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Sample records for a 285 steel

  1. J-Integral fracture toughness testing and correlation to the microstructure of A285 steel for fracture analysis of storage tanks

    The fracture toughness properties of A285 steels are being measured at various material and test conditions for application to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of high-level waste storage tanks at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Testing is being performed to determine the effect of composition, microstructure and orientation on the J-Integral resistance behavior at minimum operating temperatures

  2. J-integral fracture toughness testing and correlation to the microstructure of A285 Steel for fracture analysis of storage tanks

    The fracture toughness properties of A285 steels are being measured at various material and test conditions for application to elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis of high-level waste storage tanks at the Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Testing is being performed to determine the effect of composition, microstructure and orientation on the J-Integral resistance behavior at minimum operating temperatures

  3. XCOM 285

    http://chosecourses.com

    2015-01-01

    XCOM 285 Complete Class ALL DQs ,Checkpoints ,Assignments   Purchase here   http://chosecourses.com/xcom-285-complete-class-all-dqs-checkpoints-assignments   Product Description   XCOM 285 Essentials of Managerial Communication     XCOM 285 Week 1 Assignment: Business Communication Trends   •           Read Ch. 1 of the text. •   ...

  4. 30 CFR 285.230 - May I request a lease if there is no Call?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I request a lease if there is no Call? 285.230 Section 285.230 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Call? You may submit an unsolicited request for a commercial lease or a limited lease under this...

  5. PSY 285 Uop Material - psy285dotcom

    honey

    2015-01-01

    PSY 285 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.psy285.com   PSY 285 Week 1 Assignment: Experimental Research PSY 285 Week 1 CheckPoint: Causation and Correlation PSY 285 Week 2 CheckPoint: Locus of Control PSY 285 Week 3 CheckPoint: Confirmation Bias PSY 285 Week 3 Assignment: Attitudes and Behaviors PSY 285 Week 4 CheckPoint: Obedience PSY 285 Week 5 Assignment: Persuasion, Indoctrination, and Inoculation PSY 285 Week 5 CheckPoint: ...

  6. 30 CFR 285.223 - What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What does MMS do if there is a tie for the highest bid? 285.223 Section 285.223 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... is a tie for the highest bid? (a) Unless otherwise specified in the Final Sale Notice, except in...

  7. 30 CFR 285.232 - May I acquire a lease noncompetitively after responding to a Request for Interest or Call for...

    2010-07-01

    ... responding to a Request for Interest or Call for Information and Nominations under § 285.213? 285.232... after responding to a Request for Interest or Call for Information and Nominations under § 285.213? (a... response to the RFI or Call, we may inform you that there does not appear to be competitive interest,...

  8. COM 285 UOP Course Tutorial/ Tutorialrank

    CINCEN

    2015-01-01

                     For more course tutorials visit   www.tutorialrank.com   Tutorial Purchased: 4 Times, Rating: A+       COM 285 Week 1 Individual Assignment Business Communication Trends paper (UOP Course) COM 285 Week 1 DQ 1 (UOP Course) COM 285 Week 1 DQ 2 (UOP Course) COM 285 Week 2 Individual Assignment Audience Analysis paper (UOP Course) COM 285 Week 2 DQ 1 (UOP Course) ...

  9. 32 CFR 285.4 - Responsibilities.

    2010-07-01

    ... (listed in DoD 32 CFR part 286), and the Combatant Commands. The DA&M may delegate this responsibility to... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Responsibilities. 285.4 Section 285.4 National... INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM DOD FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) PROGRAM § 285.4 Responsibilities. (a)...

  10. 15 CFR 285.7 - Assessment.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment. 285.7 Section 285.7... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS NATIONAL VOLUNTARY LABORATORY ACCREDITATION PROGRAM § 285.7 Assessment. (a) Frequency and scheduling. Before...

  11. XCOM 285 Courses Tutorial / indigohelp

    sana

    2015-01-01

    XCOM 285 Week 1 CheckPoint Technology Trendy Communication XCOM 285 Week 1 Assignment Business Communication Trends XCOM 285 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 & 2 XCOM 285 Week 2 CheckPoint Audience Focused Communication Matrix XCOM 285 Week 3 CheckPoint Technological Advancements in Communication XCOM 285 Week 3 Assignment Cross Cultural Communication Matrix XCOM 285 Week 4 Discussion Question 1 & 2XCOM 285 Week 4 CheckPoint Graphic Organizer XCOM 285 Week 5 Ch...

  12. 30 CFR 285.912 - After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit?

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTINENTAL SHELF Decommissioning Decommissioning Report § 285.912 After I remove a facility, cable, or pipeline, what information must I submit? Within 60 days after you remove a facility, cable, or pipeline... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false After I remove a facility, cable, or...

  13. Endolymphatic radiotherapy in malignant lymphomas. A clinical evaluation of 285 patients

    The authors report treatment of inguinal and retroperitoneal lymph nodes of 285 malignant lymphomas (143 Hodgkin's disease and 142 lymphoreticular sarcomas) with Lipiodol Fluide 131I (endolymphatic radiotherapy). From 1961 to 1966 the radioactive contrast material was injected in doses ranging from 0.2 to 2.5 mc/cc (10 cc each foot). Adequately opacified nodes responded promptly with marked and progressive reduction in size. When indicated, a second administration of Lipiodol 131I in a dose of 2.5 mc/cc was always feasible. Several factors prevented a homogeneous and satisfactory distribution of radioactive contrast material throughout the iliac and the para-aortic nodes in one third of the cases. Therefore, in many instances patients had to be treated with external radiation therapy. Histopathologic examination of lymph nodes removed at exploratory laparotomy (four cases) or at autopsy (ten cases) confirmed that Lipiodol 131I did not fill all the iliac and para-aortic nodes and that destruction of lymphomatous tissue was often incomplete. Recurrences were seen mostly in abnormal adequately filled nodes opacified with high doses of Lipiodol 131I. In Hodgkin's disease they occurred particularly in the para-aortic area and in lymphoreticular sarcomas in the inguinal and iliac chains. Side effects were minimal. They included amenorrhea, pulmonary insufficiency, hepatic failure and hemolytic anemia. Clinical and histologic signs of pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis were not seen

  14. XCOM 285 courses/snaptutorial

    David Markson

    2015-01-01

    For more classes visit www.snaptutorial.com   XCOM 285 Week 1 CheckPoint Technology Trendy Communication XCOM 285 Week 1 Assignment Business Communication Trends XCOM 285 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 & 2 XCOM 285 Week 2 CheckPoint Audience Focused Communication Matrix XCOM 285 Week 3 CheckPoint Technological Advancements in Communication XCOM 285 Week 3 Assignment Cross Cultural Communication Matrix XCOM 285 Week 4 Discussion Question 1 & 2XCOM...

  15. PSY 285 UOP Courses / uoptutorial

    THANU

    2015-01-01

    PSY 285 Week 1 Assignment: Experimental Research PSY 285 Week 1 CheckPoint: Causation and Correlation PSY 285 Week 2 CheckPoint: Locus of Control PSY 285 Week 3 CheckPoint: Confirmation Bias PSY 285 Week 3 Assignment: Attitudes and Behaviors PSY 285 Week 4 CheckPoint: Obedience PSY 285 Week 5 Assignment: Persuasion, Indoctrination, and Inoculation PSY 285 Week 5 CheckPoint: Presence of Others PSY 285 Week 6 CheckPoint: Symptoms and Remedies of Groupthink PS...

  16. PSY 285 Course Tutorial / Snaptutorial

    Aster

    2015-01-01

    PSY 285 Week 1 Assignment: Experimental Research PSY 285 Week 1 CheckPoint: Causation and Correlation PSY 285 Week 2 CheckPoint: Locus of Control PSY 285 Week 3 CheckPoint: Confirmation Bias PSY 285 Week 3 Assignment: Attitudes and Behaviors PSY 285 Week 4 CheckPoint: Obedience PSY 285 Week 5 Assignment: Persuasion, Indoctrination, and Inoculation PSY 285 Week 5 CheckPoint: Presence of Others PSY 285 Week 6 CheckPoint: Symptoms and Remedies of Groupthink PS...

  17. A-3 steel work completed

    2009-01-01

    Stennis Space Center engineers celebrated a key milestone in construction of the A-3 Test Stand on April 9 - completion of structural steel work. Workers with Lafayette (La.) Steel Erector Inc. placed the last structural steel beam atop the stand during a noon ceremony attended by more than 100 workers and guests.

  18. MDM2 285G>C and 344T>A gene variants and their association with hepatocellular carcinoma: a Moroccan case–control study

    Rebbani, Khadija; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Marchio, Agnès; Kandil, Mostafa; Pineau, Pascal; Benjelloun, Soumaya

    2014-01-01

    International audience Background MDM2 gene polymorphisms 285G/C and 344 T/A are two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) recently identified as important variants that could influence the expression of MDM2 gene through the modulation of transcription factors binding on the SNP309T/G. The 285C variant seems to present a geographically distinct distribution in humans and to be associated with a low cancer risk. In the present report, we studied the distribution of the three SNPs in a pop...

  19. ATCA observations of the MACS-Planck Radio Halo Cluster Project - I. New detection of a radio halo in PLCK G285.0-23.7

    Aviles, Gerardo Martinez; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; Pratley, Luke; Macario, Giulia; Venturi, Tiziana; Brunetti, Gianfranco; Cassano, Rossella; Dallacasa, Daniele; Intema, Huib; Giacintucci, Simona; Hurier, Guillaume; Aghanim, Nabila; Douspis, Marian; Langer, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possible presence of diffuse radio emission in the intermediate redshift, massive cluster PLCK G285.0-23.7 (z=0.39, M_500 = 8.39 x 10^(14) M_Sun). Our 16cm-band ATCA observations of PLCK G285.0-23.7 allow us to reach a rms noise level of ~11 microJy/beam on the wide-band (1.1-3.1 GHz), full-resolution (~5 arcsec) image of the cluster, making it one of the deepest ATCA images yet published. We also re-image visibilities at lower resolution in order to achieve a better sensitivity to low-surface-brightness extended radio sources. We detect one of the lowest luminosity radio halos known at z>0.35, characterised by a slight offset from the well-studied 1.4 GHz radio power vs. cluster mass correlation. Similarly to most known radio-loud clusters (i.e. those hosting diffuse non-thermal sources), PLCK G285.0-23.7 has a disturbed dynamical state. Our analysis reveals a similarly elongated X-ray and radio morphology. While the size of the radio halo in PLCK G285.0-23.7 is smaller than lower redshift...

  20. [Syringomyelia and Chiari abnormality in the adult. Analysis of the results of a cooperative series of 285 cases].

    Aghakhani, N; Parker, F; Tadié, M

    1999-06-01

    This chapter discusses the retrospective data found in 285 patients with syringomyelia associated with Chiari abnormality and collected from 18 neurosurgical departments. A pre and postoperative MRI study and a minimum follow up of at least 2 years were required. A scale of severity was fixed and tested before and after treatment. The size of the cyst, the degree of the foraminal obstruction were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was about 39 years and the duration of symptoms about 6.7 years. Sensory disorders were present in 91% of cases, pain in 66% and motor deficit in about 60%. According to our functional classification, the majority of our patients were moderately disabled and only 10.8% showed a severe impotence. Results of the two major surgical procedures, foramen magnum decompression (FMD) (88% of cases) and cyst shunting procedures (SP) (32% of cases) were evaluated with a mean follow-up period of 6.7 years (ranged from 2 to 14 years). Better clinical and morphological results (87% of stabilization or improvement for FMD versus 71% for SP) were obtained by FMD procedure comparing to SP, with the same rate of complications. PMID:10420402

  1. XCOM 285 Course tutorial/uophelp

    ZXCSSAZ

    2015-01-01

    XCOM 285 Entire Course For more course tutorials visit www.uophelp.com     XCOM 285 Week 1 CheckPoint Technology Trendy Communication XCOM 285 Week 1 Assignment Business Communication Trends XCOM 285 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 & 2 XCOM 285 Week 2 CheckPoint Audience Focused Communication Matrix XCOM 285 Week 3 CheckPoint Technological Advancements in Communication XCOM 285 Week 3 Assignment Cross Cultural Communication Matrix XCOM 28...

  2. XCOM 285 UOP Tutorial Course/Uoptutorial

    anemone221

    2015-01-01

    For More Course Tutorials Visit www.uoptutorial.com     XCOM 285 week 1 CheckPoint Technology Trendy Communication XCOM 285 week 1 Assignment Business Communication Trends XCOM 285 Week 2 Discussion Question 1 & 2 XCOM 285 week 2 CheckPoint Audience Focused Communication Matrix XCOM 285 week 3 CheckPoint Technological Advancements in Communication XCOM 285 week 3 Assignment Cross Cultural Communication Matrix XCOM 285 Week 4 Discussion Que...

  3. 30 CFR 285.525 - What general requirements must a financial assurance instrument meet?

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... listed in the current Treasury Circular 570, as required by 31 CFR 223.16. You may obtain a copy of... terminate a surety's obligation under State law. (g) Your surety must notify you and MMS within 5...

  4. 30 CFR 285.506 - What operating fees must I pay on a commercial lease?

    2010-07-01

    ... Sale Notice and/or in the lease. The MMS: (i) Will use the most recent annual average wholesale power... (ii) May adjust the published average wholesale power price to reflect documented variations by State... facility's operation expressed as a decimal between zero and one; (5) P is a measure of the annual...

  5. 30 CFR 285.401 - When may MMS issue a cessation order?

    2010-07-01

    ... RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Lease and Grant... applicable law; regulation; order; or provision of a lease, grant, plan, or other MMS approval under...

  6. Air fluorescence measurements in the spectral range 300-420 nm using a 28.5 GeV electron beam

    Abbasi, R; Belov, K; Belz, J; Cao, Z; Dalton, M; Fedorova, Y; Huentemeyer, P; Jones, B F; Jui, C C H; Loh, E C; Manago, N; Martens, K; Matthews, J N; Maestas, M; Smith, J; Sokolsky, P; Springer, R W; Thomas, J; Thomas, S; Chen, P; Field, C; Hast, C; Iverson, R; Ng, J S T; Odian, A; Reil, K; Walz, D; Bergman, D R; Thomson, G; Zech, A; Chang, F-Y; Chen, C-C; Chen, C-W; Huang, M A; Hwang, W-Y P; Lin, G-L

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the yield and spectrum of fluorescence, excited by a 28.5 GeV electron beam, in air at a range of pressures of interest to ultra-high energy cosmic ray detectors. The wavelength range was 300 - 420 nm. System calibration has been performed using Rayleigh scattering of a nitrogen laser beam. In atmospheric pressure dry air at 304 K the yield is 20.8 +/- 1.6 photons per MeV.

  7. Multiplane Hyaluronic Acid with Blunt and Sharp Needle Technique in Rhinoplasty:A Report of 285 Cases%钝锐针结合多层次透明质酸隆鼻-285例报道

    韩雪峰; 胡金天; 李发成

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨采用钝锐针结合技术行多层次透明质酸注射隆鼻的临床应用效果。方法自2011年6月至2014年2月,共收治285例隆鼻病例,均采用钝锐针结合技术行透明质酸注射隆鼻术。注射次数为1~3次,每次注射间隔为6~14个月,术后随访3~9个月,对术后效果进行评价。结果术后患者无鼻根部变宽、透明、感染、局部硬结、皮瓣坏死等并发症,术区外观平滑自然。结论钝锐针结合多层次透明质酸注射隆鼻安全有效,值得推广应用。%Objective To explore the application of multi-plane hyaluronic acid injection in rhinoplasty using blunt and sharp needle technique. Methods From June 2011 to February 2014, 285 cases received rhinoplasty by multi-plane hyaluronic acid injection with blunt and sharp needle technique. All the cases were injected for 1-3 times at intervals of 6-14 months, and were followed up for postoperative effect evaluation. Results All the patients were followed up for 1-9 months. No complications were observed, such as nasal root broadening, vifrification, infection, local induration or flap necrosis. The nose shape was smooth and natural. Conclusion Multiplane hyaluronic acid injection using blunt and sharp needle technique in rhinoplasty is safe and effective, and is worthy of clinical promotion.

  8. Steel erected at A-3 Test Stand

    2008-01-01

    Workers erect the first fabricated steel girders to arrive at the A-3 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center. Steel work began at the construction site Oct. 29 and is scheduled to continue into next spring.

  9. 30 CFR 285.622 - How do I submit my COP?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my COP? 285.622 Section 285.622... Construction and Operations Plan for Commercial Leases § 285.622 How do I submit my COP? (a) You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your COP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a)....

  10. 30 CFR 285.526 - What instruments other than a surety bond may I use to meet the financial assurance requirement?

    2010-07-01

    ... following: (1) U.S. Department of Treasury securities identified in 31 CFR part 225; (2) Cash in an amount... value of your security as determined in accordance with the 31 CFR part 203 Collateral Margins Table... use to meet the financial assurance requirement? 285.526 Section 285.526 Mineral Resources...

  11. 30 CFR 285.810 - What must I include in my Safety Management System?

    2010-07-01

    ... System? 285.810 Section 285.810 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR..., COPs and GAPs Safety Management Systems § 285.810 What must I include in my Safety Management System? You must submit a description of the Safety Management System you will use with your COP...

  12. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included

  13. STEFINS: a steel freezing integral simulation program

    Frank, M.V.

    1980-09-01

    STEFINS (STEel Freezing INtegral Simulation) is a computer program for the calculation of the rate of solidification of molten steel on solid steel. Such computations arize when investigating core melt accidents in fast reactors. In principle this problem involves a coupled two-dimensional thermal and hydraulic approach. However, by physically reasonable assumptions a decoupled approach has been developed. The transient solidification of molten steel on a cold wall is solved in the direction normal to the molten steel flow and independent from the solution for the molten steel temperature and Nusselt number along the direction of flow. The solutions to the applicable energy equations have been programmed in cylindrical and slab geometries. Internal gamma heating of steel is included.

  14. Clinical and cytogenetic features of a population-based consecutive series of 285 pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias: rare T-cell receptor gene rearrangements are associated with poor outcome

    Karrman, Kristina; Forestier, Erik; Heyman, Mats; Andersen, Mette K; Autio, Kirsi; Blennow, Elisabeth; Borgström, Georg; Ehrencrona, Hans; Golovleva, Irina; Heim, Sverre; Heinonen, Kristiina; Hovland, Randi; Johannsson, Johann H; Kerndrup, Gitte; Nordgren, Ann; Palmqvist, Lars; Johansson, Bertil

    2009-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and cytogenetic aberrations were ascertained and reviewed in a population-based consecutive series of 285 pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) diagnosed between 1992 and 2006 in the Nordic countries. Informative karyotypic results were obtained in 249 (...

  15. A modification of 4330 alloy steel

    Gogolewski, R.; Cunningham, B.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Gentile, R.; Fleming, S. (Norton Defense Systems, Mahwah, NJ (USA))

    1990-08-01

    We have developed a modification of 4330 alloy steel which does not have an exact equivalent expressed in any standard specification. When we compare the ballistic performance of our modified cast steel in thicknesses of about 120 mm with that of stacked, 24 mm thick rolled 4340 alloy steel plates of comparable hardness and the same total thickness, we do not find a significant difference in terminal ballistic performance against either heavy metal kinetic energy penetrators or precision shaped charges. This result is surprising in relation to contemporary experience in which cast steel has been found to be ballistically inferior to rolled steel against either kinetic energy projectiles or shaped charge warheads. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  16. Monte Carlo simulation of spinodal decomposition in a ternary alloy within a three-phases field: comparison to phase transformation of ferrite in duplex stainless steels

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS) are largely used for industrial purposes due to their good corrosion resistance, mechanical properties and also due to their ability to be cast. They are notably used as cast elbows in primary circuits of pressurized water reactors. However these steels are subject to ageing at service temperature (285 C degrees - 323 C degrees). This work proposes to model phase transformations occurring in duplex stainless steels using atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo in a ternary model alloy. Kinetics are simulated in the three-phase field of a ternary system. Influence of the precipitation of the third phase on the kinetic of spinodal decomposition between the two other phases is studied in order to understand the synergy between spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation which exists in duplex stainless steels. Simulation results are compared to experimental data obtained with atom probe tomography

  17. MicroRNA 28-5p regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 via inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2.

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Xue-Qing; Liu, Ying; Sun, Ya-Nan; Li, Si; Li, Chun-Mei; Li, Jie; Tian, Wei; Shang, Xiao-Ming; Zhou, Yun-Tao

    2016-01-01

    The biological function of the intronic microRNA-28 (miR-28) may be associated with the biological roles of its host gene, LIM domain lipoma‑preferred partner (LPP). LPP has been reported to promote smooth muscle cell migration in arterial injury and atherosclerosis. However, the mechanism of miR‑28 in atherosclerosis remains unclear. In the current study, the aim was to validate the inhibitory effect of miR‑28‑5p on extracellular signal‑regulated kinase 2 (ERK2), to investigate its biological role in atherosclerosis and its association with cardiovascular disease. Western blotting and stem‑loop reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction combined with TaqMAN microRNA analysis was conducted. The current study demonstrated that miR‑28‑5p upregulated the expression of ATP‑binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) via the inhibition of ERK2 in HepG2 cells. In addition, increased levels of plasma miR‑28‑5p were positively correlated with the levels of high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with unstable angina. This suggests that miR-28-5p participates in atherosclerosis via ERK2-mediated upregulation of the ABCA1 pathway. PMID:26718613

  18. Steel

    Composition of age hardening steel, % : Fe - (12.0-12.4) Cr - (2-2.7) Ni (0.5-0.6) Ti - (1.0-1.2) Mn - (0.03 - 0.04) C having high values of magnetoelastic internal friction and mechanical properties as well as an ability to operate under the conditions of alternating loadings are proposed. Damping properties of the steel permit to improve labour conditions. Data for the above steel on internal friction, impact strength and tensile properties are given

  19. Evaluation of Steel Cleanliness in a Steel Deoxidized Using Al

    Castro-Cedeño, Edgar-Ivan; Herrera-Trejo, Martín; Castro-Román, Manuel; Castro-Uresti, Fabián; López-Cornejo, Monserrat

    2016-06-01

    The effect of magnesium in the aluminum used as a deoxidizer on the cleanliness of steel was studied throughout a steelmaking route for the production of thin slabs. Two deoxidizers with different Mg contents were used. The Mg content of a "typical" deoxidizer was ~0.5 wt pct Mg, whereas that for an alternative deoxidizer was ~2 wt pct Mg. The inclusion population at different stages of the steelmaking process was characterized in terms of chemical composition, number, and size distribution. The inclusion modification path shows that the solid Al2O3 and Al2O3-MgO inclusions formed in the early stage of the steel ladle treatment are modified into Al2O3-MgO-CaO liquid and MgO-Al2O3-liquid inclusions. Although some slight differences were observed in the ladle furnace samples, the chemical composition of inclusions was similar in the samples taken at the mold of the continuous casting, regardless of the deoxidizer used. Gumbel, generalized extreme value (GEV), and generalized Pareto (GP) distributions were used for the description of the size distribution. The GEV and GP distributions resulted in proper distributions to describe the evolution of size distribution throughout the steelmaking process. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences between inclusion size distributions resulting from the use of either deoxidizer were found.

  20. Are Cancer Survivors/Patients Knowledgeable about Osteoporosis? Results from a Survey of 285 Chemotherapy-Treated Cancer Patients and Their Companions

    McKean, Heidi; Looker, Sherry; Hartmann, Lynn C.; Hayman, Suzanne R.; Kaur, Judith S.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Peethambaram, Prema P.; Stahl, Jean F.; Jatoi, Aminah

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed osteoporosis knowledge deficits among cancer patients and their spouses/partners. Design: Single-institution survey (modified version of the Osteoporosis Knowledge Assessment Tool). Setting: The Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Participants: Consecutive chemotherapy-treated cancer patients (n = 285) with their…

  1. Histopathological characterization of corrosion product associated adverse local tissue reaction in hip implants: a study of 285 cases

    Ricciardi, Benjamin F.; Nocon, Allina A.; Jerabek, Seth A.; Wilner, Gabrielle; Kaplowitz, Elianna; Goldring, Steven R.; Purdue, P Edward; Perino, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR), characterized by a heterogeneous cellular inflammatory infiltrate and the presence of corrosion products in the periprosthetic soft tissues, has been recognized as a mechanism of failure in total hip replacement (THA). Different histological subtypes may have unique needs for longitudinal clinical follow-up and complication rates after revision arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to describe the histological patterns observed in the per...

  2. 30 CFR 285.607 - How do I submit my SAP?

    2010-07-01

    ... Assessment Plan and Information Requirements for Commercial Leases § 285.607 How do I submit my SAP? You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your SAP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a). ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my SAP? 285.607 Section...

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Bh-285 (Bohrium)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Bh-285 (Bohrium, atomic number Z = 107, mass number A = 285).

  4. Dicty_cDB: SLD285 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available cl*tcqsfh*klncqrsrstsycq tms**plalw**sinwfcc*splsfr*kdeei**pkkrwsifk*lnliiiiikkkk...modulin-... 153 8e-36 ( Q63450 ) RecName: Full=Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein ki...na... 152 1e-35 ( Q14012 ) RecName: Full=Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kina... 152 1e-35 PDBF( 1A06 )...) Dictyostelium discoideum chromoso... 163 6e-39 AB076903_1( AB076903 |pid:none) Ciona intestinalis Ci-CaM-K...SL (Link to library) SLD285 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U11996-1 SLD285P (Link to Original

  5. Hard Coating on SteelA Review

    Ms. HiteshriJadhav; Mr.Parthiv Trivedi

    2014-01-01

    Now a days various coating techniques are being used in different fields for a large number of applications. This paper consists of different effects and its respective changes on the steel substrate material coated by High Velocity Oxy Fuel (HVOF) coating. It helps enhance the properties such as micro structure, abrasive wear, wear resistance etc. and various techniques such as SEM, XRD, Pin-On-Disc etc. are used to check and analysis these properties. On hard coating steel the material may ...

  6. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  7. Do steel prices move together? : a cointegration test

    Qian, Ying

    1990-01-01

    Lack of international comparability in crude steel prices presents a problem in constructing an econometric model of the global steel market. The commonly used measures of crude steel prices are the weighted average of the prices of steel products and the index of the weighted average of prices based on a certain year. But in the context of constructing an econometric model of the global steel market, these measures are not comparable internationally. If the various product prices are cointeg...

  8. Heat treatments in a conventional steel to reproduce the microstructure of a nuclear grade steel

    The ferritic steels used in the manufacture of pressurized vessels of Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) suffer degradation in their mechanical properties due to damage caused by the neutron fluxes of high energy bigger to a Mega electron volt (E> 1 MeV) generated in the reactor core. The materials with which the pressurized vessels of nuclear reactors cooled by light water are built correspond to low alloy ferritic steels. The effect of neutron irradiation on these steels is manifested as an increase in hardness, mechanical strength, with the consequent decrease in ductility, fracture toughness and an increase in temperature of ductile-brittle transition. The life of a BWR is 40 years, its design must be considered sufficient margin of safety because pressure forces experienced during operation, maintenance and testing of postulated accident conditions. It is necessary that under these conditions the vessel to behave ductile and likely to propagate a fracture is minimized. The vessels of light water nuclear reactors have a bainite microstructure. Specifically, the reactor vessels of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (Veracruz, Mexico) are made of a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1. At present they are carrying out some welding tests for the construction of a model of a BWR, however, to use nuclear grade steel such as Astm A-533 to carry out some of the welding tests, is very expensive; perform these in a conventional material provides basic information. Although the microstructure present in the conventional material does not correspond exactly to the degree of nuclear material, it can take of reference. Therefore, it is proposed to conduct a pilot study to establish the thermal treatment that reproduces the microstructure of nuclear grade steel, in conventional steel. The resulting properties of the conventional steel samples will be compared to a JRQ steel, that is a steel Astm A-533, Grade B Class 1, provided by IAEA. (Author)

  9. MULTIAXIAL FATIGUE OF A RAILWAY WHEEL STEEL

    CHIN-SUNG CHUNG; HO-KYUNG KIM

    2015-01-01

    Uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue specimens were extracted from a railway wheel steel. The fatigue tests were performed with the stress ratio of R= -1 by using uniaxial and biaxial torsional fatigue test specimens at room temperature in air. The ultimate and yield strengths of the steel were evaluated. The uniaxial fatigue limit was 422.5 MPa, which corresponds to 67% of the ultimate tensile strength. The ratio of e  e  / was 0.63. Appropriate parameters to predict the fatigue life ...

  10. Vibrational Based Inspection Of A Steel Mast

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the results from a research project concerning vibrational based inspection of a 20 meter high steel mast containing well defined damages. Introductory analyses dealing with among other things evaluation of potential damage indicators and determination of...

  11. Development of a lean duplex stainless steel

    Liljas, M.; Johansson, P.; Liu Hui-Ping; Olsson, C.O.A. [Avesta Research Centre, Avesta (Sweden). Outokumpu Stainless

    2008-06-15

    The classic series of duplex stainless steels shows very high corrosion resistance and can be used for very demanding applications. A new lean duplex steel, LDX 2101 {sup registered} (EN 1.4162, UNS S32101), has been developed with corrosion resistance on a par with standard austenitic grades. Application areas include: structural components, chemical industry, tanks and containers. The steel was designed to have equal amounts of ferrite and austenite in annealed condition and with an austenite that is stable against strain-induced martensite. Thanks to its high nitrogen content, the steel has a fast austenite reformation when subjected to thermal cycling, e.g. welding. Unlike conventional duplex grades, the formation of intermetallic phase is very sluggish, although precipitation of nitrides and carbides has a certain impact on material properties after exposure in the temperature range 600 to 800 C. The precipitation behaviour after different isothermal treatments is described and its influence on different product properties is shown. A good agreement was found between impact toughness and corrosion resistance for a wide range of thermal treatments. (orig.)

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 178 - Specifications for Steel

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specifications for Steel A Appendix A to Part 178.... 178, App. A Appendix A to Part 178—Specifications for Steel Table 1 Designation Chemical composition... ladle analysis may be 1.40 percent. 6 Rephosphorized Grade 3 steels containing no more than 0.15...

  13. Environmentally-controlled fracture of an overstrained A723 steel thick-walled cylinder

    Underwood, J. H.; Olmstead, V. J.; Askew, J. C.; Kapusta, A. A.; Young, G. A.

    1992-08-01

    A through-wall, 1.7 m long crack grew suddenly from a notch in a 285 mm outer diameter (OD) of an A723 steel overstrained tube that was undergoing plating operations with no externally applied loads. The fracture mechanics tests and analyses and the fractography performed to characterize the cracking are described. The tube had a yield strength of 1200 MPa, fracture toughness of 150 MPavm, and a tensile residual stress at the OD of about 600 MPa. The composition was typical of an air-melt A723 steel, and the electropolishing bath, consisting of sulfuric and phosphoric acids, was held at 54 C. The bolt-loaded test for the threshold stress intensity factor for environmentally controlled cracking described by Wei and Novak was used here with two significant modifications. Some tests included only a notch with the radius matching that of the tube, and a new expression for K in terms of crack-mouth displacement was developed and used. Scanning electron microscope fractography and energy dispersive x ray spectra were used to identify crack mechanisms. Results of the study include: (1) a measured threshold of hydrogen stress cracking for the material/environment below 20 MPavm; (2) da/dt versus K behavior typical of classic environmental control; and (3) an improved K/v expression for the bolt-loaded specimen and associated criteria for determining plane-strain test conditions in relation to the Irwin plastic zone.

  14. Fatigue fracture modes of a stainless steel

    The influence of strain hardening and martensite phase transformation on the fatigue fracture regions (pulsative tension) of a Stainless Steel type AISI 316 was investigated. This lead to the conclusion that the greater austenite strain hardening level only favours the occurrence of a brittle fracture. Also, in as much as the static induced martensite is concerned, a direct influence on the failure process was not observed, whereas, apparently, the one transformed under cyclic loading has no contribution to the rupture mechanisms. (author)

  15. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  16. 27 CFR 28.285 - Receipt in manufacturing bonded warehouse.

    2010-04-01

    ... bonded warehouse. 28.285 Section 28.285 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Receipt in Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.285 Receipt in manufacturing bonded warehouse. On..., as amended, 1380, as amended (26 U.S.C. 5214, 5362)) Receipt in Customs Bonded Warehouse...

  17. A Comparative Study on Nd:YAG Laser Cutting of Steel and Stainless Steel Using Continuous, Square, and Sine Waveforms

    Lo, K. H.

    2012-06-01

    Laser cutting with the sine waveform is seldom reported. This article is a comparative study on Nd:YAG laser cutting using the continuous (CW), square, and sine waveforms. The materials used in this study were steel and stainless steel. It has been found that the cutting capability, in descending order, is: CW > sine > square. The cutting of steel (C ~0.3 wt.%) and AISI304 austenitic stainless steel may be satisfactorily described by the Steen model, irrespective of waveform. Steel is slightly easier to cut than stainless steel. Limitations of the present study are discussed and suggestions for future work are made.

  18. A comparison of the iraddiated tensile properties of a high-manganese austenitic steel and type 316 stainless steel

    The USSR steel EP-838 is a high-manganese, low-nickel steel that also has lower chromium and molybdenum than type 316 stainless steel. Tensile specimens of 20%-cold-worked EP-838 and type 316 stainless steel were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the coolant temperature (approx.=500C). A displacement damage level of 5.2 dpa was reached for the EP-838 and up to 9.5 dpa for the type 316 stainless steel. Tensile tests at room temperature and 3000C on the two steels indicated that the irradiation led to increased strength and decreased ductility compared to the unirradiated steels. Although the 0.2% yield stress of the type 316 stainless steel in the unirradiated condition was greater than that for the EP-838, after irradiation there was essentially no difference between the strength or ductility of the two steels. The results indicate that the replacement of the majority of the nickel by manganese and a reduction of chromium and molybdenum in an austenitic stainless steel of composition near that for type 316 stainless steel has little effect on the irradiated and unirradiated tensile properties at low temperatures. (orig.)

  19. 30 CFR 285.642 - How do I submit my GAP?

    2010-07-01

    ... submit my GAP? (a) You must submit one paper copy and one electronic version of your GAP to MMS at the address listed in § 285.110(a). (b) If you have a limited lease, you may submit information on any project... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I submit my GAP? 285.642 Section...

  20. Corrosion fatigue of a superduplex stainless steel weldment

    Comer, Anthony John

    2004-01-01

    Superduplex stainless steels have superior mechanical and corrosion properties compared to austenitic stainless steels such as the grade 300 series. This is a result of a microstructure consisting of roughly equal percentages of austenite (y) and ferrite (a) and negligible inclusion content. As a result, super duplex stainless steels are increasingly being used in the offshore oil and gas industries. It is also envisaged that they will find application in the emergent renewable energy sec...

  1. Static analysis of a hotel with steel support structure

    Maček, Žiga

    2012-01-01

    Graduation thesis addresses static analysis of a building - a hotel. The analysis is made in accordance with valid standards - Eurocodes, especially SIST EN 1993, which deals with design of steel structures, and SIST EN 1998, which deals with design of structures for earthquake resistance. Graduation thesis contains design with basic geometry, load relevant for analysis are defined, with a help of a program steel cross-sections are chosen. For steel elements extra check is made to meet the de...

  2. Development of a New Armor Steel and its Ballistic Performance

    S. Hakan Atapek

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a boron added armor steel was developed according to standard rolled homogenous armor steel, MIL-A-12560, and metallographic-fractographic examinations were carried out to understand its deformation characteristics and perforation mode after interaction with a 7.62 mm armor piercing projectile. The microstructure of the developed steel was characterized by light and scanning electron microscope to evaluate its matrix after application of several heat treatments consisting of au...

  3. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-03-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  4. Tundish Technology for Casting Clean Steel: A Review

    Sahai, Yogeshwar

    2016-08-01

    With increasing demand of high-quality clean steel, cleanliness is of paramount importance in steel production and casting. Tundish plays an important role in controlling the continuously cast steel quality as it links a batch vessel, ladle, to a continuous casting mold. Tundish is also the last vessel in which metal flows before solidifying in mold. For controlling the quality of steel, flow and temperature control of the melt are critical, and these are presented in this paper. Use of proper flux, design of flow control devices, and gas injection in tundish become important factors in casting clean steel. Recycling of hot tundish, centrifugal flow tundish, H-shaped tundish, etc. are some of the developments which were implemented to cast clean steel and these are discussed.

  5. Weldability of a high purity offshore cast steel

    Koivula, J.; Katila, R.; Liimatainen, J.; Martikainen, H.

    1989-01-01

    High purity, high strength cast steels with excellent weldability have been developed for offshore components with wall thicknesses up to 200 mm. The three new steel grades developed were given the designations OS 340, OS 540, and OS 690 according to their respective guaranteed yield strengths. The strengthening of OS steels is based mainly on solid solution hardening. Microalloying is not used because of weldability requirements. As a result of the ultra-low impurity content and low carbon contents the grain boundaries are clean of carbides, segregated impurities, and non-metallic inclusions, which contribute to the excellent toughness of these steels. (author).

  6. Development of a duplex cast stainless steel for nuclear purposes

    The starting material was a Finnish austenitic-ferritic stainless steel belonging to the family of widely used CF 308 M cast steels. This original HKS steel failed in the Strauss tests, which are of primary importance for materials used in nuclear power piles. Development work on lowering the ferrite and interstitial impurity contents influenced the properties of the steel so much that it no longer failed the Strauss test nor showed any brittleness when tested after irradiation treatment. Welded samples also showed no brittleness, provided the welding was carried out using correct filler materials and suitable heat input. (author)

  7. Comparison of the irradiated tensile properties of a high-manganese austenitic steel and type 16 stainless steel

    The USSR steel EP-838 is a high-manganese (13.5%), low-nickel (4.2%) steel that also has lower chromium and molybdenum than type 316 stainless steel. Tensile specimens of 20%-cold-worked EP-838 and type 316 stainless steel were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the coolant temperature (approx. 500C). A displacement damage level of 5.2 dpa was reached for the EP-838 and up to 9.5 dpa for the type 316 stainless steel. Tensile tests at room temperature and 3000C on the two steels indicated that the irradiation led to increased strength and decreased ductility compared to the unirradiated steels. Although the 0.2% yield stress of the type 316 stainless steel in the unirradiated condition was greater than that for the EP-838, after irradiation there was essentially no difference between the strength or ductility of the two steels. The results indicate that the replacement of the majority of the nickel by manganese and a reduction of chromium and molybdenum in an austenitic stainless steel of composition near that for type 316 stainless steel has little effect on the irradiated and unirradiated tensile properties at low temperatures

  8. Simulation of a stainless steel multipass weldment

    Several problems in nuclear power plants are due to shrinkage and distortion of welded structures and the associated residual stresses. In this context, a stainless steel multipass weldment realized in a H type constrained specimen has been calculated by means of finite element method. The temperatures obtained from a 3 D modified Rosenthal equation are compared with the experimental ones, and are then used for the 2 D simulation in which a linear Kinematic hardening is assumed in relation to a Von Mises plasticity criteria. Materials data are well known up to very high temperatures (12000 C) and are introduced in the model. Experimental and calculated displacements after the first pass are compared and a discussion points out what improvements should be made for a better agreement. (author). 3 refs., 8 figs, 1 tab

  9. A survey on decentralized steel industries

    Mostafa Jafari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past three decades there have been tremendous efforts on building steel factories on economic scales. The primary question is to find an economic scale for such plants which could also meet domestic demand. In this paper, we perform an empirical survey to find out whether building small steel factories are more suitable or setting up giant steel industries to meet regional demands. The results indicate that in many countries, building small steel plants based on the recent advances of technologies not only reduces the total cost of steel production but also it could significantly reduce the unnecessary transportation cost, providing cheaper labor, etc. This would lead to better competition which would increase the productivity.

  10. Euler Teaches a Class in Structural Steel Design

    Boyajian, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Even before steel was a topic of formal study for structural engineers, the brilliant eighteenth century Swiss mathematician and physicist, Leonhard Euler (1707-1783), investigated the theory governing the elastic behaviour of columns, the results of which are incorporated into the American Institute of Steel Construction's (AISC's) Bible: the…

  11. A sustainability assessment system for Chinese iron and steel firms

    Long, Yunguang; Pan, Jieyi; Farooq, Sami;

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of the Chinese iron and steel industry is huge due to its high consumption of ore, coal and energy, and water and air pollution. It is important not only for China but also for the rest of the world that the Chinese iron and steel industry becomes more sustainable....... A sustainable assessment indicator system is an important tool to support that development. Currently, however, a sustainable assessment system, specifically designed to match the characteristics of Chinese iron and steel firms, is not available. In this paper such a system is proposed and evaluated using data...... from financial and sustainability reports of four leading Chinese iron and steel firms. The proposed sustainable assessment system is envisaged to help Chinese iron and steel firms to objectively investigate their sustainability performance, provide clear and effective information to decision makers...

  12. Micromechanics of twinning in a TWIP steel

    The deformation behaviour of a TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel was studied at quasi-static strain rates using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A {111} RD and {200} RD texture developed from the earliest stages of deformation, which could be reproduced using an elasto-plastic self consistent (EPSC) model. Evidence is found from multiple sources to suggest that twinning was occurring before macroscopic yielding. This included small deviations in the lattice strains, {111} intensity changes and peak width broadening all occurring below the macroscopic yield point. The accumulation of permanent deformation on sub-yield mechanical cycling of the material was found, which further supports the diffraction data. TEM revealed that fine deformation twins similar to those observed in heavily deformed samples formed during sub-yield cycling. It is concluded that twinning had occurred before macroscopic plastic deformation began, unlike the behaviour traditionally expected from hexagonal metals such as Mg

  13. Micromechanics of twinning in a TWIP steel

    Rahman, K.M., E-mail: khandaker.rahman05@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom); Jones, N.G. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Dye, D. [Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BP (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-21

    The deformation behaviour of a TWinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel was studied at quasi-static strain rates using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. A {111} RD and {200} RD texture developed from the earliest stages of deformation, which could be reproduced using an elasto-plastic self consistent (EPSC) model. Evidence is found from multiple sources to suggest that twinning was occurring before macroscopic yielding. This included small deviations in the lattice strains, {111} intensity changes and peak width broadening all occurring below the macroscopic yield point. The accumulation of permanent deformation on sub-yield mechanical cycling of the material was found, which further supports the diffraction data. TEM revealed that fine deformation twins similar to those observed in heavily deformed samples formed during sub-yield cycling. It is concluded that twinning had occurred before macroscopic plastic deformation began, unlike the behaviour traditionally expected from hexagonal metals such as Mg.

  14. In vivo behavior of a high performance duplex stainless steel.

    Cigada, A; De Santis, G; Gatti, A M; Roos, A; Zaffe, D

    1993-01-01

    An in vivo investigation of a new high molybdenum and nitrogen duplex stainless steel (25Cr--7Ni--4Mo--0.3N) has been performed. Cylindrical pins and specially developed devices, to test in static conditions the in vivo localized corrosion resistance, made of this new duplex steel and of a common austenitic stainless steel were implanted in rabbit's femurs for 6 and 12 months. After sacrifice, SEM observations and EDS microanalyses to detect metallic ion release were carried out on the femur sections surrounding the pins. Morphologic observations with stereoscope and SEM were performed on the metallic surfaces of the special devices in order to detect the presence of localized corrosion. Both ion release and localized corrosion were observed for the specimens made of austenitic stainless steel, but not for those made of 25Cr--7Ni--4Mo--0.3N duplex stainless steel. PMID:10148344

  15. Numerical modelling of the behaviour of a stainless steel portal frame subjected to fire

    Lopes, N.; Vila Real, P. M. M.; Piloto, P.A.G.; Mesquita, L.M.R.; Silva, L. S

    2006-01-01

    It is known that stainless steel has a better fire performance than carbon steel, which can lead to a growing utilization of this kind of steel in structures. In fact, although more expensive than the carbon steel, structures in stainless steel can be competitive because of its smaller thermal protection need. With the purpose of modelling by Finite Element Method the behaviour of a stainless steel framed structure, without any protection, submitted to fire, has been introduced...

  16. A stainless steel bracket for orthodontic application.

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Choo, Sung-Uk; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2005-06-01

    Aesthetics has become an essential element when choosing orthodontic fixed appliances. Most metallic brackets used in orthodontic therapy are made from stainless steel (SS) with the appropriate physical properties and good corrosion resistance, and are available as types 304, 316 and 17-4 PH SS. However, localized corrosion of these materials can frequently occur in the oral environment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of sizing, microstructure, hardness, corrosion resistance, frictional resistance and cytotoxicity of commercially available Mini-diamond (S17400), Archist (S30403) and experimentally manufactured SR-50A (S32050) brackets. The size accuracy of Mini-diamond was the highest at all locations except for the external horizontal width of the tie wing (P SS brackets. PMID:15947222

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSH285 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSH285 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U04919-1 SSH285F (Link to Original ... SAMPLING. 36 2.0 3 U50871 |U50871.1 Human familial Alzheimer 's disease (STM2) gene, complete cds. 42 2.1 4 AZ54 ...

  18. A methodology for replacement of conventional steel by microalloyed steel in bus tubular structures

    The aim of this article is to show the use of a methodology that allows, in a trustful way and without the need to build up a complete physical model, the replacement of conventional steel by structural microalloyed steel (HSLA) in tubular structure, concerning passengers transport in vehicles with capacity of more than 20 people. The validation of the methodology is based on the ECE R66-00 regulation and on the Brazilian CONTRAN 811/96 resolution, which regulate minimal conditions of safety for this kind of vehicle. The methodology has four sequential and dependent stages, where the main focus is related to the experimental tests through the models that are simplified initially for later calibration using finite element method. Modular structures made of two different materials were tested and analyzed to confirm the present methodology, first the structure made of steel that is used by the bus industry in Brazil was tested and then it was compared with the new microalloyed steel. Experimental values are compared with calculated ones, foreseeing parametric optimisation and keeping the security levels according to legislation

  19. A methodology for replacement of conventional steel by microalloyed steel in bus tubular structures

    Cruz, Magnus G.H. [Marcopolo S.A., Unidade Ana Rech, Av. Rio Branco, 4889, Ana Rach, 95060-650 Caxias do Sul (Brazil)], E-mail: magnus@verbonet.com.br; Viecelli, Alexandre [Mechanical Engineering Department, Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Rua Francisco Getulio Vargas, 1130, 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: avieceli@ucs.br

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this article is to show the use of a methodology that allows, in a trustful way and without the need to build up a complete physical model, the replacement of conventional steel by structural microalloyed steel (HSLA) in tubular structure, concerning passengers transport in vehicles with capacity of more than 20 people. The validation of the methodology is based on the ECE R66-00 regulation and on the Brazilian CONTRAN 811/96 resolution, which regulate minimal conditions of safety for this kind of vehicle. The methodology has four sequential and dependent stages, where the main focus is related to the experimental tests through the models that are simplified initially for later calibration using finite element method. Modular structures made of two different materials were tested and analyzed to confirm the present methodology, first the structure made of steel that is used by the bus industry in Brazil was tested and then it was compared with the new microalloyed steel. Experimental values are compared with calculated ones, foreseeing parametric optimisation and keeping the security levels according to legislation.

  20. Development of a New Armor Steel and its Ballistic Performance

    S. Hakan Atapek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a boron added armor steel was developed according to standard rolled homogenous armor steel, MIL-A-12560, and metallographic-fractographic examinations were carried out to understand its deformation characteristics and perforation mode after interaction with a 7.62 mm armor piercing projectile. The microstructure of the developed steel was characterized by light and scanning electron microscope to evaluate its matrix after application of several heat treatments consisting of austenization, quenching and tempering. The mechanical properties of the developed steel were determined by tensile test at room temperature and notched impact test at -40 ºC. The ballistic performance of developed steel was determined by its V50 ballistic protection limit according to MIL-STD-662F standard and it was found to be higher than that of MIL-A-12560 steel. After perforation deformation induced adiabatic shear bands, that have an important role on the crack nucleation, were observed close to the penetration in the etched steel and perforation occurred by typical ductile hole enlargement with certain radial flows.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(3, pp.271-277, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.1341

  1. Development of a high strength high toughness ausferritic steel

    A new ausferritic steel with high strength and exceptionally high fracture toughness has been developed. This steel has been synthesized integrating concepts from Austempered Ductile Cast Iron (ADI) technology. The influence of the austempering temperature on the microstructure and mechanical properties of this steel at room temperature and ambient atmosphere has been examined. The effect of microstructure on the plane strain fracture toughness and on the magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties was also investigated. Compact tension and cylindrical tensile specimens prepared from the low alloy medium carbon steel with high silicon content were initially austenitized at 927 deg. C for 2 h and then subsequently austempered at several temperatures between 260 deg. C (500 F) and 400 deg. C (750 F) to produce different microstructures. The microstructures were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and optical metallography. A combination of exceptionally high yield strength (1336 MPa) and a high fracture of toughness of 116 MPa√m (a value comparable to maraging steel) was obtained in this steel after austempering at 316 deg. C (600 F) for 2 h. Potential applications of this steel include the inexpensive fabrication of armored plates and components requiring high reliability and durability.

  2. CETA, a step towards a low activation martensitic steel

    The conventional martensitic 9-12% CrMoV Nb steel, type MANET/W.nr. 1.4914, an European reference, shows promising properties for an application as ''First Wall'' - and as structural material for fusion devices. One of few drawbacks is the high neutron-induced, longterm activation through elements like Mo, Ni and Nb. The substitution of these important alloying elements by W and Ta leads to a new group of 8-10% Cr W V Ta alloys, to which the steel CETA belongs. Activation calculations indicate that a reduction of longterm activation can be achieved through this compositional change. Investigations of CETA revealed that this new steel is fully martensitic without any δ-ferrite formation, and grain-refinement can fully be achieved by Ta alloying. The alloy exhibits good hardenability and tempering behaviour. The transformation behaviour is very similar to that of the CrMoVNb steels. The tensile-, creep- and creep rupture-properties satisfy the requirements, the impact properties correspond to the values measured for the MANET material. Further improvement of all properties seems to be possible through optimization of the chemical composition of this new steel. (orig.)

  3. Hole expansion in a variety of sheet steels

    Comstock, R. J.; Scherrer, D. K.; Adamczyk, R. D.

    2006-12-01

    Expanding pierced holes is a common forming practice and problems during these operations are not unusual. A damczyk and Michal have previously developed an equation for maximum hole expansion of HSLA steels, for holes in the sheared then deburred condition. This paper expands the work of the above authors. Nineteen ferritic, ferritic stainless, and austenitic stainless steels were evaluated for hole expansion using various hole-edge conditions. It was found that the behavior of steels having finished holes is very different than those tested in the as-sheared condition. Relationships between hole expansion and tensile-mechanical properties were developed for both conditions.

  4. Rolling Bearing Steels - A Technical and Historical Perspective

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2012-01-01

    Starting about 1920 it becomes easier to track the growth of bearing materials technology. Until 1955, with few exceptions, comparatively little progress was made in this area. AISI 52100 and some carburizing grades (AISI 4320, AISI 9310) were adequate for most applications. The catalyst to quantum advances in high-performance rolling-element bearing steels was the advent of the aircraft gas turbine engine. With improved bearing manufacturing and steel processing together with advanced lubrication technology, the potential improvements in bearing life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the late 1950s or as much as 400 times that attainable in 1940. This paper summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability. The single most important variable that has significantly increased bearing life and reliability is vacuum processing of bearing steel. Differences between through hardened, case carburized and corrosion resistant steels are discussed. The interrelation of alloy elements and carbides and their effect on bearing life are presented. An equation relating bearing life, steel hardness and temperature is given. Life factors for various steels are suggested and discussed. A relation between compressive residual stress and bearing life is presented. The effects of retained austenite and grain size are discussed.

  5. Measuring the Diameter of a Hair with a Steel Rule.

    Macdonald, John; O'Leary, Sean V.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a technique that uses a helium neon laser, a steel rule, a wooden rule, and a piece of paper to measure the diameter of a hair using the diffraction of light. Details on technique, mathematics, and sources of error are provided. (DDR)

  6. Steel Safeguards and the Welfare of U.S. Steel Firms and Downstream Consumers of Steel: A Shareholder Wealth Perspective

    Liebman, Benjamin H.; Kasaundra M. Tomlin

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the steel safeguards implemented and subsequently removed during 2001-2003. Our results reveal that for shareholders of U.S. steel companies, safeguards generated positive “abnormal” returns of approximately 6%; and the cancellation of the safeguards resulted in wealth gains of about 5%. Steel shareholders experienced negative abnormal returns of -5% in response to the WTO ruling that the U.S. violated WTO law. The results here are consistent with the neoclassical view tha...

  7. A Virtual Steel Sculpture for Structural Engineering Education: Development and Initial Findings

    Dib, Hazar Nicholas; Adamo-Villani, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    We describe the development and evaluation of a virtual steel sculpture for engineering education. A good connection design requires the engineer to have a solid understanding of the mechanics and steel behavior. To help students better understand various connection types, many schools have acquired steel sculptures. A steel sculpture is a…

  8. A review on hot direct rolling of hsla steel

    The evolution of economically viable high strength low alloy structural steels (HSLA) with a good weld ability is probably the most significant metallurgical achievement of the steel industry in the last few decades. In these developments during thermo mechanical processing grain refinement is achieved by refining the as rolled austenite phase prior to transformation and introducing a high density of ferrite nucleation sites during rolling. A current trend in thermo mechanical processing of steel is to integrate the rolling process with continuous casting process. The development of a direct linkage between the continuous casting machine and hot working processes is suggested by economic considerations. However, hot charge rolling (HCR) and hot direct rolling (HDR) of micro alloyed steels affect mechanical properties significantly compared with conventional controlled rolling(CCR). (author)

  9. Warm Deformation Microstructure of a Plain Carbon Steel

    B Eghbali; M Shaban

    2011-01-01

    Grain refinement in a plain carbon steel under intercritical warm deformation was studied by torsion tes ring. Based on the experimental results, the warm flow behaviour and microstructural evolution of ferrite were researched with particular emphasis on

  10. Transverse rupture strength of a PM tool steel

    Oscar Olimpio de Araujo Filho; Francisco Ambrozio Filho; Mauricio David Martins das Neves; Odília Cordeiro de Souza Ribeiro; Cesar Henrique Lopes da Silva

    2005-01-01

    Powder Metallurgy has been reported as a suitable alternate processing route for the manufacture of tool steels. The advantage of this technique is in being able to obtain a refined and more uniform microstructure that improves properties such high wear resistance and toughness. A molybdenum containing AISI M3:2 tool steel, (trade name Sinter 23), manufactured from spherical gas-atomized powders by hot isostatic pressing followed by hot working was tested in three-point bending tests after va...

  11. Plastic localization phenomena in a Mn-alloyed austenitic steel

    Matteis, Paolo; Firrao, Donato; Scavino, Giorgio; Russo Spena, Pasquale

    2010-01-01

    A 0.5 wt pct C, 22 wt pct Mn austenitic steel, recently proposed for fabricating automotive body structures by cold sheet forming, exhibits plastic localizations (PLs) during uniaxial tensile tests, yet showing a favorable overall strength and ductility. No localization happens during biaxial Erichsen cupping tests. Full-thickness tensile and Erichsen specimens, cut from as-produced steel sheets, were polished and tested at different strain rates. During the tensile tests, the PL phenomena co...

  12. Recorded seismic response of a base-isolated steel bridge carrying a steel water pipe

    Safak, E.; Brady, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    A set of strong motion records was obtained from the base-isolated Santa Ana River Pipeline Bridge during the magnitude 5.9 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake of October 1, 1987. The analysis of the records show that the level of excitation was not strong enough to fully activate the base isolators. The dominant modes of the response are the translations of the abutment-bridge-pipe system in the longitudinal and transverse directions, and the bending of the steel truss between supports in the vertical direction.

  13. Microstructure of a high boron 9-12% chromium steel

    Andren, H.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Physics

    2008-07-01

    Additions of small amounts of boron (10-100 ppm) to 9-12% chromium steels are often made since they have been found to be beneficial for the creep strength up to and above 600 C. The effect of boron is to restrict the coarsening of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} precipitates during service. It was found that increasing the boron content from 9 to 40 ppm gave a decrease in coarsening constant at 600 C by a factor of 2. The present understanding of boron solution, non-equilibrium grain boundary segregation, incorporation into M{sub 23}C{sub 6}, and diffusion is reviewed in the paper. A very high boron addition (300 ppm) was made in the trial TAF steel already in the 1950'ies. The microstructure of a similar trial steel, FT3B, has been studied detail. In this steel large Mo, Cr, Fe and V containing metal borides are formed rather than the expected BN, with the crystal structure M{sub 2}B{sub 2}. Nitrogen is therefore still available for the formation of VN. Due to tempering at a low temperature (690 C) to a high strength (830 MPa), this steel contained a dense distribution of very small VN precipitates, 5-15 nm in size. A similar VN distribution is probably the cause of the still unsurpassed creep strength of the TAF steel. (orig.)

  14. A liquid aluminum corrosion resistance surface on steel substrate

    The process of hot dipping pure aluminum on a steel substrate followed by oxidation was studied to form a surface layer of aluminum oxide resistant to the corrosion of aluminum melt. The thickness of the pure aluminum layer on the steel substrate is reduced with the increase in temperature and time in initial aluminizing, and the thickness of the aluminum layer does not increase with time at given temperature when identical temperature and complete wetting occur between liquid aluminum and the substrate surface. The thickness of the Fe-Al intermetallic layer on the steel base is increased with increasing bath temperature and time. Based on the experimental data and the mathematics model developed by the study, a maximum exists in the thickness of the Fe-Al intermetallic at certain dipping temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis reveals that the top portion of the steel substrate is composed of a thin layer of α-Al2O3, followed by a thinner layer of FeAl3, and then a much thicker one of Fe2Al5 on the steel base side. In addition, there is a carbon enrichment zone in diffusion front. The aluminum oxide surface formed on the steel substrate is in perfect condition after corrosion test in liquid aluminum at 750 deg. C for 240 h, showing extremely good resistance to aluminum melt corrosion

  15. Atomic Mass and NuclearBinding Energy for Uup-285(Ununpentium)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Uup-285 (Ununpentium, atomic number Z = 115, mass number A = 285).

  16. Steel Draws Automobiles:A Siege In Winter

    2009-01-01

    Afinancial crisis hits the world,adding more chill to the winter in 2008. Among the sufferers are the trembling steel industry and the auto industry which begins detecting the cold.In these days,these two industries are worrying about their future in 2009 and wondering when the spring will come.The point is,will the steel industry embrace a better time in 2009?And to what extent it will affect the auto industry?

  17. Behaviour of Steel Arch Stabilized by a Textile Membrane

    Svoboda, O.; Machacek, J.

    2015-11-01

    Behaviour of the slender steel arch supporting textile membranes in a membrane structure with respect to in-plane and out-of plane stability is investigated in the paper. In the last decades the textile membranes have been widely used to cover both common and exclusive structures due to progress in new membrane materials with eminent properties. Nevertheless, complex analysis of such membranes in interaction with steel structure (carbon/stainless steel perimeter or supporting elements) is rather demanding, even with specialized software. Laboratory model of a large membrane structure simulating a shelter roof of a concert stage was tested and the resulting stress/deflection values are presented. The model of a reasonable size was provided with prestressed membrane of PVC coated polyester fabric Ferrari® Précontraint 702S and tested under various loadings. The supporting steel structure consisted of two steel arch tubes from S355 grade steel and perimeter prestressed cables. The stability behaviour of the inner tube was the primary interest of the investigation. The SOFiSTiK software was used to analyse the structural behaviour in 3D. Numerical non-linear analysis of deflections and internal forces of the structure under symmetrical and asymmetrical loadings covers various membrane prestressing and specific boundary conditions. The numerical results are validated using test results. Finally, the preliminary recommendations for appropriate numerical modelling and stability design of the supporting structure are presented.

  18. A friction model for cold forging of aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with conversion coating and solid film lubricant

    Bay, Niels; Eriksen, Morten; Tan, Xincai;

    2011-01-01

    Adopting a simulative tribology test system for cold forging the friction stress for aluminum, steel and stainless steel provided with typical lubricants for cold forging has been determined for varying normal pressure, surface expansion, sliding length and tool/work piece interface temperature...

  19. A Comparison between Dual Phase Steel and Interstitial Free Steel Due To the Springback Effect

    E.A., Silva; L.F.V.M., Fernandes; N.A.S., Sampaio; R.B., Ribeiro; J.W.J., Silva; M.S., Pereira

    2016-01-01

    International audience This is a study of the springback effect on two kinds of high strength steel, which are: dualphase and interstitial free, currently used as feedstock in the production of vehicles. The mechanical characterization of the springback effect was performed by means of a mechanical conformation test, called three-point air bending, performed by adapting it to the unconstrained cylindrical bending test. It was also evaluated the mechanical properties of the material defined...

  20. Fabrication and characterization of a Spanish RAFM steel

    One of the main challenges for the realization of the future fusion reactor is the development and qualification of structural materials for first wall and breeding blanket. The fusion reactor application requires materials resistant to radiation damage, with excellent mechanical properties at high temperatures, good corrosion behaviour and reduced activation potential. Reduced Activation (RAFM) 9Cr Ferritic/Martenistic steels are the main candidates for first wall and blanket of fusion reactors, due to their resistance to swelling and excellent structural and thermal properties. These steels are based on the classical Cr-Mo steel grades but with a chemical composition modified in order to fulfil the low activation requirements, substituting the alloying elements with long decay times due to high activation by neutron irradiation. For this purpose the Mo is replaced by W, the Nb by Ta and Ni is removed. A summary of the activities related to the evaluation of the microstructural and mechanical properties of a reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel fabricated at a semi-industrial scale in Spain will be presented in this paper. The steel chemical composition fulfils or is very close to the compositional specifications and metallurgical properties of the EUROFER steel. This activity corresponds to the ITMA and CIEMAT participation on Task 4 of the CONSOLIDER TECNOFUS INGENIO 2010, financed by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. (author)

  1. Finite element thermal analysis of the fusion welding of a P92 steel pipe

    Yaghi, A. H.; Tanner, D. W. J.; Hyde, T.H.; A. A. Becker; Sun, W.

    2012-01-01

    Fusion welding is common in steel pipeline construction in fossil-fuel power generation plants. Steel pipes in service carry steam at high temperature and pressure, undergoing creep during years of service; their integrity is critical for the safe operation of a plant. The high-grade martensitic P92 steel is suitable for plant pipes for its enhanced creep strength. P92 steel pipes are usually joined together with a similar weld metal. Martensitic pipes are sometimes joined to austenitic steel...

  2. Yeast Interacting Proteins Database: YOR285W, YDR233C [Yeast Interacting Proteins Database

    Full Text Available YOR285W - Protein of unknown function, localized to the mitochondrial outer membrane Rows with t ... ; null mutant has an altered (mostly cisternal) ER morphology ; member of the RTNLA (reticulon-like A) subfamily ... ; null mutant has an altered (mostly cisternal) ER morphology ; member of the RTNLA (reticulon-like A) subfamily ...

  3. 49 CFR 192.285 - Plastic pipe: Qualifying persons to make joints.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe: Qualifying persons to make joints... Materials Other Than by Welding § 192.285 Plastic pipe: Qualifying persons to make joints. (a) No person may make a plastic pipe joint unless that person has been qualified under the applicable joining...

  4. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  5. A review of hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel weldments

    The occurrence of hot cracking in austenitic stainless steel weldments is discussed with respect to its origin and metallurgical contributory factors. Of the three types of hot cracking, namely solidification cracking, liquation and ductility dip cracking, solidification cracking occurs in the interdendritic regions in weld metal while liquation and ductility dip cracking occur intergranularly in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). Segregation of impurity and minor elements such as sulphur, phosphorous, silicon, niobium, boron etc to form low melting eutectic phases has been found to be the major cause of hot cracking. Control of HAZ cracking requires minimisation of impurity elements in the base metal. In stabilized stainless steels containing niobium, higher amounts of delta-ferrite have been found necessary to prevent cracking than in unstabilized compositions. Titanium compounds have been found to cause liquation cracking in maraging steels and titanium containing stainless steels and superalloys. In nitrogen added stainless steels, cracking resistance decreases when the solidification mode changes to primary austenitic due to nitrogen addition. A review of the test methods to evaluate hot cracking behaviour showed that several external restraint and semi-self-restraint tests are available. The finger Test, WRC Fissure Bend Test, the PVR test and the Varestraint Test are described along with typical test results. Hot ductility testing to reveal HAZ cracking tendency during welding is described, which is of particular importance to stabilized stainless steels. Based on the literature, recommendations are made for welding stabilized and nitrogen added steels, indicating areas of further work. (author). 81 refs., 30 figs., 1 tab

  6. Numerical simulation of a full scale fire test on a loaded steel framework

    Franssen, Jean-Marc; Cooke, C. M. E.; Latham, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    A single bay single storey steel portal frame has been tested under fire conditions. It is here simulated using hte non linear computer code CEFICOSS. The elements have composite steel-concrete sections for the thermal analysis, but only the steel part of the sections is load bearing.

  7. Corrosion Behaviors of Steel A3 Exposed to Thiobacillus Ferrooxidans

    Jianhua LIU; Xin LIANG; Songmei LI

    2008-01-01

    The corrosion behaviors of steel A3 in synergistic action of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans (T.f) and electrochemically accelerated corrosion were studied by electrochemical, microbiology and surface analysis methods. The open circuit potential (Eocp) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the steel A3 electrodes were measured in leathen culture medium without and with T.f (simply called T.f solution in the following paper)in immersion electrode way at the time of the 2nd, 5th, 10th, 20th and 30th days, respectively. It was found that Eocp of the electrode for immersion in leathen culture medium shifted negatively with the immersion time while that for immersion in T.f solutions shifted negatively, then positively and finally negatively. On the 20th day, the corrosion of steel A3 for immersion in culture medium was in pitting initiation stage while that for immersion in T.f solutions was in pitting growth stage. It was found that the corrosion of steel A3 was accelerated by T.f. The morphology of corrosion product of steel A3 immersion in T.f solutions observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) transformed from solid globules to tabular plates and to spongy globules and plates.

  8. A method for vertical electromagnetic moldless casting of steel

    Several approaches have been studied for the vertical casting of thin (3 mm-8 mm) sheets of steel. Each approach employs electromagnetic (EM) forces, avoids the need for contact between the solidifying steel and a solid mold. The most promising approach uses a high-frequency (HF:>100 kHz) oval solenoid magnet to provide containment of the liquid steel and a low-frequency (LF:/approximately/60 Hz) traveling field, similar to the double-sided linear induction pump, to provide levitation. The low field level of the solenoid and the low frequency of the levitation magnet result in acceptably low EM heating of the steel. The LF field penetrates the steel and provides a body force exactly counteracting the force of gravity everywhere except near the edges of the solidifying sheet. Additional HF traveling field magnets augment the levitation force near the edges but generate more EM heating. Other means of extending the levitating force to the edge and other approaches using stationary or traveling fields have also been studied. 4 refs., 4 figs

  9. Grade A boron-stainless steel: your flexible friend

    Boron-containing stainless steels were first used for neutron flux control in reactors. Today they are also used as neutron absorbing materials for spent fuel storage pools and transportation casks. These boron-enriched stainless steels provide a higher thermal neutron absorption cross section than conventional Type 304. Up to 2.25% boron may be added, depending upon attenuation requirements. While adding boron increases neutron attenuation, it has an adverse effect on the alloy's ductility and impact resistance. In the past this has limited the use of borated stainless steels as a structural material for the storage and transportation of spent fuel. Growing needs in the industry, along with improvements in speciality steel processing, led to the development of an advanced type of boron stainless steel which combines neutron absorption capability with the ductility and impact resistance needed for structural applications. It is available with total boron contents up to 2.25% of natural boron, the enriched B-10 isotope, or a combination of these. (author)

  10. A new generation of ultra high strength steel pipelines

    For many years an increased demand for natural gas can be observed. Ultra high-strength pipelines with higher operating pressures and/or reduced wall thickness are a means to reduce transmission costs. Motivated by reduced investment costs (overcharge a few billion of dollars), tend towards the development of a new grade of pipeline steel with microalloying element for example Nb, that potentially lowers the total cost of long-distance gas pipelines by 5 - 15%. New long distance pipelines have budgets in excess of several billion dollars. This paper describes mechanical properties of new generation of pipelines steel with higher content of niobium and the influence the welding thermal cycles on the microstructure and brittle fracture resistance. The resistance to cold cracking has also been determined. It was found that the new steel has close properties to API X70 grade steels, but is cheaper in manufacturing and installation. The steel has been covered by the amended EN 10028-5 standard and proper modifications will also be made in other European standards. (author)

  11. Carbon exchange between steel and sodium as a corrosion phenomenon

    New analytical methods are applied to measure carbon in liquid sodium in the concentration range below 1 μg C/gNa. The carbon exchange between sodium and austenitic steel under decarburising conditions can be understood on the basis of the results of these analyses. The decarburisation of austenitic steel by sodium may cause a corrosive effect of the surface region of the materials. Some tests with the steel no. 1.4948 have demonstrated a reduction of its creep-rupture strength at 550deg C. The corrosion due to decarburisation proceeds slowly, specimens with a larger diameter were not affected, a significant reduction of the creep-rupture strength did not occur. (orig.)

  12. Modeling Corrosion Reactions of Steel in a Dilute Carbonate Solution

    Eliyan, Faysal Fayez; Alfantazi, Akram

    2016-02-01

    This research models the corrosion reactions of a high-strength steel in an aerated, dilute, carbonate solution during a single-cycle voltammetry. Based on a previous study (Eliyan et al. in J Mater Eng Perform 24(6):1-8, 2015) and a literature survey, the corrosion reactions of the cathodic reduction, anodic dissolution, and passivation, as well as the interfacial interactions and the chemistry of the corrosion products are illustrated in schematics. The paper provides a visual guide on the corrosion reactions for steel in carbonate solutions based on the available mechanistic details that were reported and are still being investigated in literature.

  13. Nitrogen implantation in steel with a pulsed ion beam accelerator

    The modification of wear properties of high speed steel cutting tools for lathe by nitrogen implantation, were studied in a normal boring process of SAE 1045 steel parts. The implantation was done with a pulsed ion beam accelerator, which produced a nitrogen ion beam of continuous energy spectrum (10-300 KeV) with 400 ns pulsed duration on target. A tool fluence of 1.65 x 1017 cm-2 - obtained by 30 singles shot accumulation was used in the experiments. (author)

  14. Microstructure and Texture of a Warmed Rolled IF Steel

    Viana, C. S. Da Costa; Matheus, J. R. G.; Lopes, A. M.; El-Sharawy, H. H. Aly

    2000-01-01

    Steel rolling within the temperature range intermediate between hot and cold rolling represents today a very economical and technically viable operation. The present work investigates the microstructure and the texture developed in a Ti microalloyed IF steel by rolling at 400°C and 600°C. Reductions of 40% and 60% were applied to a set of as hot rolled strip specimens part of which was subsequently annealed at 800°C for 5 minutes. Both the microstructure and the texture were examined by scann...

  15. A Glimpse of Iron and Steel Industry of China in Recent Years

    LIU Jiehua; ZHANG Xiaohui; SHEN Keyin; WANG Jing

    2006-01-01

    The paper briefs the recent development of China's Iron & Steel Industry from the view of a refractories worker. Some data and statistics have been revealed in the paper including total output of steel, geological distribution of key steel enterprises, productivity, facilities,technical and economical indices as well as technical advance achieved in the last ten years. Structural adjustment and consolidation occurred in China's Iron & Steel Industry has also been described.The views on how much steel is demanded in China in the near future advanced by a steel expert has been accepted as the conclusion of the paper.

  16. A LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINIZING TREATMENT OF HOT WORK TOOL STEEL

    Matijević, Božidar

    2013-01-01

    Conventional aluminizing processes by pack cementation are typically carried out at elevated temperatures. A low temperature powder aluminizing technology was applied to the X40CrMoV5-1 hot tool steel. The aluminizing temperature was from 550 °C to 620 °C. Effects of temperature and time on the microstructure and phase evolution were investigated. Also, the intermetallic layer thickness was measured in the aluminized layer of a steel substrate. The cross-sectional microstructures, the alumini...

  17. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Kotas, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension and...

  18. Fracture behavior of A533B Class - 1 steel

    The fracture behavior of ferritic steels is examined with special reference to the effects of interstitial impurities and radiation-induced defects. Tensile, 3-point bend and unloading compliance elastic-plastic fracture (J1c) tests were performed on A533B Class steel. While serrated flow is noted in the tensile tests, the 3-point bend and J1c test results clearly indicated energy minima in the upper shelf region where DSA is noted. The superimposed radiation effects revealed complex tends in the bend ductility and strengths while J1c results clearly demonstrated the suppression of DSA due to the interaction of interstitials with radiation-induced defects. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic Modeling as a Strategy for Casting High Alloy Steels

    Peri Reddy V; S Raman Sankaranarayanan

    2009-01-01

    Strategies based on thermodynamic calculations can be used to overcome the problems associated with oxides encountered in steel plant operations, which can lead to certain difficulties in the process such as clogging of submerged entry nozzle during continuous casting. Approaches to producing high alloy steels by continuous casting have been taken. One of the strategies to avoid the oxidation of chromium is to add a small amount of other elements (subject to other constraints), which do not cause subsequent problems. The problem has been studied using the Thermo-CalcR software, with related databases; and the results obtained for different process conditions or generic com-positions have been presented.

  20. Characterization of initial atmospheric corrosion of conventional weathering steels and a mild steel in a tropical atmosphere

    Jaen, Juan A., E-mail: jjaen@ancon.up.ac.pa [Universidad de Panama, Depto. de Quimica Fisica, CITEN, Lab. No 105, Edificio de Laboratorios Cientificos-VIP (Panama); Munoz, Alcides [Universidad de Panama, Depto. de Fisica, Lab. No 216, Edificio de Laboratorios Cientificos-VIP (Panama); Justavino, Jaime; Hernandez, Cecilio [Universidad Tecnologica de Panama, Laboratorio de Quimica y Fisica Aplicada (Panama)

    2009-07-15

    The phases and compositions of the corrosion products of a mild steel (A-36) and two weathering steels (A-588 and COR 420) formed after 3 months exposure to the tropical marine atmosphere of Panama were examined using FTIR and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results show that amorphous or crystallized iron oxyhydroxides goethite {alpha}-FeOOH and lepidocrocite {gamma}-FeOOH are early corrosion products. Maghemite {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and magnetite Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} have also been identified and found to be prominent components for steels exposed to the most aggressive conditions. The formation of akaganeite {beta}-FeOOH was observed when chlorides were occluded within the rust. FTIR showed the presence of hematite {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} in one sample.

  1. Characterization of initial atmospheric corrosion of conventional weathering steels and a mild steel in a tropical atmosphere

    The phases and compositions of the corrosion products of a mild steel (A-36) and two weathering steels (A-588 and COR 420) formed after 3 months exposure to the tropical marine atmosphere of Panama were examined using FTIR and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The results show that amorphous or crystallized iron oxyhydroxides goethite α-FeOOH and lepidocrocite γ-FeOOH are early corrosion products. Maghemite γ-Fe2O3 and magnetite Fe3O4 have also been identified and found to be prominent components for steels exposed to the most aggressive conditions. The formation of akaganeite β-FeOOH was observed when chlorides were occluded within the rust. FTIR showed the presence of hematite α-Fe2O3 in one sample.

  2. Characterization of initial atmospheric corrosion of conventional weathering steels and a mild steel in a tropical atmosphere

    Jaén, Juan A.; Muñóz, Alcides; Justavino, Jaime; Hernández, Cecilio

    2009-07-01

    The phases and compositions of the corrosion products of a mild steel (A-36) and two weathering steels (A-588 and COR 420) formed after 3 months exposure to the tropical marine atmosphere of Panama were examined using FTIR and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The results show that amorphous or crystallized iron oxyhydroxides goethite α-FeOOH and lepidocrocite γ-FeOOH are early corrosion products. Maghemite γ-Fe2O3 and magnetite Fe3O4 have also been identified and found to be prominent components for steels exposed to the most aggressive conditions. The formation of akaganeite β-FeOOH was observed when chlorides were occluded within the rust. FTIR showed the presence of hematite α-Fe2O3 in one sample.

  3. Creep of A508/533 Pressure Vessel Steel

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels has been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design studies. These design studies have generally focused on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Initially, three candidate materials were identified by this process: conventional light water reactor (LWR) RPV steels A508 and A533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and Grade 91 steel. The low strength of 2¼Cr-1Mo at elevated temperature has eliminated this steel from serious consideration as the VHTR RPV candidate material. Discussions with the very few vendors that can potentially produce large forgings for nuclear pressure vessels indicate a strong preference for conventional LWR steels. This preference is based in part on extensive experience with forging these steels for nuclear components. It is also based on the inability to cast large ingots of the Grade 91 steel due to segregation during ingot solidification, thus restricting the possible mass of forging components and increasing the amount of welding required for completion of the RPV. Grade 91 steel is also prone to weld cracking and must be post-weld heat treated to ensure adequate high-temperature strength. There are also questions about the ability to produce, and very importantly, verify the through thickness properties of thick sections of Grade 91 material. The availability of large components, ease of fabrication, and nuclear service experience with the A508 and A533 steels strongly favor their use in the RPV for the VHTR. Lowering the gas outlet temperature for the VHTR to 750°C from 950 to 1000°C, proposed in early concept studies, further strengthens the justification for this material selection. This steel is allowed in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for nuclear service up to 371°C (700°F); certain excursions above that temperature are

  4. Forming of High-strength Steels Using a Hot-melt Dry Lubricant

    Hörnström, Sven-Erik; Karlsson, Erik; Olsson, Mikael;

    2008-01-01

    during forming resulting in seizure of the tool/steel sheet contact and extensive scratching of the steel sheet surface. As a result, a number of concepts have been developed in order to reduce the tendency to galling in metal forming, including the development of new dry lubricants, new forming tool...... conventional rust protection oil using four different tests methods, i.e. a strip reduction test, a bending under tension test, a stretch-forming test and a pin-on disc test. In the tests, two different cold work tool steels, a conventional steel grade and a nitrogen alloyed PM steel grade were evaluated. The...... results show that the different tests used give consistent results and valuable information concerning the galling tendency of the steel sheet, tool steel and lubricant combinations investigated and when combined can be used to rank the galling resistance of lubricants and tool steels. The results clearly...

  5. Mechanistic Understanding Of Caustic Cracking Of Carbon Steels

    Liquid waste generated by the PUREX process for separation of nuclear materials is concentrated and stored in Type IV single-shell carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Type IV tanks for this waste do not have cooling coils and have not undergone heat treatment to stress-relieve the tanks. After the waste is concentrated by evaporation, it becomes very alkaline and can cause stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and pitting corrosion of the tank materials. SRS has experienced leakage from non-stress-relieved waste tanks constructed of A285 carbon steel and pitting of A212 carbon steel tanks in the vapor space. An investigation of tank materials has been undertaken at SRS to develop a basic understanding of caustic SCC of A285 and A212 grade carbon steels exposed to aqueous solutions, primarily containing sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), and sodium nitrite (NaNO2) at temperatures relevant to the operating conditions of both the F and H area plants. This report presents the results of this corrosion testing program. Electrochemical tests were designed using unstressed coupons in a simulated tank environment. The purpose of this testing was to determine the corrosion susceptibility of the tank materials as a function of chemical concentration, pH, and temperature. A285 and A516 (simulates A212 carbon steel) coupons were used to investigate differences in the corrosion of these carbon steels. Electrochemical testing included measurement of the corrosion potential and polarization resistance as well as cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) testing of coupons. From the CPP experiments, corrosion characteristics were determined including: corrosion potential (Ecorr), pitting or breakdown potential (Epit), and repassivation potential (Eprot). CPP results showed no indications of localized corrosion, such as pitting, and all samples showed the formation of a stable passive layer as evidenced by the positive hysteresis during the scan

  6. UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON ELECTROSTATIC SCRUBBER TESTS AT A STEEL PLANT

    The report gives results of a demonstration of the effectiveness of a 1700 cu m/hr (1000 acfm) University of Washington (UW) Electrostatic Spray Scrubber in controlling fine particle emissions from an electric-arc steel furnace. The two-stage portable pilot plant operates by comb...

  7. A new welding technique for stainless steel pipe butt welds

    A modified TIG welding process which uses an accurately machined consumable weld socket ring for aligning pipes and providing filler material has been developed by British Nuclear Fuels and used successfully at Windscale Site Construction. The technique and its practical application at Windscale for automatic orbital TIG welding of stainless steel pipe is described. (author)

  8. Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Steel Member

    Rytter, Anders; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    In this paper the possibilities of detection of crack extension in a steel beam by observation of changes in the dynamical response are investigated. System changes are observed by frequency domain and the time domain techniques. The position and the size of the crack are found by finite element...

  9. Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Steel Member

    Rytter, A.; Brincker, Rune; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    In this paper the posibilities of detection of crack extension in a steel beam by observation of changes in the dynamical response are investigated. System changes are observed by frequency domain and time domain techniques. The position and the size of the crack by finite element calculations. The...

  10. Vanadium Effect on a Medium Carbon Forging Steel

    Carlos Garcia-Mateo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the influence of vanadium on the hardenability and the bainitic transformation of a medium carbon steel is analyzed. While V in solid solution enhances the former, it hardly affects bainitic transformation. The results also reveal an unexpected result, an increase of the prior austenite grain size as the V content increases.

  11. Detection of fatigue damage in a steel member

    Rytter, A. [RAMBOeLL A/S (Denmark); Brinker, R.; Pilegaard Hansen, L. [Aalborg Universitet (Denmark)

    1997-09-01

    In this paper the possibilities of detection of crack extension in a steel beam by observation of changes in the dynamical response are investigated. System changes are observed by frequency domain and time domain techniques. The position and the size of the crack by finite element calculations. The estimated values are compared to the real values observed in the experiment. (au) 11 refs.

  12. Metal release from stainless steel in biological environments: A review.

    Hedberg, Yolanda S; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger

    2016-03-01

    Due to its beneficial corrosion resistance, stainless steel is widely used in, e.g., biomedical applications, as surfaces in food contact, and for products intended to come into skin contact. Low levels of metals can be released from the stainless steel surface into solution, even for these highly corrosion resistant alloys. This needs to be considered in risk assessment and management. This review aims to compile the different metal release mechanisms that are relevant for stainless steel when used in different biological settings. These mechanisms include corrosion-induced metal release, dissolution of the surface oxide, friction-induced metal release, and their combinations. The influence of important physicochemical surface properties, different organic species and proteins in solution, and of biofilm formation on corrosion-induced metal release is discussed. Chemical and electrochemical dissolution mechanisms of the surface oxides of stainless steel are presented with a focus on protonation, complexation/ligand-induced dissolution, and reductive dissolution by applying a perspective on surface adsorption of complexing or reducing ligands and proteins. The influence of alloy composition, microstructure, route of manufacture, and surface finish on the metal release process is furthermore discussed as well as the chemical speciation of released metals. Typical metal release patterns are summarized. PMID:26514345

  13. A new nanoscale metastable iron phase in carbon steels.

    Liu, Tianwei; Zhang, Danxia; Liu, Qing; Zheng, Yanjun; Su, Yanjing; Zhao, Xinqing; Yin, Jiang; Song, Minghui; Ping, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Metastable ω phase is common in body-centred cubic (bcc) metals and alloys, including high-alloying steels. Recent theoretical calculations also suggest that the ω structure may act as an intermediate phase for face-centred cubic (fcc)-to-bcc transformation. Thus far, the role of the ω phase played in fcc-bcc martensitic transformation in carbon steels has not been reported. In previous investigations on martensitic carbon steels, extra electron diffraction spots were frequently observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and these spots were historically ascribed to the diffraction arising from either internal twins or carbides. In this paper, an intensive TEM investigation revealed that the extra spots are in fact attributed to the metastable ω phase in particle-like morphology with an overall size of several or dozens of nanometres. The strict orientation relationships between the ω phase and the ferrite matrix are in good agreement with those of the hexagonal (P6/mmm) ω phase in other bcc metals and alloys. The identification of the ω phase as well as the extra diffraction spots might provide a clue to help understand the physical mechanism of martensitic transformation in steels. PMID:26503890

  14. Investigation on the irradiation damage behavior of a novelty oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steel (ODS steel)

    A kind of Fe-Cr-W-Ti-Y2O3 ODS ferritic steel with low swelling and high strength properties has been developed and its behavior and characteristic of the irradiation damage have been systematically studied. Results of electron irradiation indicate that Y2O3 dispersed oxide particles were stable under these irradiation conditions. During irradiation, two kinds of dislocation loops with b=a-type and b=a/2-type were formed. At 673K the void swelling increased from 0.1% to 0.35% as with increasing of dose from 5 dpa to 17.5 dpa. In the irradiated region there were not significant concentration changes of the solute atoms such as Cr, W and Ti near grain boundary. (author)

  15. Microstructure and Mechanical Propertiesof a Nitride-Strengthened Reduced ActivationFerritic/Martensitic Steel

    Zhou, Qiangguo; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Wei; SHA, WEI; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Nitride-strengthened reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are developed taking advantage of the high thermal stability of nitrides. In the current study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a nitride-strengthened RAFM steel with improved composition were investigated. Fully martensitic microstructure with fine nitrides dispersion was achieved in the steel. In all, 1.4 pct Mn is sufficient to suppress delta ferrite and assure the steel of the full martensitic micro...

  16. 77 FR 14445 - Application for a License To Export Steel Forging

    2012-03-09

    ... FR 49139 (Aug. 28, 2007). Information about filing electronically is available on the NRC's public... COMMISSION Application for a License To Export Steel Forging Pursuant to 10 CFR 110.70(b) ``Public Notice of... Spain. December 15, 2011 head steel head steel February 7, 2012 forging. forging will be XR175...

  17. Possible consequences of changing to a more environmental-friendly steel production in China

    China is the world's biggest steel producer, the world's biggest steel consumer and the world's biggest polluter. The superpower is forced to change its steel production in a more environmental-friendly way, but necessary measures will be expensive; moreover, they will have consequences far past China's borders. The possible effects are elaborated in the article (ml)

  18. A Survey of Mathematical Programming Applications in Integrated Steel Plants

    Goutam Dutta; Robert Fourer

    2001-01-01

    Mathematical programming techniques were used in the steel industry as early as 1958, and many applications of optimization in steel production have been reported since then. In this survey, we summarize published applications in the largest steel plants by type, including national steel planning, product-mix optimization, blending, scheduling, set covering, and cutting stock.

  19. Residual stresses and fatigue in a duplex stainless steel

    Johansson, Johan

    1999-05-01

    Duplex stainless steels, consisting of approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite, often combine the best features of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They generally have good mechanical properties, including high strength and ductility, and the corrosion resistance is often better than conventional austenitic grades. This has lead to a growing use of duplex stainless steels as a material in mechanically loaded constructions. However, detailed knowledge regarding its mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are still lacking. In this thesis special emphasis has been placed on the residual stresses and their influence on mechanical behaviour of duplex stainless steels. Due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, tensile microstresses are found in the austenitic phase and balancing compressive microstresses in the ferritic phase. The first part of this thesis is a literature survey, which will give an introduction to duplex stainless steels and review the fatigue properties of duplex stainless steels and the influence of residual stresses in two-phase material. The second part concerns the evolution of the residual stress state during uniaxial loading. Initial residual stresses were found to be almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the absolute value of the microstresses increased in the macroscopic elastic regime but started to decrease with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. A significant increase of the microstresses was also found to occur during unloading. Finite element simulations also show stress variation within one phase and a strong influence of both the elastic and plastic anisotropy of the individual phases on the simulated stress state. In the third part, the load sharing between the phases during cyclic loading is studied. X-ray diffraction stress analysis and transmission electron microscopy show that even if

  20. Residual stresses and fatigue in a duplex stainless steel

    Duplex stainless steels, consisting of approximately equal amounts of austenite and ferrite, often combine the best features of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. They generally have good mechanical properties, including high strength and ductility, and the corrosion resistance is often better than conventional austenitic grades. This has lead to a growing use of duplex stainless steels as a material in mechanically loaded constructions. However, detailed knowledge regarding its mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms are still lacking. In this thesis special emphasis has been placed on the residual stresses and their influence on mechanical behaviour of duplex stainless steels. Due to the difference in coefficient of thermal expansion between the two phases, tensile microstresses are found in the austenitic phase and balancing compressive microstresses in the ferritic phase. The first part of this thesis is a literature survey, which will give an introduction to duplex stainless steels and review the fatigue properties of duplex stainless steels and the influence of residual stresses in two-phase material. The second part concerns the evolution of the residual stress state during uniaxial loading. Initial residual stresses were found to be almost two times higher in the transverse direction compared to the rolling direction. During loading the absolute value of the microstresses increased in the macroscopic elastic regime but started to decrease with increasing load in the macroscopic plastic regime. A significant increase of the microstresses was also found to occur during unloading. Finite element simulations also show stress variation within one phase and a strong influence of both the elastic and plastic anisotropy of the individual phases on the simulated stress state. In the third part, the load sharing between the phases during cyclic loading is studied. X-ray diffraction stress analysis and transmission electron microscopy show that even if

  1. Design and Simulation of a Feedback Control System for a Steel Plate Storage

    Torben; Feld; Holmgaard; Kristensen; Hans; Holm; Jesper; Hansen

    2002-01-01

    A discrete event heuristic feedback control system fo r a steel plate storage at Odense Steel Shipyard Ltd is developed and implemente d in a computer-based simulation model. The plant is subject to stochastic dist urbances. The control system is able to handle this stochastic behaviour bec ause of the feedback design. The present simulation results indicate that a bene fit in the range of 30%~40% is reachable by modifying the plant. Plant description The steel plate storage is located at Odense Steel ...

  2. PSpice Model of Lightning Strike to a Steel Reinforced Structure

    Surges and arcs from lightning can pose hazards to personnel and sensitive equipment, and processes. Steel reinforcement in structures can act as a Faraday cage mitigating lightning effects. Knowing a structure's response to a lightning strike allows hazards associated with lightning to be analyzed. A model of lightning's response in a steel reinforced structure has been developed using PSpice (a commercial circuit simulation). Segments of rebar are modeled as inductors and resistors in series. A program has been written to take architectural information of a steel reinforced structure and 'build' a circuit network that is analogous to the network of reinforcement in a facility. A severe current waveform (simulating a 99th percentile lightning strike), modeled as a current source, is introduced in the circuit network, and potential differences within the structure are determined using PSpice. A visual three-dimensional model of the facility displays the voltage distribution across the structure using color to indicate the potential difference relative to the floor. Clear air arcing distances can be calculated from the voltage distribution using a conservative value for the dielectric breakdown strength of air. Potential validation tests for the model will be presented

  3. 30 CFR 285.112 - Definitions.

    2010-07-01

    ... observation, contextual measurement, controlled collection, analysis, interpretation, and explanation). Best... plant life. Operator means the individual, corporation, or association having control or management of... States and are subject to its jurisdiction and control. Person means, in addition to a natural person,...

  4. Steel Planning

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  5. SCC-induced failure of a 304 stainless steel pipe

    On 1991 January 12, a 304 Stainless Steel (SS) suction line in the AECL-Research NRU reactor failed, shutting down the reactor for approximately 12 months. The pipe, a 32 mm schedule 40 304 stainless steel line exposed to D2O at temperatures ≤35 degrees C had been in service for approximately 20 years, although no manufacturing data or composition specifications were available. The failure and resultant leak resulted in a small loss of D2O moderator from the reactor vessel. The pipe cracked approximately 180 degrees C around the circumference of a weld. This failure was unexpected and hense a thorough metallographic examination was carried out on the failed section, on the rest of the line (Line 1212), and on representative samples from the rest of the reactor in order to assess the integrity of the remaining piping

  6. Microstructure Evolution of a Medium Manganese Steel During Thermomechanical Processing

    Sun, Binhan; Aydin, Huseyin; Fazeli, Fateh; Yue, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    An as-cast Fe-0.2C-10Mn-3Si-3Al medium manganese steel with a ferrite plus austenite duplex microstructure was subjected to hot compression tests at deformation temperatures within two-phase ( α + γ) range and various strain rates. The microstructure evolution of the experimental steel during hot deformation was investigated. The flow curves were characterized by a discontinuous yielding at the beginning of plastic deformation, followed by a weak work hardening to a peak and a subsequent mild softening stage. Two restoration processes took place during hot deformation, namely dynamic recrystallization (DRX) of austenite and continuous dynamic recrystallization of ferrite. The DRX of austenite was believed to dominate the softening stage of the flow curves. The discontinuous yielding stemmed from the existing Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) orientation relationship between ferrite and austenite in the initial undeformed microstructure, which gradually weakened during subsequent deformation.

  7. Effect of boron on sintering of a ferritic stainless steel

    This work studies the effect of boron on the density of a 409Nb ferritic stainless steel obtained by powder metallurgy during the process of sintering. The purpose of adding boron is to promote the formation of a liquid phase during sintering at temperatures below 120 degree centigrade . The boron contents varied from 0.0 to 1.5%wt. Specimens were compacted at 700MPa, and sintering was made at 1075 and 1150 degree centigrade during 60 minutes under a hydrogen atmosphere, using a heating rate of 20 degree centigrade/min. Density values were determined by the Archimedes method, and the samples were analysed using scanning electron microscopy. This work shows the dependence of the steel density and morphology of the microstructure as a function of boron content and the temperature of sintering. (Author) 29 refs

  8. Vibration Properties of a Steel-PMMA Composite Beam

    Yuyang He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A steel-polymethyl methacrylate (steel-PMMA beam was fabricated to investigate the vibration properties of a one-dimensional phononic crystal structure. The experimental system included an excitation system, a signal acquisition system, and a data analysis and processing system. When an excitation signal was exerted on one end of the beam, the signals of six response points were collected with acceleration sensors. Subsequent signal analysis showed that the beam was attenuated in certain frequency ranges. The lumped mass method was then used to calculate the bandgap of the phononic crystal beam to analyze the vibration properties of a beam made of two different materials. The finite element method was also employed to simulate the vibration of the phononic crystal beam, and the simulation results were consistent with theoretical calculations. The existence of the bandgap was confirmed experimentally and theoretically, which allows for the potential applications of phononic crystals, including wave guiding and filtering, in integrated structures.

  9. Structure and properties of a layered steel/vanadium alloy/steel composite prepared by high-pressure torsion

    Nikulin, S. A.; Rogachev, S. O.; Rozhnov, A. B.; Khatkevich, V. M.; Nechaikina, T. A.; Morozov, M. V.

    2016-04-01

    The microstructure and hardness of a layered steel 08Kh17T/V-10Ti-5Cr/steel 08Kh17T composite, which was prepared by torsion under a high hydrostatic pressure at temperatures of 20, 200, and 400°C, have been studied. Severe plastic deformation under used conditions is shown to provide good joining of layers, which is accompanied by their substantial hardening (from 2.0 to 3.5 times). During deformation at temperatures of 20 and 200°C, fragmentation of the vanadium alloy layer into thinner layers is observed; at 400°C, mainly a plane interface between the vanadium alloy and the steel layers is formed.

  10. Examination of a corroded mild steel support plate

    The following discussion describes a metallographic examination of a portion of the corroded support plate section removed from Steam Generator No. 23 at Indian Point 2. Rapid corrosion of the mild steel in the annular crevices between tubes and support plate holes had caused denting. The denting caused the narrow ligaments between the flow holes and support holes to fracture. As a result, the support plate fragmented when removed from the steam generator. One of the fragments was used for the examination

  11. Hot forming of AISI A2 tool steel

    Večko Pirtovšek, T.; Peruš, I.; Kugler, G.; Turk, R.; M. Terčelj

    2008-01-01

    For further increase of economy of production of AISI A2 tool steel a study of possibility of expanding the hot working range and better prediction of flow stress has been carried out. By employing hot compression tests it was proved, that initial microstructures have influence on the lower limit and chemical composition on upper limit of hot working range. A CAE Neural Networks was applied to predict the flow stresses for intermediate values of strain rates and temperatures. For optimization...

  12. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    We have developed a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 6l0 x 6l0 x 292 mm aluminum frame and has 13.5 m2 of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. We conducted an optimization study for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. We evaluated the prototype filter for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter has a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa at 1,700 m3/hr. Since we were not able to achieve a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa, the steel filter does not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster is used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generates a cloud of UO2 aerosols. We used a 1,700 m3/hr slip stream from the 10,200 m3/hr exhaust system

  13. Fatigue crack Behaviour in a High Strength Tool Steel

    Højerslev, Christian; Carstensen, Jesper V.; Brøndsted, Povl;

    2002-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and crack growth of a hardened and tempered high speed steel was investigated. The evolution of fatigue cracks was followed in four point bending at room temperature. It was found that a carbide damage zone exists above a threshold load...... value of maximally 80% of the yield strength of the steel. The size of this carbide damage zone increases with increasing load amplitude, and the zone is apparently associated with crack nucleation. On fatigue crack propagation plastic deformation of the matrix occurs in a radius of approximately 4...... microns in front of the fatigue crack tip, which is comparable with the relevant mean free carbide spacing....

  14. Transverse rupture strength of a PM tool steel

    Oscar Olimpio de Araujo Filho

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Powder Metallurgy has been reported as a suitable alternate processing route for the manufacture of tool steels. The advantage of this technique is in being able to obtain a refined and more uniform microstructure that improves properties such high wear resistance and toughness. A molybdenum containing AISI M3:2 tool steel, (trade name Sinter 23, manufactured from spherical gas-atomized powders by hot isostatic pressing followed by hot working was tested in three-point bending tests after various heat treatments. Transverse rupture strength (TRS samples were cut and heat treated at four distinct austenitizing temperatures. Each austenitizing temperature was combined with three tempering temperatures, giving a total of twelve different hardening conditions. Hardness tests were carried out to establish correlations among the effectiveness of heat treatment, the hardness values and the TRS results. At least five parallel samples were tested in each heat treatment condition.

  15. Description Of Alloy Layer Formation On A Cast Steel Substrate

    Szajnar J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A description of alloy layer formation on a steel substrate is presented. Two types of formation are considered: diffusion of carbon and chromium into the solid from the pad in the direction of the cast steel within the FeCrC (grains and diffusion in a layer of liquid chromium cast iron formed in a preceding step. The influence of silicon in the pad on the pad’s transformation into the liquid is also examined. Solidus and liquidus temperatures of high carbon ferrochromium are determined. The larger the content of Si is used in the experiment, the lower the solidus temperature of the FeCrC alloy is observed. This results from the higher intensity of the elements’ diffusion and faster formation of the liquid.

  16. Use of a gray level co-occurrence matrix to characterize duplex stainless steel phases microstructure

    L. Zortea; F. R. Renzetti

    2011-01-01

    Duplex stainless steels are widely used in industry. This is due to their higher strength compared to austenitic steels and to their higher toughness than ferritic steels. They also have good weldability and high resistance to stress corrosion cracking.These steels are characterized by two-phase microstructures composed by almost the same level of ferrite and austenite.Duplex steel 2205 samples evaluated are: as received, cold rolled (33%) and heat-treated at 800°C for 10 hours.A metallograph...

  17. Production of Ti-containing 316L stainless steel in a crucible induction furnace

    The production of type 316L stainless steel with titanium was studied. The stainless steel was produced in an induction furnace using 1010 steel as starting material. The carbon and impurities contents of the steel were lowered by means of the addition of iron oxide and lime respectively. Finally, the last slag was removed before adding nickel and ferroalloys. Experimental results showed the wear resistance of the crucibles with different contents of magnamix 363 and the corrosion resistance of the steel obtained caused by a solution of sulfuric acid. (author)

  18. Small punch creep test in a 316 austenitic stainless steel

    Saucedo-Munoz, M. L.; Komazaki, S. I.; Hashida, T.; Lopez-Hirata, V. M.

    2015-03-30

    The small punch creep test was applied to evaluate the creep behavior of a 316 type austenitic stainless steel at temperatures of 650, 675 and 700 degree centigrade. The small punch test was carried out using a creep tester with a specimen size of 10x10x0.3 mm at 650, 675 and 700 degree centigrade using loads from 199 to 512 N. The small punch creep curves show the three stages found in the creep curves of the conventional uniaxial test. The conventional creep relationships which involve parameters such as creep rate, stress, time to rupture and temperature were followed with the corresponding parameters of small punch creep test and they permitted to explain the creep behavior in this steel. The mechanism and activation energy of the deformation process were the grain boundary sliding and diffusion, respectively, during creep which caused the intergranular fracture in the tested specimens. (Author)

  19. Small punch creep test in a 316 austenitic stainless steel

    The small punch creep test was applied to evaluate the creep behavior of a 316 type austenitic stainless steel at temperatures of 650, 675 and 700 degree centigrade. The small punch test was carried out using a creep tester with a specimen size of 10x10x0.3 mm at 650, 675 and 700 degree centigrade using loads from 199 to 512 N. The small punch creep curves show the three stages found in the creep curves of the conventional uniaxial test. The conventional creep relationships which involve parameters such as creep rate, stress, time to rupture and temperature were followed with the corresponding parameters of small punch creep test and they permitted to explain the creep behavior in this steel. The mechanism and activation energy of the deformation process were the grain boundary sliding and diffusion, respectively, during creep which caused the intergranular fracture in the tested specimens. (Author)

  20. Surface characterization of a decarburized and nitrided steel.

    Calliari, Irene; Dabalà, Manuele; Zanesco, Marzia; Bernardo, Enrico; Olmi, Filippo; Vagelli, Gloria

    2006-08-01

    This article describes the effects of surface controlled decarburization on the structure of a nitrided steel. Samples of quenched and tempered 40CrMo4 steel were decarburized by air heat treatment (800-900 degrees C) at different depths and submitted to gaseous nitriding. The microstructure of surface layers after decarburization and nitriding were investigated by optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The nitrogen and carbon profiles in the diffusion layers were determined by a scanning electron microscope equipped with a wavelength dispersive spectrometer (EPMA-WDS). The effect of nitriding was determined by microhardness measurements. The increasing of time and temperature of decarburization slightly affect the surface hardness values, while case hardness depths decrease. In all the specimens, the nitriding depth, as determined by the WDS nitrogen profile, is larger than the one determined by the hardness profile. PMID:16842649

  1. Aging of a copper bearing HSLA-100 steel

    Sanjay Panwar; D B Goel; O P Pandey; K Satya Prasad

    2003-06-01

    Investigations were carried out on aging of a HSLA-100 steel after varying amounts of cold deformation. Mechanical properties (hardness, tensile properties and toughness) were measured and structural changes were studied using optical, TEM and SEM techniques. As a result of various treatments, the hardness and UTS could be significantly improved, but with drastic fall in ductility and impact strength, especially in peak aged conditions. The parameters affecting impact strength were examined and it was concluded that various microstructural features affected toughness through their influence on tensile properties. In this steel the impact strength could be improved by lowering the UTS and increasing the ductility (pct elongation). The improvement in hardness and UTS was attributed to formation of thick precipitate-dislocation tangles. The aging process caused a slow transformation of lath martensite into acicular ferrite due to occurrence of in situ recrystallization. The concentration of Cu in particles precipitating on aging was followed using EDAX technique.

  2. Biomaterials. The Behavior of Stainless Steel as a Biomaterial

    Sanda VISAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The biomaterials belong to the broad range of biocompatible chemical substances (sometimes even an element, which can be used for a period of time to treat or replace a tissue, organ or function of the human body. These materials bring many advantages in the diagnosis, prevention and medical therapy, reducing downtime for patients, restoring their biological functions, improving hospital management. The market in Romania sells a wide range of biomaterials for dental, cardiovascular medicine, renal, etc. Scientific research contributes to the discovery of new biomaterials or testing known biomaterials, for finding new applications. The paper exemplifies this contribution by presenting the testing of passive stainless steel behaviour in albumin solution using technique of cyclic voltammetry. It was shown that passivation contribute to increased stability of stainless steel implants to corrosive body fluids.

  3. Experiment R285-06. ILAS 6. Activity calculations

    In the irradiation experiment ILAS 6 two different austenitic stainless steel types for advanced nuclear systems will be irradiated at a temperature of 300C up to dpa (displacements per atom) levels of 2.5 dpa. The results of the activity calculations of the sample holder material and of two types of sample materials are presented. The activity of the holder material is calculated for the vertical maximum of the irradiation position. A relation is given to convert these data to any vertical sample position. Also the changes in chemical composition of the different sample materials, due to nuclide transmutation, are given. 1 fig., 1 tab., 8 refs., 3 appendices

  4. MEASUREMENTS OF A STEEL CHARGE EMISSIVITY UNDER STRONG IRRADIANCE CONDITIONS

    Agnieszka Benduch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steel bars are manufactured in the rolling process, whereby they are characterized by strain hardening and poor plastic properties. In many application cases such properties are improper, therefore, additional heat treatment is required. Crucial influence on the products quality after heat treatment has an appropriate selection of process parameters. In many modern technologies of heat treatment the charge of porous structure is subjected to the heating process. Proper control of heat treatment parameters of bundles of rods requires knowledge on their thermal properties. However, it also requires accurate identification of complex heat transfer processes occurring in the porous material. Such analysis, with respect to bundles of bars, provide a response of qualitative nature of the heat exchange area of these charges. The article describes the emissivity measurements of samples of the steel charge using a thermal imaging camera.

  5. Material characterization of a novel new armour steel

    Stumpf W.E.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The material characterization of a novel new armour steel with comparison to a leading commercial benchmark alloy is presented. Direct ballistic and experimental comparison is drawn. The 5.56 × 45 mm [M193] and 7.62 × 51 mm [NATO Ball] projectiles were used in a cartridge type high pressure barrel configuration to evaluate the superior plugging resistance of the new steel over a range of plate thicknesses. To characterize the dynamic plasticity of the materials, quasi-static, notched and high temperature tensile tests as well as Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests in tension and compression were performed. The open source explicit solver, IMPACT (sourceforge.net is used in an ongoing numerical and sensitivity analysis of ballistic impact. A simultaneous multi variable fitting algorithm is planned to evaluate several selected numerical material models and show their relative correlation to experimental data. This study as well as micro-metallurgical investigation of adiabatic shear bands and localized deformation zones should result in new insights in to the underlying metallurgical and physical behavior of armour plate steels during ballistic perforation.

  6. Development of a thin steel strip casting process. Final report

    Williams, R.S.

    1994-04-01

    This is a comprehensive effort to develop direct strip casting to the point where a pilot scale program for casting carbon steel strip could be initiated. All important aspects of the technology were being investigated, however the program was terminated early due to a change in the business strategy of the primary contractor, Armco Inc. (focus to be directed at specialty steels, not low carbon steel). At termination, the project was on target on all milestones and under budget. Major part was casting of strip at the experiment casting facility. A new caster, capable of producing direct cast strip of up to 12 in. wide in heats of 1000 and 3000 lb, was used. A total of 81 1000-1200 lb heats were cast as well as one test heat of 3000 lb. Most produced strip of from 0.016 to 0.085 in. thick. Process reliability was excellent for short casting times; quality was generally poor from modern hot strip mill standards, but the practices necessary for good surface quality were identified.

  7. Long-Term Changes in a Heat Exchanger Steel

    The steel ASTM A213 P22 is used for superheater outlet header in power plants. During duty cycles lasting over tens of years the temperature is of the order of 545 deg. C and the pressure 125 atm. The microscopic changes in these steels are hard to analyze under working conditions, but they are believed to be responsible for the appearance of creeps in such devices. Investigation of the microscopic modifications will help to predict future failures due to creeps, increasing the reliability and saving a lot of money.We report the investigation of such changes in ASTM A213 P22 steel in use for 30 years as a Superheater header at Haifa power station. The analysis has been carried out using Moessbauer Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. As a result it seems that the morphology and phase change of the carbide phases M3C/M7C3 and M23C6 are the most prominent changes leading to the material failures.

  8. Sub-surface defect detection in a steel sheet

    In recent years, the focus on quality control in the steel industry has shifted from offline to inline non-destructive testing in order to detect defects at the earliest possible stage in the production process. The detection and elimination of such defects is vital for sustaining product quality and reducing costs. Various measurement principles (e.g. ultrasonic testing, electromagnetic acoustic transducer, x-ray inspection) were analyzed and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed regarding their usability in a steel plant. Based on these findings a magnetic method combined with a new sensor concept was chosen. By using highly sensitive sensors based on the giant magnetoresistive effect, it is possible to detect magnetic flux leakage variations on the surface of a magnetized steel strip caused by defects or inhomogeneities inside the material. Based on promising measurement results of preliminary tests and simulation results obtained by finite element method-models, a prototype is now being built for offline measurements and the optimization of the measurement method. In the event that the development of this second prototype is successful, an inline configuration will be implemented. (paper)

  9. Hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility of a high strength steel X80

    Moro, Isabelle; BRIOTTET Laurent; Lemoine, P.; Andrieu, Eric; Blanc, Christine; Odemer, Grégory

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with hydrogen embrittlement (HE) susceptibility of a high strength steel grade (X80). The respective implication of different hydrogen populations, i.e. adsorbed, dissolved in interstitial sites, trapped on dislocations and/or microstructural elements on the associated embrittlement mechanisms has been addressed through mechanical testing in high pressure of hydrogen gas at room temperature. Tensile tests at various strain rates and hydrogen pressures have been carried...

  10. The diffusion of chromium in a duplex alloy steel

    Diffusion of chromium in a duplex stainless steel containing approximately 8% ferrite has been investigated in the temperature range 600 to 10000C using the standard serial sectioning technique. The resulting concentration profiles exhibited up to four distinct regions. The two main regions are attributed to volume diffusion in the austenite and ferrite phases, the other zones being due to short circuiting paths. Volume diffusion in the austenite phase is in good agreement with chromium diffusion in Type 316 steel. The chromium diffusion coefficient in the ferrite phase of approximate composition 25 wt % Cr, 5 wt % Ni is given by: Dsub(α) = (6.0(+11,-3)) x 10-6 exp - ((212+-5)/RT) m2s-1 the activation energy being expressed in kJ.mol-1. Little evidence was found for enhanced chromium diffusion along austenite/ferrite interface boundaries. (author)

  11. Accelerated carbonation of steel slags in a landfill cover construction

    Steel slags from high-alloyed tool steel production were used in a full scale cover construction of a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill. In order to study the long-term stability of the steel slags within the final cover, a laboratory experiment was performed. The effect on the ageing process, due to i.e. carbonation, exerted by five different factors resembling both the material characteristics and the environmental conditions is investigated. Leaching behaviour, acid neutralization capacity and mineralogy (evaluated by means of X-ray diffraction, XRD, and thermogravimetry/differential thermal analysis, TG/DTA) are tested after different periods of ageing under different conditions. Samples aged for 3 and 10 months were evaluated in this paper. Multivariate data analysis was used for data evaluation. The results indicate that among the investigated factors, ageing time and carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere were able to exert the most relevant effect. However, further investigations are required in order to clarify the role of the temperature.

  12. 30 CFR 285.204 - What areas are available for leasing consideration?

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What areas are available for leasing consideration? 285.204 Section 285.204 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... OCS Renewable Energy Leases General Lease Information § 285.204 What areas are available for...

  13. 17 CFR 285.3 - Reports with respect to proposed distribution of primary obligations.

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports with respect to proposed distribution of primary obligations. 285.3 Section 285.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... WOODS AGREEMENTS ACT § 285.3 Reports with respect to proposed distribution of primary obligations....

  14. Corrosion of a carbon steel in simulated liquid nuclear wastes

    This work is part of a collaboration agreement between CNEA (National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina) and USDOE (Department of Energy of the United States of America), entitled 'Tank Corrosion Chemistry Cooperation', to study the corrosion behavior of carbon steel A537 class 1 in different simulated non-radioactive wastes in order to establish the safety concentration limits of the tank waste chemistry at Hanford site (Richland-US). Liquid high level nuclear wastes are stored in tanks made of carbon steel A537 (ASTM nomenclature) that were designed for a service life of 20 to 50 years. A thickness reduction of some tank walls, due to corrosion processes, was detected at Hanford site, beyond the existing predicted values. Two year long-term immersion tests were started using non radioactive simulated liquid nuclear waste solutions at 40 C degrees. This work extends throughout the first year of immersion. The simulated solutions consist basically in combinations of the 10 most corrosion significant chemical components: 5 main components (NaNO3, NaCl, NaF, NaNO2 and NaOH) at three concentration levels and 5 secondary components at two concentration levels. Measurements of the general corrosion rate with time were performed for carbon steel coupons, both immersed in the solutions and in the vapor phases, using weight loss and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy techniques. Optic and scanning electron microscopy examination, analysis of U-bend samples and corrosion potential measurements, were also done. Localized corrosion susceptibility (pitting and crevice corrosion) was assessed in isolated short-term tests by means of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization curves. The effect of the simulated waste composition on the corrosion behavior of A537 steel was studied based on statistical analyses. The Surface Response Model could be successfully applied to the statistical analysis of the A537 steel corrosion in the studied solutions. General corrosion was not

  15. Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel

    The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17) containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT) after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT) and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the hydrogen-precharged specimens showed that the fracture stress of NIMS17 steel was higher, at a given hydrogen content, than that of conventional AISI 4135 steels with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa. This suggests better resistance of NIMS17 steel to hydrogen embrittlement. However, hydrogen uptake to NIMS17 steel under CCT and atmospheric exposure decreased the fracture stress. This is because of the stronger hydrogen uptake to the steel containing hydrogen traps than to the AISI 4135 steels. Although NIMS17 steel has a higher strength level than AISI 4135 steel with a tensile strength of 1500 MPa, the decrease in fracture stress is similar between these steels.

  16. Hydrogen embrittlement property of a 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength tempered martensitic steel

    Songjie Li, Eiji Akiyama, Kimura Yuuji, Kaneaki Tsuzaki, Nobuyoshi Uno and Boping Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen embrittlement property of a prototype 1700-MPa-class ultrahigh-strength steel (NIMS17 containing hydrogen traps was evaluated using a slow strain rate test (SSRT after cathodic hydrogen precharging, cyclic corrosion test (CCT and atmospheric exposure. The hydrogen content in a fractured specimen was measured after SSRT by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS. The relationship between fracture stress and hydrogen content for the hydrogen-precharged specimens showed that the fracture stress of NIMS17 steel was higher, at a given hydrogen content, than that of conventional AISI 4135 steels with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa. This suggests better resistance of NIMS17 steel to hydrogen embrittlement. However, hydrogen uptake to NIMS17 steel under CCT and atmospheric exposure decreased the fracture stress. This is because of the stronger hydrogen uptake to the steel containing hydrogen traps than to the AISI 4135 steels. Although NIMS17 steel has a higher strength level than AISI 4135 steel with a tensile strength of 1500 MPa, the decrease in fracture stress is similar between these steels.

  17. Requirements for a cleanable steel HEPA filter derived from a systems analysis

    A systems analysis was conducted to determine customer requirements for a cleanable high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter in DOE Environmental Management (EM) facilities. The three principal drivers for cleanable steel HEPA are large cost savings, improved filter reliability, and new regulations; they produce a strong incentive to DOE customers to use cleanable steel HEPA filters. Input for customer requirements were obtained from field trips to EM sites and from discussions. Most existing applications require that cleanable steel HEPA filters meet size/performance requirements of standard glass HEPA filters; applications in new facilities can relax size/weight/pressure drop requirements on a case-by-case basis. We then obtained input from commercial firms on availability of cleanable steel HEPA filters. Systems analysis then showed that currently available technology was only able to meet customer needs in a limited number of cases. Further development is needed to meet requirements of EM customers. For cleanable steel HEPA to be retrofitted into existing systems, pressure drop and weight must be reduced. Pressure drop can be reduced by developing steel fiber media from 0.5 μm dia steel fibers. Weight can be reduced by packaging the steel fiber media in one of the standard HEPA configurations. Although most applications will be able to use standard 304 or 316L alloys, an acid resistant alloy such as Hastelloy or Inconel will be needed for incinerator and other thermal processes

  18. Formation of the S = -1 resonance X(2265) in the reaction pp → X+K+ at 2.50 and 2.85 GeV

    Analyzing DISTO data of pp → pΛK + at T p = 2.50 and 2.85GeV to populate a previously reported X(2265) -resonance with M x = 2267 MeV/c 2 and Γx = 118 MeV at 2.85GeV, we found that the yield of X(2265) at 2.50GeV is much less than that at 2.85GeV (less than 10%), though it is expected from a kinematical consideration to be produced as much as 33% of that at 2.85GeV. The small population of X(2265) at 2.50GeV is consistent with the very weak production of Γ(1405) at the same incident energy toward its production threshold, thus indicating that Γ(1405) plays an important role as a doorway state for the formation of X(2265). (orig.)

  19. Inclusion and Bubble in Steel--A Review

    ZHANG Li-feng

    2006-01-01

    The type, morphology and sources of inclusion in steels, including indigenous and exogenous inclusions, were discussed and reviewed. Indigenous inclusions are deoxidation products or inclusions precipitated during cooling and solidification of steel. Exogenous inclusions arise primarily from the incidental chemical (reoxidation) and mechanical interaction of liquid steel with its surroundings (slag entrainment and erosion of lining refractory). Types and causes for the nozzle clogging were also summarized. Reasons for bubble formation and bubble size distribution in steels were discussed thereafter. Finally, morphology and causes of inclusion-related defects in continuously cast steel products were reviewed, such as flange cracking in cans, slag spots and line defects on strips.

  20. Effects of M/A islands microstructure characteristic on mechanic properties of high gride pipeline steel

    Ke, Tong; Xiaodong, Shao; Lixia, Zhu; Qiang, Lui; Jinfeng, Li [Tubular goods research center of CNPC, Xi' an (China)

    2010-07-01

    The pipeline industry is looking for higher strength but also higher toughness pipeline steel. The strength-toughness of pipeline steel is closely related to its internal microstructure. The martensite/austenite (M/A) islands have a big influence on the mechanical properties of the pipeline steel. In this study, several steel pipeline specimens are observed in order to investigate the effect of M/A islands on strength and on impact toughness. The results of this study showed that the characteristics of M/A islands (volume, average size and distribution) have a great impact to the strength and toughness of the pipeline steel. Small and dispersive M/A islands increase the strength of the structure. The increase in volume fraction of M/A islands reduces the toughness of the pipeline steel, while small islands can increase it. Under certain geometrical forms of distribution, M/A islands give excellent strength-toughness results.

  1. The development of a high manganese nonmagnetic steel plate for cryogenic use

    As a structural material of large superconducting magnets for nuclear fusion reactors, very thick steel plates having high strength and high toughness at liquid helium temperature (4.2 K) have been demanded, but the existing materials satisfying such requirement have not been found. In order to cope with this problem, Kobe Steel Ltd. has advanced the research and development, and developed new type high manganese nonmagnetic steel plates. These steel plates are austenitic stainless steel based on Fe-22Mn-13Cr-5Ni. Besides, as the manufacturing method, thermo-mechanical treatment developed especially for these steel plates was applied instead of conventional solid solution treatment. These newly developed steel plates showed the proof stress of 123 kg kgf/mm2 and fracture toughness of 651 kgf/√mm3, and were regarded as promising as the structural material for superconducting magnets. The fundamental examination for selecting the steel to be developed, the examination to give toughness to 22Mn-13Cr-5Ni nonmagnetic steel plates and the various characteristics of these steel plates are reported. (Kako, I.)

  2. A modular steel freeway bridge: design concept and earthquake resistance.

    Wattenburg, W H; McCallen, D B; Murray, R C

    1995-04-14

    A modular multilane steel freeway bridge has been constructed from surplus railroad flatcar decks. It can be erected on-site in a few days' time. It has been built and static-load tested for emergency freeway bridge repair. This inexpensive modular bridge may also have broad application around the world for low-cost bridges in areas where funds are limited. On the basis of static-load testing performed by the California Department of Transportation and computer dynamic analysis, this simple modular-design concept has the potential of providing a strong bridge that can withstand the severe aftershocks expected immediately after a major earthquake. PMID:17814794

  3. Testing of a steel containment vessel model

    A mixed-scale containment vessel model, with 1:10 in containment geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness, was fabricated to represent an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment vessel. A contact structure, installed over the model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. This paper describes the pretest preparations and the conduct of the high pressure test of the model performed on December 11-12, 1996. 4 refs., 2 figs

  4. A new 12% chromium steel strengthened by Z-phase precipitates

    Liu, Fang; Rashidi, Masoud; Johansson, Lennart;

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the corrosion resistance and simultaneously maintain the creep resistance of 9-12% Cr steels at 650 degrees C, a new alloy design concept was proposed, using thermodynamically stable Z-phase (CrTaN) precipitates to strengthen the steel. A new trial Z-phase strengthened 12% Cr...... steel was produced and creep tested. The steel exhibited good long-term creep resistance. Dense nano-sized Z-phase precipitates were formed at an early stage, and coarsened slowly. They remained small after more than 10,000 h. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......In order to increase the corrosion resistance and simultaneously maintain the creep resistance of 9-12% Cr steels at 650 degrees C, a new alloy design concept was proposed, using thermodynamically stable Z-phase (CrTaN) precipitates to strengthen the steel. A new trial Z-phase strengthened 12% Cr...

  5. Experiment R285-08 (ILAS 8). Activity calculations

    In the irradiation experiment ILAS 8 a number of different stainless steel types for advanced nuclear systems will be irradiated at a temperature of 300C up to a dpa (displacements per atom) level of 2.5 dpa. In this report the results of the activity calculations of the sample holder material and of four types of sample materials are presented. The activity of the holder material is calculated for the vertical average of the irradiation position. The activities of the sample materials are given for the vertical maximum of the irradiation position. A relation is given to convert these data to any vertical sample position. Also the changes in chemical composition of the different sample materials, due to nuclide transmutation are presented. 8 refs

  6. A novel hybrid joining methodology for composite to steel joints

    Sarh, Bastian

    This research has established a novel approach for designing, analyzing, and fabricating load bearing structural connections between resin infused composite materials and components made of steel or other metals or alloys. A design philosophy is proposed wherein overlapping joint sections comprised of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP's) and steel members are connected via a combination of adhesive bonding and integrally placed composite pins. A film adhesive is utilized, placed into the dry stack prior to resin infusion and is cured after infusion through either local heat elements or by placing the structure into an oven. The novel manner in which the composite pins are introduced consists of perforating the steel member with holes and placing pre-formed composite pins through them, also prior to resin infusion of the composite section. In this manner joints are co-molded structures such that secondary processing is eliminated. It is shown that such joints blend the structural benefits of adhesive and mechanically connected joints, and that the fabrication process is feasible for low-cost, large-scale production as applicable to the shipbuilding industry. Analysis procedures used for designing such joints are presented consisting of an adhesive joint design theory and a pin placement theory. These analysis tools are used in the design of specimens, specific designs are fabricated, and these evaluated through structural tests. Structural tests include quasi-static loading and low cycle fatigue evaluation. This research has thereby invented a novel philosophy on joints, created the manufacturing technique for fabricating such joints, established simple to apply analysis procedures used in the design of such joints (consisting of both an adhesive and a pin placement analysis), and has validated the methodology through specimen fabrication and testing.

  7. Microstructural evolution in a duplex cast steel after quench ageing process

    Stradomski, Z.; D. Dyja

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The effectiveness and usefulness of the quench ageing on the service properties of massive duplex cast steel was presented in this work. The mechanism of precipitation of a ε-Cu phase and its effect on the mechanical properties of the cast steel were investigated.Design/methodology/approach: The microscopic analysis of the cast steel was performed on a Zeiss Axiovert 25 optical microscope. The substructure of ferrite was examined on a JOEL JEM 3010 high-resolution transmission electr...

  8. Exposure to stainless steel welding fumes and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Sjögren, B; Hansen, K S; Kjuus, H; Persson, P G

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel welding is associated with exposure to metals including hexavalent chromium and nickel. This study is a meta-analysis of five studies of stainless steel welders and the occurrence of lung cancer. Asbestos exposure and smoking habits have been taken into account. The calculated pooled relative risk estimate was 1.94 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.28-2.93. This result suggests a causal relation between exposure to stainless steel welding and lung cancer.

  9. On Damage Characterization of a Steel Sheet

    Guzmán Inostroza, Carlos Felipe; Habraken, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Ductile damage is a physical phenomena which involves progressive deterioration of mechanical properties of metals, when undergoing high deformations. Compared to plasticity, the physical mechanisms behind damage are more complex and the microscale is not longer negligible. In mathematical damage models, founding an optimal set of material parameters can be a hard task due to the strong coupling and non-linearity of the equations. An identification strategy is then crucial to arrive to a gene...

  10. Development and evaluation of a cleanable high efficiency steel filter

    In this work the authors describe the development and evaluation of a high efficiency steel filter that can be cleaned in-situ by reverse air pulses. The filter consists of 64 pleated cylindrical filter elements packaged into a 610x610x292 mm (24x24x11.5 in.) aluminum frame and has 13.5 m2 (145 square feet) of filter area. The filter media consists of a sintered steel fiber mat using 2 μm diameter fibers. An optimization study was conducted for filter efficiency and pressure drop to determine the filter design parameters of pleat width, pleat depth, outside diameter of the cylinder, and the total number of cylinders. Several prototype cylinders were then built and evaluated in terms of filter cleaning by reverse air pulses. The results of these studies were used to build the high efficiency steel filter. The prototype filter was evaluated for efficiency and cleanability. The DOP filter certification test showed the filter had a passing efficiency of 99.99% but a failing pressure drop of 0.80 kPa (3.2 in w.g.) at 1,700 m3/hr (1,000 cfm). Since a pressure drop less than 0.25 kPa (1 inch w.g.) could not be achieved, the steel filter did not meet all the criteria for a HEPA filter. Filter loading and cleaning tests using AC Fine dust showed the filter could be repeatedly cleaned by reverse air pulses. The next phase of the prototype evaluation consisted of installing the unit and support housing in the exhaust duct work of a uranium grit blaster for a field evaluation at the Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, TN. The grit blaster was used to clean the surface of uranium parts and generated a cloud of UO2 aerosols. A 1,700 m3/hr (1,000 cfm) slip stream from the 10,200 m3/hr (6,000 cfm) exhaust system was used. 12 refs., 24 figs

  11. Audience Analysis for "The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel": A Pilot Study. Final Report Presented to United States Steel and the Association of Iron and Steel Engineers. CDC Technical Report No. 10.

    Stein, Mark J.; And Others

    Prompted by the realization that a reference text presents special problems in audience address since there is typically a diverse set of users, a study was designed to provide preliminary data on the use of the reference text, "The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel," a landmark book in the steel industry. Data on the use of the text were…

  12. Mechanical properties of a microalloyed steel with hig niobium content

    A higher-than-usual niobium content is being considered as a possible alternative to heavy low-temperature controlled rolling which is usually required in order to develop high strenght and toughness in microalloyed steel. In the present study, the effect of 0.24% Nb dissolved in austenite on the strenght and toughness of polygonal ferrite has been investigated. The niobium addition reduced the ferrite grain size but at the same time led to the deterioration of impact properties without raising yield strenght. Electron microscope observations suggested that the decrease in toughless was caused by intercrystalline fracture due to preferential carbonitride precipitation at austenite grain boundaries. (Author)

  13. THE ATOM PROBE ANALYSIS OF A CAST DUPLEX STAINLESS STEEL

    Godfrey, T.; G. Smith

    1986-01-01

    Atom probe analysis is reported of a low Mo CF8 duplex stainless steel aged for 105,000h at 280°C, 3,000h or 70,000h at 300°C, or 3,000h at 400°C. Definite evidence for a spinodal reaction in the α phase has been found at all the temperatures studied. This reaction process is most regular and pronounced in the material aged at 400°C but is detectable after the other heat treatments. No evidence of G-phase precipitation is apparent from the FIM micrographs, but statistical analysis of the atom...

  14. Energy efficiency indicating tool in a steel plant

    Kuusinen, K. [Electrowatt-Ekono Oy, Espoo (Finland); Ahtiala, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering; Roiha, H. [Imatra Steel Plant (Finland); Siitonen, E. [Inesco Oy, Espoo (Finland)

    2002-07-01

    When energy saving actions and energy efficiency improvements are made e.g. for environmental reasons and to decrease energy costs of an industrial plant, it is important to be able to indicate the consequential change in energy consumption. This may be difficult while the production rate as well as the product range change in a typical industrial plant from time to time. The change in energy efficiency between separate time periods is also often difficult to prove reliably. Specific energy consumption values are in general used to measure the change in energy efficiency regardless of the fact that they are not independent of changes in production rate, product range or process itself. On the contrary, while using specific energy consumption values the energy efficiency seems to improve with increasing production rate and this as well as process changes and product range variations complicate the comparison of energy efficiency between two time periods with unequal production circumstances. In this study, an energy efficiency index is presented as a tool for estimating the change in energy efficiency in an industrial process. The principle of using the energy efficiency indicator is comparing measured energy consumption to calculated energy consumption, which is based on the energy consumption of a certain year, i.e. the base year. The effects on energy consumption caused by the changes in utilisation rate are corrected in the calculated energy consumption with specific correction factors. The energy efficiency index is calculated separately for electricity and heat consumption. Both indexes consist of sub-indexes that represent sub-processes of the whole industrial process. The energy efficiency index is always process-specific i.e. it has to be constructed separately for each process. In this report the energy efficiency index is constructed for the natural gas use and electricity consumption in a steel plant using electric arc furnace. The index has been

  15. Electrochemical dissolution of steel as a typical catalyst for electro-Fenton oxidation

    Kočanová, Veronika; Dušek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although traditional Fenton reaction is known for a long time, it is still a perspective method for removal of pollution from wastewater. Applications of electro-Fenton oxidation are commonly used in wastewater treatment. These methods are classified into groups—electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. Typical catalysts for these technologies are Fe2+ ions. Comparison between two material types of steel was investigated in this paper. Alloy steel Cr–Ni and non-alloy steel were u...

  16. A State-of-the-Art Review on Fatigue Life Assessment of Steel Bridges

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is among the most critical forms of damage potentially occurring in steel bridges, while accurate assessment or prediction of the fatigue damage status as well as the remaining fatigue life of steel bridges is still a challenging and unsolved issue. There have been numerous investigations on the fatigue damage evaluation and life prediction of steel bridges by use of deterministic or probabilistic methods. The purpose of this review is devoted to presenting a summary on the developmen...

  17. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of a Nitride-Strengthened Reduced Activation Ferritic/Martensitic Steel

    Zhou, Qiangguo; Zhang, Wenfeng; Yan, Wei; Wang, Wei; Sha, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

    2012-12-01

    Nitride-strengthened reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are developed taking advantage of the high thermal stability of nitrides. In the current study, the microstructure and mechanical properties of a nitride-strengthened RAFM steel with improved composition were investigated. Fully martensitic microstructure with fine nitrides dispersion was achieved in the steel. In all, 1.4 pct Mn is sufficient to suppress delta ferrite and assure the steel of the full martensitic microstructure. Compared to Eurofer97, the steel showed similar strength at room temperature but higher strength at 873 K (600 °C). The steel exhibited very high impact toughness and a low ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of 243 K (-30 °C), which could be further reduced by purification.

  18. Impact extractive fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint

    Ambarita H.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the development of a fracture criterion for the impact fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in a car body. For the accurate prediction of crash characteristics of car bodies by computer-aided engineering (CAE, it is also necessary to examine the behavior and fracture of jointed steel plates subjected to impact loads. Although the actual impact fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in cars is complicated, for simplifying the problem it might be classified into the shear fracture and the extractive fracture of jointed steel plates. Attention is given to the extractive fracture of jointed steel plates in this study. The extractive behavior and fracture of three kinds of steel plates used for cars are examined in experiments and numerical simulations. The impact extraction test of steel plates jointed by a bolt is performed using the one-bar method, together with the static test. In order to understand the mechanism of extractive fracture process of jointed steel plates, numerical simulations by a FEM code LS-DYNA are also carried out. The obtained results suggest that a stress-based fracture criterion may be developed for the impact extractive fracture of jointed steel plates of a bolted joint used in a car body.

  19. Tool steels

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...... serves primarily two purpose (i) to improve the hardenabillity and (ii) to provide harder and thermally more stable carbides than cementite. Assuming proper heattreatment, the properties of a tool steel depends on the which alloying elements are added and their respective concentrations....

  20. 42 CFR 137.285 - Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter...

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Construction Nepa Process § 137.285 Are Self-Governance Tribes required to accept Federal environmental responsibilities to enter into a...

  1. Alloyed steel

    The composition and properties are listed of alloyed steel for use in the manufacture of steam generators, collectors, spacers, emergency tanks, and other components of nuclear power plants. The steel consists of 0.08 to 0.11% w.w. C, 0.6 to 1.4% w.w. Mn, 0.35 to 0.6% w.w. Mo, 0.02 to 0.07% w.w. Al, 0.17 to 0.37% w.w. Si, 1.7 to 2.7% w.w. Ni, 0.03 to 0.07% w.w. V, 0.005 to 0.012% w.w. N, and the rest is Fe. The said steel showed a sufficiently low transition temperature between brittle and tough structures, a greater depth of hardenability, and better weldability than similar steels. (B.S.)

  2. A multiscale approach to modeling formability of dual-phase steels

    Srivastava, A.; Bower, A. F.; Hector, L. G., Jr.; Carsley, J. E.; Zhang, L.; Abu-Farha, F.

    2016-02-01

    A multiscale modeling approach is used to predict how the formability of dual-phase (DP) steels depend on the properties of their constituent phases and microstructure. First, the flow behavior of the steels is predicted using microstructure-based finite element simulations of their 3D representative volume elements, wherein the two phases (ferrite and martensite) are discretely modeled using crystal plasticity constitutive models. These results are then used to calibrate homogenized constitutive models which are then used in large-scale finite element simulations to compute the forming limit diagrams (FLDs). The multiscale approach is validated by predicting the FLDs of two commercial DP steels and comparing the predictions with experimental measurements. Subsequently, the approach is used to compute flow behavior and FLDs of a series of ‘virtual’ DP steels, constructed by varying the microstructural parameters in the commercial DP steels. The results of these computations suggest that combining the ferrite from one of the two commercial steels with the martensite of the other and optimizing the phase volume fractions can yield ‘virtual’ steels with substantially improved properties. These include a material with an FLD0 (plane strain) that exceeds those of the commercial steels by 75% without a degradation in strength; and a material with a flow strength (0.2% offset) that exceeds those of the commercial steels by ~30% without degradation of formability.

  3. A constitutive model for the simulation of the deformation behavior of TWIP steels

    Haufe, A.; Erhart, A.; A. Butz

    2015-01-01

    Due to their high strength (tensile strength < 1GPa) in combination with an extreme ductility (failure strain 30-50%) TWinning Induced Plasticity-steels (TWIP-steels) can be considered as promising materials for the production of lightweight automotive components. The industrial application of TWIP-steels requires a fundamental experimental validation of the mechanical behavior as basis for an user-friendly but at the same time accurate constitutive framework and its implementation into comme...

  4. Fracture micromechanisms and residual stresses of a highly resistant duplex stainless steel

    Valiente Cancho, Andrés; Mihaela IORDACHESCU; Ruiz Hervías, Jesús; Abreu Rodrigues, Maricely de

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents some preliminary results of an ongoing research intended to qualify a highly resistant duplex stainless steel wire as prestressing steel and, gets on insight on (he wires' fracture micromechanism and residual stresses field. SEM fractographic analysis of the stainless steel wires indicates an anisotropic fracture behavior in tension, in presence of surface flaws, attributed to the residual stresses generated through the fabrication process. The residual stresses magnitude i...

  5. Large Strain Mechanical Behavior of HSLA-100 Steel Over a Wide Range of Strain Rates

    Alkhader, Maen; Bodelot, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    High-strength low alloy steels (HSLA) have been designed to replace high-yield (HY) strength steels in naval applications involving impact loading as the latter, which contain more carbon, require complicated welding processes. The critical role of HSLA-100 steel requires achieving an accurate understanding of its behavior under dynamic loading. Accordingly, in this paper, we experimentally investigate its behavior, establish a model for its constitutive response at high-strain rates, and dis...

  6. A study on laser welding deformation of 304 stainless steel

    In heavy industries, 304 austenitic stainless steel is the most popular material which is used for nuclear equipment, chemical vessels, vacuum vessels and so on. On the fabrication, not only a joint quality but also severe dimensional accuracy is required. To keep dimensional accuracy, considerable cost and efforts are requested, because the welding deformation of austenitic stainless steel is deeply depended on the physical properties of material itself. To decrease welding deformation, big jigs or water cooling method are commonly used which lead to the high cost. In general, the fusion welding by high energy density heat source results in less distortion. Today, laser welding technology has grown up to the stage that enables to weld thick plate with small deformation. The researches of welding deformation have been conducted intensively, but they are mainly concerned for arc welding, and studies for laser welding are very few. In this report, the authors will show the test results of deformation behavior in laser welding of 304 stainless steel. Also, they will discuss the deformation behavior comparing to that in arc welding. The main results of this study are as follows. 1. The angular distortion of laser welding can be unified by heat input parameter (Hp) which is used for arc welding deformation. 2. The angular distortion are same under the condition of Hp3 in spite of different welding method, however under the condition of Hp>6-9 J/mm3 the angular distortion is quite different depending on the power density of welding method. 3. Pure angular distortion seemed to complete just after welding, but following longitudinal distortion took place for long period. 4. The critical value of longitudinal distortion can be estimated from heat input parameter. The transverse deformation can be also estimated by heat input parameter. (author)

  7. Decontamination of steel by melt refining: A literature review

    It has been reported that a large amount of metal waste is produced annually by nuclear fuel processing and nuclear power plants. These metal wastes are contaminated with radioactive elements, such as uranium and plutonium. Current Department of Energy guidelines require retrievable storage of all metallic wastes containing transuranic elements above a certain level. Because of high cost, it is important to develop an effective decontamination and volume reduction method for low level contaminated metals. It has been shown by some investigators that a melt refining technique can be used for the processing of the contaminated metal wastes. In this process, contaminated metal is melted wit a suitable flux. The radioactive elements are oxidized and transferred to a slag phase. In order to develop a commercial process it is important to have information on the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Therefore, a literature search was carried out to evaluate the available information on the decontamination uranium and transuranic-contaminated plain steel, copper and stainless steel by melt a refining technique. Emphasis was given to the thermodynamics and kinetics of the removal. Data published in the literature indicate that it is possible to reduce the concentration of radioactive elements to a very low level by the melt refining method. 20 refs

  8. Nanostructures in a ferritic and an oxide dispersion strengthened steel induced by dynamic plastic deformation

    Zhang, Zhenbo

    fission and fusion reactors. In this study, two candidate steels for nuclear reactors, namely a ferritic/martensitic steel (modified 9Cr-1Mo steel) and an oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel (PM2000), were nanostructured by dynamic plastic deformation (DPD). The resulting microstructure...... processes. Higher strain rates are demonstrated to be able to facilitate the structural refinement; nevertheless, the general annealing behavior resembles that of the material after deformation at low strain rate. In addition to the microstructure of the matrix materials, the oxide nanoparticles in PM2000...

  9. A Study on the Influence of Steel, Slag or Gas on Refractory Reactions

    Jansson, Sune

    2008-01-01

    During the production of steel the oxide inclusion content partly depends on the reaction of the melt with the furnace lining, the ladle lining and the pouring system. The refractory material may be eroded by the molten steel and slag as well as corroded through chemical reactions with the slag and molten steel and the deoxidation products. In this report the effects of revolution speed, temperature and steel composition on the rate of dissolution of commercial MgO-C refractory samples into A...

  10. A study of mechanical properties of high manganese steels after different rolling conditions

    M. Jabłońska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, two grades of high-manganese steels with aluminum after a thermos - mechanical treatment were studied. Steel grades with an austenitic - ferritic structure with various contents of carbon, manganese and aluminum were selected for the studies. The main goal of the work was to define the most preferable parameters of heat treatment, rolling finish temperature and cooling rate in order to obtain the most favorable strength - ductility relation for the examined steels. The structural analysis was carried out using optical microscopy techniques. The evaluation of strength properties was carried out based on the results of static tensile test of steel sheets.

  11. A review on nickel-free nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steels for biomedical applications.

    Talha, Mohd; Behera, C K; Sinha, O P

    2013-10-01

    The field of biomaterials has become a vital area, as these materials can enhance the quality and longevity of human life. Metallic materials are often used as biomaterials to replace structural components of the human body. Stainless steels, cobalt-chromium alloys, commercially pure titanium and its alloys are typical metallic biomaterials that are being used for implant devices. Stainless steels have been widely used as biomaterials because of their very low cost as compared to other metallic materials, good mechanical and corrosion resistant properties and adequate biocompatibility. However, the adverse effects of nickel ions being released into the human body have promoted the development of "nickel-free nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steels" for medical applications. Nitrogen not only replaces nickel for austenitic structure stability but also much improves steel properties. Here we review the harmful effects associated with nickel and emphatically the advantages of nitrogen in stainless steel, as well as the development of nickel-free nitrogen containing stainless steels for medical applications. By combining the benefits of stable austenitic structure, high strength, better corrosion and wear resistance and superior biocompatibility in comparison to the currently used austenitic stainless steel (e.g. 316L), the newly developed nickel-free high nitrogen austenitic stainless steel is a reliable substitute for the conventionally used medical stainless steels. PMID:23910251

  12. Wear Resistance of H13 and a New Hot-Work Die Steel at High temperature

    Li, Shuang; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Shihao; Li, Junwan

    2016-05-01

    The friction and wear behaviors of a new hot-work die steel, SDCM-SS, were studied at high temperature under dry air conditions. The wear mechanism and microstructural characteristics of the SDCM-SS steel were also investigated. The results showed that the SDCM-SS steel had greater wear resistance compared with H13 steel; this was owed to its high oxidizability and temper stability. These features facilitate the generation, growth, and maintenance of a tribo-oxide layer at high temperature under relatively stable conditions. The high oxidizability and thermal stability of the SDCM-SS steel originate from its particular alloy design. No chromium is added to the steel; this ensures that the material has high oxidizability, and facilitates the generation of tribo-oxides during the sliding process. Molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium additions promote the high temper resistance and stability of the steel. Many fine Mo2C and VC carbides precipitate during the tempering of SDCM-SS steel. During sliding, these carbides can delay the recovery process and postpone martensitic softening. The high temper stability postpones the transition from mild to severe wear and ensures that conditions of mild oxidative wear are maintained. Mild oxidative wear is the dominant wear mechanism for SDCM-SS steel between 400 and 700 °C.

  13. Wear Resistance of H13 and a New Hot-Work Die Steel at High temperature

    Li, Shuang; Wu, Xiaochun; Chen, Shihao; Li, Junwan

    2016-07-01

    The friction and wear behaviors of a new hot-work die steel, SDCM-SS, were studied at high temperature under dry air conditions. The wear mechanism and microstructural characteristics of the SDCM-SS steel were also investigated. The results showed that the SDCM-SS steel had greater wear resistance compared with H13 steel; this was owed to its high oxidizability and temper stability. These features facilitate the generation, growth, and maintenance of a tribo-oxide layer at high temperature under relatively stable conditions. The high oxidizability and thermal stability of the SDCM-SS steel originate from its particular alloy design. No chromium is added to the steel; this ensures that the material has high oxidizability, and facilitates the generation of tribo-oxides during the sliding process. Molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium additions promote the high temper resistance and stability of the steel. Many fine Mo2C and VC carbides precipitate during the tempering of SDCM-SS steel. During sliding, these carbides can delay the recovery process and postpone martensitic softening. The high temper stability postpones the transition from mild to severe wear and ensures that conditions of mild oxidative wear are maintained. Mild oxidative wear is the dominant wear mechanism for SDCM-SS steel between 400 and 700 °C.

  14. Hardness and microstructural response to thermal annealing of irradiated ASTM A533B class 1 plate steel

    Reinhart, D.E. [SMS Concast, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kumar, A.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Gelles, D.S.; Hamilton, M.L. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rosinski, S.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Hardness measurements were used to determine the post-irradiation annealing response of A533B class 1 plate steel irradiated to a fluence of 1 {times} 10{sup 19} n/cm{sup 2} (E > 1 MeV) at 150 C. Rockwell hardness measurements indicated that the material had hardened by 6.6 points on the B scale after irradiation. The irradiation induced hardness increase was associated with a decrease in upper shelf energy from 63.4 J to 5-1.8 J and a temperature shift in the Charpy curve at the 41 J level from 115 C to 215 C. Specimens were annealed after irradiation at temperatures of 343 C (650 F), 399 C (750 F), and 454 C (850 F) for durations of up to one week (168 h). Hardness measurements were made to chart recovery of hardness as a function of time and temperature. Specimens annealed at the highest temperature 454 C recovered the fastest, fully recovering within 144 h. Specimens annealed at 399 C recovered completely within 168 h. Specimens annealed at the lowest temperature, 343 C recovered only {approximately}70% after 168 h of annealing. After neutron irradiation, a new feature of black spot damage was found to be superimposed on the unirradiated microstructure. The density of black spots was found to vary from 2.3 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup 3} to 1.1 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 3} with an average diameter of 2.85 nm. Following annealing at 454 C for 24 h the black spot damage was completely annealed out. It was concluded that the black spot damage was responsible for 70% of the irradiation-induced hardness.

  15. Hardness and microstructural response to thermal annealing of irradiated ASTM A533B class 1 plate steel

    Hardness measurements were used to determine the post-irradiation annealing response of A533B class 1 plate steel irradiated to a fluence of 1 x 1019 n/cm2 (E > 1 MeV) at 150 C. Rockwell hardness measurements indicated that the material had hardened by 6.6 points on the B scale after irradiation. The irradiation induced hardness increase was associated with a decrease in upper shelf energy from 63.4 J to 5-1.8 J and a temperature shift in the Charpy curve at the 41 J level from 115 C to 215 C. Specimens were annealed after irradiation at temperatures of 343 C (650 F), 399 C (750 F), and 454 C (850 F) for durations of up to one week (168 h). Hardness measurements were made to chart recovery of hardness as a function of time and temperature. Specimens annealed at the highest temperature 454 C recovered the fastest, fully recovering within 144 h. Specimens annealed at 399 C recovered completely within 168 h. Specimens annealed at the lowest temperature, 343 C recovered only ∼70% after 168 h of annealing. After neutron irradiation, a new feature of black spot damage was found to be superimposed on the unirradiated microstructure. The density of black spots was found to vary from 2.3 x 1015/cm3 to 1.1 x 1016/cm3 with an average diameter of 2.85 nm. Following annealing at 454 C for 24 h the black spot damage was completely annealed out. It was concluded that the black spot damage was responsible for 70% of the irradiation-induced hardness

  16. A novel method for round steel measurement with a multi-line structured light vision sensor

    We present a novel method for on-line measurement of round steel parameters with a multi-line structured light vision sensor. In this paper, the mathematical model of the multi-line structured light vision sensor is established, and the measurement principle and algorithms are proposed. Firstly, the 3D coordinates of cross section ellipses formed by the structured light planes and the round steel surface are extracted, and the spatial ellipse centers are fitted. Secondly, the virtual axis of round steel is constructed based on the fitted spatial centers, and a virtual plane perpendicular to the round steel virtual axis through an arbitrary point on the axis is established; then cross section ellipses are projected to the virtual plane vertically and we can get the corresponding projective circles which denote the actual circumference of the measured round steel. Finally, the diameter, roundness, straightness and other parameters of round steel can be estimated. It shows that the proposed method is valid, flexible and with high precision by experiment, and the measured relative error of the round steel diameter is less than 0.8% and repeatability exceeds 0.15 mm

  17. CO/sub 2/ corrosion of C-steel and 13Cr-steel in a particle laden fluid

    Lotz, U.; Sydberger, T.

    1987-01-01

    Corrosion tests were carried out on C-steel (API 5L X70) and 13Cr steel (AISI 420) materials in a 3% NaCl solution containing sand particles (5000-9000 ppm) and saturated with CO/sub 2/ at defined partial pressure (0-0.3 MPa) and temperature (30-60/sup 0/C). The effect of residual O/sub 2/ content (10-1500 ppb) was further examined. Two flow geometries were studied: 1) undisturbed pipe flow and 2) submerged jet impinging (30-90/sup 0/) onto a flat plate. The effect of specimen surface treatment (shot-blasting or pickling) was examined with dry polished material as a reference. Weight-loss and electrochemical measurements were applied to determine average and instantaneous corrosion rates respectively. The results are discussed in relation to fluid flow conditions and the surface preparation/microstructure of materials tested.

  18. Atmospheric corrosion of galvanized steel in a marine environment

    Atmospheric corrosion is the electrochemical process of metal deterioration from the action of atmospheric factors, both meteorological as well as chemical. Metals deteriorate due to their spontaneous oxidation when their surface is moistened with a film of condensed water, dew, fog or rain and this process leads to the formation of a protective film that acts as a physical barrier between the metal and the environment. However, this layer of corrosion can become a non protective film, due to a physical discharge or a partial dissolution of some soluble corrosion products of the material (galvanized steel) during rainfall or in condensed water on the material's surface. This process is known as metal runoff. In order to estimate the runoff process for galvanized steel and to study its behavior to atmospheric corrosion in a marine environment, samples of 10x10x0,6cm galvanized steel, with a coating thickness of 100 m Zn, were exposed in the city of Valparaiso, Region V, Chile. The atmospheric station is located at lat. 32AS and long. 71oW, classified according to ISO 9223 to 9226 as C2, S1 and P1, with a humidification time of 0.6 and chloride ion and sulfur dioxide content of 40.65 mgm-2day-1 and 7.18 mgm-2day-1, respectively. The deterioration of the galvanized steel was evaluated by weight loss measurements, determination of 'in situ' corrosion potential and morphology of the attack using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The composition of the corrosion products was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The runoff solutions collected after the rainfall events were analyzed with different techniques to determine the content of Cl- ions, SO4-2 and dissolved solids, and pH and conductivity were measured as well. The concentration of Zn+2 is obtained by atomic adsorption spectroscopy. After four months of exposure of the test pieces preliminary results show that the potential for corrosion of the galvanized steel increased over time, which corroborates the

  19. The control network of air quality in the Lorraine steel industry country: an example of a specific steel industry network

    This specific (for steel industry region) network for the air quality control mainly measures the concentrations in sulfur dioxide, airborne dust and fall out particles. The recent automation of this network implied a preliminary optimization study which consisted of a statistical analysis of the numerous data collected by many hand operated sensors. The implementation and working conditions of the new equipment have required the use of air-conditioned monoblock metallic cabins

  20. Super austenitic stainless steels - a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for flue-gas desulphurization plant

    Rajendran, N.; Rajeswari, S. [University of Madras, Madras (India). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    1996-12-15

    Potentiodynamic anodic cyclic polarization experiments on type 316L stainless steel and 6Mo super austenitic stainless steels were carried out in simulated flue-gas desulphurization (FGD) environment in order to assess the localized corrosion resistance. The pitting corrosion resistance was higher in the case of the super austenitic stainless steel containing 6Mo and a higher amount of nitrogen. The accelerated leaching study conducted for the alloys showed that the super austenitic stainless steels have a little tendency for leaching of metal ions such as iron, chromium and nickel at different impressed potentials. This may be due to surface segregation of nitrogen as CrN, which would, in turn, enrich a chromium and molybdenum mixed oxide film and thus impede the release of metal ions. The present study indicates that the 6Mo super austenitics can be adopted as a promising replacement for the currently used type 316L stainless steel as the construction material for FGD plants.

  1. Narrowband Lyman-continuum Imaging of Galaxies at z ~ 2.85

    Mostardi, Robin E.; Shapley, Alice E.; Nestor, Daniel B.; Steidel, Charles C.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Trainor, Ryan F.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from a survey for z ~ 2.85 Lyman-continuum (LyC) emission in the HS1549+1933 field and place constraints on the amount of ionizing radiation escaping from star-forming galaxies. Using a custom narrowband filter (NB3420) tuned to wavelengths just below the Lyman limit at z ≥ 2.82, we probe the LyC spectral region of 49 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) and 91 Lyα emitters (LAEs) spectroscopically confirmed at z ≥ 2.82. Four LBGs and seven LAEs are detected in NB3420. Using V-band ...

  2. Push-Pull Ventilation in a Painting Shop for Large Steel Constructions

    Svidt, Kjeld; Heiselberg, Per

    This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers.......This paper describes the analysis of a push-pull ventilation system for a painting shop that is used for painting steel chimneys and windmill towers....

  3. SPINEL METAL INTERFACES IN LASER COATED STEELS - A TRANSMISSION ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY STUDY

    ZHOU, XB; DEHOSSON, JTM

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on coating a Duplex steel SAF 2205 and stainless steel 304 by bringing a mixture of Cr2O3 and Fe powder into a laser beam. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that in the case of proper bonding between substrate and coating a spinel structure around the composition FeCr2O4 co

  4. Spinel/Metal Interfaces in Laser Coated Steels : A Transmission Electron Microscopy Study

    Zhou, X.B.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on coating a Duplex steel SAF 2205 and stainless steel 304 by bringing a mixture of Cr2O3 and Fe powder into a laser beam. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that in the case of proper bonding between substrate and coating a spinel structure around the composition FeCr2O4 co

  5. Ergonomic assessment of brake and accelerator mechanisms of MF285 and MF399 tractors using electromyography method

    A Nikkhah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Too many people are working in the agricultural sector and therefore, pay more attention to the safety and health at work in the agricultural sector is important. This issue is more important in developing industrial countries where the level of the ergonomic working condition is less than that of developed countries. Attention to ergonomic condition of agricultural machinery drivers is one of the goals of agricultural mechanization. Therefore, in this study the ergonomic conditions of brake and accelerator mechanisms for MF285 and MF399 tractor's drivers were investigated using a new method. Materials and Methods: 25 people were selected for experiment. The electrical activity of Medialis gastrocnemius, Lateralis gastrocnemius, Vastus medialis, Vastus lateralis, Quadratus Lumborum and Trapezius muscles of drivers before and during pressing the pedal and after rest time were recorded using Biovision device. Measurements were performed for each person on each muscle 30 seconds before pressing the pedal, 60 seconds after pressing the pedal and after 60 seconds of rest. For all drivers, the muscles on the right side (brake and accelerator side have been selected and tested. The measurements were performed in compliance with appropriate time intervals between the measurements. Results and Discussion: Ergonomic assessment of brake pedal: The results showed that the RMS electrical activity of muscles of Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius, during 60 seconds braking were 2.47 and 1.97. So, Vastus medialis and Medial gastrocnemius had the highest stress during pressing the MF399 tractor's brake pedal. Moreover, the Medial gastrocnemius and Lateral gastrocnemius with RMS electrical activity ratio of 2.47 and 1.74 had the highest RMS electrical activity ratio respectively, during 60 seconds braking compared to before braking of MF285 tractor. The comparison of results showed that the Vastus medialis and Trapezius had the higher stress

  6. Fire resistance of a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall

    Kodaira, Akio; Kanchi, Masaki; Fujinaka, Hideo [Takenaka Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Akita, Shodo [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan); Ozaki, Masahiko [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Osaka (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    Samples from a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall composed of concrete slab sandwiched between studded steel plates, were subjected to loaded fire resistance tests. There were two types of specimens: some were 1800 mm high while the rest were 3000 mm high ; thickness and width were the same for all specimens, at 200 mm and 800 mm, respectively. Under constant load conditions, one side of each specimen was heated along the standard fire-temperature curve. The results enabled us to approximate the relationship between the ratio of working load to concrete strength N/(Ac x c {sigma} b) and the fire resistance time (t: minutes), as equation (1) for the 1800 mm - high specimen, and equation (2) for the 3000 mm - high specimen. N/(Ac x c {sigma} b) = 2.21 x (1/t){sup 0.323} (1), .N/(Ac x c {sigma} b) 2.30 x (1/t){sup 0.378} (2) In addition, the temperature of the unheated side of the specimens was 100degC at 240 minutes of continuous heating, clearly indicating that there was sufficient heat insulation. (author)

  7. Fire resistance of a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall

    Samples from a steel plate reinforced concrete bearing wall composed of concrete slab sandwiched between studded steel plates, were subjected to loaded fire resistance tests. There were two types of specimens: some were 1800 mm high while the rest were 3000 mm high ; thickness and width were the same for all specimens, at 200 mm and 800 mm, respectively. Under constant load conditions, one side of each specimen was heated along the standard fire-temperature curve. The results enabled us to approximate the relationship between the ratio of working load to concrete strength N/(Ac x c σ b) and the fire resistance time (t: minutes), as equation (1) for the 1800 mm - high specimen, and equation (2) for the 3000 mm - high specimen. N/(Ac x c σ b) = 2.21 x (1/t)0.323 (1), .N/(Ac x c σ b) 2.30 x (1/t)0.378 (2) In addition, the temperature of the unheated side of the specimens was 100degC at 240 minutes of continuous heating, clearly indicating that there was sufficient heat insulation. (author)

  8. Nitrogen-alloyed martensitic steels

    A report is presented on initial results with pressure-nitrided martensitic steels. In heat-resistant steels, thermal stability and toughness are raised by nitrogen. In cold work steel, there is a more favourable corrosion behaviour. (orig./MM)

  9. A Special TMCP Used to Develop a 800MPa Grade HSLA Steel

    2001-01-01

    The effect of relaxation after finished rolling on structure s and properties of four microalloyed steel with different content of Nb and Ti was investigated. By alloy designing and control rolling+rel axation-precipitation-control phase transformation (RPC) process, a ne w 800MPa grade HSLA plate steel could be obtained, the microstructure is composite ultra-fine lath bainite/martensite. The tempering process and mechanical properties of this kind of HSLA steel were investigate d. The yield strength can achieve 800MPa, and the ductility and impact toughness is satisfied.

  10. A system dynamics analysis of energy consumption and corrective policies in Iranian iron and steel industry

    Iron and steel industry is the most energy intensive industrial sector in Iran. Long time subsidized energy has led to low energy efficiency in this industry. The sudden subsidy reform of energy prices in Iran is expected to have a great impact on steel production and energy consumption. A system dynamics model is presented in this paper to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in an integrated framework. A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform affects energy consumption in the long run. The main focus of this paper is on direct and indirect natural gas consumption in the steel industry. Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient way for steel making. The energy consumption in steel industry is estimated under various steel production and export scenarios while taking into account new energy prices to see the outlook of possible energy demand in steel industry over next 20 years. For example it is shown that under reference production scenario, potential reduction in gas consumption forced by complete removal of energy subsidy and utilizing scrap could lead to 85 billion cubic meters of gas saving over the next 20 years. -- Highlights: ► We develop a system dynamics model to analyze steel demand, production and energy consumption in Iran. ► Various scenarios have been simulated to see the energy demand of Iranian steel industry over the next 20 years. ► A co-flow structure is used to show how subsidy reform would affect energy consumption in the long run. ► A co-flow structure has been built into the SD model to formulate consumers' behavior in response to energy prices. ► Scrap based Electric Arc Furnace technology has been evaluated as an energy efficient alternative for steel making.

  11. Nanoindentation on an oxide dispersion strengthened steel and a ferritic/martensitic steel implanted with He ions

    Yang, Yitao [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Kang, Suk Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Chonghong [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jang, Jinsung, E-mail: jjang@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    ODS steel MA956 and F/M steel T92 were implanted with 30 keV He ions to fluences of 3.0 × 10{sup 14} (0.013 at.%/0.0046 dpa), 3.0 × 10{sup 15} (0.13 at.%/0.046 dpa), 3.0 × 10{sup 16} (1.3 at.%/0.46 dpa) and 1.0 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} (4.5 at.%/1.5 dpa) at room temperature. Nanoindentation and TEM were used to investigate the nanohardness and microstructure change induced by He ion implantation. TEM results showed that He bubbles and a damage zone (∼250 nm) were observed in both materials at He concentration of 0.13 at.%, small cracks or connected bubbles in surface near region formed at He concentration of 4.5 at.%. Nanoindentation results showed that evident hardness increase was observed at the depth of 38 nm. The hardness peak at 38 nm shifted to 58 nm at He concentration of 4.5 at.%, which could be associated with the formation of small cracks or connected bubbles in surface near region. The damage layer was thin and close to surface, a method, proposed by Hosemann basing on the “rule of mixtures” model, was used to estimate the hardening effects from defects and He in this layer. The estimated results showed that the hardness increased rapidly with damage at low damage level, and started to increase slowly and presented a saturation trend at the damage level higher than ∼0.2 dpa. From the hardening fraction, significant hardening occurred for T92 compared with that for MA956, which indicated that ODS steel MA956 was better than F/M steel T92 in hardening resistance induced by He at room temperature.

  12. Nanoindentation on an oxide dispersion strengthened steel and a ferritic/martensitic steel implanted with He ions

    Yang, Yitao; Kang, Suk Hoon; Zhang, Chonghong; Jang, Jinsung

    2014-12-01

    ODS steel MA956 and F/M steel T92 were implanted with 30 keV He ions to fluences of 3.0 × 1014 (0.013 at.%/0.0046 dpa), 3.0 × 1015 (0.13 at.%/0.046 dpa), 3.0 × 1016 (1.3 at.%/0.46 dpa) and 1.0 × 1017 ions/cm2 (4.5 at.%/1.5 dpa) at room temperature. Nanoindentation and TEM were used to investigate the nanohardness and microstructure change induced by He ion implantation. TEM results showed that He bubbles and a damage zone (∼250 nm) were observed in both materials at He concentration of 0.13 at.%, small cracks or connected bubbles in surface near region formed at He concentration of 4.5 at.%. Nanoindentation results showed that evident hardness increase was observed at the depth of 38 nm. The hardness peak at 38 nm shifted to 58 nm at He concentration of 4.5 at.%, which could be associated with the formation of small cracks or connected bubbles in surface near region. The damage layer was thin and close to surface, a method, proposed by Hosemann basing on the 'rule of mixtures' model, was used to estimate the hardening effects from defects and He in this layer. The estimated results showed that the hardness increased rapidly with damage at low damage level, and started to increase slowly and presented a saturation trend at the damage level higher than ∼0.2 dpa. From the hardening fraction, significant hardening occurred for T92 compared with that for MA956, which indicated that ODS steel MA956 was better than F/M steel T92 in hardening resistance induced by He at room temperature.

  13. Nanoindentation on an oxide dispersion strengthened steel and a ferritic/martensitic steel implanted with He ions

    ODS steel MA956 and F/M steel T92 were implanted with 30 keV He ions to fluences of 3.0 × 1014 (0.013 at.%/0.0046 dpa), 3.0 × 1015 (0.13 at.%/0.046 dpa), 3.0 × 1016 (1.3 at.%/0.46 dpa) and 1.0 × 1017 ions/cm2 (4.5 at.%/1.5 dpa) at room temperature. Nanoindentation and TEM were used to investigate the nanohardness and microstructure change induced by He ion implantation. TEM results showed that He bubbles and a damage zone (∼250 nm) were observed in both materials at He concentration of 0.13 at.%, small cracks or connected bubbles in surface near region formed at He concentration of 4.5 at.%. Nanoindentation results showed that evident hardness increase was observed at the depth of 38 nm. The hardness peak at 38 nm shifted to 58 nm at He concentration of 4.5 at.%, which could be associated with the formation of small cracks or connected bubbles in surface near region. The damage layer was thin and close to surface, a method, proposed by Hosemann basing on the “rule of mixtures” model, was used to estimate the hardening effects from defects and He in this layer. The estimated results showed that the hardness increased rapidly with damage at low damage level, and started to increase slowly and presented a saturation trend at the damage level higher than ∼0.2 dpa. From the hardening fraction, significant hardening occurred for T92 compared with that for MA956, which indicated that ODS steel MA956 was better than F/M steel T92 in hardening resistance induced by He at room temperature

  14. Compatibility of graphite with a martensitic-ferritic steel, an austenitic stainless steel and a Ni-base alloy up to 1250 C

    To study the chemical interactions between graphite and a martensitic-ferritic steel (1.4914), an austenitic stainless steel (1.4919; AISI 316), and a Ni-base alloy (Hastelloy X) isothermal reaction experiments were performed in the temperature range between 900 and 1250 C. At higher temperatures a rapid and complete liquefaction of the components occurred as a result of eutectic interactions. The chemical interactions are diffusion-controlled processes and can be described by parabolic rate laws. The reaction behavior of the two steels is very similar. The chemical interactions of the steels with graphite are much faster above 1100 C than those for the Ni-base alloy. Below 1000 C the effect is opposite. (orig.)

  15. Development of a Press-Hardened Steel Suitable for Thin Slab Direct Rolling Processing

    Lee, Jewoong; De Cooman, Bruno C.

    2015-01-01

    The thin slab casting and direct rolling process is a hot-rolled strip production method which has maintained commercial quality steel grades as a major material in many industrial applications due to its low processing cost. Few innovative products have however been developed specifically for production by thin slab direct rolling. Press hardening or hot press forming steel grades which are now widely used to produce structural automotive steel parts requiring ultra-high strength and formability may however offer an opportunity for thin slab direct rolling-specific ultra-high strength products. In this work, a newly designed press hardening steel grade developed specifically for thin slab direct rolling processing is presented. The press hardening steel has a high nitrogen content compared with press hardening steel grades produced by conventional steelmaking routes. Boron and titanium which are key alloying additions in conventional press hardening steel such as the 22MnB5 press hardening steel grade are not utilized. Cr is added in the press hardening steel to obtain the required hardenability. The properties of the new thin slab direct rolling-specific 22MnCrN5 press hardening steel grade are reviewed. The evolution of the microstructure and mechanical properties with increasing amounts of Cr additions from 0.6 to 1.4 wt pct and the effect of the cooling rate during die-quenching were studied by means of laboratory simulations. The selection of the optimum chemical composition range for the thin slab direct rolling-specific 22MnCrN5 steel in press hardening heat treatment conditions is discussed.

  16. Reactor construction steels

    The basic functions of light water reactor components are shown on the example of a pressurized water reactor and the requirements resulting therefrom for steel, the basic structural material, are derived. A detailed analysis of three main groups of reactor steels is presented and the applications are indicated of low-alloyed steels, high-alloyed austenitic steels, and steels with a high content of Ni and of alloying additions for steam generator pipes. An outline is given of prospective fast breeder reactor steels. (J.K.)

  17. Development of a ferritic low-carbon steel for elevated temperature service

    A readily weldable 12Cr-2Mo steel with excellent creep-rupture characteristics has been developed. The outstanding weldability of the new steel results from its low carbon content, nominally 0.075%, and the high creep resistance of the steel is due to its martensitic microstructure strengthened with dispersed austenite. In addition to 12% Cr and 2% Mo the steel contains 0.6% Mn, 6% Ni, 0.25% V, 0.1% Nb, and 0.04% N. The tempering response of the new steel is essentially flat for a wide range of tempering conditions. When tempered for 1 hour at 7000C (12900F), the steel exhibits room temperature yield and tensile strengths of 790 and 1080 MPa (115 and 156 ksi), respectively, with 15% elongation and 64% area reduction. Elevated temperature tensile properties at 6490C (12000F) include yield and tensile strengths of 345 and 405 MPa (50 and 58 ksi), respectively, with 32% elongation and 89% area reduction. The steel exhibits 100% ductile fracture in room temperature Charpy V-notch (CVN) impact tests, with a typical impact energy of 135 J (100 ft-lb). In creep-rupture tests at 6490C (12000F) the steel exhibits rupture strengths and minimum creep rates at least comparable to those of Type 316 stainless steel. The steel is easily hot worked and is weldable without the need for pre-heat or post-weld stress relief. The combination of very high strength, excellent weldability, and stable, predominantly ferritic microstructure makes this steel an attractive candidate for use in nuclear energy applications

  18. 49 CFR 179.500 - Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks.

    2010-10-01

    ... car tanks. 179.500 Section 179.500 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and Seamless Steel Tanks (Classes DOT-113 and 107A) § 179.500 Specification DOT-107A * * * * seamless steel tank car tanks....

  19. Application of a new processing procedure for the further improvement of nuclear grade structural VCD steels

    The enhancement of the quality of NiCrMoV-steels for turbine rotors and generator shafts by use of the vacuum carbon deoxidation (VCD) method is well known and established. So far the application of the VCD method has been limited to those steels which were not required to be made as fine grained steels and which consequently could by produced without addition of Aluminium. Kloeckner Works have developed a method which allows the use of VCD - i.e. deoxidation of the steel by gaseous CO-reaction - with subsequent addition of Al for grain refinement. This new steel making process combines the advantages of a VCD steel with those of a fine grained steel. Seven production ingots of the steel 20 MnMoNi 5 5 have been produced by this process. The properties of the forgings made of these ingots are compared with forgings of Si/Al-deoxidized ingots. The VCD method has a beneficial influence on A-segregations. Sulphur prints show practically no segregation streaks. An improvement of impact properties and a greater isotropy of properties is gained by the VCD method. (orig.)

  20. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    Jana, S.; Hovanski, Y.; Grant, G. J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in a lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential: a 0.8 mm thick, electrogalvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5 mm thick hot-dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel. These steels were joined to 2.33 mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and the process parameters were kept the same. The average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating present on the steel sheets, and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulted in the formation of a solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer.

  1. In-situ electrochemical investigations of a scratched galvanized steel during a climatic test

    An approach is proposed allowing to perform electrochemical measurements on a corrosion cell reproducing an atmospheric corrosion test after scratching a painted galvanized steel. The sample preparation is described and emphasis is put on impedance studies. Steel and zinc contributions are separated in the overall response of the cell to various climatic parameters. An electrical model and simulated data account for the spatial distribution of impedance in the scratched area. (author) 6 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Corrosion of Welded X100 Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    Zhang, C.; Cheng, Y. F.

    2010-08-01

    In this work, electrochemical corrosion behavior of a welded X100 pipeline steel was studied in a near-neutral pH solution by electrochemical scanning vibrating electrode technique combined with metallographic and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive x-ray analysis. Results demonstrated that a softening phenomenon occurs around the weld, and there is the high micro-hardness in base steel adjacent to weld. In particular, there is the highest micro-hardness in base steel containing acicular ferrite and bainite. Therefore, welding and the associated post-treatment on X100 steel alter dramatically the microstructure and mechanical property around weld, resulting in an enhanced micro-hardness in base steel. There are high and low local dissolution current densities at base steel and the welded zones, respectively. The difference between the maximum and minimum dissolution current densities decreases with time, and the distribution of dissolution current density tends to be uniform. Hydrogen-charging changes the local dissolution activity of the welded steel. Different from the hydrogen-free steel, there is the highest dissolution current density at heat-affected zone. It is reasonable to assume that the charged hydrogen would accumulate at heat-affected zone, and the synergism of hydrogen and local stress results in a high anodic dissolution rate.

  3. A model for the influence of microstructural defects on magnetic Barkhausen noise in plain steels

    This study presents a model of the microstructural defect influence on the magnetic Barkhausen noise in plain steels. The comparison of the theoretical and experimental results reveals an excellent agreement between them. We show that both model and experimental approach can be very useful, particularly, for the carbon content characterization in commercial steels

  4. Steel - a Classic Material with a Large Potential for the Future

    Masek, B.; Jirkova, H.; Aisman, D.; Jenicek, S.

    2016-03-01

    Steel is a traditional material which has been used by mankind for more than five thousand years. We may therefore be tempted to believe that we know practically everything about steel and its forms and variants which offer an extraordinary and broad range of properties. It is this diversity of properties which makes steel such a popular and widely used material. And yet, in recent years new opportunities have emerged for processing steel by unconventional techniques and producing novel, as yet unknown or unusual microstructures. This paper describes several examples of how microstructure evolution can be modified and how new and unconventional processing routes can be developed. These examples present several results of projects carried out in recent years by FORTECH Research Centre of Forming Technology and the University of West Bohemia in collaboration with their research partners.

  5. A Study on Atmospheric Corrosion of 304 Stainless Steel in a Simulated Marine Atmosphere

    Lv, Wangyan; Pan, Chen; Su, Wei; Wang, Zhenyao; Liu, Shinian; Wang, Chuan

    2015-07-01

    The atmospheric corrosion behavior of 304 stainless steel in a simulated marine atmosphere has been investigated using scanning electron microscope, optical microscope, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical measurements. The experimental results indicate that the main corrosion type of 304 stainless steel in a simulated marine atmosphere is pitting corrosion and the initiation of pits is associated with the dissolution of MnS inclusion. The maximum pit depth of 304 stainless steel increased in linear relationship with the extension of corrosion time. XPS results reveal that the corrosion products possess more hydroxide, and the ratio of [Cr]/{[Cr]+[Fe]} in the corrosion products gradually increases with the increasing time. The protective ability of corrosion products formed on 304 stainless steel has also been discussed.

  6. Dynamic Magnification Factor in a Box-Shape Steel Girder

    Rahbar-Ranji, A.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic effect of moving loads on structures is treated as a dynamic magnification factor when resonant is not imminent. Studies have shown that the calculated magnification factors from field measurements could be higher than the values specified in design codes. It is the main aim of present paper to investigate the applicability and accuracy of a rule-based expression for calculation of dynamic magnification factor for lifting appliances used in marine industry. A steel box shape girder of a crane is considered and transient dynamic analysis using computer code ANSYS is implemented. Dynamic magnification factor is calculated for different loading conditions and compared with rule-based equation. The effects of lifting speeds, acceleration, damping ratio and position of cargo are examined. It is found that rule-based expression underestimate dynamic magnification factor.

  7. A study on the substructure and the mechanical properties of high strength steel

    There has been great effort and development in producing the high strength steel to attain the best balance of cost reduction and properties. Recently, it has been suggested that a direct quench and temper process after hot rolling be the best method of producing linepipe steel. According to the suggested method, a comparably high carbon equivalent steel (0.16 %C - 1.33 %Mn - 0.024 %Nb - 0.052 %V (steel 52-3 (DIN))) was quenched and tempered after controlled-rolling. Microstructure was characterized by optical and transmission electron microscopy, and correlated with tensile property. Deformation bands, developed by heavy rolling below the recrystallization temperature, still exist at room temperature and have a bad effect on the property. This structure creates a twinlike diffraction pattern. Direct quench and temper method decreases the strain hardening rate and results in low tensile stress for the comparably high carbon equivalent steel. (author)

  8. Friction Stir Lap Welding of Magnesium Alloy to Steel: A Preliminary Investigation

    Jana, Saumyadeep; Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J.

    2010-12-01

    An initial study was made to evaluate the feasibility of joining Magnesium alloy AZ31 sheet to galvanized steel sheet in lap configuration using friction stir welding (FSW). Two different automotive sheet steels were used for comparative evaluation of the dissimilar joining potential; a 0.8mm thick, electro galvanized (EG) mild steel, and a 1.5mm thick hot dipped galvanized (HDG) high-strength, low-alloy steel (HSLA). These steels were joined to 2.33mm thick AZ31B magnesium sheet. A single FSW tool design was used for both dissimilar welds, and process parameters were kept the same. Average peak load for the AZ31-1.5 mm steel weld joint in lap shear mode was found to be 6.3 ± 1.0 kN. For the AZ31-0.8 mm steel weld, joint strength was 5.1 ± 1.5 kN. Microstructural investigation indicates melting of the Zn coating at the interface and subsequent alloying with the Mg sheet resulting in formation of solidified Zn-Mg alloy layer at AZ31/steel interface.

  9. Stress corrosion cracking of A515 grade 60 carbon steel

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of welding method plate thickness, and subsequent stress relief treatment on the stress corrosion cracking propensity of ASTM A515 Grade 60 carbon steel plate exposed to a 5 M NaNO3 solution at 1900F for eight weeks. It was found that all weld coupons receiving no thermal stress relief treatment cracked within eight weeks; all weld coupons given a vibratory stress relief cracked within eight weeks; two of the eight weld coupons stress relieved at 6000F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; none of the weld coupons stress relieved at 11000F for one hour cracked within eight weeks; and that cracking was generally more severe in coupons fabricated from 7/8 inch plate by shielded metal arc welding than it was in coupons fabricated by other welding methods. (U.S.)

  10. Hot forming of AISI A2 tool steel

    T. Večko Pirtovšek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available For further increase of economy of production of AISI A2 tool steel a study of possibility of expanding the hot working range and better prediction of flow stress has been carried out. By employing hot compression tests it was proved, that initial microstructures have influence on the lower limit and chemical composition on upper limit of hot working range. A CAE Neural Networks was applied to predict the flow stresses for intermediate values of strain rates and temperatures. For optimization purposes the activation energies and constants of the hyperbolic sine function for two temperatures ranges (850-1000°C and 1000-1150°C were calculated.