the pumping beam. Theoretical evaluation shows that the scattering characteristic of the disk side impacts on ASE significantly. Furthermore, we point out that ASE decreases output laser power by affecting threshold pumping power, while slope efficiency is not changed by ASE. This observation provides us with a simple way to estimate the decrease of the optical efficiency by ASE.

  16. Electron cyclotron resonance heating in a short cylindrical plasma system

    Vipin K Yadav; D Bora

    2004-09-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma is produced and studied in a small cylindrical system. Microwave power is delivered by a CW magnetron at 2.45 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extraordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the first two ECR surfaces ( = 875.0 G and = 437.5 G) reside in the system. ECR plasma is produced with hydrogen with typical plasma density e as 3.2 × 1010 cm-3 and plasma temperature e between 9 and 15 eV. Various cut-off and resonance positions are identified in the plasma system. ECR heating (ECRH) of the plasma is observed experimentally. This heating is because of the mode conversion of X-wave to electron Bernstein wave (EBW) at the upper hybrid resonance (UHR) layer. The power mode conversion efficiency is estimated to be 0.85 for this system. The experimental results are presented in this paper.

  17. The dynamic mechanical characteristics of a resonating microbridge mass-flow sensor

    Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Tijdeman, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives an explanation of the dynamic mechanical behaviour of a resonating microbridge mass-flow sensor. A rise in the average temperature of the bridge initially results in a reduction of the resonance frequency. Upon further temperature rise, a reversal occurs and the resonance frequency

  18. Tunability of resonance frequencies in a superconducting microwave resonator by using SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric films

    Sok, J; Lee, E H

    1998-01-01

    An applied dc voltage varies the dielectric constant of ferroelectric SrTiO sub 3 films. A tuning mechanism for superconducting microwave resonators was realized by using the variation in the dielectric constant of SrTiO sub 3 films. In order to estimate the values of the capacitance, C, and the loss tangent, tan delta, of SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors, we used high-temperature superconducting microwave resonators which were composed of two ports, two poles, and dc bias circuits at the zero-field points. SrTiO sub 3 ferroelectric capacitors successfully controlled the resonant frequency of the resonator. Resonant frequencies of 3.98 GHz and 4.20 GHz were measured at bias voltages of 0 V and 50 V which correspond to capacitance values of 0.94 pF and 0.7pF, respectively. The values of the loss tangent, tan delta sub e sub f sub f , obtained in this measurements, were about 0.01.

  19. A one-dimensional model of resonances with a delta barrier and mass jump

    In this Letter, we present a one-dimensional model that includes a hard core at the origin, a Dirac delta barrier at a point in the positive semiaxis and a mass jump at the same point. We study the effect of this mass jump in the behavior of the resonances of the model. We obtain an infinite number of resonances for this situation, showing that for the case of a mass jump the imaginary part of the resonance poles tend to a fixed value depending on the quotient of masses, and demonstrate that none of these resonances is degenerated.

  20. Creating a zero-order resonator using an optical surface transformation

    Sun, F; He, S

    2015-01-01

    A novel zero-order resonator has been designed by an optical surface transformation (OST) method. The resonator proposed here has many novel features. Firstly, the mode volume can be very small (e.g. in the subwavelength scale). Secondly, the resonator is open (no reflecting walls are utilized) and resonant effects can be found in a continuous spectrum (i.e. a continuum of eigenmodes). Thirdly, we only need one homogenous medium to realize the proposed resonator. The shape of the resonator can be a ring structure of arbitrary shape. In addition to the natural applications (e.g. optical storage) of an optical resonator, we also suggest some other applications of our novel optical open resonator (e.g. power combination, squeezing electromagnetic energy in the free space).

  1. Fano resonance in a normal metal/ferromagnet-quantum dot-superconductor device

    Li, Lin; Cao, Zhan; Luo, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Chen, Wei-Qiang

    2015-11-01

    We investigate theoretically the Andreev transport through a quantum dot strongly coupled with a normal metal/ferromagnet and a superconductor (N/F-QD-S), in which the interplay between the Kondo resonance and the Andreev bound states (ABSs) has not been clearly clarified yet. Here we show that the interference between the Kondo resonance and the ABSs modifies seriously the line shape of the Kondo resonance, which manifests as a Fano resonance. The ferromagnetic lead with spin polarization induces an effective field, which leads to splitting of both the Kondo resonance and the ABSs. The spin polarization together with the magnetic field applied provides an alternative way to tune the line shape of the Kondo resonances, which is dependent of the relative positions of the Kondo resonance and the ABSs. These results indicate that the interplay between the Kondo resonance and the ABSs can significantly affect the Andreev transport, which could be tested by experiments.

  2. Observation of a New Magnetic Response in 3-Dimensional Split Ring Resonators under Normal Incidence

    Chiam, S. Y.; Bettiol, A. A.; Bahou, M.; Han, J; Moser, H. O.; Watt, F

    2008-01-01

    So far, research in the field of metamaterials has been carried out largely with arrays of flat, 2-dimensional structures. Here, we report a newly identified magnetic resonance in Split Cylinder Resonators (SCRs), a 3-dimensional version of the Split Ring Resonator (SRR), which were fabricated with the Proton Beam Writing technique. Experimental and numerical results indicate a hitherto unobserved 3-dimensional resonance mode under normal incidence at about 26 THz, when the SCR depth is appro...

  3. Preparation and Detection of a Mechanical Resonator Near the Ground State of Motion

    Rocheleau, T; Macklin, C; Hertzberg, J B; Clerk, A A; Schwab, K C

    2009-01-01

    We have cooled the motion of a radio-frequency nanomechanical resonator by parametric coupling to a driven microwave frequency superconducting resonator. Starting from a thermal occupation of 480 quanta, we have observed occupation factors as low as 3.8$\\pm$1.2 and expect the mechanical resonator to be found with probability 0.21 in the quantum ground state of motion. Cooling is limited by random excitation of the microwave resonator and heating of the dissipative mechanical bath.

  4. A Generalized Approach for the Steady-State Analysis of Dual-Bridge Resonant Converters

    Gao-Yuan Hu; Xiaodong Li; Bo-Yue Luan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a dual-bridge DC/DC resonant converter with a generalized series and parallel resonant tank is analyzed. A general approach based on Fundamental Harmonic Approximation is used to find the universal steady-state solutions. The analysis results for particular resonant tank configurations are exemplified with several typical resonant tank configurations respectively. The corresponded soft-switching conditions are discussed too. To illustrate the usefulness of the generalized appro...

  5. Engineering a resonant nanocoating for an optical refractive index sensor

    Bialiayeu, A.; Ianoul, A.; Albert, J.

    2014-03-01

    We proposing to boost the performance of refractive index sensors based on the tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) structure by resonant coupling of small spherical nanoparticles to the TFBG resonances. The optimal choice of nanoparticle parameters is discussed.

  6. Squeezing of Quantum Noise of Motion in a Micromechanical Resonator.

    Pirkkalainen, J-M; Damskägg, E; Brandt, M; Massel, F; Sillanpää, M A

    2015-12-11

    A pair of conjugate observables, such as the quadrature amplitudes of harmonic motion, have fundamental fluctuations that are bound by the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. However, in a squeezed quantum state, fluctuations of a quantity can be reduced below the standard quantum limit, at the cost of increased fluctuations of the conjugate variable. Here we prepare a nearly macroscopic moving body, realized as a micromechanical resonator, in a squeezed quantum state. We obtain squeezing of one quadrature amplitude 1.1±0.4  dB below the standard quantum limit, thus achieving a long-standing goal of obtaining motional squeezing in a macroscopic object. PMID:26705631

  7. All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator

    Xiong, Meng; Lei, Lei; Ding, Yunhong;

    2013-01-01

    An all-optical AND logic gate in a single silicon microring resonator is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s with 50% RZ-OOK signals. By setting the wavelengths of two intensity-modulated input pumps on the resonances of the microring resonator, field-enhanced four-wave mixing with a total input...

  8. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Andrade, Marco A. B., E-mail: marcobrizzotti@gmail.com [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Pérez, Nicolás [Centro Universitario de Paysandú, Universidad de la República, Ruta 3 km 363, 60000 Paysandú (Uruguay); Adamowski, Julio C. [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems Engineering, Escola Politécnica, University of São Paulo, Av. Mello Moraes, 2231, 05508-030 São Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-01-05

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  9. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    Andrade, Marco A. B.; Pérez, Nicolás; Adamowski, Julio C.

    2015-01-01

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position.

  10. Particle manipulation by a non-resonant acoustic levitator

    We present the analysis of a non-resonant acoustic levitator, formed by an ultrasonic transducer and a concave reflector. In contrast to traditional levitators, the geometry presented herein does not require the separation distance between the transducer and the reflector to be a multiple of half wavelength. The levitator behavior is numerically predicted by applying a numerical model to calculate the acoustic pressure distribution and the Gor'kov theory to obtain the potential of the acoustic radiation force that acts on a levitated particle. We also demonstrate that levitating particles can be manipulated by controlling the reflector position while maintaining the transducer in a fixed position

  11. Resonant propulsion of a microparticle by a surface wave

    Maslov, A. V.; Astratov, V. N.; Bakunov, M. I.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic force experienced by a microparticle supporting high-quality whispering gallery modes that are excited by a surface wave. Our theoretical approach is based on an analytical representation of the solution of the scattering problem with a subsequent numerical treatment. It accounts rigorously for the interaction of the microparticle with the waveguiding surface and allows us to establish the balances of electromagnetic power and momentum flow for the system. We show that the resonant excitation of the whispering gallery modes and suppression of the transmitted surface wave lead to an almost complete transformation of the momentum flow of the initial surface wave into the propelling force on the microparticle. The validation of the momentum balance justifies the definition of the momentum flow of the surface wave as the ratio of carried power and phase velocity. A simple approximate relation between the propelling force and the power of the transmitted surface wave is also introduced. The transverse force can be either attractive or repulsive depending on the particle-to-surface distance, particle size, and operating frequencies, and it can significantly exceed the value of the propelling force. A comparison with a microparticle excited by a plane wave is also included.

  12. Linewidth broadening and emission saturation of a resonantly excited quantum dot monitored via an off-resonant cavity mode

    Ulhaq, A.; Ates, Serkan; Weiler, S.; Ulrich, S.M.; Reitzenstein, S.; Löffler, A.; Höfling, S.; Worschech, L.; Forchel, A.; Michler, P.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the robustness of a detuned mode channel for reading out the relevant s-shell properties of a resonantly excited coupled quantum dot (QD) in a pillar microcavity. The line broadening of the QD s-shell is “monitored” by the mode signal with high conformity to the directly measured QD ...

  13. Electron Transport Through a Quantum Wire with a Side-Coupled Quantum Dot:Fano Resonance

    熊永建; 贺舟波

    2004-01-01

    The Fano resonance of a quantum wire (QW) with a side-coupled quantum dot (QD) is investigated. The QD has multilevel and is in the Coulomb blockade regime. We show that there are two aspects in contribution to asymmetric Fano dip line shape of conductance: (1) the quantum interference between the resonant level and non-resonant levels, (2) the asymmetric electron occupation of levels in the two sides of a resonant level in the QD. The smearing of the asymmetry of the dip structure with the increasing temperature is partially attributed to fluctuation of electron state in the QD.

  14. A circuit model for the hybrid resonance modes of paired SRR metamaterials.

    Poo, Yin; Wu, Rui-xin; Liu, Min; Wang, Ling

    2014-01-27

    To better understand the resonance modes caused by the interelement couplings in the building block of metamaterials, we propose a circuit model for the hybrid resonance modes of paired split ring resonators. The model identifies the electromagnetic coupling between the paired rings by electric and magnetic coupling networks and well explains the variation of hybrid resonance modes with respect to the distance and the twist angle between the rings. The predictions of our model are further proved by experiments. PMID:24515201

  15. Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography in a Pulsed Neutron Beam

    Dangendorf, V; Kersten, C; Jagutzki, O; Spillmann, U

    2003-01-01

    The feasibility of performing fast neutron resonance radiography at the PTB accelerator facility is studied. A neutron beam of a broad spectral distribution is produced by a pulsed 13 MeV deuterium beam hitting a thick Be target. The potential of 3 different neutron imaging detectors with time-of flight capability are investigated. The applied methods comprise wire chambers with hydrogenous converter layers and a fast plastic scintillator with different optical readout schemes. We present the neutron facility, the imaging methods employed and results obtained. in beam experiments where samples of carbon rods with various length and diameter were imaged to study resolution and sensitivity of the method.

  16. Resonance detection of dark matter axions using a DC SQUID

    Popov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    A method for detecting dark matter axions in which a dc SQUID serves as a detector is proposed. The SQUID is shown to be able to detect the magnetic field perturbations induced by its interaction with axions. The resonance signal appears as a current step in the SQUID current-voltage characteristic. The voltage of the step corresponds to the axion mass, while its height depends on the axion energy density in near-Earth space. The proposed method is aimed at detecting axions with masses m a ≲ 10-4 eV, which are of interest for both cosmology and particle physics.

  17. A Pancreatico-Pleural Fistula Diagnosed with Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography

    Alessandra Galluzzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatico-pleural fistula (PPF represents a rare complication of chronic pancreatitis, especially in patients with an alcohol abuse history. It results from the traumatic or inflammatory disruption of the main pancreatic duct or its side branches, leading to the formation of a fistulous tract between the pancreas and the pleural cavity through the esophageal or aortic hiatus of the diaphragm [1, 2]. We report a case of recurrent chronic alcohol-related pancreatitis evolving into a PPF in a young man who underwent magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP.

  18. Observation of a high-confinement regime in a tokamak plasma with ion cyclotron resonance heating

    Steinmetz, K.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Wagner, F.; Wesner, F.; Bäumler, J.; Becker, G.; Bosch, H. S.; Brambilla, M.; Braun, F.; Brocken, H.; Eberhagen, A.; Fritsch, R.; Fussmann, G.; Gehre, O.; Gernhardt, J.; v. Gierke, G.; Glock, E.; Gruber, O.; Haas, G.; Hofmann, J.; Hofmeister, F.; Izvozchikov, A.; Janeschitz, G.; Karger, F.; Keilhacker, M.; Klüber, O.; Kornherr, M.; Lackner, K.; Lisitano, G.; van Mark, E.; Mast, F.; Mayer, H. M.; McCormick, K.; Meisel, D.; Mertens, V.; Müller, E. R.; Murmann, H.; Niedermeyer, H.; Poschenrieder, W.; Puri, S.; Rapp, H.; Röhr, H.; Ryter, F.; Schmitter, K.-H.; Schneider, F.; Setzensack, C.; Siller, G.; Smeulders, P.; Söldner, F.; Speth, E.; Steuer, K.-H.; Vollmer, O.; Wedler, H.; Zasche, D.

    1987-01-01

    The H mode in ion cyclotron-resonance-heated plasmas has been investigated with and without additional neutral beam injection. Ion cyclotron-resonance heating can cause the transition into a high-confinement regime (H mode) in combination with beam heating. The H mode, however, has also been realized-for the first time-with ion cyclotron-resonance heating alone in the D (H)-hydrogen minority scheme at an absorbed rf power of 1.1 MW.

  19. Measurement of interaction energy near a Feshbach resonance in a 6Li Fermi gas

    Bourdel, T; Cubizolles, J.; Khaykovich, L.; Magalhaes, K. M. F.; Kokkelmans, S. J. J. M. F.; G. V. Shlyapnikov; Salomon, C

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the strongly interacting regime in an optically trapped $^6$Li Fermi mixture near a Feshbach resonance. The resonance is found at $800(40) $G in good agreement with theory. Anisotropic expansion of the gas is interpreted by collisional hydrodynamics. We observe an unexpected and large shift ($80 $G) between the resonance peak and both the maximum of atom loss and the change of sign of the interaction energy.

  20. Teaching the Concept of Resonance with the Help of a Classical Guitar

    Kasar, M. Kaan; Yurumezoglu, Kemal; Sengoren, Serap Kaya

    2012-12-01

    Resonance refers to the vibrations of larger amplitude that are produced under the effect of a harmonic driving force. Although resonance is an essential concept behind many events happening in nature, students usually have difficulty in learning and explaining the phenomenon. Various demonstrations are carried out in physics classes to clarify the concept of resonance.2-6

  1. Atomic force microscope characterization of a resonating nanocantilever

    Abadal, G.; Davis, Zachary James; Borrise, X.; Hansen, Ole; Boisen, Anja; Barniol, N.; Perez-Murano, F.; Serra, F.

    An atomic force microscope (AFM) is used as a nanometer-scale resolution tool for the characterization of the electromechanical behaviour of a resonant cantilever-based mass sensor. The cantilever is actuated electrostatically by applying DC and AC voltages from a driver electrode placed closely...... and of the oscillation amplitude on the frequency of the AC voltage is measured by this technique and the results are fitted by a simple non-linear electromechanical model. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. The diphoton resonance as a gravity mediator of dark matter

    Chengcheng Han; Hyun Min Lee; Myeonghun Park; Verónica Sanz

    2016-01-01

    We consider the possibility of interpreting the recently reported diphoton excess at 750 GeV as a spin-two massive particle (such as a Kaluza–Klein graviton in warped extra-dimensions) which serves as a mediator to Dark Matter via its gravitational couplings to the dark sector and to the Standard Model (SM). We model non-universal couplings of the resonance to gauge bosons in the SM and to Dark Matter as a function on their localization in the extra dimension. We find that scalar, fermion or ...

  3. Interpretation of the magnetic resonance imaging signal from a foam

    Foams are important in a variety of industries including food, petroleum and chemical processing. Recently several research groups have demonstrated the effectiveness of measuring vertical phase density in foams as a function of time by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The advantage of using MRI for studying the stability of such multiphase systems lies in the ability to uniquely determine the density as a function of position noninvasively. Data obtained from these experiments should prove to be a sensitive test of theoretical models of these systems. The objective of this communication is to describe difficulties associated with interpretation of the MRI signal from foams

  4. Resonant cavity operation of a virtual cathode oscillator

    Gigawatt level virtual cathode sources have been proposed for several applications. These include microwave weapons and drivers for high-energy particle accelerators. Both of these require a microwave source with very high power output that is controllable in frequency and phase. A conventional virtual cathode oscillator will not meet these requirements. The addition of a resonant cavity surrounding the oscillating virtual cathode either alone or pumped with a low-power injection signal, causing it to operate as an amplifier, could greatly influence the performance of this type of source making it more practical for accelerator and weapon applications. The progress on an experiment to test these concepts will be discussed

  5. A New Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    M Khalily; Kamarudin, M. R.; Mokayef, M.; Sh. Danesh; Ghahferokhi, S. E. A.

    2014-01-01

    A wideband and compact circularly polarized (CP) C-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is presented. The proposed C-shaped DR is excited by a simple stripe line connected to a coplanar waveguide (CPW) feeding line. The C-shaped DRA is circularly polarized with 19% axial ratio (AR) bandwidth. It is found that the CP bandwidth can be expanded by using a narrow short circuit strip. The final design achieves CP with 50% AR bandwidth. The proposed circularly polarized DRA (CPDRA) with good r...

  6. Racetrack resonator as a loss measurement platform for photonic components.

    Jones, Adam M; DeRose, Christopher T; Lentine, Anthony L; Starbuck, Andrew; Pomerene, Andrew T S; Norwood, Robert A

    2015-11-01

    This work represents the first complete analysis of the use of a racetrack resonator to measure the insertion loss of efficient, compact photonic components. Beginning with an in-depth analysis of potential error sources and a discussion of the calibration procedure, the technique is used to estimate the insertion loss of waveguide width tapers of varying geometry with a resulting 95% confidence interval of 0.007 dB. The work concludes with a performance comparison of the analyzed tapers with results presented for four taper profiles and three taper lengths. PMID:26561157

  7. STM-Induced Hydrogen Desorption via a Hole Resonance

    Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.; Sakurai, M.;

    1998-01-01

    We report STM-induced desorption of H from Si(100)-H(2 X 1) at negative sample bias. The desorption rate exhibits a power-law dependence on current and a maximum desorption rate at -7 V. The desorption is explained by vibrational heating of H due to inelastic scattering of tunneling holes with the...... Si-H 5 sigma hole resonance. The dependence of desorption rate on current and bias is analyzed using a novel approach for calculating inelastic scattering, which includes the effect of the electric field between tip and sample. We show that the maximum desorption rate at -7 V is due to a maximum...

  8. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator.

    Cohen, Justin D; Meenehan, Seán M; MacCabe, Gregory S; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Painter, Oskar

    2015-04-23

    In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 ± 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements. PMID:25903632

  9. Phonon counting and intensity interferometry of a nanomechanical resonator

    Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Seán M.; Maccabe, Gregory S.; Gröblacher, Simon; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Painter, Oskar

    2015-04-01

    In optics, the ability to measure individual quanta of light (photons) enables a great many applications, ranging from dynamic imaging within living organisms to secure quantum communication. Pioneering photon counting experiments, such as the intensity interferometry performed by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure the angular width of visible stars, have played a critical role in our understanding of the full quantum nature of light. As with matter at the atomic scale, the laws of quantum mechanics also govern the properties of macroscopic mechanical objects, providing fundamental quantum limits to the sensitivity of mechanical sensors and transducers. Current research in cavity optomechanics seeks to use light to explore the quantum properties of mechanical systems ranging in size from kilogram-mass mirrors to nanoscale membranes, as well as to develop technologies for precision sensing and quantum information processing. Here we use an optical probe and single-photon detection to study the acoustic emission and absorption processes in a silicon nanomechanical resonator, and perform a measurement similar to that used by Hanbury Brown and Twiss to measure correlations in the emitted phonons as the resonator undergoes a parametric instability formally equivalent to that of a laser. Owing to the cavity-enhanced coupling of light with mechanical motion, this effective phonon counting technique has a noise equivalent phonon sensitivity of 0.89 +/- 0.05. With straightforward improvements to this method, a variety of quantum state engineering tasks using mesoscopic mechanical resonators would be enabled, including the generation and heralding of single-phonon Fock states and the quantum entanglement of remote mechanical elements.

  10. Complications after liver transplantation: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a single session

    To evaluate a comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol as noninvasive diagnostic modality for simultaneous detection of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications after liver transplantation. Fifty-two liver transplant recipients suspected to have parenchymal, biliary, and (or) vascular complications underwent our MRI protocol at 1.5T unit using a phased array coil. After preliminary acquisition of axial T1w and T2w sequences, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed through a breath-hold, thin- and thick-slab, single-shot T2w sequence in the coronal plane. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) was obtained using a 3-dimensional coronal spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which enabled acquisition of 32 partitions 2.0 mm thick. A fixed dose of 20 ml gadobenate dimeglumine was administered at 2 mL/s. A post-contrast T1w sequence was also performed. Two observers in conference reviewed source images and 3-dimensional reconstructions to determine the presence of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications. MRI findings were correlated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), biopsy, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and imaging follow-up. MRI revealed abnormal findings in 32 out of 52 patients (61%), including biliary complications (anastomotic and nonanastomotic strictures, and lithiasis) in 31, vascular disease (hepatic artery stenosis and thrombosis) in 9, and evidence of hepatic abscess and hematoma in 2. ERC confirmed findings of MRC in 30 cases, but suggested disease underestimation in 2. DSA confirmed 7 magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) findings, but suggested disease overestimation in 2. MRI combined with MRC and CEMRA can provide a comprehensive assessment of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications in most recipients of liver transplantation. (author)

  11. Complications after liver transplantation: evaluation with magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance cholangiography, and 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography in a single session

    Boraschi, P.; Donati, F.; Gigoni, R. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: p.boraschi@do.med.unipi.it; Salemi, S. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Urbani, L.; Filipponi, F. [Univ. of Pisa, Liver Transplant Unit of the Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Falaschi, F. [Pisa Univ. Hospital, Second Dept. of Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Bartolozzi, C. [Univ. of Pisa, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    To evaluate a comprehensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol as noninvasive diagnostic modality for simultaneous detection of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications after liver transplantation. Fifty-two liver transplant recipients suspected to have parenchymal, biliary, and (or) vascular complications underwent our MRI protocol at 1.5T unit using a phased array coil. After preliminary acquisition of axial T{sub 1}w and T{sub 2}w sequences, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed through a breath-hold, thin- and thick-slab, single-shot T{sub 2}w sequence in the coronal plane. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CEMRA) was obtained using a 3-dimensional coronal spoiled gradient-echo sequence, which enabled acquisition of 32 partitions 2.0 mm thick. A fixed dose of 20 ml gadobenate dimeglumine was administered at 2 mL/s. A post-contrast T{sub 1}w sequence was also performed. Two observers in conference reviewed source images and 3-dimensional reconstructions to determine the presence of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications. MRI findings were correlated with surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), biopsy, digital subtraction angiography (DSA), and imaging follow-up. MRI revealed abnormal findings in 32 out of 52 patients (61%), including biliary complications (anastomotic and nonanastomotic strictures, and lithiasis) in 31, vascular disease (hepatic artery stenosis and thrombosis) in 9, and evidence of hepatic abscess and hematoma in 2. ERC confirmed findings of MRC in 30 cases, but suggested disease underestimation in 2. DSA confirmed 7 magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA) findings, but suggested disease overestimation in 2. MRI combined with MRC and CEMRA can provide a comprehensive assessment of parenchymal, biliary, and vascular complications in most recipients of liver transplantation. (author)

  12. Stochastic resonance in a periodically modulated dissipative nuclear dynamics

    A fission decay of highly excited periodically driven compound nuclei is considered in the framework of Langevin approach. The authors have used residual-time distribution (RTD) as the tool for studying of dynamic features in a presence of periodic perturbation. The structure of RTD essentially depends on the relation between Kramers decay rate and the frequency ω of the periodic perturbation. In particular, intensity of the first peak in RTD has a sharp maximum at certain nuclear temperature depending on ω. This maximum should be considered as first-hand manifestation of stochastic resonance in nuclear dynamics

  13. Resonant Modes in a 1.6 Cells RF Gun

    Ferrario, Massimo; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2007-09-01

    The SPARC photoinjector RF gun consists in the BNL/SLAC/UCLA 1.6 cell structure designed to resonate at 2856 MHz in the π mode. It will be demonstrated by a numerical modelization based on SUPERFISH code combined with the LC-circuit analysis that the two oscillating modes of the system usually indicated as 0-mode and π-mode (the operating mode) are in reality a π/3-mode-like and a π-mode-like. The consequences on the definition of the coupling coefficient and on the use of mode-separation based RF measurements are described.

  14. Resonances and Aerodynamic Damping of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

    Ottermo, Fredric; Bernhoff, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of a straight-bladed vertical axis wind turbine is investigated with respect to oscillations due to the elasticity of struts and shaft connecting to the hub. In particular, for the three-bladed turbine, a concept is proposed for dimensioning the turbine to maximize the size of the resonance free rpm range for operation. The effect of aerodynamic damping on the struts is also considered. The damping of these types of oscillations for a typical turbine is found to be good.

  15. Resonant Transmission Through Two Impurities in a Narrow Quantum Wire

    宋小龙; 赵志云; 汪源; 施耀铭

    2003-01-01

    We study electron transmission through two impurities in a narrow quantum wire by solving Dyson's equations for single electron Green functions. We have verified that, for the delta-function potential of two impurities, the Green function can be factorized into a product of the ‘free' Green function and current transmission amplitude. Meanwhile Green function and current transmission amplitude obey Fisher-Lee's relation. An analytical expression of the electron transmission amplitude for intrasubband and intersubband is obtained as a function of Fermi energy and the distance between two impurities. The resonant behavior of the current transmission amplitude are detail discussed.

  16. A Quarter Ellipse Microstrip Resonator for Filters in Microwave Frequencies

    Samuel Á. Jaramillo-Flórez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the results of computational simulations and construction of quadrant elliptical resonators excited by coplanar slot line waveguide for designing microwave filters in RF communications systems. By means of the equation of optics, are explained the fundamentals of these geometry of resonators proposed. Are described the construction of quadrant elliptical resonators, one of microstrip and other two of cavity, of size different, and an array of four quadrant elliptical resonators in cascade. The results of the measures and the computational calculus of scattering S11 and S21 of elliptical resonators is made for to identify the resonant frequencies of the resonators studied, proving that these have performance in frequency as complete ellipses by the image effect due to their two mirror in both semiaxis, occupying less area, and the possible applications are discussed.

  17. Resonant optical propulsion of a particle inside a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber.

    Maslov, A V

    2016-07-01

    Resonant propulsion of small nonresonant particles inside metal waveguides due to the formation of resonant states by the guided modes below their cutoffs has been predicted in the past. Here it is shown that stable resonant propulsion exists in hollow-core photonic crystal fibers, which are all-dielectric structures and are a major platform for various photonic applications. Specific features of the resonant propulsion are discussed together with the fiber design issues. The results may enable power-efficient transport of particles over long distances, particle sorting, and sensitive detection. PMID:27367102

  18. Measurement of a high electrical quality factor in a niobium resonator for a gravitational radiation detector

    Folkner, W. M.; Moody, M. V.; Richard, J.-P.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanical and electrical quality factors of a 10-g niobium resonator were measured at 4.4 K and were found to be 8.1 x 10 to the 6th, and 3.8 x 10 to the 6th, respectively. The value for the electrical quality factor is high enough for a system operating at 50 mK at a sensitivity level of one phonon. The resonator's low damping properties make it suitable for use as a transducer for a cryogenic three-mode gravitational radiation detector. A practical design is given for the mounting of the resonator on a 2400-kg aluminum-bar detector. Projections are made for the sensitivity of a 2400-kg bar instrumented as a three-mode system with this resonator inductively coupled to a SQUID.

  19. Baryon resonances without quarks: A chiral soliton perspective

    Karliner, M.

    1987-03-01

    In many processes involving low momentum transfer it is fruitful to regard the nucleon as a soliton or ''monopole-like'' configuration of the pion field. In particular, within this framework it is possible to obtain detailed predictions for pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes and for properties of baryon resonances. One can also derive model-independent linear relations between scattering amplitudes, such as ..pi..N and anti KN. A short survey of some recent results is given, including comparison with experimental data.

  20. The WIMS characteristics method in a subgroup resonance treatment

    A brief overview is given of the subgroup resonance capture as implemented in the WIMS code. Recent developments to the general geometry characteristics solution module in WIMS, known as CACTUS, may be used in combination with WIMS, subgroup modules to derive broad group shielded cross sections for almost any geometry in two dimension. This application is described, together with some sensitivity studies for simple pin cell case, and also an example of its use for a more complex geometry. (author). 9 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Two-band combined model of a resonant tunneling diode

    A two-band combined model of a resonant tunneling diode, based on the semiclassical and quantum mechanical (the wave function formalism) approaches is proposed. The main specific feature of this model is the possibility of taking into account the interaction between different classical or quantum mechanical device regions with simultaneous consideration of the Γ-X intervalley scattering. It is shown that this model gives satisfactory agreement with the experimental data on the current-voltage characteristics and allows explanation of the plateau region in these characteristics within the stationary model

  2. Predicting vibration-induced displacement for a resonant friction slider

    Fidlin, A.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2001-01-01

    A mathematical model is set up to quantify vibration-induced motions of a slider, sandwiched between friction layers with different coefficients of friction, and equipped with an imbedded resonator that oscillates at high frequency and small amplitude. This model is highly nonlinear, involving non......-smooth functions with strong harmonic excitation terms. The method of averaging is extended to hold for systems of this class, and used to derive approximate expressions for predicting average velocities of the slider. These expressions are shown to produce results that agree very well with numerical integration...... of the full equations of motion. The expressions are used to estimate and explain the influence of system parameters....

  3. Stellar dynamics around a massive black hole - II. Resonant relaxation

    Sridhar, S.; Touma, Jihad R.

    2016-06-01

    We present a first-principles theory of resonant relaxation (RR) of a low-mass stellar system orbiting a more massive black hole (MBH). We first extend the kinetic theory of Gilbert to include the Keplerian field of a black hole of mass M•. Specializing to a Keplerian stellar system of mass M ≪ M•, we use the orbit-averaging method of Sridhar & Touma to derive a kinetic equation for RR. This describes the collisional evolution of a system of N ≫ 1 Gaussian rings in a reduced 5-dim space, under the combined actions of self-gravity, 1 post-Newtonian (PN) and 1.5 PN relativistic effects of the MBH and an arbitrary external potential. In general geometries, RR is driven by both apsidal and nodal resonances, so the distinction between scalar RR and vector RR disappears. The system passes through a sequence of quasi-steady secular collisionless equilibria, driven by irreversible two-ring correlations that accrue through gravitational interactions, both direct and collective. This correlation function is related to a `wake function', which is the linear response of the system to the perturbation of a chosen ring. The wake function is easier to appreciate, and satisfies a simpler equation, than the correlation function. We discuss general implications for the interplay of secular dynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics in the evolution of Keplerian stellar systems towards secular thermodynamic equilibria, and set the stage for applications to the RR of axisymmetric discs in Paper III.

  4. Optical-Fiber-Illuminated Response of a Superconducting Microwave Resonator Below 1 K

    Voigt, Kristen; Hertzberg, J. B.; Dutta, S. K.; Hoffman, J. E.; Grover, J. A.; Lee, J.; Solano, P.; Budoyo, R. P.; Ballard, C.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Rolston, S. L.; Wellstood, F. C.

    As a step towards building a hybrid quantum system that couples superconducting elements to neutral atoms trapped on a tapered optical nanofiber, we have studied how the presence of the fiber dielectric and light scattered from a fiber affect the response of a translatable thin-film lumped-element superconducting Al microwave resonator that is cooled to 15 mK. The resonator has a resonance frequency of about 6 GHz, a quality factor Q 2 x 105, and is mounted inside a 3D Al superconducting cavity. An optical fiber is tapered to a 60 um diameter and passes through two small holes in the 3D cavity such that it sits near the resonator. The 3D cavity is mounted on an x-z piezo-translation stage that allows us to change the relative position of the thin-film resonator and fiber. When the resonator is brought closer to the fiber, the resonance frequency decreases slightly due to the presence of the fiber dielectric. When 200 uW of 780 nm light is sent through the fiber, about 100 pW/mm is Rayleigh-scattered from the fiber. This causes a position-dependent illumination of the resonator, affecting its resonance frequency and Q. We compare our results to a model of the resonator response that includes the generation, diffusion, and recombination of quasiparticles in the resonator and find that the frequency response allows us to track the position of the fiber to within 10 um.

  5. Evanescent wave decomposition in a novel resonator comprising unmagnetized and magnetized plasma layers

    A 4 × 4 transfer matrix method has been applied to study the decomposition of any elliptically polarized wave in a magnetized resonator. When the incident elliptically polarized wave passes through the structure, it is orthogonally decomposed into two circular polarizations at two resonance frequencies. Without changing the structure of the resonator, the positions of the resonant frequencies of the right- and left-handed circularly polarized waves can be modulated by changing the external magnetized field. The results show that the proposed magnetized structure can be used to design a novel resonator, which can be applied in the decomposition of polarized electromagnetic waves.

  6. High-Q lithium niobate microdisk resonators on a chip for efficient electro-optic modulation.

    Wang, Jie; Bo, Fang; Wan, Shuai; Li, Wuxia; Gao, Feng; Li, Junjie; Zhang, Guoquan; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-09-01

    Lithium niobate (LN) microdisk resonators on a LN-silica-LN chip were fabricated using only conventional semiconductor fabrication processes. The quality factor of the LN resonator with a 39.6-μm radius and a 0.5-μm thickness is up to 1.19 × 10(6), which doubles the record of the quality factor 4.84 × 10(5) of LN resonators produced by microfabrication methods allowing batch production. Electro-optic modulation with an effective resonance-frequency tuning rate of 3.0 GHz/V was demonstrated in the fabricated LN microdisk resonator. PMID:26368411

  7. Non-blinking quantum dot with a plasmonic nanoshell resonator.

    Ji, Botao; Giovanelli, Emerson; Habert, Benjamin; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Nasilowski, Michel; Xu, Xiangzhen; Lequeux, Nicolas; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Marquier, Francois; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Dubertret, Benoit

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots are fluorescent nanocrystals exhibiting exceptional optical properties, but their emission intensity strongly depends on their charging state and local environment. This leads to blinking at the single-particle level or even complete fluorescence quenching, and limits the applications of quantum dots as fluorescent particles. Here, we show that a single quantum dot encapsulated in a silica shell coated with a continuous gold nanoshell provides a system with a stable and Poissonian emission at room temperature that is preserved regardless of drastic changes in the local environment. This novel hybrid quantum dot/silica/gold structure behaves as a plasmonic resonator with a strong Purcell factor, in very good agreement with simulations. The gold nanoshell also acts as a shield that protects the quantum dot fluorescence and enhances its resistance to high-power photoexcitation or high-energy electron beams. This plasmonic fluorescent resonator opens the way to a new family of plasmonic nanoemitters with robust optical properties. PMID:25581887

  8. Fano resonance control in a photonic crystal structure and its application to ultrafast switching

    Yu, Yi; Hu, Hao; Xue, Weiqi; Peucheret, Christophe; Chen, Yaohui; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Yvind, Kresten; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Fano resonances appear in quantum mechanical as well as classical systems as a result of the interference between two paths: one involving a discrete resonance and the other a continuum. Compared to a conventional resonance, characterized by a Lorentzian spectral response, the characteristic asymmetric and sharp spectral response of a Fano resonance is suggested to enable photonic switches and sensors with superior characteristics. While experimental demonstrations of the appearance of Fano resonances have been made in both plasmonic and photonic-crystal structures, the control of these resonances is experimentally challenging, often involving the coupling of near-resonant cavities. Here, we experimentally demonstrate two simple structures that allow surprisingly robust control of the Fano spectrum. One structure relies on controlling the amplitude of one of the paths and the other uses symmetry breaking. Short-pulse dynamic measurements show that besides drastically increasing the switching contrast, the tra...

  9. Resonant Landau–Zener transitions in a helical magnetic field

    Spin-dependent electron transport has been studied in magnetic semiconductor waveguides (nanowires) in the helical magnetic field. We have shown that—apart from the well-known conductance dip located at the magnetic field equal to the helical-field amplitude Bh—the additional conductance dips (with zero conductance) appear at a magnetic field different from Bh. This effect occurring in the non-adiabatic regime is explained as resulting from the resonant Landau–Zener transitions between the spin-split subbands. (paper)

  10. Is there a giant monopole resonance in 12C

    Arguments that the 0+ (Esub(x)=20.3 MeV) state recently found in 12C can be interpreted as a giant resonance are given. The calculations of differential cross sections of the 0+ state excitation in elastic and inelastic scattering of 3He, 4He and 6Li on 12C and compared with experimental data. Using transition densities calculated in the hyperspherical function method it is shown that in the framework of the collective model this single state exhausts the monopole energy weighted sum rules

  11. Micromechanical resonators as a tool for polymer characterization

    Bose, Sanjukta

    of different spray coating parameters was carried out with two polymer-solvent systems to obtain homogeneous films with uniform thickness and low roughness. Full factorial experimental design was employed to identify the most important parameter among the crucial parameters of spray coating such as nozzle......-substrate distance, the temperature of the substrate and the speed of the spraying nozzle. Micromechanical string resonators were successfully developed as an analytical tool for sensitive and fast thermal characterization of polymers with only a few nanograms of sample. Both the glass transition (Tg) and sub...

  12. A Small Signal Equivalent Circuit Model for Resonant Tunnelling Diode

    MA Long; HUANG Ying-Long; ZHANG Yang; WANG Liang-Chen; YANG Fu-Hua; ZENG Yi-Ping

    2006-01-01

    @@ We report a resonant tunnelling diode (RTD) small signal equiwlent circuit model consisting of quantum capacitance and quantum inductance. The model is verified through the actual InAs/In0.53Ga0.47As/AlAs RTD fabricated on an InP substrate. Model parameters are extracted by fitting the equivalent circuit model with ac measurement data in three different regions of RTD current-voltage (Ⅰ-Ⅴ) characteristics. The electron lifetime,representing the average time that the carriers remain in the quasibound states during the tunnelling process, is also calculated to be 2.09ps.

  13. Giant dipole resonance studies in A ∼ 150 mass region

    Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR), collective motion of neutrons against protons inside an excited nuclei, has been proven to be a unique tool to unravel the average shape of the vibrating, rotating excited nuclei. It has been observed experimentally that the width of GDR built on excited states is more than that built on ground state. Thermal Shape Fluctuation Model (TSFM) attributed the larger width to different shapes sampled by excited nuclei. To investigate the same system at lower T, the same reaction is studied with at Elab = 130 MeV. The preliminary result of the GDR measurement in the 28Si +124Sn reaction leading to 152Gd compound nuclei

  14. Position-Dependent Optical Response of a Superconducting Resonator at 15 mK

    Voigt, K. D.; Hertzberg, J. B.; Hoffman, J. E.; Grover, J. A.; Lee, J.; Solano, P.; Budoyo, R. P.; Ballard, C.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Orozco, L. A.; Rolston, S. L.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the optical and dielectric response of a translatable thin-film lumped-element superconducting Al microwave resonator cooled to 15 mK. The resonator has a resonance frequency of 6.14 GHz, a quality factor Q of 2.59 x 105and is mounted inside a superconducting aluminum 3D cavity. A tapered optical fiber enters and exits the 3D cavity through two small holes in opposite sides of the cavity, placed so that the fiber can pass close to the resonator. The 3D cavity is mounted on an x-z piezo-translation stage that allows us to change the relative position of the lumped-element resonator and fiber. When the resonator is brought near to the fiber, we observe a shift in resonance frequency due to the presence of the fiber dielectric. When light is sent through the fiber, Rayleigh scattering causes a position-dependent illumination of the resonator, generating quasiparticles and thereby affecting its resonance frequency and Q. Our model of the resonator response includes the generation, diffusion, and recombination of quasiparticles in the resonator and shows that the frequency response allows us to track the position of the fiber in situ. Work supported by NSF through the Physics Frontier Center at the Joint Quantum Institute, Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Maryland.

  15. Design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator

    Bobowski, J. S.; Nakahara, Hiroko

    2016-02-01

    The design and characterization of a novel toroidal split-ring resonator (SRR) are described in detail. In conventional cylindrical SRRs, there is a large magnetic flux within the bore of the resonator. However, there also exists a non-negligible magnetic flux in the free space surrounding the resonator. The energy losses associated with this radiated power diminish the resonator's quality factor. In the toroidal SRR, on the other hand, the magnetic field lines are strongly confined within the bore of the resonator resulting in high intrinsic quality factors and stable resonance frequencies without requiring additional electromagnetic shielding. This paper describes the design and construction of a toroidal SRR as well as an experimental investigation of its cw response in the frequency-domain and its time-domain response to a rf pulse. Additionally, the dependence of the toroidal SRR's resonant frequency and quality factor on the strength of inductive coupling to external circuits is investigated both theoretically and experimentally.

  16. Nonlinear resonances and antiresonances of a forced sonic vacuum

    Pozharskiy, D.; Zhang, Y.; Williams, M. O.; McFarland, D. M.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Vakakis, A. F.; Kevrekidis, I. G.

    2015-12-01

    We consider a harmonically driven acoustic medium in the form of a (finite length) highly nonlinear granular crystal with an amplitude- and frequency-dependent boundary drive. Despite the absence of a linear spectrum in the system, we identify resonant periodic propagation whereby the crystal responds at integer multiples of the drive period and observe that this can lead to local maxima of transmitted force at its fixed boundary. In addition, we identify and discuss minima of the transmitted force ("antiresonances") between these resonances. Representative one-parameter complex bifurcation diagrams involve period doublings and Neimark-Sacker bifurcations as well as multiple isolas (e.g., of period-3, -4, or -5 solutions entrained by the forcing). We combine them in a more detailed, two-parameter bifurcation diagram describing the stability of such responses to both frequency and amplitude variations of the drive. This picture supports a notion of a (purely) "nonlinear spectrum" in a system which allows no sound wave propagation (due to zero sound speed: the so-called sonic vacuum). We rationalize this behavior in terms of purely nonlinear building blocks: apparent traveling and standing nonlinear waves.

  17. Observation of a surface lattice resonance in a fractal arrangement of gold nanoparticles

    Chen, Ting Lee; Segerink, Frans B; Dikken, Dirk Jan; Herek, Jennifer L

    2015-01-01

    The collective response of closely spaced metal particles in non-periodic arrangements has the potential to provide a beneficial angular and frequency dependence in sensing applications. In this paper, we investigate the optical response of a Sierpinski fractal arrangement of gold nanoparticles and show that it supports a collective resonance similar to the surface lattice resonances that exist in periodic arrangements of plasmonic resonators. Using back focal plane microscopy, we observe the leakage of radiation out of a surface lattice resonance that is efficiently excited when the wavenumber of the incident light matches a strong Fourier component of the fractal structure. The efficient coupling between localized surface plasmons leads to a collective resonance and a Fano-like feature in the scattering spectrum. Our experimental observations are supported by numerical simulations based on the coupled-dipole approximation and finite-difference time-domain methods. This work presents a first step towards the...

  18. External laser locking using a pressure-tunable microbubble resonator

    Madugani, Ramgopal; Le, Vu H; Ward, Jonathan M; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    The tunability of an optical cavity is an essential requirement for many areas of research especially for the rapidly progressing field of photonics. In particular, low-cost laser tuning methods and miniaturization of the optical components are desirable. By applying aerostatic pressure to the interior surface of a microbubble resonator, optical mode shift rates of around $58$ GHz/MPa are achieved. The micobubble can measure pressure with a limit of detection of $2\\times 10^{-4}$ MPa. Here we use the Pound-Drever-Hall technique, whereby a laser is locked to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) of the microbubble resonator, to show that linear tuning of the WGM and the corresponding locked laser display almost zero hysteresis. The long-term frequency stability of this tuning method for different input pressures is measured. The frequency noise of the WGM, measured over 10 minutes, with a maximum input pressure of 0.5 MPa has a standard deviation of 36 MHz.

  19. Control of a Model of DNA Division via Parametric Resonance

    Koon, Wang Sang; Tao, Molei; Yanao, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    We study the internal resonance, energy transfer, activation mechanism, and control of a model of DNA division via parametric resonance. While the system is robust to noise, this study shows that it is sensitive to specific fine scale modes and frequencies that could be targeted by low intensity electro-magnetic fields for triggering and controlling the division. The DNA model is a chain of pendula in a Morse potential. While the (possibly parametrically excited) system has a large number of degrees of freedom and a large number of intrinsic time scales, global and slow variables can be identified by (i) first reducing its dynamic to two modes exchanging energy between each other and (ii) averaging the dynamic of the reduced system with respect to the phase of the fastest mode. Surprisingly the global and slow dynamic of the system remains Hamiltonian (despite the parametric excitation) and the study of its associated effective potential shows how parametric excitation can turn the unstable open state into a ...

  20. Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigens Using a Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Shin-Ichiro Nishimura

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA is an oncofoetal cell-surface glycoprotein that serves as an important tumor marker for colorectal and some other carcinomas. In this work, a CEA immunoassay using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR biosensor has been developed. SPR could provide label-free, real-time detection with high sensitivity, though its ability to detect CEA in human serum was highly dependent on the analytical conditions employed. We investigated the influences of various analytical conditions including immobilization methods for anti-CEA antibody and composition of sensor surface on the selective and sensitive detection of CEA. The results show that anti-CEA antibody immobilized via Protein A or Protein G caused a large increase in the resonance signal upon injection of human serum due to the interactions with IgGs in serum, while direct covalent immobilization of anti-CEA antibody could substantially reduce it. An optimized protocol based on further kinetic analysis and the use of 2nd and 3rd antibodies for the sandwich assay allowed detecting spiked CEA in human serum as low as 25 ng/mL. Furthermore, a self-assembled monolayer of mixed ethylene-glycol terminated alkanethiols on gold was found to have a comparable ability in detecting CEA as CM5 with thick dextran matrix and C1 with short flat layer on gold.

  1. Optomechanical THz detection with a sub-wavelength resonator

    Belacel, Cherif; Barbieri, Stefano; Gacemi, Djamal; Favero, Ivan; Sirtori, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The terahertz spectral domain offers a myriad of applications spanning chemical spectroscopy, medicine, security and imaging [1], it has also recently become a playground for fundamental studies of light-matter interactions [2-6]. Terahertz science and technology could benefit from optomechanical approaches, which harness the interaction of light with miniature mechanical resonators [7,8]. So far, optomechanics has mostly focused on the optical and microwave domains, leading to new types of quantum experiments [9-11] and to the development of optical-microwave converters [12-14]. Here we propose and validate the concept of terahertz optomechanics, by coupling far-infrared photons to the mechanical degrees of freedom of the flexible part of a sub-wavelength split-ring resonator [15]. The resulting mechanical signal is read-out optically, allowing our semiconductor/metal device to operate as a compact and efficient terahertz detector with a noise equivalent power of 8 nW/Hz^0.5 and a linear dynamics over five d...

  2. Electrical conductivity of Jupiter's shallow interior and the formation of a resonant of a resonant planetary-ionospheric cavity

    The present consideration of hydrogenic atmospheric reactions on Jupiter, to a depth of 4000 km, notes the primary ion constituents at these depths to be both positive and negative ions of molecular hydrogen contributing less than 20 percent to total electrical conductivity by free electrons. An electrical surface defined by the boundary beneath which the interior is electrically conducting exists at depths which vary according to EM wave frequency, from 1100 km for 1 mHz to 3000 for 1 MHz. The presence of a lower electrical boundary within the shallow interior suggests that a planetary-ionosphere resonant cavity analogous to the earth-ionosphere cavity may exist. 36 refs

  3. A piezoelectric cantilever with a Helmholtz resonator as a sound pressure sensor

    In this paper, a piezoelectric cantilever with a Helmholtz resonator (HR) is proposed as a sound pressure sensor that generates a sufficiently large output voltage at a specific frequency without a power supply to drive the sensing element. A Pb (Zr, Ti) O3 (PZT) cantilever with dimensions of 1500 µm × 1000 µm × 2 µm is designed so that its mechanical resonance frequency agrees with the target frequency. When sound pressure is applied at the target frequency, a large piezoelectric voltage can be obtained due to a high amplification ratio. Additionally, the PZT cantilever is combined with a HR whose resonant frequency is designed to be equal to that of the cantilever. This multiplication of two resonant vibration systems can generate detectable signals by sound pressures of several Pascals. The fabricated sensor generated a piezoelectric voltage of 13.4 mV Pa−1 at the resonant frequency of 2.6 kHz. Furthermore, the fabricated sensor performed as an electrical trigger switch when a sound pressure of 2 Pa was applied at the resonant frequency. (paper)

  4. A Controllability Approach for Resonant Compliant Systems: Applied to a Flapping Wing Micro Air Vehicle

    Peters, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies a controllability approach for general resonant compliant systems. These systems exploit resonance to obtain a specific dynamic response at relatively low actuation power. This type of systems is often lightweight, is scalable and minimizes frictional losses through the use of co

  5. A Map for a Group of Resonant Cases in a Quartic Galactic Hamiltonian

    N. D. Caranicolas

    2001-12-01

    We present a map for the study of resonant motion in a potential made up of two harmonic oscillators with quartic perturbing terms. This potential can be considered to describe motion in the central parts of non-rotating elliptical galaxies. The map is based on the averaged Hamiltonian. Adding on a semi-empirical basis suitable terms in the unperturbed averaged Hamiltonian, corresponding to the 1:1 resonant case, we are able to construct a map describing motion in several resonant cases. The map is used in order to find the - Poincare phase plane for each resonance. Comparing the results of the map, with those obtained by numerical integration of the equation of motion, we observe, that the map describes satisfactorily the broad features of orbits in all studied cases for regular motion. There are cases where the map describes satisfactorily the properties of the chaotic orbits as well.

  6. The preparation of a plasmonically resonant VO2 thermochromic pigment

    Bai, Huaping; Cortie, Michael B.; Maaroof, Abbas I.; Dowd, Annette; Kealley, Catherine; Smith, Geoffrey B.

    2009-02-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a reversible metal-insulator transition, normally at ~68 °C. While the properties of continuous semi-transparent coatings of VO2 are well known, there is far less information available concerning the potential use of discrete VO2 nanoparticles as a thermochromic pigment in opaque coatings. Individual VO2 nanoparticles undergo a localized plasmon resonance with near-infrared light at about 1100 nm and this resonance can be switched on and off by simply varying the temperature of the system. Therefore, incorporation of VO2 nanoparticles into a coating system imbues the coating with the ability to self-adaptively modulate its own absorptive efficiency in the near-infrared. Here we examine the magnitude and control of this phenomenon. Prototype coatings are described, made using VO2 powder produced by an improved process. The materials are characterized using calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and by measurement of optical properties.

  7. The preparation of a plasmonically resonant VO2 thermochromic pigment

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) undergoes a reversible metal-insulator transition, normally at ∼68 0C. While the properties of continuous semi-transparent coatings of VO2 are well known, there is far less information available concerning the potential use of discrete VO2 nanoparticles as a thermochromic pigment in opaque coatings. Individual VO2 nanoparticles undergo a localized plasmon resonance with near-infrared light at about 1100 nm and this resonance can be switched on and off by simply varying the temperature of the system. Therefore, incorporation of VO2 nanoparticles into a coating system imbues the coating with the ability to self-adaptively modulate its own absorptive efficiency in the near-infrared. Here we examine the magnitude and control of this phenomenon. Prototype coatings are described, made using VO2 powder produced by an improved process. The materials are characterized using calorimetry, x-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and by measurement of optical properties.

  8. A Refined Analysis on the $X(3872)$ Resonance

    Meng, Ce; Shi, Meng; Yao, De-Liang; Zheng, Han-Qing

    2014-01-01

    We study the property of the $X(3872)$ meson by analyzing the $B\\to K D\\bar D^*$ and $B\\to K J/\\psi \\pi^+\\pi^-$ decay processes. The competition between the rescattering mediated through a Breit-Wigner resonance and the rescattering generated from a local $D\\bar{D}^* \\to D\\bar{D}^*$ interaction is carefully studied through an effective lagrangian approach. Three different fits are performed: pure Breit-Wigner case, pure $D\\bar{D}^*$ molecule case with only local rescattering vertices (generated by the loop chain), and the mixed case. It is found that data supports the picture where X(3872) is mainly a ($\\bar cc$) Breit-Wigner resonance with a small contribution to the self-energy generated by $\\bar DD^*$ final state interaction. For our optimal fit, the pole mass and width are found to be: $M_X=3871.2\\pm0.7$MeV and $\\Gamma_X=6.5\\pm1.2$MeV.

  9. Bioceramic Resonance Effect on Meridian Channels: A Pilot Study

    Ting-Kai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioceramic is a kind of material which emits nonionizing radiation and luminescence, induced by visible light. Bioceramic also facilitates the breakup of large clusters of water molecules by weakening hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bond weakening, which allows water molecules to act in diverse ways under different conditions, is one of the key mechanisms underlying the effects of Bioceramic on biophysical and physical-chemical processes. Herein, we used sound to amplify the effect of Bioceramic and further developed an experimental device for use in humans. Thirteen patients who suffered from various chronic and acute illnesses that severely affected their sleep patterns and life quality were enrolled in a trial of Bioceramic resonance (i.e., rhythmic 100-dB sound waves with frequency set at 10 Hz applied to the skin surface of the anterior chest. According to preliminary data, a “Propagated Sensation along Meridians” (PSM was experienced in all Bioceramic resonance-treated patients but not in any of the nine control patients. The device was believed to enhance microcirculation through a series of biomolecular and physiological processes and to subject the specific meridian channels of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM to coherent vibration. This noninvasive technique may offer an alternative to needle acupuncture and other traditional medical practices with clinical benefits.

  10. Jet activity as a probe of diphoton resonance production

    Harland-Lang, L A; Ryskin, M G; Spannowsky, M

    2016-01-01

    We explore the method of using the measured jet activity associated with a high mass resonance state to determine the corresponding production modes. To demonstrate the potential of the approach, we concentrate on the scenario that the excess of diphoton events around 750 GeV observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations corresponds to a new scalar resonance. We perform a Monte Carlo study, and show that the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $gg$ and light and heavy $q\\overline{q}$ initiated cases lead to distinct predictions for the jet multiplicity distributions. We apply this result to the existing ATLAS data for the spin-0 selection, and demonstrate that a dominantly $gg$-initiated signal hypothesis is already mildly disfavoured, while the $\\gamma\\gamma$ and light quark cases give good descriptions within the limited statistics. We also comment on the $b\\overline{b}$ initial state, which can already be constrained by the measured $b$-jet multiplicity, and the $W$, $Z$ initial states, for which the diphoton transverse moment...

  11. A statistical model for combustion resonance from a DI diesel engine with applications

    Bodisco, Timothy; Low Choy, Samantha; Masri, Assaad; Brown, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Introduced in this paper is a Bayesian model for isolating the resonant frequency from combustion chamber resonance. The model shown in this paper focused on characterising the initial rise in the resonant frequency to investigate the rise of in-cylinder bulk temperature associated with combustion. By resolving the model parameters, it is possible to determine: the start of pre-mixed combustion, the start of diffusion combustion, the initial resonant frequency, the resonant frequency as a function of crank angle, the in-cylinder bulk temperature as a function of crank angle and the trapped mass as a function of crank angle. The Bayesian method allows for individual cycles to be examined without cycle-averaging-allowing inter-cycle variability studies. Results are shown for a turbo-charged, common-rail compression ignition engine run at 2000 rpm and full load.

  12. Observation of a shape resonance of the positronium negative ion.

    Michishio, Koji; Kanai, Tsuneto; Kuma, Susumu; Azuma, Toshiyuki; Wada, Ken; Mochizuki, Izumi; Hyodo, Toshio; Yagishita, Akira; Nagashima, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    When an electron binds to its anti-matter counterpart, the positron, it forms the exotic atom positronium (Ps). Ps can further bind to another electron to form the positronium negative ion, Ps(-) (e(-)e(+)e(-)). Since its constituents are solely point-like particles with the same mass, this system provides an excellent testing ground for the three-body problem in quantum mechanics. While theoretical works on its energy level and dynamics have been performed extensively, experimental investigations of its characteristics have been hampered by the weak ion yield and short annihilation lifetime. Here we report on the laser spectroscopy study of Ps(-), using a source of efficiently produced ions, generated from the bombardment of slow positrons onto a Na-coated W surface. A strong shape resonance of (1)P(o) symmetry has been observed near the Ps (n=2) formation threshold. The resonance energy and width measured are in good agreement with the result of three-body calculations. PMID:26983496

  13. A new resonance integral formula for the cylindrical absorber

    The Western approach to the problem of determining the expression for the effective resonance integral give its dependence on the S/M ratio, as Ieff =a + b (S/M). This is due to the use of Wigner's rational approximation for the escape probability function, of better said, only its part P0 ∼ λ√r. This approximation was made on the basis of the plausibility arguments of its limiting values. Besides the fact that the maximal error reaches 30%, this approximation does not take care of the shape of the absorber element. On the other hand the Russian model does not concern the shape of the absorber element either, and it gives Ieff = a' + b' √S/M. In the analytical evaluation of this expression we tried to use the real functional dependence of the escape probability function in cylindrical geometry. Beside the pure numerical approach to the problem given in /3/, the best method of evaluating the effective resonance integral is given in /1/. The disadvantage of this method is in calculating the 'surface' term function, which is the function of three independent variables, seven interpolations are necessary for its evaluation. This includes a large error, and it is very unsuitable. This has also been overcome by the proposed formula (author)

  14. Mie scattering as a cascade of Fano resonances.

    Rybin, Mikhail V; Samusev, Kirill B; Sinev, Ivan S; Semouchkin, George; Semouchkina, Elena; Kivshar, Yuri S; Limonov, Mikhail F

    2013-12-01

    We reveal that the resonant Mie scattering by high-index dielectric nanoparticles can be presented through cascades of Fano resonances. We employ the exact solution of Maxwell's equations and demonstrate that the Lorenz-Mie coefficients of the Mie problem can be expressed generically as infinite series of Fano functions as they describe interference between the background radiation originated from an incident wave and narrow-spectrum Mie scattering modes that lead to Fano resonances. PMID:24514559

  15. Nonlinear resonances

    Rajasekar, Shanmuganathan

    2016-01-01

    This introductory text presents the basic aspects and most important features of various types of resonances and anti-resonances in dynamical systems. In particular, for each resonance, it covers the theoretical concepts, illustrates them with case studies, and reviews the available information on mechanisms, characterization, numerical simulations, experimental realizations, possible quantum analogues, applications and significant advances made over the years. Resonances are one of the most fundamental phenomena exhibited by nonlinear systems and refer to specific realizations of maximum response of a system due to the ability of that system to store and transfer energy received from an external forcing source. Resonances are of particular importance in physical, engineering and biological systems - they can prove to be advantageous in many applications, while leading to instability and even disasters in others. The book is self-contained, providing the details of mathematical derivations and techniques invo...

  16. A personal computer-based nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer

    Job, Constantin; Pearson, Robert M.; Brown, Michael F.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using personal computer-based hardware has the potential of enabling the application of NMR methods to fields where conventional state of the art equipment is either impractical or too costly. With such a strategy for data acquisition and processing, disciplines including civil engineering, agriculture, geology, archaeology, and others have the possibility of utilizing magnetic resonance techniques within the laboratory or conducting applications directly in the field. Another aspect is the possibility of utilizing existing NMR magnets which may be in good condition but unused because of outdated or nonrepairable electronics. Moreover, NMR applications based on personal computer technology may open up teaching possibilities at the college or even secondary school level. The goal of developing such a personal computer (PC)-based NMR standard is facilitated by existing technologies including logic cell arrays, direct digital frequency synthesis, use of PC-based electrical engineering software tools to fabricate electronic circuits, and the use of permanent magnets based on neodymium-iron-boron alloy. Utilizing such an approach, we have been able to place essentially an entire NMR spectrometer console on two printed circuit boards, with the exception of the receiver and radio frequency power amplifier. Future upgrades to include the deuterium lock and the decoupler unit are readily envisioned. The continued development of such PC-based NMR spectrometers is expected to benefit from the fast growing, practical, and low cost personal computer market.

  17. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)

    ... Procedures Medical Imaging MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... 8 MB) Also available in Other Language versions . Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging procedure for making ...

  18. Performance optimization analysis of a thermoelectric refrigerator with two resonances

    Based on electron transport theory, the performance of kx and kr filtered thermoelectric refrigerators with two resonances are studied in this paper. The performance characteristic curves between the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance are plotted by numerical calculation. It is shown that the maximum cooling rate of the thermoelectric refrigerator with two resonances increases but the maximum coefficient of performance decreases compared with those with one resonance. No matter which resonance mechanism is used (kx or kr filtered), the cooling rate and the performance coefficient of the kr filtered refrigerator are much better than those of the kx filtered one. (general)

  19. Performance optimization analysis of a thermoelectric refrigerator with two resonances

    Luo Xiao-Guang; He Ji-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Based on electron transport theory, the performance of kx and kr filtered thermoelectric refrigerators with two resonances are studied in this paper. The performance characteristic curves between the cooling rate and the coefficient of performance are plotted by numerical calculation. It is shown that the maximum cooling rate of the thermoelectric refrigerator with two resonances increases but the maximum coefficient of performance decreases compared with those with one resonance. No matter which resonance mechanism is used (kx or kr filtered), the cooling rate and the performance coefficient of the kr filtered refrigerator are much better than those of the kx filtered one.

  20. Single-Photon Transistor Using a Förster Resonance

    Tiarks, Daniel; Baur, Simon; Schneider, Katharina; Duerr, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard

    2015-05-01

    An all-optical transistor is a device in which a gate light pulse switches the transmission of a target light pulse with a gain above unity. The gain quantifies the change of the transmitted target photon number per incoming gate photon. We study the quantum limit of one incoming gate photon and observe a gain of 20. The gate pulse is stored as a Rydberg excitation in an ultracold gas. The transmission of the subsequent target pulse is suppressed by Rydberg blockade which is enhanced by a Förster resonance. The detected target photons reveal in a single shot with a fidelity above 0.86 whether a Rydberg excitation was created during the gate pulse. The gain offers the possibility to distribute the transistor output to the inputs of many transistors, thus making complex computational tasks possible.

  1. Ovenized microelectromechanical system (MEMS) resonator

    Olsson, Roy H; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kim, Bongsang

    2014-03-11

    An ovenized micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) resonator including: a substantially thermally isolated mechanical resonator cavity; a mechanical oscillator coupled to the mechanical resonator cavity; and a heating element formed on the mechanical resonator cavity.

  2. Rapid Driven Reset of a Qubit Readout Resonator

    McClure, D. T.; Paik, Hanhee; Bishop, L. S.; Steffen, M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Gambetta, Jay M.

    2016-01-01

    Using a circuit QED device, we demonstrate a simple qubit-measurement pulse shape that yields fast ring-up and ring-down of the readout resonator regardless of the qubit state. The pulse differs from a square pulse only by the inclusion of additional constant-amplitude segments designed to effect a rapid transition from one steady-state population to another. Using a Ramsey experiment performed shortly after the measurement pulse to quantify the residual population, we find that compared to a square pulse followed by a delay, this pulse shape reduces the time scale for cavity ring-down by more than twice the cavity time constant. At low drive powers, this performance is achieved using pulse parameters calculated from a linear cavity model; at higher powers, empirical optimization of the pulse parameters leads to similar performance.

  3. Quantum Squeezing of Motion in a Mechanical Resonator

    Wollman, Emma E.

    Quantum mechanics places limits on the minimum energy of a harmonic oscillator via the ever-present "zero-point" fluctuations of the quantum ground state. Through squeezing, however, it is possible to decrease the noise of a single motional quadrature below the zero-point level as long as noise is added to the orthogonal quadrature. While squeezing below the quantum noise level was achieved decades ago with light, quantum squeezing of the motion of a mechanical resonator is a more difficult prospect due to the large thermal occupations of megahertz-frequency mechanical devices even at typical dilution refrigerator temperatures of ~ 10 mK. Kronwald, Marquardt, and Clerk (2013) propose a method of squeezing a single quadrature of mechanical motion below the level of its zero-point fluctuations, even when the mechanics starts out with a large thermal occupation. The scheme operates under the framework of cavity optomechanics, where an optical or microwave cavity is coupled to the mechanics in order to control and read out the mechanical state. In the proposal, two pump tones are applied to the cavity, each detuned from the cavity resonance by the mechanical frequency. The pump tones establish and couple the mechanics to a squeezed reservoir, producing arbitrarily-large, steady-state squeezing of the mechanical motion. In this dissertation, I describe two experiments related to the implementation of this proposal in an electromechanical system. I also expand on the theory presented in Kronwald et. al. to include the effects of squeezing in the presence of classical microwave noise, and without assumptions of perfect alignment of the pump frequencies. In the first experiment, we produce a squeezed thermal state using the method of Kronwald et. al. We perform back-action evading measurements of the mechanical squeezed state in order to probe the noise in both quadratures of the mechanics. Using this method, we detect single-quadrature fluctuations at the level of 1

  4. A Novel Triple-Mode Bandpass Filter Based on a Dual-Mode Defected Ground Structure Resonator and a Microstrip Resonator

    Xuehui Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel triple-mode bandpass filter (BPF using a dual-mode defected ground structure (DGS resonator and a microstrip resonator is proposed in this paper. The dual-mode characteristic is achieved by loading a defected T-shaped stub to a uniform impedance DGS resonator. A uniform impedance microstrip resonator is designed on the top layer of the DGS resonator and a compact bandpass filter with three resonant modes in the passband can be achieved. A coupling scheme for the structure is given and the coupling matrix is synthesized. Based on the structure, a triple-mode BPF with central frequency of 2.57 GHz and equal ripple bandwidth of 15% is designed for the Wireless Local Area Network. Three transmission zeros are achieved at 1.48 GHz, 2.17 GHz, and 4.18 GHz, respectively, which improve the stopband characteristics of the filter. The proposed filter is fabricated and measured. Good agreements between measured results and simulated results verify the proposed structure well.

  5. Coupled channel study of a sub 0 resonances

    Furman, A

    2002-01-01

    A coupled channel model of the a sub 0 (980) and a sub 0 (1450) resonances has been constructed using the separable pi eta and K(anti)K interactions. We have shown that two S-matrix poles corresponding to the a sub 0 (980) meson have significantly different widths in the complex energy plane. The K(anti)K to pi eta branching ratio, predicted in our model near the a sub 0 (1450) mass, is in agreement with the result of the Crystal Barrel Collaboration, The K(anti)K interaction in the S-wave isovector state is not sufficiently attractive to create a bound a sub 0 (980) meson.

  6. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed

  7. Magnetic resonance angiography

    MRA; Angiography - magnetic resonance ... Kwong RY. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine . ...

  8. Photonic measurement of microwave frequency using a silicon microdisk resonator

    Liu, Li; Jiang, Fan; Yan, Siqi; Min, Shucun; He, Mengying; Gao, Dingshan; Dong, Jianji

    2015-01-01

    A simple photonic approach to the measurement of microwave signal frequency with adjustable measurement range and resolution is proposed and demonstrated. In this approach, the unknown microwave signal is converted to an optical signal with single sideband modulation. Subsequently, a notch microwave photonic filter (MPF) is implemented by employing a high-Q silicon microdisk resonator (MDR). The MPF is tunable by changing the frequency interval between the optical carrier and the MDR notch so as to obtain different amplitude responses. A fixed frequency-to-power mapping is established by obtaining an amplitude comparison function (ACF) of the microwave power ratio and the microwave frequency. A proof-of-concept experiment demonstrates a frequency measurement range of 10 GHz, with measurement error of ±0.1 GHz. Different frequency measurement ranges and resolutions are also discussed.

  9. Cavum septum pellucidum in schizophrenia. A magnetic resonance imaging study

    In order to determine if cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) is more prevalent in schizophrenic patients, we studied 72 Japanese patients who fulfilled the DSM-III-R criteria for schizophrenia and 41 normal controls. Sagittal, 1 mm thick magnetic resonance imaging slices of the entire cranium were obtained using a gradient-echo pulse sequence, and coronal and axial images were reconstructed for assessment. A CSP was observed in 34 patients (47.2%) and in 16 controls (38.0%). Although the CSP appeared to be more prevalent in schizophrenic patients, this difference was not statistically significant. However, schizophrenic patients with a history of long-term institutionalization had a higher incidence of CSP compared with patients who had not been admitted to hospital for more than 3 years (68.2 vs 38.0%). These results suggest that the CSP may be a pathophysiology that characterizes schizophrenic patients with poor prognoses. (author)

  10. Coupled mode parametric resonance in a vibrating screen model

    Slepyan, Leonid I

    2013-01-01

    We consider a simple dynamic model of the vibrating screen operating in the parametric resonance (PR) mode. This model was used in the course of designing and setting of such a screen in LPMC. The PR-based screen compares favorably with conventional types of such machines, where the transverse oscillations are excited directly. It is characterized by larger values of the amplitude and by insensitivity to damping in a rather wide range. The model represents an initially strained system of two equal masses connected by a linearly elastic string. Self-equilibrated, longitudinal, harmonic forces act on the masses. Under certain conditions this results in transverse, finite-amplitude oscillations of the string. The problem is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations coupled by the geometric nonlinearity. Damping in both the transverse and longitudinal oscillations is taken into account. Free and forced oscillations of this mass-string system are examined analytically and numerically. The energy e...

  11. $\\Delta^{++}$ resonance measurements in a high multiplicity environment

    El Chenawi, Karim

    1999-01-01

    The very large multiplicity of charged particles encountered in lead on lead collisions in the WA98 experiment at the CERN SPS provided new experimental challenges. Tracking detectors read out with high granularity were developed to achieve accurate position information in two dimensions, with the aim of reconstructing tracks with a minimum of combinatorial difficulties. A tracking system based on multi-step avalanche chambers equipped with a new electronic readout system was developed and implemented in the experiment during 1996. The different aspects of the tracking system and its performance are described. The extraction of the $\\Delta\\sp{++}$ resonance from high statistics, high multiplicity samples of FRITIOF events has been studied in order to find a reliable method to reconstruct the number of produced $\\Delta\\sp{++}$. The first measurement on $\\Delta\\sp{++}$ production in 158 A GeV Pb$+$Pb collisions, using the high resolution tracking system in WA98 is presented.

  12. Resonant tunneling diode with a multiplication region for light detection

    Dong, Yu; Wang, Guanglong; Ni, Haiqiao; Chen, Jianhui; Gao, Fengqi; Qiao, Zhongtao; Niu, Zhichuan

    2014-11-01

    A resonant tunneling diode (RTD) with a multiplication region is designed for light detection in this paper. Via adding a n+-i-p+ multiplication region, we focus on promoting the photocurrent and light sensitivity of the detector. Through the calculation of the multiplication factor, the thickness of the multiplication region is determined. The influence factors of the electric field and potential distribution of the detector are investigated, thereby the thickness and doping concentration of the doped layers besides the double-barrier structure (DBS) are decided. Detectors with and without a multiplication region are fabricated from semiconductor heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The current-voltage (I-V) and light sensitivity tests show that the detector with a multiplication region has better performance in peak photocurrent and light sensitivity.

  13. Generation of Optical Combs in a WGM Resonator from a Bichromatic Pump

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.; Yu, Nan; Matsko, Andrey B.

    2010-01-01

    Optical combs generated by a monolithic resonator with Kerrmedium can be used in a number of applications, including orbital clocks and frequency standards of extremely high accuracy, such as astronomy, molecular spectroscopy, and the like. The main difficulty of this approach is the relatively high pump power that has to be used in such devices, causing undesired thermorefractive effects, as well as stimulated Raman scattering, and limiting the optical comb quality and utility. In order to overcome this problem, this innovation uses a different approach to excitation of the nonlinear oscillations in a Kerr-nonlinear whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator and generation of the optical comb. By coupling to the resonator two optical pump frequencies instead of just one, the efficiency of the comb source can be increased considerably. It therefore can operate in a lowerpower regime where the undesirable effects are not present. This process does not have a power threshold; therefore, the new optical component can easily be made strong enough to generate further components, making the optical comb spread in a cascade fashion. Additionally, the comb spacing can be made in an arbitrary number of the resonator free spectral ranges (FSR). The experimental setup for this innovation used a fluorite resonator with OMEGA= 13.56 GHz. This material has very low dispersion at the wavelength of 1.5 microns, so the resonator spectrum around this wavelength is highly equidistant. Light was coupled in and out of the resonator using two optical fibers polished at the optimal coupling angle. The gap between the resonator and the fibers, affecting the light coupling and the resonator loading, was controlled by piezo positioners. The light from the input fiber that did not go into the resonator reflected off of its rim, and was collected by a photodetector. This enabled observation and measurement of the (absorption) spectrum of the resonator. The input fiber combined light from two

  14. Microtesla magnetic resonance imaging with a superconducting quantum interference device

    McDermott, Robert; Lee, SeungKyun; ten Haken, Bennie; Trabesinger, Andreas H.; Pines, Alexander; Clarke, John

    2004-03-15

    We have constructed a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner based on a dc Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) configured as a second-derivative gradiometer. The magnetic field sensitivity of the detector is independent of frequency; it is therefore possible to obtain high-resolution images by prepolarizing the nuclear spins in a field of 300 mT and detecting the signal at 132 fYT, corresponding to a proton Larmor frequency of 5.6 kHz. The reduction in the measurement field by a factor of 10,000 compared with conventional scanners eliminates inhomogeneous broadening of the nuclear magnetic resonance lines, even in fields with relatively poor homogeneity. The narrow linewidths result in enhanced signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution for a fixed strength of the magnetic field gradients used to encode the image. We present two-dimensional images of phantoms and pepper slices, obtained in typical magnetic field gradients of 100 fYT/m, with a spatial resolution of about 1mm. We further demonstrate a slice-selected image of an intact pepper. By varying the time delay between removal of the polarizing field and initiation of the spin echo sequence we acquire T1-weighted contrast images of water phantoms, some of which are doped with a paramagnetic salt; here, T1 is the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time. The techniques presented here could readily be adapted to existing multichannel SQUID systems used for magnetic source imaging of brain signals. Further potential applications include low-cost systems for tumor screening and imaging peripheral regions of the body.

  15. A resonance ionization imaging detector based on cesium atomic vapor

    A novel Cs resonance ionization imaging detector (RIID) has been developed and evaluated. The detector is capable of two-dimensional imaging with high spectral resolution, which is determined by the Doppler broadened atomic linewidth of Cs at given temperature. Ionization schemes of Cs have been investigated using dye and color center tunable lasers pumped by an excimer laser and by a Nd:YAG laser. It has been experimentally shown that the most efficient ionization scheme for Cs RIID should include a three-step excitation/ionization ladder, for example, with transitions at λ1=852.11 (852.113) nm, λ2=917.22 (917.2197) nm, and λ3=1064 nm. The imaging capabilities of the detector have been evaluated using a simpler two-step ionization scheme with wavelengths λ1=852.11 nm and λ2=508 nm

  16. A resonance ionization imaging detector based on cesium atomic vapor

    Temirov, J. P.; Chigarev, N. V.; Matveev, O. I.; Omenetto, N.; Smith, B. W.; Winefordner, J. D.

    2004-05-01

    A novel Cs resonance ionization imaging detector (RIID) has been developed and evaluated. The detector is capable of two-dimensional imaging with high spectral resolution, which is determined by the Doppler broadened atomic linewidth of Cs at given temperature. Ionization schemes of Cs have been investigated using dye and color center tunable lasers pumped by an excimer laser and by a Nd:YAG laser. It has been experimentally shown that the most efficient ionization scheme for Cs RIID should include a three-step excitation/ionization ladder, for example, with transitions at λ1=852.11 (852.113) nm, λ2=917.22 (917.2197) nm, and λ3=1064 nm. The imaging capabilities of the detector have been evaluated using a simpler two-step ionization scheme with wavelengths λ1=852.11 nm and λ2=508 nm.

  17. Searching sequences of resonant orbits between a spacecraft and Jupiter

    This research shows a study of the dynamical behavior of a spacecraft that performs a series of close approaches with the planet Jupiter. The main idea is to find a sequence of resonant orbits that allows the spacecraft to stay in the region of the space near the orbit of Jupiter around the Sun gaining energy from each passage by the planet. The dynamical model considers the existence of only two massive bodies in the systems, which are the Sun and Jupiter. They are assumed to be in circular orbits around their center of mass. Analytical equations are used to obtain the values of the parameters required to get this sequence of close approaches. Those equations are useful, because they show which orbits are physically possible when taking into account that the periapsis distances have to be above the surface of the Sun and that the closest approach distances during the passage by Jupiter have to be above its surface

  18. A New Wideband Circularly Polarized Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    M. Khalily

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A wideband and compact circularly polarized (CP C-shaped dielectric resonator antenna (DRA is presented. The proposed C-shaped DR is excited by a simple stripe line connected to a coplanar waveguide (CPW feeding line. The C-shaped DRA is circularly polarized with 19% axial ratio (AR bandwidth. It is found that the CP bandwidth can be expanded by using a narrow short circuit strip. The final design achieves CP with 50% AR bandwidth. The proposed circularly polarized DRA (CPDRA with good radiation characteristics offers an impedance bandwidth of 58% between 3.45 and 6.26 GHz for VSWR ≤ 2. The proposed DRA is fabricated and tested. Very good agreement between simulated and measured results is obtained.

  19. Resonant tunnel magnetoresistance in a double magnetic tunnel junction

    Useinov, Arthur

    2011-08-09

    We present quasi-classical approach to calculate a spin-dependent current and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in double magnetic tunnel junctions (DMTJ) FML/I/FMW/I/FMR, where the magnetization of the middle ferromagnetic metal layer FMW can be aligned parallel or antiparallel with respect to the fixed magnetizations of the left FML and right FMR ferromagnetic electrodes. The transmission coefficients for components of the spin-dependent current, and TMR are calculated as a function of the applied voltage. As a result, we found a high resonant TMR. Thus, DMTJ can serve as highly effective magnetic nanosensor for biological applications, or as magnetic memory cells by switching the magnetization of the inner ferromagnetic layer FMW.© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011.

  20. Ultra-wideband tunable resonator based on varactor-loaded complementary split-ring resonators on a substrate-integrated waveguide for microwave sensor applications.

    Sam, Somarith; Lim, Sungjoon

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the modeling, design, fabrication, and measurement of an ultra-wideband tunable twoport resonator in which the substrate-integrated waveguide, complementary split-ring resonators (CSRRs), and varactors are embedded on the same planar platform. The tuning of the passband frequency is generated by a simple single dc voltage of 0 to 36 V, which is applied to each varactor on the CSRRs. Different capacitance values and resonant frequencies are produced while a nearly constant absolute bandwidth is maintained. The resonant frequency is varied between 0.83 and 1.58 GHz and has a wide tuning ratio of 90%. PMID:23549526

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    Demaerel, Philippe [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2006-04-15

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance breakdown studies in a linear plasma system

    Vipin K Yadav; K Sathyanarayana; D Bora

    2008-03-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma breakdown is studied in a small linear cylindrical system with four different gases - hydrogen, helium, argon and nitrogen. Microwave power in the experimental system is delivered by a magnetron at 2.45 ± 0.02 GHz in TE10 mode and launched radially to have extra-ordinary (X) wave in plasma. The axial magnetic field required for ECR in the system is such that the fundamental ECR surface ( = 875.0 G) resides at the geometrical centre of the plasma system. ECR breakdown parameters such as plasma delay time and plasma decay time from plasma density measurements are carried out at the centre using a Langmuir probe. The operating parameters such as working gas pressure (1 × 10-5 -1 × 10-2 mbar) and input microwave power (160{800 W) are varied and the corresponding effect on the breakdown parameters is studied. The experimental results obtained are presented in this paper.

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance force microscopy with a microwire rf source

    The authors use a 1.0 μm wide patterned Cu wire with an integrated nanomagnetic tip to measure the statistical nuclear polarization of 19F in CaF2 by magnetic resonance force microscopy. With less than 350 μW of dissipated power, the authors achieve rf magnetic fields over 4 mT at 115 MHz for a sample positioned within 100 nm of the 'microwire' rf source. A 200 nm diameter FeCo tip integrated onto the wire produces field gradients greater than 105 T/m at the same position. The large rf fields from the broadband microwire enable long rotating-frame spin lifetimes of up to 15 s at 4 K

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord trauma: a pictorial essay

    Assessing a patient with clinical signs of acute spinal cord trauma is an emergency. A radiological work-up is crucial in determining management, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the modality of choice. It should therefore be performed immediately, preferably within 3 hours, even when plain radiography does not show an abnormality. By choosing an appropriate imaging protocol, it is possible to assess the spinal cord, joints, muscles, ligaments and bone marrow of the spine. Moreover, early MRI findings assist in determining functional prognosis. A major limitation to early MRI is that the examination is usually restricted to stable trauma patients because of the difficulties in monitoring ventilated patients during scanning. However, when an anaesthesiologist with experience in MRI and MR-compatible monitoring equipment is available, even these patients can be safely examined. MRI is also indicated for the evaluation of patients with late complications and sequelae following spinal cord trauma, since many of these chronic lesions are potentially treatable. (orig.)

  5. Power efficiency improvement of a multi-oscillated current resonant type DC-DC converter

    Sato, Tadahiko; Matsuo, Hirofumi; Ota, Hiroyuki; Ishizuka, Yoichi; Higashi, Nobuhiro

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with an improvement of a power efficiency of a multi-oscillated current resonant type DC-DC converter. The current resonant type converter employs generally the pulse frequency modulation and its magnetizing inductance is set relatively low. For this reason, the magnetizing current through the converter causes a power loss under a light load. In order to solve this problem, a multi-oscillated current resonant type DC-DC converter has been proposed, and revealed the advantage ...

  6. The dynamic mechanical characteristics of a resonating microbridge mass-flow sensor

    Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Tijdeman, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives an explanation of the dynamic mechanical behaviour of a resonating microbridge mass-flow sensor. A rise in the average temperature of the bridge initially results in a reduction of the resonance frequency. Upon further temperature rise, a reversal occurs and the resonance frequency starts rising too. The dynamic behaviour in this case is found to be governed by static buckling. This phenomenon is analysed, first using a finite-element model and then with an approximate analyt...

  7. Temperature compensation method for the resonant frequency of a differential vibrating accelerometer using electrostatic stiffness control

    Differential vibrating accelerometer (DVA) is a resonant-type sensor which detects the change in the resonant frequency in the presence of acceleration input, i.e. inertial loading. However, the resonant frequency of micromachined silicon resonators is sensitive to the temperature change as well as the input acceleration. Therefore, to design a high-precision vibrating accelerometer, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency has to be predicted and compensated accurately. In this study, a temperature compensation method for resonant frequency is proposed which controls the electrostatic stiffness of the dual-ended tuning fork (DETF) using the temperature-dependent dc voltage between the parallel plate electrodes. To do this, the electromechanical model is derived first to predict the change in the electrostatic stiffness and the resonant frequency resulting from the dc voltage between the resonator and the electrodes. Next, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency is modeled, estimated and compared with the measured values. Then it is shown that the resonant frequency of the DETF can be kept constant in the operating temperature range by applying the temperature-dependent driving voltage to the parallel plate electrodes. The proposed method is validated through experiment. (paper)

  8. Temperature compensation method for the resonant frequency of a differential vibrating accelerometer using electrostatic stiffness control

    Lee, Jungshin; Rhim, Jaewook

    2012-09-01

    Differential vibrating accelerometer (DVA) is a resonant-type sensor which detects the change in the resonant frequency in the presence of acceleration input, i.e. inertial loading. However, the resonant frequency of micromachined silicon resonators is sensitive to the temperature change as well as the input acceleration. Therefore, to design a high-precision vibrating accelerometer, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency has to be predicted and compensated accurately. In this study, a temperature compensation method for resonant frequency is proposed which controls the electrostatic stiffness of the dual-ended tuning fork (DETF) using the temperature-dependent dc voltage between the parallel plate electrodes. To do this, the electromechanical model is derived first to predict the change in the electrostatic stiffness and the resonant frequency resulting from the dc voltage between the resonator and the electrodes. Next, the temperature sensitivity of the resonant frequency is modeled, estimated and compared with the measured values. Then it is shown that the resonant frequency of the DETF can be kept constant in the operating temperature range by applying the temperature-dependent driving voltage to the parallel plate electrodes. The proposed method is validated through experiment.

  9. A set of triple-resonance nuclear magnetic resonance experiments for structural characterization of organophosphorus compounds in mixture samples

    Highlights: ► New 1H, 13C, 31P triple-resonance NMR pulse experiments. ► Analysis of organophosphorus (OP) compounds in complex matrix. ► Selective extraction of 1H, 31P, and 13C chemical shifts and connectivities. ► More precise NMR identification of OP nerve agents and their degradation products. - Abstract: The 1H, 13C correlation NMR spectroscopy utilizes JCH couplings in molecules, and provides important structural information from small organic molecules in the form of carbon chemical shifts and carbon-proton connectivities. The full potential of the 1H, 13C correlation NMR spectroscopy has not been realized in the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) related verification analyses due to the sample matrix, which usually contains a high amount of non-related compounds obscuring the correlations of the relevant compounds. Here, the results of the application of 1H, 13C, 31P triple-resonance NMR spectroscopy in characterization of OP compounds related to the CWC are presented. With a set of two-dimensional triple-resonance experiments the JHP, JCH and JPC couplings are utilized to map the connectivities of the atoms in OP compounds and to extract the carbon chemical shift information. With the use of the proposed pulse sequences the correlations from the OP compounds can be recorded without significant artifacts from the non-OP compound impurities in the sample. Further selectivity of the observed correlations is achieved with the application of phosphorus band-selective pulse in the pulse sequences to assist the analysis of multiple OP compounds in mixture samples. The use of the triple-resonance experiments in the analysis of a complex sample is shown with a test mixture containing typical scheduled OP compounds, including the characteristic degradation products of nerve agents sarin, soman, and VX. The viability of the approach in verification analysis is demonstrated in the analysis of the 30th OPCW Proficiency Test sample.

  10. The slope effect of a capacitive resonator profile fabricated by a DRIE process on the performance of an MEMS disk resonator

    The thickness of a capacitive disk resonator can be increased by selecting a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process for reducing motional resistance. However, the DRIE process sometimes causes MEMS capacitive resonators to have a non-ideal profile. In this paper, the slope effect of a resonator profile fabricated by a DRIE process on the capacitance, electrostatic force, electrical stiffness, motional resistance and output current of the capacitive resonator is analyzed. The relation curves between these parameters and the sloped angle are obtained theoretically. The results show that the capacitance, electrostatic force, electrical stiffness and output current decrease as the sloped angle increases, but the motional resistance obviously increases. By capturing the electric field distribution of a capacitive resonator with different ratios of the gap to thickness by using FEM software ANSYS, the effects of slope angle and thickness on the natural frequency of the resonator are investigated. The analyzed results can provide the theoretical basis for designing high-performance MEMS disk resonators fabricated by the DRIE process. (paper)

  11. Air damping of micro bridge resonator vibrating close to a surface with a moderate distance

    The vibration of micro resonators is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamics of the surrounding fluid in the vicinity of a rigid wall. While most prior efforts to model this hydrodynamic loading have focused on squeeze film damping with very narrow gaps, in many practical applications, the resonators vibrate close to a surface with a moderate distance. Two recently developed models which deal with this problem are reviewed. Experiments by using a micro bridge resonator with a big range of gaps are performed at controlled gas pressures, and are compared with predictions from these theoretical models. The unsteady Navier–Stokes model yields the best agreement with experiments. (paper)

  12. Magnetotunneling spectroscopy of polarons in a quantum well of a resonant-tunneling diode

    Resonant tunneling of electrons is thoroughly studied in in-plane magnetic fields. Anticrossing is revealed in a spectrum of two-dimensional electrons at energies of optical phonons. The magnetic field changes the momentum of tunneling electrons and causes a voltage shift of a resonance in the tunnel spectra in accordance with the electron dispersion curve. Anticrossing is clearly observed in second derivative current-voltage characteristics of a resonant tunneling diode made of a double-barrier Al0.4Ga0.6As/GaAs heterostructure.

  13. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging for Brainnetome: A critical review

    Nianming Zuo; Jian Cheng; Tianzi Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that the human brain is a highly self-organized system that shows attributes of smallworldness,hierarchy and modularity.The "connectome" was conceived several years ago to identify the underpinning physical connectivities of brain networks.The need for an integration of multi-spatial and -temporal approaches is becoming apparent.Therefore,the "Brainnetome" (brain-net-ome) project was proposed.Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI)is a non-invasive way to study the anatomy of brain networks.Here,we review the principles of dMRI,its methodologies,and some of its clinical applications for the Brainnetome.Future research in this field is discussed.

  14. Resonant infrared pulsed laser deposition of a polyimide precursor

    Poly(amic acid) (PAA), a precursor to polyimide, was successfully deposited on substrates without reaching curing temperature, by resonant infrared pulsed laser ablation. The PAA was prepared by dissolving pyromellitic dianhydride and 4, 4' oxidianiline in the polar solvent Nmethyl pyrrolidinone (NMP). The PAA was deposited in droplet-like morphologies when ablation occurred in air, and in string-like moieties in the case of ablation in vacuum. In the as-deposited condition, the PAA was easily removed by washing with NMP; however, once cured thermally for thirty minutes, the PAA hardened, indicating the expected thermosetting property. Plume shadowgraphy showed very clear contrasts in the ablation mechanism between ablation of the solvent alone and the ablation of the PAA, even at low concentrations. A Wavelength dependence in plume velocity was also observed

  15. Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma

    The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency fen = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at fen = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 1011 cm-3. For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking

  16. Single-molecular surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering as a quantitative probe of local electromagnetic field: The case of strong coupling between plasmonic and excitonic resonance

    Itoh, Tamitake; Yamamoto, Yuko S.; Tamaru, Hiroharu; Biju, Vasudevanpillai; Wakida, Shin-ichi; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2014-05-01

    We investigate electromagnetic coupling between plasmonic and molecular electronic resonances using single-molecular surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) from single silver nanoparticle dimers. When dimers exhibit SERRS activity, their elastic light scattering spectra show two lines, which are temporally closing toward each other. The higher energy line eventually disappears at the time of SERRS quenching. A coupled-oscillator model composed of plasmonic and molecular electronic resonances consistently reproduces the above interesting results by decreasing coupling energy, indicating that SERRS can be a quantitative probe for strong coupling between the two resonances.

  17. A coupling method of subgroup and wavelet expansion for the resonance parameter calculation

    Owing to their geometric flexibility, subgroup method and wavelet expansion method have become attractive approaches to obtain effective self-shielding microscopic cross sections within resonance energy groups for geometrically complex problems. However, the subgroup method is good in the dense resonance range, while the wavelet expansion method is good in the sparse resonance range. In order to get the resonance parameter in the whole resonance energy range more accurately and effectively, this paper developed a new coupling resonance calculation model based on subgroup method and wavelet expansion method. In this coupling model, the subgroup method is employed to handle the higher resonance energy groups, and the wavelet expansion method is employed to handle the lower resonance energy groups. At the coupling interface, they are coupled by transferring scattering source. In order to verify the coupling model, a series of benchmark problems are calculated in this paper. It is demonstrated that compared with subgroup method and wavelet expansion method respectively, this coupling resonance model has the ability to provide more exactly self-shielding microscopic cross sections in the whole resonance energy range while keeping enough efficiency. (author)

  18. A Symbolic-Numerical Approach for the Sensitivity Analysis of Dielectric Resonator Sensors

    Barrere, R; Valentin, M

    2003-01-01

    A theoretical model based on the transverse resonance method is proposed for the description of cylindrical multilayer dielectric resonator sensors. From this model, the resonant frequency and the sensitivities with respect to geometrical and physical parameters are computed by means of a combination of symbolic and numerical procedures. These are gathered together in a package in view of the computer assisted design of this range of sensors. On this occasion, a few design patterns for engineering applications are sketched.

  19. Realization of a Double-Barrier Resonant Tunneling Diode for Cavity Polaritons

    Nguyen, Hai Son; Vishnevsky, Dmitry; Sturm, Chris; Tanese, Dimitrii; Solnyshkov, Dmitry; Galopin, Elisabeth; Lemaître, Aristide; Sagnes, Isabelle; Amo, Alberto; Malpuech, Guillaume; Bloch, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We report on the realization of a double barrier resonant tunneling diode for cavity polaritons, by lateral patterning of a one-dimensional cavity. Sharp transmission resonances are demonstrated when sending a polariton flow onto the device. We use a non-resonant beam can be used as an optical gate and control the device transmission. Finally we evidence distortion of the transmission profile when going to the high density regime, signature of polariton-polariton interactions.

  20. Analysis of two stacked cylindrical dielectric resonators in a TE₁₀₂ microwave cavity for magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Mattar, Saba M; Elnaggar, Sameh Y

    2011-04-01

    The frequency, field distributions and filling factors of a DR/TE₁₀₂ probe, consisting of two cylindrical dielectric resonators (DR1 and DR2) in a rectangular TE₁₀₂ cavity, are simulated and analyzed by finite element methods. The TE(+++) mode formed by the in-phase coupling of the TE₀₁(δ)(DR1), TE₀₁(δ)(DR2) and TE₁₀₂ basic modes, is the most appropriate mode for X-band EPR experiments. The corresponding simulated B(+++) fields of the TE(+++) mode have significant amplitudes at DR1, DR2 and the cavity's iris resulting in efficient coupling between the DR/TE₁₀₂ probe and the microwave bridge. At the experimental configuration, B(+++) in the vicinity of DR2 is much larger than that around DR1 indicating that DR1 mainly acts as a frequency tuner. In contrast to a simple microwave shield, the resonant cavity is an essential component of the probe that affects its frequency. The two dielectric resonators are always coupled and this is enhanced by the cavity. When DR1 and DR2 are close to the cavity walls, the TE(+++) frequency and B(+++) distribution are very similar to that of the empty TE₁₀₂ cavity. When all the experimental details are taken into account, the agreement between the experimental and simulated TE(+++) frequencies is excellent. This confirms that the resonating mode of the spectrometer's DR/TE₁₀₂ probe is the TE(+++) mode. Additional proof is obtained from B₁(x), which is the calculated maximum x component of B(+++). It is predominantly due to DR2 and is approximately 4.4 G. The B₁(x) maximum value of the DR/TE₁₀₂ probe is found to be slightly larger than that for a single resonator in a cavity because DR1 further concentrates the cavity's magnetic field along its x axis. Even though DR1 slightly enhances the performance of the DR/TE₁₀₂ probe its main benefit is to act as a frequency tuner. A waveguide iris can be used to over-couple the DR/TE₁₀₂ probe and lower its Q to ≈150. Under

  1. Analysis of two stacked cylindrical dielectric resonators in a TE 102 microwave cavity for magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Mattar, Saba M.; ElNaggar, Sameh Y.

    2011-04-01

    The frequency, field distributions and filling factors of a DR/TE 102 probe, consisting of two cylindrical dielectric resonators (DR1 and DR2) in a rectangular TE 102 cavity, are simulated and analyzed by finite element methods. The TE +++ mode formed by the in-phase coupling of the TE 01δ(DR1), TE 01δ(DR2) and TE 102 basic modes, is the most appropriate mode for X-band EPR experiments. The corresponding simulated B +++ fields of the TE +++ mode have significant amplitudes at DR1, DR2 and the cavity's iris resulting in efficient coupling between the DR/TE 102 probe and the microwave bridge. At the experimental configuration, B +++ in the vicinity of DR2 is much larger than that around DR1 indicating that DR1 mainly acts as a frequency tuner. In contrast to a simple microwave shield, the resonant cavity is an essential component of the probe that affects its frequency. The two dielectric resonators are always coupled and this is enhanced by the cavity. When DR1 and DR2 are close to the cavity walls, the TE +++ frequency and B +++ distribution are very similar to that of the empty TE 102 cavity. When all the experimental details are taken into account, the agreement between the experimental and simulated TE +++ frequencies is excellent. This confirms that the resonating mode of the spectrometer's DR/TE 102 probe is the TE +++ mode. Additional proof is obtained from B1x, which is the calculated maximum x component of B +++. It is predominantly due to DR2 and is approximately 4.4 G. The B1x maximum value of the DR/TE 102 probe is found to be slightly larger than that for a single resonator in a cavity because DR1 further concentrates the cavity's magnetic field along its x axis. Even though DR1 slightly enhances the performance of the DR/TE 102 probe its main benefit is to act as a frequency tuner. A waveguide iris can be used to over-couple the DR/TE 102 probe and lower its Q to ≈150. Under these conditions, the probe has a short dead time and a large bandwidth

  2. A novel RF resonator for human-body MRI at 3 T

    Son, Hyeok-Woo; Cho, Young-Ki; Yoo, Hyoungsuk

    2014-03-01

    A square-slot-loaded (SSL) radio-frequency (RF) resonator using a microstrip transmission line (MTL) is designed for human-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3 T MRI. The SSL RF resonator shows improved RF magnetic fields resulting in more homogenous fields near the center of the phantom than traditional RF resonators using MTL. A multichannel body coil using the SSL RF resonators is also simulated and provides improved parallel excitation performance. In addition, RF shimming for homogenization can be effectively controlled by adjusting the inputs to the eight resonators. Numerical results are obtained by using a spherical phantom and a realistic human-body model at 3 T to calculate the B {1/+} fields.

  3. Resonance and interference phenomena in the photoionisation of a hydrogen atom in a uniform electric field

    The photoionisation cross section for a hydrogen atom placed in a uniform electric field is investigated as a function of the light frequency. Analytical formulae are obtained describing the cross section structure in various regions of photon energy and field strength. The Fano parametrisation of resonance peak is generalised for the overlapping resonance case. When the photon energy is close to the ionisation potential the resonance peaks are strongly asymmetrical. A comparison is made with experiments where the structure is observed in the photoionisation of sodium and rubidium atoms. (author)

  4. Regge trajectory of the f0(500) resonance from a dispersive connection to its pole

    Nebreda, J. [Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502, Japan; Londergan, J. Timothy [Indiana University , Bloomington, IN; Pelaez, Jose R. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040, Spain; Szczepaniak, Adam P. [Indiana University , Bloomington, IN

    2014-11-01

    We report here our results on how to obtain the Regge trajectory of a resonance from its pole in a scattering process by imposing analytic constraints in the complex angular momentum plane. The method, suited for resonances that dominate an elastic scattering amplitude, has been applied to the ρ (770) and the f0(500) resonances. Whereas for the former we obtain a linear Regge trajectory, characteristic of ordinary quark-antiquark states, for the latter we find a non-linear trajectory with a much smaller slope at the resonance mass. This provides a strong indication of the non-ordinary nature of the sigma meson.

  5. Cooling of a micro-mechanical resonator by the back-action of Lorentz force

    Wang, Ying-Dan; Semba, K.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2008-04-01

    Using a semi-classical approach, we describe an on-chip cooling protocol for a micro-mechanical resonator by employing a superconducting flux qubit. A Lorentz force, generated by the passive back-action of the resonator's displacement, can cool down the thermal motion of the mechanical resonator by applying an appropriate microwave drive to the qubit. We show that this on-chip cooling protocol, with well-controlled cooling power and a tunable response time of passive back-action, can be highly efficient. With feasible experimental parameters, the effective mode temperature of a resonator could be cooled down by several orders of magnitude.

  6. Monitoring water accumulation in a glacier using magnetic resonance imaging

    A. Legchenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tête Rousse is a small polythermal glacier located in the Mont Blanc area (French Alps at an altitude of 3100 to 3300 m. Recent accumulation of melt water in the glacier was assumed to occur, but such accumulation had yet to be confirmed. Using Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging (3-D-SNMR, we showed that the temperate part of the Tête Rousse glacier contains two separate water-filled caverns (central and upper caverns. In 2009, the central cavern contained about 55 000 m3 of water. Since 2010, the cavern is drained every year. Using 3-D-SNMR, we monitored the changes caused by this pumping in the water distribution within the glacier body. Twice a year, we carried out magnetic resonance imaging of the entire glacier and estimated the volume of water accumulated in the central cavern. Our results show the changes in cavern geometry and recharge rate: in two years, the central cavern lost about 73% of its initial volume, but 65% were lost in one year after the first pumping. We also observed that, after being drained, the cavern was recharged at an average rate of 20 to 25 m3 d−1 over the winter months and 120 to 180 m3 d−1 in summer. These observations illustrate how ice and water may refill englacial volume being emptied by artificial draining. Comparison of the 3-D-SNMR results with those obtained by drilling and pumping showed a very good correspondence, confirming the high reliability of 3-D-SNMR imaging.

  7. Magnetic Resonance of Porous Media (MRPM): A perspective

    Song, Yi-Qiao

    2013-04-01

    Porous media are ubiquitous in our environment and their application is extremely broad. The common connection between these diverse materials is the importance of the microstructure (μm to mm scale) in determining the physical, chemical and biological functions and properties. Magnetic resonance and its imaging modality have been essential for noninvasive characterization of these materials, in the development of catalysts, understanding cement hydration, fluid transport in rocks and soil, geological prospecting, and characterization of tissue properties for medical diagnosis. The past two decades have witnessed significant development of MRPM that couples advances in physics, chemistry and engineering with a broad range of applications. This article will summarize key advances in basic physics and methodology, examine their limitations and envision future R&D directions.

  8. Extrafetal Findings on Fetal Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Pictorial Essay.

    Epelman, Monica; Merrow, Arnold C; Guimaraes, Carolina V; Victoria, Teresa; Calvo-Garcia, Maria A; Kline-Fath, Beth M

    2015-12-01

    Although US is the mainstay of fetal imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an invaluable adjunct in recent years. MRI offers superb soft tissue contrast that allows for detailed evaluation of fetal organs, particularly the brain, which enhances understanding of disease severity. MRI can yield results that are similar to or even better than those of US, particularly in cases of marked oligohydramnios, maternal obesity, or adverse fetal positioning. Incidentally detected extrafetal MRI findings are not uncommon and may affect clinical care. Physicians interpreting fetal MRI studies should be aware of findings occurring outside the fetus, including those structures important for the pregnancy. A systematic approach is necessary in the reading of such studies. This helps to ensure that important findings are not missed, appropriate clinical management is implemented, and unnecessary follow-up examinations are avoided. In this pictorial essay, the most common extrafetal abnormalities are described and illustrated. PMID:26614136

  9. Stochastic resonance in a parallel array of linear elements

    Dong Xiao-Juan

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon in a parallel array of linear elements with noise. Employing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) theory, it obtains the output SNR, and investigates the effects on the output SNR of the system with signal-independent noise and signal-dependent noise respectively. Numerical results show: the curve of the output SNR is monotone with signal-independent noise; whereas SR appears with signal-dependent noise. Moreover, the output SNR enhances rapidly with the increase of N which is the number of elements in this parallel array linear system. This result may provide smart array of simple linear sensors which are capable of acting as noise-aided amplifiers.

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in schizophrenia: a morphometric study

    Thirty-three patients with chronic schizophrenia and 21 normal subjects were submitted to magnetic resonance imaging studies using a 1.5 T scanner. Axial and coronal T 2-weighted images were obtained. The volumes of the brain, intracranial, supratentorial, infratentorial and the total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes were measured using semi-automated morphometric methods. The volumes of the amygdala-hippocampus complex, para hippocampal gyrus cortex, putamen, globus pallidus, temporal lobe, gray and white matter of temporal lobe were also measured. These volumes were normalized using the intracranial volume as reference. The most relevant findings observed were reduced brain volume and increased total, ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid volumes in patients with schizophrenia when compared to the controls. Patients with schizophrenia had also smaller amygdala-hippocampus complexes, temporal lobes and temporal lobe white matter than the controls, as well as increased putamen volumes. (author)

  11. Magnification of mantle resonance as a cause of tectonics

    Omerbashich, M

    2006-01-01

    Variance spectral analysis of superconducting gravimeter (SG) decadal data (noise inclusive) suggests conceptually that the Earth tectonogenesis could in part be based on magnification of the mantle mechanical resonance, in addition to previously hypothesized causes. Aanalogously to the atmospheric tidal forcing of global high frequency free oscillation, I propose that the Moon synodically recurring pull could likewise drive the long-periodic (12 to 120 minutes) oscillation of the Earth. To demonstrate this, I show that the daily magnitudes of mass (gravity) oscillation, as a relative measure of the Earth kinetic energy, get synodically periodic while correlating up to 0.97 with seismic energies on the day of shallow and 3 days before deep earthquakes. The forced oscillator equations for the mantle usual viscosity and the Earth springtide and grave mode periods successfully model an identical 3 days phase. Finally, whereas reports on gravest earthquakes (of around M9.5) put the maximum coseismic displacement ...

  12. Set up of a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters on integral experiments

    Resonance parameters for actinides play a significant role in the neutronic characteristics of all reactor types. All the major integral parameters strongly depend on the nuclear data of the isotopes in the resonance-energy regions.The author sets up a method for the adjustment of resonance parameters taking into account the self-shielding effects and restricting the cross section deconvolution problem to a limited energy region. (N.T.)

  13. Mapping the sensitivity of split ring resonators using a localized analyte

    Sharp, Graham J.; Vilhena, Henrique; Lahiri, Basudev; McMeekin, Scott G.; De La Rue, Richard M.; Johnson, Nigel P.

    2016-01-01

    Split ring resonator (SRR) based metamaterials have frequently been demonstrated for use as optical sensors of organic materials. This is made possible by matching the wavelength of the SRR plasmonic resonance with a molecular resonance of a specific analyte, which is usually placed on top of the metal structure. However, systematic studies of SRRs that identify the regions that exhibit a high electric field strength are commonly performed using simulations. In this paper we demonstrate that ...

  14. A quasioptically stabilized resonant-tunneling-diode oscillator for the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave regions

    Brown, Elliott R.; Parker, Christopher D.; Molvar, Karen M.; Stephan, Karl D.

    1992-01-01

    A semiconfocal open-cavity resonator has been used to stabilize a resonant-tunneling-diode waveguide oscillator at frequencies near 100 GHz. The high quality factor of the open cavity resulted in a linewidth of approximately 10 kHz at 10 dB below the peak, which is about 100 times narrower than the linewidth of an unstabilized waveguide oscillator. This technique is well suited for resonant-tunneling-diode oscillators in the submillimeter-wave region.

  15. Ultracompact resonator with high quality-factor based on a hybrid grating structure

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    subwavelength grating layer and an un-patterned high-refractive-index cap layer, being surrounded by low index materials. Since the cap layer may include a gain region, an ultracompact laser can be realized based on the hybrid grating resonator, featuring many advantages over high-contrast-grating resonator......We numerically investigate the properties of a hybrid grating structure acting as a resonator with ultrahigh quality factor. This reveals that the physical mechanism responsible for the resonance is quite different from the conventional guided mode resonance (GMR). The hybrid grating consists of a...... lasers. The effect of fabrication errors and finite size of the structure is investigated to understand the feasibility of fabricating the proposed resonator....

  16. Realizing of plasmon Fano resonance with a metal nanowall moving along MIM waveguide

    Chen, Fang; Yao, Duanzheng

    2016-06-01

    A larger number of complicated plasmonic nanostructures have been realized to exhibit Fano interference. In this paper, we demonstrate a simple nanostructure, side coupled waveguide resonator system with a metal nanowall located in the metal-insulator-metal waveguide (MIM), which can also achieve multiple plasmonic Fano resonance. In the proposed nanostructure, the asymmetric line shape originates from the interference between the slot resonator and the new resonator. Therefore, the Fano line shape can be actively controlled by the phase difference of the two resonators and the thickness of the metal nanowall. A scattering matrix method is used to calculate the transmission spectra. Results obtained by the scattering matrix theory are consistent with those from the finite-difference time-domain simulations (FDTD). Moreover, Fano resonances in the proposed structure show high sensitivity, which may have important application in plasmonic nanosensor and modulator.

  17. A Generalized Approach for the Steady-State Analysis of Dual-Bridge Resonant Converters

    Gao-Yuan Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dual-bridge DC/DC resonant converter with a generalized series and parallel resonant tank is analyzed. A general approach based on Fundamental Harmonic Approximation is used to find the universal steady-state solutions. The analysis results for particular resonant tank configurations are exemplified with several typical resonant tank configurations respectively. The corresponded soft-switching conditions are discussed too. To illustrate the usefulness of the generalized approach, a dual-bridge (LC(L-type resonant converter working in below resonance mode is designed based on the analysis results. Finally, simulation and experimental plots of the design example are included to evaluate the validity and the accuracy of the proposed analysis approach.

  18. Ultrafast Reversal of a Fano Resonance in a Plasmon-Exciton System

    Shah, Raman A.; Scherer, Norbert F.; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    When a two-level quantum dot and a plasmonic metal nanoantenna are resonantly coupled by the electromagnetic near field, the system can exhibit a Fano resonance, resulting in a transparency dip in the optical spectrum of the coupled system. We calculate the nonlinear response of such a system, for illumination both by continuous-wave and ultrafast pulsed lasers, using both a cavity quantum electrodynamics and a semiclassical coupled-oscillator model. For the experimentally relevant case of me...

  19. New Technique for Determining the Properties of a Narrow s -Channel Resonance at a Muon Collider

    We explore an alternative to the usual procedure of scanning for determining the properties of a narrow s -channel resonance. By varying the beam energy resolution while sitting on the resonance peak, the width and branching ratios of the resonance can be determined. The statistical accuracy achieved is superior to that of the usual scan procedure in the case of a light standard-model-like Higgs boson with MH>130 GeV or for the lightest pseudogoldstone boson of a strong electroweak breaking model if MP0>150 GeV . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  20. Laser Stabilization on a Fiber Ring Resonator and Application to RF Filtering

    Merrer, Pierre-Henri; Llopis, Olivier; Cibiel, Gilles

    2008-01-01

    International audience The potential of optical fiber ring resonators for RF or microwave signals filtering on optical carriers is demonstrated on a short length high Q resonator. The problem of the frequency shift due to the resonator self heating with the optical power is solved thanks to a Pound-Drever feedback loop. A multi frequency RF filter is obtained, with a frequency step of 205 MHz between resonances, and a 3 dB bandwidth of 2.4 MHz. This corresponds to the computed optical reso...